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Sample records for a2 degradable liposomal

  1. Preparation and characterization of liposomal formulations of neurotensin-degrading enzyme inhibitors.

    PubMed

    van Rooy, Inge; Wu, Shin-Ying; Storm, Gert; Hennink, Wim E; Dinter-Heidorn, Heike; Schiffelers, Raymond M; Mastrobattista, Enrico

    2011-09-20

    Neurotensin-degrading enzyme (NTDE) inhibitors hold great potential for treating psychotic disorders. However, brain uptake of such compounds in vivo is generally low due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier. In this study, liposomal formulations of two NTDE inhibitors, named compound 1 (C1) and compound 2 (C2) were prepared. Association of these compounds with the liposomal bilayer, subsequent liposomal stability, and compound release in the presence of albumin was studied. Entrapment of the compounds in the liposomal bilayer showed the solubilizing properties of the liposomes. Size and polydispersity index of the compound-entrapped liposomes did not change over 1 month, showing colloidal stability of the liposomal drug formulations. The amount of compounds associated with the liposomes decreased within one day. After this, the association remained stable at 4°C. For C1, association remained stable at 37°C in HEPES buffered saline, and the compound was gradually released in the presence of bovine serum albumin. For C2, the release was rapid in both HBS and BSA at 37°C. In conclusion, the formulation of NTDE inhibitors C1 and C2 in liposomes has been demonstrated and holds promise to deliver NTDE inhibitors in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of liposomal encapsulation on degradation of anthocyanins of black carrot extract by adding ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Guldiken, Burcu; Gibis, Monika; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra; Weiss, Jochen

    2017-03-22

    Black carrot anthocyanins are known to be relatively stable because they contain acylated anthocyanins. The degradation of vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid) on anthocyanins is a known fact in beverage systems. In this study, the effects of various liposomal systems, including black carrot extract (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% w/w) and lecithin (1%, 2%, 4% w/w), on the color and degradation of anthocyanin in different ascorbic acid (0.01%, 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.1% w/w) concentrations were examined via UV/VIS spectroscopy and visual control of the color. The physical characteristics of the liposomal systems resulted in particle diameters of 41-46 nm and zeta-potentials of (-23)-(-20) mV. The encapsulation efficiencies of the liposomal systems increased up to 50% with increasing lecithin concentrations. The encapsulation of black carrot extract in liposomes enhanced the color and stability of the anthocyanins during storage. This study showed that the degradation of anthocyanins due to ascorbic acid can be reduced by liposomes in aqueous solutions.

  3. In vivo oxalate degradation by liposome encapsulated oxalate oxidase in rat model of hyperoxaluria

    PubMed Central

    Dahiya, Tulika; Pundir, C.S.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: High level of urinary oxalate substantially increases the risk of hyperoxaluria, a significant risk factor for urolithiasis. The primary goal of this study was to reduce urinary oxalate excretion employing liposome encapsulated oxalate oxidase in animal model. Methods: A membrane bound oxalate oxidase was purified from Bougainvillea leaves. The enzyme in its native form was less effective at the physiological pH of the recipient animal. To increase its functional viability, the enzyme was immobilized on to ethylene maleic anhydride (EMA). Rats were injected with liposome encapsulated EMA- oxalate oxidase and the effect was observed on degradation of oxalic acid. Results: The enzyme was purified to apparent homogeneity with 60-fold purification and 31 per cent yield. The optimum pH of EMA-derivative enzyme was 6.0 and it showed 70 per cent of its optimal activity at pH 7.0. The EMA-bound enzyme encapsulated into liposome showed greater oxalate degradation in 15 per cent casein vitamin B6 deficient fed rats as compared with 30 per cent casein vitamin B6 deficient fed rats and control rats. Interpretation & conclusions: EMA-oxalate oxidase encapsulated liposome caused oxalate degradation in experimental hyperoxaluria indicating that the enzyme could be used as a therapeutic agent in hyperoxaluria leading to urinary stones. PMID:23481063

  4. Liposomes containing glycocholate as potential oral insulin delivery systems: preparation, in vitro characterization, and improved protection against enzymatic degradation

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Mengmeng; Lu, Yi; Hovgaard, Lars; Wu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Background: Oral delivery of insulin is challenging and must overcome the barriers of gastric and enzymatic degradation as well as low permeation across the intestinal epithelium. The present study aimed to develop a liposomal delivery system containing glycocholate as an enzyme inhibitor and permeation enhancer for oral insulin delivery. Methods: Liposomes containing sodium glycocholate were prepared by a reversed-phase evaporation method followed by homogenization. The particle size and entrapment efficiency of recombinant human insulin (rhINS)-loaded sodium glycocholate liposomes can be easily adjusted by tuning the homogenization parameters, phospholipid:sodium glycocholate ratio, insulin:phospholipid ratio, water:ether volume ratio, interior water phase pH, and the hydration buffer pH. Results: The optimal formulation showed an insulin entrapment efficiency of 30% ± 2% and a particle size of 154 ± 18 nm. A conformational study by circular dichroism spectroscopy and a bioactivity study confirmed the preserved integrity of rhINS against preparative stress. Transmission electron micrographs revealed a nearly spherical and deformed structure with discernable lamella for sodium glycocholate liposomes. Sodium glycocholate liposomes showed better protection of insulin against enzymatic degradation by pepsin, trypsin, and α-chymotrypsin than liposomes containing the bile salt counterparts of sodium taurocholate and sodium deoxycholate. Conclusion: Sodium glycocholate liposomes showed promising in vitro characteristics and have the potential to be able to deliver insulin orally. PMID:21822379

  5. Antimycobacterial activity of lecithin-cholesterol liposomes in the presence of phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Kondo, E; Kanai, K

    1978-06-01

    Tubercle bacilli were preincubated with lecithin-cholesterol liposomes to be subsequently exposed to phospholipase A2. After further incubation in the environment of acidic buffer, viable units in the final mixture were enumerated by inoculating the serial dilutions of an aliquot onto Kirchner agar medium containing horse serum in 5%. Another aliquot was used for lipid analyses to confirm hydrolysis of lecithin. In addition to this bactericidal type of experiments, bacteriostatic tests were also conducted with Kirchner semi-solid agar medium, into which liposome-treated bacilli were inoculated with the enzyme at a time. Various natural and synthetic lecithins different in constituent fatty acids were employed. The results indicated that toxic fatty acids released from lecithin acted to kill the bacilli or to inhibit their growth.

  6. Secreted phospholipase A(2) as a new enzymatic trigger mechanism for localised liposomal drug release and absorption in diseased tissue.

    PubMed

    Davidsen, Jesper; Jørgensen, Kent; Andresen, Thomas L; Mouritsen, Ole G

    2003-01-10

    Polymer-coated liposomes can act as versatile drug-delivery systems due to long vascular circulation time and passive targeting by leaky blood vessels in diseased tissue. We present an experimental model system illustrating a new principle for improved and programmable drug-delivery, which takes advantage of an elevated activity of secretory phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) at the diseased target tissue. The secretory PLA(2) hydrolyses a lipid-based proenhancer in the carrier liposome, producing lyso-phospholipids and free fatty acids, which are shown in a synergistic way to lead to enhanced liposome destabilization and drug release at the same time as the permeability of the target membrane is enhanced. Moreover, the proposed system can be made thermosensitive and offers a rational way for developing smart liposome-based drug delivery systems. This can be achieved by incorporating specific lipid-based proenhancers or prodestabilisers into the liposome carrier, which automatically becomes activated by PLA(2) only at the diseased target sites, such as inflamed or cancerous tissue.

  7. Cationic liposomes promote antigen cross-presentation in dendritic cells by alkalizing the lysosomal pH and limiting the degradation of antigens

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Ochyl, Lukasz J; Yang, Ellen; Moon, James J

    2017-01-01

    Cationic liposomes (CLs) have been widely examined as vaccine delivery nanoparticles since they can form complexes with biomacromolecules, promote delivery of antigens and adjuvant molecules to antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and mediate cellular uptake of vaccine components. CLs are also known to trigger antigen cross-presentation – the process by which APCs internalize extracellular protein antigens, degrade them into minimal CD8+ T-cell epitopes, and present them in the context of major histocompatibility complex-I (MHC-I). However, the precise mechanisms behind CL-mediated induction of cross-presentation and cross-priming of CD8+ T-cells remain to be elucidated. In this study, we have developed two distinct CL systems and examined their impact on the lysosomal pH in dendritic cells (DCs), antigen degradation, and presentation of peptide:MHC-I complexes to antigen-specific CD8+ T-cells. To achieve this, we have used 3β-[N-(N′,N′-dimethylaminoethane)-carbamoyl] cholesterol (DC-Chol) and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) as the prototypical components of CLs with tertiary amine groups and compared the effect of CLs and anionic liposomes on lysosomal pH, antigen degradation, and cross-presentation by DCs. Our results showed that CLs, but not anionic liposomes, elevated the lysosomal pH in DCs and reduced antigen degradation, thereby promoting cross-presentation and cross-priming of CD8+ T-cell responses. These studies shed new light on CL-mediated cross-presentation and suggest that intracellular fate of vaccine components and subsequent immunological responses can be controlled by rational design of nanomaterials. PMID:28243087

  8. Overcoming Degraded Communications under A2AD: A Doctrinal Solution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-15

    against an A2AD challenge. 3 While retaining the counterinsurgency expertise paid for in blood over the last decade, the U.S. military must refine and...We now carry with us invaluable new lessons paid for in blood and treasure concerning counterinsurgency and stability operations. But we may also...attempting to address the competency shortfall. It specifically identifies capability gaps regarding operations in a potential stressed -communications

  9. Doped colorimetric assay liposomes

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides compositions comprising colorimetric assay liposomes. The present invention also provides methods for producing colorimetric liposomes and calorimetric liposome assay systems. In preferred embodiments, these calorimetric liposome systems provide high levels of sensitivity through the use of dopant molecules. As these dopants allow the controlled destabilization of the liposome structure, upon exposure of the doped liposomes to analyte(s) of interest, the indicator color change is facilitated and more easily recognized.

  10. Liposomal nanomedicines.

    PubMed

    Fenske, David B; Cullis, Pieter R

    2008-01-01

    Liposomal nanoparticles (LNs) encapsulating therapeutic agents, or liposomal nanomedicines, represent an advanced class of drug delivery systems, with several formulations presently on the market and many more in clinical trials. Over the past 20 years, a variety of techniques have been developed for encapsulating both conventional drugs (such as anticancer drugs and antibiotics) and the new genetic drugs (plasmid DNA containing therapeutic genes, antisense oligonucleotides and small interfering RNA) within LNs. If the LNs possess certain properties, they tend to accumulate at sites of disease, such as tumours, where the endothelial layer is 'leaky' and allows extravasation of particles with small diameters. These properties include a diameter centred on 100 nm, a high drug-to-lipid ratio, excellent retention of the encapsulated drug, and a long (> 6 h) circulation lifetime. These properties permit the LNs to protect their contents during circulation, prevent contact with healthy tissues, and accumulate at sites of disease. The authors discuss recent advances in this field involving conventional anticancer drugs, as well as applications involving gene delivery, stimulation of the immune system and silencing of unwanted gene expression. Liposomal nanomedicines have the potential to offer new treatments in such areas as cancer therapy, vaccine development and cholesterol management.

  11. Resistance irrelevant CYP417A2v2 was found degrading insecticide in Laodelphax striatellus.

    PubMed

    Miah, Mohammad Asaduzzaman; Elzaki, Mohammed Esmail Abdalla; Han, Zhaojun

    2017-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs) usually overexpressed in resistant strain were found involved in oxidative detoxification of insecticides. In this study, an investigation was conducted to confirm if resistance irrelevant CYPs which were not overexpressed in resistant strain before, were capable of degrading insecticides. Three resistance irrelevant CYPs viz. CYP417A2v2, CYP425A1v2, and CYP4DJ1 from CYP4 family of Laodelphax striatellus were randomly selected for experiments. CYP417A2v2 and CYP425A1v2 were found expressed successfully in Sf9 cell line while CYP4DJ1 was not expressed successfully and out of two expressed CYPs, only CYP417A2v2 showed its efficient catalytic activity. For catalytic activity, three traditional model probe substrates and five insecticides were assayed. For the probe substrates screened, p -nitroanisole and ethoxycoumarin were preferentially metabolized by CYP417A2v2 (specific activity 3.76 ± 1.22 and 1.63 ± 0.37 nmol min -1  mg protein -1 , respectively) and they may be potential diagnostic probes for this enzyme. Among insecticides, only imidacloprid was efficiently degraded by CYP417A2v2. Incubation of imidacloprid with CYP417A2v2 of L. striatellus and subsequent HPLC, LC-MS, and MS/MS analysis revealed the formation of imidacloprid metabolites, that is, 4' or 5'hydroxy-imidacloprid by hydroxylation. This result implies the exemption of CYPs character that it is not always, all the CYPs degrading insecticides being selected and overexpressed in resistant strains and the degrading CYPs without mutations to upregulate could be candidates during insecticide resistance evolution. This characterization of individual insect CYPs in insecticide degradation can provide insight for better understand of insecticide resistance development.

  12. Procyanidin A2 and Its Degradation Products in Raw, Fermented, and Roasted Cocoa.

    PubMed

    De Taeye, Cédric; Caullet, Gilles; Eyamo Evina, Victor Jos; Collin, Sonia

    2017-03-01

    Cocoa is known as an important source of flavan-3-ols, but their fate "from the bean to the bar" is not yet clear. Here, procyanidin A2 found in native cocoa beans (9-13 mg/kg) appeared partially epimerized into A2 E1 through fermentation, whereas a second epimer (A2 E2 ) emerged after roasting. At m/z 575, dehydrodiepicatechin A was revealed to be the major HPLC peak before fermentation, whereas F1, a marker of well-conducted fermentations, becomes the most intense after roasting. RP-HPLC-ESI(-)-HRMS/MS analysis performed on a procyanidin A2 model medium after 12 h at 90 °C revealed many more degradation products than those identified in fermented cocoa, including the last epimer of A2, A2 open structure intermediates (m/z 577), and oxidized A-type dimers (m/z 573).

  13. Plasmon resonant liposomes for controlled drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knights-Mitchell, Shellie S.; Romanowski, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Nanotechnology use in drug delivery promotes a reduction in systemic toxicity, improved pharmacokinetics, and better drug bioavailability. Liposomes continue to be extensively researched as drug delivery systems (DDS) with formulations such as Doxil® and Ambisome® approved by FDA and successfully marketed in the United States. However, the limited ability to precisely control release of active ingredients from these vesicles continues to challenge the broad implementation of this technology. Moreover, the full potential of the carrier to sequester drugs until it can reach its intended target has yet to be realized. Here, we describe a liposomal DDS that releases therapeutic doses of an anticancer drug in response to external stimulus. Earlier, we introduced degradable plasmon resonant liposomes. These constructs, obtained by reducing gold on the liposome surface, facilitate spatial and temporal release of drugs upon laser light illumination that ultimately induces an increase in temperature. In this work, plasmon resonant liposomes have been developed to stably encapsulate and retain doxorubicin at physiological conditions represented by isotonic saline at 37o C and pH 7.4. Subsequently, they are stimulated to release contents either by a 5o C increase in temperature or by laser illumination (760 nm and 88 mW/cm2 power density). Successful development of degradable plasmon resonant liposomes responsive to near-infrared light or moderate hyperthermia can provide a new delivery method for multiple lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs with pharmacokinetic profiles that limit clinical utility.

  14. Effect of Liposome Characteristics and Dose on the Pharmacokinetics of Liposomes Coated with Poly(amino acid)s

    PubMed Central

    Romberg, Birgit; Oussoren, Christien; Snel, Cor J.; Hennink, Wim E.

    2007-01-01

    Long-circulating liposomes, such as PEG-liposomes, are frequently studied for drug delivery and diagnostic purposes. In our group, poly(amino acid) (PAA)-based coatings for long-circulating liposomes have been developed. These coatings provide liposomes with similar circulation times as compared to PEG-liposomes, but have the advantage of being enzymatically degradable. For PEG-liposomes it has been reported that circulation times are relatively independent of their physicochemical characteristics. In this study, the influence of factors such as PAA grafting density, cholesterol inclusion, surface charge, particle size, and lipid dose on the circulation kinetics of PAA-liposomes was evaluated after intravenous administration in rats. Prolonged circulation kinetics of PAA-liposomes can be maintained upon variation of liposome characteristics and the lipid dose given. However, the use of relatively high amounts of strongly charge-inducing lipids and a too large mean size is to be avoided. In conclusion, PAA-liposomes represent a versatile drug carrier system for a wide variety of applications. PMID:17674159

  15. Liposomes as nanomedical devices

    PubMed Central

    Bozzuto, Giuseppina; Molinari, Agnese

    2015-01-01

    Since their discovery in the 1960s, liposomes have been studied in depth, and they continue to constitute a field of intense research. Liposomes are valued for their biological and technological advantages, and are considered to be the most successful drug-carrier system known to date. Notable progress has been made, and several biomedical applications of liposomes are either in clinical trials, are about to be put on the market, or have already been approved for public use. In this review, we briefly analyze how the efficacy of liposomes depends on the nature of their components and their size, surface charge, and lipidic organization. Moreover, we discuss the influence of the physicochemical properties of liposomes on their interaction with cells, half-life, ability to enter tissues, and final fate in vivo. Finally, we describe some strategies developed to overcome limitations of the “first-generation” liposomes, and liposome-based drugs on the market and in clinical trials. PMID:25678787

  16. Engineering liposomal nanoparticles for targeted gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Zylberberg, C; Gaskill, K; Pasley, S; Matosevic, S

    2017-08-01

    Recent mechanistic studies have attempted to deepen our understanding of the process by which liposome-mediated delivery of genetic material occurs. Understanding the interactions between lipid nanoparticles and cells is still largely elusive. Liposome-mediated delivery of genetic material faces systemic obstacles alongside entry into the cell, endosomal escape, lysosomal degradation and nuclear uptake. Rational design approaches for targeted delivery have been developed to reduce off-target effects and enhance transfection. These strategies, which have included the modification of lipid nanoparticles with target-specific ligands to enhance intracellular uptake, have shown significant promise at the proof-of-concept stage. Control of physical and chemical specifications of liposome composition, which includes lipid-to-DNA charge, size, presence of ester bonds, chain length and nature of ligand complexation, is integral to the performance of targeted liposomes as genetic delivery agents. Clinical advances are expected to rely on such systems in the therapeutic application of liposome nanoparticle-based gene therapy. Here, we discuss the latest breakthroughs in the development of targeted liposome-based agents for the delivery of genetic material, paying particular attention to new ligand and cationic lipid design as well as recent in vivo advances.

  17. Liposomes as potential masking agents in sport doping. Part 2: Detection of liposome-entrapped haemoglobin by flow cytofluorimetry.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Simone; Colicchia, Sonia; de la Torre, Xavier; Donati, Francesco; Mazzarino, Monica; Botrè, Francesco

    2017-02-01

    This work presents an analytical procedure for the identification and characterization of liposome-entrapped haemoglobins, based on flow cytofluorimetry. Flow cytofluorimetric detection is carried out following labelling by two distinct fluorescent reagents, an anti-haemoglobin antibody, fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated, and an anti-poly(ethylene glycol) antibody, streptavidin-phycoerythrin conjugated. This experimental strategy allows the detection of liposome-entrapped haemoglobins in aqueous media, including plasma; the efficacy of the proposed approach has been verified on whole blood samples added with the liposomal formulation (ex-vivo). Additionally, the proposed technique allows the characterization of several key parameters in the study of liposomal haemoglobins, including, for instance (1) the determination of the degree of haemoglobin entrapment by liposomes; (2) the poly(ethylene glycol) insertion efficiency; and (3) the evaluation of liposome-entrapped haemoglobins stability following storage at 4 °C, allowing to follow both the process of haemoglobin loss from liposomes and the liposome degradation. The procedure is proposed for the detection and characterization of liposome-entrapped haemoglobin formulations to control their misuse in sport, but is also suggested for further applications in biological and clinical laboratory investigations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Enhanced Phospholipase A2 Group 3 Expression by Oxidative Stress Decreases the Insulin-Degrading Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Yui, Daishi; Nishida, Yoichiro; Nishina, Tomoko; Mogushi, Kaoru; Tajiri, Mio; Ishibashi, Satoru; Ajioka, Itsuki; Ishikawa, Kinya; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Murayama, Shigeo; Yokota, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has a ubiquitous role in neurodegenerative diseases and oxidative damage in specific regions of the brain is associated with selective neurodegeneration. We previously reported that Alzheimer disease (AD) model mice showed decreased insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) levels in the cerebrum and accelerated phenotypic features of AD when crossbred with alpha-tocopherol transfer protein knockout (Ttpa -/-) mice. To further investigate the role of chronic oxidative stress in AD pathophysiology, we performed DNA microarray analysis using young and aged wild-type mice and aged Ttpa -/- mice. Among the genes whose expression changed dramatically was Phospholipase A2 group 3 (Pla2g3); Pla2g3 was identified because of its expression profile of cerebral specific up-regulation by chronic oxidative stress in silico and in aged Ttpa -/- mice. Immunohistochemical studies also demonstrated that human astrocytic Pla2g3 expression was significantly increased in human AD brains compared with control brains. Moreover, transfection of HEK293 cells with human Pla2g3 decreased endogenous IDE expression in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings show a key role of Pla2g3 on the reduction of IDE, and suggest that cerebrum specific increase of Pla2g3 is involved in the initiation and/or progression of AD. PMID:26637123

  19. Liposome formation in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Claassen, D E; Spooner, B S

    1996-01-01

    Liposomes are artificial vesicles with a phospholipid bilayer membrane. The formation of liposomes is a self-assembly process that is driven by the amphipathic nature of phospholipid molecules and can be observed during the removal of detergent from phospholipids dissolved in detergent micelles. As detergent concentration in the mixed micelles decreases, the non-polar tail regions of phospholipids produce a hydrophobic effect that drives the micelles to fuse and form planar bilayers in which phospholipids orient with tail regions to the center of the bilayer and polar head regions to the external surface. Remaining detergent molecules shield exposed edges of the bilayer sheet from the aqueous environment. Further removal of detergent leads to intramembrane folding and membrane folding and membrane vesiculation, forming liposomes. We have observed that the formation of liposomes is altered in microgravity. Liposomes that were formed at 1-g did not exceed 150 nm in diameter, whereas liposomes that were formed during spaceflight exhibited diameters up to 2000 nm. Using detergent-stabilized planar bilayers, we determined that the stage of liposome formation most influenced by gravity is membrane vesiculation. In addition, we found that small, equipment-induced fluid disturbances increased vesiculation and negated the size-enhancing effects of microgravity. However, these small disturbances had no effect on liposome size at 1-g, likely due to the presence of gravity-induced buoyancy-driven fluid flows (e.g., convection currents). Our results indicate that fluid disturbances, induced by gravity, influence the vesiculation of membranes and limit the diameter of forming liposomes.

  20. Liposome formation in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claassen, D. E.; Spooner, B. S.

    Liposomes are artificial vesicles with a phospholipid bilayer membrane. The formation of liposomes is a self-assembly process that is driven by the amphipathic nature of phospholipid molecules and can be observed during the removal of detergent from phospholipids dissolved in detergent micelles. As detergent concentration in the mixed micelles decreases, the non-polar tail regions of phospholipids produce a hydrophobic effect that drives the micelles to fuse and form planar bilayers in which phospholipids orient with tail regions to the center of the bilayer and polar head regions to the external surface. Remaining detergent molecules shield exposed edges of the bilayer sheet from the aqueous environment. Further removal of detergent leads to intramembrane folding and membrane vesiculation, forming liposomes. We have observed that the formation of liposomes is altered in microgravity. Liposomes that were formed at 1-g did not exceed 150 nm in diameter, whereas liposomes that were formed during spaceflight exhibited diameters up to 2000 nm. Using detergent-stabilized planar bilayers, we determined that the stage of liposome formation most influenced by gravity is membrane vesiculation. In addition, we found that small, equipment-induced fluid disturbances increased vesiculation and negated the size-enhancing effects of microgravity. However, these small disturbances had no effect on liposome size at 1-g, likely due to the presence of gravity-induced buoyancy-driven fluid flows (e.g., convection currents). Our results indicate that fluid disturbances, induced by gravity, influence the vesiculation of membranes and limit the diameter of forming liposomes.

  1. Liposomal formulations of glucagon-like peptide-1: improved bioavailability and anti-diabetic effect.

    PubMed

    Hanato, Junko; Kuriyama, Kazuki; Mizumoto, Takahiro; Debari, Kazuhiro; Hatanaka, Junya; Onoue, Satomi; Yamada, Shizuo

    2009-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an incretin hormone, is recognized to be potent drug candidate for treatment of diabetes, however its clinical application has been highly limited, because of rapid enzymatic degradation by dipeptidyl-peptidase IV. To protect GLP-1 from enzymatic degradation and improve pharmacological effects, liposomal formulations of GLP-1 were prepared using three types of lyophilized empty liposomes such as anionic, neutral and cationic liposomes. Electron microscopic and dynamic light scattering experiments indicated the uniform size distribution of GLP-1-loaded liposomes with mean diameter of 130-210 nm, and inclusion of GLP-1 did not affect the dispersibility and morphology of each liposome. Of all liposomal formulations tested, anionic liposomal formulation exhibited the highest encapsulation efficiency of GLP-1 (ca. 80%). In intraperitoneal glucose tolerance testing in rats, marked improvement of hypoglycemic effects were observed in anionic liposomal formulation of GLP-1 (100 nmol/kg) with 1.7-fold higher increase of insulin secretion, as compared to GLP-1 solution. In pharmacokinetic studies, intravenous administration of anionic liposomal formulation of GLP-1 (100 nmol/kg) resulted in 3.6-fold higher elevation of serum GLP-1 level as compared to GLP-1 injection. Upon these findings, anionic liposomal formulation of GLP-1 would provide the improved pharmacokinetics and insulinotropic action, possibly leading to efficacious anti-diabetic medication.

  2. Formulation and in vitro characterization of protein-loaded liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzimski, Lauren

    Background/Objective: Protein-based drugs are increasingly used to treat a variety of conditions including cancer and cardio-vascular disease. Due to the immune system's innate ability to degrade the foreign particles quickly, protein-based treatments are generally short-lived. To address this limitation, the objective of the study was to: 1) develop protein-loaded liposomes; 2) characterize size, stability, encapsulation efficiency and rate of protein release; and 3) determine intracellular uptake and distribution; and 4) protein structural changes. Method: Liposomes were loaded with a fluorescent-albumin using freeze-thaw (F/T) methodology. Albumin encapsulation and release were quantified by fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. Flow cytometry was used to determine liposome uptake by macrophages. Epifluorescence microscopy was used to determine cellular distribution of liposomes. Stability was determined using dynamic light scattering by measuring liposome size over one month period. Protein structure was determined using circular dichroism (CD). Result: Encapsulation of albumin in liposome was ˜90% and was dependent on F/T rates, with fifteen cycles yielding the highest encapsulation efficacy (p < 0.05). Albumin-loaded liposomes demonstrated consistent size (<300nm). Release of encapsulated albumin in physiological buffer at 25°C was ˜60% in 72 h. Fluorescence imaging suggested an endosomal route of cellular entry for the FITC-albumin liposome with maximum uptake rates in immune cells (30% at 2hour incubation). CD suggested protein structure is minimally impacted by freeze-thaw methodology. Conclusion: Using F/T as a loading method, we were able to successfully achieve a protein-loaded liposome that was under 300nm, had encapsulation of ˜90%. Synthesized liposomes demonstrated a burst release of encapsulate protein (60%) at 72 hours. Cellular trafficking confirmed endosomal uptake, and minimal protein damage was noticed in CD.

  3. pH-Sensitive Liposomes: Acid-Induced Liposome Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, Jerome; Yatvin, Milton B.; Huang, Leaf

    1984-03-01

    Sonicated unilamellar liposomes containing phosphatidylethanolamine and palmitoylhomocysteine fuse rapidly when the medium pH is lowered from 7 to 5. Liposome fusion was demonstrated by (i) mixing of the liposomal lipids as shown by resonance energy transfer, (ii) gel filtration, and (iii) electron microscopy. The pH-sensitive fusion of liposomes was observed only when palmitoylhomocysteine (>= 20 mol%) was present in the liposomes. The presence of phosphatidyl-ethanolamine in the liposomes greatly enhanced fusion whereas the presence of phosphatidylcholine inhibited fusion. During fusion of liposomes containing phosphatidylethanolamine and palmitoylhomocysteine (8:2, mol/mol), almost all of the encapsulated calcein was released. Inclusion of cholesterol (40 mol%) in the liposomes substantially decreased leakage without impairing fusion.

  4. Interaction of colistin and colistin methanesulfonate with liposomes: colloidal aspects and implications for formulation.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Stephanie J; Li, Jian; Nation, Roger L; Prankerd, Richard J; Boyd, Ben J

    2012-09-01

    Interaction of colistin and colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) with liposomes has been studied with the view to understanding the limitations to the use of liposomes as a more effective delivery system for pulmonary inhalation of this important class of antibiotic. Thus, in this study, liposomes containing colistin or CMS were prepared and characterized with respect to colloidal behavior and drug encapsulation and release. Association of anionic CMS with liposomes induced negative charge on the particles. However, degradation of the CMS to form cationic colistin over time was directly correlated with charge reversal and particle aggregation. The rate of degradation of CMS was significantly more rapid when associated with the liposome bilayer than when compared with the same concentration in aqueous solution. Colistin liposomes carried positive charge and were stable. Encapsulation efficiency for colistin was approximately 50%, decreasing with increasing concentration of colistin. Colistin was rapidly released from liposomes on dilution. Although the studies indicate limited utility of colistin or CMS liposomes for long duration controlled-release applications, colistin liposomes were highly stable and may present a potential opportunity for coformulation of colistin with a second antibiotic to colocalize the two drugs after pulmonary delivery. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Interaction of Colistin and Colistin Methanesulfonate with Liposomes: Colloidal Aspects and Implications for Formulation

    PubMed Central

    WALLACE, STEPHANIE J.; LI, JIAN; NATION, ROGER L.; PRANKERD, RICHARD J.; BOYD, BEN J.

    2012-01-01

    Interaction of colistin and colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) with liposomes has been studied with the view to understanding the limitations to the use of liposomes as a more effective delivery system for pulmonary inhalation of this important class of antibiotic. Thus, in this study, liposomes containing colistin or CMS were prepared and characterized with respect to colloidal behavior and drug encapsulation and release. Association of anionic CMS with liposomes induced negative charge on the particles. However, degradation of the CMS to form cationic colistin over time was directly correlated with charge reversal and particle aggregation. The rate of degradation of CMS was significantly more rapid when associated with the liposome bilayer than when compared with the same concentration in aqueous solution. Colistin liposomes carried positive charge and were stable. Encapsulation efficiency for colistin was approximately 50%, decreasing with increasing concentration of colistin. Colistin was rapidly released from liposomes on dilution. Although the studies indicate limited utility of colistin or CMS liposomes for long duration controlled-release applications, colistin liposomes were highly stable and may present a potential opportunity for coformulation of colistin with a second antibiotic to colocalize the two drugs after pulmonary delivery. PMID:22623044

  6. Barriers to Liposomal Gene Delivery: from Application Site to the Target.

    PubMed

    Saffari, Mostafa; Moghimi, Hamid Reza; Dass, Crispin R

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy is a therapeutic approach to deliver genetic material into cells to alter their function in entire organism. One promising form of gene delivery system (DDS) is liposomes. The success of liposome-mediated gene delivery is a multifactorial issue and well-designed liposomal systems might lead to optimized gene transfection particularly in vivo. Liposomal gene delivery systems face different barriers from their site of application to their target, which is inside the cells. These barriers include presystemic obstacles (epithelial barriers), systemic barriers in blood circulation and cellular barriers. Epithelial barriers differ depending on the route of administration. Systemic barriers include enzymatic degradation, binding and opsonisation. Both of these barriers can act as limiting hurdles that genetic material and their vector should overcome before reaching the cells. Finally liposomes should overcome cellular barriers that include cell entrance, endosomal escape and nuclear uptake. These barriers and their impact on liposomal gene delivery will be discussed in this review.

  7. Liposome-Cross-Linked Hybrid Hydrogels for Glutathione-Triggered Delivery of Multiple Cargo Molecules.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yingkai; Kiick, Kristi L

    2016-02-08

    Novel, liposome-cross-linked hybrid hydrogels cross-linked by the Michael-type addition of thiols with maleimides were prepared via the use of maleimide-functionalized liposome cross-linkers and thiolated polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers. Gelation of the materials was confirmed by oscillatory rheology experiments. These hybrid hydrogels are rendered degradable upon exposure to thiol-containing molecules such as glutathione (GSH), via the incorporation of selected thioether succinimide cross-links between the PEG polymers and liposome nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) characterization confirmed that intact liposomes were released upon network degradation. Owing to the hierarchical structure of the network, multiple cargo molecules relevant for chemotherapies, namely doxorubicin (DOX) and cytochrome c, were encapsulated and simultaneously released from the hybrid hydrogels, with differential release profiles that were driven by degradation-mediated release and Fickian diffusion, respectively. This work introduces a facile approach for the development of advanced, hybrid drug delivery vehicles that exhibit novel chemical degradation.

  8. Clot accumulation characteristics of plasminogen-bearing liposomes in a flow-system. Groningen Utrecht Institute for Drug Exploration.

    PubMed

    Heeremans, J L; Prevost, R; Feitsma, H; Kluft, C; Crommelin, D J

    1998-01-01

    In this study, the clot accumulation properties of liposome-coupled plasminogen were compared to those of free (non-liposomal) plasminogen in an in vitro, closed-loop, flow-system. After introduction of a clot into the closed system, double-radiolabelled plasminogen-liposomes were administered and the accumulation of radiolabel on the entire clot was measured. Liposomal plasminogen showed improved accumulation over free plasminogen, on both a fibrin clot and a whole blood clot. Moreover, once liposomal plasminogen was fibrin associated, it could not be washed away with buffer, in contrast to free plasminogen. Liposomal plasminogen was able to compete successfully with an excess of free plasminogen. The plateau levels for the accumulated amount of plasminogen depended on the incubated amount of plasminogen and were influenced by partial degradation of the clot. Furthermore, it was shown that a threshold liposomal plasminogen surface-density was needed for optimum clot accumulation.

  9. Mechanistic Studies on the Triggered Release of Liposomal Contents by Matrix Metalloproteinase-9

    PubMed Central

    Elegbede, Adekunle I.; Banerjee, Jayati; Hanson, Andrea J.; Tobwala, Shakila; Ganguli, Bratati; Wang, Rongying; Lu, Xiaoning; Srivastava, D. K.; Mallik, Sanku

    2009-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a class of extracellular matrix degrading enzymes over-expressed in many cancers and contribute to the metastatic ability of the cancer cells. We have recently demonstrated that liposomal contents can be released when triggered by the enzyme MMP-9. Herein, we report our results on the mechanistic studies of the MMP-9 triggered release of the liposomal contents. We synthesized peptides containing the cleavage site for MMP-9 and conjugated them with fatty acids to prepare the corresponding lipopeptides. By employing Circular Dichroism spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the lipopeptides, when incorporated in liposomes, are de-mixed in the lipid bilayers and generate triple helical structures. MMP-9 cleaves the triple helical peptides, leading to the release of the liposomal contents. Other MMPs, which cannot hydrolyze triple helical peptides, failed to release the contents from the liposomes. We also observed that the rate and the extent of release of the liposomal contents depend on the mismatch between acyl chains of the synthesized lipopeptide and phospholipid components of the liposomes. Circular Dichroism spectroscopic studies imply that the observed differences in the release reflect the ability of the liposomal membrane to anneal the defects following the enzymatic cleavage of the liposome-incorporated lipopeptides. PMID:18642903

  10. Liposomal adjuvants for human vaccines.

    PubMed

    Alving, Carl R; Beck, Zoltan; Matyas, Gary R; Rao, Mangala

    2016-06-01

    Liposomes are well-known as drug carriers, and are now critical components of two of six types of adjuvants present in licensed vaccines. The liposomal vaccine adjuvant field has long been dynamic and innovative, and research in this area is further examined as new commercial products appear in parallel with new vaccines. In an arena where successful products exist the potential for new types of vaccines with liposomal adjuvants, and alternative liposomal adjuvants that could emerge for new types of vaccines, are discussed. Major areas include: virosomes, constructed from phospholipids and proteins from influenza virus particles; liposomes containing natural and synthetic neutral or anionic phospholipids, cholesterol, natural or synthetic monophosphoryl lipid A, and QS21 saponin; non-phospholipid cationic liposomes; and combinations and mixtures of liposomes and immunostimulating ingredients as adjuvants for experimental vaccines. Liposomes containing monophosphoryl lipid A and QS21 have considerable momentum that will result soon in emergence of prophylactic vaccines to malaria and shingles, and possible novel cancer vaccines. The licensed virosome vaccines to influenza and hepatitis A will be replaced with virosome vaccines to other infectious diseases. Alternative liposomal formulations are likely to emerge for difficult diseases such as tuberculosis or HIV-1 infection.

  11. Manufacturing Methods for Liposome Adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Perrie, Yvonne; Kastner, Elisabeth; Khadke, Swapnil; Roces, Carla B; Stone, Peter

    2017-01-01

    A wide range of studies have shown that liposomes can act as suitable adjuvants for a range of vaccine antigens. Properties such as their amphiphilic character and biphasic nature allow them to incorporate antigens within the lipid bilayer, on the surface, or encapsulated within the inner core. However, appropriate methods for the manufacture of liposomes are limited and this has resulted in issues with cost, supply, and wider scale application of these systems. Within this chapter we explore manufacturing processes that can be used for the production of liposomal adjuvants, and we outline new manufacturing methods can that offer fast, scalable, and cost-effective production of liposomal adjuvants.

  12. Ciprofloxacin as ocular liposomal hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Hosny, Khaled Mohamed

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare and characterize an ocular effective prolonged-release liposomal hydrogel formulation containing ciprofloxacin. Reverse-phase evaporation was used for preparation of liposomes consisting of soybean phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cholesterol (CH). The effect of PC/CH molar ratio on the percentage drug encapsulation was investigated. The effect of additives such as stearylamine (SA) or dicetyl phosphate (DP) as positive and negative charge inducers, respectively, were studied. Morphology, mean size, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro release of ciprofloxacin from liposomes were evaluated. For hydrogel preparation, Carbopol 940 was applied. In vitro transcorneal permeation through excised albino rabbit cornea was also determined. Optimal encapsulation efficiency of 73.04 +/- 3.06% was obtained from liposomes formulated with PC/CH at molar ratio of 5:3 and by increasing CH content above this limit, the encapsulation decreased. Positively charged liposomes showed superior entrapment efficiency (82.01 +/- 0.52) over the negatively charged and the neutral liposomes. Hydrogel containing liposomes with lipid content PC, CH, and SA in molar ratio 5:3:1, respectively, showed the best release and transcorneal permeation with the percentage permeation of 30.6%. These results suggest that the degree of encapsulation of ciprofloxacin into liposomes and prolonged in vitro release depend on composition of the vesicles. In addition, the polymer hydrogel used in preparation ensure steady and prolonged transcorneal permeation. In conclusion, ciprofloxacin liposomal hydrogel is a suitable delivery system for improving the ocular bioavailability of ciprofloxacin.

  13. Preparation and characterization of clove essential oil-loaded liposomes.

    PubMed

    Sebaaly, Carine; Jraij, Alia; Fessi, Hatem; Charcosset, Catherine; Greige-Gerges, Hélène

    2015-07-01

    In this study, suitable formulations of natural soybean phospholipid vesicles were developed to improve the stability of clove essential oil and its main component, eugenol. Using an ethanol injection method, saturated (Phospholipon 80H, Phospholipon 90H) and unsaturated soybean (Lipoid S100) phospholipids, in combination with cholesterol, were used to prepare liposomes at various eugenol and clove essential oil concentrations. Liposomal batches were characterized and compared for their size, polydispersity index, Zeta potential, loading rate, encapsulation efficiency and morphology. The liposomes were tested for their stability after storing them for 2 months at 4°C by monitoring changes in their mean size, polydispersity index and encapsulation efficiency (EE) values. It was found that liposomes exhibited nanometric oligolamellar and spherical shaped vesicles and protected eugenol from degradation induced by UV exposure; they also maintained the DPPH-scavenging activity of free eugenol. Liposomes constitute a suitable system for encapsulation of volatile unstable essential oil constituents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation, characterization and in vitro antimicrobial activity of liposomal ceftazidime and cefepime against Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Ieda Maria Sapateiro; Bento, Etiene Barbosa; Almeida, Larissa da Cunha; de Sá, Luisa Zaiden Carvalho Martins; Lima, Eliana Martins

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic microorganism with the ability to respond to a wide variety of environmental changes, exhibiting a high intrinsic resistance to a number of antimicrobial agents. This low susceptibility to antimicrobial substances is primarily due to the low permeability of its outer membrane, efflux mechanisms and the synthesis of enzymes that promote the degradation of these drugs. Cephalosporins, particularty ceftazidime and cefepime are effective against P. aeruginosa, however, its increasing resistance has limited the usage of these antibiotics. Encapsulating antimicrobial drugs into unilamellar liposomes is an approach that has been investigated in order to overcome microorganism resistance. In this study, antimicrobial activity of liposomal ceftazidime and cefepime against P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and P. aeruginosa SPM-1 was compared to that of the free drugs. Liposomal characterization included diameter, encapsulation efficiency and stability. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined for free and liposomal forms of both drugs. Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) was determined at concentrations 1, 2 and 4 times MIC. Average diameter of liposomes was 131.88 nm and encapsulation efficiency for cefepime and ceftazidime were 2.29% end 5.77%, respectively. Improved stability was obtained when liposome formulations were prepared with a 50% molar ratio for cholesterol in relation to the phospholipid. MIC for liposomal antibiotics for both drugs were 50% lower than that of the free drug, demonstrating that liposomal drug delivery systems may contribute to increase the antibacterial activity of these drugs. PMID:24031917

  15. Cross-linkable liposomes stabilize a magnetic resonance contrast-enhancing polymeric fastener.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cartney E; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2014-04-08

    Liposomes are commonly used to deliver drugs and contrast agents to their target site in a controlled manner. One of the greatest obstacles in the performance of such delivery vehicles is their stability in the presence of serum. Here, we demonstrate a method to stabilize a class of liposomes that load gadolinium, a magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent, as a model cargo on their surfaces. We hypothesized that the sequential adsorption of a gadolinium-binding chitosan fastener on the liposome surface followed by covalent cross-linking of the lipid bilayer would provide enhanced stability and improved MR signal in the presence of human serum. To investigate this hypothesis, liposomes composed of diyne-containing lipids were assembled and functionalized via chitosan conjugated with a hydrophobic anchor and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). This postadsorption cross-linking strategy served to stabilize the thermodynamically favorable association between liposome and polymeric fastener. Furthermore, the chitosan-coated, cross-linked liposomes proved more effective as delivery vehicles of gadolinium than uncross-linked liposomes due to the reduced liposome degradation and chitosan desorption. Overall, this study demonstrates a useful method to stabilize a broad class of particles used for systemic delivery of various molecular payloads.

  16. Cross-Linkable Liposomes Stabilize a Magnetic Resonance Contrast-Enhancing Polymeric Fastener

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes are commonly used to deliver drugs and contrast agents to their target site in a controlled manner. One of the greatest obstacles in the performance of such delivery vehicles is their stability in the presence of serum. Here, we demonstrate a method to stabilize a class of liposomes that load gadolinium, a magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent, as a model cargo on their surfaces. We hypothesized that the sequential adsorption of a gadolinium-binding chitosan fastener on the liposome surface followed by covalent cross-linking of the lipid bilayer would provide enhanced stability and improved MR signal in the presence of human serum. To investigate this hypothesis, liposomes composed of diyne-containing lipids were assembled and functionalized via chitosan conjugated with a hydrophobic anchor and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). This postadsorption cross-linking strategy served to stabilize the thermodynamically favorable association between liposome and polymeric fastener. Furthermore, the chitosan-coated, cross-linked liposomes proved more effective as delivery vehicles of gadolinium than uncross-linked liposomes due to the reduced liposome degradation and chitosan desorption. Overall, this study demonstrates a useful method to stabilize a broad class of particles used for systemic delivery of various molecular payloads. PMID:24635565

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus sp. GZT, a 2,4,6-Tribromophenol-Degrading Strain Isolated from the River Sludge of an Electronic Waste-Dismantling Region

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhishu; Li, Guiying; Das, Ranjit

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Bacillus sp. strain GZT, a 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP)-degrading bacterium previously isolated from an electronic waste-dismantling region. The draft genome sequence is 5.18 Mb and has a G+C content of 35.1%. This is the first genome report of a brominated flame retardant-degrading strain. PMID:27257197

  18. Liposome Technology for Industrial Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Andreas; Vorauer-Uhl, Karola

    2011-01-01

    Liposomes, spherical vesicles consisting of one or more phospholipid bilayers, were first described in the mid 60s by Bangham and coworkers. Since then, liposomes have made their way to the market. Today, numerous lab scale but only a few large-scale techniques are available. However, a lot of these methods have serious limitations in terms of entrapment of sensitive molecules due to their exposure to mechanical and/or chemical stress. This paper summarizes exclusively scalable techniques and focuses on strengths, respectively, limitations in respect to industrial applicability. An additional point of view was taken to regulatory requirements concerning liposomal drug formulations based on FDA and EMEA documents. PMID:21490754

  19. Surface functionalization of liposomes with proteins and carbohydrates for use in anti-cancer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, Virginia M.

    Liposomes can be used to exploit the altered biology of cancer thereby increasing delivery of liposome-associated anti-cancer drugs. In this dissertation, I explore methods that utilize the unique cancer expression of the polymeric glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) and the HA receptor CD44 to target liposomes to tumors, using liposomes functionalized with proteins or oligosaccharides on their surface. To make it easier to prepare protein-functionalized liposomes, a non-covalent protein/liposome association method based upon metal chelation/his 6 interaction was devised and characterized. I evaluated non-covalent attachment of the prodrug converting enzyme yeast cytosine deaminase, the far-red fluorescent protein mKate, two antigens ovalbumin and the membrane proximal region of an HIV GAG and hyaluronidase, a HA-degrading enzyme. In Chapter 2, I describe the synthesis of hyaluronan-oligosaccharide (HA-O) lipid conjugates and their incorporation into liposomes to target CD44-overexpressing cancer cells. HA-O ligands of defined-length, up to 10 monosaccharides, were attached to lipids via various linkers by reductive amination. The HA-lipids were easily incorporated into liposomes but did not mediate binding of liposomes to CD44 overexpressing cells. In Chapter 3, I evaluate the capacity of tris-NTA-Ni-lipids incorporated within a liposome bilayer to associate with his6-tagged proteins. Tris-NTA-lipids of differing structures and avidities were used to associate yeast cytosine deaminase and mKate to the surface of liposomes. Two tris-NTA-lipids and a mono-NTA lipid associated his-tagged proteins to a 1:1 molar ratio in solution. The proteins remained active while associated with the liposome surface. When challenged in vitro with fetal calf serum, tris-NTA-containing liposomes retained his-tagged proteins longer than mono-NTA. However, the tris-NTA/his6 interaction was found to be in a dynamic state; free yeast cytosine deaminase rapidly competed with pre-bound m

  20. Receptor-mediated transfer of pSV2CAT DNA to mouse liver cells using asialofetuin-labeled liposomes.

    PubMed

    Hara, T; Aramaki, Y; Takada, S; Koike, K; Tsuchiya, S

    1995-12-01

    Asialofetuin-labeled liposomes (AF-liposomes) were developed as a nonviral vector having high transfection activity for receptor-mediated gene transfer to hepatocytes by systemic administration. Initially, the majority of pSV2CAT, a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene expression plasmid, was associated with AF-liposomes (AF-liposome-pSV2CAT), and they were injected into the portal vein of an adult mouse. Significantly high CAT activity was observed in the liver. The CAT activity in the liver was further increased two-fold by using AF-liposomes completely encapsulating pSV2CAT. Nonlabeled control liposomes, on the other hand, showed lower CAT activity in the liver than in the spleen or lung. The level of CAT mRNA reflected the CAT activity obtained by each liposome preparation in each tissue. Immunohistochemical staining showed that CAT was produced in a large number of parenchymal cells localizing in the periportal area. The plasmid encapsulated in the internal aqueous layer of the liposomes was effectively protected from environmental degradation. Thus, by administration into the blood circulation, AF-liposomes would be successfully incorporated into hepatocytes through receptor-mediated endocytosis, and the encapsulated plasmid would be transferred to the intracellular pathway.

  1. Uptake and intracellular processing of PEG-liposomes and PEG-immunoliposomes by kupffer cells in vitro 1 *.

    PubMed

    Koning, G A; Morselt, H W; Kamps, J A; Scherphof, G L

    2001-01-01

    Specific targeting of drugs to for instance tumors or sites of inflammation may be achieved by means of immunoliposomes carrying site-specific antibodies on their surface. The presence of these antibodies may adversely affect the circulation kinetics of such liposomes as a result of interactions with cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), mainly represented by macrophages in liver and spleen. The additional insertion of poly(ethylene glycol) chains on the surface of the immunoliposomes may, however, attenuate this effect. We investigated the influence of surface-coupled rat or rabbit antibodies and of PEG on the uptake of liposomes by rat Kupffer cells in culture with (3)H-cholesteryloleyl ether as a metabolically stable marker. Additionally, we assessed the effects of surface-bound IgG and PEG on the intracellular processing of the liposomes by the Kupffer cells, based on a double-label assay using the (3)H-cholesteryl ether as an absolute measure for liposome uptake and the hydrolysis of the degradable marker cholesteryl-(14)C-oleate as relative measure of degradation. Attachment of both rat and rabbit antibodies to PEG-free liposomes caused a several-fold increase in apparent size. The uptake by Kupffer cells, however, was 3-4 fold higher for the rat than for the rabbit IgG liposomes. The presence of PEG drastically reduced the difference between these liposome types. Uptake of liposomes without antibodies amounted to only about 10% (non-PEGylated) or less (PEGylated) of that of the immunoliposomes. In contrast to the marked effects of IgG and PEG on Kupffer cell uptake, the rate of intracellular processing of the liposomes remained virtually unaffected by the presence of these substances on the liposomal surface. These observations are discussed with respect to the design of optimally formulated liposomal drug preparations, combining maximal therapeutic efficacy with minimal toxicity.

  2. Liposome encapsulation of chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Rahman, Yueh Erh

    1976-01-13

    A method for transferring a chelating agent across a cellular membrane by encapsulating the charged chelating agent within liposomes and carrying the liposome-encapsulated chelating agent to the cellular membrane where the liposomes containing the chelating agent will be taken up by the cells, thereby transferring the chelating agent across the cellular membrane. A chelating agent can be introduced into the interior of a cell of a living organism wherein the liposomes will be decomposed, releasing the chelating agent to the interior of the cell. The released chelating agent will complex intracellularly deposited toxic heavy metals, permitting the more soluble metal complex to transfer across the cellular membrane from the cell and subsequently be removed from the living organism.

  3. Daunorubicin Hydrochloride and Cytarabine Liposome

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about daunorubicin hydrochloride and cytarabine liposome and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  4. Cationic liposomes as vaccine adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Dennis; Korsholm, Karen S; Rosenkrands, Ida; Lindenstrøm, Thomas; Andersen, Peter; Agger, Else Marie

    2007-10-01

    Cationic liposomes are lipid-bilayer vesicles with a positive surface charge that have re-emerged as a promising new adjuvant technology. Although there is some evidence that cationic liposomes themselves can improve the immune response against coadministered vaccine antigens, their main functions are to protect the antigens from clearance in the body and deliver the antigens to professional antigen-presenting cells. In addition, cationic liposomes can be used to introduce immunomodulators to enhance and modulate the immune response in a desirable direction and, thereby, represent an efficient tool when designing tailor-made adjuvants for specific disease targets. In this article we review the recent progress on cationic liposomes as vehicles, enhancing the effect of immunomodulators and the presentation of vaccine antigens.

  5. Phospholipid liposomes functionalized by protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhova, O. E.; Savostyanov, G. V.; Grishina, O. A.

    2015-03-01

    Finding new ways to deliver neurotrophic drugs to the brain in newborns is one of the contemporary problems of medicine and pharmaceutical industry. Modern researches in this field indicate the promising prospects of supramolecular transport systems for targeted drug delivery to the brain which can overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Thus, the solution of this problem is actual not only for medicine, but also for society as a whole because it determines the health of future generations. Phospholipid liposomes due to combination of lipo- and hydrophilic properties are considered as the main future objects in medicine for drug delivery through the BBB as well as increasing their bioavailability and toxicity. Liposomes functionalized by various proteins were used as transport systems for ease of liposomes use. Designing of modification oligosaccharide of liposomes surface is promising in the last decade because it enables the delivery of liposomes to specific receptor of human cells by selecting ligand and it is widely used in pharmacology for the treatment of several diseases. The purpose of this work is creation of a coarse-grained model of bilayer of phospholipid liposomes, functionalized by specific to the structural elements of the BBB proteins, as well as prediction of the most favorable orientation and position of the molecules in the generated complex by methods of molecular docking for the formation of the structure. Investigation of activity of the ligand molecule to protein receptor of human cells by the methods of molecular dynamics was carried out.

  6. Drug release through liposome pores.

    PubMed

    Dan, Nily

    2015-02-01

    Electrical, ultrasound and other types of external fields are known to induce the formation of pores in cellular and model membranes. This paper examines drug release through field induced liposome pores using Monte Carlo simulations. We find that drug release rates vary as a function of pore size and spacing, as well as the overall fraction of surface area covered by pores: The rate of release from liposomes is found to increase rapidly with pore surface coverage, approaching that of the fully ruptured liposome at fractional pore areas. For a given pore surface coverage, the pore size affects the release rate in the limit of low coverage, but not when the pores cover a relatively high fraction of the liposome surface area. On the other hand, for a given pore size and surface coverage, the distribution of pores significantly affects the release in the limit of high surface coverage: The rate of release from a liposome covered with a regularly spaced array of pores is, in this limit, higher than the release rate from (most) systems where the pores are distributed randomly on the liposome surface. In contrast, there is little effect of the pore distribution on release when the pore surface coverage is low. The simulation results are in good agreement with the predictions of detailed diffusion models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel analytical methods to assess the chemical and physical properties of liposomes.

    PubMed

    Kothalawala, Nuwan; Mudalige, Thilak K; Sisco, Patrick; Linder, Sean W

    2018-08-01

    Liposomes are used in commercial pharmaceutical formulations (PFs) and dietary supplements (DSs) as a carrier vehicle to protect the active ingredient from degradation and to increase the half-life of the injectable. Even as the commercialization of liposomal products has rapidly increased, characterization methodologies to evaluate physical and chemical properties of the liposomal products have not been well-established. Herein we develop rapid methodologies to evaluate chemical and selected physical properties of liposomal formulations. Chemical properties of liposomes are determined by their lipid composition. The lipid composition is evaluated by first screening of the lipids present in the sample using HPLC-ELSD followed by HPLC-MSMS analysis with high mass accuracy (<5 ppm), fragmentation pattern and lipid structure databases searching. Physical properties such as particle size and size distribution were investigated using Tunable Resistive Pulse Sensing (TRPS). The developed methods were used to analyze commercially available PFs and DSs. As results, PFs contain distinct number of lipids as indicated by the manufacture, but DSs were more complicated containing a large number of lipids belonging to different sub-classes. Commercially available liposomes have particles with wide size distribution based on size measurements performed by TRPS. The high mass accuracy as well as identification lipids using multiple fragment ions aided to accurately identify the lipids and differentiate them from other lipophilic molecules. The developed analytical methodologies were successfully adapted to measure the physiochemical properties of commercial liposomes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Innovative bionanocomposite films of edible proteins containing liposome-encapsulated nisin and halloysite nanoclay.

    PubMed

    Boelter, Juliana Ferreira; Brandelli, Adriano

    2016-09-01

    Films and coatings based on natural polymers have gained increased interest for food packaging applications. In this work, halloysite and phosphatidylcholine liposomes encapsulating nisin were used to develop nanocomposite films of gelatin and casein. Liposomes prepared with either soybean lecithin or Phospholipon(®) showed particle size ranging from 124 to 178nm and high entrapment efficiency (94-100%). Considering their stability, Phospholipon(®) liposomes with 1.0mg/ml nisin were selected for incorporation into nanocomposite films containing 0.5g/l halloysite. The films presented antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus cereus. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the films had a smooth surface, but showed increased roughness with addition of liposomes and halloysite. Casein films were thinner and slightly yellowish, less rigid and very elastic as compared with gelatin films. Thermogravimetric analysis showed a decrease of the degradation temperature for casein films added with liposomes. The glass transition temperature decreased with addition of liposomes and halloysite. Gelatin and casein films containing nisin-loaded liposomes and halloysite represent an interesting alternative for development of active food packaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Accelerated photostability study of tretinoin and isotretinoin in liposome formulations.

    PubMed

    Ioele, G; Cione, E; Risoli, A; Genchi, G; Ragno, G

    2005-04-11

    The photodegradation of retinoic acids, tretinoin and isotretinoin, in ethanol and liposomes was studied. The light irradiation was performed according to the conditions suggested by the ICH Guideline for photostability testing by using a Xenon lamp within a wavelength range of 300-800 nm. The photodegradation process was monitored by UV spectrophotometry. In ethanol solution, tretinoin and isotretinoin undergo complete isomerization just within a few seconds of light exposure to give 13-cis and 9-cis isomers, respectively. The 13-cis isomer from tretinoin undergoes in turn a slow isomerization to the same 9-cis isomer. Both retinoic acids incorporated in liposome complexes showed an increased stability in comparison to the ethanol solutions. In particular for tretinoin, a residual concentration of 60% was still present after a light irradiance of 3470 kJ/m(2), by means of a 250 W/m(2) light power for 240 min, versus a residual value of just 8% measured at the same time in ethanol solution. Moreover, the isomerization rate in liposomes resulted reduced for isotretinoin and practically irrelevant for tretinoin. The degradation rate was found to be dependent on the drug concentration. The better stability of the tretinoin in liposome complex was supposed to be related to its higher incorporation value due to the linear structure of the molecule.

  10. Long-circulating, pH-sensitive liposomes versus long-circulating, non-pH-sensitive liposomes as a delivery system for tumor identification.

    PubMed

    de Barros, André Luís Branco; Mota, Luciene das Graças; Soares, Daniel Crístian Ferreira; de Souza, Cristina Maria; Cassali, Geovanni Dantas; Oliveira, Mônica Cristina; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento

    2013-09-01

    Bombesin (BBN) is a tetradecapeptide that binds specifically to gastrin-releasing peptide receptors in humans. Several forms of cancer, including lung, prostate, breast, and colon over-express receptors for bombesin-like peptides. Therefore, radiolabeled bombesin analogs might be useful for tumor identification. Nevertheless, it is well known that higher tumor uptake can yield images in higher quality. Hence, drug delivery systems, such as liposomes, can be used to achieve a higher concentration of radiotracer in tumor site, and also improve the radiotracer stability, since peptides can suffer easily degradation in vivo by natural plasma and tissue peptides. In this paper, we prepared long-circulating, pH-sensitive liposomes and long-circulation, non-pH sensitive liposomes. Both formulations were able to encapsulate the radiolabeled bombesin derivative (99mTc-BBN(7_14)), and also showing high in vitro stability. Biodistribution studies were performed in Ehrlich tumor bearing-mice to compare the ability of pH-sensitive and non-pH sensitive liposomes to deliver 99mTc-BBN(7_14) to tumor site. Results showed higher tumor uptake (2-fold) when pH-sensitive liposomes were used, suggesting that these vesicles can facilitate the access to the tumor by releasing the diagnostic agent into the ideal area. As a result, tumor-to-muscle ratio achieved with pH-sensitive liposomes was higher than that obtained with non-pH-sensitive formulation. In addition, scintigraphic images for pH-sensitive liposomes showed evident tumor uptake, corroborating with biodistribution data. Therefore, the results presented in this paper suggest that pH-sensitive liposomes are able to deliver more efficiently the radiolabeled bombesin analog. This finding poses a new possibility to improve images quality, since the tumor-to-muscle ratio was strongly enhanced.

  11. Liposomal bupivacaine for regional anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Uskova, Anna; O'Connor, Jessica E

    2015-10-01

    Using a regional block in a multimodal approach to postoperative analgesia management involves addressing, which local anesthetic and how much should be used to ensure adequate pain relief to reduce related morbidity and mortality. This article will review literature surrounding the recently approved formulation of slow release liposomal bupivacaine, define its proven benefits, and identify ongoing studies to further examine the utility of this novel formulation by various routes. Recent Phase II and III clinical trials have demonstrated the ability of liposomal bupivacaine to provide prolonged analgesia, maintain a high safety profile in therapeutic doses, and decrease opioid requirements when compared with placebo in local infiltration applications for up to 24 h. Between 24 and 72 h after study drug administration, there was minimal to no difference between EXPAREL and placebo treatments on mean pain intensity. Conventional bupivacaine or ropivacaine groups (current standard practice in many hospitals in the USA) were not compared. In addition, the analgesic efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and safety profile of liposomal bupivacaine has not thoroughly been studied in various standard clinical settings such as perineural, intrathecal, and epidural administration. Current published data do not provide superior clinical results for EXPAREL over conventional bupivacaine based upon the lack of adequately powered multicentered clinical trials with comparison groups. Further investigation is necessary to identify the analgesic efficacy and safety profile of liposomal bupivacaine versus standard local anesthetics and to define the optimal clinical indication for liposomal bupivacaine administration in regional anesthesia.

  12. Influence of liposome charge on the association of liposomes with Kupffer cells in vitro. Effects of divalent cations and competition with latex particles.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, J; van Galen, M; Scherphof, G

    1985-03-14

    We studied the interaction of large unilamellar liposomes carrying different surface charges with rat Kupffer cells in maintenance culture. In addition to 14C-labeled phosphatidylcholine, all liposome preparations contained either 3H-labeled inulin or 125I-labeled bovine serum albumin as a non-degradable or a degradable aqueous space marker, respectively. With vesicles carrying no net charge, intracellular processing of internalized liposomes caused nearly complete release of protein label into the medium in acid-soluble form, while phospholipid label was predominantly retained by the cells, only about one third being released. The presence of the lysosomotropic agent, ammonia, inhibited the release of both labels from the cells. At 4 degrees C, the association and degradation of the vesicles were strongly reduced. These results are very similar to what we reported on negatively charged liposomes (Dijkstra, J., Van Galen, W.J.M., Hulstaert, C.E., Kalicharan, D., Roerdink, F.H. and Scherphof, G.L. (1984) Exp. Cell Res. 150, 161-176). The interaction of both types of vesicles apparently proceeds by adsorption to the cell surface followed by virtually complete internalization by endocytosis. Similar experiments with positively charged vesicles indicated that only about half of the liposomes were taken up by the endocytic route, the other half remaining adsorbed to the cell-surface. Attachment of all types of liposomes to the cells was strongly dependent on the presence of divalent cations; Ca2+ appeared to be required for optimal binding. Neutral liposomes only slightly competed with the uptake of negatively charged vesicles, both at 4 degrees and 37 degrees C, whereas negatively charged small unilamellar vesicles and negatively charged latex beads were found to compete very effectively with the large negatively charged liposomes. Neutral vesicles competed effectively for uptake with positively charged ones. These results suggest that neutral and positively charged

  13. Biocompatibility and light transmission of liposomal lenses.

    PubMed

    Danion, Anne; Doillon, Charles J; Giasson, Claude J; Djouahra, Saliha; Sauvageau, Patrick; Paradis, Renée; Vermette, Patrick

    2007-10-01

    To validate the biocompatibility and transmittance properties of contact lenses bearing intact liposomes. These liposomal lenses loaded with therapeutics can be used as ophthalmic drug delivery systems. The biocompatibility of soft contact lenses, coated with liposomes was evaluated through in vitro direct and indirect cytocompatibility assays on human corneal epithelial cells, on reconstructed human corneas and on ex vivo rabbit corneas. The direct and indirect transmission spectra of liposome-covered lenses were also evaluated to test if they transmit all wavelengths of the ultraviolet-visible spectrum, to thereby fulfill their optical function, without gross alteration of the colors perception and with a minimum of light dispersion. Contact lenses bearing layers of stable liposomes did not induce any significant changes in cell viability and in cell growth, compared with lenses bearing no liposome. Elution assays revealed that no cytotoxic compound leaks from the lenses whether bearing liposomes or not. Histological analyses of reconstructed human corneas and ex vivo rabbit corneas directly exposed to liposomal lenses revealed neither alteration to the cell nor to the tissue structures. Contact lenses bearing layers of liposomes did not significantly affect light transmission compared with control lenses without liposome at the wavelength of maximal photopic sensitivity, i.e., 550 nm. In addition, the contact lenses afford more eye protection in the ultraviolet spectrum, compared with the control lenses. Liposomal contact lenses are biocompatible and their transmittance properties are not affected in the visible light range.

  14. Physical and chemical stability of marine lipid-based liposomes under acid conditions.

    PubMed

    Nacka, F; Cansell, M; Gouygou, J P.; Gerbeaud, C; Méléard, P; Entressangles, B

    2001-03-01

    Liposomes made from a marine lipid extract containing a high polyunsaturated fatty lipid ratio were submitted to large pH variations, ranging from 1 to 8. Shape transformations were followed by video microscopy using giant liposomes and micromanipulation experiments. Acidification induced a decrease of the vesicle size simultaneous to the appearance of invaginations. These pH-dependent structural rearrangements were interpreted in terms of osmotic shocks and chemical modifications of the membranes. Liposomes produced by direct filtration were studied using turbidity measurements and optical microscopy observations. A low pH led to an instantaneous vesicle aggregation and to complex supramolecular and/or morphological changes as a function of time. The subsequent buffer neutralization of the liposome suspensions induced a partial reversion of the aggregation phenomenon while the structural membrane rearrangements were persisting. Furthermore, weak chemical degradations (oxidation and hydrolysis) were evidenced when the vesicles were incubated at low pH up to a 24-h incubation time. Thus, although acidification revealed liposome size and shape changes, the bilayer structure was maintained indicating that marine lipid-based liposomes could be used as oral administration vectors.

  15. Liposomal bupivacaine and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yi Cai Isaac; Kaye, Alan David; Urman, Richard D

    2014-03-01

    In the multimodal approach to the management of postoperative pain, local infiltration and regional blocks have been increasingly utilized for pain control. One of the limitations of local anesthetics in the postoperative setting is its relatively short duration of action. Multivesicular liposomes containing bupivacaine have been increasingly utilized for their increased duration of action. Compared with bupivacaine HCl, local infiltration of liposomal bupivacaine has shown to have an increase in duration of action and causes delay in peak plasma concentration. In this article, we attempt to review the clinical literature surrounding liposomal bupivacaine and its evolving role in perioperative analgesia. This new bupivacaine formation may have promising implications in postoperative pain control, resulting in increased patient satisfaction and a decrease in both hospital stay and opioid-induced adverse events (AEs). Although more studies are needed, the preliminary clinical trials suggest that liposomal bupivacaine has predictable pharmacokinetics, a similar side effect profile compared with bupivacaine HCl, and is effective in providing increased postoperative pain control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Capacious and programmable multi-liposomal carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroslavov, Alexander A.; Sybachin, Andrey V.; Zaborova, Olga V.; Migulin, Vasiliy A.; Samoshin, Vyacheslav V.; Ballauff, Matthias; Kesselman, Ellina; Schmidt, Judith; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Menger, Fredric M.

    2015-01-01

    Spherical polycationic brushes (SPBs) were synthesized by grafting polycationic chains onto 100 nm polystyrene particles. These particles were exposed to unilamellar egg-lecithin (EL) liposomes with a mean diameter of 40 nm that had been rendered anionic via the presence of 10 molar% of phosphatidylserine (PS1-). The liposomes also contained 30 mole% of a morpholinocyclohexanol-based lipid (MOCH) that undergoes a conformational flip when the pH is decreased from 7.0 to 5.0. Mixtures of SPBs and liposomes at pH 7 gave an electrostatically-driven complex possessing, on average, about 40 liposomes for each SPB particle. It was found that the bound liposomes rapidly release much of their contents when the pH is reduced from 7.0 to 5.0 owing mostly to a MOCH conformational change that creates defects in the bilayer membrane. The drop in pH does not, however, induce a separation of the liposomes from the SPBs. Around 50-60% of the liposome contents escape before, it is reasoned, lateral and transmembrane motion of the membrane components heals the defects and prevents further release. Remarkably, the liposomes complexed with SPB release their cargo much faster than the identical but non-complexed liposomes.Spherical polycationic brushes (SPBs) were synthesized by grafting polycationic chains onto 100 nm polystyrene particles. These particles were exposed to unilamellar egg-lecithin (EL) liposomes with a mean diameter of 40 nm that had been rendered anionic via the presence of 10 molar% of phosphatidylserine (PS1-). The liposomes also contained 30 mole% of a morpholinocyclohexanol-based lipid (MOCH) that undergoes a conformational flip when the pH is decreased from 7.0 to 5.0. Mixtures of SPBs and liposomes at pH 7 gave an electrostatically-driven complex possessing, on average, about 40 liposomes for each SPB particle. It was found that the bound liposomes rapidly release much of their contents when the pH is reduced from 7.0 to 5.0 owing mostly to a MOCH conformational

  17. Entrapment of ovalbumin into liposomes--factors affecting entrapment efficiency, liposome size, and zeta potential.

    PubMed

    Brgles, Marija; Jurasin, Darija; Sikirić, Maja Dutour; Frkanec, Ruza; Tomasić, Jelka

    2008-01-01

    Various amounts of Ovalbumin (OVA) were encapsulated into positively and negatively charged multilamellar liposomes, with the aim to investigate the entrapment efficiency in different buffers and to study their effects on the liposome size and zeta potential. Results showed that the entrapment efficiency of OVA in anionic liposomes was the same in 10 mM Phosphate Buffer (PB) as in Phosphate-Buffered Saline (PBS; PB + 0.15 M NaCl). Also, liposome size was approximately 1200 nm for all anionic liposomes incorporating OVA. The entrapment efficiency of OVA in cationic liposomes was highly dependent on ionic strength. The size of cationic liposomes was approximately 1200 nm in PBS, regardless of protein content, but increased with the amount of the incorporated protein in PB. Aggregation of cationic liposomes in PB was observed when the mass of the protein was 2.5 mg or greater. The zeta potential of anionic liposomes was negative and of cationic liposomes positive in the whole range of protein mass tested. These results show how different compositions of lipid and aqueous phases can be used to vary the entrapment efficiency, liposome size, and zeta potential--the factors that are of great importance for the use of liposomes as drug carriers.

  18. Liposomal nanocarriers for tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Suna

    2009-04-01

    Currently used imaging modalities such as scintigraphy, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography require the sufficient intensity of a corresponding signal from an area of interest to differentiate this area from the surrounding tissues. Targeting of various reporter moieties directly to the specific organs, tissues or tumors provide the highest dose of drug directly where it is needed. Many different types of nanoparticles are currently being studied for applications in nanomedicine. Among particulate drug carriers, liposomes are one of the most extensively studied and possess the most suitable characteristics for encapsulation of many drugs, genes, and diagnostic (imaging) agents. Among the many potential targets for such nanocarriers, tumors have been most often investigated. This review attempts to summarize the currently available information regarding liposomal nanocarriers for cancer imaging.

  19. Nanoparticle Stabilized Liposomes for Acne Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Victoria

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin disease that affects over 40 million people in the United States alone. The main cause of acne vulgaris is Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), resides deep in the pores and follicles of the skin in order to feed on oil produced by the sebaceous glands. The liposome is a lipid based nanoparticle with numerous advantages over free drug molecules as an acne treatment alternative. Bare liposomes loaded with lauric acid (LipoLA) were found to show strong antimicrobial activity against P. acnes while generating minimal toxicity. However, the platform is limited by the spontaneous tendency of liposomes to fuse with each other. Attaching nanoparticles to the surface of liposomes can overcome this challenge by providing steric repulsion and reduce surface tension. Thus, carboxyl-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuC) were attached to the surface of liposomes (AuC-liposomes) loaded with doxycycline, a general tetracycline antibiotic. These particles were found to have a diameter of 120 nm and a zeta potential of 20.0 mV. Both fluorescent and antimicrobial studies demonstrated that based on electrostatic interaction, negatively charged AuC attached to the liposome's positively charged surface and stabilized liposomes in a neutral pH environment (pH = 7.4). Upon entering the skin's acidic environment (pH = 4), AuC detached from the liposome's surface and liposomes could fuse with P. acnes residing in the pores. Furthermore, toxicity studies showed that AuC-liposomes did not induce any significant toxicity, while two of the leading over-the-counter therapies, benzoyl peroxide and salicylic acid, generated substantial skin irritation.

  20. Methods for using redox liposome biosensors

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, Quan; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and compositions for detecting the presence of biologically-important analytes by using redox liposome biosensors. In particular, the present invention provides liposome/sol-gel electrodes suitable for the detection of a wide variety of organic molecules, including but not limited to bacterial toxins.

  1. Liposome retention in size exclusion chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Ruysschaert, Tristan; Marque, Audrey; Duteyrat, Jean-Luc; Lesieur, Sylviane; Winterhalter, Mathias; Fournier, Didier

    2005-01-01

    Background Size exclusion chromatography is the method of choice for separating free from liposome-encapsulated molecules. However, if the column is not presaturated with lipids this type of chromatography causes a significant loss of lipid material. To date, the mechanism of lipid retention is poorly understood. It has been speculated that lipid binds to the column material or the entire liposome is entrapped inside the void. Results Here we show that intact liposomes and their contents are retained in the exclusion gel. Retention depends on the pore size, the smaller the pores, the higher the retention. Retained liposomes are not tightly fixed to the beads and are slowly released from the gels upon direct or inverted eluent flow, long washing steps or column repacking. Further addition of free liposomes leads to the elution of part of the gel-trapped liposomes, showing that the retention is transitory. Trapping reversibility should be related to a mechanism of partitioning of the liposomes between the stationary phase, water-swelled polymeric gel, and the mobile aqueous phase. Conclusion Retention of liposomes by size exclusion gels is a dynamic and reversible process, which should be accounted for to control lipid loss and sample contamination during chromatography. PMID:15885140

  2. The protein corona of circulating PEGylated liposomes.

    PubMed

    Palchetti, Sara; Colapicchioni, Valentina; Digiacomo, Luca; Caracciolo, Giulio; Pozzi, Daniela; Capriotti, Anna Laura; La Barbera, Giorgia; Laganà, Aldo

    2016-02-01

    Following systemic administration, liposomes are covered by a 'corona' of proteins, and preserving the surface functionality is challenging. Coating the liposome surface with polyethylene glycol (PEG) is the most widely used anti-opsonization strategy, but it cannot fully preclude protein adsorption. To date, protein binding has been studied following in vitro incubation to predict the fate of liposomes in vivo, while dynamic incubation mimicking in vivo conditions remains largely unexplored. The main aim of this investigation was to determine whether shear stress, produced by physiologically relevant dynamic flow, could influence the liposome-protein corona. The corona of circulating PEGylated liposome was thoroughly compared with that formed by incubation in vitro. Systematic comparison in terms of size, surface charge and quantitative composition was made by dynamic light scattering, microelectrophoresis and nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS). Size of coronas formed under static vs. dynamic incubation did not appreciably differ from each other. On the other side, the corona of circulating liposomes was more negatively charged than its static counterpart. Of note, the variety of protein species in the corona formed in a dynamic flow was significantly wider. Collectively, these results demonstrated that the corona of circulating PEGylated liposomes can be considerably different from that formed in a static fluid. This seems to be a key factor to predict the biological activity of a liposomal formulation in a physiological environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Drug delivery in cancer using liposomes.

    PubMed

    Dass, Crispin R

    2008-01-01

    There are various types of liposomes used for cancer therapy, but these can all be placed into three distinct categories based on the surface charge of vesicles: neutral, anionic and cationic. This chapter describes the more rigorous and easy methods used for liposome manufacture, with references, to aid the reader in preparing these formulations in-house.

  4. pH and temperature dual-sensitive liposome gel based on novel cleavable mPEG-Hz-CHEMS polymeric vaginal delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Daquan; Sun, Kaoxiang; Mu, Hongjie; Tang, Mingtan; Liang, Rongcai; Wang, Aiping; Zhou, Shasha; Sun, Haijun; Zhao, Feng; Yao, Jianwen; Liu, Wanhui

    2012-01-01

    Background In this study, a pH and temperature dual-sensitive liposome gel based on a novel cleavable hydrazone-based pH-sensitive methoxy polyethylene glycol 2000-hydrazone-cholesteryl hemisuccinate (mPEG-Hz-CHEMS) polymer was used for vaginal administration. Methods The pH-sensitive, cleavable mPEG-Hz-CHEMS was designed as a modified pH-sensitive liposome that would selectively degrade under locally acidic vaginal conditions. The novel pH-sensitive liposome was engineered to form a thermogel at body temperature and to degrade in an acidic environment. Results A dual-sensitive liposome gel with a high encapsulation efficiency of arctigenin was formed and improved the solubility of arctigenin characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The dual-sensitive liposome gel with a sol-gel transition at body temperature was degraded in a pH-dependent manner, and was stable for a long period of time at neutral and basic pH, but cleavable under acidic conditions (pH 5.0). Arctigenin encapsulated in a dual-sensitive liposome gel was more stable and less toxic than arctigenin loaded into pH-sensitive liposomes. In vitro drug release results indicated that dual-sensitive liposome gels showed constant release of arctigenin over 3 days, but showed sustained release of arctigenin in buffers at pH 7.4 and pH 9.0. Conclusion This research has shed some light on a pH and temperature dual-sensitive liposome gel using a cleavable mPEG-Hz-CHEMS polymer for vaginal delivery. PMID:22679372

  5. "Smart" liposomal nanocontainers in biology and medicine.

    PubMed

    Tarahovsky, Y S

    2010-07-01

    The perspectives of using liposomes for delivery of drugs to desired parts of the human body have been intensively investigated for more than 30 years. During this time many inventions have been suggested and different kinds of liposomal devices developed, and a number of them have reached the stages of preclinical or clinical trials. The latest techniques can be used to develop biocompatible nano-sized liposomal containers having some abilities of artificial intellect, such as the presence of sensory and responsive units. However, only a few have been clinically approved. Further improvements in this area depend on our knowledge of the interactions of drugs with the lipid bilayer of liposomes. Further studies on liposomal transport through the human body, their targeting of cells requiring therapeutic treatment, and finally, the development of techniques for controlled drug delivery to desired acceptors on cell surfaces or in cytoplasm are still required.

  6. Application of Various Types of Liposomes in Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Mehran; Karimi, Naser; Safaei, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Liposomes, due to their various forms, require further exploration. These structures can deliver both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs for cancer, antibacterial, antifungal, immunomodulation, diagnostics, ophtalmica, vaccines, enzymes and genetic elements. Preparation of liposomes results in different properties for these systems. In addition, based on preparation methods, liposomes types can be unilamellar, multilamellar and giant unilamellar; however, there are many factors and difficulties that affect the development of liposome drug delivery structure. In the present review, we discuss some problems that impact drug delivery by liposomes. In addition, we discuss a new generation of liposomes, which is utilized for decreasing the limitation of the conventional liposomes. PMID:28507932

  7. [Liposomes: support for the formation of stable capsules made of reticulated polyelectrolytes or silicum].

    PubMed

    Germain, M; Paquereau, L; Winterhalter, M; Hochepied, J-F; Fournier, D

    2007-03-01

    Uses of enzymes for therapeutic purpose or for biosensing require a well-controlled nanoenvironnement to avoid degradation by proteolytic agents, pH variations or dilution effects. A solution is encapsulation under undenaturating conditions into a nanometer sized and stable capsule. The nanometer scall decreases recognition by the reticulo-endothelial system recognition and subsequent immune reaction. Liposomes are the method of choice since they allow protein encapsulation under mild conditions. However they lack in stability. In contrast, other type of capsules exhibit strong stability but with conditions required for formation that are incompatible with enzyme integrity. Here we combine different capsule formation techniques and use liposomes as templates for further stabilization. Here we demonstrate two types of multicomposite capsules. The first type is to coat the liposome surface with polyelectrolytes followed by secondary covalent crosslinking of the polyelectrolytes multilayer. In the second type of capsules we used silica to build an inorganic shell around liposome. Both techniques allow the formation of detergent stable nanocapsules which exhibits properties protective against acetylcholinesterase protein degradation, an enzyme of much interest for pesticide detection.

  8. GE11-modified liposomes for non-small cell lung cancer targeting: preparation, ex vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Huang, Fa-Zhen; Cheng, Li-Fang; Zhu, Ya-Qin; Hu, Qing; Li, Ling; Wei, Lin; Chen, Da-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a serious threat to human health, and 40%-80% of NSCLCs express high levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). GE11 is a novel peptide and exhibits high affinity for EGFR binding. The aim of this study was to construct and evaluate GE11-modified liposomes for targeted drug delivery to EGFR-positive NSCLC. Doxorubicin, a broad-spectrum antitumor agent, was chosen as the payload. GE11 was conjugated to the distal end of DSPE-PEG2000-Mal by an addition reaction with a conjugation efficiency above 90%. Doxorubicin-loaded liposomes containing GE11 (GE11-LP/DOX) at densities ranging from 0% to 15% were prepared by combination of a thin film hydration method and a post insertion method. Irrespective of GE11 density, the physicochemical properties of these targeted liposomes, including particle size, zeta potential, and drug entrapment efficiency, were nearly identical. Interestingly, the cytotoxic effect of the liposomes on A549 tumor cells was closely related to GE11 density, and liposomes with 10% GE11 had the highest tumor cell killing activity and a 2.6-fold lower half maximal inhibitory concentration than that of the nontargeted counterpart (PEG-LP/DOX). Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analysis revealed that GE11 significantly increased cellular uptake of the liposomes, which could be ascribed to specific EGFR-mediated endocytosis. It was found that multiple endocytic pathways were involved in entry of GE11-LP/DOX into cells, but GE11 assisted in cellular internalization mainly via the clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway. Importantly, the GE11-modified liposomes showed enhanced accumulation and prolonged retention in tumor tissue, as evidenced by a 2.2-fold stronger mean fluorescence intensity in tumor tissue than the unmodified liposomes at 24 hours. In summary, GE11-modified liposomes may be a promising platform for targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs in NSCLC.

  9. Liposomal nanomedicines: an emerging field.

    PubMed

    Fenske, David B; Chonn, Arcadio; Cullis, Pieter R

    2008-01-01

    Liposomal nanoparticles (LNs) encapsulating therapeutic agents, or liposomal nanomedicines (LNMs), represent one of the most advanced classes of drug delivery systems, with several currently on the market and many more in clinical trials. During the past 20 years, a variety of techniques have been developed for encapsulating both conventional drugs and the new genetic drugs (plasmid DNA-containing therapeutic genes, antisense oligonucleotides, and small, interfering RNA [siRNA]) within LNs encompassing a very specific set of properties: a diameter centered on 100 nm, a high drug-to-lipid ratio, excellent retention of the encapsulated drug, and a long (>6 hours) circulation lifetime. Particles with these properties tend to accumulate at sites of disease, such as tumors, where the endothelial layer is "leaky" and allows extravasation of particles with small diameters. Thus, LNs protect the drug during circulation, prevent it from reaching healthy tissues, and permit its accumulation at sites of disease. We will discuss recent advances in this field involving conventional anticancer drugs as well as gene-delivery, immunostimulatory, and gene-silencing applications involving the new genetic drugs. LNMs have the potential to offer new treatments in such areas as cancer therapy, vaccine development, and cholesterol management.

  10. The role of cavitation in liposome formation.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Eric S; Pitt, William G; Woodbury, Dixon J

    2007-12-15

    Liposome size is a vital parameter of many quantitative biophysical studies. Sonication, or exposure to ultrasound, is used widely to manufacture artificial liposomes, yet little is known about the mechanism by which liposomes are affected by ultrasound. Cavitation, or the oscillation of small gas bubbles in a pressure-varying field, has been shown to be responsible for many biophysical effects of ultrasound on cells. In this study, we correlate the presence and type of cavitation with a decrease in liposome size. Aqueous lipid suspensions surrounding a hydrophone were exposed to various intensities of ultrasound and hydrostatic pressures before measuring their size distribution with dynamic light scattering. As expected, increasing ultrasound intensity at atmospheric pressure decreased the average liposome diameter. The presence of collapse cavitation was manifested in the acoustic spectrum at high ultrasonic intensities. Increasing hydrostatic pressure was shown to inhibit the presence of collapse cavitation. Collapse cavitation, however, did not correlate with decreases in liposome size, as changes in size still occurred when collapse cavitation was inhibited either by lowering ultrasound intensity or by increasing static pressure. We propose a mechanism whereby stable cavitation, another type of cavitation present in sound fields, causes fluid shearing of liposomes and reduction of liposome size. A mathematical model was developed based on the Rayleigh-Plesset equation of bubble dynamics and principles of acoustic microstreaming to estimate the shear field magnitude around an oscillating bubble. This model predicts the ultrasound intensities and pressures needed to create shear fields sufficient to cause liposome size change, and correlates well with our experimental data.

  11. High sensitivity detection of bisphenol A using liposome chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-Ying; Nakamura, Chikashi; Tanimoto, Itsuro; Miyake, Shiro; Nakamura, Noriyuki; Hirano, Takashi; Miyake, Jun

    2006-09-18

    An antibody column in tandem with a fluorescent dye entrapped liposome column was developed for highly sensitive detection of an endocrine disruptor, bisphenol A (BPA). Anti-BPA antibody was immobilized in a protein G column with orientation control. A derivative of BPA was conjugated to phospholipase A2 (PLA2). BPA sample solutions mixed with the BPA-PLA2 conjugates were injected on to the anti-BPA antibody column and competitive binding occurred in the antibody column. The amount of the free conjugate was proportional to the concentration of the BPA sample. The eluted conjugates were injected on to the second column gel on which calcein-entrapped liposomes were immobilized and the PLA2-catalyzed hydrolysis of liposomal phospholipids causing fluorescent dye leakage as a signal amplification. In this system, the mixture of BPA and BPA-PLA2 conjugate were incubated for 60 min in the anti-BPA column, and then the collected solution was applied to the liposome column. The BPA detection range of 0.02-140 ng mL(-1) was wider than 0.03-6.6 ng mL(-1) obtained by the method of competitive ELISA using the same antibody. Moreover, this system could be adapted to an HPLC system resulting in almost the same detection limit in online detection. The method could be applied to environmental samples, river water and soil extracts. The BPA concentration of 0.1 ng mL(-1) and 10 ng g(-1) was detectable in water and soil extract, respectively.

  12. Liposome-encapsulated actinomycin for cancer chemotherapy

    DOEpatents

    Rahman, Yueh-Erh; Cerny, Elizabeth A.

    1976-01-01

    An improved method is provided for chemotherapy of malignant tumors by injection of antitumor drugs. The antitumor drug is encapsulated within liposomes and the liposomes containing the encapsulated drug are injected into the body. The encapsulated drug penetrates into the tumor cells where the drug is slowly released and induces degeneration and death of the tumor cells, while any toxicity to the host body is reduced. Liposome encapsulation of actinomycin D has been found to be particularly effective in treating cancerous abdominal tumors, while drastically reducing the toxicity of actinomycin D to the host.

  13. Multifunctional gold coated thermo-sensitive liposomes for multimodal imaging and photo-thermal therapy of breast cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rengan, Aravind Kumar; Jagtap, Madhura; de, Abhijit; Banerjee, Rinti; Srivastava, Rohit

    2013-12-01

    Plasmon resonant gold nanoparticles of various sizes and shapes have been extensively researched for their applications in imaging, drug delivery and photothermal therapy (PTT). However, their ability to degrade after performing the required function is essential for their application in healthcare. When combined with biodegradable liposomes, they appear to have better degradation capabilities. They degrade into smaller particles of around 5 nm that are eligible candidates for renal clearance. Distearoyl phosphatidyl choline : cholesterol (DSPC : CHOL, 8 : 2 wt%) liposomes have been synthesized and coated with gold by in situ reduction of chloro-auric acid. These particles of size 150-200 nm are analyzed for their stability, degradation capacity, model drug-release profile, biocompatibility and photothermal effects on cancer cells. It is observed that when these particles are subjected to low power continuous wave near infra-red (NIR) laser for more than 10 min, they degrade into small gold nanoparticles of size 5 nm. Also, the gold coated liposomes appear to have excellent biocompatibility and high efficiency to kill cancer cells through photothermal transduction. These novel materials are also useful in imaging using specific NIR dyes, thus exhibiting multifunctional properties for theranostics of cancer.Plasmon resonant gold nanoparticles of various sizes and shapes have been extensively researched for their applications in imaging, drug delivery and photothermal therapy (PTT). However, their ability to degrade after performing the required function is essential for their application in healthcare. When combined with biodegradable liposomes, they appear to have better degradation capabilities. They degrade into smaller particles of around 5 nm that are eligible candidates for renal clearance. Distearoyl phosphatidyl choline : cholesterol (DSPC : CHOL, 8 : 2 wt%) liposomes have been synthesized and coated with gold by in situ reduction of chloro-auric acid. These

  14. Liposomal curcumin and its application in cancer.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ting; Wei, Yumeng; Lee, Robert J; Zhao, Ling

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin (CUR) is a yellow polyphenolic compound derived from the plant turmeric. It is widely used to treat many types of diseases, including cancers such as those of lung, cervices, prostate, breast, bone and liver. However, its effectiveness has been limited due to poor aqueous solubility, low bioavailability and rapid metabolism and systemic elimination. To solve these problems, researchers have tried to explore novel drug delivery systems such as liposomes, solid dispersion, microemulsion, micelles, nanogels and dendrimers. Among these, liposomes have been the most extensively studied. Liposomal CUR formulation has greater growth inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on cancer cells. This review mainly focuses on the preparation of liposomes containing CUR and its use in cancer therapy.

  15. Liposomal curcumin and its application in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Robert J; Zhao, Ling

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin (CUR) is a yellow polyphenolic compound derived from the plant turmeric. It is widely used to treat many types of diseases, including cancers such as those of lung, cervices, prostate, breast, bone and liver. However, its effectiveness has been limited due to poor aqueous solubility, low bioavailability and rapid metabolism and systemic elimination. To solve these problems, researchers have tried to explore novel drug delivery systems such as liposomes, solid dispersion, microemulsion, micelles, nanogels and dendrimers. Among these, liposomes have been the most extensively studied. Liposomal CUR formulation has greater growth inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on cancer cells. This review mainly focuses on the preparation of liposomes containing CUR and its use in cancer therapy. PMID:28860764

  16. Octanol-assisted liposome assembly on chip

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Siddharth; Caspi, Yaron; Meijering, Anna E. C.; Dekker, Cees

    2016-01-01

    Liposomes are versatile supramolecular assemblies widely used in basic and applied sciences. Here we present a novel microfluidics-based method, octanol-assisted liposome assembly (OLA), to form monodisperse, cell-sized (5–20 μm), unilamellar liposomes with excellent encapsulation efficiency. Akin to bubble blowing, an inner aqueous phase and a surrounding lipid-carrying 1-octanol phase is pinched off by outer fluid streams. Such hydrodynamic flow focusing results in double-emulsion droplets that spontaneously develop a side-connected 1-octanol pocket. Owing to interfacial energy minimization, the pocket splits off to yield fully assembled solvent-free liposomes within minutes. This solves the long-standing fundamental problem of prolonged presence of residual oil in the liposome bilayer. We demonstrate the unilamellarity of liposomes with functional α-haemolysin protein pores in the membrane and validate the biocompatibility by inner leaflet localization of bacterial divisome proteins (FtsZ and ZipA). OLA offers a versatile platform for future analytical tools, delivery systems, nanoreactors and synthetic cells. PMID:26794442

  17. Octanol-assisted liposome assembly on chip.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Siddharth; Caspi, Yaron; Meijering, Anna E C; Dekker, Cees

    2016-01-22

    Liposomes are versatile supramolecular assemblies widely used in basic and applied sciences. Here we present a novel microfluidics-based method, octanol-assisted liposome assembly (OLA), to form monodisperse, cell-sized (5-20 μm), unilamellar liposomes with excellent encapsulation efficiency. Akin to bubble blowing, an inner aqueous phase and a surrounding lipid-carrying 1-octanol phase is pinched off by outer fluid streams. Such hydrodynamic flow focusing results in double-emulsion droplets that spontaneously develop a side-connected 1-octanol pocket. Owing to interfacial energy minimization, the pocket splits off to yield fully assembled solvent-free liposomes within minutes. This solves the long-standing fundamental problem of prolonged presence of residual oil in the liposome bilayer. We demonstrate the unilamellarity of liposomes with functional α-haemolysin protein pores in the membrane and validate the biocompatibility by inner leaflet localization of bacterial divisome proteins (FtsZ and ZipA). OLA offers a versatile platform for future analytical tools, delivery systems, nanoreactors and synthetic cells.

  18. Octanol-assisted liposome assembly on chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Siddharth; Caspi, Yaron; Meijering, Anna E. C.; Dekker, Cees

    2016-01-01

    Liposomes are versatile supramolecular assemblies widely used in basic and applied sciences. Here we present a novel microfluidics-based method, octanol-assisted liposome assembly (OLA), to form monodisperse, cell-sized (5-20 μm), unilamellar liposomes with excellent encapsulation efficiency. Akin to bubble blowing, an inner aqueous phase and a surrounding lipid-carrying 1-octanol phase is pinched off by outer fluid streams. Such hydrodynamic flow focusing results in double-emulsion droplets that spontaneously develop a side-connected 1-octanol pocket. Owing to interfacial energy minimization, the pocket splits off to yield fully assembled solvent-free liposomes within minutes. This solves the long-standing fundamental problem of prolonged presence of residual oil in the liposome bilayer. We demonstrate the unilamellarity of liposomes with functional α-haemolysin protein pores in the membrane and validate the biocompatibility by inner leaflet localization of bacterial divisome proteins (FtsZ and ZipA). OLA offers a versatile platform for future analytical tools, delivery systems, nanoreactors and synthetic cells.

  19. Bupivacaine Versus Liposomal Bupivacaine For Pain Control.

    PubMed

    Beiranvand, Siavash; Moradkhani, Mahmoud Reza

    2017-11-06

    Local infiltrations and regional blocks have been some of the effective ways employed to manage and control post-operative pain. One of the limitations of administration of local anesthesia drugs in post-operative conditions is its inability to act for a longer period of time. Multi-vesicular liposomes made up of bupivacaine have been progressively used for their increased duration of action. Compared to bupivacaine HCL, local infiltration of liposomal bupivacaine have shown to have a significantly increase the duration and delay in peak plasma concentration. In this article, we attempt to compare liposomal bupivacaine and bupivacaine based on available clinical literatures. Liposomal bupivacaine has been demonstrated to have promising implications in post- operative pain control resulting in increased patient satisfaction; reduced hospital admission and opioid induced adverse events. Clinical studies have identified liposomal bupivacaine to be effective in delivering increased post-operative pain control. The purpose of this review is to give a comprehensive comparison between bupivacaine liposomal and conventional bupivacaine based on reported clinical trials. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Proteolytic degradation of heat shock protein A2 occurs in response to oxidative stress in male germ cells of the mouse.

    PubMed

    Bromfield, Elizabeth G; Aitken, R John; McLaughlin, Eileen A; Nixon, Brett

    2017-02-10

    Does oxidative stress compromise the protein expression of heat shock protein A2 (HSPA2) in the developing germ cells of the mouse testis? Oxidative stress leads to the modification of HSPA2 by the lipid aldehyde 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) and initiates its degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Previous work has revealed a deficiency in HSPA2 protein expression within the spermatozoa of infertile men that have failed fertilization in a clinical setting. While the biological basis of this reduction in HSPA2 remains to be established, we have recently shown that the HSPA2 expressed in the spermatozoa of normozoospermic individuals is highly susceptible to adduction, a form of post-translational modification, by the lipid aldehyde 4HNE that has been causally linked to the degradation of its substrates. This modification of HSPA2 by 4HNE adduction dramatically reduced human sperm-egg interaction in vitro. Moreover, studies in a mouse model offer compelling evidence that the co-chaperone BCL2-associated athanogene 6 (BAG6) plays a key role in regulating the stability of HSPA2 in the testis, by preventing its ubiquitination and subsequent proteolytic degradation. Dose-dependent studies were used to establish a 4HNE-treatment regime for primary culture(s) of male mouse germ cells. The influence of 4HNE on HSPA2 protein stability was subsequently assessed in treated germ cells. Additionally, sperm lysates from infertile patients with established zona pellucida recognition defects were examined for the presence of 4HNE and ubiquitin adducts. A minimum of three biological replicates were performed to test statistical significance. Oxidative stress was induced in pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids isolated from the mouse testis, as well as a GC-2 cell line, using 50-200 µM 4HNE or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and the expression of HSPA2 was monitored via immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting approaches. Using the GC-2 cell line as a model, the ubiquitination

  1. New drug candidates for liposomal delivery identified by computer modeling of liposomes' remote loading and leakage.

    PubMed

    Cern, Ahuva; Marcus, David; Tropsha, Alexander; Barenholz, Yechezkel; Goldblum, Amiram

    2017-04-28

    Remote drug loading into nano-liposomes is in most cases the best method for achieving high concentrations of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) per nano-liposome that enable therapeutically viable API-loaded nano-liposomes, referred to as nano-drugs. This approach also enables controlled drug release. Recently, we constructed computational models to identify APIs that can achieve the desired high concentrations in nano-liposomes by remote loading. While those previous models included a broad spectrum of experimental conditions and dealt only with loading, here we reduced the scope to the molecular characteristics alone. We model and predict API suitability for nano-liposomal delivery by fixing the main experimental conditions: liposome lipid composition and size to be similar to those of Doxil® liposomes. On that basis, we add a prediction of drug leakage from the nano-liposomes during storage. The latter is critical for having pharmaceutically viable nano-drugs. The "load and leak" models were used to screen two large molecular databases in search of candidate APIs for delivery by nano-liposomes. The distribution of positive instances in both loading and leakage models was similar in the two databases screened. The screening process identified 667 molecules that were positives by both loading and leakage models (i.e., both high-loading and stable). Among them, 318 molecules received a high score in both properties and of these, 67 are FDA-approved drugs. This group of molecules, having diverse pharmacological activities, may be the basis for future liposomal drug development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Anaphylaxis to pegylated liposomal Doxorubicin: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sharma, L R; Subedi, A; Shah, B K

    2014-08-01

    Liposomal doxorubicin is used for the treatment of various cancers like epithelial ovarian cancers, multiple myeloma and sarcomas. We report the first case of anaphylaxis to pegylated liposomal doxorubicin.

  3. Anaphylaxis to Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, LR; Subedi, A; Shah, BK

    2014-01-01

    Liposomal doxorubicin is used for the treatment of various cancers like epithelial ovarian cancers, multiple myeloma and sarcomas. We report the first case of anaphylaxis to pegylated liposomal doxorubicin. PMID:25429486

  4. Use of liposomes as injectable-drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Ostro, M J; Cullis, P R

    1989-08-01

    The formation of liposomes and their application as delivery systems for injectable drugs are described. Liposomes are microscopic vesicles composed of one or more lipid membranes surrounding discrete aqueous compartments. These vesicles can encapsulate water-soluble drugs in their aqueous spaces and lipid-soluble drugs within the membrane itself. Liposomes release their contents by interacting with cells in one of four ways: adsorption, endocytosis, lipid exchange, or fusion. Liposome-entrapped drugs are distributed within the body much differently than free drugs; when administered intravenously to healthy animals and humans, most of the injected vesicles accumulate in the liver, spleen, lungs, bone marrow, and lymph nodes. Liposomes also accumulate preferentially at the sites of inflammation and infection and in some solid tumors; however, the reason for this accumulation is not clear. Four major factors influence liposomes' in vivo behavior and biodistribution: (1) liposomes tend to leak if cholesterol is not included in the vesicle membrane, (2) small liposomes are cleared more slowly than large liposomes, (3) the half-life of a liposome increases as the lipid dose increases, and (4) charged liposomal systems are cleared more rapidly than uncharged systems. The most advanced application of liposome-based therapy is in the treatment of systemic fungal infections, especially with amphotericin B. Liposomes are also under investigation for treatment of neoplastic disorders. Liposomes' uses in cancer therapy include encapsulation of known antineoplastic agents such as doxorubicin and methotrexate, delivery of immune modulators such as N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine-D-isoglutamine, and encapsulation of new chemical entities that are synthesized with lipophilic segments tailored for insertion into lipid bilayers. Liposomal formulations of injectable antimicrobial agents and antineoplastic agents already are undergoing clinical testing, and most probably will receive

  5. Antileishmanial Activity of Liposomal Clarithromycin against Leishmania Major Promastigotes

    PubMed Central

    Sazgarnia, Ameneh; Zabolinejad, Naghmeh; Layegh, Pouran; Rajabi, Omid; Berenji, Fariba; Javidi, Zari; Salari, Roshanak

    2012-01-01

    Objective(s) Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a common parasitic disease which is endemic in some parts of the world. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown azithromycin efficacy on some Leishmania species. Because of structural similarity between clarithromycin and azithromycin and efficacy of clarithromycin against intracellular organisms and due to the absence of previous studies in this respect, we decided to evaluate the efficacy of clarithromycin against promastigotes of L. major in vitro. Materials and Method First, liposomal and non- liposomal clarithromycin were prepared, then both forms of the drug were incubated with promastigotes for 24 hr in NNN culture media without red phenol in the presence of 5% FCS with different concentrations as follows: 20, 40, 80, 100, 200 and 500 µg/ml. Results According to the results, clarithromycin in both liposomal and non- liposomal forms has in vitro activity against the promastigotes of L. major. The concentration of drug that killed 50% of parasites (ED 50) was 169 and 253.6 µg/ml for liposomal and non- liposomal forms, respectively which shows that lower concentrations of liposomal drug are required to have the same effect as non- liposomal drug and the liposomal form of the drug is more effective than non- liposomal form. Conclusion Clarithromycin in both liposomal and non- liposomal forms has in vitro activity against the promastigotes of L. major. PMID:23658854

  6. Antileishmanial Activity of Liposomal Clarithromycin against Leishmania Major Promastigotes.

    PubMed

    Sazgarnia, Ameneh; Zabolinejad, Naghmeh; Layegh, Pouran; Rajabi, Omid; Berenji, Fariba; Javidi, Zari; Salari, Roshanak

    2012-11-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a common parasitic disease which is endemic in some parts of the world. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown azithromycin efficacy on some Leishmania species. Because of structural similarity between clarithromycin and azithromycin and efficacy of clarithromycin against intracellular organisms and due to the absence of previous studies in this respect, we decided to evaluate the efficacy of clarithromycin against promastigotes of L. major in vitro. First, liposomal and non- liposomal clarithromycin were prepared, then both forms of the drug were incubated with promastigotes for 24 hr in NNN culture media without red phenol in the presence of 5% FCS with different concentrations as follows: 20, 40, 80, 100, 200 and 500 µg/ml. According to the results, clarithromycin in both liposomal and non- liposomal forms has in vitro activity against the promastigotes of L. major. The concentration of drug that killed 50% of parasites (ED 50) was 169 and 253.6 µg/ml for liposomal and non- liposomal forms, respectively which shows that lower concentrations of liposomal drug are required to have the same effect as non- liposomal drug and the liposomal form of the drug is more effective than non- liposomal form. Clarithromycin in both liposomal and non- liposomal forms has in vitro activity against the promastigotes of L. major.

  7. Liposomal adjuvant development for leishmaniasis vaccines.

    PubMed

    Askarizadeh, Anis; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Khamesipour, Ali; Badiee, Ali

    2017-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that ranges in severity from skin lesions to fatality. Since long-lasting protection is induced upon recovery from cutaneous leishmaniasis, development of an effective vaccine is promising. However, there is no vaccine for use in humans yet. It seems limited efficacy in leishmaniasis vaccines is due to lack of an appropriate adjuvant or delivery system. Hence, the use of particulate adjuvants such as liposomes for effective delivery to the antigen presenting cells (APCs) is a valuable strategy to enhance leishmaniasis vaccine efficacy. The extraordinary versatility of liposomes because of their unique amphiphilic and biphasic nature allows for using antigens or immunostimulators within the core, on the surface or within the bilayer, and modulates both the magnitude and the T-helper bias of the immune response. In this review article, we attempt to summarize the role of liposomal adjuvants in the development of Leishmania vaccines and describe the main physicochemical properties of liposomes like phospholipid composition, surface charge, and particle size during formulation design. We also suggest potentially useful formulation strategies in order for future experiments to have a chance to succeed as liposomal vaccines against leishmaniasis.

  8. Liposomal adjuvant development for leishmaniasis vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Askarizadeh, Anis; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Khamesipour, Ali; Badiee, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that ranges in severity from skin lesions to fatality. Since long-lasting protection is induced upon recovery from cutaneous leishmaniasis, development of an effective vaccine is promising. However, there is no vaccine for use in humans yet. It seems limited efficacy in leishmaniasis vaccines is due to lack of an appropriate adjuvant or delivery system. Hence, the use of particulate adjuvants such as liposomes for effective delivery to the antigen presenting cells (APCs) is a valuable strategy to enhance leishmaniasis vaccine efficacy. The extraordinary versatility of liposomes because of their unique amphiphilic and biphasic nature allows for using antigens or immunostimulators within the core, on the surface or within the bilayer, and modulates both the magnitude and the T-helper bias of the immune response. In this review article, we attempt to summarize the role of liposomal adjuvants in the development of Leishmania vaccines and describe the main physicochemical properties of liposomes like phospholipid composition, surface charge, and particle size during formulation design. We also suggest potentially useful formulation strategies in order for future experiments to have a chance to succeed as liposomal vaccines against leishmaniasis. PMID:29201374

  9. Liposomal membrane disruption by means of miniaturized dielectric-barrier discharge in air: liposome characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svarnas, P.; Asimakoulas, L.; Katsafadou, M.; Pachis, K.; Kostazos, N.; Antimisiaris, S. G.

    2017-08-01

    The increasing interest of the plasma community in the application of atmospheric-pressure cold plasmas to bio-specimen treatment has led to the creation of the emerging field of plasma biomedicine. Accordingly, plasma setups based on dielectric-barrier discharges have already been widely tested for the inactivation of various cells. Most of these systems refer to the plasma jet concept where noble gases penetrate atmospheric air and are subjected to the influence of high electric fields, thus forming guided streamers. Following the original works of our group where liposomal membranes were proposed as models for studying the interaction between plasma jets and cells, we present herein a study on liposomal membrane disruption by means of miniaturized dielectric-barrier discharge running in atmospheric air. Liposomal membranes of various lipid compositions, lamellarities, and sizes are treated at different times. It is shown that the dielectric-barrier discharge of low mean power leads to efficient liposomal membrane disruption. The latter is achieved in a controllable manner and depends on liposome properties. Additionally, it is clearly demonstrated that liposomal membrane disruption takes place even after plasma extinction, i.e. during post-treatment, resembling thus an ‘apoptosis’ effect, which is well known today mainly for cell membranes. Thus, the adoption of the present concept would be beneficial for tailoring studies on plasma-treated cell-mimics. Finally, the liposome treatment is discussed with respect to possible physicochemical mechanisms and potential discharge modification due to the various compositions of the liquid electrode.

  10. Association of vasoactive intestinal peptide with polymer-grafted liposomes: structural aspects for pulmonary delivery.

    PubMed

    Stark, Brigitte; Debbage, Paul; Andreae, Fritz; Mosgoeller, Wilhelm; Prassl, Ruth

    2007-03-01

    A polymer-grafted liposomal formulation that has the potential to be developed for aerosolic pulmonary delivery of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a potent vasodilatory neuropeptide, is described. As VIP is prone to rapid proteolytic degradation in the microenvironment of the lung a proper delivery system is required to increase the half-life and bioavailability of the peptide. Here we investigate structural parameters of unilamellar liposomes composed of palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine, lyso-stearyl-phosphatidylglycerol and distearyl-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine covalently linked to polyethylene glycol 2000, and report on VIP-lipid interaction mechanisms. We found that the cationic VIP is efficiently entrapped by the negatively charged spherical liposomes and becomes converted to an amphipathic alpha-helix. By fluorescence spectroscopy using single Trp-modified VIP we could show that VIP is closely associated to the membrane. Our data suggest that the N-terminal random-coiled domain is embedded in the interfacial headgroup region of the phospholipid bilayer. By doing so, neither the bilayer thickness of the lipid membrane nor the mobility of the phospholipid acyl chains are affected as shown by small angle X-ray scattering and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Finally, in an ex vivo lung arterial model system we found that liposomal-associated VIP is recognized by its receptors to induce vasodilatory effects with comparable high relaxation efficiency as free VIP but with a significantly retarded dilatation kinetics. In conclusion, we have designed and characterized a liposomal formulation that is qualified to entrap biologically active VIP and displays structural features to be considered for delivery of VIP to the lung.

  11. Light-Activated Content Release from Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Sarah J.; Romanowski, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Successful integration of diagnostic and therapeutic actions at the level of individual cells requires new materials that combine biological compatibility with functional versatility. This review focuses on the development of liposome-based functional materials, where payload release is activated by light. Methods of sensitizing liposomes to light have progressed from the use of organic molecular moieties to the use of metallic plasmon resonant structures. This development has facilitated application of near infrared light for activation, which is preferred for its deep penetration and low phototoxicity in biological tissues. Presented mechanisms of light-activated liposomal content release enable precise in vitro manipulation of minute amounts of reagents, but their use in clinical diagnostic and therapeutic applications will require demonstration of safety and efficacy. PMID:23139729

  12. Accumulation, internalization and therapeutic efficacy of neuropilin-1-targeted liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Paoli, Eric E.; Ingham, Elizabeth S.; Zhang, Hua; Mahakian, Lisa M.; Fite, Brett Z.; Gagnon, M. Karen; Tam, Sarah; Kheirolomoom, Azadeh; Cardiff, Robert D.; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2014-01-01

    Advancements in liposomal drug delivery have produced long circulating and very stable drug formulations. These formulations minimize systemic exposure; however, unfortunately, therapeutic efficacy has remained limited due to the slow diffusion of liposomal particles within the tumor and limited release or uptake of the encapsulated drug. Here, the carboxyl-terminated CRPPR peptide, with affinity for the receptor neuropilin-1 (NRP), which is expressed on both endothelial and cancer cells, was conjugated to liposomes to enhance the tumor accumulation. Using a pH sensitive probe, liposomes were optimized for specific NRP binding and subsequent cellular internalization using in vitro cellular assays. Liposomes conjugated with the carboxyl-terminated CRPPR peptide (termed C-LPP liposomes) bound to the NRP-positive primary prostatic carcinoma cell line (PPC-1) but did not bind to the NRP-negative PC-3 cell line, and binding was observed with liposomal peptide concentrations as low as 0.16 mol%. Binding of the C-LPP liposomes was receptor-limited, with saturation observed at high liposome concentrations. The identical peptide sequence bearing an amide terminus did not bind specifically, accumulating only with a high (2.5 mol%) peptide concentration and adhering equally to NRP positive and negative cell lines. The binding of C-LPP liposomes conjugated with 0.63 mol% of the peptide was 83-fold greater than liposomes conjugated with the amide version of the peptide. Cellular internalization was also enhanced with C-LPP liposomes, with 80% internalized following 3hr incubation. Additionally, fluorescence in the blood pool (~40% of the injected dose) was similar for liposomes conjugated with 0.63 mol% of carboxyl-terminated peptide and non-targeted liposomes at 24 hr after injection, indicating stable circulation. Prior to doxorubicin treatment, in vivo tumor accumulation and vascular targeting were increased for peptide-conjugated liposomes compared to non-targeted liposomes

  13. Method of encapsulating polyaminopolycarboxylic acid chelating agents in liposomes

    DOEpatents

    Rahman, Yueh Erh

    1977-11-10

    A method is provided for transferring a polyaminopolycarboxylic acid chelating agent across a cellular membrane by encapsulating the charged chelating agent within liposomes, which liposomes will be taken up by the cells, thereby transferring the chelating agent across the cellular membrane. The chelating agent is encapsulated within liposomes by drying a lipid mixture to form a thin film and wetting the lipid film with a solution containing the chelating agent. Mixing then results in the formation of a suspension of liposomes encapsulating the chelating agent, which liposomes can then be separated.

  14. Development of a Rapidly Dissolvable Oral Pediatric Formulation for Mefloquine Using Liposomes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei-Lun; Tang, Wei-Hsin; Chen, Weihsu Claire; Diako, Charles; Ross, Carolyn F; Li, Shyh-Dar

    2017-06-05

    Mefloquine (Mef), a poorly soluble and highly bitter drug, has been used for malaria prophylaxis and treatment. The dosage form for Mef is mostly available as adult tablets, and thus children under the age of 5 suffer from poor medication adherence. We have developed a stable, rapidly dissolvable, and palatable pediatric formulation for Mef using liposomes composed of 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) and cholesterol with a mean diameter of ∼110 nm. Mef was actively loaded into the liposomes via an ammonium sulfate gradient using the solvent-assisted loading technology (SALT) developed in our lab. Complete loading of Mef inside the liposomal core was achieved at a high drug-to-lipid ratio (D/L) of 0.1-0.2 (w/w), and the final drug content in the formulation was ∼8 mg/mL, well above the solubility of Mef (<0.6 mg/mL in simulated fluids). The strong bitterness of Mef was masked by the liposomal encapsulation as measured by an electronic tongue. Incubating the Mef-liposomes (Mef-Lipo) in the simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) and the simulated intestinal fluid containing 3 mM sodium taurocholate (pH 6.8) induced changes in liposome size and the polydispersity, resulting in drug release (∼40% in 2 h). However, no drug release from the Mef-Lipo was measured in the bile salt-free intestinal fluid or simulated saliva (0% in 3 h). These data suggest that drug release from the Mef-Lipo was mediated by a low pH and the presence of a surfactant. Pancreatic lipase did not degrade DSPC in the Mef-Lipo after 8 h of incubation nor induce Mef release from the liposomes, indicating that lipid digestion played a minor role for drug release from the Mef-Lipo. In order to improve long-term room temperature storage, the Mef-Lipo was lyophilized to obtain a solid formulation, which was completely dissolvable in water in 10 s and displayed similar in vitro profiles of release as the liquid form. The lyophilized Mef-Lipo was stable at room temperature for >3 months. In

  15. Overcoming cellular and tissue barriers to improve liposomal drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohli, Aditya G.

    Forty years of liposome research have demonstrated that the anti-tumor efficacy of liposomal therapies is, in part, driven by three parameters: 1) liposome formulation and lipid biophysics, 2) accumulation and distribution in the tumor, and 3) release of the payload at the site of interest. This thesis outlines three studies that improve on each of these delivery steps. In the first study, we engineer a novel class of zwitterlipids with an inverted headgroup architecture that have remarkable biophysical properties and may be useful for drug delivery applications. After intravenous administration, liposomes accumulate in the tumor by the enhanced permeability and retention effect. However, the tumor stroma often limits liposome efficacy by preventing distribution into the tumor. In the second study, we demonstrate that depletion of hyaluronan in the tumor stroma improves the distribution and efficacy of DoxilRTM in murine 4T1 tumors. Once a liposome has distributed to the therapeutic site, it must release its payload over the correct timescale. Few facile methods exist to quantify the release of liposome therapeutics in vivo. In the third study, we outline and validate a simple, robust, and quantitative method for tracking the rate and extent of release of liposome contents in vivo. This tool should facilitate a better understanding of the pharmacodynamics of liposome-encapsulated drugs in animals. This work highlights aspects of liposome behavior that have prevented successful clinical translation and proposes alternative approaches to improve liposome drug delivery.

  16. Aerosolized liposomes with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine enhance pulmonary insulin delivery.

    PubMed

    Chono, Sumio; Fukuchi, Rie; Seki, Toshinobu; Morimoto, Kazuhiro

    2009-07-20

    The pulmonary insulin delivery characteristics of liposomes were examined. Aerosolized liposomes containing insulin were administered into rat lungs and the enhancing effect on insulin delivery was evaluated by changes of plasma glucose levels. Liposomes with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) enhanced pulmonary insulin delivery in rats, however, liposomes with dilauroyl, dimyristoyl, distearoyl or dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine did not. Liposomes with DPPC also enhanced the in vitro permeation of FITC dextran (Mw 4400, FD-4) through the calu-3 cell monolayer by reducing the transepithelial electrical resistance and did not harm lung tissues in rats. These findings suggest that liposomes with DPPC enhance pulmonary insulin delivery by opening the epithelial cell space in the pulmonary mucosa not mucosal cell damage. Liposomes with DPPC could be useful as a pulmonary delivery system for peptide and protein drugs.

  17. Characterisation of gene delivery using liposomal bubbles and ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshima, Risa; Suzuki, Ryo; Oda, Yusuke; Hirata, Keiichi; Nomura, Tetsuya; Negishi, Yoichi; Utoguchi, Naoki; Kudo, Nobuki; Maruyama, Kazuo

    2011-09-01

    The combination of nano/microbubbles and ultrasound is a novel technique for a non-viral gene deliver. We have previously developed novel ultrasound sensitive liposomes (Bubble liposomes) which contain the ultrasound imaging gas perfluoropropane. In this study, Bubble liposomes were compared with cationic lipid (CL)-DNA complexes as potential gene delivery carriers into tumors in vivo. The delivery of genes by bubble liposomes depended on the intensity of the applied ultrasound. The transfection efficiency plateaued at 0.7 W/cm2 ultrasound intensity. Bubble liposomes efficiently transferred genes into cultured cells even when the cells were exposed to ultrasound for only 1 s. In addition, bubble liposomes were able to introduce the luciferase gene more effectively than CL-DNA complexes into mouse ascites tumor cells. We conclude that the combination of Bubble liposomes and ultrasound is a good method for gene transfer in vivo.

  18. Comparison of Linear and Hyperbranched Polyether Lipids for Liposome Shielding by 18F-Radiolabeling and Positron Emission Tomography.

    PubMed

    Wagener, Karolin; Worm, Matthias; Pektor, Stefanie; Schinnerer, Meike; Thiermann, Raphael; Miederer, Matthias; Frey, Holger; Rösch, Frank

    2018-04-27

    Multifunctional and highly biocompatible polyether structures play a key role in shielding liposomes from degradation in the bloodstream, providing also multiple functional groups for further attachment of targeting moieties. In this work hyperbranched polyglycerol ( hbPG) bearing lipids with long alkyl chain anchor are evaluated with respect to steric stabilization of liposomes. The branched polyether lipids possess a hydrophobic bis(hexadecyl)glycerol membrane anchor for the liposomal membrane. hbPG was chosen as a multifunctional alternative to PEG, enabling the eventual linkage of multiple targeting vectors. Different hbPG lipids ( M n = 2900 and 5200 g mol -1 ) were examined. A linear bis(hexadecyl)glycerol-PEG lipid ( M n = 3000 g mol -1 ) was investigated as well, comparing hbPG and PEG with respect to shielding properties. Radiolabeling of the polymers was carried out using 1-azido-2-(2-(2-[ 18 F]fluoroethoxy)ethoxy)ethane ([ 18 F]F-TEG-N) 3 via copper-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition with excellent radiochemical yields exceeding 95%. Liposomes were prepared by the thin-film hydration method followed by repeated extrusion. Use of a custom automatic extrusion device gave access to reproducible sizes of the liposomes (hydrodynamic radius of 60-94 nm). The in vivo fate of the bis(hexadecyl)glycerol polyethers and their corresponding assembled liposome structures were evaluated via noninvasive small animal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and biodistribution studies (1 h after injection and 4 h after injection) in mice. Whereas the main uptake of the nonliposomal polyether lipids was observed in the kidneys and in the bladder after 1 h due to rapid renal clearance, in contrast, the corresponding liposomes showed uptake in the blood pool as well as in organs with good blood supply, that is, heart and lung over the whole observation period of 4 h. The in vivo behavior of all three liposomal formulations was comparable, albeit with remarkable

  19. Predicting the influence of liposomal lipid composition on liposome size, zeta potential and liposome-induced dendritic cell maturation using a design of experiments approach.

    PubMed

    Soema, Peter C; Willems, Geert-Jan; Jiskoot, Wim; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Kersten, Gideon F

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the effect of liposomal lipid composition on the physicochemical characteristics and adjuvanticity of liposomes was investigated. Using a design of experiments (DoE) approach, peptide-containing liposomes containing various lipids (EPC, DOPE, DOTAP and DC-Chol) and peptide concentrations were formulated. Liposome size and zeta potential were determined for each formulation. Moreover, the adjuvanticity of the liposomes was assessed in an in vitro dendritic cell (DC) model, by quantifying the expression of DC maturation markers CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86. The acquired data of these liposome characteristics were successfully fitted with regression models, and response contour plots were generated for each response factor. These models were applied to predict a lipid composition that resulted in a liposome with a target zeta potential. Subsequently, the expression of the DC maturation factors for this lipid composition was predicted and tested in vitro; the acquired maturation responses corresponded well with the predicted ones. These results show that a DoE approach can be used to screen various lipids and lipid compositions, and to predict their impact on liposome size, charge and adjuvanticity. Using such an approach may accelerate the formulation development of liposomal vaccine adjuvants. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid degradation plasmid pM7012 discloses distribution of an unclassified megaplasmid group across bacterial species.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yoriko; Ogawa, Naoto; Shimomura, Yumi; Fujii, Takeshi

    2014-03-01

    Analysis of the complete nucleotide sequence of plasmid pM7012 from 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic-acid (2,4-D)-degrading bacterium Burkholderia sp. M701 revealed that the plasmid had 582 142 bp, with 541 putative protein-coding sequences and 39 putative tRNA genes for the transport of the standard 20 aa. pM7012 contains sequences homologous to the regions involved in conjugal transfer and plasmid maintenance found in plasmids byi_2p from Burkholderia sp. YI23 and pBVIE01 from Burkholderia sp. G4. No relaxase gene was found in any of these plasmids, although genes for a type IV secretion system and type IV coupling proteins were identified. Plasmids with no relaxase gene have been classified as non-mobile plasmids. However, nucleotide sequences with a high level of similarity to the genes for plasmid transfer, plasmid maintenance, 2,4-D degradation and arsenic resistance contained on pM7012 were also detected in eight other megaplasmids (~600 or 900 kb) found in seven Burkholderia strains and a strain of Cupriavidus, which were isolated as 2,4-D-degrading bacteria in Japan and the United States. These results suggested that the 2,4-D degradation megaplasmids related to pM7012 are mobile and distributed across various bacterial species worldwide, and that the plasmid group could be distinguished from known mobile plasmid groups.

  1. In silico study of liposome transport across biomembranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhova, O. E.; Zyktin, A. A.; Slepchenkov, M. M.

    2018-02-01

    At present, the liposomes are widely used as drug carriers in different areas of clinical medicine. One of them is the transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) into brain. This work is devoted to computational modeling of liposome transport across biomembrane. For this, we applied the MARTINI coarse-grained model. The liposome model is constructed from lipid (DPPC) and cholesterol (CHOL) molecules in a percentage ratio of 60/40. The diameter of the liposome is 28 nm. The equilibrium configuration of the liposome is achieved by minimizing its total energy. A series of numerical experiments was conducted in order to study the transport of the drug contained in the liposome across the cell membrane. All computer manipulations were carried out using software packages GROMACS and Kvazar at a temperature of 305-310 K. All the processes were simulated for 10-20 ns. The speed of the liposome ranged from 0.89 to 1.07 m/s. It should be noted that the selected speed range corresponds to the rate of human blood flow. Various cases of the angle of the incidence of the liposome on the membrane surface were also considered. Since the process of contact of the liposome with the membrane can be characterized as rolling in most cases, the angles were considered in the interval from 0 to 20 degrees. Based on the simulation results, we determined optimal pathways (from the point of view of energy) for liposome penetration across biomembrane.

  2. Comparison of the cellular transport mechanism of cationic, star-shaped polymers and liposomes in HaCat cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Heng-Cong; Li, Na; Yan, Li; Mai, Kai-Jin; Sun, Kan; Wang, Wei; Lao, Guo-Juan; Yang, Chuan; Zhang, Li-Ming; Ren, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Several biological barriers must be overcome to achieve efficient nonviral gene delivery. These barriers include target cell uptake, lysosomal degradation, and dissociation from the carrier. In this study, we compared the differences in the uptake mechanism of cationic, star-shaped polymer/MMP-9siRNA complexes (β-CD-(D3)7/MMP-9siRNA complexes: polyplexes) and commercial liposome/MMP-9siRNA complexes (Lipofectamine ® 2000/MMP-9siRNA complexes: liposomes). The uptake pathway and transfection efficiency of the polyplexes and liposomes were determined by fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The occurrence of intracellular processing was assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Endosomal acidification inhibitors were used to explore the endosomal escape mechanisms of the polyplexes and lysosomes. We concluded that the polyplexes were internalized by non-caveolae- and non-clathrin-mediated pathways, with no lysosomal trafficking, thereby inducing successful transfection, while the majority of liposomes were internalized by clathrin-dependent endocytosis (CDE), caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and macropinocytosis, and only CDE induced successful transfection. Liposomes might escape more quickly than polyplexes, and the digestion effect of acidic organelles on liposomes was faint compared to the polyplexes, although both complexes escaped from endolysosomes via the proton sponge mechanism. This may be the key aspect that leads to the lower transfection efficiency of the β-CD-(D3)7/MMP-9siRNA complexes. The present study may offer some insights for the rational design of novel delivery systems with increased transfection efficiency but decreased toxicity.

  3. HEPC-based liposomes trigger cytokine release from peripheral blood cells: effects of liposomal size, dose and lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Sayaka; Ishida, Tatsuhiro; Inoue, Akiko; Mikami, Junko; Muraguchi, Masahiro; Ohmoto, Yasukazu; Kiwada, Hiroshi

    2002-04-02

    The immune response caused by liposome stimulation was studied by assessing the level of several cytokines released from human peripheral blood cells. Liposome stimulation resulted in the release of IL-6, IL-10, IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. The size of the liposomes affected the degree of the cytokine releases with larger sized liposomes causing higher levels of cytokine induction. In addition, it appears that the lipid composition of liposomes had no effect on the degree of cytokine release. The release of cytokines occurred even in the absence of serum, suggesting that serum proteins did not contribute to liposome stimulation in peripheral blood cells. The release of cytokines induced by liposome stimulation was inhibited by the presence of either protein kinase-C (PKC) or protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor, but not by the presence of an endocytosis inhibitor. This indicates that signal transduction via PKC or PTK is necessary, in order for human peripheral blood cells to release cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma) as the result of liposome stimulation. These quantitative data on the release of cytokines by liposomal stimulation provide useful information for the development of rational drug delivery systems and the safety of cytokine induction via the use of liposomes.

  4. T1 relaxivity of core-encapsulated gadolinium liposomal contrast agents--effect of liposome size and internal gadolinium concentration.

    PubMed

    Ghaghada, Ketan; Hawley, Catherine; Kawaji, Keigo; Annapragada, Ananth; Mukundan, Srinivasan

    2008-10-01

    Long circulating core-encapsulated gadolinium (CE-Gd) liposomal nanoparticles that have surface conjugated polyethylene glycol are a promising platform technology for use as blood pool T1-based magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of liposome size and internal (core) Gd concentration on the T1 relaxivity of CE-Gd liposomes. Twelve different liposomal formulations were synthesized and characterized, resulting in a size (50, 100, 200, and 400 nm) and core Gd-concentration (200, 350, and 500 mM) "matrix" of test samples. Subsequently, CE-Gd liposomes were diluted in deionized water (four diluted samples) and molar T1 relaxivity (r1) measurements were performed at 2- and 7-T MR field strengths. The r1 of CE-Gd liposomes was inversely related to the liposome size. The largest change in r1 was observed between liposomes that were extruded through 50- and 100-nm filter membranes. At both field strengths, the variation in internal gadolinium concentration did not show any significant correlation (alpha < or = 0.05) with r1. The size of CE-Gd liposomal nanoparticles significantly affects the T1 relaxivity. An inverse relation was observed between liposome size and T1 relaxivity. The T1 relaxivity did not change significantly with core Gd concentration over the measured concentration range.

  5. Co-Encapsulating the Fusogenic Peptide INF7 and Molecular Imaging Probes in Liposomes Increases Intracellular Signal and Probe Retention

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Erik W.; Li, Changqing; Lu, Wuyuan; Kao, Joseph P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes are promising vehicles to deliver diagnostic and therapeutic agents to cells in vivo. After uptake into cells by endocytosis, liposomes are degraded in the endolysosomal system. Consequently, the encapsulated cargo molecules frequently remain sequestered in endosomal compartments; this limits their usefulness in many applications (e.g. gene delivery). To overcome this, various fusogenic peptides have been developed to facilitate delivery of liposomally-encapsulated molecules into the cytosol. One such peptide is the pH-sensitive influenza-derived peptide INF7. Liposomal delivery of imaging agents is an attractive approach for enabling cell imaging and cell tracking in vivo, but can be hampered by inadequate intracellular accumulation and retention of probes caused by exocytosis (and possible degradation) of endosome-entrapped probes. Such signal loss could be minimized by facilitating escape of probe molecules from endolysosomal compartments into the cytosol. We investigated the ability of co-encapsulated INF7 to release liposomally-delivered rhodamine fluorophores into the cytosol after endosomal acidification/maturation. We co-encapsulated INF7 and fluorescent rhodamine derivatives having vastly different transport properties to show that after endocytosis by CV1 cells, the INF7 peptide is activated by acidic endosomal pH and facilitates efficient release of the fluorescent tracers into the cytosol. Furthermore, we show that INF7-facilitated escape from endosomes markedly enhanced retention of tracers that cannot be actively extruded from the cytosol. Minimizing loss of intracellular probes improves cellular imaging by increasing the signal-to-noise ratio of images and lengthening the time window that imaging can be performed. In particular, this will enhance in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance imaging, an emergent magnetic resonance imaging modality requires exogenous paramagnetic imaging agents and is highly promising for cellular and molecular

  6. Insight into the Tribological Behavior of Liposomes in Artificial Joints.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yiqin; Liu, Yuhong; Zhang, Caixia; Chen, Zhe; Wen, Shizhu

    2016-10-10

    Liposomes are widely used in drug delivery and gene therapy, and their new role as boundary lubricant in natural/artificial joints has been found in recent years. In this study, the tribological properties of liposomes on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4 V)/UHMWPE interface were studied by a ball-on-disc tribometer. The efficient reduction of friction coefficient and wear on both surfaces under various velocities and loads is found. A multilayer structure of physically adsorbed liposomes on Ti6Al4 V surface was also observed by atomic force microscope (AFM). Except for the hydration mechanism by phosphatidylcholine (PC) groups, the well-performed tribological properties by liposomes is also attributed to the existence of adsorbed liposome layers on both surfaces, which could reduce asperities contact and show great bearing capacity. This work enriches the research on liposomes for lubrication improvement on artificial surface and shows their value in clinical application.

  7. Current Demands for Food-Approved Liposome Nanoparticles in Food and Safety Sector

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Shruti; Haldorai, Yuvaraj; Hwang, Seung Kyu; Bajpai, Vivek K.; Huh, Yun Suk; Han, Young-Kyu

    2017-01-01

    Safety of food is a noteworthy issue for consumers and the food industry. A number of complex challenges associated with food engineering and food industries, including quality food production and safety of the food through effective and feasible means can be explained by nanotechnology. However, nanoparticles have unique physicochemical properties compared to normal macroparticles of the same composition and thus could interact with living system in surprising ways to induce toxicity. Further, few toxicological/safety assessments have been performed on nanoparticles, thereby necessitating further research on oral exposure risk prior to their application to food. Liposome nanoparticles are viewed as attractive novel materials by the food and medical industries. For example, nanoencapsulation of bioactive food compounds is an emerging application of nanotechnology. In several food industrial practices, liposome nanoparticles have been utilized to improve flavoring and nutritional properties of food, and they have been examined for their capacity to encapsulate natural metabolites that may help to protect the food from spoilage and degradation. This review focuses on ongoing advancements in the application of liposomes for food and pharma sector. PMID:29259595

  8. Nerve cell-mimicking liposomes as biosensor for botulinum neurotoxin complete physiological activity

    SciTech Connect

    Weingart, Oliver G., E-mail: Oliver.Weingart@hest.

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are the most toxic substances known, and their neurotoxic properties and paralysing effects are exploited for medical treatment of a wide spectrum of disorders. To accurately quantify the potency of a pharmaceutical BoNT preparation, its physiological key activities (binding to membrane receptor, translocation, and proteolytic degradation of SNARE proteins) need to be determined. To date, this was only possible using animal models, or, to a limited extent, cell-based assays. We here report a novel in vitro system for BoNT/B analysis, based on nerve-cell mimicking liposomes presenting motoneuronal membrane receptors required for BoNT binding. Following triggered membrane translocationmore » of the toxin's Light Chain, the endopeptidase activity can be quantitatively monitored employing a FRET-based reporter assay within the functionalized liposomes. We were able to detect BoNT/B physiological activity at picomolar concentrations in short time, opening the possibility for future replacement of animal experimentation in pharmaceutical BoNT testing. - Highlights: • A cell-free in vitro system was used to measure BoNT/B physiological function. • The system relies on nerve-cell mimicking liposomes as a novel detection system. • A FRET-based reporter assay is used as final readout of the test system. • BoNT/B physiological activity was detected at picogram quantities in short time. • The method opens the possibility to replace animal experimentation in BoNT testing.« less

  9. Simultaneous measurement of liposome extravasation and content release in tumors.

    PubMed

    Wu, N Z; Braun, R D; Gaber, M H; Lin, G M; Ong, E T; Shan, S; Papahadjopoulos, D; Dewhirst, M W

    1997-03-01

    The success of liposome-based drug delivery systems for tumor targeting relies on maximum extravasation of liposomes into tumor interstitium, as well as optimal release of contents from the liposomes once within the tumor Liposome extravasation and content release are two separate processes that can be individually or jointly manipulated so a method is needed to monitor these two processes independently and simultaneously. In this report, we describe a method to measure liposome extravasation and content release in tumor tissues growing in a rat skinfold window chamber preparation. Mixtures of liposomes containing either doxorubicin or calcein, both of which are fluorescent, and liposomes surface-labeled with rhodamine were injected intravenously. Fluorescent, light intensities in a tumor region in two fluorescent channels were measured using an image-processing system. Light intensities of plasma from blood samples were also measured using this system. These measurements were used to calculate the amounts of liposomes and released contents in both plasma and tumor interstitium. The calculations were based on the fact that the liposome surface labels and contents emit fluorescent light at different wavelengths and when encapsulated, the contents fluorescence is self-quenched. The model included equations to account for fluorescent light "cross-contamination" by the two fluorochromes as well as equations relating the measured fluorescent light intensities to the amounts of liposomes and released contents. This method was applied to three situations in which liposome extravasation and content release were manipulated in different, predictable ways. Our results indicate that this method can perform simultaneous independent and quantitative measurements of liposome extravasation and content release. This method can potentially be used to study drug delivery of other carrier systems in vivo.

  10. Novel liposomal technology applied in esophageal cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chia-Hsien; Hsieh, Yei-San; Yang, Pei-wen; Huang, Leaf; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2018-02-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP) has been commonly used as a chemotherapeutic drug, mainly used for the treatment of malignant epithelial cell tumors. We have developed a new method based on innovative lipid calcium phosphate, which encapsulated hydrophobic drugs to form liposomal nanoparticles. Esophageal cancer xenograft model was used to investigate the efficacy of liposomal nanoparticles. and it showed good therapeutic efficacy with lower side effects. Liposomal nanoparticles exhibited a better therapeutic effect than that of conventional CDDP.

  11. Boron-Containing Compounds for Liposome-Mediated Tumor Localization and Application to Neutron Capture Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, M. Frederick

    2005-04-07

    amphiphilic unimolecular nanoparticles presenting several advantages: tunable size through functionalization and branching, spherical shape due to the icosahedral B122 core, promising water solubility resulting from degradation of all pendant closo-carborane groups to their hydrophilic nido anion substituents, and efficient boron delivery owing to the presence of 120 boron atoms which gives rise to a boron content as high as 40% by weight. Keeping the new objective in mind, we have focused on the design, synthesis and evaluation of new and very boron-rich closomer species. Additionally, progress has also been made toward the evaluation of a newly synthesized boron-rich lipid as a substitute for DSPC in bilayer construction, and the boron content of the resulting liposomes has been greatly enhanced. Related research involving the synthesis and self-assembly of carborane-containing amphiphiles has been systematically studied. Combined hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties of the single-chain amphiphiles allow their spontaneous self-assembly to form rods under a variety of variable conditions, such as concentration in the bilayer, carborane cage structure, chain-length, counterion identity, solvents, methods of preparation, and the ionic charge. On the other hand, the number of attached chains affects the self-assembly process. Particles having totally different shapes have been observed for dual-chain amphiphiles.« less

  12. Current trends in the use of liposomes for tumor targeting

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Pranali P; Biswas, Swati; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2013-01-01

    The use of liposomes for drug delivery began early in the history of pharmaceutical nanocarriers. These nanosized, lipid bilayered vesicles have become popular as drug delivery systems owing to their efficiency, biocompatibility, nonimmunogenicity, enhanced solubility of chemotherapeutic agents and their ability to encapsulate a wide array of drugs. Passive and ligand-mediated active targeting promote tumor specificity with diminished adverse off-target effects. The current field of liposomes focuses on both clinical and diagnostic applications. Recent efforts have concentrated on the development of multifunctional liposomes that target cells and cellular organelles with a single delivery system. This review discusses the recent advances in liposome research in tumor targeting. PMID:23914966

  13. Fusogenic activity of PEGylated pH-sensitive liposomes.

    PubMed

    Vanić, Zeljka; Barnert, Sabine; Süss, Regine; Schubert, Rolf

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the fusogenic properties of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)ylated dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine/cholesteryl hemisuccinate (DOPE/CHEMS) liposomes. These pH-sensitive liposomes were prepared by incorporating two different PEG lipids: distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE)-PEG₂₀₀₀ was mixed with the liposomal lipids using the conventional method, whereas sterol-PEG₁₁₀₀ was inserted into the outer monolayer of preformed vesicles. Both types of PEGylated liposomes were characterized and compared for their entrapment efficiency, zeta potential and size, and were tested in vitro for pH sensitivity by means of proton-induced leakage and membrane fusion activity. To mimic the routes of intracellular delivery, fusion between pH-sensitive liposomes and liposomes designed to simulate the endosomal membrane was studied. Our investigations confirmed that DOPE/CHEMS liposomes were capable of rapidly releasing calcein and of fusing upon acidification. However, after incorporation of DSPE-PEG₂₀₀₀ or sterol-PEG₁₁₀₀ into the membrane, pH sensitivity was significantly reduced; as the mol ratio of PEG-lipid was increased, the ability to fuse was decreased. Comparison between two different PEGylated pH-sensitive liposomes showed that only vesicles containing 0.6 mol% sterol-PEG₁₁₀₀ in the outer monolayer were still capable of fusing with the endosome-like liposomes and showing leakage of calcein at pH 5.5.

  14. Increased Liposome Extravasation in Selected Tissues: Effect of Substance P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenecker, Joseph; Zhang, Weiming; Hong, Keelung; Lausier, James; Geppetti, Pierangelo; Yoshihara, Shigemi; Papahadjopoulos, Demetrios; Nadel, Jay A.

    1996-07-01

    We have used a pharmacologic mediator to open intercellular connections in selected vessels to allow liposomes to escape from the blood stream and to extravasate into tissues that have appropriate receptors. We have examined the effects of substance P (SP), a peptide known to increase vascular permeability in selected tissues, such as trachea, esophagus, and urinary bladder in rats. We used quantitative fluorescence analysis of tissues to measure two fluorescent markers, one attached to the lipid (rhodamine-phosphatidylethanolamine) and another, doxorubicin (an antitumor drug), encapsulated within the aqueous interior. We have also examined the deposition of liposomes microscopically by the use of encapsulated colloidal gold and silver enhancement. Analysis of the biochemical and morphological observations indicate the following: (i) Injection of SP produces a striking increase in both liposome labels, but only in tissues that possess receptors for SP in postcapillary venules; (ii) liposome material in these tissues has extravasated and is found extracellularly near a variety of cells beyond the endothelial layer over the first few hours; (iii) 24 h following injection of liposomes and SP, liposome material is found in these tissues, localized intracellularly in both endothelial cells and macrophages. We propose that appropriate application of tissue-specific mediators can result in liposome extravasation deep within tissues that normally do not take up significant amounts of liposomes from the blood. Such liposomes are able to carry a variety of pharmacological agents that can be released locally within selected target tissues for therapeutic purposes.

  15. Preparation, pharmacokinetics and tumour-suppressive activity of berberine liposomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinghui; Wang, Qiong; Liu, Zhihui; Zheng, Xiao

    2017-06-01

    Berberine (BBR) has shown promising antitumour effects in vitro. However, intravenous administration of BBR solution is complicated by lethal adverse cardiovascular effects. The aim of this study was to prepare common and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified long-circulating BBR liposomes and evaluate their efficacy and safety as potential antitumour agents. Physiochemical properties of common and long-circulating BBR liposomes were characterized including particle size, Zeta potential and thermal stability. Pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution study of liposomal BBR was performed in rats and tumour-bearing nude mice, respectively. Antitumour efficacy and safety were observed in SGC-7901 tumour-xenografted mice. Berberine liposomes showed homogenous morphology, storage stability and sustained-releasing behaviour in vitro. BBR liposomes led to significantly increased circulation retention of BBR in comparison with BBR solution. In tumour-bearing mice, BBR liposomes selectively increased BBR concentrations in the liver, spleen, lung and tumour, while conferred lower distribution to the heart and kidney. Importantly, chronic administration of BBR liposomes proved effective and safe in suppressing the tumour growth in nude mice, especially the PEG-modified long-circulating liposomes. Our study suggested that BBR liposomes may provide a safe form of intravenous drug therapy for strengthening the antitumour effects of BBR. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. Application of long-circulating liposomes to cancer photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Oku, N; Saito, N; Namba, Y; Tsukada, H; Dolphin, D; Okada, S

    1997-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a cancer treatment is notable for its quite low side effects in comparison with those of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, the accumulation of porphyrin derivatives used in PDT into tumor tissues is rather low. Since long-circulating liposomes are known to accumulate passively into tumor tissues, we liposomalized a porphyrin derivative, benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA), and used these liposomes to investigate the usefulness of PDT for tumor-bearing mice. BPD-MA was liposomalized into glucuronate-modified liposomes, which are known to be long-circulating. These liposomes were injected i.v. into Balb/c mice bearing Meth A sarcoma, and tumor regression and survival time were monitored after irradiation with laser light. Tumor regression and complete curing of tumor (80% cure rate by the treatment with 6 mg/kg BPD-MA) were observed when long circulating liposomalized BPD-MA was injected and laser-irradiated. In contrast, only a 20% cure rate was obtained when the animals were treated with BPD-MA solution or BPD-MA entrapped in conventional liposomes. These results suggest that a long-circulating liposomal formulation of photo-sensitive agents is useful for PDT.

  17. pH-Triggered Echogenicity and Contents Release from Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes are representative lipid nanoparticles widely used for delivering anticancer drugs, DNA fragments, or siRNA to cancer cells. Upon targeting, various internal and external triggers have been used to increase the rate for contents release from the liposomes. Among the internal triggers, decreased pH within the cellular lysosomes has been successfully used to enhance the rate for releasing contents. However, imparting pH sensitivity to liposomes requires the synthesis of specialized lipids with structures that are substantially modified at a reduced pH. Herein, we report an alternative strategy to render liposomes pH sensitive by encapsulating a precursor which generates gas bubbles in situ in response to acidic pH. The disturbance created by the escaping gas bubbles leads to the rapid release of the encapsulated contents from the liposomes. Atomic force microscopic studies indicate that the liposomal structure is destroyed at a reduced pH. The gas bubbles also render the liposomes echogenic, allowing ultrasound imaging. To demonstrate the applicability of this strategy, we have successfully targeted doxorubicin-encapsulated liposomes to the pancreatic ductal carcinoma cells that overexpress the folate receptor on the surface. In response to the decreased pH in the lysosomes, the encapsulated anticancer drug is efficiently released. Contents released from these liposomes are further enhanced by the application of continuous wave ultrasound (1 MHz), resulting in substantially reduced viability for the pancreatic cancer cells (14%). PMID:25271780

  18. pH-triggered echogenicity and contents release from liposomes.

    PubMed

    Nahire, Rahul; Hossain, Rayat; Patel, Rupa; Paul, Shirshendu; Meghnani, Varsha; Ambre, Avinash H; Gange, Kara N; Katti, Kalpana S; Leclerc, Estelle; Srivastava, D K; Sarkar, Kausik; Mallik, Sanku

    2014-11-03

    Liposomes are representative lipid nanoparticles widely used for delivering anticancer drugs, DNA fragments, or siRNA to cancer cells. Upon targeting, various internal and external triggers have been used to increase the rate for contents release from the liposomes. Among the internal triggers, decreased pH within the cellular lysosomes has been successfully used to enhance the rate for releasing contents. However, imparting pH sensitivity to liposomes requires the synthesis of specialized lipids with structures that are substantially modified at a reduced pH. Herein, we report an alternative strategy to render liposomes pH sensitive by encapsulating a precursor which generates gas bubbles in situ in response to acidic pH. The disturbance created by the escaping gas bubbles leads to the rapid release of the encapsulated contents from the liposomes. Atomic force microscopic studies indicate that the liposomal structure is destroyed at a reduced pH. The gas bubbles also render the liposomes echogenic, allowing ultrasound imaging. To demonstrate the applicability of this strategy, we have successfully targeted doxorubicin-encapsulated liposomes to the pancreatic ductal carcinoma cells that overexpress the folate receptor on the surface. In response to the decreased pH in the lysosomes, the encapsulated anticancer drug is efficiently released. Contents released from these liposomes are further enhanced by the application of continuous wave ultrasound (1 MHz), resulting in substantially reduced viability for the pancreatic cancer cells (14%).

  19. FDA Approves Irinotecan Liposome to Treat Pancreatic Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer that has progressed after receiving gemcitabine-based chemotherapy now have a new treatment option: irinotecan liposome in combination with fluorouracil and leucovorin.

  20. Imaging the urinary pathways in mice by liposomal indocyanine green.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, Emma; Nizri, Eran; Golenser, Jacob; Shmuel, Miriam; Magdassi, Shlomo; Eyal, Sara

    2015-07-01

    Intraoperative ureter identification can assist in the prevention of ureteral injury and consequently improve surgery outcomes. Our aim was to take advantage of the altered pharmacokinetics of liposomal indocyanine green (ICG), the only FDA-approved near-infrared (NIR) dye, for imaging of ureters during surgeries. ICG was passively adsorbed to liposomes. NIR whole mice body and isolated tissue imaging were used to study liposomal ICG properties vs. free ICG. In vivo, the urinary bladder could be clearly observed in most of the liposome-treated mice. Liposomal encapsulation of ICG enhanced ureteral emission up to 1.9 fold compared to free ICG (P<0.01). Increase in liposomal micropolarity and microviscosity and differential scanning calorimetry supported ICG localization within the liposomal bilayer. Our findings suggest that liposomal ICG could be utilized for ureteral imaging intra-operatively, thus potentially improving surgical outcomes. Iatrogenic ureteral injury is a serious complication of abdominal surgery and intra-operative recognition of the ureters is usually the best method of injury prevention. In this article, the authors developed liposomal indocyanine green, which could be excreted via the urinary system and investigated its in-vivo use in mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Improved Antitumor Efficacy and Pharmacokinetics of Bufalin via PEGylated Liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jiani; Zhou, Xuanxuan; Cao, Wei; Bi, Linlin; Zhang, Yifang; Yang, Qian; Wang, Siwang

    2017-11-01

    Bufalin was reported to show strong pharmacological effects including cardiotonic, antiviral, immune-regulation, and especially antitumor effects. The objective of this study was to determine the characterization, antitumor efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of bufalin-loaded PEGylated liposomes compared with bufalin entity, which were prepared by FDA-approved pharmaceutical excipients. Bufalin-loaded PEGylated liposomes and bufalin-loaded liposomes were prepared reproducibly with homogeneous particle size by the combination of thin film evaporation method and high-pressure homogenization method. Their mean particle sizes were 127.6 and 155.0 nm, mean zeta potentials were 2.24 and - 18.5 mV, and entrapment efficiencies were 76.31 and 78.40%, respectively. In vitro release profile revealed that the release of bufalin in bufalin-loaded PEGylated liposomes was slower than that in bufalin-loaded liposomes. The cytotoxicity of blank liposomes has been found within acceptable range, whereas bufalin-loaded PEGylated liposomes showed enhanced cytotoxicity to U251 cells compared with bufalin entity. In vivo pharmacokinetics indicated that bufalin-loaded PEGylated liposomes could extend or eliminate the half-life time of bufalin in plasma in rats. The results suggested that bufalin-loaded PEGylated liposomes improved the solubility and increased the drug concentration in plasma.

  2. Liposomal Bupivacaine Injection Technique in Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Meneghini, R Michael; Bagsby, Deren; Ireland, Philip H; Ziemba-Davis, Mary; Lovro, Luke R

    2017-01-01

    Liposomal bupivacaine has gained popularity for pain control after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), yet its true efficacy remains unproven. We compared the efficacy of two different periarticular injection (PAI) techniques for liposomal bupivacaine with a conventional PAI control group. This retrospective cohort study compared consecutive patients undergoing TKA with a manufacturer-recommended, optimized injection technique for liposomal bupivacaine, a traditional injection technique for liposomal bupivacaine, and a conventional PAI of ropivacaine, morphine, and epinephrine. The optimized technique utilized a smaller gauge needle and more injection sites. Self-reported pain scores, rescue opioids, and side effects were compared. There were 41 patients in the liposomal bupivacaine optimized injection group, 60 in the liposomal bupivacaine traditional injection group, and 184 in the conventional PAI control group. PAI liposomal bupivacaine delivered via manufacturer-recommended technique offered no benefit over PAI ropivacaine, morphine, and epinephrine. Mean pain scores and the proportions reporting no or mild pain, time to first opioid, and amount of opioids consumed were not better with PAI liposomal bupivacaine compared with PAI ropivacaine, morphine, and epinephrine. The use of the manufacturer-recommended technique for PAI of liposomal bupivacaine does not offer benefit over a conventional, less expensive PAI during TKA. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Liposomes in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Nelson; Martins, Albino; Reis, Rui L.; Neves, Nuno M.

    2014-01-01

    Liposomes are vesicular structures made of lipids that are formed in aqueous solutions. Structurally, they resemble the lipid membrane of living cells. Therefore, they have been widely investigated, since the 1960s, as models to study the cell membrane, and as carriers for protection and/or delivery of bioactive agents. They have been used in different areas of research including vaccines, imaging, applications in cosmetics and tissue engineering. Tissue engineering is defined as a strategy for promoting the regeneration of tissues for the human body. This strategy may involve the coordinated application of defined cell types with structured biomaterial scaffolds to produce living structures. To create a new tissue, based on this strategy, a controlled stimulation of cultured cells is needed, through a systematic combination of bioactive agents and mechanical signals. In this review, we highlight the potential role of liposomes as a platform for the sustained and local delivery of bioactive agents for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches. PMID:25401172

  4. Small unilamellar liposomes as a membrane model for cell inactivation by cold atmospheric plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheux, S.; Frache, G.; Thomann, J. S.; Clément, F.; Penny, C.; Belmonte, T.; Duday, D.

    2016-09-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma is thought to be a promising tool for numerous biomedical applications due to its ability to generate a large diversity of reactive species in a controlled way. In some cases, it can also generate pulsed electric fields at the zone of treatment, which can induce processes such as electroporation in cell membranes. However, the interaction of these reactive species and the pulse electric field with cells in a physiological medium is very complex, and we still need a better understanding in order to be useful for future applications. A way to reach this goal is to work with model cell membranes such as liposomes, with the simplest physiological liquid and in a controlled atmosphere in order to limit the number of parallel reactions and processes. In this paper, where this approach has been chosen, 1,2-Dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) small unilamellar vesicles (SUV) have been synthesized in a phosphate buffered aqueous solution, and this solution has been treated by a nanosecond pulsed plasma jet under a pure nitrogen atmosphere. It is only the composition of the plasma gas that has been changed in order to generate different cocktails of reactive species. After the quantification of the main plasma reactive species in the phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution, structural, surface charge state, and chemical modifications generated on the plasma treated liposomes, due to the interaction with the plasma reactive species, have been carefully characterized. These results allow us to further understand the effect of plasma reactive species on model cell membranes in physiological liquids. The permeation through the liposomal membrane and the reaction of plasma reactive species with molecules encapsulated inside the liposomes have also been evaluated. New processes of degradation are finally presented and discussed, which come from the specific conditions of plasma treatment under the pure nitrogen atmosphere.

  5. PEGylated Liposomes as Carriers of Hydrophobic Porphyrins.

    PubMed

    Dzieciuch, Monika; Rissanen, Sami; Szydłowska, Natalia; Bunker, Alex; Kumorek, Marta; Jamróz, Dorota; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Nowakowska, Maria; Róg, Tomasz; Kepczynski, Mariusz

    2015-06-04

    Sterically stabilized liposomes (SSLs) (PEGylated liposomes) are applied as effective drug delivery vehicles. Understanding the interactions between hydrophobic compounds and PEGylated membranes is therefore important to determine the effectiveness of PEGylated liposomes for delivery of drugs or other bioactive substances. In this study, we have combined fluorescence quenching analysis (FQA) experiments and all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the effect of membrane PEGylation on the location and orientation of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin (p-THPP) that has been used in our study as a model hydrophobic compound. First, we consider the properties of p-THPP in the presence of different fluid phosphatidylcholine bilayers that we use as model systems for protein-free cell membranes. Next, we studied the interaction between PEGylated membranes and p-THPP. Our MD simulation results indicated that the arrangement of p-THPP within zwitterionic membranes is dependent on their free volume, and p-THPP solubilized in PEGylated liposomes is localized in two preferred positions: deep within the membrane (close to the center of the bilayer) and in the outer PEG corona (p-THPP molecules being wrapped with the polymer chains). Fluorescence quenching methods confirmed the results of atomistic MD simulations and showed two populations of p-THPP molecules as in MD simulations. Our results provide both an explanation for the experimental observation that PEGylation improves the drug-loading efficiency of membranes and also a more detailed molecular-level description of the interactions between porphyrins and lipid membranes.

  6. 'One-component' ultrathin multilayer films based on poly(vinyl alcohol) as stabilizing coating for phenytoin-loaded liposomes.

    PubMed

    Zasada, Katarzyna; Łukasiewicz-Atanasov, Magdalena; Kłysik, Katarzyna; Lewandowska-Łańcucka, Joanna; Gzyl-Malcher, Barbara; Puciul-Malinowska, Agnieszka; Karewicz, Anna; Nowakowska, Maria

    2015-11-01

    Ultrathin "one-component" multilayer polymeric films for potential biomedical applications were designed based on polyvinyl alcohol,-a non-toxic, fully degradable synthetic polymer. Good uniformity of the obtained film and adequate adsorption properties of the polymeric layers were achieved by functional modification of the polymer, which involved synthesis of cationic and anionic derivatives. Synthesized polymers were characterized by FTIR, NMR spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering measurements and elemental analysis. The layer by layer assembly technique was used to build up a multilayer film and this process was followed using UV-Vis spectroscopy and ellipsometry. The morphology and thickness of the obtained multilayered film material was evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Preliminary studies on the application of the obtained multilayer film for coating of liposomal nanocarriers containing phenytoin, an antiarrhythmic drug, were performed. The coating effectively stabilizes liposomes and the effect increases with an increasing number of deposited layers until the polymeric film reaches the optimal thickness. The obtained release profiles suggest that bilayer-coated liposomes release phenytoin less rapidly than uncoated ones. The cytotoxicity studies performed for all obtained nanocarriers confirmed that none of them has negative effect on cell viability. All of the performed experiments suggest that liposomes coated with ultrathin film obtained from PVA derivatives can be attractive drug nanocarriers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Integrity and stability of oral liposomes containing bile salts studied in simulated and ex vivo gastrointestinal media.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shunwen; Niu, Mengmeng; Hu, Fuqiang; Lu, Yi; Qi, Jianping; Yin, Zongning; Wu, Wei

    2013-01-30

    The objective of this study was to investigate the integrtity and stability of oral liposomes containing glycocholate (SGC-Lip) in simulated gastrointestinal (GI) media and ex vivo GI media from rats in comparison with conventional liposomes (CH-Lip) composed of soybean phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. Membrane integrity of liposomes was evaluated by monitoring calcein release, particle size and distribution in different simulated GI media. The stability of liposomes encapsulating insulin was investigated in simulated GI fluids containing pepsin or pancreatin and ex vivo GI enzyme fluids. Simulated GI media with low pH or physiological bile salts resulted in significant increase in calcein release, but dynamic laser scattering data showed that the size and distribution were generally stable. SGC-Lip retained the major amount of the initially encapsulated insulin as compared with CH-Lip in simulated GI fluids (SGF, FaSSGF, SIF and FeSSIF-V2). SGC-Lip retained respectively 17.1% and 20.5% of the initially encapsulated insulin in ex vivo GI fluid, which were also significantly more than CH-Lip. These results suggested that SGC-Lip could protect insulin from degradation to some degree during their transit through the gastrointestinal tract and contributed to enhanced oral absorption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 2-chloroethanol formation as evidence for a 2-chloroethyl alkylating intermediate during chemical degradation of 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea and 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-(trans-4-methylcyclohexyl)-1-nitrosourea.

    PubMed

    Reed, D J; May, H E; Boose, R B; Gregory, K M; Beilstein, M A

    1975-03-01

    Chemical degradation of 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea or 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-(trans-4-methylcyclohexyl)-1-nitrosourea in buffer under physiological conditions resulted in the formation of a significant quantity of 2-chlorethanol (18 to 25% of the initial nitrosourea concentration). Other degradation products observed included acetaldehyde (5 to 10%), vinyl chloride (1 to 2%), ethylene (1 to 2%), and cyclohexylamine (32%), but not 1,3-dicyclohexylurea. The 2-chlorethyl moiety of 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea was trapped with halide ions, CI-, BR-, and I-, to form the corresponding dihaloethanes which were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. High-pressure liquid chromatographic procedures were developed for the separation and quantiation of the nitrosoureas and many of their degradation products. It is postulated that a new mode of 1(2-chloreoethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea and 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-(trans-4-methylcyclohexyl)-1-nitrosourea degradation can occur that is not the loss of the chloro group as chloride ion, but the loss of the N-3 hydrogen as a proton. Then the corresponding isocyanate and 2-chloroethyidiazene hydroxide are formed, with the latter intermidiate becoming an alkylating species, possibly in part as a 2-chloroethyl carbonium ion.

  9. Liposomes as lubricants: beyond drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Ronit; Klein, Jacob

    2012-05-01

    In this paper we review recent work (Goldberg et al., 2011a,b) on a new use for phosphatidylcholine liposomes: as ultra-efficient boundary lubricants at up to the highest physiological pressures. Using a surface force balance, we have measured the normal and shear interactions as a function of surface separation between layers of hydrogenated soy phophatidylcholine (HSPC) small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) adsorbed from dispersion, at both pure water and physiologically high salt concentrations of 0.15 M NaNO(3). Cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy shows each surface to be coated by a close-packed HSPC-SUV layer with an over-layer of liposomes on top. The shear forces reveal strikingly low friction coefficients down to 2×10(-5) in pure water system or 6×10(-4) in the 150 mM salt system, up to contact pressures of at least 12 MPa (pure water) or 6 MPa (high salt), comparable with those in the major joints. This low friction is attributed to the hydration lubrication mechanism arising from rubbing of the highly hydrated phosphocholine-headgroup layers exposed at the outer surface of each liposome, and provides support for the conjecture that phospholipids may play a significant role in biological lubrication. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Oxygen Measurements in Liposome Encapsulated Hemoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phiri, Joshua Benjamin

    Liposome encapsulated hemoglobins (LEH's) are of current interest as blood substitutes. An analytical methodology for rapid non-invasive measurements of oxygen in artificial oxygen carriers is examined. High resolution optical absorption spectra are calculated by means of a one dimensional diffusion approximation. The encapsulated hemoglobin is prepared from fresh defibrinated bovine blood. Liposomes are prepared from hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC), cholesterol and dicetylphosphate using a bath sonication method. An integrating sphere spectrophotometer is employed for diffuse optics measurements. Data is collected using an automated data acquisition system employing lock-in -amplifiers. The concentrations of hemoglobin derivatives are evaluated from the corresponding extinction coefficients using a numerical technique of singular value decomposition, and verification of the results is done using Monte Carlo simulations. In situ measurements are required for the determination of hemoglobin derivatives because most encapsulation methods invariably lead to the formation of methemoglobin, a nonfunctional form of hemoglobin. The methods employed in this work lead to high resolution absorption spectra of oxyhemoglobin and other derivatives in red blood cells and liposome encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH). The analysis using singular value decomposition method offers a quantitative means of calculating the fractions of oxyhemoglobin and other hemoglobin derivatives in LEH samples. The analytical methods developed in this work will become even more useful when production of LEH as a blood substitute is scaled up to large volumes.

  11. Phototriggerable Liposomes: Current Research and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Anu

    2013-01-01

    The field of cancer nanomedicine is considered a promising area for improved delivery of bioactive molecules including drugs, pharmaceutical agents and nucleic acids. Among these, drug delivery technology has made discernible progress in recent years and the areas that warrant further focus and consideration towards technological developments have also been recognized. Development of viable methods for on-demand spatial and temporal release of entrapped drugs from the nanocarriers is an arena that is likely to enhance the clinical suitability of drug-loaded nanocarriers. One such approach, which utilizes light as the external stimulus to disrupt and/or destabilize drug-loaded nanoparticles, will be the discussion platform of this article. Although several phototriggerable nanocarriers are currently under development, I will limit this review to the phototriggerable liposomes that have demonstrated promise in the cell culture systems at least (but not the last). The topics covered in this review include (i) a brief summary of various phototriggerable nanocarriers; (ii) an overview of the application of liposomes to deliver payload of photosensitizers and associated technologies; (iii) the design considerations of photoactivable lipid molecules and the chemical considerations and mechanisms of phototriggering of liposomal lipids; (iv) limitations and future directions for in vivo, clinically viable triggered drug delivery approaches and potential novel photoactivation strategies will be discussed. PMID:24662363

  12. Peritoneal retention of liposomes: Effects of lipid composition, PEG coating and liposome charge.

    PubMed

    Dadashzadeh, S; Mirahmadi, N; Babaei, M H; Vali, A M

    2010-12-01

    In the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis, systemic chemotherapy is not quite effective due to the poor penetration of cytotoxic agents into the peritoneal cavity, whereas intraperitoneal administration of chemotherapeutic agents is generally accompanied by quick absorption of the free drug from the peritoneum. Local delivery of drugs with controlled-release delivery systems like liposomes could provide sustained, elevated drug levels and reduce local and systemic toxicity. In order to achieve an ameliorated liposomal formulation that results in higher peritoneal levels of the drug and retention, vesicles composed of different phospholipid compositions (distearoyl [DSPC]; dipalmitoyl [DPPC]; or dimiristoylphosphatidylcholine [DMPC]) and various charges (neutral; negative, containing distearoylphosphatidylglycerol [DSPG]; or positive, containing dioleyloxy trimethylammonium propane [DOTAP]) were prepared at two sizes of 100 and 1000nm. The effect of surface hydrophilicity was also investigated by incorporating PEG into the DSPC-containing neutral and charged liposomes. Liposomes were labeled with (99m)Tc and injected into mouse peritoneum. Mice were then sacrificed at eight different time points, and the percentage of injected radiolabel in the peritoneal cavity and the tissue distribution in terms of the percent of the injected dose/gram of tissue (%ID/g) were obtained. The ratio of the peritoneal AUC to the free label ranged from a minimum of 4.95 for DMPC/CHOL (cholesterol) 100nm vesicles to a maximum of 24.99 for DSPC/CHOL/DOTAP 1000nm (DOTAP 1000) vesicles. These last positively charged vesicles had the greatest peritoneal level; moreover, their level remained constant at approximately 25% of the injected dose from 2 to 48h. Among the conventional (i.e., without PEG) 100nm liposomes, the positively charged vesicles again showed the greatest retention. Incorporation of PEG at this size into the lipid structures augmented the peritoneal level, particularly

  13. Liposomal nanoparticles as a drug delivery vehicle against osteosarcoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhule, Santosh Subhashrao

    The delivery of curcumin, a broad-spectrum anticancer drug, has been explored in the form of liposomal nanoparticles to treat osteosarcoma (OS). Curcumin is water insoluble and an effective delivery route is through encapsulation in cyclodextrins followed by a second encapsulation in liposomes. Liposomal curcumin's potential was evaluated against cancer models of mesenchymal (OS) and epithelial origin (breast cancer). The resulting 2-Hydroxypropyl-gamma-cyclodextrin/curcumin - liposome complex shows promising anticancer potential both in vitro and in vivo against KHOS OS cell line and MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. An interesting aspect is that liposomal curcumin initiates the caspase cascade that leads to apoptotic cell death in vitro in comparison with DMSO-curcumin induced autophagic cell death. In addition, the efficiency of the liposomal curcumin formulation was confirmed in vivo using a xenograft OS model. Curcumin-loaded gamma-cyclodextrin liposomes indicate significant potential as delivery vehicles for the treatment of cancers of different tissue origin. The second part of this study examines the anti-tumor potential of curcumin and C6 ceramide (C6) against osteosarcoma cell lines when both are encapsulated in the bilayer of liposomal nanoparticles. Curcumin in combination with C6 showed 1.5 times enhanced cytotoxic effect in the case of MG-63 and KHOS OS cell lines, in comparison with systems with curcumin alone. Interestingly, C6-curcumin liposomes were found to be less toxic on untransformed human cells in comparison to OS cell lines. In addition, cell cycle assays on a KHOS cell line after treatment revealed that curcumin only liposomes induced G 2/M arrest by upregulation of cyclin B1, while C6 only liposomes induced G1 arrest by downregulation of cyclin D1. C6-curcumin liposomes induced G2/M arrest and showed a combined effect in the expression levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin B1. Using pegylated liposomes to increase the plasma half-life and tagging

  14. Binding of Diphtheria Toxin to Phospholipids in Liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alving, Carl R.; Iglewski, Barbara H.; Urban, Katharine A.; Moss, Joel; Richards, Roberta L.; Sadoff, Jerald C.

    1980-04-01

    Diphtheria toxin bound to the phosphate portion of some, but not all, phospholipids in liposomes. Liposomes consisting of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol did not bind toxin. Addition of 20 mol% (compared to dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine) of dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid, dicetyl phosphate, phosphatidylinositol phosphate, cardiolipin, or phosphatidylserine in the liposomes resulted in substantial binding of toxin. Inclusion of phosphatidylinositol in dimyristol phosphatidylcholine / cholesterol liposomes did not result in toxin binding. The calcium salt of dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid was more effective than the sodium salt, and the highest level of binding occurred with liposomes consisting only of dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid (calcium salt) and cholesterol. Binding of toxin to liposomes was dependent on pH, and the pattern of pH dependence varied with liposomes having different compositions. Incubation of diphtheria toxin with liposomes containing dicetyl phosphate resulted in maximal binding at pH 3.6, whereas binding to liposomes containing phosphatidylinositol phosphate was maximal above pH 7. Toxin did not bind to liposomes containing 20 mol% of a free fatty acid (palmitic acid) or a sulfated lipid (3-sulfogalactosylceramide). Toxin binding to dicetyl phosphate or phosphatidylinositol phosphate was inhibited by UTP, ATP, phosphocholine, or p-nitrophenyl phosphate, but not by uracil. We conclude that (a) diphtheria toxin binds specifically to the phosphate portion of certain phospholipids, (b) binding to phospholipids in liposomes is dependent on pH, but is not due only to electrostatic interaction, and (c) binding may be strongly influenced by the composition of adjacent phospholipids that do not bind toxin. We propose that a minor membrane phospholipid (such as phosphatidylinositol phosphate or phosphatidic acid), or that some other phosphorylated membrane molecule (such as a phosphoprotein) may be important in the initial binding of

  15. Protease-sensitive, polymer-caged liposomes: a method for making highly targeted liposomes using triggered release.

    PubMed

    Basel, Matthew T; Shrestha, Tej B; Troyer, Deryl L; Bossmann, Stefan H

    2011-03-22

    Liposomes have become useful and well-known drug delivery vehicles because of their ability to entrap drugs without chemically modifying them and to deliver them somewhat selectively to tumorous tissue via the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. Although useful, liposome preparations are still less than ideal because of imperfect specificity, slow release kinetics in the tumor, and leakiness prior to reaching the tumor site. Cancer-associated proteases (CAPs), which are differentially expressed in tumors, have also gained traction recently as a method for tumor targeting and drug delivery. By combining the EPR effect with CAPs sensitivity, a much more specific liposome can be produced. The method described here creates an improved liposome system that can target more specifically, with faster release kinetics and lower general leaking, by deliberately producing a very unstable liposome (loaded with hyperosmotic vehicle) that is subsequently stabilized by a cross-linked polymer shell containing consensus sequences for cancer-associated proteases (protease-triggered, caged liposomes). A cholesterol-anchored, graft copolymer, composed of a short peptide sequence for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and poly(acrylic acid), was synthesized and incorporated into liposomes prepared at high osmolarities. Upon cross-linking of the polymers, the protease-triggered, caged liposomes showed significant resistance to osmotic swelling and leaking of contents. Protease-triggered, caged liposomes also showed significant and substantial differential release of contents in the presence of uPA, while bare liposomes showed no differential effect in the presence of uPA. Thus a protease-sensitive liposome system with fast release kinetics was developed that could be used for more specific targeting to tumors.

  16. Liposomal encapsulation of a near-infrared fluorophore enhances fluorescence quenching and reliable whole body optical imaging upon activation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tansi, Felista L; Rüger, Ronny; Rabenhold, Markus; Steiniger, Frank; Fahr, Alfred; Kaiser, Werner A; Hilger, Ingrid

    2013-11-11

    In the past decade, there has been significant progress in the development of water soluble near-infrared fluorochromes for use in a wide range of imaging applications. Fluorochromes with high photo and thermal stability, sensitivity, adequate pharmacological properties and absorption/emission maxima within the near infrared window (650-900 nm) are highly desired for in vivo imaging, since biological tissues show very low absorption and auto-fluorescence at this spectrum window. Taking these properties into consideration, a myriad of promising near infrared fluorescent probes has been developed recently. However, a hallmark of most of these probes is a rapid clearance in vivo, which hampers their application. It is hypothesized that encapsulation of the near infrared fluorescent dye DY-676-COOH, which undergoes fluorescence quenching at high concentrations, in the aqueous interior of liposomes will result in protection and fluorescence quenching, which upon degradation by phagocytes in vivo will lead to fluorescence activation and enable imaging of inflammation. Liposomes prepared with high concentrations of DY-676-COOH reveal strong fluorescence quenching. It is demonstrated that the non-targeted PEGylated fluorescence-activatable liposomes are taken up predominantly by phagocytosis and degraded in lysosomes. Furthermore, in zymosan-induced edema models in mice, the liposomes are taken up by monocytes and macrophages which migrate to the sites of inflammation. Opposed to free DY-676-COOH, prolonged stability and retention of liposomal-DY-676-COOH is reflected in a significant increase in fluorescence intensity of edema. Thus, protected delivery and fluorescence quenching make the DY-676-COOH-loaded liposomes a highly promising contrast agent for in vivo optical imaging of inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Biophysical characterization of gold nanoparticles-loaded liposomes.

    PubMed

    Mady, Mohsen Mahmoud; Fathy, Mohamed Mahmoud; Youssef, Tareq; Khalil, Wafaa Mohamed

    2012-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles were prepared and loaded into the bilayer of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes, named as gold-loaded liposomes. Biophysical characterization of gold-loaded liposomes was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as well as turbidity and rheological measurements. FTIR measurements showed that gold nanoparticles made significant changes in the frequency of the CH(2) stretching bands, revealing that gold nanoparticles increased the number of gauche conformers and create a conformational change within the acyl chains of phospholipids. The transmission electron micrographs (TEM) revealed that gold nanoparticles were loaded in the liposomal bilayer. The zeta potential of DPPC liposomes had a more negative value after incorporating of Au NPs into liposomal membranes. Turbidity studies revealed that the loading of gold nanoparticles into DPPC liposomes results in shifting the temperature of the main phase transition to a lower value. The membrane fluidity of DPPC bilayer was increased by loading the gold nanoparticles as shown from rheological measurements. Knowledge gained in this study may open the door to pursuing liposomes as a viable strategy for Au NPs delivery in many diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2011 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preparation and the influencing factors of timozolomide liposomes.

    PubMed

    Kong, Bin; Sun, Yong; Li, Yongjian; Hu, Dejian

    2009-01-01

    To prepare timozolomide liposomes for administration through nasal mucous membrane, we studied the factors of the preparation of the liposomes. The timozolomide liposomes were prepared by the ammonium sulphate gradient method; electroscopy and laser particle analyzer were utilized to determine the conformation, size and distribution of timozolomide liposomes; high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applied to determine the entrapping efficiency of timozolomide liposomes; then we studied the influences of the concentration of ammonium sulphate solution, temperature, and the drug-to-lipid ratio on the entrapping efficiency. The average size of timozolomide liposomes was 185 nm; the entrapping efficiency was 90.3%. The entrapping efficiency was enhanced with the increasing of the concentration of ammonium sulphate solution and the rising of temperature, and decreased with the increasing of the drug-to-lipid ratio. The timozolomide liposomes with high entrapping efficiency, small and even particle sizes could be prepared by the simple and convenient ammonium sulphate gradient method. The primary influencing factors on the entrapping efficiency of timozolomide liposomes were the concentration of ammonium sulphate solution, the temperature, and the drug-to-lipid ratio.

  19. General and programmable synthesis of hybrid liposome/metal nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-Ho; Shin, Yonghee; Lee, Wooju; Whang, Keumrai; Kim, Dongchoul; Lee, Luke P.; Choi, Jeong-Woo; Kang, Taewook

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid liposome/metal nanoparticles are promising candidate materials for biomedical applications. However, the poor selectivity and low yield of the desired hybrid during synthesis pose a challenge. We designed a programmable liposome by selective encoding of a reducing agent, which allows self-crystallization of metal nanoparticles within the liposome to produce stable liposome/metal nanoparticles alone. We synthesized seven types of liposome/monometallic and more complex liposome/bimetallic hybrids. The resulting nanoparticles are tunable in size and metal composition, and their surface plasmon resonance bands are controllable in visible and near infrared. Owing to outer lipid bilayer, our liposome/Au nanoparticle shows better colloidal stability in biologically relevant solutions as well as higher endocytosis efficiency than gold nanoparticles without the liposome. We used this hybrid in intracellular imaging of living cells via surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, taking advantage of its improved physicochemical properties. We believe that our method greatly increases the utility of metal nanoparticles in in vivo applications. PMID:28028544

  20. General and programmable synthesis of hybrid liposome/metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Ho; Shin, Yonghee; Lee, Wooju; Whang, Keumrai; Kim, Dongchoul; Lee, Luke P; Choi, Jeong-Woo; Kang, Taewook

    2016-12-01

    Hybrid liposome/metal nanoparticles are promising candidate materials for biomedical applications. However, the poor selectivity and low yield of the desired hybrid during synthesis pose a challenge. We designed a programmable liposome by selective encoding of a reducing agent, which allows self-crystallization of metal nanoparticles within the liposome to produce stable liposome/metal nanoparticles alone. We synthesized seven types of liposome/monometallic and more complex liposome/bimetallic hybrids. The resulting nanoparticles are tunable in size and metal composition, and their surface plasmon resonance bands are controllable in visible and near infrared. Owing to outer lipid bilayer, our liposome/Au nanoparticle shows better colloidal stability in biologically relevant solutions as well as higher endocytosis efficiency than gold nanoparticles without the liposome. We used this hybrid in intracellular imaging of living cells via surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, taking advantage of its improved physicochemical properties. We believe that our method greatly increases the utility of metal nanoparticles in in vivo applications.

  1. Enzyme-Responsive Liposomes for the Delivery of Anticancer Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Fouladi, Farnaz; Steffen, Kristine J.; Mallik, Sanku

    2017-01-01

    Liposomes are nanocarriers that deliver the payloads at the target site, leading to therapeutic drug concentrations at the diseased site and reduced toxic effects in healthy tissues. Several approaches have been used to enhance the ability of the nanocarrier to target the specific tissues, including ligand-targeted liposomes and stimuli-responsive liposomes. Ligand-targeted liposomes exhibit higher uptake by the target tissue due to the targeting ligand attached to the surface, while, the stimuli-responsive liposomes do not release their cargo unless they expose to an endogenous or exogenous stimulant at the target site. In this review, we mainly focus on the liposomes that are responsive to pathologically increased levels of enzymes at the target site. Enzyme-responsive liposomes release their cargo upon contact with the enzyme through several destabilization mechanisms: a) structural perturbation in the lipid bilayer, b) removal of a shielding polymer from the surface and increased cellular uptake, c) cleavage of a lipopeptide or lipopolymer incorporated in the bilayer, and d) activation of a prodrug in the liposomes. PMID:28201868

  2. Enzyme-Responsive Liposomes for the Delivery of Anticancer Drugs.

    PubMed

    Fouladi, Farnaz; Steffen, Kristine J; Mallik, Sanku

    2017-04-19

    Liposomes are nanocarriers that deliver the payloads at the target site, leading to therapeutic drug concentrations at the diseased site and reduced toxic effects in healthy tissues. Several approaches have been used to enhance the ability of the nanocarrier to target the specific tissues, including ligand-targeted liposomes and stimuli-responsive liposomes. Ligand-targeted liposomes exhibit higher uptake by the target tissue due to the targeting ligand attached to the surface, while the stimuli-responsive liposomes do not release their cargo unless they expose to an endogenous or exogenous stimulant at the target site. In this review, we mainly focus on the liposomes that are responsive to pathologically increased levels of enzymes at the target site. Enzyme-responsive liposomes release their cargo upon contact with the enzyme through several destabilization mechanisms: (1) structural perturbation in the lipid bilayer, (2) removal of a shielding polymer from the surface and increased cellular uptake, (3) cleavage of a lipopeptide or lipopolymer incorporated in the bilayer, and (4) activation of a prodrug in the liposomes.

  3. Hydrophobic drug concentration affects the acoustic susceptibility of liposomes.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, An T; Lewin, Peter A; Wrenn, Steven P

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of encapsulated hydrophobic drug concentration on ultrasound-mediated leakage from liposomes. Studies have shown that membrane modifications affect the acoustic susceptibility of liposomes, likely because of changes in membrane packing. An advantage of liposome as drug carrier is its ability to encapsulate drugs of different chemistries. However, incorporation of hydrophobic molecules into the bilayer may cause changes in membrane packing, thereby affecting the release kinetics. Liposomes containing calcein and varying concentrations of papaverine, a hydrophobic drug, were exposed to 20 kHz, 2.2 Wcm(-2) ultrasound. Papaverine concentration was observed to affect calcein leakage although the effects varied widely based on liposome phase. For example, incorporation of 0.5mg/mL papaverine into Ld liposomes increased the leakage of hydrophilic encapsulants by 3× within the first minute (p=0.004) whereas the same amount of papaverine increased leakage by only 1.5× (p<0.0001). Papaverine was also encapsulated into echogenic liposomes and its concentration did not significantly affect calcein release rates, suggesting that burst release from echogenic liposomes is predictable regardless of encapsulants chemistry and concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural properties of liposomes from digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Maio, Isabelle L.; Carl, Daniel; Langehanenberg, Patrik; Valenzuela, Stella M.; Battle, Andrew R.; Al Khazaaly, Sabah; Killingsworth, Murray; Kemper, Bjorn; von Bally, Gert; Martin, Donald K.

    2006-01-01

    We have constructed liposomes from L alpha Phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids, which are biomimetic lipids similar to those present in the membranes of mammalian cells. We propose an advance in the use of liposomes, such as for drug delivery, to incorporate into the liposomal membranes transport proteins that have been extracted from the lipid membranes of mammalian cells. In this paper, we describe the usage of a novel optical microscope to characterize the nanomechanical properties of these liposomes. We have applied the technique of digital holographic microscopy, using an instrument recently developed at the University of Münster, Germany. This system enabled us to measure quantitatively the structural changes in liposomes. We have investigated the deformations of these biomimetic lipids comprising these liposomes by applying osmotic stresses, in order to gain insight into the membrane environment prior to incorporation of cloned membrane transport proteins. This control of the nanomechanical properties is important in the stresses transmitted to mechanosensitive ion channels that we have incorporated into the liposomal membranes. These liposomes provide transporting vesicles that respond to mechanical stresses, such as those that occur during implantation.

  5. Optimization of gatifloxacin liposomal hydrogel for enhanced transcorneal permeation.

    PubMed

    Hosny, Khaled Mohamed

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize a topically effective prolonged-release ophthalmic gatifloxacin liposomal hydrogel formulation. Reverse-phase evaporation was used for the preparation of liposomes consisting of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cholesterol (CH). The effect of PC:CH molar ratio on the percentage of drug encapsulated was investigated. The effect of additives, such as stearylamine (SA) or dicetyl phosphate (DP), as positive and negative charge inducers, respectively, was studied. Morphology, mean size, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro release of gatifloxacin from liposomes were evaluated. For hydrogel preparation, carbopol 940 was applied. In vitro transcorneal permeation through excised albino rabbit cornea was also determined. Optimal encapsulation efficiency was found at the 5:3 PC:CH molar ratio; by increasing CH content above this limit, the encapsulation efficiency decreased. Positively charged liposomes showed superior entrapment efficiency over other liposomes. Hydrogel-containing liposomes with lipid content PC, CH, and SA in a molar ratio of 5:3:1, respectively, showed best release and transcorneal permeation. These results suggest that the encapsulation of gatifloxacin into liposomes prolonged the in vitro release, depending on composition of the vesicles. In addition, the polymer hydrogel used in the preparation ensured steady, prolonged transcorneal permeation. In conclusion, gatifloxacin liposomal hydrogel is a suitable delivery system for the improvement of the ocular bioavailability of gatifloxacin.

  6. Thermosensitive liposomes for localized delivery and triggered release of chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ta, Terence; Porter, Tyrone M.

    2016-01-01

    Liposomes are a promising class of nanomedicine with the potential to provide site-specific chemotherapy, thus improving the quality of cancer patient care. First-generation liposomes have emerged as one of the first nanomedicines used clinically for localized delivery of chemotherapy. Second-generation liposomes, i.e. stimuli-responsive liposomes, have the potential to not only provide site-specific chemotherapy, but also triggered drug release and thus greater spatial and temporal control of therapy. Temperature-sensitive liposomes are an especially attractive option, as tumors can be heated in a controlled and predictable manner with external energy sources. Traditional thermosensitive liposomes are composed of lipids that undergo a gel-to-liquid phase transition at several degrees above physiological temperature. More recently, temperature-sensitization of liposomes has been demonstrated with the use of lysolipids and synthetic temperature-sensitive polymers. The design, drug release behavior, and clinical potential of various temperature-sensitive liposomes, as well as the various heating modalities used to trigger release, are discussed in this review. PMID:23583706

  7. Optimization and characterization of liposome formulation by mixture design.

    PubMed

    Maherani, Behnoush; Arab-tehrany, Elmira; Kheirolomoom, Azadeh; Reshetov, Vadzim; Stebe, Marie José; Linder, Michel

    2012-02-07

    This study presents the application of the mixture design technique to develop an optimal liposome formulation by using the different lipids in type and percentage (DOPC, POPC and DPPC) in liposome composition. Ten lipid mixtures were generated by the simplex-centroid design technique and liposomes were prepared by the extrusion method. Liposomes were characterized with respect to size, phase transition temperature, ζ-potential, lamellarity, fluidity and efficiency in loading calcein. The results were then applied to estimate the coefficients of mixture design model and to find the optimal lipid composition with improved entrapment efficiency, size, transition temperature, fluidity and ζ-potential of liposomes. The response optimization of experiments was the liposome formulation with DOPC: 46%, POPC: 12% and DPPC: 42%. The optimal liposome formulation had an average diameter of 127.5 nm, a phase-transition temperature of 11.43 °C, a ζ-potential of -7.24 mV, fluidity (1/P)(TMA-DPH)((¬)) value of 2.87 and an encapsulation efficiency of 20.24%. The experimental results of characterization of optimal liposome formulation were in good agreement with those predicted by the mixture design technique.

  8. Recent Advances and Perspectives in Liposomes for Cutaneous Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Carita, Amanda C; Eloy, Josimar O; Chorilli, Marlus; Lee, Robert J; Leonardi, Gislaine Ricci

    2018-02-13

    The cutaneous route is attractive for the delivery of drugs in the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. However the stratum corneum (SC) is an effective barrier that hampers skin penetration. Within this context, liposomes emerge as a potential carrier for improving topical delivery of therapeutic agents. In this review, we aimed to discuss key aspects for the topical delivery by drug-loaded liposomes. Phospholipid type and phase transition temperature have been shown to affect liposomal topical delivery. The effect of surface charge is subject to considerable variation depending on drug and composition. In addition, modified vesicles with the presence of components for permeation enhancement, such as surfactants and solvents, have been shown to have a considerable effect. These liposomes include: Transfersomes, Niosomes, Ethosomes, Transethosomes, Invasomes, coated liposomes, penetration enhancer containing vesicles (PEVs), fatty acids vesicles, Archaeosomes and Marinosomes. Furthermore, adding polymeric coating onto liposome surface could influence cutaneous delivery. Mechanisms of delivery include intact vesicular skin penetration, free drug diffusion, permeation enhancement, vesicle adsorption to and/or fusion with the SC, trans-appendageal penetration, among others. Finally, several skin conditions, including acne, melasma, skin aging, fungal infections and skin cancer, have benefited from liposomal topical delivery of drugs, with promising in vitro and in vivo results. However, despite the existence of some clinical trials, more studies are needed to be conducted in order to explore the potential of liposomes in the dermatological field. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Arraying of intact liposomes into chemically functionalized microwells.

    PubMed

    Kalyankar, Nikhil D; Sharma, Manoj K; Vaidya, Shyam V; Calhoun, David; Maldarelli, Charles; Couzis, Alexander; Gilchrist, Lane

    2006-06-06

    Here, we describe a protocol to bind individual, intact phospholipid bilayer liposomes, which are on the order of 1 microm in diameter, in microwells etched in a regular array on a silicon oxide substrate. The diameter of the wells is on the order of the liposome diameter, so only one liposome is located in each well. The background of the silicon oxide surface is functionalized with a PEG oligomer using the contact printing of a PEG silane to present a surface that resists the adsorption of proteins, lipid material, and liposomes. The interiors of the wells are functionalized with an aminosilane to facilitate the conjugation of biotin, which is then bound to Neutravidin. The avidin-coated well interiors bind the liposomes whose surfaces contain biotinylated lipids. The specific binding of the liposomes to the surface using the biotin-avidin linkage, together with the resistant nature of the background and the physical confinement of the wells, allows the liposomes to remain intact and to not unravel, rupture, and fuse onto the surface. We demonstrate this intact arraying using confocal laser scanning microscopy of fluorophores specifically tagging the microwells, the lipid bilayer, and the aqueous interior of the liposome.

  10. Systematic Review of Liposomal Bupivacaine (Exparel) for Postoperative Analgesia.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Krishna S; Rajendran, Sibi; Morrison, Shane D; Shakir, Afaaf; Mardini, Samir; Lemaine, Valerie; Nahabedian, Maurice Y; Baker, Stephen B; Rinker, Brian D; Vasconez, Henry C

    2016-10-01

    Management of postoperative pain often requires multimodal approaches. Suboptimal dosages of current therapies can leave patients experiencing periods of insufficient analgesia, often requiring rescue therapy. With absence of a validated and standardized approach to pain management, further refinement of treatment protocols and targeted therapeutics is needed. Liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel) is a longer acting form of traditional bupivacaine that delivers the drug by means of a multivesicular liposomal system. The effectiveness of liposomal bupivacaine has not been systematically analyzed relative to conventional treatments in plastic surgery. A comprehensive literature search of the MEDLINE, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases was conducted for studies published through October of 2015 with search terms related to liposomal bupivacaine and filtered for relevance to postoperative pain control in plastic surgery. Data on techniques, outcomes, complications, and patient satisfaction were collected. A total of eight articles were selected and reviewed from 160 identified. Articles covered a variety of techniques using liposomal bupivacaine for postoperative pain management. Four hundred five patients underwent procedures (including breast reconstruction, augmentation mammaplasty, abdominal wall reconstruction, mastectomy, and abdominoplasty) where pain was managed with liposomal bupivacaine and compared with those receiving traditional pain management. Liposomal bupivacaine use showed adequate safety and tolerability and, compared to traditional protocols, was equivalent or more effective in postoperative pain management. Liposomal bupivacaine is a safe method for postoperative pain control in the setting of plastic surgery and may represent an alternative to more invasive pain management systems such as patient-controlled analgesia, epidurals, peripheral nerve catheters, or intravenous narcotics.

  11. Development of antiproliferative long-circulating liposomes co-encapsulating doxorubicin and curcumin, through the use of a quality-by-design approach.

    PubMed

    Tefas, Lucia Ruxandra; Sylvester, Bianca; Tomuta, Ioan; Sesarman, Alina; Licarete, Emilia; Banciu, Manuela; Porfire, Alina

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to use the quality-by-design (QbD) approach in the development of long-circulating liposomes co-loaded with curcumin (CUR) and doxorubicin (DOX) and to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of these liposomes in vitro using C26 murine colon carcinoma cell line. Based on a risk assessment, six parameters, namely the phospholipid, CUR and DOX concentrations, the phospholipid:cholesterol molar ratio, the temperature during the evaporation and hydration steps and the pH of the phosphate buffer, were identified as potential risk factors for the quality of the final product. The influence of these variables on the critical quality attributes of the co-loaded liposomal CUR and DOX was investigated: particle size, zeta potential, drug loading and entrapment efficiency. For this, a 2 6-2 factorial design was employed to establish a proper regression model and to generate the contour plots for the responses. The obtained data served to establish the design space for which different combinations of variables yielded liposomes with characteristics within predefined specifications. The validation of the model was carried out by preparing two liposomal formulations corresponding to the robust set point from within the design space and one outside the design space and calculating the percentage bias between the predicted and actual experimental results. The in vitro antiproliferative test showed that at higher CUR concentrations, the liposomes co-encapsulating CUR and DOX had a greater cytotoxic effect than DOX-loaded liposomes. Overall, this study showed that QbD is a useful instrument for controlling and optimizing the manufacturing process of liposomes co-loaded with CUR and DOX and that this nanoparticulate system possesses a great potential for use in colon cancer therapy.

  12. Presence of electrostatically adsorbed polysaccharides improves spray drying of liposomes.

    PubMed

    Karadag, Ayse; Özçelik, Beraat; Sramek, Martin; Gibis, Monika; Kohlus, Reinhard; Weiss, Jochen

    2013-02-01

    Spray drying of liposomes with conventional wall materials such as maltodextrins often yields nonfunctional powders, that is, liposomes break down during drying and rehydration. Electrostatically coating the surface of liposomes with a charged polymer prior to spray drying may help solve this problem. Anionic lecithin liposomes (approximately 400 nm) were coated with lower (approximately 500 kDa, LMW-C) or higher (approximately 900 kDa, HMW-C) molecular weight cationic chitosan using the layer-by-layer depositing method. Low (DE20, LMW-MD) or high molecular weight (DE2, HMW-MD) maltodextrin was added as wall material to facilitate spray drying. If surfaces of liposomes (1%) were completely covered with chitosan (0.4%), no bridging or depletion flocculation would occur, and mean particle diameters would be approximately 500 nm. If maltodextrins (20%) were added to uncoated liposomes, extensive liposomal breakdown would occur making the system unsuitable for spray drying. No such aggregation or breakdown was observed when maltodextrin was added to chitosan-coated liposomes. Size changed little or even decreased slightly depending on the molecular weight of maltodextrin added. Scanning electron microscopy images of powders containing chitosan-coated liposomes revealed that their morphologies depended on the type of maltodextrin added. Powders prepared with LMW-MD contained mostly spherical particles while HMW-MD powders contained particles with concavities and dents. Upon redispersion, coated liposomes yielded back dispersions with particle size distributions similar to the original ones, except for LMW-C coated samples that had been spray dried with HMW-MD which yielded aggregates (approximately 30 μm). Results show that coating of liposomes with an absorbing polymer allows them to be spray dried with conventional maltodextrin wall materials. Liposomes have attracted considerable attention in the food and agricultural, biomedical industries for the delivery of

  13. Rupture Pathway of Phosphatidylcholine Liposomes on Silicon Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Reimhult, Erik; Kasemo, Bengt; Höök, Fredrik

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the pathway by which unilamellar POPC liposomes upon adsorption undergo rupture and form a supported lipid bilayer (SLB) on a SiO2 surface. Biotinylated lipids were selectively incorporated in the outer monolayer of POPC liposomes to create liposomes with asymmetric lipid compositions in the outer and inner leaflets. The specific binding of neutravidin and anti-biotin to SLBs formed by liposome fusion, prior to and after equilibrated flip-flop between the upper and lower monolayers in the SLB, were then investigated. It was concluded that the lipids in the outer monolayer of the vesicle predominantly end up on the SLB side facing the SiO2 substrate, as demonstrated by having maximum 30–40% of lipids in the liposome outer monolayer orienting towards the bulk after forming the SLB. PMID:19468333

  14. Electromagnetic field triggered drug and chemical delivery via liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Liburdy, R.P.

    1993-03-02

    The present invention relates to a system and to a method of delivering a drug to a preselected target body site of a patient, comprising the steps of encapsulating the chemical agent within liposomes, essentially temperature insensitive, i.e. not having a specific predetermined phase transition temperature within the specific temperature range of drug administration; administering the liposomes to the target body site; and subjecting the target body site to nonionizing electromagnetic fields in an area of the preselected target body in order to release the chemical agent from the liposomes at a temperature of between about +10 and 65 C.more » The invention further relates to the use of the liposomes to bind to the surface of or to enter target tissue or an organ in a living system, and, when subjected to a nonionizing field, to release a drug from the liposomes into the target site.« less

  15. Recent Developments of Liposomes as Nanocarriers for Theranostic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Hang; Hwang, Kevin; Lu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Liposomes are nanocarriers comprised of lipid bilayers encapsulating an aqueous core. The ability of liposomes to encapsulate a wide variety of diagnostic and therapeutic agents has led to significant interest in utilizing liposomes as nanocarriers for theranostic applications. In this review, we highlight recent progress in developing liposomes as nanocarriers for a) diagnostic applications to detect proteins, DNA, and small molecule targets using fluorescence, magnetic resonance, ultrasound, and nuclear imaging; b) therapeutic applications based on small molecule-based therapy, gene therapy and immunotherapy; and c) theranostic applications for simultaneous detection and treatment of heavy metal toxicity and cancers. In addition, we summarize recent studies towards understanding of interactions between liposomes and biological components. Finally, perspectives on future directions in advancing the field for clinical translations are also discussed. PMID:27375783

  16. Microfabrication of three-dimensional filters for liposome extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldacchini, Tommaso; Nuñez, Vicente; LaFratta, Christopher N.; Grech, Joseph S.; Vullev, Valentine I.; Zadoyan, Ruben

    2015-03-01

    Liposomes play a relevant role in the biomedical field of drug delivery. The ability of these lipid vesicles to encapsulate and transport a variety of bioactive molecules has fostered their use in several therapeutic applications, from cancer treatments to the administration of drugs with antiviral activities. Size and uniformity are key parameters to take into consideration when preparing liposomes; these factors greatly influence their effectiveness in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. A popular technique employed to achieve the optimal liposome dimension (around 100 nm in diameter) and uniform size distribution is repetitive extrusion through a polycarbonate filter. We investigated two femtosecond laser direct writing techniques for the fabrication of three-dimensional filters within a microfluidics chip for liposomes extrusion. The miniaturization of the extrusion process in a microfluidic system is the first step toward a complete solution for lab-on-a-chip preparation of liposomes from vesicles self-assembly to optical characterization.

  17. Liposomal Formulations in Clinical Use: An Updated Review

    PubMed Central

    Bulbake, Upendra; Doppalapudi, Sindhu; Kommineni, Nagavendra; Khan, Wahid

    2017-01-01

    Liposomes are the first nano drug delivery systems that have been successfully translated into real-time clinical applications. These closed bilayer phospholipid vesicles have witnessed many technical advances in recent years since their first development in 1965. Delivery of therapeutics by liposomes alters their biodistribution profile, which further enhances the therapeutic index of various drugs. Extensive research is being carried out using these nano drug delivery systems in diverse areas including the delivery of anti-cancer, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory drugs and therapeutic genes. The significant contribution of liposomes as drug delivery systems in the healthcare sector is known by many clinical products, e.g., Doxil®, Ambisome®, DepoDur™, etc. This review provides a detailed update on liposomal technologies e.g., DepoFoam™ Technology, Stealth technology, etc., the formulation aspects of clinically used products and ongoing clinical trials on liposomes. PMID:28346375

  18. Liposomal Drug Delivery System for Cancer Therapy: Advancement and Patents.

    PubMed

    Jha, Sheetal; Sharma, Pramod K; Malviya, Rishabha

    2016-01-01

    In this review article, authors reviewed about the liposomes which are amongst various drug delivering systems for the delivery of the therapeutic agents at the target site. Advances in liposomal drug delivery systems for the cancer therapy have enhanced the therapeutic levels of the anticancer moieties. Liposomes show promising action on the tumor by incorporating less amount of drug at the target site, with minimum toxic effect and maximum therapeutic effect and thereby enhancing the bioavailability. Liposome-based drug delivery systems provide the potential to elevate the effect of drug concentration in tumor cells. Manuscript briefly describes the role of liposomes in cancer therapy and various patents based on the same. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Electromagnetic field triggered drug and chemical delivery via liposomes

    DOEpatents

    Liburdy, R.P.

    1993-03-02

    The present invention relates to a system and to a method of delivering a drug to a preselected target body site of a patient, comprising the steps of encapsulating the chemical agent within liposomes, essentially temperature insensitive, i.e. not having a specific predetermined phase transition temperature within the specific temperature range of drug administration; administering the liposomes to the target body site; and subjecting the target body site to nonionizing electromagnetic fields in an area of the preselected target body in order to release the chemical agent from the liposomes at a temperature of between about +10 and 65 C. The invention further relates to the use of the liposomes to bind to the surface of or to enter target tissue or an organ in a living system, and, when subjected to a nonionizing field, to release a drug from the liposomes into the target site.

  20. Electromagnetic field triggered drug and chemical delivery via liposomes

    DOEpatents

    Liburdy, Robert P.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system and to a method of delivering a drug to a preselected target body site of a patient, comprising the steps of encapsulating the chemical agent within liposomes, essentially temperature insensitive, i.e. not having a specific predetermined phase transition temperature within the specific temperature range of drug administration; administering the liposomes to the target body site; and subjecting the target body site to nonionizing electromagnetic fields in an area of the preselected target body in order to release said chemical agent from the liposomes at a temperature of between about +10 and 65.degree. C. The invention further relates to the use of said liposomes to bind to the surface of or to enter target tissue or an organ in a living system, and, when subjected to a nonionizing field, to release a drug from the liposomes into the target site.

  1. Multimodal targeted high relaxivity thermosensitive liposome for in vivo imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuijten, Maayke M. P.; Hannah Degeling, M.; Chen, John W.; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory; Waterman, Peter; Weissleder, Ralph; Azzi, Jamil; Nicolay, Klaas; Tannous, Bakhos A.

    2015-11-01

    Liposomes are spherical, self-closed structures formed by lipid bilayers that can encapsulate drugs and/or imaging agents in their hydrophilic core or within their membrane moiety, making them suitable delivery vehicles. We have synthesized a new liposome containing gadolinium-DOTA lipid bilayer, as a targeting multimodal molecular imaging agent for magnetic resonance and optical imaging. We showed that this liposome has a much higher molar relaxivities r1 and r2 compared to a more conventional liposome containing gadolinium-DTPA-BSA lipid. By incorporating both gadolinium and rhodamine in the lipid bilayer as well as biotin on its surface, we used this agent for multimodal imaging and targeting of tumors through the strong biotin-streptavidin interaction. Since this new liposome is thermosensitive, it can be used for ultrasound-mediated drug delivery at specific sites, such as tumors, and can be guided by magnetic resonance imaging.

  2. Designing liposomal adjuvants for the next generation of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Perrie, Yvonne; Crofts, Fraser; Devitt, Andrew; Griffiths, Helen R; Kastner, Elisabeth; Nadella, Vinod

    2016-04-01

    Liposomes not only offer the ability to enhance drug delivery, but can effectively act as vaccine delivery systems and adjuvants. Their flexibility in size, charge, bilayer rigidity and composition allow for targeted antigen delivery via a range of administration routes. In the development of liposomal adjuvants, the type of immune response promoted has been linked to their physico-chemical characteristics, with the size and charge of the liposomal particles impacting on liposome biodistribution, exposure in the lymph nodes and recruitment of the innate immune system. The addition of immunostimulatory agents can further potentiate their immunogenic properties. Here, we outline the attributes that should be considered in the design and manufacture of liposomal adjuvants for the delivery of sub-unit and nucleic acid based vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Adhesion of liposomes: a quartz crystal microbalance study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüthgens, Eike; Herrig, Alexander; Kastl, Katja; Steinem, Claudia; Reiss, Björn; Wegener, Joachim; Pignataro, Bruno; Janshoff, Andreas

    2003-11-01

    Three different systems are presented, exploring the adhesion of liposomes mediated by electrostatic and lipid-protein interactions as well as molecular recognition of ligand receptor pairs. Liposomes are frequently used to gain insight into the complicated processes involving adhesion and subsequent events such as fusion and fission mainly triggered by specific proteins. We combined liposome technology with the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique as a powerful tool to study the hidden interface between the membrane and functionalized surface. Electrostatic attraction and molecular recognition were employed to bind liposomes to the functionalized quartz crystal. The QCM was used to distinguish between adsorption of vesicles and rupture due to strong adhesive forces. Intact vesicles display viscoelastic behaviour, while planar lipid bilayers as a result of vesicle rupture can be modelled by a thin rigid film. Furthermore, the adhesion of cells was modelled successfully by receptor bearing liposomes. Scanning force microscopy was used to confirm the results obtained by QCM measurements.

  4. Ultrasound triggered drug delivery with liposomal nested microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Wallace, N; Wrenn, S P

    2015-12-01

    When ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles are nested within a liposome, damage to the liposome membrane caused by both stable and inertial cavitation of the microbubble allows for release of the aqueous core of the liposome. Triggered release was not accomplished unless microbubbles were present within the liposome. Leakage was tested using fluorescence assays developed specifically for this drug delivery vehicle and qualitative measurements using an optical microscope. These studies were done using a 1 MHz focused ultrasound transducer while varying parameters including peak negative ultrasound pressure, average liposome diameter, and microbubble concentration. Two regimes exist for membrane disruption caused by cavitating microbubbles. A faster release rate, as well as permanent membrane damage are seen for samples exposed to high pressure (2.1-3.7 MPa). A slower release rate and dilation/temporary poration are characteristic of stable cavitation for low pressure studies (0.54-1.7 MPa). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. pH-Sensitive carboxymethyl chitosan-modified cationic liposomes for sorafenib and siRNA co-delivery.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yao; Su, Zhihui; Liang, Yanchao; Zhang, Na

    2015-01-01

    Combination of chemotherapeutic drug and small interfering RNA (siRNA) can affect multiple disease pathways and has been proven effective in suppressing tumor progression. Co-delivery of drug and siRNA within a same nanocarrier is a vital means in this field. The present study aimed at the development of a pH-sensitive liposome to co-deliver drug and siRNA to tumor region. Driven by the electrostatic interaction, the pH-sensitive material, carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS), was coated onto the surface of the cationic liposome (CL) preloaded with sorafenib (Sf) and siRNA (Si). To evaluate whether the resulting CMCS-modified Sf and siRNA co-delivery cationic liposome (CMCS-SiSf-CL) enhanced antitumor efficiency after systematic administration, in vitro and in vivo experiments were evaluated in HepG2 cells and the H22 cells-bearing Kunming mice model. The experimental results demonstrated that CMCS-SiSf-CL was able to condense siRNA efficiently and protect siRNA from being degraded by serum and RNase. The release rate of Sf from CMCS-modified liposome exhibited pH-sensitive release behavior. Furthermore, in vitro cellular uptake results showed that CMCS-SiSf-CL yielded higher fluorescence intensity at pH 6.5 than at pH 7.4, and that siRNA could be delivered to tumor site by CMCS-SiSf-CL in vivo. The in vivo antitumor efficacy showed that CMCS-Sf-CL inhibits tumor growth effectively when compared with free Sf solution. In current experimental conditions, this liposomal formulation did not show significant toxicity both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, co-delivering Sf with siRNA by CMCS-SiSf-CL might provide a promising approach for tumor therapy.

  6. Light induced cytosolic drug delivery from liposomes with gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lajunen, Tatu; Viitala, Lauri; Kontturi, Leena-Stiina; Laaksonen, Timo; Liang, Huamin; Vuorimaa-Laukkanen, Elina; Viitala, Tapani; Le Guével, Xavier; Yliperttula, Marjo; Murtomäki, Lasse; Urtti, Arto

    2015-04-10

    Externally triggered drug release at defined targets allows site- and time-controlled drug treatment regimens. We have developed liposomal drug carriers with encapsulated gold nanoparticles for triggered drug release. Light energy is converted to heat in the gold nanoparticles and released to the lipid bilayers. Localized temperature increase renders liposomal bilayers to be leaky and triggers drug release. The aim of this study was to develop a drug releasing system capable of releasing its cargo to cell cytosol upon triggering with visible and near infrared light signals. The liposomes were formulated using either heat-sensitive or heat- and pH-sensitive lipid compositions with star or rod shaped gold nanoparticles. Encapsulated fluorescent probe, calcein, was released from the liposomes after exposure to the light. In addition, the pH-sensitive formulations showed a faster drug release in acidic conditions than in neutral conditions. The liposomes were internalized into human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and did not show any cellular toxicity. The light induced cytosolic delivery of calcein from the gold nanoparticle containing liposomes was shown, whereas no cytosolic release was seen without light induction or without gold nanoparticles in the liposomes. The light activated liposome formulations showed a controlled content release to the cellular cytosol at a specific location and time. Triggering with visual and near infrared light allows good tissue penetration and safety, and the pH-sensitive liposomes may enable selective drug release in the intracellular acidic compartments (endosomes, lysosomes). Thus, light activated liposomes with gold nanoparticles are an attractive option for time- and site-specific drug delivery into the target cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ultrasound, liposomes, and drug delivery: principles for using ultrasound to control the release of drugs from liposomes.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Avi; Kost, Joseph; Barenholz, Yechezkel

    2009-11-01

    Ultrasound is used in many medical applications, such as imaging, blood flow analysis, dentistry, liposuction, tumor and fibroid ablation, and kidney stone disruption. In the past, low frequency ultrasound (LFUS) was the main method to downsize multilamellar (micron range) vesicles into small (nano scale) unilamellar vesicles. Recently, the ability of ultrasound to induce localized and controlled drug release from liposomes, utilizing thermal and/or mechanical effects, has been shown. This review, deals with the interaction of ultrasound with liposomes, focusing mainly on the mechanical mechanism of drug release from liposomes using LFUS. The effects of liposome lipid composition and physicochemical properties, on one hand, and of LFUS parameters, on the other, on liposomal drug release, are addressed. Acoustic cavitation, in which gas bubbles oscillate and collapse in the medium, thereby introducing intense mechanical strains, increases release substantially. We suggest that the mechanism of release may involve formation and collapse of small gas nuclei in the hydrophobic region of the lipid bilayer during exposure to LFUS, thereby inducing the formation of transient pores through which drugs are released. Introducing PEG-lipopolymers to the liposome bilayer enhances responsivity to LFUS, most likely due to absorption of ultrasonic energy by the highly hydrated PEG headgroups. The presence of amphiphiles, such as phospholipids with unsaturated acyl chains, which destabilize the lipid bilayer, also increases liposome susceptibility to LFUS. Application of these principles to design highly LFUS-responsive liposomes is discussed.

  8. Modification of liposomal concentration in liposome/adenoviral complexes allows significant protection of adenoviral vectors from neutralising antibody, in vitro.

    PubMed

    Steel, Jason C; Cavanagh, Heather M A; Burton, Mark A; Dingwall, Daniel J; Kalle, Wouter H J

    2005-06-01

    Adenoviral vectors have been commonly used in gene therapy protocols, however the success of their use is often limited by the induction of host immunity to the vector. Following exposure to the adenoviral vector, adenoviral-specific neutralising antibodies are produced which limits further administration. This study examines the efficacy of complexing liposomes to adenovirus for the protection of the adenovirus from neutralising antibodies in an in vitro setting. Dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DDAB)-dioleoyl-l-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) liposomes were bound at varying concentrations to adenovirus to form AL complexes and tested these complexes' ability to prevent adenoviral neutralisation. It is shown that by increasing the concentration of liposomes in the adenoviral-liposome (AL) complexes we can increase the level of immuno-shielding afforded the adenovirus. It is also shown that the increase in liposomal concentration may lead to drawbacks such as increased cytotoxicity and reductions in expression levels.

  9. Delivery of aerosolized drugs encapsulated in liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Yung-Sung; Lyons, C.R.; Schmid, M.H.

    1995-12-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is an infectious disease that resides in the human lung. Due to the difficulty in completely killing off the disease in infected individuals, Mtb has developed drug-resistant forms and is on the rise in the human population. Therefore, ITRI and the University of New Mexico are collaborating to explore the treatment of Mtb by an aerosolized drug delivered directly to the lungs. In conclusion, it is feasible to obtain an appropriate size and concentration of the liposomes before and after aerosolization.

  10. Microencapsulation structures based on protein-coated liposomes obtained through electrospraying for the stabilization and improved bioaccessibility of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Mascaraque, Laura G; Casagrande Sipoli, Caroline; de La Torre, Lucimara Gaziola; López-Rubio, Amparo

    2017-10-15

    Novel food-grade hybrid encapsulation structures based on the entrapment of phosphatidylcholine liposomes, within a WPC matrix through electrospraying, were developed and used as delivery vehicles for curcumin. The loading capacity and encapsulation efficiency of the proposed system was studied, and the suitability of the approach to stabilize curcumin and increase its bioaccessibility was assessed. Results showed that the maximum loading capacity of the liposomes was around 1.5% of curcumin, although the loading capacity of the hybrid microencapsulation structures increased with the curcumin content by incorporation of curcumin microcrystals upon electrospraying. Microencapsulation of curcumin within the proposed hybrid structures significantly increased its bioaccessibility (∼1.7-fold) compared to the free compound, and could successfully stabilize it against degradation in PBS (pH=7.4). The proposed approach thus proved to be a promising alternative to produce powder-like functional ingredients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Aptamer-based liposomes improve specific drug loading and release.

    PubMed

    Plourde, Kevin; Derbali, Rabeb Mouna; Desrosiers, Arnaud; Dubath, Céline; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis; Leblond, Jeanne

    2017-04-10

    Aptamer technology has shown much promise in cancer therapeutics for its targeting abilities. However, its potential to improve drug loading and release from nanocarriers has not been thoroughly explored. In this study, we employed drug-binding aptamers to actively load drugs into liposomes. We designed a series of DNA aptamer sequences specific to doxorubicin, displaying multiple binding sites and various binding affinities. The binding ability of aptamers was preserved when incorporated into cationic liposomes, binding up to 15equivalents of doxorubicin per aptamer, therefore drawing the drug into liposomes. Optimization of the charge and drug/aptamer ratios resulted in ≥80% encapsulation efficiency of doxorubicin, ten times higher than classical passively-encapsulating liposomal formulations and similar to a pH-gradient active loading strategy. In addition, kinetic release profiles and cytotoxicity assay on HeLa cells demonstrated that the release and therapeutic efficacy of liposomal doxorubicin could be controlled by the aptamer's structure. Our results suggest that the aptamer exhibiting a specific intermediate affinity is the best suited to achieve high drug loading while maintaining efficient drug release and therapeutic activity. This strategy was successfully applied to tobramycin, a hydrophilic drug suffering from low encapsulation into liposomes, where its loading was improved six-fold using aptamers. Overall, we demonstrate that aptamers could act, in addition to their targeting properties, as multifunctional excipients for liposomal formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Heparin octasaccharide decoy liposomes inhibit replication of multiple viruses

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Gabriel L.; Velazquez, Lourdes; Pham, Serena; Qaisar, Natasha; Delaney, James C.; Viswanathan, Karthik; Albers, Leila; Comolli, James C.; Shriver, Zachary; Knipe, David M.; Kurt-Jones, Evelyn A.; Fygenson, Deborah K.; Trevejo, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a ubiquitous glycosaminoglycan that serves as a cellular attachment site for a number of significant human pathogens, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human parainfluenza virus 3 (hPIV3), and herpes simplex virus (HSV). Decoy receptors can target pathogens by binding to the receptor pocket on viral attachment proteins, acting as ‘molecular sinks’ and preventing the pathogen from binding to susceptible host cells. Decoy receptors functionalized with HS could bind to pathogens and prevent infection, so we generated decoy liposomes displaying HS-octasaccharide (HS-octa). These decoy liposomes significantly inhibited RSV, hPIV3, and HSV infectivity in vitro to a greater degree than the original HS-octa building block. The degree of inhibition correlated with the density of HS-octa displayed on the liposome surface. Decoy liposomes with HS-octa inhibited infection of viruses to a greater extent than either full-length heparin or HS-octa alone. Decoy liposomes were effective when added prior to infection or following the initial infection of cells in vitro. By targeting the well-conserved receptor-binding sites of HS-binding viruses, decoy liposomes functionalized with HS-octa are a promising therapeutic antiviral agent and illustrate the utility of the liposome delivery platform. PMID:25637710

  13. Heparin octasaccharide decoy liposomes inhibit replication of multiple viruses.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Gabriel L; Velazquez, Lourdes; Pham, Serena; Qaisar, Natasha; Delaney, James C; Viswanathan, Karthik; Albers, Leila; Comolli, James C; Shriver, Zachary; Knipe, David M; Kurt-Jones, Evelyn A; Fygenson, Deborah K; Trevejo, Jose M; Wang, Jennifer P; Finberg, Robert W

    2015-04-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a ubiquitous glycosaminoglycan that serves as a cellular attachment site for a number of significant human pathogens, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human parainfluenza virus 3 (hPIV3), and herpes simplex virus (HSV). Decoy receptors can target pathogens by binding to the receptor pocket on viral attachment proteins, acting as 'molecular sinks' and preventing the pathogen from binding to susceptible host cells. Decoy receptors functionalized with HS could bind to pathogens and prevent infection, so we generated decoy liposomes displaying HS-octasaccharide (HS-octa). These decoy liposomes significantly inhibited RSV, hPIV3, and HSV infectivity in vitro to a greater degree than the original HS-octa building block. The degree of inhibition correlated with the density of HS-octa displayed on the liposome surface. Decoy liposomes with HS-octa inhibited infection of viruses to a greater extent than either full-length heparin or HS-octa alone. Decoy liposomes were effective when added prior to infection or following the initial infection of cells in vitro. By targeting the well-conserved receptor-binding sites of HS-binding viruses, decoy liposomes functionalized with HS-octa are a promising therapeutic antiviral agent and illustrate the utility of the liposome delivery platform. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pharmacokinetics and disposition of various drug loaded liposomes.

    PubMed

    Qian, Shuai; Li, Chenrui; Zuo, Zhong

    2012-05-01

    Due to great efforts in past 45 years, several liposomal products including two liposomal vaccine products have been commercialized and many more potential products are now under clinical trial stage. Although liposome has significantly reduced the toxicity of the drugs with improved or maintained the efficacy, its further development has been limited by its instabilities during preparation and storage, incompatibility with certain drugs, relative high cost of production and quality control as well as unspecified drug release time and sites in vivo. In vivo behaviors of liposomal drugs highly depend on their physiochemical properties including lipid composition, particle size, surface charge, surface modifications and the administrated dose as well as the route of administration. Based on the literature reports from the past two decades, the current review provided an updated summary of the key factors in liposomal preparations for clinical usage and its impact on the alternation of pharmacokinetic and disposition behaviors of drugs encapsulated in the liposome formulations. Clinical applications of liposomal preparation in anti-tumor agents, anti-infective agents as well as the macromolecules have been highlighted.

  15. Mucosal Vaccine Development Based on Liposome Technology

    PubMed Central

    Norling, Karin; Bally, Marta; Höök, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Immune protection against infectious diseases is most effective if located at the portal of entry of the pathogen. Hence, there is an increasing demand for vaccine formulations that can induce strong protective immunity following oral, respiratory, or genital tract administration. At present, only few mucosal vaccines are found on the market, but recent technological advancements and a better understanding of the principles that govern priming of mucosal immune responses have contributed to a more optimistic view on the future of mucosal vaccines. Compared to live attenuated vaccines, subcomponent vaccines, most often protein-based, are considered safer, more stable, and less complicated to manufacture, but they require the addition of nontoxic and clinically safe adjuvants to be effective. In addition, another limiting factor is the large antigen dose that usually is required for mucosal vaccines. Therefore, the combination of mucosal adjuvants with the recent progress in nanoparticle technology provides an attractive solution to these problems. In particular, the liposome technology is ideal for combining protein antigen and adjuvant into an effective mucosal vaccine. Here, we describe and discuss recent progress in nanoparticle formulations using various types of liposomes that convey strong promise for the successful development of the next generation of mucosal vaccines. PMID:28127567

  16. Droplet-Based Production of Liposomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackley, Donald E.; Forster, Anita

    2009-01-01

    A process for making monodisperse liposomes having lipid bilayer membranes involves fewer, simpler process steps than do related prior methods. First, a microfluidic, cross junction droplet generator is used to produce vesicles comprising aqueous solution droplets contained in single layer lipid membranes. The vesicles are collected in a lipid-solvent mix that is at most partially soluble in water and is less dense than is water. A layer of water is dispensed on top of the solvent. By virtue of the difference in densities, the water sinks to the bottom and the solvent floats to the top. The vesicles, which have almost the same density as that of water, become exchanged into the water instead of floating to the top. As there are excess lipids in the solvent solution, in order for the vesicles to remain in the water, the addition of a second lipid layer to each vesicle is energetically favored. The resulting lipid bilayers present the hydrophilic ends of the lipid molecules to both the inner and outer membrane surfaces. If lipids of a second kind are dissolved in the solvent in sufficient excess before use, then asymmetric liposomes may be formed.

  17. pH-Sensitive Liposomes: Possible Clinical Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatvin, M. B.; Kreutz, W.; Horwitz, B. A.; Shinitzky, M.

    1980-12-01

    When pH-sensitive molecules are incorporated into liposomes, drugs can be specifically released from these vesicles by a change of pH in the ambient serum. Liposomes containing the pH-sensitive lipid palmitoyl homocysteine (PHC) were constructed so that the greatest pH differential (6.0 to 7.4) of drug release was obtained near physiological temperature. Such liposomes could be useful clinically if they enable drugs to be targeted to areas of the body in which pH is less than physiological, such as primary tumors and metastases or sites of inflammation and infection.

  18. Targeted drug delivery and enhanced intracellular release using functionalized liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Ashish

    The ability to target cancer cells using an appropriate drug delivery system can significantly reduce the associated side effects from cancer therapies and can help in improving the overall quality of life, post cancer survival. Integrin alpha5beta1 is expressed on several types of cancer cells, including colon cancer and plays an important role in tumor growth and metastasis. Thus, the ability to target the integrin alpha 5beta1 using an appropriate drug delivery nano-vector can significantly help in inhibiting tumor growth and reducing tumor metastasis. The work in this thesis focuses on designing and optimizing, functionalized stealth liposomes (liposomes covered with polyethylene glycol (PEG)) that specifically target the integrin alpha5beta1. The PEG provides a steric barrier allowing the liposomes to circulate in the blood for longer duration and the functionalizing moiety, PR_b peptide specifically recognizes and binds to integrin alpha5beta1 expressing cells. The work demonstrates that by optimizing the amount of PEG and PR_b on the liposomal interface, nano-vectors can be engineered that bind to CT26.WT colon cancer cells in a specific manner and internalize through alpha 5beta1-mediated endocytosis. To further improve the efficacy of the system, PR_b functionalized pH-sensitive stealth liposomes that exhibit triggered release under mild acidic conditions present in endocytotic vesicles were designed. The study showed that PR_b functionalized pH-sensitive stealth liposomes, undergo destabilization under mildly acidic conditions and incorporation of the PR_b peptide does not significantly affect the pH-sensitivity of the liposomes. PR_b functionalized pH-sensitive stealth liposomes bind to CT26.WT colon carcinoma cells that express integrin alpha5beta 1, undergo cellular internalization, and release their load intracellularly in a short period of time as compared to other formulations. PR_b-targeted pH-sensitive stealth liposomes encapsulating 5

  19. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of octyl methoxycinnamate liposomes.

    PubMed

    Mota, Aline de Carvalho Varjão; de Freitas, Zaida Maria Faria; Ricci Júnior, Eduardo; Dellamora-Ortiz, Gisela Maria; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph; Ozzetti, Rafael Antonio; Vergnanini, André Luiz; Ribeiro, Vanessa Lira; Silva, Ronald Santos; dos Santos, Elisabete Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Solar radiation causes damage to human skin, and photoprotection is the main way to prevent these harmful effects. The development of sunscreen formulations containing nanosystems is of great interest in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries because of the many potential benefits. This study aimed to develop and evaluate an octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) liposomal nanosystem (liposome/OMC) to obtain a sunscreen formulation with improved safety and efficacy by retaining OMC for longer on the stratum corneum. The liposome/OMC nanostructure obtained was tested for enzymatic hydrolysis with lipase from Rhizomucor miehei and biodistribution with liposomes labeled with technetium-99m. The liposome/OMC formulation was then incorporated in a gel formulation and tested for ocular irritation using the hen's egg test-chorio-allantoic membrane (HET-CAM) assay, in vitro and in vivo sun protection factor, in vitro release profile, skin biometrics, and in vivo tape stripping. The liposome/OMC nanosystem was not hydrolyzed from R. miehei by lipase. In the biodistribution assay, the liposome/OMC formulation labeled with technetium-99m had mainly deposited in the skin, while for OMC the main organ was the liver, showing that the liposome had higher affinity for the skin than OMC. The liposome/OMC formulation was classified as nonirritating in the HET-CAM test, indicating good histocompatibility. The formulation containing liposome/OMC had a higher in vivo solar photoprotection factor, but did not show increased water resistance. Inclusion in liposomes was able to slow down the release of OMC from the formulation, with a lower steady-state flux (3.9 ± 0.33 μg/cm(2)/hour) compared with the conventional formulation (6.3 ± 1.21 μg/cm(2)/hour). The stripping method showed increased uptake of OMC in the stratum corneum, giving an amount of 22.64 ± 7.55 μg/cm(2) of OMC, which was higher than the amount found for the conventional formulation (14.57 ± 2.30 μg/cm(2)). These results

  20. Liposome production by microfluidics: potential and limiting factors

    PubMed Central

    Carugo, Dario; Bottaro, Elisabetta; Owen, Joshua; Stride, Eleanor; Nastruzzi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of microfluidic techniques for the production of nanoscale lipid-based vesicular systems. In particular we focus on the key issues associated with the microfluidic production of liposomes. These include, but are not limited to, the role of lipid formulation, lipid concentration, residual amount of solvent, production method (including microchannel architecture), and drug loading in determining liposome characteristics. Furthermore, we propose microfluidic architectures for the mass production of liposomes with a view to potential industrial translation of this technology. PMID:27194474

  1. Giant liposomes as delivery system for ecophysiological studies in copepods.

    PubMed

    Buttino, Isabella; De Rosa, Giuseppe; Carotenuto, Ylenia; Ianora, Adrianna; Fontana, Angelo; Quaglia, Fabiana; La Rotonda, Maria Immacolata; Miralto, Antonio

    2006-03-01

    Giant liposomes are proposed as a potential delivery system in marine copepods, the dominant constituent of the zooplankton. Liposomes were prepared in the same size range as the food ingested by copepods (mean diameter of about 7 microm). The encapsulation of a hydrophilic and high molecular mass fluorescent compound, fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FitcDx), within the liposomes provided a means of verifying copepod ingestion when viewed with the confocal laser-scanning microscope. Females of the calanoid copepod Temora stylifera were fed with FitcDx-encapsulated liposomes alone or mixed with the dinoflagellate alga Prorocentrum minimum. Control copepods were incubated with the P. minimum diet alone. Egg production rates, percentage egg-hatching success and number of faecal pellets produced were evaluated after 24 h and 48 h of feeding. Epifluorescence of copepod gut and faecal pellets indicated that the liposomes were actively ingested by T. stylifera in both experimental food conditions, with or without the dinoflagellate diet. Ingestion rates calculated using 3H-labelled liposomes indicated that females ingested more liposomes when P. minimum was added to the solution (16% vs 7.6% of uptake). When liposomes were supplied together with the algal diet, egg production rate, egg-hatching success and faecal pellet production were as high as those observed for the control diet. By contrary, egg production and hatching success were very low with a diet of liposomes alone and faecal pellet production was similar to that recorded in starved females. This results suggest that liposomes alone did not add any nutritive value to the diet, making them a good candidate as inert carriers to study the nutrient requirements or biological activity of different compounds. In particular, such liposomes are proposed as carriers for diatom-derived polyunsaturated aldehydes, which are known to impair copepod embryo viability. Other potential applications of liposomes as a delivery

  2. Liposome production by microfluidics: potential and limiting factors.

    PubMed

    Carugo, Dario; Bottaro, Elisabetta; Owen, Joshua; Stride, Eleanor; Nastruzzi, Claudio

    2016-05-19

    This paper provides an analysis of microfluidic techniques for the production of nanoscale lipid-based vesicular systems. In particular we focus on the key issues associated with the microfluidic production of liposomes. These include, but are not limited to, the role of lipid formulation, lipid concentration, residual amount of solvent, production method (including microchannel architecture), and drug loading in determining liposome characteristics. Furthermore, we propose microfluidic architectures for the mass production of liposomes with a view to potential industrial translation of this technology.

  3. In vivo distribution and antitumor activity of heparin-stabilized doxorubicin-loaded liposomes.

    PubMed

    Han, Hee Dong; Lee, Aeri; Song, Chung Kil; Hwang, Taewon; Seong, Hasoo; Lee, Chong Ock; Shin, Byung Cheol

    2006-04-26

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of heparin conjugation to the surface of doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded liposomes on the circulation time, biodistribution and antitumor activity after intravenous injection in murine B16F10 melanoma tumor-bearing mice. The heparin-conjugated liposomes (heparin-liposomes) were prepared by fixation of the negatively charged heparin to the positively charged liposomes. The existence of heparin on the liposomal surface was confirmed by measuring the changes in the particle size, zeta potential and heparin amount of the liposomes. The stability of the heparin-liposomes in serum was higher than that of the control liposomes, due to the heparin-liposomes being better protected from the adsorption of serum proteins. The DOX-loaded heparin-liposomes showed high drug levels for up to 64 h after the intravenous injection and the half-life of DOX was approximately 8.4- or 1.5-fold higher than that of the control liposomes or polyethyleneglycol-fixed liposomes (PEG-liposomes), respectively. The heparin-liposomes accumulated to a greater extent in the tumor than the control or PEG-liposomes as a result of their lower uptake by the reticuloendothelial system cells in the liver and spleen. In addition, the DOX-loaded heparin-liposomes retarded the growth of the tumor effectively compared with the control or PEG-liposomes. These results indicate the promising potential of heparin-liposomes as a new sterically stabilized liposomal delivery system for the enhancement of the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents.

  4. External beam radiotherapy synergizes 188Re-liposome against human esophageal cancer xenograft and modulates 188Re-liposome pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Hsien; Liu, Shin-Yi; Chi, Chih-Wen; Yu, Hsiang-Lin; Chang, Tsui-Jung; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Lee, Te-Wei; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2015-01-01

    External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) treats gross tumors and local microscopic diseases. Radionuclide therapy by radioisotopes can eradicate tumors systemically. Rhenium 188 (188Re)-liposome, a nanoparticle undergoing clinical trials, emits gamma rays for imaging validation and beta rays for therapy, with biodistribution profiles preferential to tumors. We designed a combinatory treatment and examined its effects on human esophageal cancer xenografts, a malignancy with potential treatment resistance and poor prognosis. Human esophageal cancer cell lines BE-3 (adenocarcinoma) and CE81T/VGH (squamous cell carcinoma) were implanted and compared. The radiochemical purity of 188Re-liposome exceeded 95%. Molecular imaging by NanoSPECT/CT showed that BE-3, but not CE81T/VGH, xenografts could uptake the 188Re-liposome. The combination of EBRT and 188Re-liposome inhibited tumor regrowth greater than each treatment alone, as the tumor growth inhibition rate was 30% with EBRT, 25% with 188Re-liposome, and 53% with the combination treatment at 21 days postinjection. Combinatory treatment had no additive adverse effects and significant biological toxicities on white blood cell counts, body weight, or liver and renal functions. EBRT significantly enhanced the excretion of 188Re-liposome into feces and urine. In conclusion, the combination of EBRT with 188Re-liposome might be a potential treatment modality for esophageal cancer. PMID:26056445

  5. Pathogenic LRRK2 mutations, through increased kinase activity, produce enlarged lysosomes with reduced degradative capacity and increase ATP13A2 expression.

    PubMed

    Henry, Anastasia G; Aghamohammadzadeh, Soheil; Samaroo, Harry; Chen, Yi; Mou, Kewa; Needle, Elie; Hirst, Warren D

    2015-11-01

    Lysosomal dysfunction plays a central role in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Several genes linked to genetic forms of PD, including leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), functionally converge on the lysosomal system. While mutations in LRRK2 are commonly associated with autosomal-dominant PD, the physiological and pathological functions of this kinase remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that LRRK2 regulates lysosome size, number and function in astrocytes, which endogenously express high levels of LRRK2. Expression of LRRK2 G2019S, the most common pathological mutation, produces enlarged lysosomes and diminishes the lysosomal capacity of these cells. Enlarged lysosomes appears to be a common phenotype associated with pathogenic LRRK2 mutations, as we also observed this effect in cells expressing other LRRK2 mutations; R1441C or Y1699C. The lysosomal defects associated with these mutations are dependent on both the catalytic activity of the kinase and autophosphorylation of LRRK2 at serine 1292. Further, we demonstrate that blocking LRRK2's kinase activity, with the potent and selective inhibitor PF-06447475, rescues the observed defects in lysosomal morphology and function. The present study also establishes that G2019S mutation leads to a reduction in lysosomal pH and increased expression of the lysosomal ATPase ATP13A2, a gene linked to a parkinsonian syndrome (Kufor-Rakeb syndrome), in brain samples from mouse and human LRRK2 G2019S carriers. Together, these results demonstrate that PD-associated LRRK2 mutations perturb lysosome function in a kinase-dependent manner, highlighting the therapeutic promise of LRRK2 kinase inhibitors in the treatment of PD. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Liposomes as carriers of macrolides: preferential association of erythromycin A and azithromycin with liposomes of phosphatidylglycerol containing unsaturated fatty acid(s).

    PubMed

    Stuhne-Sekalec, L; Stanacev, N Z; Djokic, S

    1991-01-01

    To assess the most favourable phospholipid composition of a liposomal carrier for antibiotics, small multilamellar liposomes were prepared from phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol of varying fatty acid composition in the presence of erythromycin A and azithromycin. Crude liposomes were subjected to Sepharose CL-4B column chromatography, and liposomes containing antibiotics were well separated from free antibiotics. These experiments established that the greatest association of antibiotics was achieved with liposomes prepared from phosphatidylglycerol rather than phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine. Furthermore, the composition of fatty acids in phosphatidylglycerol liposomes influenced the amount of antibiotics associated with liposomes; the highest amount was obtained with dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol followed by phosphatidylglycerol of fatty acid composition similar to that of egg yolk lecithin. It was established that purified liposomes, prepared from [3H]phosphatidylglycerol containing unsaturated fatty acid(s) bind about 25 per cent of originally present antibiotic. Both antibiotics, erythromycin A and azithromycin, were similar in respect to the amount of their association with liposomes. Determination of the size of phosphatidylglycerol/antibiotic liposomes established that the mean diameter of liposomes containing antibiotics was 200-350 nm, very close to that of liposomes without them.

  7. Potential effect of cationic liposomes on interactions with oral bacterial cells and biofilms.

    PubMed

    Sugano, Marika; Morisaki, Hirobumi; Negishi, Yoichi; Endo-Takahashi, Yoko; Kuwata, Hirotaka; Miyazaki, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo

    2016-01-01

    Although oral infectious diseases have been attributed to bacteria, drug treatments remain ineffective because bacteria and their products exist as biofilms. Cationic liposomes have been suggested to electrostatically interact with the negative charge on the bacterial surface, thereby improving the effects of conventional drug therapies. However, the electrostatic interaction between oral bacteria and cationic liposomes has not yet been examined in detail. The aim of the present study was to examine the behavior of cationic liposomes and Streptococcus mutans in planktonic cells and biofilms. Liposomes with or without cationic lipid were prepared using a reverse-phase evaporation method. The zeta potentials of conventional liposomes (without cationic lipid) and cationic liposomes were -13 and 8 mV, respectively, and both had a mean particle size of approximately 180 nm. We first assessed the interaction between liposomes and planktonic bacterial cells with a flow cytometer. We then used a surface plasmon resonance method to examine the binding of liposomes to biofilms. We confirmed the binding behavior of liposomes with biofilms using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The interactions between cationic liposomes and S. mutans cells and biofilms were stronger than those of conventional liposomes. Microscopic observations revealed that many cationic liposomes interacted with the bacterial mass and penetrated the deep layers of biofilms. In this study, we demonstrated that cationic liposomes had higher affinity not only to oral bacterial cells, but also biofilms than conventional liposomes. This electrostatic interaction may be useful as a potential drug delivery system to biofilms.

  8. Effect of Surface Properties on Liposomal siRNA Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yuqiong; Tian, Jie; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes are one of the most widely investigated carriers for siRNA delivery. The surface properties of liposomal carriers, including the surface charge, PEGylation, and ligand modification can significantly affect the gene silencing efficiency. Three barriers of systemic siRNA delivery (long blood circulation, efficient tumor penetration and efficient cellular uptake/endosomal escape) are analyzed on liposomal carriers with different surface charges, PEGylations and ligand modifications. Cationic formulations dominate siRNA delivery and neutral formulations also have good performance while anionic formulations are generally not proper for siRNA delivery. The PEG dilemma (prolonged blood circulation vs. reduced cellular uptake/endosomal escape) and the side effect of repeated PEGylated formulation (accelerated blood clearance) were discussed. Effects of ligand modification on cationic and neutral formulations were analyzed. Finally, we summarized the achievements in liposomal siRNA delivery, outlined existing problems and provided some future perspectives. PMID:26695117

  9. Liposomal Packaging Generates Wnt Protein with In Vivo Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ludan; Kim, Jae-Beom; ten Berge, Derk; Ponnusamy, Karthik; Carre, A. Lyonel; Dudek, Henryk; Zachlederova, Marie; McElhaney, Michael; Brunton, Shirley; Gunzner, Janet; Callow, Marinella; Polakis, Paul; Costa, Mike; Zhang, Xiaoyan M.; Helms, Jill A.; Nusse, Roel

    2008-01-01

    Wnt signals exercise strong cell-biological and regenerative effects of considerable therapeutic value. There are, however, no specific Wnt agonists and no method for in vivo delivery of purified Wnt proteins. Wnts contain lipid adducts that are required for activity and we exploited this lipophilicity by packaging purified Wnt3a protein into lipid vesicles. Rather than being encapsulated, Wnts are tethered to the liposomal surface, where they enhance and sustain Wnt signaling in vitro. Molecules that effectively antagonize soluble Wnt3a protein but are ineffective against the Wnt3a signal presented by a cell in a paracrine or autocrine manner are also unable to block liposomal Wnt3a activity, suggesting that liposomal packaging mimics the biological state of active Wnts. When delivered subcutaneously, Wnt3a liposomes induce hair follicle neogenesis, demonstrating their robust biological activity in a regenerative context. PMID:18698373

  10. Liposomal packaging generates Wnt protein with in vivo biological activity.

    PubMed

    Morrell, Nathan T; Leucht, Philipp; Zhao, Ludan; Kim, Jae-Beom; ten Berge, Derk; Ponnusamy, Karthik; Carre, A Lyonel; Dudek, Henryk; Zachlederova, Marie; McElhaney, Michael; Brunton, Shirley; Gunzner, Janet; Callow, Marinella; Polakis, Paul; Costa, Mike; Zhang, Xiaoyan M; Helms, Jill A; Nusse, Roel

    2008-08-13

    Wnt signals exercise strong cell-biological and regenerative effects of considerable therapeutic value. There are, however, no specific Wnt agonists and no method for in vivo delivery of purified Wnt proteins. Wnts contain lipid adducts that are required for activity and we exploited this lipophilicity by packaging purified Wnt3a protein into lipid vesicles. Rather than being encapsulated, Wnts are tethered to the liposomal surface, where they enhance and sustain Wnt signaling in vitro. Molecules that effectively antagonize soluble Wnt3a protein but are ineffective against the Wnt3a signal presented by a cell in a paracrine or autocrine manner are also unable to block liposomal Wnt3a activity, suggesting that liposomal packaging mimics the biological state of active Wnts. When delivered subcutaneously, Wnt3a liposomes induce hair follicle neogenesis, demonstrating their robust biological activity in a regenerative context.

  11. Atmospheric-pressure guided streamers for liposomal membrane disruption

    SciTech Connect

    Svarnas, P.; Aleiferis, Sp.; Matrali, S. H.

    2012-12-24

    The potential to use liposomes (LIPs) as a cellular model in order to study interactions of cold atmospheric-pressure plasma with cells is herein investigated. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma is formed by a dielectric-barrier discharge reactor. Large multilamellar vesicle liposomes, consisted of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, are prepared by the thin film hydration technique, to encapsulate a small hydrophilic dye, i.e., calcein. The plasma-induced release of calcein from liposomes is then used as a measure of liposome membrane integrity and, consequently, interaction between the cold atmospheric plasma and lipid bilayers. Physical mechanisms leading to membrane disruption are suggested, based on the plasma characterizationmore » including gas temperature calculation.« less

  12. Placing and shaping liposomes with reconfigurable DNA nanocages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhao; Yang, Yang; Pincet, Frederic; C. Llaguno, Marc; Lin, Chenxiang

    2017-07-01

    The diverse structure and regulated deformation of lipid bilayer membranes are among a cell's most fascinating features. Artificial membrane-bound vesicles, known as liposomes, are versatile tools for modelling biological membranes and delivering foreign objects to cells. To fully mimic the complexity of cell membranes and optimize the efficiency of delivery vesicles, controlling liposome shape (both statically and dynamically) is of utmost importance. Here we report the assembly, arrangement and remodelling of liposomes with designer geometry: all of which are exquisitely controlled by a set of modular, reconfigurable DNA nanocages. Tubular and toroid shapes, among others, are transcribed from DNA cages to liposomes with high fidelity, giving rise to membrane curvatures present in cells yet previously difficult to construct in vitro. Moreover, the conformational changes of DNA cages drive membrane fusion and bending with predictable outcomes, opening up opportunities for the systematic study of membrane mechanics.

  13. Bioreactor droplets from liposome-stabilized all-aqueous emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, Daniel C.; Strulson, Christopher A.; Cacace, David N.; Bevilacqua, Philip C.; Keating, Christine D.

    2014-08-01

    Artificial bioreactors are desirable for in vitro biochemical studies and as protocells. A key challenge is maintaining a favourable internal environment while allowing substrate entry and product departure. We show that semipermeable, size-controlled bioreactors with aqueous, macromolecularly crowded interiors can be assembled by liposome stabilization of an all-aqueous emulsion. Dextran-rich aqueous droplets are dispersed in a continuous polyethylene glycol (PEG)-rich aqueous phase, with coalescence inhibited by adsorbed ~130-nm diameter liposomes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and dynamic light scattering data indicate that the liposomes, which are PEGylated and negatively charged, remain intact at the interface for extended time. Inter-droplet repulsion provides electrostatic stabilization of the emulsion, with droplet coalescence prevented even for submonolayer interfacial coatings. RNA and DNA can enter and exit aqueous droplets by diffusion, with final concentrations dictated by partitioning. The capacity to serve as microscale bioreactors is established by demonstrating a ribozyme cleavage reaction within the liposome-coated droplets.

  14. Bioreactor droplets from liposome-stabilized all-aqueous emulsions.

    PubMed

    Dewey, Daniel C; Strulson, Christopher A; Cacace, David N; Bevilacqua, Philip C; Keating, Christine D

    2014-08-20

    Artificial bioreactors are desirable for in vitro biochemical studies and as protocells. A key challenge is maintaining a favourable internal environment while allowing substrate entry and product departure. We show that semipermeable, size-controlled bioreactors with aqueous, macromolecularly crowded interiors can be assembled by liposome stabilization of an all-aqueous emulsion. Dextran-rich aqueous droplets are dispersed in a continuous polyethylene glycol (PEG)-rich aqueous phase, with coalescence inhibited by adsorbed ~130-nm diameter liposomes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and dynamic light scattering data indicate that the liposomes, which are PEGylated and negatively charged, remain intact at the interface for extended time. Inter-droplet repulsion provides electrostatic stabilization of the emulsion, with droplet coalescence prevented even for submonolayer interfacial coatings. RNA and DNA can enter and exit aqueous droplets by diffusion, with final concentrations dictated by partitioning. The capacity to serve as microscale bioreactors is established by demonstrating a ribozyme cleavage reaction within the liposome-coated droplets.

  15. Chemical meningitis related to intra-CSF liposomal cytarabine.

    PubMed

    Durand, Bénédicte; Zairi, Fahed; Boulanger, Thomas; Bonneterre, Jacques; Mortier, Laurent; Le Rhun, Emilie

    2017-10-01

    Therapeutic options of leptomeningeal metastases include intra-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) chemotherapy. Among intra-CSF agents, liposomal cytarabine has advantages but can induce specific toxicities. A BRAF-V600E-mutated melanoma leptomeningeal metastases patient, treated by dabrafenib and liposomal cytarabine, presented after the first injection of liposomal cytarabine with hyperthermia and headaches. Despite sterile CSF/blood analyses, extended intravenous antibiotics were given and the second injection was delayed. The diagnosis of chemical meningitis was finally made. Dose reduction and appropriate symptomatic treatment permitted the administration of 15 injections of liposomal cytarabine combined with dabrafenib. A confirmation of the diagnosis of chemical meningitis is essential in order (1) not to delay intra-CSF or systemic chemotherapy or (2) to limit the administration of unnecessary but potentially toxic antibiotics.

  16. Syntheses and characterization of liposome-incorporated adamantyl aminoguanidines.

    PubMed

    Šekutor, Marina; Štimac, Adela; Mlinarić-Majerski, Kata; Frkanec, Ruža

    2014-08-21

    A series of mono and bis-aminoguanidinium adamantane derivatives has been synthesized and incorporated into liposomes. They combine two biomedically significant molecules, the adamantane moiety and the guanidinium group. The adamantane moiety possesses the membrane compatible features while the cationic guanidinium subunit was recognized as a favourable structural feature for binding to complementary molecules comprising phosphate groups. The liposome formulations of adamantyl aminoguanidines were characterized and it was shown that the entrapment efficiency of the examined compounds is significant. In addition, it was demonstrated that liposomes with incorporated adamantyl aminoguanidines effectively recognized the complementary liposomes via the phosphate group. These results indicate that adamantane derivatives bearing guanidinium groups might be versatile tools for biomedical application, from studies of molecular recognition processes to usage in drug formulation and cell targeting.

  17. Liposomes with polyribonucleotides as model of precellular systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baeza, Isabel; Ibanez, Miguel; Santiago, Carlos; Lazcano, Antonio; Arguello, Carlos

    1987-01-01

    Three types of liposomes were prepared under anoxic conditions: from dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline (DPPC), from egg yolk phosphatidyl choline (PC), and from PC with cholesterol (PC:Chol). These were used for encapsulation of poly(U) and poly(C). It was found that 36 to 70 percent of the available liposome lipids and 2 to 5 percent of the polyribonucleotides could be entrapped. An enhanced encapsulation of poly(U) and poly(C) by all three types of liposomes was observed in the presence of 0.001 to 0.01 M Zn(2+), with the effect being greatest with DPPC. The presence of 1.0 M urea inhibited the formation of PC liposomes.

  18. Placing and shaping liposomes with reconfigurable DNA nanocages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhao; Yang, Yang; Pincet, Frederic; Llaguno, Marc C; Lin, Chenxiang

    2017-06-23

    The diverse structure and regulated deformation of lipid bilayer membranes are among a cell's most fascinating features. Artificial membrane-bound vesicles, known as liposomes, are versatile tools for modelling biological membranes and delivering foreign objects to cells. To fully mimic the complexity of cell membranes and optimize the efficiency of delivery vesicles, controlling liposome shape (both statically and dynamically) is of utmost importance. Here we report the assembly, arrangement and remodelling of liposomes with designer geometry: all of which are exquisitely controlled by a set of modular, reconfigurable DNA nanocages. Tubular and toroid shapes, among others, are transcribed from DNA cages to liposomes with high fidelity, giving rise to membrane curvatures present in cells yet previously difficult to construct in vitro. Moreover, the conformational changes of DNA cages drive membrane fusion and bending with predictable outcomes, opening up opportunities for the systematic study of membrane mechanics.

  19. Transcutaneous drug delivery by liposomes using fractional laser technology.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Takahiro; Wang, Jian; Baba, Kazuki; Oki, Yuka; Hiruta, Yuki; Ito, Masayuki; Ito, Shinobu; Kanazawa, Hideko

    2017-07-01

    Transdermal delivery of hydrophilic peptides remains a challenge due to their poor cellular uptake and transdermal penetration. We hypothesize that combination of a CO 2 fractional laser to enhance percutaneous absorption and liposomes as transdermal carriers would improve skin penetration of hydrophilic drugs. NA. Liposomes were prepared using membrane fusion lipid dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine, and used to deliver 5-carboxyfluorescein (CF) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated ovalbumin (OVA-FITC) as model hydrophilic peptide drugs. Liposome size was estimated by dynamic light scattering. Liposome uptake into murine macrophage cells and penetration or permeation into Yucatan micropig skin after irradiation by CO 2 fractional laser at varying energy levels (laser power and exposure duration) were investigated using Franz cell and fluorescence microscopy. Oxidative damage to the irradiated mouse skin was assessed by electron spin resonance. Size of CF and OVA-FITC encapsulated liposomes was 324 ± 75 nm. Cellular uptake of OVA-FITC delivered by liposomes was 10-fold higher (1,370 relative fluorescence units, RFU) than delivered in solution form (130 RFU). Fractional laser irradiation increased skin permeation rate of CF liposomes (0-10%) and OVA-FITC liposomes (4-40%) in a dose-dependent manner. Although peeling off the stratum corneum facilitated CF liposome penetration at low energy levels (2.69-3.29 J/cm 2 ; 10-20 W for 500 μs), drug permeation was similar (7-8%) in peeled or untreated skin at higher laser energy levels (6.06 J/cm 2 ; 20 W for 1,500 μs). FITC penetrated deeper in the skin after laser irradiation. However, OH, O2-, and VC reactive oxygen species were generated upon irradiation of the skin with a fractional CO 2 laser. Increasing laser power and irradiation, time increased liposome uptake by cells and penetration of peptide drugs across the skin in a dose-dependent manner. High-energy CO 2 fractional laser overcomes the

  20. Characterization of drug release from liposomal formulations in ocular fluid.

    PubMed

    Jafari, M R; Jones, A B; Hikal, A H; Williamson, J S; Wyandt, C M

    1998-01-01

    The successful application of liposomes in topical ophthalmic drug delivery requires knowledge of vesicle stabilization in the presence of tear fluid. The release of procaine hydrochloride (PCH) from large unilamellar liposomes in the presence of simulated tear fluid was studied in vitro as a function of bilayer lipid content and tear protein composition. Reverse-phase evaporation vesicles were prepared from egg phosphatidylcholine, stearylamine or dicetyl phosphate, and cholesterol. The relationship between lipid composition and encapsulation efficiency, vesicle size, drug leakage upon storage at 4 degrees C, and the release of PCH-loaded liposomes was studied. The encapsulation efficiency was found to be dependent upon the lipid composition used in the liposome preparation. In particular, phosphatidylcholine vesicles containing cholesterol and/or charged lipids had a lower entrapment efficiency than liposomes prepared with phosphatidylcholine alone. However, the drug release rate was reduced significantly by inclusion of cholesterol and/or charged lipids in the liposomes. The release kinetics of the entrapped agent seemed to be a biphasic process and the drug-release in both simulated tear fluid (STF) and pH 7.4 phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solutions followed pseudo first-order kinetics in the early stage of the release profile. The drug-release appeared to be diffusion and/or partition controlled. Drug release from liposomes into STF, pH 7.4 PBS, and five different modified tear formulations was also evaluated. While serum-induced leakage is attributed to high-density lipoprotein-mediated destabilization, it was determined that lactoferrin might be the protein component in tear fluid that has the primary influence on the liposome-entrapped drug release rate. Five local anesthetics, benoxinate, proparacaine, procaine, tetracaine, and benzocaine were entrapped in liposomal vesicles by a reverse-phase evaporation (REV) technique. The release of these

  1. Liposomal temozolomide drug delivery using convection enhanced delivery.

    PubMed

    Nordling-David, Mirjam M; Yaffe, Roni; Guez, David; Meirow, Hadar; Last, David; Grad, Etty; Salomon, Sharona; Sharabi, Shirley; Levi-Kalisman, Yael; Golomb, Gershon; Mardor, Yael

    2017-09-10

    Even though some progress in diagnosis and treatment has been made over the years, there is still no definitive treatment available for Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Convection-enhanced delivery (CED), a continuous infusion-mediated pressure gradient via intracranial catheters, studied in clinical trials, enables in situ drug concentrations several orders of magnitude greater than those achieved by systemic administration. We hypothesized that the currently limited efficacy of CED could be enhanced by a liposomal formulation, thus achieving enhanced drug localization to the tumor site with minimal toxicity. We hereby describe a novel approach for treating GBM by CED of liposomes containing the known chemotherapeutic agent, temozolomide (TMZ). A new technique for encapsulating TMZ in hydrophilic (PEGylated) liposomes, characterized by nano-size (121nm), low polydispersity index (<0.13) and with near-neutral charge (-ʒ,0.2mV), has been developed. Co-infusion of PEGylated Gd-DTPA liposomes and TMZ-liposomes by CED in GBM bearing rats, resulted in enhanced tumor detection with longer residence time than free Gd-DTPA. Treatment of GBM-bearing rats with either TMZ solution or TMZ-liposomes resulted in greater tumor inhibition and significantly higher survival. However, the longer survival and smaller tumor volumes exhibited by TMZ liposomal treatment in comparison to TMZ in solution were insignificant (p<0.053); and only significantly lower edema volumes were observed. Thus, there are no clear-cut advantages to use a liposomal delivery system of TMZ via CED over a drug solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimization of liposomal topotecan for use in treating neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Chernov, Lina; Deyell, Rebecca J; Anantha, Malathi; Dos Santos, Nancy; Gilabert-Oriol, Roger; Bally, Marcel B

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop an optimized liposomal formulation of topotecan for use in the treatment of patients with neuroblastoma. Drug exposure time studies were used to determine that topotecan (Hycamtin) exhibited great cytotoxic activity against SK-N-SH, IMR-32 and LAN-1 neuroblastoma human cell lines. Sphingomyelin (SM)/cholesterol (Chol) and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC)/Chol liposomes were prepared using extrusion methods and then loaded with topotecan by pH gradient and copper-drug complexation. In vitro studies showed that SM/Chol liposomes retained topotecan significantly better than DSPC/Chol liposomes. Decreasing the drug-to-lipid ratio engendered significant increases in drug retention. Dose-range finding studies on NRG mice indicated that an optimized SM/Chol liposomal formulation of topotecan prepared with a final drug-to-lipid ratio of 0.025 (mol: mol) was better tolerated than the previously described DSPC/Chol topotecan formulation. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that the optimized SM/Chol liposomal topotecan exhibited a 10-fold increase in plasma half-life and a 1000-fold increase in AUC 0-24 h when compared with Hycamtin administered at equivalent doses (5 mg/kg). In contrast to the great extension in exposure time, SM/Chol liposomal topotecan increased the life span of mice with established LAN-1 neuroblastoma tumors only modestly in a subcutaneous and systemic model. The extension in exposure time may still not be sufficient and the formulation may require further optimization. In the future, liposomal topotecan will be assessed in combination with high-dose radiotherapy such as 131 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine, and immunotherapy treatment modalities currently used in neuroblastoma therapy. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Copper-64 Labeled Liposomes for Imaging Bone Marrow

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-gyu; Gangangari, Kishore; Kalidindi, Teja Muralidhar; Punzalan, Blesida; Larson, Steven M.; Pillarsetty, Naga Vara Kishore

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bone marrow is the soft tissue compartment inside the bones made up of hematopoietic cells, adipocytes, stromal cells, phagocytic cells, stem cells, and sinusoids. While [18F]-FLT has been utilized to image proliferative marrow, to date, there are no reports of particle based positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents for imaging bone marrow. We have developed copper-64 labeled liposomal formulation that selectively targets bone marrow and therefore serves as an efficient PET probe for imaging bone marrow. Methods Optimized liposomal formulations were prepared with succinyl PE, DSPC, cholesterol, and mPEG-DSPE (69:39:1:10:0.1) with diameters of 90 and 140 nm, and were doped with DOTA-Bn-DSPE for stable 64Cu incorporation into liposomes. Results PET imaging and biodistribution studies with 64Cu-labeled liposomes indicate that accumulation in bone marrow was as high as 15.18 ± 3.69 %ID/g for 90 nm liposomes and 7.01 ± 0.92 %ID/g for 140 nm liposomes at 24 h post-administration. In vivo biodistribution studies in tumor-bearing mice indicate that the uptake of 90 nm particles is approximately 0.89 ± 0.48 %ID/g in tumor and 14.22 ± 8.07 %ID/g in bone marrow, but respective values for Doxil® like liposomes are 0.83 ± 0.49 %ID/g and 2.23 ± 1.00 %ID/g. Conclusion Our results indicate that our novel PET labeled liposomes target bone marrow with very high efficiency and therefore can function as efficient bone marrow imaging agents. PMID:27694056

  4. [Liposomal-amphotericin B efficacy and safety].

    PubMed

    Hamada, Yukihiro; Komatsu, Toshiaki; Seto, Yoshinori; Matsubara, Hajime; Kume, Hikaru; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Yago, Kazuo

    2010-03-01

    Liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB), a lipid-based amphotericin B formulation, has been used in Japan since June 2006 to treat fungal infection. In the 3 years since L-AMB was launched, few reports have been made on its status. To ensure its appropriate use, we restrospectively reviewed its efficacy and safety in treating fungal infections. 25 subjects with fungal infection treated with L-AMB from April 2007 until February 2008. Of those, 16 showed clinical improvement. Elevated serum creatinine occurred in 1 and decreased serum potassium in 6. We found a positive relationship between the serum potassium decrease and L-AMB dose. Logistic regression analysis of this relationship showed that serum potassium tended to fall on day 5 to 6 of L-AMB administration. While L-AMB appears highly effective in fungal infection, it requires serum potassium monitoring to ensure patient safety.

  5. Deciphering the Functional Composition of Fusogenic Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Kolašinac, Rejhana; Kleusch, Christian; Braun, Tobias; Merkel, Rudolf; Csiszár, Agnes

    2018-01-01

    Cationic liposomes are frequently used as carrier particles for nucleic acid delivery. The most popular formulation is the equimolar mixture of two components, a cationic lipid and a neutral phosphoethanolamine. Its uptake pathway has been described as endocytosis. The presence of an aromatic molecule as a third component strongly influences the cellular uptake process and results in complete membrane fusion instead of endocytosis. Here, we systematically varied all three components of this lipid mixture and determined how efficiently the resulting particles fused with the plasma membrane of living mammalian cells. Our results show that an aromatic molecule and a cationic lipid component with conical molecular shape are essential for efficient fusion induction. While a neutral lipid is not mandatory, it can be used to control fusion efficiency and, in the most extreme case, to revert the uptake mechanism back to endocytosis. PMID:29364187

  6. High Permeation Rates in Liposome Systems Explain Rapid Glyphosate Biodegradation Associated with Strong Isotope Fractionation.

    PubMed

    Ehrl, Benno N; Mogusu, Emmanuel O; Kim, Kyoungtea; Hofstetter, Heike; Pedersen, Joel A; Elsner, Martin

    2018-06-19

    Bacterial uptake of charged organic pollutants such as the widely used herbicide glyphosate is typically attributed to active transporters, whereas passive membrane permeation as an uptake pathway is usually neglected. For 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl- sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) liposomes, the pH-dependent apparent membrane permeation coefficients ( P app ) of glyphosate, determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, varied from P app (pH 7.0) = 3.7 (±0.3) × 10 -7 m·s -1 to P app (pH 4.1) = 4.2 (±0.1) × 10 -6 m·s -1 . The magnitude of this surprisingly rapid membrane permeation depended on glyphosate speciation and was, at circumneutral pH, in the range of polar, noncharged molecules. These findings point to passive membrane permeation as a potential uptake pathway during glyphosate biodegradation. To test this hypothesis, a Gram-negative glyphosate degrader, Ochrobactrum sp. FrEM, was isolated from glyphosate-treated soil and glyphosate permeation rates inferred from the liposome model system were compared to bacterial degradation rates. Estimated maximum permeation rates were, indeed, 2 orders of magnitude higher than degradation rates of glyphosate. In addition, biodegradation of millimolar glyphosate concentrations gave rise to pronounced carbon isotope fractionation with an apparent kinetic isotope effect, AKIE carbon , of 1.014 ± 0.003. This value lies in the range typical of non-masked enzymatic isotope fractionation demonstrating that glyphosate biodegradation was not subject to mass transfer limitations and glyphosate exchange across the cell membrane was rapid relative to enzymatic turnover.

  7. Liposomal SLA co-incorporated with PO CpG ODNs or PS CpG ODNs induce the same protection against the murine model of leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Shargh, Vahid Heravi; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Khamesipour, Ali; Jaafari, Iman; Jalali, Seyed Amir; Abbasi, Azam; Badiee, Ali

    2012-06-06

    First generation Leishmania vaccines consisting of whole killed parasites with or without adjuvants have reached phase 3 trial and failed to show enough efficacy mainly due to the lack of an appropriate adjuvant. In this study, the nuclease-resistant phosphorothioate CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (PS CpG) or nuclease-sensitive phosphodiester CpG ODNs (PO CpG) were used as adjuvants to enhance immunogenicity and rate of protection against leishmaniasis. Due to the susceptibility of PO CpG to nuclease degradation, an efficient liposomal delivery system was developed to protect them from degradation. 1, 2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) as a cationic lipid was used because of its unique adjuvanticity and electrostatic interaction with negatively charged CpG ODNs. To evaluate the role of liposomal formulation in protection rate and enhanced immune response, BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with liposomal soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA) co-incorporated with PO CpG (Lip-SLA-PO CpG), Lip-SLA-PS CpG, SLA+PO CpG, SLA+PS CpG, SLA or buffer. As criteria for protection, footpad swelling at the site of challenge, parasite loads, the levels of IFN-γ and IL-4, and the IgG subtypes were evaluated. The groups of mice receiving Lip-SLA-PO CpG or Lip-SLA-PS CpG showed a high protection rate compared with the control groups. In addition, there was no significant difference in immune response generation between mice immunized with PS CpG and the group receiving PO CpG when incorporated into the liposomes. The results suggested that liposomal form of PO CpG might be used instead of PS CpG in future vaccine formulations as an efficient adjuvant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Long-Circulating, pH-Sensitive Liposomes.

    PubMed

    Momekova, Denitsa; Rangelov, Stanislav; Lambov, Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    A major limiting factor for the wide application of pH-sensitive liposomes is their recognition and sequestration by the phagocytes of the reticuloendothelial system, which conditions a very short circulation half-life. Typically prolonged circulation of liposomes is achieved by grafting their membranes with pegylated phospholipids (PEG-lipids), which have been shown, however, to deteriorate membrane integrity on one hand and to hamper the pH-responsiveness on the other. Hence, the need for novel alternative surface modifying agents to ensure effective half-life prolongation of pH-sensitive liposomes is a subject of intensive research. A series of copolymers having short blocks of lipid-mimetic units has been shown to sterically stabilize conventional liposomes based on different phospholipids. This has prompted us to broaden their utilization to pH-sensitive liposomes, too. The present contribution gives a thorough account on the chemical synthesis of these copolymers their incorporation in DOPE:CHEMs pH-sensitive liposomes and detailed explanation on the battery of techniques for the biopharmaceutical characterization of the prepared formulations in terms of pH-responsiveness, cellular internalization, in vivo pharmacokinetics and biodistribution.

  9. Long-circulating, pH-sensitive liposomes.

    PubMed

    Momekova, Denitsa; Rangelov, Stanislav; Lambov, Nikolay

    2010-01-01

    A major limiting factor for the wide application of pH-sensitive liposomes is their recognition and sequestration by the phagocytes of the reticulo-endothelial system, which conditions a very short circulation half-life. Typically prolonged circulation of liposomes is achieved by grafting their membranes with pegylated phospholipids (PEG-lipids), which have been shown, however, to deteriorate membrane integrity on one hand and to hamper the pH-responsiveness on the other. Hence, the need for novel alternative surface modifying agents to ensure effective half-life prolongation of pH-sensitive liposomes is a subject of intensive research. A series of copolymers having short blocks of lipid-mimetic units has been shown to sterically stabilize conventional liposomes based on different phospholipids. This has prompted us to broaden their utilization to pH-sensitive liposomes, too. The present contribution gives thorough account on the chemical synthesis of these copolymers their incorporation in DOPE:CHEMs pH-sensitive liposomes and detailed explanation on the battery of techniques for the biopharmaceutical characterization of the prepared formulations in terms of pH-responsiveness, cellular internalization, in vivo pharmacokinetics and biodistribution.

  10. Calcium-Responsive Liposomes via a Synthetic Lipid Switch.

    PubMed

    Lou, Jinchao; Carr, Adam J; Watson, Alexa J; Mattern-Schain, Samuel I; Best, Michael D

    2018-03-07

    Liposomal drug delivery would benefit from enhanced control over content release. Here, we report a novel avenue for triggering release driven by chemical composition using liposomes sensitized to calcium-a target chosen due to its key roles in biology and disease. To demonstrate this principle, we synthesized calcium-responsive lipid switch 1, designed to undergo conformational changes upon calcium binding. The conformational change perturbs membrane integrity, thereby promoting cargo release. This was shown through fluorescence-based release assays via dose-dependent response depending on the percentage of 1 in liposomes, with minimal background leakage in controls. DLS experiments indicated dramatic changes in particle size upon treatment of liposomes containing 1 with calcium. In a comparison of ten naturally occurring metal cations, calcium provided the greatest release. Finally, STEM images showed significant changes in liposome morphology upon treatment of liposomes containing 1 with calcium. These results showcase lipid switches driven by molecular recognition principles as an exciting avenue for controlling membrane properties. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Development and characterization of multilamellar liposomes containing pyridostigmine.

    PubMed

    Souza, Ana Carolina Moreira; Grabe-Guimarães, Andrea; Souza, Jacqueline; Botacim, Wallace Entringer; Almeida, Tamara Marine; Frézard, Fréderic Jean Georges; Silva Barcellos, Neila Márcia

    2014-06-01

    Pyridostigmine has cardioprotective activity in both free and liposomal forms. This study aimed to develop and characterize liposomal formulations of pyridostigmine. For this, a spectrophotometric ultraviolet (UV) analytical method, at 270 nm, was developed and validated to quantify liposomal pyridostigmine. The method was linear in ranges from 0.02 to 0.09 mg/mL. The accuracy of this method was determined intra- and inter-day; the results of coefficient of variation were of 1.73-2.72% and 0.32-2.32%, respectively. The accuracy ranged between 99.45% and 101.12%. The method has not changed by influence of liposomal matrix and demonstrated being able to quantify pyridostigmine in liposomes. Two liposomal multilamellar formulations were developed: a constituted by dystearoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) and cholesterol (CHOL) other by dioleil-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) and CHOL. The encapsulation efficiency was determined as 23.4% and 15.4%, respectively. Analyses of size and release of pyridostigmine from the formulations were made and the results showed that the formulations are viable for future studies in vivo.

  12. Modification of wool surface by liposomes for dyeing with weld.

    PubMed

    Montazer, Majid; Zolfaghari, Alireza; Toliat, Taibeh; Moghadam, Mohammad Bameni

    2009-01-01

    In this research work, wool surface has been modified by liposome to investigate its effects on dyeing with weld, a yellow natural dye. To do this, samples were first treated with aluminium sulphate and afterward with different concentrations of liposomes at various temperatures for 30 minutes and, finally, dyed with weld at 75, 85, and 95 degrees C for 30, 45, and 60 minutes. K/S values of fabric samples were calculated and washing, light and rub fastness properties of the samples were indicated. The results proposed that the sample treated with 1% liposomes and dyed at 75 degrees C for 60 min has the highest K/S value. The central composite design (CCD) used for the experimental plan with three variables on the results of color strength and statistical analysis confirms the optimum conditions obtained by the experimental results. It was also found that washing, light, wet, and dry rub fastness properties of samples dyed with weld, including liposomes, have not significantly changed. The results of water drop absorption indicated that the hydrophobicity is higher for the samples pretreated with liposomes. The SEM picture of wool sample treated with mordant and liposomes and finally dyed with weld shows a coated layer on the fiber surface.

  13. Interaction of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes and insulin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mady, Mohsen M.; Elshemey, Wael M.

    2011-06-01

    Insulin, a peptide that has been used for decades in the treatment of diabetes, has well-defined properties and delivery requirements. Liposomes, which are lipid bilayer vesicles, have gained increasing attention as drug carriers which reduce the toxicity and increase the pharmacological activity of various drugs. The molecular interaction between (uncharged lipid) dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes and insulin has been characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction. The characteristic protein absorption band peaks, Amide I (at about 1660 cm-1) and Amide II band (at about 1546 cm-1) are potentially reduced in the liposome insulin complex. Wide-angle x-ray scattering measurements showed that the association of insulin with DPPC lipid of liposomes still maintains the characteristic DPPC diffraction peaks with almost no change in relative intensities or change in peak positions. The absence of any shift in protein peak positions after insulin being associated with DPPC liposomes indicates that insulin is successfully forming complex with DPPC liposomes with possibly no pronounced alterations in the structure of insulin molecule.

  14. Liposomal preparations of muramyl glycopeptides as immunomodulators and adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Turánek, Jaroslav; Ledvina, Miroslav; Kasná, Andrea; Vacek, Antonín; Hríbalova, Vera; Krejcí, Josef; Miller, Andrew D

    2006-04-12

    The need for safe and structurally defined immunomodulators and adjuvants is increasing in connection with the recently observed marked increase in the prevalence of pathological conditions characterized by immunodeficiency. Important groups of such compounds are muramyl glycopeptides, analogs of muramyl dipeptide (MDP), glucosaminyl-muramyl dipeptide (GMDP), and desmuramylpeptides. We have designed and synthesized new types of analogs with changes in both the sugar and the peptide parts of the molecule that show a high immunostimulating and adjuvant activity and suppressed adverse side effects. The introduction of lipophilic residues has also improved their incorporation into liposomes, which represent a suitable drug carrier. The proliposome-liposome method is based on the conversion of the initial proliposome preparation into liposome dispersion by dilution with the aqueous phase. The description of a home-made stirred thermostated cell and its link-up with a liquid delivery system for a rapid and automated preparation of multilamellar liposomes at strictly controlled conditions (sterility, temperature, dilution rate and schedule) is presented. The cell has been designed for laboratory-scale preparation of liposomes (300-1000 mg of phospholipid per run) in a procedure taking less than 90 min. The method can be readily scaled up. Examples of adjuvant and immunostimulatory effect of liposomal preparation in mice model will be presented.

  15. The Role of Liposomal Bupivacaine in Value-Based Care.

    PubMed

    Iorio, Richard

    Multimodal pain control strategies are crucial in reducing opioid use and delivering effective pain management to facilitate improved surgical outcomes. The utility of liposomal bupivacaine in enabling effective pain control in multimodal strategies has been demonstrated in several studies, but others have found the value of liposomal bupivacaine in such approaches to be insignificant. At New York University Langone Medical Center, liposomal bupivacaine injection and femoral nerve block were compared in their delivery of efficacious and cost-effective multimodal analgesia among patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Retrospective analysis revealed that including liposomal bupivacaine in a multimodal pain control protocol for TJA resulted in improved quality and efficiency metrics, decreased narcotic use, and faster mobilization, all relative to femoral nerve block, and without a significant increase in admission costs. In addition, liposomal bupivacaine use was associated with elimination of the need for patient-controlled analgesia in TJA. Thus, at Langone Medical Center, the introduction of liposomal bupivacaine to TJA has been instrumental in achieving adequate pain control, delivering high-level quality of care, and controlling costs.

  16. Chondrotoxicity of Liposomal Bupivacaine in Articular Chondrocytes: Preliminary Findings.

    PubMed

    Shaw, K Aaron; Johnson, Peter C; Zumbrun, Steve; Chuang, Augustine H; Cameron, Craig D

    2017-03-01

    The chondrotoxicity of local anesthetics has been previously recognized. Recent introduction of a liposomal formulation of bupivacaine has been found to significantly improve postoperative pain control but its effect on chondrocyte viability has yet to be investigated with this new formulation. We sought to assess the in vitro chondrotoxicity of liposomal bupivacaine. Chondrocytes were isolated from articular cartilage from fresh stifle joints and grown in culture medium. Cultured chondrocyte-derived cells (CDCs) were treated with 0.9% normal saline solution, 0.5%, 0.25%, and 0.13% bupivacaine and ropivacaine, 1.3% liposomal bupivacaine for 1 hour. Following treatment, cells were washed and incubated in media for 23 hours. The CDCs were then harvested and viability was assessed by flow cytometry using SYTOX green dead cell stain. Treated CDCs demonstrated a dose-response effect for chondrocyte viability when treated with bupivacaine, ropivacaine, and liposomal bupivacaine. Liposomal bupivacaine demonstrated the highest chondrocyte viability following treatment. Ropivacaine demonstrated higher chondrocyte viability than bupivacaine. Following 1 hour of treatment, liposomal bupivacaine demonstrated the highest chondrocyte viability. Chondrocyte viability was inversely proportional to anesthetic concentration. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  17. Intraperitoneal (188)Re-Liposome delivery switches ovarian cancer metabolism from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation and effectively controls ovarian tumour growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yao An; Lan, Keng Li; Chang, Chih Hsien; Lin, Liang Ting; He, Chun Lin; Chen, Po Hung; Lee, Te Wei; Lee, Yi Jang; Chuang, Chi Mu

    2016-05-01

    Cancer stem cells exhibit distinctive cellular metabolism compared with the more differentiated counterparts or normal cells. We aimed to investigate the impact of a novel radionuclide anti-cancer agent (188)Re-Liposome on stemness markers' expression and cellular metabolism in an ovarian cancer model. A 2×2 factorial experiment was designed in which factor 1 represented the drug treatment comparing (188)Re-BMEDA, a free form of (188)Re, with (188)Re-Liposome, a nanoparticle-encapsulated form of (188)Re. Factor 2 represented the delivery route, comparing intravenous with intraperitoneal delivery. Intraperitoneal delivery of (188)Re-Liposome predominantly killed the CSCs-like cells in tumours and switched metabolism from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation. Further, intraperitoneal delivery of (188)Re-Liposome treatment was able to block epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and reactivate p53 function. Collectively, these molecular changes led to a striking tumour-killing effect. Radionuclides encapsulated in liposomes may represent a novel treatment for ovarian cancer when delivered intraperitoneally (a type of loco-regional delivery). In the future, this concept may be further extended for the treatment of several relevant cancers that have been proved to be suitable for loco-regional delivery of therapeutic agents, such as colon cancer, gastric cancer, and pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of liposomes on the rate of alkaline hydrolysis of indomethacin and acemetacin.

    PubMed

    Matos, C; Chaimovich, H; Lima, J L; Cuccovia, I M; Reis, S

    2001-03-01

    The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic drugs indomethacin (INDO) and acemetacin (ACE), extensively used for the treatment of diseases of degenerative or inflammatory character, exhibit marked gastric irritant action, have low water solubility at neutral pH, and decompose in alkali. Alternative formulations are being investigated to obtain products with lower toxicity and higher stability. Here we examine the effect of liposome charge on the rate of alkaline decomposition of INDO and ACE using micelles as reference. Binding of ACE and INDO to zwitterionic hexadecylphosphocholine (HDPC) micelles and phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes was analyzed using a two-phase separation model to quantify the effect of these aggregates on the rate of alkaline degradation. The substrate association constants to HDPC micelles were 1335 and 2192 M(-1) for INDO and ACE, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for PC vesicles were 612 and 3050 M(-1). The difference was attributed to the additional hydrophobicity of ACE. The inhibitory effect of HDPC micelles and PC vesicles was quantified by calculating the ratio between the rate constants in water (k(w)) and in the aggregate (k(m)). The values of the k(w)/k(m) ratios for INDO and ACE in HDPC micelles were, respectively, 80 and 42, and in PC liposomes these ratios were 21 and 3.7, respectively. Positively charged micelles of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) and vesicles containing varying proportions of dioctadecyldimethylammonium chloride (DODAC) and PC increase the rate of INDO and ACE alkaline decomposition. Vesicle effects were very sensitive to the DODAC/PC ratio, with rates increasing with the proportion of DODAC. The data were analyzed quantitatively using a pseudophase model with explicit consideration of ion exchange. The calculated second-order rate constants in micelles and vesicles were lower than that in water. The charge density in the liposome necessary to increase the entrapment efficiency

  19. From conventional to stealth liposomes: a new frontier in cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cattel, Luigi; Ceruti, Maurizio; Dosio, Franco

    2003-01-01

    Many attempts have been made to achieve good selectivity to targeted tumor cells by preparing specialized carrier agents that are therapeutically profitable for anticancer therapy. Among these, liposomes are the most studied colloidal particles thus far applied in medicine and in particular in antitumor therapy. Although they were first described in the 1960s, only at the beginning of 1990s did the first therapeutic liposomes appear on the market. The first-generation liposomes (conventional liposomes) comprised a liposome-containing amphotericin B, Ambisome (Nexstar, Boulder, CO, USA), used as an antifungal drug, and Myocet (Elan Pharma Int, Princeton, NJ, USA), a doxorubicin-containing liposome, used in clinical trials to treat metastatic breast cancer. The second-generation liposomes ("pure lipid approach") were long-circulating liposomes, such as Daunoxome, a daunorubicin-containing liposome approved in the US and Europe to treat AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. The third-generation liposomes were surface-modified liposomes with gangliosides or sialic acid, which can evade the immune system responsible for removing liposomes from circulation. The fourth-generation liposomes, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, were called "stealth liposomes" because of their ability to evade interception by the immune system, in the same way as the stealth bomber was able to evade radar. Actually, the only stealth liposome on the market is Caelyx/Doxil (Schering-Plough, Madison NJ, USA), used to cure AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma, resistant ovarian cancer and metastatic breast cancer. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin is characterized by a very long-circulation half-life, favorable pharmacokinetic behavior and specific accumulation in tumor tissues. These features account for the much lower toxicity shown by Caelyx in comparison to free doxorubicin, in terms of cardiotoxicity, vesicant effects, nausea, vomiting and alopecia. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin also appeared to be less

  20. Liposome encapsulated berberine treatment attenuates cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Allijn, Iris E; Czarny, Bertrand M S; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Chong, Suet Yen; Weiler, Marek; da Silva, Acarilia Eduardo; Metselaar, Josbert M; Lam, Carolyn Su Ping; Pastorin, Giorgia; de Kleijn, Dominique P V; Storm, Gert; Wang, Jiong-Wei; Schiffelers, Raymond M

    2017-02-10

    Inflammation is a known mediator of adverse ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI) that may lead to reduction of ejection fraction and subsequent heart failure. Berberine is a isoquinoline quarternary alkaloid from plants that has been associated with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and cardioprotective properties. Its poor solubility in aqueous buffers and its short half-life in the circulation upon injection, however, have been hampering the extensive usage of this natural product. We hypothesized that encapsulation of berberine into long circulating liposomes could improve its therapeutic availability and efficacy by protecting cardiac function against MI in vivo. Berberine-loaded liposomes were prepared by ethanol injection and characterized. They contained 0.3mg/mL of the drug and were 0.11μm in diameter. Subsequently they were tested for IL-6 secretion inhibition in RAW 264.7 macrophages and for cardiac function protection against adverse remodeling after MI in C57BL/6J mice. In vitro, free berberine significantly inhibited IL-6 secretion (IC 50 =10.4μM), whereas encapsulated berberine did not as it was not released from the formulation in the time frame of the in vitro study. In vivo, berberine-loaded liposomes significantly preserved the cardiac ejection fraction at day 28 after MI by 64% as compared to control liposomes and free berberine. In conclusion, liposomal encapsulation enhanced the solubility of berberine in buffer and preserves ejection fraction after MI. This shows that delivery of berberine-loaded liposomes significantly improves its therapeutic availability and identifies berberine-loaded liposomes as potential treatment of adverse remodeling after MI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Surface Functionalization and Targeting Strategies of Liposomes in Solid Tumor Therapy: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Riaz, Muhammad Kashif; Riaz, Muhammad Adil; Zhang, Xue; Lin, Congcong; Wong, Ka Hong; Chen, Xiaoyu; Lu, Aiping

    2018-01-01

    Surface functionalization of liposomes can play a key role in overcoming the current limitations of nanocarriers to treat solid tumors, i.e., biological barriers and physiological factors. The phospholipid vesicles (liposomes) containing anticancer agents produce fewer side effects than non-liposomal anticancer formulations, and can effectively target the solid tumors. This article reviews information about the strategies for targeting of liposomes to solid tumors along with the possible targets in cancer cells, i.e., extracellular and intracellular targets and targets in tumor microenvironment or vasculature. Targeting ligands for functionalization of liposomes with relevant surface engineering techniques have been described. Stimuli strategies for enhanced delivery of anticancer agents at requisite location using stimuli-responsive functionalized liposomes have been discussed. Recent approaches for enhanced delivery of anticancer agents at tumor site with relevant surface functionalization techniques have been reviewed. Finally, current challenges of functionalized liposomes and future perspective of smart functionalized liposomes have been discussed. PMID:29315231

  2. Curcumin liposomes prepared with milk fat globule membrane phospholipids and soybean lecithin.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hong-Hao; Lu, Qun; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2016-03-01

    Using thin film ultrasonic dispersion method, the curcumin liposomes were prepared with milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) phospholipids and soybean lecithins, respectively, to compare the characteristics and stability of the 2 curcumin liposomes. The processing parameters of curcumin liposomes were investigated to evaluate their effects on the encapsulation efficiency. Curcumin liposomes were characterized in terms of size distribution, ζ-potential, and in vitro release behavior, and then their storage stability under various conditions was evaluated. The curcumin liposomes prepared with MFGM phospholipids had an encapsulation efficiency of about 74%, an average particle size of 212.3 nm, and a ζ-potential of -48.60 mV. The MFGM liposomes showed higher encapsulation efficiency, smaller particle size, higher absolute value of ζ-potential, and slower in vitro release than soybean liposomes. The retention rate of liposomal curcumin was significantly higher than that of free curcumin. The stability of the 2 liposomes under different pH was almost the same, but MFGM liposomes displayed a slightly higher stability than soybean liposomes under the conditions of Fe(3+), light, temperature, oxygen, and relative humidity. In conclusion, MFGM phospholipids have potential advantages in the manufacture of curcumin liposomes used in food systems. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of novel NGR-modified liposomes containing brucine.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu; Wang, Xi-Peng

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a novel NGR (Asn-Gly-Arg) peptide-modified liposomal brucine was prepared by using spray-drying method. The surface morphology of the liposomes, encapsulation efficiency and particle size were investigated. The data showed that the addition of NGR did not produce any significant influence on brucine liposomes in terms of particle size or zeta potential. In addition, after 3 months of storage, no dramatic change such as visible aggregation, drug content changes or precipitation in the appearance of NGR-brucine liposomes occurred. The in vitro release results indicated that the release of brucine from NGR liposomes was similar to that of liposomes, demonstrating that the NGR modification did not affect brucine release. The in vitro drug-release kinetic model of NGR-brucine liposomes fitted well with the Weibull's equation. In vivo, NGR-brucine liposomes could significantly extend the bioavailability of brucine; however, there was no significant difference observed in the pharmacokinetic parameters between liposomes and NGR liposomes after intravenous administration. Antitumor activity results showed that NGR-modified liposomes exhibited less toxicity and much higher efficacy in HepG2-bearing mice compared with non-modified liposomes. The enhanced antitumor activity might have occurred because brucine was specifically recognized by NGR receptor on the surface of tumor cells, which enhanced the intracellular uptake of drugs.

  4. Interactions of liposome carriers with infectious fungal hyphae reveals the role of β-glucans.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Neelam L; Young, Joseph K; Drezek, Rebekah A; Lewis, Russell; Bikram, Malavosklish

    2012-09-04

    Relatively little is known about how liposomal formulations modulate drug delivery to fungal pathogens. We compared patterns of hyphal cell wall binding for empty rhodmine-labeled liposomes and the clinically available amphotericin B-containing liposomal formulation (AmBisome) in Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. Following 0.5 h of coincubation with A. fumigatus , empty liposomes concentrated primarily in fungal septae along at the surface of the cell wall, suggesting that liposome uptake is concentrated in areas of the cell wall where linear glucan is exposed on the cell surface, which was confirmed by aniline blue staining. Consistent with this hypothesis, pretreatment of liposomes with soluble linear glucan (laminarin) decreased liposome binding in both Aspergillus and Candida fungal hyphae, while growth of Aspergillus hyphae in the presence of an agent that increases fungal cell wall surface exposure of linear β-glucans without cell death (caspofungin) increased liposome uptake throughout the Aspergillus fungal cell wall. Increasing the polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentration in liposomes from 0 to 30% significantly increased fungal uptake of liposomes that was only modestly attenuated when fungal cells were incubated in serum concentrations ranging from 10 to 100%. The presence of β-glucans on the fungal hyphae cell walls of Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the factors responsible for mediating the binding of liposome carriers to the hyphae and could explain possible synergy reported between liposomal amphotericin B and echinocanins.

  5. Development and characterization of polymer-coated liposomes for vaginal delivery of sildenafil citrate.

    PubMed

    Refai, Hanan; Hassan, Doaa; Abdelmonem, Rehab

    2017-11-01

    Vaginal administration of sildenafil citrate has shown recently to develop efficiently the uterine lining with subsequent successful embryo implantation following in vitro fertilization. The aim of the present study was to develop sildenafil-loaded liposomes coated with bioadhesive polymers for enhanced vaginal retention and improved drug permeation. Three liposomal formulae were prepared by thin-film method using different phospholipid:cholesterol ratios. The optimal liposomal formulation was coated with bioadhesive polymers (chitosan and HPMC). A marked increase in liposomal size and zeta potential was observed for all coated liposomal formulations. HPMC-coated liposomes showed the greater bioadhesion and higher entrapment efficiency than chitosan-coated formulae. The in vitro release studies showed prolonged release of sildenafil from coated liposomes as compared to uncoated liposomes and sildenafil solution. Ex vivo permeation study revealed the enhanced permeation of coated relative to uncoated liposomes. Chitosan-coated formula demonstrated highest drug permeation and was thus selected for further investigations. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the successful coating of the liposomes by chitosan. Histopathological in vivo testing proved the efficacy of chitosan-coated liposomes to improve blood flow to the vaginal endometrium and to increase endometrial thickness. Chitosan-coated liposomes can be considered as potential novel drug delivery system intended for the vaginal administration of sildenafil, which would prolong system's retention at the vaginal site and enhance the permeation of sildenafil to uterine blood circulation.

  6. A liposome-based energy conversion system for accelerating the multi-enzyme reactions.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Ryuhei; Kakuta, Masaya; Sugiyama, Taiki; Goto, Yoshio; Sakai, Hideki; Tokita, Yuichi; Hatazawa, Tsuyonobu; Tsujimura, Seiya; Shirai, Osamu; Kano, Kenji

    2010-11-14

    We report the first example of a liposome-based energy conversion system that is useful for entrapping enzymes and NAD coenzyme to accelerate multi-step enzymatic reactions. The liposome generates a much higher catalytic current compared with the non-liposome system, which is in good consistency with numerical simulations.

  7. Improved permeability of acyclovir: optimization of mucoadhesive liposomes using the phospholipid vesicle-based permeation assay.

    PubMed

    Naderkhani, Elenaz; Erber, Astrid; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša; Flaten, Gøril Eide

    2014-02-01

    The antiviral drug acyclovir (ACV) suffers from poor solubility both in lipophilic and hydrophilic environment, leading to low and highly variable bioavailability. To overcome these limitations, this study aimed at designing mucoadhesive ACV-containing liposomes to improve its permeability. Liposomes were prepared from egg phosphatidylcholine (E-PC) and E-PC/egg phosphatidylglycerol (E-PC/E-PG) and their surfaces coated with Carbopol. All liposomal formulations were fully characterized and for the first time the phospholipid vesicle-based permeation assay (PVPA) was used for testing in vitro permeability of drug from mucoadhesive liposome formulations. The negatively charged E-PC/E-PG liposomes could encapsulate more ACV than neutral E-PC liposomes. Coating with Carbopol increased the entrapment in the neutral E-PC liposomes. The incorporation of ACV into liposomes exhibited significant increase in its in vitro permeability, compared with its aqueous solution. The neutral E-PC liposomal formulations exhibited higher ACV permeability values compared with charged E-PC/E-PG formulations. Coating with Carbopol significantly enhanced the permeability from the E-PC/E-PG liposomes, as well as sonicated E-PC liposomes, which showed the highest permeability of all tested formulations. The increased permeability was according to the formulations' mucoadhesive properties. This indicates that the PVPA is suitable to distinguish between permeability of ACV from different mucoadhesive liposome formulations developed for various routes of administration. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  8. Effect of Fatty Acyl Group and Sterol Composition on Sensitivity of Lecithin Liposomes to Imidazole Antimycotics

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Iwata, Kazuo

    1979-01-01

    The specific affinity for membrane lipids and the membrane selectivity of three imidazole derivatives, clotrimazole, miconazole, and econazole, were studied using various types of liposomes with respect to the lecithin fatty acyl group composition and the liposome content and composition of sterol as membrane models. The sensitivity of liposomes to these drugs was primarily dependent upon the lecithin fatty acyl group composition. With sterol-free liposome systems, each imidazole induced maximum release of trapped glucose as a marker from the unsaturated dioleoyl lecithin liposomes, minimum release from the saturated dipalmitoyl lecithin liposomes, and intermediate release from egg lecithin liposomes. The sensitivity of the dipalmitoyl lecithin liposomes to any imidazole drug was not influenced by the incorporation of cholesterol or ergosterol. On the other hand, clotrimazole-induced permeability changes of liposomes prepared from unsaturated dioleoyl lecithin or egg lecithin were greatly enhanced by the incorporation of ergosterol, whereas they were suppressed by cholesterol incorporation. The sensitivity of liposomes prepared from these unsaturated lecithins to miconazole and econazole was also augmented by ergosterol incorporation, although it was scarcely altered by cholesterol incorporation. Negatively charged liposomes were more sensitive to the three imidazole drugs than positively charged liposomes. PMID:525988

  9. Effect of fatty acyl group and sterol composition on sensitivity of lecithin liposomes to imidazole antimycotics.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, H; Iwata, K

    1979-05-01

    The specific affinity for membrane lipids and the membrane selectivity of three imidazole derivatives, clotrimazole, miconazole, and econazole, were studied using various types of liposomes with respect to the lecithin fatty acyl group composition and the liposome content and composition of sterol as membrane models. The sensitivity of liposomes to these drugs was primarily dependent upon the lecithin fatty acyl group composition. With sterol-free liposome systems, each imidazole induced maximum release of trapped glucose as a marker from the unsaturated dioleoyl lecithin liposomes, minimum release from the saturated dipalmitoyl lecithin liposomes, and intermediate release from egg lecithin liposomes. The sensitivity of the dipalmitoyl lecithin liposomes to any imidazole drug was not influenced by the incorporation of cholesterol or ergosterol. On the other hand, clotrimazole-induced permeability changes of liposomes prepared from unsaturated dioleoyl lecithin or egg lecithin were greatly enhanced by the incorporation of ergosterol, whereas they were suppressed by cholesterol incorporation. The sensitivity of liposomes prepared from these unsaturated lecithins to miconazole and econazole was also augmented by ergosterol incorporation, although it was scarcely altered by cholesterol incorporation. Negatively charged liposomes were more sensitive to the three imidazole drugs than positively charged liposomes.

  10. Liposomal Drug Product Development and Quality: Current US Experience and Perspective.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Mamta; Lee, Sau L; Tyner, Katherine M

    2017-05-01

    Research in the area of liposomes has grown substantially in the past few decades. Liposomes are lipid bilayer structures that can incorporate drug substances to modify the drug's pharmacokinetic profile thereby improving drug delivery. The agency has received over 400 liposomal drug product submissions (excluding combination therapies), and there are currently eight approved liposomal drug products on the US market. In order to identify the pain points in development and manufacturing of liposomal drug products, a retrospective analysis was performed from a quality perspective on submissions for new and generic liposomal drug products. General analysis on liposomal drug product submissions was also performed. Results indicated that 96% of the submissions were Investigational New Drug (IND) applications, 3% were New Drug Applications (NDAs), and the remaining 1% was Abbreviated New Drug Applications (ANDAs). Doxorubicin hydrochloride was the most commonly used drug substance incorporated into the liposomes (31%). The majority of the liposomal products were administered via intravenous route (84%) with cancer (various types) being the most common indication (63%). From a quality perspective, major challenges during the development of liposomal drug products included identification and (appropriate) characterization of critical quality attributes of liposomal drug products and suitable control strategies during product development. By focusing on these areas, a faster and more efficient development of liposomal drug products may be achieved. Additionally, in this way, the drug review process for such products can be streamlined.

  11. Pros and cons of the liposome platform in cancer drug targeting.

    PubMed

    Gabizon, Alberto A; Shmeeda, Hilary; Zalipsky, Samuel

    2006-01-01

    Coating of liposomes with polyethylene-glycol (PEG) by incorporation in the liposome bilayer of PEG-derivatized lipids results in inhibition of liposome uptake by the reticulo-endothelial system and significant prolongation of liposome residence time in the blood stream. Parallel developments in drug loading technology have improved the efficiency and stability of drug entrapment in liposomes, particularly with regard to cationic amphiphiles such as anthracyclines. An example of this new generation of liposomes is a formulation of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin known as Doxil or Caelyx, whose clinical pharmacokinetic profile is characterized by slow plasma clearance and small volume of distribution. A hallmark of these long-circulating liposomal drug carriers is their enhanced accumulation in tumors. The mechanism underlying this passive targeting effect is the phenomenon known as enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) which has been described in a broad variety of experimental tumor types. Further to the passive targeting effect, the liposome drug delivery platform offers the possibility of grafting tumor-specific ligands on the liposome membrane for active targeting to tumor cells, and potentially intracellular drug delivery. The pros and cons of the liposome platform in cancer targeting are discussed vis-à-vis nontargeted drugs, using as an example a liposome drug delivery system targeted to the folate receptor.

  12. Liposomes self-assembled from electrosprayed composite microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Deng-Guang; Yang, Jun-He; Wang, Xia; Tian, Feng

    2012-03-01

    Composite microparticles, consisting of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), naproxen (NAP) and lecithin (PC), have been successfully prepared using an electrospraying process and exploited as templates to manipulate molecular self-assembly for the synthesis of liposomes in situ. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations demonstrate that the microparticles have an average diameter of 960 ± 140 nm and a homogeneous structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) results verify that the building blocks NAP and PC are scattered in the polymer matrix in a molecular way owing to the very fast drying of the electrospraying process and the favorable secondary interactions among the components. FESEM, scanning probe microscope (SPM) and TEM observations demonstrate that the liposomes can be achieved through molecular self-assembly in situ when the microparticles contact water thanks to ‘like prefers like’ and by means of the confinement effect of the microparticles. The liposomes have an encapsulation rate of 91.3%, and 80.7% of the drug in the liposomes can be freed into the dissolution medium in a sustained way and by a diffusion mechanism over a period of 24 h. The developed strategy not only provides a new, facile, and effective method to assemble and organize molecules of multiple components into liposomes with electrosprayed microparticles as templates, but also opens a new avenue for nanofabrication in a step-by-step and controllable way.

  13. Liposomes physically coated with peptides: preparation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Su, Cuicui; Xia, Yuqiong; Sun, Jianbo; Wang, Nan; Zhu, Lin; Chen, Tao; Huang, Yanyi; Liang, Dehai

    2014-06-03

    Physically coating liposomes with peptides of desirable functions is an economic, versatile, and less time-consuming approach to prepare drug delivery vehicles. In this work, we designed three peptides-Ac-WWKKKGGNNN-NH2 (W2K3), Ac-WWRRRGGNNN-NH2(W2R3), Ac-WWGGGGGNNN-NH2(W2G3)-and studied their coating ability on negatively charged liposomes. It was found that the coating was mainly driven by the electrostatic interaction between the peptides' cationic side groups and the acidic lipids, which also mediated the "anchoring " of Trp residuals in the interfacial region of lipid bilayers. At the same conditions, the amount of the coated W2R3 was more than that of W2K3, but the stability of the liposome coated with W2R3 was deteriorated. This was caused by the delocalized charge of the guanidinium group of arginine. The coating of the peptide rendered the liposome pH-responsive behavior but did not prominently change the phase transition temperature. The liposome coated with peptides displayed appropriate pH/temperature dual responsive characteristics and was able to release the content in a controlled manner.

  14. Stimuli-responsive Smart Liposomes in Cancer Targeting.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ankit; Jain, Sanjay K

    2018-02-08

    Liposomes are vesicular carriers which possess aqueous core entrapped within the lipid bilayer. These are carriers of choice because of biocompatible and biodegradable features in addition to flexibility of surface modifications at surface and lipid compositions of lipid bilayers. Liposomes have been reported well for cancer treatment using both passive and active targeting approaches however tumor microenvironment is still the biggest hurdle for safe and effective delivery of anticancer agents. To overcome this problem, stimuli-responsive smart liposomes have emerged as promising cargoes pioneered to anomalous tumor milieu in response to pH, temperature, and enzymes etc. as internal triggers, and magnetic field, ultrasound, and redox potential as external guides for enhancement of drug delivery to tumors. This review focuses on all such stimuli-responsive approaches using fabrication potentiality of liposomes in combination to various ligands, linkers, and PEGylation etc. Scientists engaged in cancer targeting approaches can get benefited greatly with this knowledgeable assemblage of advances in liposomal nanovectors. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Detection of Liposome Membrane Viscosity Perturbations with Ratiometric Molecular Rotors

    PubMed Central

    Nipper, Matthew E.; Dakanali, Marianna; Theodorakis, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    Molecular rotors are a form of fluorescent intramolecular charge-transfer complexes that can undergo intramolecular twisting motion upon photoexcitation. Twisted-state formation leads to non-radiative relaxation that competes with fluorescence emission. In bulk solutions, these molecules exhibit a viscosity-dependent quantum yield. On the molecular scale, the fluorescence emission is a function of the local free volume, which in turn is related to the local microviscosity. Membrane viscosity, and the inverse; fluidity, are characteristic terms used to describe the ease of movement withing the membrane. Often, changes in membrane viscosity govern intracellular processes and are indicative of a disease state. Molecular rotors have been used to investigate viscosity changes in liposomes and cells, but accuracy is affected by local concentration gradients and sample optical properties. We have developed self-calibrating ratiometric molecular rotors to overcome this challenge and integrated the new molecules into a DLPC liposome model exposed to the membrane-fluidizing agent propanol. We show that the ratiometric emission intensity linearly decreases with the pentanol exposure and that the ratiometric intensity is widely independent of the total liposome concentration. Conversely, dye concentration inside liposomes influences the sensitivity of the system. We suggest that the new self-calibrating dyes can be used for real-time viscosity sensing in liposome systems with the advantages of lifetime measurements, but with low-cost steady-state instrumentation. PMID:21354253

  16. Liposome Disruption Assay to Examine Lytic Properties of Biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Jimah, John R; Schlesinger, Paul H; Tolia, Niraj H

    2017-08-05

    Proteins may have three dimensional structural or amino acid features that suggest a role in targeting and disrupting lipids within cell membranes. It is often necessary to experimentally investigate if these proteins and biomolecules are able to disrupt membranes in order to conclusively characterize the function of these biomolecules. Here, we describe an in vitro assay to evaluate the membrane lytic properties of proteins and biomolecules. Large unilamellar vesicles (liposomes) containing carboxyfluorescein at fluorescence-quenching concentrations are treated with the biomolecule of interest. A resulting increase in fluorescence due to leakage of the dye from liposomes and subsequent dilution in the buffer demonstrates that the biomolecule is sufficient for disrupting liposomes and membranes. Additionally, since liposome disruption may occur via pore-formation or via general solubilization of lipids similar to detergents, we provide a method to distinguish between these two mechanisms. Pore-formation can be identified and evaluated by examining the blockade of carboxyfluorescein release with dextran molecules that fit the pore. The methods described here were used to determine that the malaria vaccine candidate CelTOS and proapoptotic Bax disrupt liposomes by pore formation (Saito et al. , 2000; Jimah et al. , 2016). Since membrane lipid binding by a biomolecule precedes membrane disruption, we recommend the companion protocol: Jimah et al. , 2017.

  17. Application of Liposomes in Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Quo Vadis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sachin Kumar; Gulati, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The most common treatments for rheumatoid arthritis include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and some biological agents. However, none of the treatments available is able to achieve the ultimate goal of treatment, that is, drug-free remission. This limitation has shifted the focus of treatment to delivery strategies with an ability to deliver the drugs into the synovial cavity in the proper dosage while mitigating side effects to other tissues. A number of approaches like microemulsions, microspheres, liposomes, microballoons, cocrystals, nanoemulsions, dendrimers, microsponges, and so forth, have been used for intrasynovial delivery of these drugs. Amongst these, liposomes have proven to be very effective for retaining the drug in the synovial cavity by virtue of their size and chemical composition. The fast clearance of intra-synovially administered drugs can be overcome by use of liposomes leading to increased uptake of drugs by the target synovial cells, which in turn reduces the exposure of nontarget sites and eliminates most of the undesirable effects associated with therapy. This review focuses on the use of liposomes in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and summarizes data relating to the liposome formulations of various drugs. It also discusses emerging trends of this promising technology. PMID:24688450

  18. Biophysical aspects of using liposomes as delivery vehicles.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Anne S

    2002-04-01

    Liposomes are used as biocompatible carriers of drugs, peptides, proteins, plasmic DNA, antisense oligonucleotides or ribozymes, for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and biochemical purposes. The enormous versatility in particle size and in the physical parameters of the lipids affords an attractive potential for constructing tailor-made vehicles for a wide range of applications. Some of the recent literature will be reviewed here and presented from a biophysical point of view, thus providing a background for the more specialized articles in this special issue on liposome technology. Different properties (size, colloidal behavior, phase transitions, and polymorphism) of diverse lipid formulations (liposomes, lipoplexes, cubic phases, emulsions, and solid lipid nanoparticles) for distinct applications (parenteral, transdermal, pulmonary, and oral administration) will be rationalized in terms of common structural, thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of the lipids. This general biophysical basis helps to understand pharmaceutically relevant aspects such as liposome stability during storage and towards serum, the biodistribution and specific targeting of cargo, and how to trigger drug release and membrane fusion. Methods for the preparation and characterization of liposomal formulations in vitro will be outlined, too.

  19. Liposomal Encapsulation Enzymes: From Medical Applications to Kinetic Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Jahadi, M; Khosravi-Darani, K

    2017-01-01

    Liposomes and nanoliposomes as small vesicles composed of phospholipid bilayer (entrapping one or more hydrophilic or lipophilic components) have recently found several potential applications in medicine and food industry. These vesicles may protect the core materials from moisture, heat and other extreme conditions. They may also provide controlled release of various bioactive agents, including food ingredients at the right place and time. Potential applications of enzyme-loaded liposomes are in the medical or biomedical field, particularly for the enzymereplacement therapy, as well as cheese industry for production of functional foods with improved health beneficial impacts on the consumer. Encapsulation process has a recondite impact on enzymes. In fact, liposome preparation techniques may alter the pH and temperature optima, affinity of the enzyme to substrate (Km), and maximum rate of reaction (Vmax). In addition, in this paper, the impact of process variables on the kinetic characteristics of enzymes encapsulated in liposomes was investigated. Also, the effects of enzyme entrapment in liposomes, prepared by different methods, on the catalytic efficiency of enzyme, as well as its kinetic properties and stability compared to native (free) enzymes has been reviewed.

  20. Ultrasound Induced Fluorescence of Nanoscale Liposome Contrast Agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qimei; Morgan, Stephen P.; O’Shea, Paul; Mather, Melissa L.

    2016-01-01

    A new imaging contrast agent is reported that provides an increased fluorescent signal upon application of ultrasound (US). Liposomes containing lipids labelled with pyrene were optically excited and the excimer fluorescence emission intensity was detected in the absence and presence of an ultrasound field using an acousto-fluorescence setup. The acousto-fluorescence dynamics of liposomes containing lipids with pyrene labelled on the fatty acid tail group (PyPC) and the head group (PyPE) were compared. An increase in excimer emission intensity following exposure to US was observed for both cases studied. The increased intensity and time constants were found to be different for the PyPC and PyPE systems, and dependent on the applied US pressure and exposure time. The greatest change in fluorescence intensity (130%) and smallest rise time constant (0.33 s) are achieved through the use of PyPC labelled liposomes. The mechanism underlying the observed increase of the excimer emission intensity in PyPC labelled liposomes is proposed to arise from the “wagging” of acyl chains which involves fast response and requires lower US pressure. This is accompanied by increased lipid lateral diffusivity at higher ultrasound pressures, a mechanism that is also active in the PyPE labelled liposomes. PMID:27467748

  1. Development and Characterization of Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride with Palm Oil

    PubMed Central

    Sabeti, Bahareh; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Mohd, Shaharuddin; Hashim, Rosnani; Akbari Javar, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The usage of natural products in pharmaceuticals has steadily seen improvements over the last decade, and this study focuses on the utilization of palm oil in formulating liposomal doxorubicin (Dox). The liposomal form of Dox generally minimizes toxicity and enhances target delivery actions. Taking into account the antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of palm oil, the aim of this study is to design and characterize a new liposomal Dox by replacing phosphatidylcholine with 5% and 10% palm oil content. Liposomes were formed using the freeze_thaw method, and Dox was loaded through pH gradient technique and characterized through in vitro and ex vivo terms. Based on TEM images, large lamellar vesicles (LUV) were formed, with sizes of 438 and 453 nm, having polydispersity index of 0.21 ± 0.8 and 0.22 ± 1.3 and zeta potentials of about −31 and −32 mV, respectively. In both formulations, the entrapment efficiency was about 99%, and whole Dox was released through 96 hours in PBS (pH = 7.4) at 37°C. Comparing cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of LUV with CaelyxR on MCF7 and MDA-MBA 231 breast cancer cell lines indicated suitable uptake and lower IC50 of the prepared liposomes. PMID:24795894

  2. Design considerations for liposomal vaccines: Influence of formulation parameters on antibody and cell-mediated immune responses to liposome associated antigens

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Douglas S.; Endsley, Aaron N.; Huang, Leaf

    2012-01-01

    Liposomes (phospholipid bilayer vesicles) are versatile and robust delivery systems for induction of antibody and T lymphocyte responses to associated subunit antigens. In the last 15 years, liposome vaccine technology has matured and now several vaccines containing liposome-based adjuvants have been approved for human use or have reached late stages of clinical evaluation. Given the intensifying interest in liposome-based vaccines, it is important to understand precisely how liposomes interact with the immune system and stimulate immunity. It has become clear that the physicochemical properties of liposomal vaccines – method of antigen attachment, lipid composition, bilayer fluidity, particle charge, and other properties – exert dramatic effects on the resulting immune response. Here, we present a comprehensive review of the physicochemical properties of liposomal vaccines and how they influence immune responses. A discussion of novel and emerging immunomodulators that are suitable for inclusion in liposomal vaccines is also presented. Through a comprehensive analysis of the body of liposomal vaccine literature, we enumerate a series of principles that can guide the rational design of liposomal vaccines to elicit immune responses of a desired magnitude and quality. We also identify major unanswered questions in the field, pointing the direction for future study. PMID:22306376

  3. Investigation of Particle Accumulation, Chemosensitivity and Thermosensitivity for Effective Solid Tumor Therapy Using Thermosensitive Liposomes and Hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Lokerse, Wouter J M; Bolkestein, Michiel; Ten Hagen, Timo L M; de Jong, Marion; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Grüll, Holger; Koning, Gerben A

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) loaded thermosensitive liposomes (TSLs) have shown promising results for hyperthermia-induced local drug delivery to solid tumors. Typically, the tumor is heated to hyperthermic temperatures (41-42 °C), which induced intravascular drug release from TSLs within the tumor tissue leading to high local drug concentrations (1-step delivery protocol). Next to providing a trigger for drug release, hyperthermia (HT) has been shown to be cytotoxic to tumor tissue, to enhance chemosensitivity and to increase particle extravasation from the vasculature into the tumor interstitial space. The latter can be exploited for a 2-step delivery protocol, where HT is applied prior to i.v. TSL injection to enhance tumor uptake, and after 4 hours waiting time for a second time to induce drug release. In this study, we compare the 1- and 2-step delivery protocols and investigate which factors are of importance for a therapeutic response. In murine B16 melanoma and BFS-1 sarcoma cell lines, HT induced an enhanced Dox uptake in 2D and 3D models, resulting in enhanced chemosensitivity. In vivo, therapeutic efficacy studies were performed for both tumor models, showing a therapeutic response for only the 1-step delivery protocol. SPECT/CT imaging allowed quantification of the liposomal accumulation in both tumor models at physiological temperatures and after a HT treatment. A simple two compartment model was used to derive respective rates for liposomal uptake, washout and retention, showing that the B16 model has a twofold higher liposomal uptake compared to the BFS-1 tumor. HT increases uptake and retention of liposomes in both tumors models by the same factor of 1.66 maintaining the absolute differences between the two models. Histology showed that HT induced apoptosis, blood vessel integrity and interstitial structures are important factors for TSL accumulation in the investigated tumor types. However, modeling data indicated that the intraliposomal Dox fraction did not

  4. Multivesicular liposomal bupivacaine at the sciatic nerve

    PubMed Central

    McAlvin, J. Brian; Padera, Robert F.; Shankarappa, Sahadev A.; Reznor, Gally; Kwon, Albert H.; Chiang, Homer; Yang, Jason; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical translation of sustained release formulations for local anesthetics has been limited by adverse tissue reaction. Exparel™ (DepoFoam bupivacaine) is a new liposomal local anesthetic formulation whose biocompatibility near nerve tissue is not well characterized. Exparel™ injection caused sciatic nerve blockade in rats lasting 240 minutes compared to 120 minutes for 0.5% (w/v) bupivacaine HCl and 210 minutes for 1.31% (w/v) bupivacaine HCl (same bupivacaine content as Exparel™). On histologic sections four days after injection, median inflammation scores in the Exparel™ group (2.5 of 4) were slightly higher than in groups treated with bupivacaine solutions (score 2). Myotoxicity scores in the Exparel™ group (2.5 of 6) were similar to in the 0.5% (w/v) bupivacaine HCl group (3), but significantly less than in the 1.31% (w/v) bupivacaine HCl group (5). After two weeks, inflammation from Exparel™ (score 2 of 6) was greater than from 0.5% (w/v) bupivacaine HCl (1) and similar to that from 1.31% (w/v) bupivacaine HCl (1). Myotoxicity in all three groups was not statistically significantly different. No neurotoxicity was detected in any group. Tissue reaction to Exparel™ was similar to that of 0.5% (w/v) bupivacaine HCl. Surveillance for local tissue injury will be important during future clinical evaluation. PMID:24612918

  5. Propylene glycol liposomes as a topical delivery system for miconazole nitrate: comparison with conventional liposomes.

    PubMed

    Elmoslemany, Riham M; Abdallah, Ossama Y; El-Khordagui, Labiba K; Khalafallah, Nawal M

    2012-06-01

    Propylene glycol (PG)-phospholipid vesicles have been advocated as flexible lipid vesicles for enhanced skin delivery of drugs. To further characterize the performance of these vesicles and to address some relevant pharmaceutical issues, miconazole nitrate(MN)-loaded PG nanoliposomes were prepared and characterized for vesicle size, entrapment efficiency, in vitro release, and vesicle stability. An issue of pharmaceutical importance is the time-dependent, dilution-driven diffusion of propylene glycol out of the vesicles. This was addressed by assessing propylene glycol using gas chromatography in the separated vesicles and monitoring its buildup in the medium after repeated dispersion of separated vesicles in fresh medium. Further, the antifungal activity of liposomal formulations under study was assessed using Candida albicans, and their in vitro skin permeation and retention were studied using human skin. At all instances, blank and drug-loaded conventional liposomes were included for comparison. The results provided evidence of controlled MN delivery, constant percent PG uptake in the vesicles (≈45.5%) in the PG concentration range 2.5 to 10%, improved vesicle stability, and enhanced skin deposition of MN with minimum skin permeation. These are key issues for different formulation and performance aspects of propylene glycol-phospholipid vesicles.

  6. Construction of a Liposome Dialyzer for preparation of high-value, small-volume liposome formulations

    PubMed Central

    Adamala, Katarzyna; Engelhart, Aaron E.; Kamat, Neha P.; Jin, Lin; Szostak, Jack W.

    2016-01-01

    The liposome dialyzer is a small-volume equilibrium dialysis device, built from commercially available materials, that is designed for rapid exchange of small volumes of an extraliposomal reagent pool against a liposome preparation. The dialyzer is prepared by modification of commercially available dialysis cartridges and consists of a reactor with two 300 µL chambers and a 1.56 cm2 dialysis surface area. The dialyzer is prepared in three stages: 1) disassembly of dialysis cartridges to obtain required parts; 2) assembly of the dialyzer; and 3) sealing the dialyzer with epoxy. Preparation of the dialyser takes about 1.5 h, not including overnight epoxy curing. Each round of dialysis takes 1–24 h, depending on the analyte and membrane employed. We previously used the dialyzer for small-volume nonenzymatic RNA synthesis reactions inside fatty acid vesicles. In this protocol, we demonstrate other applications, including removal of unencapsulated calcein from vesicles, remote loading, and vesicle microscopy. PMID:26020615

  7. Glutathione Degradation.

    PubMed

    Bachhawat, Anand Kumar; Kaur, Amandeep

    2017-11-20

    Glutathione degradation has for long been thought to occur only on noncytosolic pools. This is because there has been only one enzyme known to degrade glutathione (γ-glutamyl transpeptidase) and this localizes to either the plasma membrane (mammals, bacteria) or the vacuolar membrane (yeast, plants) and acts on extracellular or vacuolar pools. The last few years have seen the discovery of several new enzymes of glutathione degradation that function in the cytosol, throwing new light on glutathione degradation. Recent Advances: The new enzymes that have been identified in the last few years that can initiate glutathione degradation include the Dug enzyme found in yeast and fungi, the ChaC1 enzyme found among higher eukaryotes, the ChaC2 enzyme found from bacteria to man, and the RipAY enzyme found in some bacteria. These enzymes play roles ranging from housekeeping functions to stress responses and are involved in processes such as embryonic neural development and pathogenesis. In addition to delineating the pathways of glutathione degradation in detail, a critical issue is to find how these new enzymes impact cellular physiology and homeostasis. Glutathione degradation plays a far greater role in cellular physiology than previously envisaged. The differential regulation and differential specificities of various enzymes, each acting on distinct pools, can lead to different consequences to the cell. It is likely that the coming years will see these downstream effects being unraveled in greater detail and will lead to a better understanding and appreciation of glutathione degradation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 1200-1216.

  8. An efficient PEGylated liposomal nanocarrier containing cell-penetrating peptide and pH-sensitive hydrazone bond for enhancing tumor-targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuan; Sun, Dan; Wang, Gui-Ling; Yang, Hong-Ge; Xu, Hai-Feng; Chen, Jian-Hua; Xie, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) as small molecular transporters with abilities of cell penetrating, internalization, and endosomal escape have potential prospect in drug delivery systems. However, a bottleneck hampering their application is the poor specificity for cells. By utilizing the function of hydration shell of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and acid sensitivity of hydrazone bond, we constructed a kind of CPP-modified pH-sensitive PEGylated liposomes (CPPL) to improve the selectivity of these peptides for tumor targeting. In CPPL, CPP was directly attached to liposome surfaces via coupling with stearate (STR) to avoid the hindrance of PEG as a linker on the penetrating efficiency of CPP. A PEG derivative by conjugating PEG with STR via acid-degradable hydrazone bond (PEG2000-Hz-STR, PHS) was synthesized. High-performance liquid chromatography and flow cytometry demonstrated that PHS was stable at normal neutral conditions and PEG could be completely cleaved from liposome surface to expose CPP under acidic environments in tumor. An optimal CPP density on liposomes was screened to guaranty a maximum targeting efficiency on tumor cells as well as not being captured by normal cells that consequently lead to a long circulation in blood. In vitro and in vivo studies indicated, in 4 mol% CPP of lipid modified system, that CPP exerted higher efficiency on internalizing the liposomes into targeted subcellular compartments while remaining inactive and free from opsonins at a maximum extent in systemic circulation. The 4% CPPL as a drug delivery system will have great potential in the clinical application of anticancer drugs in future.

  9. An efficient PEGylated liposomal nanocarrier containing cell-penetrating peptide and pH-sensitive hydrazone bond for enhancing tumor-targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yuan; Sun, Dan; Wang, Gui-Ling; Yang, Hong-Ge; Xu, Hai-Feng; Chen, Jian-Hua; Xie, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) as small molecular transporters with abilities of cell penetrating, internalization, and endosomal escape have potential prospect in drug delivery systems. However, a bottleneck hampering their application is the poor specificity for cells. By utilizing the function of hydration shell of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and acid sensitivity of hydrazone bond, we constructed a kind of CPP-modified pH-sensitive PEGylated liposomes (CPPL) to improve the selectivity of these peptides for tumor targeting. In CPPL, CPP was directly attached to liposome surfaces via coupling with stearate (STR) to avoid the hindrance of PEG as a linker on the penetrating efficiency of CPP. A PEG derivative by conjugating PEG with STR via acid-degradable hydrazone bond (PEG2000-Hz-STR, PHS) was synthesized. High-performance liquid chromatography and flow cytometry demonstrated that PHS was stable at normal neutral conditions and PEG could be completely cleaved from liposome surface to expose CPP under acidic environments in tumor. An optimal CPP density on liposomes was screened to guaranty a maximum targeting efficiency on tumor cells as well as not being captured by normal cells that consequently lead to a long circulation in blood. In vitro and in vivo studies indicated, in 4 mol% CPP of lipid modified system, that CPP exerted higher efficiency on internalizing the liposomes into targeted subcellular compartments while remaining inactive and free from opsonins at a maximum extent in systemic circulation. The 4% CPPL as a drug delivery system will have great potential in the clinical application of anticancer drugs in future. PMID:26491292

  10. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of gamma-oryzanol-loaded liposome formulations for topical use.

    PubMed

    Viriyaroj, Amornrat; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Sukma, Monrudee; Akkaramongkolporn, Prasert; Ruktanonchai, Uracha; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to prepare the gamma-oryzanol-loaded liposomes and investigate their physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity intended for cosmetic applications. Liposomes, Composing phosphatidylCholine (PC) and Cholesterol (Chol), CHAPS or sodium taurocholate (NaTC) were prepared by sonication method. Gamma-oryzanol-loaded liposomes were prepared by using 3, 5 and 10% gamma-oryzanol as an initial concentration. The formulation factors in a particular type and composition of lipid and initial drug loading on the physicochemical properties (i.e., particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, drug release) and antioxidant activity were studied. The particle sizes of bare liposomes were in nanometer range. The gamma-oryzanol-loaded liposomes in formulations of PC/CHAPS and PC/NaTC liposomes were smaller than PC/Chol liposomes. The incorporation efficiency of 10% gamma-oryzanol-loaded PC/Chol liposomes was less than gamma-oryzanol-loaded PC/CHAPS liposomes and PC/NaTC liposomes allowing higher in vitro release rate due to higher free gamma-oryzanol in buffer solution. The antioxidant activity of gamma-oryzanol-loaded liposomes was not different from pure gamma-oryzanol. Both gamma-oryzanol-loaded PC/CHAPS liposomes and PC/NaTC liposomes were showed to enhance the antioxidant activity in NHF cells. gamma-oryzanol-loaded PC/Chol liposomes demonstrated the lowest cytotoxicity in NHF cells. It was conceivably concluded that liposomes prepared in this study are suitable for gamma-oryzanol incorporation without loss of antioxidant activity.

  11. Design and evaluation of liposomal formulation of pilocarpine nitrate.

    PubMed

    Rathod, S; Deshpande, S G

    2010-03-01

    Prolonged release drug delivery system of pilocarpine nitrate was made by optimizing thin layer film hydration method. Egg phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol were used to make multilamellar vesicles. Effects of charges over the vesicles were studied by incorporating dicetylphosphate and stearylamine. Various factors, which may affect the size, shape, encapsulation efficiency and release rate, were studied. Liposomes in the size range 0.2 to 1 µm were obtained by optimizing the process. Encapsulation efficiency of neutral, positive and negatively charged liposomes were found to be 32.5, 35.4 and 34.2 percent, respectively. In vitro drug release rate was studied on specially designed model. Biological response in terms of reduction in intraocular pressure was observed on rabbit eyes. Pilocarpine nitrate liposomes were lyophilized and stability studies were conducted.

  12. Automated homogeneous liposome immunoassay systems for anticonvulsant drugs.

    PubMed

    Kubotsu, K; Goto, S; Fujita, M; Tuchiya, H; Kida, M; Takano, S; Matsuura, S; Sakurabayashi, I

    1992-06-01

    We developed automated homogeneous immunoassays, based on immunolysis of liposomes, for measuring phenytoin, phenobarbital, and carbamazepine from serum. Liposome lysis was detected spectrophotometrically from entrapped glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. The procedure was fully automated on a routine automated clinical analyzer. Within-run, between-run, dilution, and recovery tests showed good accuracies and reproducibilities. Bilirubin, hemoglobin, triglycerides, and Intrafat did not affect assay results. The results obtained by liposome immunoassays for phenytoin, phenobarbital, and carbamazepine correlated well with those obtained by enzyme-multiplied immunoassay (Syva EMIT) kits (r = 0.995, 0.986, and 0.988, respectively) and fluorescence polarization immunoassay (Abbott TDx) kits (r = 0.990, 0.991, and 0.975, respectively). The proposed method should be useful for monitoring anticonvulsant drug concentrations in blood.

  13. Potential of Continuous Manufacturing for Liposomal Drug Products.

    PubMed

    Worsham, Robert D; Thomas, Vaughan; Farid, Suzanne S

    2018-05-21

    Over the last several years, continuous manufacturing of pharmaceuticals has evolved from bulk APIs and solid oral dosages into the more complex realm of biologics. The development of continuous downstream processing techniques has allowed biologics manufacturing to realize the benefits (e.g. improved economics, more consistent quality) that come with continuous processing. If relevant processing techniques and principles are selected, the opportunity arises to develop continuous manufacturing designs for additional pharmaceutical products including liposomal drug formulations. Liposome manufacturing has some inherent aspects that make it favorable for a continuous process. Other aspects such as formulation refinement, materials of construction, and aseptic processing need development, but present an achievable challenge. This paper reviews the current state of continuous manufacturing technology applicable to liposomal drug product manufacturing and an assessment of the challenges and potential of this application. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Design of liposomal colloidal systems for ocular delivery of ciprofloxacin

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Ehab I.; El-Anazi, Magda H.; El-Bagory, Ibrahim M.; Bayomi, Mohsen A.

    2013-01-01

    Ophthalmic drug bioavailability is limited due to protective mechanisms of the eye which require the design of a system to enhance ocular delivery. In this study several liposomal formulations containing ciprofloxacin (CPX) have been formulated using reverse phase evaporation technique with final dispersion of pH 7.4. Different types of phospholipids including Phosphatidylcholine, Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and Dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine were utilized. The effect of formulation factors such as type of phospholipid, cholesterol content, incorporation of positively charging inducing agents and ultrasonication on the properties of the liposomal vesicles was studied. Bioavailability of selected liposomal formulations in rabbit eye aqueous humor has been investigated and compared with that of commercially available CPX eye drops (Ciprocin®). Pharmacokinetic parameters including Cmax, Tmax, elimination rate constant, t1/2, MRT and AUC0–∞, were determined. The investigated formulations showed more than three folds of improvement in CPX ocular bioavailability compared with the commercial product. PMID:25061409

  15. Application of liposomes in drug development — focus on gastroenterological targets

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-Xin; Wang, Kun; Mao, Zheng-Fa; Fan, Xin; Jiang, De-Li; Chen, Min; Cui, Lei; Sun, Kang; Dang, Sheng-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, liposomes became a focal point in developing drug delivery systems. New liposomes, with novel lipid molecules or conjugates, and new formulations opened possibilities for safely and efficiently treating many diseases including cancers. New types of liposomes can prolong circulation time or specifically deliver drugs to therapeutic targets. This article concentrates on current developments in liposome based drug delivery systems for treating diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. We will review different types and uses of liposomes in the development of therapeutics for gastrointestinal diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer. PMID:23630417

  16. Liposomal-Encapsulated Stroma-Free Hemoglobin as a Potential Blood Substitute.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-02

    circulating life-time even further. If all liposomes are taken up by RE cells, then when 14C- inulin is administered i.v. encapsulated in liposomes one should...of inulin would result only when liposomes become leaky or decompose before being taken up by cells. If liposomes are not maximally stable, then after...some time any liposome which had not been taken-up by RE cells would have decomposed and the released inulin excreted. We have used these facts to

  17. Enhanced bactericidal potency of nanoliposomes by modification of the fusion activity between liposomes and bacterium.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yufan; Wang, Zhao; Zhao, Wen; Lu, Tingli; Wang, Rutao; Mei, Qibing; Chen, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents a good model of antibiotic resistance. These organisms have an outer membrane with a low level of permeability to drugs that is often combined with multidrug efflux pumps, enzymatic inactivation of the drug, or alteration of its molecular target. The acute and growing problem of antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas to conventional antibiotics made it imperative to develop new liposome formulations to overcome these mechanisms, and investigate the fusion between liposome and bacterium. The rigidity, stability and charge properties of phospholipid vesicles were modified by varying the cholesterol, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), and negatively charged lipids 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol sodium salt (DMPG), 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phopho-L-serine sodium salt (DMPS), 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate monosodium salt (DMPA), nature phosphatidylserine sodium salt from brain and nature phosphatidylinositol sodium salt from soybean concentrations in liposomes. Liposomal fusion with intact bacteria was monitored using a lipid-mixing assay. It was discovered that the fluid liposomes-bacterium fusion is not dependent on liposomal size and lamellarity. A similar degree of fusion was observed for liposomes with a particle size from 100 to 800 nm. The fluidity of liposomes is an essential pre-request for liposomes fusion with bacteria. Fusion was almost completely inhibited by incorporation of cholesterol into fluid liposomes. The increase in the amount of negative charges in fluid liposomes reduces fluid liposomes-bacteria fusion when tested without calcium cations due to electric repulsion, but addition of calcium cations brings the fusion level of fluid liposomes to similar or higher levels. Among the negative phospholipids examined, DMPA gave the highest degree of fusion, DMPS and DMPG had intermediate fusion levels, and PI resulted in the lowest degree of fusion. Furthermore, the fluid

  18. Enhanced bactericidal potency of nanoliposomes by modification of the fusion activity between liposomes and bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yufan; Wang, Zhao; Zhao, Wen; Lu, Tingli; Wang, Rutao; Mei, Qibing; Chen, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents a good model of antibiotic resistance. These organisms have an outer membrane with a low level of permeability to drugs that is often combined with multidrug efflux pumps, enzymatic inactivation of the drug, or alteration of its molecular target. The acute and growing problem of antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas to conventional antibiotics made it imperative to develop new liposome formulations to overcome these mechanisms, and investigate the fusion between liposome and bacterium. Methods The rigidity, stability and charge properties of phospholipid vesicles were modified by varying the cholesterol, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), and negatively charged lipids 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol sodium salt (DMPG), 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phopho-L-serine sodium salt (DMPS), 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate monosodium salt (DMPA), nature phosphatidylserine sodium salt from brain and nature phosphatidylinositol sodium salt from soybean concentrations in liposomes. Liposomal fusion with intact bacteria was monitored using a lipid-mixing assay. Results It was discovered that the fluid liposomes-bacterium fusion is not dependent on liposomal size and lamellarity. A similar degree of fusion was observed for liposomes with a particle size from 100 to 800 nm. The fluidity of liposomes is an essential pre-request for liposomes fusion with bacteria. Fusion was almost completely inhibited by incorporation of cholesterol into fluid liposomes. The increase in the amount of negative charges in fluid liposomes reduces fluid liposomes-bacteria fusion when tested without calcium cations due to electric repulsion, but addition of calcium cations brings the fusion level of fluid liposomes to similar or higher levels. Among the negative phospholipids examined, DMPA gave the highest degree of fusion, DMPS and DMPG had intermediate fusion levels, and PI resulted in the lowest degree of fusion

  19. Chitosan-coated liposome dry-powder formulations loaded with ghrelin for nose-to-brain delivery.

    PubMed

    Salade, Laurent; Wauthoz, Nathalie; Vermeersch, Marjorie; Amighi, Karim; Goole, Jonathan

    2018-06-11

    The nose-to-brain delivery of ghrelin loaded in liposomes is a promising approach for the management of cachexia. It could limit the plasmatic degradation of ghrelin and provide direct access to the brain, where ghrelin's specific receptors are located. Anionic liposomes coated with chitosan in either a liquid or a dry-powder formulation were compared. The powder formulation showed stronger adhesion to mucins (89 ± 4% vs 61 ± 4%), higher ghrelin entrapment efficiency (64 ± 2% vs 55 ± 4%), higher enzymatic protection against trypsin (26 ± 2% vs 20 ± 3%) and lower ghrelin storage degradation at 25°C (2.67 ± 1.1% vs 95.64 ± 0.85% after 4 weeks). The powder formulation was also placed in unit-dose system devices that were able to generate an appropriate aerosol characterized by a Dv50 of 38 ± 6 µm, a limited percentage of particles smaller than 10 µm of 4 ± 1% and a reproducible mass delivery (CV: 1.49%). In addition, the device was able to deposit a large amount of powder (52.04% w/w) in the olfactory zone of a 3D-printed nasal cast. The evaluated combination of the powder formulation and the device could provide a promising treatment for cachexia. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Bombesin Encapsulated in Long-Circulating pH-Sensitive Liposomes as a Radiotracer for Breast Tumor Identification.

    PubMed

    De Barros, André Luís Branco; Mota, Luciene Das Graças; Coelho, Marina Melo Antunes; Corrêa, Natássia Caroline Resende; De Góes, Alfredo Miranda; Oliveira, Mônica Cristina; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento

    2015-02-01

    Bombesin (BBN) is a tetradecapeptide that binds specifically to gastrin-releasing peptide receptors in humans. These receptors are over-expressed in several forms of cancer; radiolabeled BBN could therefore be used to detect such cancers. However, the degradation of peptides is a critical issue in the development of tumor tracers. Liposomes can be used to overcome this problem and improve the uptake of tracers by tumors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to prepare and characterize long-circulating and pH-sensitive liposomes (SpHL) containing 99mTc-HYNIC-βAla-Bombesin(7-14) (99mTc-BBN(7-14). In addition, the ability of this system to identify human breast cancer tissue was evaluated using biodistribution studies and scintigraphic images. Long-circulating and pH-sensitive liposomes (SpHL) were prepared and freeze-dried in the presence of cryoprotectants (glucose, mannitol, and trehalose). They were subsequently reconstituted with a solution of 99mTc-HYNIC-βAla-Bombesin(7-14) (99mTc-BBN(7-14)). The liposomes were evaluated for size, encapsulation percentage, radiotracer leakage, and storage stability. In addition, in vivo studies were performed in breast tumor-bearing nude mice. Liposomes in the presence of glucose (SpHLG), exhibited a mean diameter of 164.5 ± 6.5 nm and exhibited a 99mTc-BBN(7-14) encapsulation percentage of 30%. In addition, they remained highly stable for up to 120 days of storage. SpHLG- 99mTc-BBN(7-14) showed longer blood circulation than free 99mTc-BBN(7-14), did. The tumor-to-muscle and tumor-to-blood ratios for SpHLG-99mTc-BBN(7-14 were high at 4 h post-injection (9.31%ID/g and 7.93%ID/g, respectively). Furthermore, scintigraphic images revealed a strong signal in the tumor area, indicating tumor specificity of SpHLG-99mTc-BBN(7-14). In summary, SpHLG-99mTc-BBN(7-14) presented characteristics suitable for a diagnostic agent, and is a potential tool for tumor identification.

  1. Potential antitumor activity of novel DODAC/PHO-S liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Luna, Arthur Cássio de Lima; Saraiva, Greice Kelle Viegas; Filho, Otaviano Mendonça Ribeiro; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; Neto, Salvador Claro; Cuccovia, Iolanda Midea; Maria, Durvanei Augusto

    2016-01-01

    In recent studies, we showed that synthetic phosphoethanolamine (PHO-S) has a great potential for inducing cell death in several tumor cell lines without damage to normal cells. However, its cytotoxic effect and selectivity against tumor cells could increase with encapsulation in cationic liposomes, such as dioctadecyldimethylammonium chloride (DODAC), due to electrostatic interactions between these liposomes and tumor cell membranes. Our aim was to use cationic liposomes to deliver PHO-S and to furthermore maximize the therapeutic effect of this compound. DODAC liposomes containing PHO-S (DODAC/PHO-S), at concentrations of 0.3–2.0 mM, prepared by ultrasonication, were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering. The cytotoxic effect of DODAC/PHO-S on B16F10 cells, Hepa1c1c7 cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was assessed by MTT assay. Cell cycle phases of B16F10 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and the morphological changes by SEM, after treatment. The liposomes were spherical and polydisperse in solution. The liposomes were stable, presenting an average of ∼50% of PHO-S encapsulation, with a small reduction after 40 days. DODAC demonstrated efficient PHO-S delivery, with the lowest values of IC50% (concentration that inhibits 50% of the growth of cells) for tumor cells, compared with PHO-S alone, with an IC50% value of 0.8 mM for B16F10 cells and 0.2 mM for Hepa1c1c7 cells, and without significant effects on endothelial cells. The Hepa1c1c7 cells showed greater sensitivity to the DODAC/PHO-S formulation when compared to B16F10 cells and HUVECs. The use of DODAC/PHO-S on B16F10 cells induced G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest, with the proportion significantly greater than that treated with PHO-S alone. The morphological analysis of B16F10 cells by SEM showed changes such as “bleb” formation, cell detachment, cytoplasmic retraction, and apoptotic bodies after DODAC/PHO-S treatment. Cationic liposomal

  2. Octadecyl ferulate behavior in 1,2-Dioleoylphosphocholine liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Kervin O.; Compton, David L.; Whitman, Nathan A.; Laszlo, Joseph A.; Appell, Michael; Vermillion, Karl E.; Kim, Sanghoon

    2016-01-01

    Octadecyl ferulate was prepared using solid acid catalyst, monitored using Supercritical Fluid Chromatography and purified to a 42% yield. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements determined octadecyl ferulate to have melting/solidification phase transitions at 67 and 39 °C, respectively. AFM imaging shows that 5-mol% present in a lipid bilayer induced domains to form. Phase behavior measurements confirmed that octadecyl ferulate increased transition temperature of phospholipids. Fluorescence measurements demonstrated that octadecyl ferulate stabilized liposomes against leakage, maintained antioxidant capacity within liposomes, and oriented such that the feruloyl moiety remained in the hydrophilic region of the bilayer. Molecular modeling calculation indicated that antioxidant activity was mostly influenced by interactions within the bilayer.

  3. Multifunctional quantum dots and liposome complexes in drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Chao, Yimin

    2018-01-01

    Incorporating both diagnostic and therapeutic functions into a single nanoscale system is an effective modern drug delivery strategy. Combining liposomes with semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) has great potential to achieve such dual functions, referred to in this review as a liposomal QD hybrid system (L-QD). Here we review the recent literature dealing with the design and application of L-QD for advances in bio-imaging and drug delivery. After a summary of L-QD synthesis processes and evaluation of their properties, we will focus on their multifunctional applications, ranging from in vitro cell imaging to theranostic drug delivery approaches. PMID:28866655

  4. Multifunctional quantum dots and liposome complexes in drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Chao, Yi-Min

    2017-09-03

    Incorporating both diagnostic and therapeutic functions into a single nanoscale system is an effective modern drug delivery strategy. Combining liposomes with semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) has great potential to achieve such dual functions, referred to in this review as a liposomal QD hybrid system (L-QD). Here we review the recent literature dealing with the design and application of L-QD for advances in bio-imaging and drug delivery. After a summary of L-QD synthesis processes and evaluation of their properties, we will focus on their multifunctional applications, ranging from in vitro cell imaging to theranostic drug delivery approaches.

  5. Quantitative Analysis of the Lamellarity of Giant Liposomes Prepared by the Inverted Emulsion Method

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Masataka; Miyazaki, Makito; Ishiwata, Shin’ichi

    2014-01-01

    The inverted emulsion method is used to prepare giant liposomes by pushing water-in-oil droplets through the oil/water interface into an aqueous medium. Due to the high encapsulation efficiency of proteins under physiological conditions and the simplicity of the protocol, it has been widely used to prepare various cell models. However, the lamellarity of liposomes prepared by this method has not been evaluated quantitatively. Here, we prepared liposomes that were partially stained with a fluorescent dye, and analyzed their fluorescence intensity under an epifluorescence microscope. The fluorescence intensities of the membranes of individual liposomes were plotted against their diameter. The plots showed discrete distributions, which were classified into several groups. The group with the lowest fluorescence intensity was determined to be unilamellar by monitoring the exchangeability of the inner and the outer solutions of the liposomes in the presence of the pore-forming toxin α-hemolysin. Increasing the lipid concentration dissolved in oil increased the number of liposomes ∼100 times. However, almost all the liposomes were unilamellar even at saturating lipid concentrations. We also investigated the effects of lipid composition and liposome content, such as highly concentrated actin filaments and Xenopus egg extracts, on the lamellarity of the liposomes. Remarkably, over 90% of the liposomes were unilamellar under all conditions examined. We conclude that the inverted emulsion method can be used to efficiently prepare giant unilamellar liposomes and is useful for designing cell models. PMID:25028876

  6. Stealth liposomes: review of the basic science, rationale, and clinical applications, existing and potential

    PubMed Central

    Immordino, Maria Laura; Dosio, Franco; Cattel, Luigi

    2006-01-01

    Among several promising new drug-delivery systems, liposomes represent an advanced technology to deliver active molecules to the site of action, and at present several formulations are in clinical use. Research on liposome technology has progressed from conventional vesicles (“first-generation liposomes”) to “second-generation liposomes”, in which long-circulating liposomes are obtained by modulating the lipid composition, size, and charge of the vesicle. Liposomes with modified surfaces have also been developed using several molecules, such as glycolipids or sialic acid. A significant step in the development of long-circulating liposomes came with inclusion of the synthetic polymer poly-(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in liposome composition. The presence of PEG on the surface of the liposomal carrier has been shown to extend blood-circulation time while reducing mononuclear phagocyte system uptake (stealth liposomes). This technology has resulted in a large number of liposome formulations encapsulating active molecules, with high target efficiency and activity. Further, by synthetic modification of the terminal PEG molecule, stealth liposomes can be actively targeted with monoclonal antibodies or ligands. This review focuses on stealth technology and summarizes pre-clinical and clinical data relating to the principal liposome formulations; it also discusses emerging trends of this promising technology. PMID:17717971

  7. Factorial design studies of antiretroviral drug-loaded stealth liposomal injectable: PEGylation, lyophilization and pharmacokinetic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhakar, Beeravelli; Krishna, Mylangam Chaitanya; Murthy, Kolapalli Venkata Ramana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to formulate and evaluate the ritonavir-loaded stealth liposomes by using 32 factorial design and intended to delivered by parenteral delivery. Liposomes were prepared by ethanol injection method using 32 factorial designs and characterized for various physicochemical parameters such as drug content, size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. The optimization process was carried out using desirability and overlay plots. The selected formulation was subjected to PEGylation using 10 % PEG-10000 solution. Stealth liposomes were characterized for the above-mentioned parameters along with surface morphology, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, differential scanning calorimeter, stability and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rats. Stealth liposomes showed better result compared to conventional liposomes due to effect of PEG-10000. The in vivo studies revealed that stealth liposomes showed better residence time compared to conventional liposomes and pure drug solution. The conventional liposomes and pure drug showed dose-dependent pharmacokinetics, whereas stealth liposomes showed long circulation half-life compared to conventional liposomes and pure ritonavir solution. The results of statistical analysis showed significance difference as the p value is (<0.05) by one-way ANOVA. The result of the present study revealed that stealth liposomes are promising tool in antiretroviral therapy.

  8. Strategies for improving the intratumoral distribution of liposomal drugs in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Goins, Beth; Phillips, William T.; Bao, Ande

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A major limitation of current liposomal cancer therapies is the inability of liposome therapeutics to penetrate throughout the entire tumor mass. This inhomogeneous distribution of liposome therapeutics within the tumor has been linked to treatment failure and drug resistance. Both liposome particle transport properties and tumor microenvironment characteristics contribute to this challenge in cancer therapy. This limitation is relevant to both intravenously and intratumorally administered liposome therapeutics. Areas covered Strategies to improve the intratumoral distribution of liposome therapeutics are described. Combination therapies of intravenous liposome therapeutics with pharmacologic agents modulating abnormal tumor vasculature, interstitial fluid pressure, extracellular matrix components, and tumor associated macrophages are discussed. Combination therapies using external stimuli (hyperthermia, radiofrequency ablation, magnetic field, radiation, and ultrasound) with intravenous liposome therapeutics are discussed. Intratumoral convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of liposomal therapeutics is reviewed. Expert opinion Optimization of the combination therapies and drug delivery protocols are necessary. Further research should be conducted in appropriate cancer types with consideration of physiochemical features of liposomes and their timing sequence. More investigation of the role of tumor associated macrophages in intratumoral distribution is warranted. Intratumoral infusion of liposomes using CED is a promising approach to improve their distribution within the tumor mass. PMID:26981891

  9. Skin whitening effect of linoleic acid is enhanced by liposomal formulations.

    PubMed

    Shigeta, Yasutami; Imanaka, Hiromichi; Ando, Hideya; Ryu, Atsuko; Oku, Naoto; Baba, Naomichi; Makino, Taketoshi

    2004-04-01

    Linoleic acid (LA) is known to have a whitening effect on hyperpigmented skin, and is encapsulated in liposomes for topical application because of its low solubility in aqueous solution, although the effect of liposomalization of LA on the whitening activity has not been evaluated. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of liposomalization on the whitening activity of LA by using LA in ethanol, hydrogel containing LA, and hydrogel containing liposomal LA towards the UV-stimulated hyperpigmented dorsal skin of brownish guinea pigs. The whitening effect was far greater for hydrogel containing liposomal LA (0.1% w/w as a final concentration of LA) than for free LA in ethanol or hydrogel containing LA. Next, the whitening effect of LA was examined with UV-stimulated hyperpigmented human upper arm skin by using a hydrogel containing liposomal LA (0.1% LA) and non-liposomal LA (3.0, 10.0% LA). Liposomal LA (0.1%) showed a whitening effect comparable to 10.0% non-liposomal LA and was far more effective than 3.0% non-liposomal LA. These results indicate that liposomal formulations are favorable for the transdermal application of LA.

  10. State of the Art of Stimuli-Responsive Liposomes for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Heidarli, Elmira; Dadashzadeh, Simin; Haeri, Azadeh

    2017-01-01

    Specific delivery of therapeutic agents to solid tumors and their bioavailability at the target site are the most clinically important and challenging goals in cancer therapy. Liposomes are promising nanocarriers and have been well investigated for cancer therapy. In spite of preferred accumulation in tumors via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, inefficient drug release at the target site and endosomal entrapment of long circulating liposomes are very important obstacles for achieving maximum anticancer efficacy. Thus, additional strategies such as stimulus-sensitive drug release are necessary to improve efficacy. Stimuli-sensitive liposomes are stable in blood circulation, however, activated by responding to external or internal stimuli and control the cargo release at the target site. This review focuses on state of the art of stimuli-responsive liposomes. Both external stimuli-responsive liposomes, including hyperthermia (HT), magnetic, light, and ultrasound-sensitive liposomes and internal stimuli (pH, reduction, and enzyme) responsive liposomes are covered. PMID:29552041

  11. Topical delivery of liposomally encapsulated interferon evaluated in a cutaneous herpes guinea pig model.

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, N; Williams, N; Birch, G; Ramachandran, C; Shipman, C; Flynn, G

    1989-01-01

    The topical delivery of liposomally encapsulated interferon was evaluated in the cutaneous herpes simplex virus guinea pig model. Application of liposomally entrapped interferon caused a reduction of lesion scores, whereas application of interferon formulated as a solution or as an emulsion was ineffective. The method of liposomal preparation rather than the lipid composition of the bilayers appeared to be the most important factor for reducing lesion scores. Only liposomes prepared by the dehydration-rehydration method were effective. This finding implied that the dehydration and subsequent rehydration of the liposomes facilitate partitioning of the interferon into liposomal bilayers, where the drug is positioned for transfer into the lipid compartment of the stratum corneum. Liposomes do not appear to function as permeation enhancers but seem to provide the needed physicochemical environment for transfer of interferon into the skin. PMID:2802550

  12. State of the Art of Stimuli-Responsive Liposomes for Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Heidarli, Elmira; Dadashzadeh, Simin; Haeri, Azadeh

    2017-01-01

    Specific delivery of therapeutic agents to solid tumors and their bioavailability at the target site are the most clinically important and challenging goals in cancer therapy. Liposomes are promising nanocarriers and have been well investigated for cancer therapy. In spite of preferred accumulation in tumors via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, inefficient drug release at the target site and endosomal entrapment of long circulating liposomes are very important obstacles for achieving maximum anticancer efficacy. Thus, additional strategies such as stimulus-sensitive drug release are necessary to improve efficacy. Stimuli-sensitive liposomes are stable in blood circulation, however, activated by responding to external or internal stimuli and control the cargo release at the target site. This review focuses on state of the art of stimuli-responsive liposomes. Both external stimuli-responsive liposomes, including hyperthermia (HT), magnetic, light, and ultrasound-sensitive liposomes and internal stimuli (pH, reduction, and enzyme) responsive liposomes are covered.

  13. Liposomal lipid and plasmid DNA delivery to B16/BL6 tumors after intraperitoneal administration of cationic liposome DNA aggregates.

    PubMed

    Reimer, D L; Kong, S; Monck, M; Wyles, J; Tam, P; Wasan, E K; Bally, M B

    1999-05-01

    The transfer of plasmid expression vectors to cells is essential for transfection after administration of lipid-based DNA formulations (lipoplexes). A murine i.p. B16/BL6 tumor model was used to characterize DNA delivery, liposomal lipid delivery, and gene transfer after regional (i.p.) administration of free plasmid DNA and DNA lipoplexes. DNA lipoplexes were prepared using cationic dioleoyldimethylammonium chloride/dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (50:50 mol ratio) liposomes mixed with plasmid DNA (1 microgram DNA/10 nmol lipid). The plasmid used contained the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression (mU/g tumor) was measured to estimate transfection efficiency. Tumor-associated DNA and liposomal lipid levels were measured to estimate the efficiency of lipid-mediated DNA delivery to tumors. Plasmid DNA delivery was estimated using [3H]-labeled plasmid as a tracer, dot blot analysis, and/or Southern analysis. Liposomal lipid delivery was estimated using [14C]-dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine as a liposomal lipid marker. Gene expression in the B16/BL6 tumors was highly variable, with values ranging from greater than 2,000 mU/g tumor to less than 100 mU/g tumor. There was a tendency to observe enhanced transfection in small (<250 mg) tumors. Approximately 18% of the injected dose of DNA was associated with these small tumors 2 h after i.p. administration. Southern analysis of extracted tumor DNA indicated that plasmid DNA associated with tumors was intact 24 h after administration. DNA and associated liposomal lipid are efficiently bound to tumors after regional administration; however, it is unclear whether delivery is sufficient to abet internalization and appropriate subcellular localization of the expression vector.

  14. Evaluation of polyethylene glycol coated liposomes labeled with Tc-99m as a blood pool agent

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, W.T.; Klipper, R.; Goins, B.

    1994-05-01

    This investigation evaluated Tc-99m liposomes coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a blood pool agent in comparison with Tc-99m liposomes carrying no surface charge (Neutral) and with Tc-99m autologous red cells. Liposomes (135 nm diameter) encapsulating glutathione were labeled with Tc-99m using the lipophilic chelator, HMPAO as previously described. Autologous red cells were labeled using an Ultratag kit. Labeling efficiencies averaged 66%, 52%, and 97% for the PEG liposomes. Neutral liposomes, and red cells, respectively. Rabbits (3-3.5 Kg) were injected IV via ear vein with 2.0 mls of PEG liposomes (2 mCi, 17 mg phospholipid/Kg body weight, n=5). Neutral liposomesmore » (1.3 mCi, 17 mg phospholipid/Kg body weight, n=4), or red cells (2.6 mCi, n=2). Gamma camera images were acquired at 5,22, and 45 minutes, and 2,20,and 44 hours post-injection. Blood samples were obtained at each time point to determine clearance kinetics. Circulation half lives of both Tc-99m liposome formulations were longer than Tc-99m red cells (8 hrs), with the half life of PEG liposomes (35 hrs) 1.6 times longer than Neutral liposomes (22 hrs). In vivo stability of the Tc-99m label was excellent for the liposomes with only 3.5-4% bladder activity at 45 minutes compared to 12% bladder activity for the red cells. Excellent blood pool images were obtained for the PEG liposomes in the rabbit. Heart/liver ratios calculated from region of interest analysis of 45 minutes images were 1.9, 1.5, and 1.7 for PEG liposomes, Neutral liposomes and red cells. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using Tc-99m PEG liposomes to perform gated cardiac blood pool and rapid gastrointestinal bleeding studies.« less

  15. PLGA/liposome hybrid nanoparticles for short-chain ceramide delivery.

    PubMed

    Zou, Peng; Stern, Stephan T; Sun, Duxin

    2014-03-01

    Rapid premature release of lipophilic drugs from liposomal lipid bilayer to plasma proteins and biological membranes is a challenge for targeted drug delivery. The purpose of this study is to reduce premature release of lipophilic short-chain ceramides by encapsulating ceramides into liposomal aqueous interior with the aid of poly (lactic-coglycolicacid) (PLGA). BODIPY FL labeled ceramide (FL-ceramide) and BODIPY-TR labeled ceramide (TR-ceramide) were encapsulated into carboxy-terminated PLGA nanoparticles. The negatively charged PLGA nanoparticles were then encapsulated into cationic liposomes to obtain PLGA/liposome hybrids. As a control, FL-ceramide and/or TR ceramide co-loaded liposomes without PLGA were prepared. The release of ceramides from PLGA/liposome hybrids and liposomes in rat plasma, cultured MDA-MB-231 cells, and rat blood circulation was compared using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between FL-ceramide (donor) and TR-ceramide (acceptor). FRET analysis showed that FL-ceramide and TR-ceramide in liposomal lipid bilayer were rapidly released during incubation with rat plasma. In contrast, the FL-ceramide and TR-ceramide in PLGA/liposome hybrids showed extended release. FRET images of cells revealed that ceramides in liposomal bilayer were rapidly transferred to cell membranes. In contrast, ceramides in PLGA/liposome hybrids were internalized into cells with nanoparticles simultaneously. Upon intravenous administration to rats, ceramides encapsulated in liposomal bilayer were completely released in 2 min. In contrast, ceramides encapsulated in the PLGA core were retained in PLGA/liposome hybrids for 4 h. The PLGA/liposome hybrid nanoparticles reduced in vitro and in vivo premature release of ceramides and offer a viable platform for targeted delivery of lipophilic drugs.

  16. PLGA/liposome hybrid nanoparticles for short-chain ceramide delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Peng; Stern, Stephan T.; Sun, Duxin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Rapid premature release of lipophilic drugs from liposomal lipid bilayer to plasma proteins and biological membranes is a challenge for targeted drug delivery. The purpose of this study is to reduce premature release of lipophilic short-chain ceramides by encapsulating ceramides into liposomal aqueous interior with the aid of poly( lactic-coglycolicacid) (PLGA). Methods BODIPY FL labeled ceramide (FL-ceramide) and BODIPY-TR labeled ceramide (TR-ceramide) were encapsulated into carboxy-terminated PLGA nanoparticles. The negatively charged PLGA nanoparticles were then encapsulated into cationic liposomes to obtain PLGA/liposome hybrids. As a control, FL-ceramide and/or TR ceramide co-loaded liposomes without PLGA were prepared. The release of ceramides from PLGA/liposome hybrids and liposomes in rat plasma, cultured MDA-MB-231 cells, and rat blood circulation was compared using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between FL-ceramide (donor) and TR-ceramide (acceptor). Results FRET analysis showed that FL-ceramide and TR-ceramide in liposomal lipid bilayer were rapidly released during incubation with rat plasma. In contrast, the FL-ceramide and TR-ceramide in PLGA/liposome hybrids showed extended release. FRET images of cells revealed that ceramides in liposomal bilayer were rapidly transferred to cell membranes. In contrast, ceramides in PLGA/liposome hybrids were internalized into cells with nanoparticles simultaneously. Upon intravenous administration to rats, ceramides encapsulated in liposomal bilayer were completely released in 2 minutes. In contrast, ceramides encapsulated in the PLGA core were retained in PLGA/liposome hybrids for 4 hours. Conclusions The PLGA/liposome hybrid nanoparticles reduced in vitro and in vivo premature release of ceramides and offer a viable platform for targeted delivery of lipophilic drugs. PMID:24065591

  17. Formulation, antileukemia mechanism, pharmacokinetics, and biodistribution of a novel liposomal emodin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tiechuang; Yin, Xiaodong; Lu, Yaping; Shan, Weiguang; Xiong, Subin

    2012-01-01

    Emodin is a multifunctional Chinese traditional medicine with poor water solubility. D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) is a pegylated vitamin E derivate. In this study, a novel liposomal-emodin-conjugating TPGS was formulated and compared with methoxypolyethyleneglycol 2000-derivatized distearoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (mPEG2000–DSPE) liposomal emodin. TPGS improved the encapsulation efficiency and stability of emodin egg phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol liposomes. A high encapsulation efficiency of 95.2% ± 3.0%, particle size of 121.1 ± 44.9 nm, spherical ultrastructure, and sustained in vitro release of TPGS liposomal emodin were observed; these were similar to mPEG2000–DSPE liposomes. Only the zeta potential of −13.1 ± 2.7 mV was significantly different to that for mPEG2000–DSPE liposomes. Compared to mPEG2000–DSPE liposomes, TPGS liposomes improved the cytotoxicity of emodin on leukemia cells by regulating the protein levels of myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1), B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-associated X protein, which was further enhanced by transferrin. TPGS liposomes prolonged the circulation time of emodin in the blood, with the area under the concentration–time curve (AUC) 1.7 times larger than for free emodin and 0.91 times larger than for mPEG2000–DSPE liposomes. In addition, TPGS liposomes showed higher AUC for emodin in the lung and kidney than for mPEG2000–DSPE liposomes, and both liposomes elevated the amount of emodin in the heart. Overall, TPGS is a pegylated agent that could potentially be used to compose a stable liposomal emodin with enhanced therapeutics. PMID:22661889

  18. Acoustical properties of individual liposome-loaded microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Luan, Ying; Faez, Telli; Gelderblom, Erik; Skachkov, Ilya; Geers, Bart; Lentacker, Ine; van der Steen, Ton; Versluis, Michel; de Jong, Nico

    2012-12-01

    A comparison between phospholipid-coated microbubbles with and without liposomes attached to the microbubble surface was performed using the ultra-high-speed imaging camera (Brandaris 128). We investigated 73 liposome-loaded microbubbles (loaded microbubbles) and 41 microbubbles without liposome loading (unloaded microbubbles) with a diameter ranging from 3-10 μm at frequencies ranging from 0.6-3.8 MHz and acoustic pressures ranging from 5-100 kPa. The experimental data showed nearly the same shell elasticity for the loaded and unloaded bubbles, but the shell viscosity was higher for loaded bubbles compared with unloaded bubbles. For loaded bubbles, a higher pressure threshold for the bubble vibrations was noticed. In addition, an "expansion-only" behavior was observed for up to 69% of the investigated loaded bubbles, which mostly occurred at low acoustic pressures (≤30 kPa). Finally, fluorescence imaging showed heterogeneity of liposome distributions of the loaded bubbles. Copyright © 2012 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. pH-sensitive liposomes: characterization and application

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, J.

    1986-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that liposomes composed of dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) and palmitoylhomocysteine (PHC) have the ability to fuse with adjacent membranes upon exposure to mildly acid pH. The ability of liposomes to fuse is absolutely dependent on the presence of DOPE and a weakly acidic amphiphile. The acid induced fusion event is a leaky process, but the leakage can be reduced by 50%, with only a small loss of fusion ability, by the inclusion of 40 mole percent cholesterol. Using an established monoclonal antibody targeting system. pH-sensitive immunoliposomes were prepared which successfully delivered entrapped calcein to the cytoplasm of targetmore » cells. The addition of chloroquine, which raises the internal pH of cellular vacuoles, blocks the cytoplasmic delivery of the pH-sensitive immunoliposomes. pH-insensitive immunoliposomes delivered calcein only to the endosome/lysosome system and not the cytoplasm. /sup 31/P-NMR and light scattering of DOPE:OA liposomes under acidic conditions demonstrate that the effect of the protons and the divalent cations is to force the DOPE to revert to the hexagonal II configuration. In vivo experiments with DOPE:OA immunoliposomes indicate that the liposomes rapidly aggregate and release their contents upon exposure to plasma. These results indicate that pH-sensitive immunoliposomes are an effective tool for in vitro cytoplasmic delivery but are ineffective for in vivo delivery at this point in development.« less

  20. Micromixer Based Preparation of Functionalized Liposomes and Targeting Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We present here a specific targeting nanocarrier system by functionalization of liposomes with one new type of breast cancer targeting peptide (H6, YLFFVFER) by a micromixer with high efficiency. Antitumor drugs could be successfully delivered into human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive breast cancer cells with high efficiency in both in vivo and ex vivo models. PMID:27096054

  1. Micromixer Based Preparation of Functionalized Liposomes and Targeting Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiangqian; Wang, Weizhi; Han, Qiuju; Wang, Zihua; Jia, Yunhong; Hu, Zhiyuan

    2016-04-14

    We present here a specific targeting nanocarrier system by functionalization of liposomes with one new type of breast cancer targeting peptide (H6, YLFFVFER) by a micromixer with high efficiency. Antitumor drugs could be successfully delivered into human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive breast cancer cells with high efficiency in both in vivo and ex vivo models.

  2. Stability of a liposomal formulation containing lipoyl or dihydrolipoyl acylglycerides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The acylglycerides of lipoic and dihydrolipoic acids may serve as slow-release sources for cutaneous delivery of these antioxidants when formulated in a liposomal vehicle. Testing was conducted to determine the storage stability of the lipoic derivatives and of the soybean phospholipids in which the...

  3. [Study on the hepatocytic cell targetability of liposomes].

    PubMed

    Hou, Xin-pu; Wang, Li; Wang, Xiang-tao; Li, Sha

    2003-02-01

    To target for hepatocytic cell, liposomes was modified by special ligand. Sterically stabilized liposomes (SSL) was conjugated with asialofeticin (AF), the ligand of asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) of hepatocyte. ASGP-R-BLM is the ASGP-R reconstructed on bilayer lipid membrane (BLM). The recognition reaction between AF-SSL and ASGP-R-BLM can be monitored by the varieties of membrane electrical parameters. The targetability of AF-SSL mediated to hepatocyte was detected by radioisotopic labeled in vitro and in vivo. The therapeutic effect of antihepatocarcinoma was observed also. The lifetime of ASGP-R-BLM decreased with the added amount of AF-SSL. It was demonstrated that there was recognition reaction between AF-SSL and ASGP-R-BLM. The combination of AF-SSL with hepatocyte was significantly higher than that of SSL without AF-modified in vitro and in vivo. The survival time of rat for AF-SSL carriered ADM (adriamycin) group was much longer and the toxicities on heart, kidney and lung were lower than those SSL carried ADM group. It is possible to actively target the cell with specific receptor by ligand modified liposomes. The result prvide scientific basis of hepatocyte targeted liposomes.

  4. Biomolecular Interactions of Tannin Isolated from Oenothera gigas with Liposomes.

    PubMed

    Sekowski, Szymon; Ionov, Maksim; Dubis, Alina; Mavlyanov, Saidmukhtar; Bryszewska, Maria; Zamaraeva, Maria

    2016-04-01

    We have examined the interaction between hydrolysable tannin 1-O-galloyl-4,6-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-β-D-glucose (OGβDG) with neutral liposomes as a model of cell membranes composed of three lipids: lecithin, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) at different mass ratios. OGβDG in the concentration range 0.5-15 µg/ml (0.4-12 µM) strongly interacts with liposomal membranes by changing their structure, surface charge and fluidity. Used OGβDG molecules decrease and increase the rigidity of hydrophilic surface and hydrophobic parts of liposomes, respectively. At higher concentrations of tannin (>15 µM), liposomes are aggregated. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) analysis showed that mainly -OH groups from OGβDG and also PO(2-) groups from phospholipids are responsible for the interaction. Obtained data indicate the importance of membrane lipid composition in interactions between tannins and cells.

  5. Liposome-Based Nanomedicine Therapeutics for Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mahfoozur; Beg, Sarwar; Anwar, Firoz; Kumar, Vikas; Ubale, Ruhi; Addo, Richard T; Ali, Raisuddin; Akhter, Sohail

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a very painful severe autoimmune disease with complex pathology characterized by progressive chronic inflammation, and devastation of the synovium, cartilage, and other joint-associated structures. Significant advances in research in the area of pathophysiology, diagnosis, drug development, and targeted delivery have led to improved RA therapy and better patient compliance. Targeted drug delivery using liposomal nanomedicines significantly alleviate the challenges with conventional anti-RA medications such as off-target effects, short biological half-life, poor bioavailability, high dose-related toxicity, etc. Liposomal nanomedicines in RA drug targeting offer the opportunity for passive targeting [based on size and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-ylation-mediated enhanced permeability and retention] and active targeting (ligation with antibody or peptides, etc.) and encapsulation of lipophilic, hydrophilic drugs, and/or combinational drugs. However, it has been found recently that such injectable nanomedicines raise the concern of an adverse immune phenomenon called complement activationrelated pseudo allergy (CARPA) and failure of therapy on multiple doses due to accelerated body clearance caused many by anti-PEG immunoglobulin M. To ensure safety and efficacy of RA therapy, these need to be considered along with the common formulation quality parameters. Here, we discuss nanotherapeutic targeting in RA therapy using liposomes. Liposomal nanoparticles are investigated for individual anti-RA drug categories. CARPA issues and pathophysiology with such nanomedicines are also discussed in detail.

  6. Compressibilities and Volume Fluctuations of Archaeal Tetraether Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Parkson Lee-Gau; Sulc, Michael; Winter, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Bipolar tetraether lipids (BTLs) are abundant in crenarchaeota, which thrive in both thermophilic and nonthermophilic environments, with wide-ranging growth temperatures (4–108°C). BTL liposomes can serve as membrane models to explore the role of BTLs in the thermal stability of the plasma membrane of crenarchaeota. In this study, we focus on the liposomes made of the polar lipid fraction E (PLFE). PLFE is one of the main BTLs isolated from the thermoacidophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. Using molecular acoustics (ultrasound velocimetry and densimetry), pressure perturbation calorimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry, we have determined partial specific adiabatic and isothermal compressibility, their respective compressibility coefficients, partial specific volume, and relative volume fluctuations of PLFE large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) over a wide range of temperatures (20–85°C). The results are compared with those obtained from liposomes made of dipalmitoyl-L-α-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), a conventional monopolar diester lipid. We found that, in the entire temperature range examined, compressibilities of PLFE LUVs are low, comparable to those found in gel state of DPPC. Relative volume fluctuations of PLFE LUVs at any given temperature examined are 1.6–2.2 times more damped than those found in DPPC LUVs. Both compressibilities and relative volume fluctuations in PLFE LUVs are much less temperature-sensitive than those in DPPC liposomes. The isothermal compressibility coefficient (βTlipid) of PLFE LUVs changes from 3.59 × 10−10 Pa−1 at 25°C to 4.08 × 10−10 Pa−1 at 78°C. Volume fluctuations of PLFE LUVs change only 0.25% from 30°C to 80°C. The highly damped volume fluctuations and their low temperature sensitivity, echo that PLFE liposomes are rigid and tightly packed. To our knowledge, the data provide a deeper understanding of lipid packing in PLFE liposomes than has been previously reported, as well as a molecular

  7. Engineering Remotely Triggered Liposomes to Target Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sneider, Alexandra; Jadia, Rahul; Piel, Brandon; VanDyke, Derek; Tsiros, Christopher; Rai, Prakash

    2017-01-01

    Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) continues to present a challenge in the clinic, as there is still no approved targeted therapy. TNBC is the worst sub-type of breast cancer in terms of prognosis and exhibits a deficiency in estrogen, progesterone, and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) receptors. One possible option for the treatment of TNBC is chemotherapy. The issue with many chemotherapy drugs is that their effectiveness is diminished due to poor water solubility, and the method of administration directly or with a co-solvent intravenously can lead to an increase in toxicity. The issues of drug solubility can be avoided by using liposomes as a drug delivery carrier. Liposomes are engineered, biological nanoconstructs that possess the ability to encapsulate both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs and have been clinically approved to treat cancer. Specific targeting of cancer cell receptors through the use of ligands conjugated to the surface of drug-loaded liposomes could lessen damage to normal, healthy tissue. This study focuses on polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated, folate conjugated, benzoporphyrin derivative (BPD)-loaded liposomes for treatment via photodynamic therapy (PDT). The folate receptor is over expressed on TNBC cells so these liposomes are targeted for greater uptake into cancer cells. PDT involves remotely irradiating light at 690 nm to trigger BPD, a hydrophobic photosensitive drug, to form reactive oxygen species that cause tumor cell death. BPD also displays a fluorescence signal when excited by light making it possible to image the fluorescence prior to PDT and for theranostics. In this study, free BPD, non-targeted and folate-targeted PEGylated BPD-loaded liposomes were introduced to a metastatic breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) in vitro. The liposomes were reproducibly synthesized and characterized for size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, stability, and BPD release kinetics. Folate competition tests, fluorescence

  8. DOTAP cationic liposomes prefer relaxed over supercoiled plasmids.

    PubMed

    Even-Chen, S; Barenholz, Y

    2000-12-20

    Cationic liposomes and DNA interact electrostatically to form complexes called lipoplexes. The amounts of unbound (free) DNA in a mixture of cationic liposomes and DNA at different cationic lipid:DNA molar ratios can be used to describe DNA binding isotherms; these provide a measure of the binding efficiency of DNA to different cationic lipid formulations at various medium conditions. In order to quantify the ratio between the various forms of naked DNA and supercoiled, relaxed and single-stranded DNA, and the ratio between cationic lipid bound and unbound DNA of various forms we developed a simple, sensitive quantitative assay using agarose gel electrophoresis, followed by staining with the fluorescent cyanine DNA dyes SYBR Green I or SYBR Gold. This assay was compared with that based on the use of ethidium bromide (the most commonly used nucleic acid stain). Unlike ethidium bromide, SYBR Green I DNA sensitivity and concentration-dependent fluorescence intensity were identical for supercoiled and nicked-relaxed forms. DNA detection by SYBR Green I in solution is approximately 40-fold more sensitive than by ethidium bromide for double-stranded DNA and approximately 10-fold for single-stranded DNA, and in agarose gel it is 16-fold more sensitive for double-stranded DNA compared with ethidium bromide. SYBR Gold performs similarly to SYBR Green I. This study shows that: (a) there is no significant difference in DNA binding isotherms to the monocationic DOTAP (DOTAP/DOPE) liposomes and to the polycationic DOSPA (DOSPA/DOPE) liposomes, even when four DOSPA positive charges are involved in the electrostatic interaction with DNA; (b) the helper lipids affect DNA binding, as DOTAP/DOPE liposomes bind more DNA than DOTAP/cholesterol; (c) in the process of lipoplex formation, when the DNA is a mixture of two forms, supercoiled and nicked-relaxed (open circular), there is a preference for the binding to the cationic liposomes of plasmid DNA in the nicked-relaxed over the

  9. Encapsulation of lutein in liposomes using supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lisha; Temelli, Feral; Curtis, Jonathan M; Chen, Lingyun

    2017-10-01

    Liposomes loaded with lutein were prepared utilizing supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2 ). The effects of pressure, depressurization rate, temperature and lutein-to-lipid ratio on particle size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency (EE), bioactive loading, morphology, phase transition and crystallinity were investigated. Liposomes prepared by the SC-CO 2 method had a particle size of 147.6±1.9nm-195.4±2.3nm, an encapsulation efficiency of 56.7±0.7%-97.0±0.8% and a zeta potential of -54.5±1.2mV to -61.7±0.6mV. A higher pressure (200-300bar) and depressurization rate (90-200bar/min) promoted a higher encapsulation of lutein whereas the lutein-to-lipid ratio had the dominant effect on the morphology of vesicles along with size distribution and EE. X-ray diffraction data implied a substantial drop in the crystallinity of lutein upon its redistribution in the liposome membranes. Differential scanning calorimetry indicated a broadened phase transition upon the simultaneous rearrangement of lutein and phospholipid molecules into liposomal vesicles. The SC-CO 2 method resulted in particle characteristics highly associated with the ability of CO 2 to disperse phospholipids and lutein molecules. It offers a promising approach to use dense phase CO 2 to homogenize hydrophobic or amphiphilic aggregates suspended in an aqueous medium and regulate the vesicular characteristics via pressure and depressurization rate. The SC-CO 2 method has potential for scalable production of liposomal nanovesicles with desirable characteristics and free of organic solvents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Vitamin C-driven epirubicin loading into liposomes.

    PubMed

    Lipka, Dominik; Gubernator, Jerzy; Filipczak, Nina; Barnert, Sabine; Süss, Regine; Legut, Mateusz; Kozubek, Arkadiusz

    2013-01-01

    The encapsulation of anticancer drugs in a liposome structure protects the drug during circulation and increases drug accumulation in the cancer tissue and antitumor activity while decreasing drug toxicity. This paper presents a new method of active drug loading based on a vitamin C pH/ion gradient. Formulations were characterized in terms of the following parameters: optimal external pH, time and drug-to-lipid ratio for the purpose of remote loading, and in vitro stability. In the case of the selected drug, epirubicin (EPI), its coencapsulation increases its anticancer activity through a possibly synergistic effect previously reported by other groups for a free nonencapsulated drug/vitamin C cocktail. The method also has another advantage over other remote-loading methods: it allows faster drug release through liposome destabilization at the tumor site, thanks to the very good solubility of the EPI vitamin C salt, as seen on cryogenic transmission electron microscopy images. This influences the drug-release process and increases the anticancer activity of the liposome formulation. The liposomes are characterized as stable, with very good pharmacokinetics (half-life 18.6 hours). The antitumor activity toward MCF-7 and 4T-1 breast cancer cells was higher in the case of EPI loaded via our gradient than via an ammonium sulfate gradient. Finally, the EPI liposomal formulation and the free drug were tested using the murine 4T-1 breast cancer model. The antitumor activity of the encapsulated drug was confirmed (tumor-growth inhibition over 40% from day 16 until the end of the experiment), and the free drug was shown to have no anticancer activity at the tested dose.

  11. Vitamin C-driven epirubicin loading into liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Lipka, Dominik; Gubernator, Jerzy; Filipczak, Nina; Barnert, Sabine; Süss, Regine; Legut, Mateusz; Kozubek, Arkadiusz

    2013-01-01

    The encapsulation of anticancer drugs in a liposome structure protects the drug during circulation and increases drug accumulation in the cancer tissue and antitumor activity while decreasing drug toxicity. This paper presents a new method of active drug loading based on a vitamin C pH/ion gradient. Formulations were characterized in terms of the following parameters: optimal external pH, time and drug-to-lipid ratio for the purpose of remote loading, and in vitro stability. In the case of the selected drug, epirubicin (EPI), its coencapsulation increases its anticancer activity through a possibly synergistic effect previously reported by other groups for a free nonencapsulated drug/vitamin C cocktail. The method also has another advantage over other remote-loading methods: it allows faster drug release through liposome destabilization at the tumor site, thanks to the very good solubility of the EPI vitamin C salt, as seen on cryogenic transmission electron microscopy images. This influences the drug-release process and increases the anticancer activity of the liposome formulation. The liposomes are characterized as stable, with very good pharmacokinetics (half-life 18.6 hours). The antitumor activity toward MCF-7 and 4T-1 breast cancer cells was higher in the case of EPI loaded via our gradient than via an ammonium sulfate gradient. Finally, the EPI liposomal formulation and the free drug were tested using the murine 4T-1 breast cancer model. The antitumor activity of the encapsulated drug was confirmed (tumor-growth inhibition over 40% from day 16 until the end of the experiment), and the free drug was shown to have no anticancer activity at the tested dose. PMID:24101870

  12. Dual Targeting Biomimetic Liposomes for Paclitaxel/DNA Combination Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guo-Xia; Fang, Gui-Qing; Xu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Combinations of chemotherapeutic drugs with nucleic acid has shown great promise in cancer therapy. In the present study, paclitaxel (PTX) and DNA were co-loaded in the hyaluronic acid (HA) and folate (FA)-modified liposomes (HA/FA/PPD), to obtain the dual targeting biomimetic nanovector. The prepared HA/FA/PPD exhibited nanosized structure and narrow size distributions (247.4 ± 4.2 nm) with appropriate negative charge of −25.40 ± 2.7 mV. HA/FA/PD (PTX free HA/FA/PPD) showed almost no toxicity on murine malignant melanoma cell line (B16) and human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) (higher than 80% cell viability), demonstrating the safety of the blank nanovector. In comparison with the FA-modified PTX/DNA co-loaded liposomes (FA/PPD), HA/FA/PPD showed significant superiority in protecting the nanoparticles from aggregation in the presence of plasma and degradation by DNase I. Moreover, HA/FA/PPD could also significantly improve the transfection efficiency and cellular internalization rates on B16 cells comparing to that of FA/PPD (p < 0.05) and PPD (p < 0.01), demonstrating the great advantages of dual targeting properties. Furthermore, fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry results showed that PTX and DNA could be effectively co-delivered into the same tumor cell via HA/FA/PPD, contributing to PTX/DNA combination cancer treatment. In conclusion, the obtained HA/FA/PPD in the study could effectively target tumor cells, enhance transfection efficiency and subsequently achieve the co-delivery of PTX and DNA, displaying great potential for optimal combination therapy. PMID:25177862

  13. Evaluation of the physicochemical properties of liposomes as potential carriers of anticancer drugs: spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentak, Danuta

    2016-05-01

    Vesicle size and composition are a critical parameter for determining the circulation half-life of liposomes. Size influences the degree of drug encapsulation in liposomes. The geometry, size, and properties of liposomes in an aqueous environment have to be described to enable potential applications of liposome systems as drug carriers. The characteristics of multiple thermotropic phase transitions are also an important consideration in liposomes used for analytical and bioanalytical purposes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of liposomes which accommodate hydrophilic and amphiphilic drugs used in cancer therapy. The studied liposomes were prepared with the involvement of the modified reverse-phase evaporation method (mREV). The prepared liposomes had a diameter of 70-150 nm. The analyzed compounds were 1-β- d-arabinofuranosylcytosine, cyclophosphamide, and ifosfamide. In literature, there is no information about simultaneous incorporation of cytarabine, ifosfamide, and cyclophosphamide, in spite of the fact that these drugs have been used for more than 30 years. A combination of the examined drugs is used in CODOX-M/IVAC therapy. CODOX-M/IVAC (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, high-dose methotrexate/ifosfamide, etoposide, and high-dose cytarabine) is one of the currently preferred intensive-dose chemotherapy regimens for Burkitt lymphoma (BL). The present research demonstrates the pioneering studies of incorporation of ifosfamide into liposome vesicles, location of and competition between the analyzed drugs and liposome vesicles. The applied methods were nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

  14. Pirfenidone-loaded liposomes for lung targeting: preparation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Hui; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to develop novel pirfenidone (PFD)-loaded liposomes for targeting to the lung. Methods The liposomes were prepared by the film hydration method, and their in vitro/vivo characteristics were evaluated. Results The PFD liposomes appeared visually as green to yellowish suspensions and were spherical in shape. The particle size was 582.3±21.6 nm and the entrapment efficiency was relatively high (87.2%±5.7%). The liposomes showed typical sustained and prolonged drug-release behavior in vitro and fitted well with the Weibull distribution equation. The relatively slower time taken to reach a minimal plasma PFD concentration in vivo suggests that PFD liposomes have a sustained-release profile, which is consistent with the results of the in vitro release study. The PFD liposomes showed the largest area under the curve for the lung. The high distribution of PFD achieved in the lungs using this liposomal formulation may be explained by physical entrapment of the liposomes in the vascular network of the lung. Histopathological results indicated that liposomal PFD could alleviate pathological injury in lung tissue. Conclusion This liposomal formulation can enable sustained release of PFD and increase targeting to the lung. PMID:26185416

  15. Influence of curcumin-loaded cationic liposome on anticancer activity for cervical cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Saengkrit, Nattika; Saesoo, Somsak; Srinuanchai, Wanwisa; Phunpee, Sarunya; Ruktanonchai, Uracha Rungsardthong

    2014-02-01

    The delivery of curcumin has been explored in the form of liposomal nanoparticles to treat various cancer cells. Since curcumin is water insoluble and an effective delivery route is through encapsulation in liposomes, which were modified with three components of DDAB, cholesterol and non-ionic surfactant. The purpose of this study was to establish a critical role of DDAB in liposomes containing curcumin at cellular response against two types of cell lines (HeLa and SiHa). Here, we demonstrate that DDAB is a potent inducer of cell uptake and cell death in both cell lines. The enhanced cell uptake was found on DDAB-containing liposome, but not on DDAB-free liposome. However, the cytotoxicity of DDAB-containing liposomes was high and needs to be optimized. The cytotoxicity of liposomal curcumin was more pronounced than free curcumin in both cells, suggesting the benefits of using nanocarrier. In addition, the anticancer efficiency and apoptosis effect of the liposomal curcumin formulations with DDAB was higher than those of DDAB-free liposomes. Therefore curcumin loaded liposomes indicate significant potential as delivery vehicles for the treatment of cervical cancers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Indocyanine Green-Loaded Liposomes for Light-Triggered Drug Release.

    PubMed

    Lajunen, Tatu; Kontturi, Leena-Stiina; Viitala, Lauri; Manna, Moutusi; Cramariuc, Oana; Róg, Tomasz; Bunker, Alex; Laaksonen, Timo; Viitala, Tapani; Murtomäki, Lasse; Urtti, Arto

    2016-06-06

    Light-triggered drug delivery systems enable site-specific and time-controlled drug release. In previous work, we have achieved this with liposomes containing gold nanoparticles in the aqueous core. Gold nanoparticles absorb near-infrared light and release the energy as heat that increases the permeability of the liposomal bilayer, thus releasing the contents of the liposome. In this work, we replaced the gold nanoparticles with the clinically approved imaging agent indocyanine green (ICG). The ICG liposomes were stable at storage conditions (4-22 °C) and at body temperature, and fast near-infrared (IR) light-triggered drug release was achieved with optimized phospholipid composition and a 1:50 ICG-to-lipid molar ratio. Encapsulated small molecular calcein and FITC-dextran (up to 20 kDa) were completely released from the liposomes after light exposure for 15 s. Location of ICG in the PEG layer of the liposomes was simulated with molecular dynamics. ICG has important benefits as a light-triggering agent in liposomes: fast content release, improved stability, improved possibility of liposomal size control, regulatory approval to use in humans, and the possibility of imaging the in vivo location of the liposomes based on the fluorescence of ICG. Near-infrared light used as a triggering mechanism has good tissue penetration and safety. Thus, ICG liposomes are an attractive option for light-controlled and efficient delivery of small and large drug molecules.

  17. Liposomes as potential carrier system for targeted delivery of polyene antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Naik, Suresh R; Desai, Sandhya K; Shah, Priyank D; Wala, Santosh M

    2013-09-01

    The development of new therapeutic modalities involves the use of drug carrier, such as liposomes, which can modify pharmacokinetic and bio-distribution of drug profile. Polyene antibiotics incorporation into liposomes improves its availability at the site, bio-distribution and therapeutic index mainly through the engulfment of liposomes by circulating monocytes/macrophages and transportation to the site of infection. Polyene antibiotics (AmB, SJA-95, HA-1-92) and other antibiotics (streptomycin, tobramycin, quinolones, anti-tubercular and anti-cancer drugs), liposomal preparations are described with possible advantages from therapeutic efficacy and toxicity point of view. The polyene macrolide antibiotics liposomal preparations proved to be more effective in the treatment of systemic mycosis. The AmB-cyclodextrin derivatives inclusion complex is a major breakthrough in liposomal preparation which can be converted into aqueous phase of liposome. Liposomal drug incorporated preparation has been one of the important areas of research for developing the existing polyene antibiotics into useful chemotherapeutic agents in clinical medicine. In recent past other antibiotics have also been incorporated into liposomes using wide variety of materials, phosphatidylethanolamine derivatives (pegylated liposomes, enzyme sensitive conjugates, fluidosomes of anti-cancer drugs and poly lactic/glycolic acid microspheres for anti-tuberculosis drugs). In addition, attempts were also made to extend the receptor mediated drug targeting and to review some relevant patents.

  18. In vivo monitoring of liposomal release in tumours following ultrasound stimulation.

    PubMed

    Evjen, Tove J; Hagtvet, Eirik; Moussatov, Alexei; Røgnvaldsson, Sibylla; Mestas, Jean-Louis; Fowler, R Andrew; Lafon, Cyril; Nilssen, Esben A

    2013-08-01

    Dioeleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE)-based liposomes were recently reported as a new class of liposomes for ultrasound (US)-mediated drug delivery. The liposomes showed both high stability and in vitro US-mediated drug release (sonosensitivity). In the current study, in vivo proof-of-principle of US triggered release in tumoured mice was demonstrated using optical imaging. Confocal non-thermal US was used to deliver cavitation to tumours in a well-controlled manner. To detect in vivo release, the near infrared fluorochrome Al (III) Phthalocyanine Chloride Tetrasulphonic acid (AlPcS₄) was encapsulated into both DOPE-based liposomes and control liposomes based on hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC). Encapsulation causes concentration dependent quenching of fluorescence that is recovered upon AlPcS₄ release from the liposomes. Exposure of tumours to US resulted in a significant increase in fluorescence in mice administered with DOPE-based liposomes, but no change in the mice treated with HSPC-based liposomes. Thus, DOPE-based liposomes showed superior sonosensitivity compared to HSPC-based liposomes in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Computer-aided design of liposomal drugs: In silico prediction and experimental validation of drug candidates for liposomal remote loading.

    PubMed

    Cern, Ahuva; Barenholz, Yechezkel; Tropsha, Alexander; Goldblum, Amiram

    2014-01-10

    Previously we have developed and statistically validated Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSPR) models that correlate drugs' structural, physical and chemical properties as well as experimental conditions with the relative efficiency of remote loading of drugs into liposomes (Cern et al., J. Control. Release 160 (2012) 147-157). Herein, these models have been used to virtually screen a large drug database to identify novel candidate molecules for liposomal drug delivery. Computational hits were considered for experimental validation based on their predicted remote loading efficiency as well as additional considerations such as availability, recommended dose and relevance to the disease. Three compounds were selected for experimental testing which were confirmed to be correctly classified by our previously reported QSPR models developed with Iterative Stochastic Elimination (ISE) and k-Nearest Neighbors (kNN) approaches. In addition, 10 new molecules with known liposome remote loading efficiency that were not used by us in QSPR model development were identified in the published literature and employed as an additional model validation set. The external accuracy of the models was found to be as high as 82% or 92%, depending on the model. This study presents the first successful application of QSPR models for the computer-model-driven design of liposomal drugs. © 2013.

  20. Computer-aided design of liposomal drugs: in silico prediction and experimental validation of drug candidates for liposomal remote loading

    PubMed Central

    Cern, Ahuva; Barenholz, Yechezkel; Tropsha, Alexander; Goldblum, Amiram

    2014-01-01

    Previously we have developed and statistically validated Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSPR) models that correlate drugs’ structural, physical and chemical properties as well as experimental conditions with the relative efficiency of remote loading of drugs into liposomes (Cern et al, Journal of Controlled Release, 160(2012) 14–157). Herein, these models have been used to virtually screen a large drug database to identify novel candidate molecules for liposomal drug delivery. Computational hits were considered for experimental validation based on their predicted remote loading efficiency as well as additional considerations such as availability, recommended dose and relevance to the disease. Three compounds were selected for experimental testing which were confirmed to be correctly classified by our previously reported QSPR models developed with Iterative Stochastic Elimination (ISE) and k-nearest neighbors (kNN) approaches. In addition, 10 new molecules with known liposome remote loading efficiency that were not used in QSPR model development were identified in the published literature and employed as an additional model validation set. The external accuracy of the models was found to be as high as 82% or 92%, depending on the model. This study presents the first successful application of QSPR models for the computer-model-driven design of liposomal drugs. PMID:24184343

  1. Enhancement of Skin Penetration of Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Compounds by pH-sensitive Liposomes.

    PubMed

    Tokudome, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Kaoru; Itaya, Yurina; Hashimoto, Fumie

    2015-01-01

    Enhance skin penetration of hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds using liposomes that are responsible to the pH of the skin surface. pH-sensitive liposomes were prepared by a thin layer and freeze-thaw method with dioleoyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine and cholesteryl hemisuccinate. Liposomal fusion with stratum corneum lipid liposomes was measured using fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Particle diameter and zeta potential of the liposomes after fusion were measured by dynamic light scattering and electrophoresis. Under neutral pH conditions, the diameter of the pH-sensitive liposomes was 130 nm and their zeta potential was -70 mV. In weakly acidic conditions, the diameter was larger than 3,000 nm and the zeta potential was -50 mV. In contrast, the particle diameter and the zeta potential of the non-pH-sensitive liposomes remained constant under various pH conditions. A skin penetration study was performed on hairless mice skin using vertical diffusion cells, showing that the fusion ability of pH-sensitive liposomes was higher than that of non-pH-sensitive liposomes. In the skin penetration study was carried out using hydrophilic (calcein) and lipophilic (N-(7-nitrobenz- 2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4yl)-PE) (NBD-PE) model compounds which were applied to the skin with pH-sensitive liposomes as carrier. The fluorescent compounds contained within the pH-sensitive liposomes permeated the skin more effectively than those within non-pH-sensitive liposomes, and this ability was further enhanced with the lipophilic compound. These studies suggest that pH-sensitive liposomes have potential as an important tool for delivery of compounds into the skin.

  2. Dual-coating of liposomes as encapsulating matrix of antimicrobial peptides: Development and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomaa, Ahmed I.; Martinent, Cynthia; Hammami, Riadh; Fliss, Ismail; Subirade, Muriel

    2017-11-01

    Abstract Antimicrobial peptides have been proposed as a potential biopreservatives in pharmaceutical research and agribusiness. However, many limitations hinder their utilization, such as their vulnerability to proteolytic digestion and their potential interaction with other food ingredients in complex food systems. One approach to overcome such problems is developing formulations entrapping and thereby protecting the antimicrobial peptides. Liposome encapsulation is a strategy that could be implemented to combine protection of the antimicrobial activity of the peptides from proteolytic enzymes and the controlled release of the encapsulated active ingredients. The objective of this study was to develop dual-coated food grade liposome formulations for oral administration of bacteriocins. The formulations were developed from anionic and cationic phospholipids as models of negatively and positively charged liposomes, respectively. Liposomes were prepared by the hydration of lipid films. Subsequently, the liposomes were coated with two layers comprising a biopolymer network (pectin) and whey proteins (WPI) in order to further improve their stability and enable the gradual release of the developed liposomes. Liposomes were characterized for their size, charge, molecular structure, morphology, encapsulation efficiency and release. The results of FTIR, zeta potential, size distribution and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the liposomes were efficiently coated. Ionic interactions were involved in the stabilization of the positively charged liposome formulations. Negatively charge liposome formulations were stabilized through weak interactions. The release study proved the efficiency of dual coating on the protection of liposomes against gastrointestinal digestion. This work is the first to study the encapsulation of antimicrobial peptides in dual-coated liposomes. Furthermore, the work successfully encapsulated MccJ25 in both negative and positive liposome

  3. Polymer coated liposomes for dental drug delivery--interactions with parotid saliva and dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, S; Hiorth, M; Rykke, M; Smistad, G

    2013-09-27

    The interactions between pectin coated liposomes and parotid saliva and dental enamel were studied to investigate their potential to mimic the protective biofilm formed naturally on tooth surfaces. Different pectin coated liposomes with respect to pectin type (LM-, HM- and AM-pectin) and concentration (0.05% and 0.2%) were prepared. Interactions between the pectin coated liposomes and parotid saliva were studied by turbidimetry and imaging by atomic force microscopy. The liposomes were adsorbed to hydroxyapatite (HA) and human dental enamel using phosphate buffer and parotid saliva as adsorption media. A continuous flow was imposed on the enamel surfaces for various time intervals to examine their retention on the dental enamel. The results were compared to uncoated, charged liposomes. No aggregation tendencies for the pectin coated liposomes and parotid saliva were revealed. This makes them promising as drug delivery systems to be used in the oral cavity. In phosphate buffer the adsorption to HA of pectin coated liposomes was significantly lower than the negative liposomes. The difference diminished in parotid saliva. Positive liposomes adsorbed better to the dental enamel than the pectin coated liposomes. However, when subjected to flow for 1h, no significant differences in the retention levels on the enamel were found between the formulations. For all formulations, more than 40% of the liposomes still remained on the enamel surfaces. At time point 20 min the retention of HM-pectin coated and positive liposomes were significantly higher. It was concluded that pectin coated liposomes can adsorb to HA as well as to the dental enamel. Their ability to retain on the enamel surfaces promotes the concept of using them as protective structures for the teeth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Transient cerebral hypoperfusion assisted intraarterial cationic liposome delivery to brain tissue

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Shailendra; Singh-Moon, Rajinder P.; Wang, Mei; Chaudhuri, Durba B.; Holcomb, Mark; Straubinger, Ninfa L.; Bruce, Jeffrey N.; Bigio, Irving J.; Straubinger, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Object Transient cerebral hypoperfusion (TCH) has empirically been used to assist intraarterial (IA) drug delivery to brain tumors. Transient (< 3 min) reduction of cerebral blood flow (CBF) occurs during many neuro- and cardiovascular interventions and has recently been used to better target IA drugs to brain tumors. In the present experiments, we assessed whether the effectiveness of IA delivery of cationic liposomes could be improved by TCH. Methods Cationic liposomes composed of 1:1 DOTAP:PC (dioleoyl-trimethylammonium-propane:phosphatidylcholine) were administered to three groups of Sprague Dawley rats. In the first group, we tested the effect of blood flow reduction on IA delivery of cationic liposomes. In the second group, we compared TCH-assisted IA liposomal delivery vs. intravenous (IV) administration of the same dose. In the third group, we assessed retention of cationic liposomes in brain four hours after TCH assisted delivery. The liposomes contained a near infrared dye, DilC18(7), whose concentration could be measured in vivo by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Results IA injections of cationic liposomes during TCH increased their delivery approximately four-fold compared to injections during normal blood flow. Optical pharmacokinetic measurements revealed that relative to IV injections, IA injection of cationic liposomes during TCH produced tissue concentrations that were 100-fold greater. The cationic liposomes were retained in the brain tissue four hours after a single IA injection. There was no gross impairment of neurological functions in surviving animals. Conclusions Transient reduction in CBF significantly increased IA delivery of cationic liposomes in the brain. High concentrations of liposomes could be delivered to brain tissue after IA injections with concurrent TCH while none could be detected after IV injection. IA-TCH injections were well tolerated and cationic liposomes were retained for at least 4 hours after IA administration. These

  5. Pharmaceutical liposomal drug delivery: a review of new delivery systems and a look at the regulatory landscape.

    PubMed

    Zylberberg, Claudia; Matosevic, Sandro

    2016-11-01

    Liposomes were the first nanoscale drug to be approved for clinical use in 1995. Since then, the technology has grown considerably, and pioneering recent work in liposome-based delivery systems has brought about remarkable developments with significant clinical implications. This includes long-circulating liposomes, stimuli-responsive liposomes, nebulized liposomes, elastic liposomes for topical, oral and transdermal delivery and covalent lipid-drug complexes for improved drug plasma membrane crossing and targeting to specific organelles. While the regulatory bodies' opinion on liposomes is well-documented, current guidance that address new delivery systems are not. This review describes, in depth, the current state-of-the-art of these new liposomal delivery systems and provides a critical overview of the current regulatory landscape surrounding commercialization efforts of higher-level complexity systems, the expected requirements and the hurdles faced by companies seeking to bring novel liposome-based systems for clinical use to market.

  6. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte recognition of HLA-A/B antigens introduced into EL4 cells by cell-liposome fusion.

    PubMed

    Engelhard, V H; Powers, G A; Moore, L C; Holterman, M J; Correa-Freire, M C

    1984-01-01

    HLA-A2 and -B7 antigens were introduced into EL4 (H-2b) cells by cell-liposome fusion and were used as targets or stimulators for cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) generated in C57B1/6 (H-2b) mice. It was found that such EL4-HLA cells were not recognized by CTL that had been raised against either a human cell line bearing these HLA antigens or the purified HLA-A2 and -B7 antigens reconstituted into liposomes. In addition, EL4-HLA cells were not capable of inducing CTL that could recognize a human cell line bearing HLA-A2 and -B7 antigens. Instead, EL4-HLA cells induced CTL that specifically lysed EL4-HLA cells and not human cells expressing HLA-A2 and -B7. CTL recognition required the presence of HLA antigens on the EL4 cell surface and was inhibited by antibodies against either H-2b or HLA-A/B. Monoclonal antibody binding studies showed that the expected polymorphic determinants of the HLA-A2 and -B7 antigens were still present on EL4-HLA cells. However, the specificity of CTL or their precursors that are capable of recognizing HLA-A2 or -B7 was altered after these antigens became associated with the EL4 surface. Possible explanations for these results are discussed.

  7. Acoustic Studies on Nanodroplets, Microbubbles and Liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Krishna Nandan

    in vitro study aimed at developing an ultrasound-aided noninvasive pressure estimation technique using contrast agents-DefinityRTM, a lipid coated microbubble, and an experimental PLA (Poly lactic acid) microbubbles. Scattered responses from these bubbles have been measured in vitro as a function of ambient pressure using a 3.5 MHz acoustic excitation of varying amplitude. At an acoustic pressure of 670 kPa, Definity RTM microbubbles showed a linear decrease in subharmonic signal with increasing ambient pressure, registering a 12dB reduction at an overpressure of 120 mm Hg. Ultrasound contrast microbubbles experience widely varying ambient blood pressure in different organs, which can also change due to diseases. Pressure change can alter the material properties of the encapsulation of these microbubbles. Here the characteristic rheological parameters of contrast agent Definity and Targestar are determined by varying the ambient pressure (in a physiologically relevant range 0-200 mmHg). Four different interfacial rheological models are used to characterize the microbubbles. Both the contrast agents show an increase in their interfacial dilatational viscosity and interfacial dilatational elasticity with ambient pressure. It has been well established that liposomes prepared following a careful multi-step procedure can be made echogenic. Our group as well as others experimentally demonstrated that freeze-drying in the presence of mannitol is a crucial component to ensure echogenicity. Here, we showed that freeze-dried aqueous solutions of excipients such as mannitol, meso-erythritol, glycine, and glucose that assume a crystalline state, when dispersed in water creates bubbles and are echogenic even without any lipids. We also present an explanation for the bubble generation process because of dissolution of mannitol.

  8. Simultant encapsulation of vitamin C and beta-carotene in sesame (Sesamum indicum l.) liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudiyanti, D.; Fawrin, H.; Siahaan, P.

    2018-04-01

    In this study sesame liposomes were used to encapsulate both vitamin C and beta-carotene simultaneously. Liposomes were prepared with addition of cholesterol. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) of sesame liposomes for vitamin C in the present of beta-carotene was 77%. The addition of cholesterol increased the encapsulation efficiency. The highest encapsulation efficiency was 89% obtained in liposomes with 10% and 20% cholesterol. Contrary to that, the highest beta-carotene encapsulation efficiency of 78%, was found in the sesame liposomes prepared without the added cholesterol. Results showed that sesame liposomes can be used to encapsulate beta-carotene and vitamin C simultaneously. When beta-carotene and vitamin C were encapsulated concurrently, cholesterol intensified the efficiency of vitamin C encapsulation on the contrary it diminished the efficiency of beta-carotene encapsulation.

  9. pHLIP®-Mediated Delivery of PEGylated Liposomes to Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Lan; Daniels, Jennifer; Wijesinghe, Dayanjali; Andreev, Oleg A.; Reshetnyak, Yana K.

    2013-01-01

    We develop a method for pH-dependent fusion between liposomes and cellular membranes using pHLIP® (pH Low Insertion Peptide), which inserts into lipid bilayer of membrane only at low pH. Previously we establish the molecular mechanism of peptide action and show that pHLIP can target acidic diseased tissue. Here we investigate how coating of PEGylated liposomes with pHLIP might affect liposomal uptake by cells. The presence of pHLIP on the surface of PEGylated-liposomes enhanced membrane fusion and lipid exchange in a pH dependent fashion, leading to increase of cellular uptake and payload release, and inhibition of cell proliferation by liposomes containing ceramide. A novel type of pH-sensitive, “fusogenic” pHLIP-liposomes was developed, which could be used to selectively deliver various diagnostic and therapeutic agents to acidic diseased cells. PMID:23416366

  10. Inhibitory effect of liposome-entrapped lemongrass oil on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cheese.

    PubMed

    Cui, H Y; Wu, J; Lin, L

    2016-08-01

    Listeria monocytogenes infection in dairy products is of mounting public concern. To inhibit bacterial growth, we engineered stimuli-responsive liposomes containing lemongrass oil for this study. The controlled release of liposome-entrapped lemongrass oil is triggered by listerolysin O, secreted by L. monocytogenes. We investigated the antibiotic activities of lemongrass oil liposomes against L. monocytogenes in cheese. We also assessed their possible effects on the quality of the cheese. Liposomes containing lemongrass oil (5.0mg/mL) presented the optimal polydispersity index (0.246), zeta-potential (-58.9mV) and entrapment efficiency (25.7%). The liposomes displayed satisfactory antibiotic activity against L. monocytogenes in cheese over the storage period at 4°C. We observed no effects on the physical and sensory properties of the cheese after the liposome treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-listeria effects of chitosan-coated nisin-silica liposome on Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Cui, H Y; Wu, J; Li, C Z; Lin, L

    2016-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes poses an increasing challenge to cheese production. To minimize the risk of bacterial contamination, a chitosan-coated nisin-silica liposome was engineered for the present study. We investigated the characteristics of nisin-silica liposomes and the anti-listeria effects of a chitosan-coated nisin-silica liposome on Cheddar cheese. The encapsulation efficiency of nisin in a liposome was sharply increased after it was adsorbed on a silica particle surface. Chitosan-coated nisin-silica liposomes displayed sustained antibacterial activity against L. monocytogenes, without affecting the sensory properties of the cheese. Chitosan-coated nisin-silica liposomes could be a promising active antimicrobial for cheese preservation. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Conventional and dense gas techniques for the production of liposomes: a review.

    PubMed

    Meure, Louise A; Foster, Neil R; Dehghani, Fariba

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this review paper is to compare the potential of various techniques developed for production of homogenous, stable liposomes. Traditional techniques, such as Bangham, detergent depletion, ether/ethanol injection, reverse-phase evaporation and emulsion methods, were compared with the recent advanced techniques developed for liposome formation. The major hurdles for scaling up the traditional methods are the consumption of large quantities of volatile organic solvent, the stability and homogeneity of the liposomal product, as well as the lengthy multiple steps involved. The new methods have been designed to alleviate the current issues for liposome formulation. Dense gas liposome techniques are still in their infancy, however they have remarkable advantages in reducing the use of organic solvents, providing fast, single-stage production and producing stable, uniform liposomes. Techniques such as the membrane contactor and heating methods are also promising as they eliminate the use of organic solvent, however high temperature is still required for processing.

  13. Targeting of asialofetuin sugar chain-bearing liposomes to liver lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Banno, Y; Ohki, K; Nozawa, Y

    1983-10-01

    Specific direction of liposomes bearing an asialofetuin sugar chain (AFSC) to liver parenchymal cells was examined both in vivo and in vitro. The AFSC-bearing liposomes were preferentially recovered in the liver within several minutes after an intravenous injection into mice and were found to be predominantly localized in mitochondrial-lysosomal fraction. The massive distribution of the AFSC-liposomes in this fraction was also confirmed by using a lysosomal protease inhibitor, E-64-d. In isolated rat hepatocytes, the uptake of AFSC-liposomes was increased 2-3-fold as compared with the control liposomes without AFSC. Thus liposomes bearing AFSC would be useful to target enzymes to liver lysosomes.

  14. Liposomes assembled from a dual drug-tailed phospholipid for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shuo; Niu, Yuge; Zhu, Wenjun; Zhang, Yemin; Yu, Liangli; Li, Xinsong

    2015-05-01

    We report a novel dual drug-tailed phospholipid which can form liposomes as a combination of prodrug and drug carrier. An amphiphilic dual chlorambucil-tailed phospholipid (DCTP) was synthesized by a straightforward esterification. With two chlorambucil molecules as hydrophobic tails and one glycerophosphatidylcholine molecule as a hydrophilic head, the DCTP, a phospholipid prodrug, undergoes assembly to form a liposome without any additives by the thin lipid film technique. The DCTP liposomes, as an effective carrier of chlorambucil, exhibited a very high loading capacity and excellent stability. The liposomes had higher cytotoxic effects to cancer cell lines than free DCTP and chlorambucil. The in vivo antitumor activity assessment indicated that the DCTP liposomes could inhibit the tumor growth effectively. This novel strategy of dual drug-tailed phospholipid liposomes may be also applicable to other hydrophobic anticancer drugs which have great potential in cancer therapy. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Micro and nano liposome vesicles containing curcumin for a drug delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Duoc Tang, Quan; Chanh Tin Doan, Duc; Chien Dang, Mau

    2016-09-01

    Micro and nano liposome vesicles were prepared using a lipid film hydration method and a sonication method. Phospholipid, cholesterol and curcumin were used to form micro and nano liposomes containing curcumin. The size, structure and properties of the liposomes were characterized by using optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and UV-vis and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that the size of the liposomes was dependent on their composition and the preparation method. The hydration method created micro multilamellars, whereas nano unilamellars were formed using the sonication method. By adding cholesterol, the vesicles of the liposome could be stabilized and stored at 4 °C for up to 9 months. The liposome vesicles containing curcumin with good biocompatibility and biodegradability could be used for drug delivery applications.

  16. Fusogenic pH sensitive liposomal formulation for rapamycin: improvement of antiproliferative effect.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarzadeh, Saeed; Khorrami, Arash; Mohamed Khosroshahi, Leila; Arami, Sanam

    2014-07-01

    Liposomes are increasingly employed to deliver chemotherapeutic agents, antisense oligonucleotides, and genes to various therapeutic targets. The present investigation evaluates the ability of fusogenic pH-sensitive liposomes of rapamycin in increasing its antiproliferative effect on human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line. Cholesterol (Chol) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) (DPPC:Chol, 7:3) were used to prepare conventional rapamycin liposomes by a modified ethanol injection method. Dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) was used to produce fusogenic and pH-sensitive properties in liposomes simultaneously (DPPC:Chol:DOPE, 7:3:4.2). The prepared liposomes were characterized by their size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency percent (EE%), and chemical stability during 6 months. The antiproliferative effects of both types of rapamycin liposomes (10, 25, and 50 nmol/L) with optimized formulations were assessed on MCF-7 cells, as cancerous cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), as healthy cells, employing the diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay for 72 h. The particle size, zeta potential, and EE% of the liposomes were 165 ± 12.3 and 178 ± 15.4 nm, -39.6 ± 1.3, and -41.2 ± 2.1 mV as well as 76.9 ± 2.6 and 76.9 ± 2.6% in conventional and fusogenic pH-sensitive liposomes, respectively. Physicochemical stability results indicated that both liposome types were relatively stable at 4 °C than 25 °C. In vitro antiproliferative evaluation showed that fusogenic pH-sensitive liposomes had better antiproliferative effects on MCF-7 cells compared to the conventional liposomes. Conversely, fusogenic pH-sensitive liposomes had less cytotoxicity on HUVEC cell line.

  17. Characterization of CD44-Mediated Cancer Cell Uptake and Intracellular Distribution of Hyaluronan-Grafted Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Qhattal, Hussaini Syed Sha; Liu, Xinli

    2011-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a biocompatible and biodegradable linear polysaccharide which is of interest for tumor targeting through cell surface CD44 receptors. HA binds with high affinity to CD44 receptors, which are overexpressed in many tumors and involved in cancer metastasis. In the present study, we investigated the impact of HA molecular weight (MW), grafting density, and CD44 receptor density on endocytosis of HA-grafted liposomes (HA-liposomes) by cancer cells. Additionally, the intracellular localization of the HA-liposomes was determined. HAs of different MWs (5-8, 10-12, 175-350, and 1600 kDa) were conjugated to liposomes with varying degrees of grafting density. HA surface density was quantified using the hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide turbidimetric method. Cellular uptake and subcellular localization of HA-liposomes were evaluated by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Mean particle sizes of HA-liposomes ranged from 120 to 180 nm and increased with the bigger size of HA. HA-liposome uptake correlated with HA MW (5-8 < 10-12 < 175-350 kDa), grafting density, and CD44 receptor density and exceeded that obtained with unconjugated plain liposomes. HA-liposomes were taken up into cells via lipid raft-mediated endocytosis, which is both energy- and cholesterol-dependent. Once within cells, HA-liposomes localized primarily to endosomes and lysosomes. The results demonstrate that cellular targeting efficiency of HA-liposomes depends strongly upon HA MW, grafting density, and cell surface receptor CD44 density. The results support a role of HA-liposomes for targeted drug delivery. PMID:21696190

  18. Transport and uptake effects of marine complex lipid liposomes in small intestinal epithelial cell models.

    PubMed

    Du, Lei; Yang, Yu-Hong; Xu, Jie; Wang, Yu-Ming; Xue, Chang-Hu; Kurihara, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Koretaro

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, marine complex lipids, including starfish phospholipids (SFP) and cerebrosides (SFC) separated from Asterias amurensis as well as sea cucumber phospholipids (SCP) and cerebrosides (SCC) isolated from Cucumaria frondosa, have received much attention because of their potent biological activities. However, little information is known on the transport and uptake of these lipids in liposome forms in small intestinal cells. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the effects of these complex lipid liposomes on transport and uptake in Caco-2 and M cell monolayer models. The results revealed that SFP and SCP contained 42% and 47.9% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), respectively. The average particle sizes of liposomes prepared in this study were from 169 to 189 nm. We found that the transport of the liposomes across the M cell monolayer model was much higher than the Caco-2 cell monolayer model. The liposomes consisting of SFP or SCP showed significantly higher transport and uptake than soy phospholipid (soy-PL) liposomes in both Caco-2 and M cell monolayer models. Our results also exhibited that treatment with 1 mM liposomes composed of SFP or SCP for 3 h tended to increase the EPA content in phospholipid fractions of both differentiated Caco-2 and M cells. Moreover, it was also found that the hybrid liposomes consisting of SFP/SFC/cholesterol (Chol) revealed higher transport and uptake across the M cell monolayer in comparison with other liposomes. Furthermore, treatment with SFP/SFC/Chol liposomes could notably decrease the trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) values of Caco-2 and M cell monolayers. The present data also showed that the cell viability of differentiated Caco-2 and M cells was not affected after the treatment with marine complex lipids or soy-PL liposomes. Based on the data in this study, it was suggested that marine complex lipid liposomes exhibit prominent transport and uptake in small intestinal epithelial cell models.

  19. 6-mercaptopurine and daunorubicin double drug liposomes-preparation, drug-drug interaction and characterization.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Vineet; Paul, Manash K; Mukhopadhyay, Anup K

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses and investigates the dual incorporation of daunorubicin (DR) and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) in liposomes for better chemotherapy. These drugs are potential candidates for interaction due to the quinone (H acceptor) and hydroxyl (H donor) groups on DR and 6-MP, respectively. Interactions between the two drugs in solution were monitored by UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. Interaction between the two drugs inside the liposomes was evaluated by HPLC (for 6-MP) and by fluorescence spectroscopy (for daunorubicin) after phospholipase-mediated liposome lysis. Our results provide evidence for the lack of interaction between the two drugs in solution and in liposomes. The entrapment efficiencies of 6-MP in the neutral Phosphatidyl choline (PC):Cholesterol (Chol):: 2:1 and anionic PC:Chol:Cardiolipin (CL) :: 4:5:1 single and double drug liposomes were found to be 0.4% and 1.5% (on average), respectively. The entrapment efficiencies of DR in the neutral and anionic double drug liposomes were found to be 55% and 31%, respectively. The corresponding entrapment of daunorubicin in the single drug liposomes was found to be 62% on average. Our thin layer chromatography (TLC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results suggest stability of lipid and liposomes, thus pointing plausible existence of double drug liposomes. Cytotoxicity experiments were performed by using both single drug and double drug liposomes. By comparing the results of phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy, it was observed that the double drug liposomes were internalized in the jurkat and Hut78 (highly resistant cell line) leukemia cells as viewed by the fluorescence of daunorubicin. The cytotoxicity was dose dependent and had shown a synergistic effect when double drug liposome was used.

  20. Atomic Force Microscopy Study on the Stiffness of Nanosized Liposomes Containing Charged Lipids.

    PubMed

    Takechi-Haraya, Yuki; Goda, Yukihiro; Sakai-Kato, Kumiko

    2018-06-18

    It has recently been recognized that the mechanical properties of lipid nanoparticles play an important role during in vitro and in vivo behaviors such as cellular uptake, blood circulation, and biodistribution. However, there have been no quantitative investigations of the effect of commonly used charged lipids on the stiffness of nanosized liposomes. In this study, by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM), we quantified the stiffness of nanosized liposomes composed of neutrally charged lipids combined with positively or negatively charged lipids while simultaneously imaging the liposomes in aqueous medium. Our results showed that charged lipids, whether negatively or positively charged, have the effect of reducing the stiffness of nanosized liposomes, independently of the saturation degree of the lipid acyl chains; the measured stiffness values of liposomes containing charged lipids are 30-60% lower than those of their neutral counterpart liposomes. In addition, we demonstrated that the Laurdan generalized polarization values, which are related to the hydration degree of the liposomal membrane interface and often used as a qualitative indicator of liposomal membrane stiffness, do not directly correlate with the physical stiffness values of the liposomes prepared in this study. However, our results indicate that direct quantitative AFM measurement is a valuable method to gain molecular-scale information about how the hydration degree of liposomal interfaces reflects (or does not reflect) liposome stiffness as a macroscopic property. Our AFM method will contribute to the quantitative characterization of the nano-bio interaction of nanoparticles and to the optimization of the lipid composition of liposomes for clinical use.

  1. [Influencing factors in preparation of brucine liposomes by ammonium sulfate transmembrane gradients].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Jun; Cai, Bao-Chang; Fang, Yun

    2008-09-01

    To study the influencing factors in preparation of brucine liposomes by ammonium sulfate transmembrane gradients. The brucine liposomes were separated by Sephadex G-50, and the influence of various factors on the entrapment efficiencies were investigated. The entrapment efficiency was enhanced by increased ammonium sulfate concentration, ethanol volume and PC concentration. Burcine liposomes prepared by ammonium sulfate transmembrance gradients can get a high entrapment efficiency, the main influencing factors were ammonium sulfate concentration, ethanol volume and PC concentration.

  2. siRNA-loaded cationic liposomes for cancer therapy: Development, characterization and efficacy evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Bo

    Cancer is a major health problem in the United States and many other parts of the world. However, cancer treatment is severely limited by the lack of highly effective cytotoxic agents and selective delivery methods which can serve as the "magic bullet" (first raised by Dr. Paul Ehrlich, the goal of targeting a specific location without causing harm to surrounding tissues or to more distant regions in the body). The revolutionary finding that tumors cannot grow beyond a microscopic size without dedicated blood supply provided a highly effective alternative for the treatment of cancer. Currently, anti-angiogenic therapy and the discovery of RNA interference makes it possible to treat some conditions by silencing disorder-causing genes of targeting cells which are otherwise difficult to eradicate with more conventional therapies. However, before siRNA technology could be widely used as a therapeutic approach, the construct must be efficiently and safely delivered to target cells. Strategies used for siRNA delivery should minimize uptake by phagocytes, enzymatic degradation by nucleases and should be taken up preferentially, if not specifically, by the intended cell population. Kinesin spindle proteins (KSP) are the motor proteins which play critical roles during mitosis. Different from tubulins which are also present in post-mitotic cells, such as axons, KSP is exclusively expressed in mitotic cells, which makes them the ideal target for anti-mitotics. In the present study, we intend to develop, characterize and evaluate a liposome-based delivery system which can deliver KSP siRNA selectively to the tumor vasculature (thus inhibiting angiogenesis, destroying tumor vasculature and eventually, eradicating tumor growth). We first developed ten different liposome preparation types with different compositions of lipids. Next, the capacity for loading siRNA and efficiency of targeting the tumor vascular supply was evaluated using relevant cellular and tumor models

  3. Fluorogenic pH-sensitive polydiacetylene (PDA) liposomes as a drug carrier.

    PubMed

    Won, Sang Ho; Lee, Jong Uk; Sim, Sang Jun

    2013-06-01

    A crucial issue for current liposomal carriers in clinical applications is the sustained-release property of the encapsulated drugs. We have developed novel fluorogenic pH-sensitive polymerized liposomes composed of polydiacetylene (PDA) lipids and other types of lipids. Unilamellar liposomes containing 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA), 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE), and N-palmitoyl homocysteine (PHC) were loaded with ampicillin. These liposomes fused to each other rapidly when the medium pH was lowered from 7 to 4. The polymerized liposomes were characterized in terms of particle size distribution. The liposome size increased approximately 20-fold from 110.0 +/- 19.3 nm to 2046.7 +/- 487.4 nm as the pH was lowered. Cross-linking of the diacetylene lipids prevents drug leakage and the encapsulated drug can be instantaneously released at acidic pH condition. The ampicillin was nearly completely released (74.4 +/- 3.9%) from liposomes within 4 h under acidic pH conditions and the released amounts of ampicillin were analyzed by HPLC. Finally, the therapeutic effect was observed by the appearance of plaques on a lawn of E. coli, and fluorescent images of the PDA liposomes were taken from the plaques for drug release monitoring. As a result, this research demonstrates that such novel pH-sensitive polymerized liposomes have great prospects as a drug carrier.

  4. Thermosensitive liposomes: extravasation and release of contents in tumor microvascular networks.

    PubMed

    Gaber, M H; Wu, N Z; Hong, K; Huang, S K; Dewhirst, M W; Papahadjopoulos, D

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether hyperthermic exposure would accelerate drug release from thermosensitive sterically stabilized liposomes and enhance their extravasation in tumor tissues. In vivo fluorescence video microscopy was used to measure the extravasation of liposomes, as well as release of their contents, in a rat skin flap window chamber containing a vascularized mammary adenocarcinoma under defined thermal conditions (34 degrees, 42 degrees, and 45 degrees C). Images of tissue areas containing multiple blood vessels were recorded via a SIT camera immediately before, and for up to 2 h after i.v. injection of two liposome populations with identical lipid composition: one liposome preparation was surface labeled with Rhodamine-PE (Rh-PE) and the other contained either Doxorubicin (Dox) or calcein at self-quenching concentrations. The light intensity of the entire tissue area was measured at 34 degrees C (the physiological temperature of the skin) for 1 h, and at 42 degrees or 45 degrees C for a second hour. These measurements were then used to calculate the fluorescent light intensity arising from each tracer (liposome surface label and the released contents) inside the vessel and in the interstitial region. The calculated intensity of Rh-PE for the thermosensitive liposomes in the interstitial space (which represents the amount of extravasated liposomes) was low during the first hour, while temperature was maintained at 34 degrees C and increased to 47 times its level before heating, when the tumor was heated at 42 degrees or 45 degrees C for 1 h. The calculated intensity of the liposome contents (Dox) in the interstitial space was negligible at 34 degrees C, and increased by 38- and 76-fold, when the tumor was heated at 42 degrees and 45 degrees C for 1 h, respectively. Similar values were obtained when calcein was encapsulated in liposomes instead of Dox. A similar increase in liposome extravasation was seen with nonthermosensitive

  5. Roles of dextrans on improving lymphatic drainage for liposomal drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Feng, Linglin; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Min; Yan, Zhiqiang; Wang, Chenyu; Gu, Bing; Liu, Yu; Wei, Gang; Zhong, Gaoren; Lu, Weiyue

    2010-04-01

    Our aim was to develop a novel liposomal drug delivery system containing dextrans to reduce undesirable retention of antineoplastic agents and thus alleviate local tissue damage. At the cell level, diethylaminoethyl-dextran (DEAE-Dx) showed the strongest inhibiting effect on liposome uptake by macrophages among tested dextrans. The distribution of radiolabeled liposomes mixed with dextrans in injection site and draining lymph node was investigated in rats after subcutaneous injection. DEAE-Dx substantially reduced the undesired local retention and promoted the draining of liposome into lymphatics, which was further confirmed by confocal microscopy images revealing the substantial prevention of rhodamine B-labelled liposome sequestration by macrophages in normal lymph node in rats. Pharmacokinetic data indicated the accelerated drainage of liposome through lymphatics back to systemic circulation by mixing with DEAE-Dx. In the toxicological study in rabbits, DEAE-Dx alleviated the local tissue damage caused by liposomal doxorubicin. In conclusion, dextrans, particularly DEAE-Dx, could efficiently enhanced liposomes drainage into lymphatics, which proves themselves as promising adjuvants for lymphatic-targeted liposomal drug delivery system.

  6. Thermo-responsive magnetic liposomes for hyperthermia-triggered local drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Dai, Min; Wu, Cong; Fang, Hong-Ming; Li, Li; Yan, Jia-Bao; Zeng, Dan-Lin; Zou, Tao

    2017-06-01

    We prepared and characterised thermo-responsive magnetic liposomes, which were designed to combine features of magnetic targeting and thermo-responsive control release for hyperthermia-triggered local drug delivery. The particle size and zeta-potential of the thermo-responsive magnetic ammonium bicarbonate (MagABC) liposomes were about 210 nm and -14 mV, respectively. The MagABC liposomes showed encapsulation efficiencies of about 15% and 82% for magnetic nanoparticles (mean crystallite size 12 nm) and doxorubicin (DOX), respectively. The morphology of the MagABC liposomes was visualised using transmission electron microscope (TEM). The MagABC liposomes showed desired thermo-responsive release. The MagABC liposomes, when physically targeted to tumour cells in culture by a permanent magnetic field yielded a substantial increase in intracellular accumulation of DOX as compared to non-magnetic ammonium bicarbonate (ABC) liposomes. This resulted in a parallel increase in cytotoxicity for DOX loaded MagABC liposomes over DOX loaded ABC liposomes in tumour cells.

  7. Effect of cholesterol on the interaction of the amphibian antimicrobial peptide DD K with liposomes.

    PubMed

    Verly, Rodrigo M; Rodrigues, Magali A; Daghastanli, Katia Regina P; Denadai, Angelo Márcio L; Cuccovia, Iolanda M; Bloch, Carlos; Frézard, Frédéric; Santoro, Marcelo M; Piló-Veloso, Dorila; Bemquerer, Marcelo P

    2008-01-01

    DD K is an antimicrobial peptide previously isolated from the skin of the amphibian Phyllomedusa distincta. The effect of cholesterol on synthetic DD K binding to egg lecithin liposomes was investigated by intrinsic fluorescence of tryptophan residue, measurements of kinetics of 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (CF) leakage, dynamic light scattering and isothermal titration microcalorimetry. An 8 nm blue shift of tryptophan maximum emission fluorescence was observed when DD K was in the presence of lecithin liposomes compared to the value observed for liposomes containing 43 mol% cholesterol. The rate and the extent of CF release were also significantly reduced by the presence of cholesterol. Dynamic light scattering showed that lecithin liposome size increase from 115 to 140 nm when titrated with DD K but addition of cholesterol reduces the liposome size increments. Isothermal titration microcalorimetry studies showed that DD K binding both to liposomes containing cholesterol as to liposomes devoid of it is more entropically than enthalpically favored. Nevertheless, the peptide concentration necessary to furnish an adjustable titration curve is much higher for liposomes containing cholesterol at 43 mol% (2 mmol L(-1)) than in its absence (93 micromol L(-1)). Apparent binding constant values were 2160 and 10,000 L mol(-1), respectively. The whole data indicate that DD K binding to phosphatidylcholine liposomes is significantly affected by cholesterol, which contributes to explain the low hemolytic activity of the peptide.

  8. Release of Liposomal Contents by Cell-Secreted Matrix Metalloproteinase-9

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Jayati; Hanson, Andrea J.; Gadam, Bhushan; Elegbede, Adekunle I.; Tobwala, Shakila; Ganguly, Bratati; Wagh, Anil; Muhonen, Wallace W.; Law, Benedict; Shabb, John B.; Srivastava, D. K.; Mallik, Sanku

    2011-01-01

    Liposomes have been widely used as a drug delivery vehicle and currently, more than 10 liposomal formulations are approved by the Food and Drug Administration for clinical use. However, upon targeting, the release of the liposome-encapsulated contents is usually slow. We have recently demonstrated that contents from appropriately-formulated liposomes can be rapidly released by the cancer-associated enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Herein, we report our detailed studies to optimize the liposomal formulations. By properly selecting the lipopeptide, the major lipid component and their relative amounts, we demonstrate that the contents are rapidly released in the presence of cancer-associated levels of recombinant human MMP-9. We observed that the degree of lipid mismatch between the lipopepides and the major lipid component profoundly affects the release profiles from the liposomes. By utilizing the optimized liposomal formulations, we also demonstrate that cancer cells (HT-29) which secrete low levels of MMP-9 failed to release significant amount of the liposomal contents. Metastatic cancer cells (MCF7) secreting high levels of the enzyme rapidly release the encapsulated contents from the liposomes. PMID:19601658

  9. Preparation, characterization, and in vitro release study of albendazole-encapsulated nanosize liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Panwar, Preety; Pandey, Bhumika; Lakhera, P C; Singh, K P

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to formulate effective and controlled release albendazole liposomal formulations. Albendazole, a hydrophobic drug used for the treatment of hydatid cysts, was encapsulated in nanosize liposomes. Rapid evaporation method was used for the preparation of albendazole-encapsulated conventional and PEGylated liposomes consisting of egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cholesterol (CH) in the molar ratios of (6:4) and PC:CH: polyethylene glycol (PEG) (5:4:1), respectively. In this study, PEGylated and conventional liposomes containing albendazole were prepared and their characteristics, such as particle size, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro drug release were investigated. The drug encapsulation efficiency of PEGylated and conventional liposomes was 81% and 72%, respectively. The biophysical characterization of both conventional and PEG-coated liposomes were done by transmission electron microscopy and UV-vis spectrophotometry. Efforts were made to study in vitro release of albendazole. The drug release rate showed decrease in albendazole release in descending order: free albendazole, albendazole-loaded conventional liposomes, and least with albendazole-loaded PEG-liposomes. Biologically relevant vesicles were prepared and in vitro release of liposome-entrapped albendazole was determined. PMID:20309396

  10. Melittin liposomes surface modified with poloxamer 188: in vitro characterization and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tian, J L; Ke, X; Chen, Z; Wang, C J; Zhang, Y; Zhong, T C

    2011-05-01

    Melittin liposomes surface modified with poloxamer 188 were developed, and the effect of poloxamer 188 was investigated with regard to anti-cancer effect and vascular stimulation. Melittin liposomes surface modified with poloxamer 188 at different concentrations (0%, 2%, and 5%) were prepared using the adsorption method, followed by in vitro characterization, including entrapment efficiency, zeta potential, particle size, and morphology. Subsequently, the influence of repeated freeze-thawing on the liposomes was investigated, and the effect of poloxamer 188 on the repeated freeze-thawing process was explored. Vascular stimulation effects of MLT, and MLT liposome that surface coated with or without poloxamer were all studied. Pharmacokinetics of the different MLT preparations were determined and the anticancer activity of the MLT formulations was investigated. The particle size of the liposomes gradually increased with increasing poloxamer 188 content, while the entrapment efficiency did not change significantly. After the first freeze-thaw cycle, size and PDI were both markedly reduced, entrapment efficiency rose, and there was no significant change of zeta potential. The vascular irritation caused by MLT could be reduced to an extent by encapsulation in liposome, but not completely eliminated, while liposomes coated with poloxamer 188 can effectively abolish the phenomenon. Melittin liposomes with surface modified by poloxamer exhibit enhanced bioavailability, effective anticancer activity, and reduced side effects compared with melittin solution. Poloxamer plays an important role in melittin liposomes.

  11. A new liposome-based gene delivery system targeting lung epithelial cells using endothelin antagonist.

    PubMed

    Allon, Nahum; Saxena, Ashima; Chambers, Carolyn; Doctor, Bhupendra P

    2012-06-10

    We formulated a new gene delivery system based on targeted liposomes. The efficacy of the delivery system was demonstrated in in vitro and in vivo models. The targeting moiety consists of a high-affinity 7-amino-acid peptide, covalently and evenly conjugated to the liposome surface. The targeting peptide acts as an endothelin antagonist, and accelerates liposome binding and internalization. It is devoid of other biological activity. Liposomes with high phosphatidyl serine (PS) were specially formulated to help their fusion with the endosomal membrane at low pH and enable release of the liposome payload into the cytoplasm. A DNA payload, pre-compressed by protamine, was encapsulated into the liposomes, which directed the plasmid into the cell's nucleus. Upon exposure to epithelial cells, binding of the liposomes occurred within 5-10 min, followed by facilitated internalization of the complex. Endosomal escape was complete within 30 min, followed by DNA accumulation in the nucleus 2h post-transfection. A549 lung epithelial cells transfected with plasmid encoding for GFP encapsulated in targeted liposomes expressed significantly more protein than those transfected with plasmid complexed with Lipofectamine. The intra-tracheal instillation of plasmid encoding for GFP encapsulated in targeted liposomes into rat lungs resulted in the expression of GFP in bronchioles and alveoli within 5 days. These results suggest that this delivery system has great potential in targeting genes to lungs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ultrasound-mediated drug delivery using liposomes modified with a thermosensitive polymer.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Kazuaki; Kawabata, Shinya; Tashita, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Nobuaki

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound-mediated drug delivery was established using liposomes that were modified with the thermosensitive polymer (TSP) poly(NIPMAM-co-NIPAM), which sensitized the liposomes to high temperatures. TSP-modified liposomes (TSP liposomes) released encapsulated calcein under 1 MHz ultrasound irradiation at 0.5 W/cm(2) for 120 s as well as the case under incubation at 42 °C for 15 min. In addition, uptake of the drug released from TSP liposomes by cancer cells was enhanced by ultrasound irradiation. In a cell injury assay using doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded TSP liposomes and ultrasound irradiation, cell viability of HepG2 cells at 6 h after ultrasound irradiation (1 MHz, 0.5 W/cm(2) for 30 s) with DOX-loaded TSP liposomes (TSP/lipid ratio=1) was 60%, which was significantly lower than that of the control conditions such as DOX-loaded TSP liposomes alone and DOX-loaded intact liposomes under ultrasound irradiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nanoparticle-stabilized liposomes for pH-responsive gastric drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Fu, Victoria; Zhu, Jingying; Lu, Diannan; Gao, Weiwei; Zhang, Liangfang

    2013-10-01

    We report a novel pH-responsive gold nanoparticle-stabilized liposome system for gastric antimicrobial delivery. By adsorbing small chitosan-modified gold nanoparticles (diameter ~10 nm) onto the outer surface of negatively charged phospholipid liposomes (diameter ~75 nm), we show that at gastric pH the liposomes have excellent stability with limited fusion ability and negligible cargo releases. However, when the stabilized liposomes are present in an environment with neutral pH, the gold stabilizers detach from the liposomes, resulting in free liposomes that can actively fuse with bacterial membranes. Using Helicobacter pylori as a model bacterium and doxycycline as a model antibiotic, we demonstrate such pH-responsive fusion activity and drug release profile of the nanoparticle-stabilized liposomes. Particularly, at neutral pH the gold nanoparticles detach, and thus the doxycycline-loaded liposomes rapidly fuse with bacteria and cause superior bactericidal efficacy as compared to the free doxycycline counterpart. Our results suggest that the reported liposome system holds a substantial potential for gastric drug delivery; it remains inactive (stable) in the stomach lumen but actively interacts with bacteria once it reaches the mucus layer of the stomach where the bacteria may reside.

  14. Characterization of heat-induced interaction of neutral liposome with lipid membrane of Streptomyces griseus cell.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Kien Xuan; Umakoshi, Hiroshi; Shimanouchi, Toshinori; Kuboi, Ryoichi

    2009-10-15

    The interaction between the neutral 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) liposomes and cell membrane of Streptomyces griseus induced by the heat treatment at specific temperature was investigated, focusing on the internalization of the neutral POPC liposomes with S. griseus cells. In an attempt to clarify the modes of liposome internalization, various kinds of inhibitors of endocytotic pathways were used to treat S. griseus cells. The efficiency of the heat treatment on liposome-cell membrane interactions was finally characterized based on the hydrophobic, electrostatic interactions and hydration effect. In fact, the internalization of the neutral liposomes into these cells was found to show higher rate and greater amount at higher temperatures. The kinetic study showed that the maximum amount of the internalized liposomes was, respectively, 469 x 10(5) and 643 x 10(5) liposomes/cell at 37 and 41 degrees C. The internalization of the neutral liposomes induced by the heat treatment was characterized, implying that the endocytosis occurred. The interactions involving the internalization, adsorption, and fusion of these liposomes with S. griseus cells were mainly contributed by the hydrophobic interaction and the unstable hydrogen bonds caused by the loss of water of surface hydration of cell membrane rather than the electrostatic interaction under the specific heat condition.

  15. Aerosolized liposomes with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine enhance pulmonary absorption of encapsulated insulin compared with co-administered insulin.

    PubMed

    Chono, Sumio; Togami, Kohei; Itagaki, Shirou

    2017-11-01

    We have previously shown that aerosolized liposomes with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) enhance the pulmonary absorption of encapsulated insulin. In this study, we aimed to compare insulin encapsulated into the liposomes versus co-administration of empty liposomes and unencapsulated free insulin, where the DPCC liposomes would serve as absorption enhancer. The present study provides the useful information for development of noninvasive treatment of diabetes. Co-administration of empty DPPC liposomes and unencapsulated free insulin was investigated in vivo to assess the potential enhancement in protein pulmonary absorption. Co-administration was compared to DPPC liposomes encapsulating insulin, and free insulin. DPPC liposomes enhanced the pulmonary absorption of unencapsulated free insulin; however, the enhancing effect was lower than that of the DPPC liposomes encapsulating insulin. The mechanism of the pulmonary absorption of unencapsulated free insulin by DPPC liposomes involved the opening of epithelial cell space in alveolar mucosa, and not mucosal cell damage, similar to that of the DPPC liposomes encapsulating insulin. In an in vitro stability test, insulin in the alveolar mucus layer that covers epithelial cells was stable. These findings suggest that, although unencapsulated free insulin spreads throughout the alveolar mucus layer, the concentration of insulin released near the absorption surface is increased by the encapsulation of insulin into DPPC liposomes and the absorption efficiency is also increased. We revealed that the encapsulation of insulin into DPPC liposomes is more effective for pulmonary insulin absorption than co-administration of DPPC liposomes and unencapsulated free insulin.

  16. Engineering hybrid exosomes by membrane fusion with liposomes.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuko T; Umezaki, Kaori; Sawada, Shinichi; Mukai, Sada-atsu; Sasaki, Yoshihiro; Harada, Naozumi; Shiku, Hiroshi; Akiyoshi, Kazunari

    2016-02-25

    Exosomes are a valuable biomaterial for the development of novel nanocarriers as functionally advanced drug delivery systems. To control and modify the performance of exosomal nanocarriers, we developed hybrid exosomes by fusing their membranes with liposomes using the freeze-thaw method. Exosomes embedded with a specific membrane protein isolated from genetically modified cells were fused with various liposomes, confirming that membrane engineering methods can be combined with genetic modification techniques. Cellular uptake studies performed using the hybrid exosomes revealed that the interactions between the developed exosomes and cells could be modified by changing the lipid composition or the properties of the exogenous lipids. These results suggest that the membrane-engineering approach reported here offers a new strategy for developing rationally designed exosomes as hybrid nanocarriers for use in advanced drug delivery systems.

  17. Multifunctional liposomes for enhanced anti-cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcao, Claudio Borges

    2011-12-01

    Macromolecular drugs have great promises for cancer treatment, such as the pro-apoptotic peptide D-(KLAKLAK)2 and the bcl-2 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide G3139. However, these macromolecules require efficient drug carriers, like liposomes, to deliver them inside cells. Also, if these macromolecules can be combined in a single liposome, the cancer cell killing will be greater than using just one. With this possibility in mind, cationic liposomes (CLs) were elaborated to encapsulate both macromolecules and deliver them inside cells. Later, surface modification of CLs was investigated through the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to obtain long-circulating liposomes. CLs were prepared through charge alternation among D-(KLAKLAK)2 , G3139 and DOTAP. These liposomes were characterized with particle size and zeta-potential measurements, antisense entrapment and peptide loading efficiency. The in vitro effects of CL formulations were tested with B16(F10) cells through viability studies, uptake assay and detection of apoptosis. CL formulations were also applied in vivo in B16(F10) tumor-bearing mice through intratumoral injections, and tumor growth inhibition and detection of apoptosis were evaluated. Next, the mechanism of action of the CL formulations was investigated by Western blotting. Later, PEG was incorporated at increasing amounts to the liposomes to determine which concentration can better prevent interactions between PEG-cationic liposomes (PCL) and B16(F10) cells. Next, pH-cleavable PEG was prepared and then added to the liposomes in the same amount that PEG in PCL could decrease interaction with cells. Finally, cell viability studies were performed with CL, PCL and pH-sensitive PCL (pH-PCL) formulations after pre-incubation at pH 7.4 or at pH 5.0. Positively charged CL particles were obtained after encapsulation of negatively charged D-(KLAKLAK)2/G3139 complexes. In vitro , CLs containing D-(KLAKLAK)2/G3139 complexes could reduce B16(F10) cell viability

  18. Reconstitution of Contractile FtsZ Rings in Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Masaki; Anderson, David E.; Erickson, Harold P.

    2009-01-01

    FtsZ is a tubulin homolog and the major cytoskeletal protein in bacterial cell division. It assembles into the Z ring, which contains FtsZ and a dozen other division proteins, and constricts to divide the cell. We have constructed a membrane-targeted FtsZ (FtsZ-mts) by splicing an amphipathic helix to its C terminus. When mixed with lipid vesicles, FtsZ-mts was incorporated into the interior of some tubular vesicles. There it formed multiple Z rings that could move laterally in both directions along the length of the liposome and coalesce into brighter Z rings. Brighter Z rings produced visible constrictions in the liposome, suggesting that FtsZ itself can assemble the Z ring and generate a force. No other proteins were needed for assembly and force generation. PMID:18420899

  19. Self-assembled liposomal nanoparticles in photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sadasivam, Magesh; Avci, Pinar; Gupta, Gaurav K.; Lakshmanan, Shanmugamurthy; Chandran, Rakkiyappan; Huang, Ying-Ying; Kumar, Raj; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) employs the combination of non-toxic photosensitizers (PS) together with harmless visible light of the appropriate wavelength to produce reactive oxygen species that kill unwanted cells. Because many PS are hydrophobic molecules prone to aggregation, numerous drug delivery vehicles have been tested to solubilize these molecules, render them biocompatible and enhance the ease of administration after intravenous injection. The recent rise in nanotechnology has markedly expanded the range of these nanoparticulate delivery vehicles beyond the well-established liposomes and micelles. Self-assembled nanoparticles are formed by judicious choice of monomer building blocks that spontaneously form a well-oriented 3-dimensional structure that incorporates the PS when subjected to the appropriate conditions. This self-assembly process is governed by a subtle interplay of forces on the molecular level. This review will cover the state of the art in the preparation and use of self-assembled liposomal nanoparticles within the context of PDT. PMID:24348377

  20. Determination of the Subcellular Distribution of Liposomes Using Confocal Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Melani A

    2017-01-01

    It is being increasingly recognized that therapeutics need to be delivered to specific organelle targets within cells. Liposomes are versatile lipid-based drug delivery vehicles that can be surface-modified to deliver the loaded cargo to specific subcellular locations within the cell. Hence, the development of such technology requires a means of measuring the subcellular distribution possibly by utilizing imaging techniques that can visualize and quantitate the extent of this subcellular localization. The apparent increase of resolution along the Z-axis offered by confocal microscopy makes this technique suitable for such studies. In this chapter, we describe the application of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to determine the subcellular distribution of fluorescently labeled mitochondriotropic liposomes.

  1. Recurrent Candida albicans Ventriculitis Treated with Intraventricular Liposomal Amphotericin B

    PubMed Central

    Toprak, Demet; Öcal Demir, Sevliya; Kadayifci, Eda Kepenekli; Türel, Özden; Soysal, Ahmet; Bakir, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) infection with Candida is rare but significant because of its high morbidity and mortality. When present, it is commonly seen among immunocompromised and hospitalized patients. Herein, we describe a case of a four-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who experienced recurrent Candida albicans meningitis. The patient was treated successfully with intravenous liposomal amphotericin B at first attack, but 25 days after discharge he was readmitted to hospital with symptoms of meningitis. Candida albicans was grown in CFS culture again and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed ventriculitis. We administered liposomal amphotericin B both intravenously and intraventricularly and favorable result was achieved without any adverse effects. Intraventricular amphotericin B may be considered for the treatment of recurrent CNS Candida infections in addition to intravenous administration. PMID:26558119

  2. Enhancing siRNA-based cancer therapy using a new pH-responsive activatable cell-penetrating peptide-modified liposomal system

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Bai; Jia, Xue-Li; Qi, Jin-Long; Yang, Li-Ping; Sun, Wei-Hong; Yan, Xiao; Yang, Shao-Kun; Cao, De-Ying; Du, Qing; Qi, Xian-Rong

    2017-01-01

    As a potent therapeutic agent, small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been exploited to silence critical genes involved in tumor initiation and progression. However, development of a desirable delivery system is required to overcome the unfavorable properties of siRNA such as its high degradability, molecular size, and negative charge to help increase its accumulation in tumor tissues and promote efficient cellular uptake and endosomal/lysosomal escape of the nucleic acids. In this study, we developed a new activatable cell-penetrating peptide (ACPP) that is responsive to an acidic tumor microenvironment, which was then used to modify the surfaces of siRNA-loaded liposomes. The ACPP is composed of a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP), an acid-labile linker (hydrazone), and a polyanionic domain, including glutamic acid and histidine. In the systemic circulation (pH 7.4), the surface polycationic moieties of the CPP (polyarginine) are “shielded” by the intramolecular electrostatic interaction of the inhibitory domain. When exposed to a lower pH, a common property of solid tumors, the ACPP undergoes acid-catalyzed breakage at the hydrazone site, and the consequent protonation of histidine residues promotes detachment of the inhibitory peptide. Subsequently, the unshielded CPP would facilitate the cellular membrane penetration and efficient endosomal/lysosomal evasion of liposomal siRNA. A series of investigations demonstrated that once exposed to an acidic pH, the ACPP-modified liposomes showed elevated cellular uptake, downregulated expression of polo-like kinase 1, and augmented cell apoptosis. In addition, favorable siRNA avoidance of the endosome/lysosome was observed in both MCF-7 and A549 cells, followed by effective cytoplasmic release. In view of its acid sensitivity and therapeutic potency, this newly developed pH-responsive and ACPP-mediated liposome system represents a potential platform for siRNA-based cancer treatment. PMID:28405163

  3. Potential Side Effect of Inadvertent Intravascular Administration of Liposomal Bupivacaine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-01

    treat and is potentially fatal. LAST can impair function of the central nervous system and cause cardiovascular collapse, with potentially...in the reversal of cardiovascular and central nervous system symptoms of local anesthetic and other lipophilic drug overdoses. ILE is gaining...to the sites of toxic action in the central nervous system and the heart. However, liposomal formulations of local anesthetics (EXPAREL in

  4. Formulation and advantages of furazolidone in liposomal drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Alam, Muhammad Irfan; Paget, Timothy; Elkordy, Amal Ali

    2016-03-10

    Furazolidone has proven to have antiprotozoal and antibacterial activity. A number of literature supported its use against Helicobacter pylori. This potential application opens new prospects of its use in clinical settings in triple therapy. In order to avoid side effects associated with this drug, liposomal mucoadhesive drug delivery that can work locally in stomach is considered as an appropriate approach. This study is a focus on formulations and in vitro characterization of liposomes containing furazolidone. Therefore, the effects of variable amounts of drug and cholesterol on encapsulation efficacy and in vitro drug release were evaluated for different liposomal formulations. Mucoadhesive behavior of chitosan coated liposomal at two different pHs was also evaluated and increase in pH from 1.3 to 4.5 increased mucoadhesion from 42% to 60% respectively. Increasing the amount of drug from 4mg to 5mg increased encapsulation activity however, increasing the drug any further decreased encapsulation activity. In contrast, by increasing the amount of cholesterol decrease in encapsulation activity was observed. The optimized formulation with 5mg of drug and 53mg of cholesterol in formulation gave 57% drug release at pH 1.3 but release was increased up to 71% by increasing pH to 4.5 for same amount of drug. However, by using 10.6mg of cholesterol and 5mg of drug the overall release was increased at both pH conditions, at pH 1.3 release was 69% as compared to 77% at pH 4.5. This trend of drug release profile and mucoadhesion that favors pH 4.5 is documented as useful in targeting H. pylori as normal pH of stomach is expected to be higher by the influence of this microbe. Hence, the results of this research can be taken further into a future in vivo study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Polysaccharide Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Bruce A.; Svensson, Birte; Collins, Michelle E.; Rastall, Robert A.

    An overview of current and potential enzymes used to degrade polysaccharides is presented. Such depolymerases are comprised of glycoside hydrolases, glycosyl transferases, phosphorylases and lyases, and their classification, active sites and action patterns are discussed. Additionally, the mechanisms that these enzymes use to cleave glycosidic linkages is reviewed as are inhibitors of depolymerase activity; reagents which react with amino acid residues, glycoside derivatives, transition state inhibitors and proteinaceous inhibitors. The characterization of various enzymes of microbial, animal or plant origin has led to their widespread use in the production of important oligosaccharides which can be incorporated into food stuffs. Sources of polysaccharides of particular interest in this chapter are those from plants and include inulin, dextran, xylan and pectin, as their hydrolysis products are purported to be functional foods in the context of gastrointestinal health. An alternative use of degraded polysaccharides is in the treatment of disease. The possibility exists to treat bacterial exopolysaccharide with lyases from bacteriophage to produce oligosaccharides exhibiting bioactive sequences. Although this area is currently in its infancy the knowledge is available to investigate further.

  6. In vivo study of doxorubicin-loaded cell-penetrating peptide-modified pH-sensitive liposomes: biocompatibility, bio-distribution, and pharmacodynamics in BALB/c nude mice bearing human breast tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dan; Wang, Gui-Ling; Hei, Yu; Meng, Shuai; Chen, Jian-Hua; Xie, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    In vivo evaluation of drug delivery vectors is essential for clinical translation. In BALB/c nude mice bearing human breast cancer tumors, we investigated the biocompatibility, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded novel cell-penetrating peptide (CPP)-modified pH-sensitive liposomes (CPPL) (referred to as CPPL(DOX)) with an optimal CPP density of 4%. In CPPL, a polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivative formed by conjugating PEG with stearate via acid-degradable hydrazone bond (PEG2000-Hz-stearate) was inserted into the surface of liposomes, and CPP was directly attached to liposome surfaces via coupling with stearate to simultaneously achieve long circulation time in blood and improve the selectivity and efficacy of CPP for tumor targeting. Compared to PEGylated liposomes, CPPL enhanced DOX accumulation in tumors up to 1.9-fold (p<0.01) and resulted in more cell apoptosis as a result of DNA disruption as well as a relatively lower tumor growth ratio (T/C%). Histological examination did not show any signs of necrosis or inflammation in normal tissues, but large cell dissolving areas were found in tumors following the treatment of animals with CPPL(DOX). Our findings provide important and detailed information regarding the distribution of CPPL(DOX) in vivo and reveal their abilities of tumor penetration and potential for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:29123382

  7. A first step toward liposome-mediated intracellular bacteriophage therapy.

    PubMed

    Nieth, Anita; Verseux, Cyprien; Barnert, Sabine; Süss, Regine; Römer, Winfried

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria presents a severe challenge to medicine and public health. While bacteriophage therapy is a promising alternative to traditional antibiotics, the general inability of bacteriophages to penetrate eukaryotic cells limits their use against resistant bacteria, causing intracellular diseases like tuberculosis. Bacterial vectors show some promise in carrying therapeutic bacteriophages into cells, but also bring a number of risks like an overload of bacterial antigens or the acquisition of virulence genes from the pathogen. As a first step in the development of a non-bacterial vector for bacteriophage delivery into pathogen-infected cells, we attempted to encapsulate bacteriophages into liposomes. Here we report effective encapsulation of the model bacteriophage λeyfp and the mycobacteriophage TM4 into giant liposomes. Furthermore, we show that liposome-associated bacteriophages are taken up into eukaryotic cells more efficiently than free bacteriophages. These are important milestones in the development of an intracellular bacteriophage therapy that might be useful in the fight against multi-drug-resistant intracellular pathogens like Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  8. Stability and local toxicity evaluation of a liposomal prilocaine formulation.

    PubMed

    Cereda, Cintia M Saia; Tófoli, Giovana R; de Brito Junior, Rui B; de Jesus, Marcelo B; Fraceto, Leonardo F; Groppo, Francisco C; de Araujo, Daniele R; de Paula, Eneida

    2008-01-01

    This study reports a physicochemical stability evaluation of a previously reported liposomal prilocaine (PLC(LUV)) formulation (Cereda et al. J. Pharm. Pharmaceut. Sci. 7:235, 2004) before and after steam sterilization as well as its local toxicity evaluation. Prilocaine (PLC) was encapsulated into extruded unilamellar liposomes (LUVs) composed by egg phosphatidylcholine:cholesterol:alfa-tocopherol (4:3:0.07, mole %). Laser light-scattering analysis (p > 0.05) and thiobarbituric acid reaction (p > 0.05) were used to evaluate the liposomes physical (size) and chemical (oxidation) stability, respectively. The prilocaine chemical stability was followed by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance. These tests detected no differences on the physicochemical stability of PLC or PLC(LUV), sterilized or not, up to 30 days after preparation (p > 0.05). Finally, the paw edema test and histological analysis of rat oral mucosa were used to assess the possible inflammatory effects of PLC(LUV). PLC(LUV) did not evoke rat paw edema (p > 0.05), and no significant differences were found in histological analysis, when compared to the control groups (p > 0.05). The present work shows that PLC(LUV) is stable for a 30-day period and did not induce significant inflammatory effects both in the paw edema test and in histological analysis, giving supporting evidence for its safety and possible clinical use in dentistry.

  9. Mucosal delivery of liposome-chitosan nanoparticle complexes.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Edison L S; Grenha, Ana; Remuñán-López, Carmen; Alonso, Maria José; Seijo, Begoña

    2009-01-01

    Designing adequate drug carriers has long been a major challenge for those working in drug delivery. Since drug delivery strategies have evolved for mucosal delivery as the outstanding alternative to parenteral administration, many new drug delivery systems have been developed which evidence promising properties to address specific issues. Colloidal carriers, such as nanoparticles and liposomes, have been referred to as the most valuable approaches, but still have some limitations that can become more inconvenient as a function of the specific characteristics of administration routes. To overcome these limitations, we developed a new drug delivery system that results from the combination of chitosan nanoparticles and liposomes, in an approach of combining their advantages, while avoiding their individual limitations. These lipid/chitosan nanoparticle complexes are, thus, expected to protect the encapsulated drug from harsh environmental conditions, while concomitantly providing its controlled release. To prepare these assemblies, two different strategies have been applied: one focusing on the simple hydration of a previously formed dry lipid film with a suspension of chitosan nanoparticles, and the other relying on the lyophilization of both basic structures (nanoparticles and liposomes) with a subsequent step of hydration with water. The developed systems are able to provide a controlled release of the encapsulated model peptide, insulin, evidencing release profiles that are dependent on their lipid composition. Moreover, satisfactory in vivo results have been obtained, confirming the potential of these newly developed drug delivery systems as drug carriers through distinct mucosal routes.

  10. Integration of β-carotene molecules in small liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Atanaska; Popova, Antoaneta

    2010-11-01

    The most typical feature of carotenoids is the long polyene chain with conjugated double bonds suggesting that they can serve as conductors of electrons, acting as ''molecular wires'', important elements in the molecular electronic devices. Carotenoids are essential components of photosynthetic systems, performing different functions as light harvesting, photoprotection and electron transfer. They act also as natural antioxidants. In addition they perform structural role stabilizing the three-dimensional organization of photosynthetic membranes. Carotenoids contribute to the stability of the lipid phase, preserving the membrane integrity under potentially harmful environmental conditions. Carotenoids can be easily integrated into model membranes, facilitating the investigation of their functional roles. In carotenoid-egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) liposomes ß-carotene is randomly distributed in the hydrocarbon interior of the bilayer, without any preferred, well defined orientation and retains a substantial degree of mobility. Here we investigate the degree of integration of ß-carotene in small unilamellar EPC liposomes and the changes in ß-carotene absorption and Raman spectra due to the lipid-pigment interaction. All observed changes in ß-carotene absorption and Raman spectra may be regarded as a result of the lipid-pigment interactions leading to the polyene geometry distortion and increasing of the environment heterogenety in the liposomes as compared to the solutions.

  11. UV Spectrophotometric Determination and Validation of Hydroquinone in Liposome.

    PubMed

    Khoshneviszadeh, Rabea; Fazly Bazzaz, Bibi Sedigheh; Housaindokht, Mohammad Reza; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh; Rajabi, Omid

    2015-01-01

    The method has been developed and validated for the determination of hydroquinone in liposomal formulation. The samples were dissolved in methanol and evaluated in 293 nm. The validation parameters such as linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were determined. The calibration curve was linear in 1-50 µg/mL range of hydroquinone analyte with a regression coefficient of 0.9998. This study showed that the liposomal hydroquinone composed of phospholipid (7.8 %), cholesterol (1.5 %), alpha ketopherol (0.17 %) and hydroquinone (0.5 %) did not absorb wavelength of 293 nm if it diluted 500 times by methanol. The concentration of hydroquinone reached 10 µg/mL after 500 times of dilution. Furthermore, various validation parameters as per ICH Q2B guideline were tested and found accordingly. The recovery percentages of liposomal hydroquinone were found 102 ± 0.8, 99 ± 0.2 and 98 ± 0.4 for 80%, 100% and 120% respectively. The relative standard deviation values of inter and intra-day precisions were <%2. LOD and LOQ were 0.24 and 0.72 µg/mL respectively.

  12. Effective in vitro and in vivo gene delivery by the combination of liposomal bubbles (bubble liposomes) and ultrasound exposure.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ryo; Maruyama, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Gene delivery with a physical mechanism using ultrasound (US) and nano/microbubbles is expected as an ideal system in terms of delivering plasmid DNA noninvasively into a specific target site. We developed novel liposomal bubbles (Bubble liposomes (BLs)) containing the lipid nanobubbles of perfluoropropane which were utilized for contrast enhancement in ultrasonography. BLs were smaller in diameter than conventional microbubbles and induced cavitation upon exposure ultrasound. In addition, when coupled with US exposure, BLs could deliver plasmid DNA into various types of cells in vitro and in vivo. The transfection efficiency with BLs and US was higher than that with conventional lipofection method. Therefore, the combination of BLs and US might be an efficient and novel nonviral gene delivery system.

  13. Preparation of liposomes containing zedoary turmeric oil using freeze-drying of liposomes via TBA/water cosolvent systems and evaluation of the bioavailability of the oil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiwen; Yu, Songlin; Fu, Dahua

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to enhance the absorption of zedoary turmeric oil (ZTO) in vivo and develop new formulations of a water-insoluble oily drug. This study described a method for preparing ZTO liposomes, which involved freeze-drying (FD) of liposomes with TBA/water cosolvent systems. The TBA/water cosolvent systems were used to investigate a feasible method of liposomes manufacture; the two factors, sugar/lipid mass ratio and TBA content (concentration), of the preparation process were evaluated in this study. The results showed that the addition of TBA content could significantly enhance the sublimation of ice resulting in short FD cycles time, and reduce the entrapment efficiency of liposomes. In addition, the residual TBA solvents levels were determined to be less than 0.37% under all optimum formulations and processing conditions. Several physical properties of liposomes were examined by H-600 transmission electron microscope (TEM) and zetamaster analyser system. The results revealed that the liposomes were smooth and spherical with an average particle size of 457 +/- 7.8 nm and the zeta potential was more than 3.65 Mv. The bioavailability of the liposomes was evaluated in rabbits, compared with the conventional self-emulsifying formulation for oral administration. Compared with the conventional self-emulsifying formulation, the plasma concentration-time profiles with improved sustained-release characteristics were achieved after oral administration of the liposomes with a bioavailability of 257.7% (a good strategy for improving the bioavailability of an oily drug). In conclusion, the present experimental findings clearly demonstrated the usefulness of ZTO liposome vesicles in improving therapeutic efficacy by enhancing oral bioavailability. Our study offered an alternative method for designing sustained-release preparations of oily drugs.

  14. Plasma stable, pH-sensitive fusogenic polymer-modified liposomes: A promising carrier for mitoxantrone.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarzadeh, Saeed; Arami, Sanam; Pourmoazzen, Zhaleh; Ghasemian-Yadegari, Javad; Khorrami, Arash

    2014-07-01

    pH-sensitive liposomes are designed to undergo acid-triggered destabilization. In the present study, we prepared polymer-modified, plasma stable, pH-sensitive fusogenic mitoxantrone liposomes to increase efficacy and selectivity on cancer cell lines. Conventional liposomes were prepared using cholesterol and dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine. Dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine and a cholesteryl derivative, poly(monomethylitaconate)-co-poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PMMI-co-PDMAEMA), were used for the preparation of pH-sensitive fusogenic liposomes. Using polyethylene glycol (PEG)-poly(monomethylitaconate)-CholC6 (PEG-PMMI-CholC6) copolymers instead of cholesterol introduced pH-sensitive and plasma stability properties simultaneously in prepared liposomes. All formulations were prepared by thin film hydration method and subsequently, pH-sensitivity and stability in human serum were evaluated. The ability of pH-sensitive fusogenic liposomes to enhance the mitoxantrone cytotoxicity and selectivity in cancerous cell lines was assessed in vitro compared to normal cell line using human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), human prostate cancer cell line (PC-3), and human umbilical vein endothelial cells line. Results revealed that both PMMI-co-PDMAEMA and PEG-PMMI-CholC6-based formulations showed pH-sensitive property and were found to rapidly release mitoxantrone under mildly acidic conditions. Nevertheless, only the PEG-PMMI-CholC6-based liposomes preserved pH-sensitivity after incubation in plasma. Mitoxantrone loaded-pH-sensitive fusogenic liposomes exhibited a higher cytotoxicity than the control conventional liposomes on MCF-7 and PC-3 cell lines. On the contrary, both pH-sensitive fusogenic liposomes showed lower cytotoxic effect on human umbilical vein endothelial cell line. Plasma stable, pH-sensitive fusogenic liposomes are promising carriers for enhancing the efficiency and selectivity, besides reduction of the side effects of anticancer

  15. A novel method to label preformed liposomes with 64Cu for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jai Woong; Zhang, Hua; Kukis, David L; Meares, Claude F; Ferrara, Katherine W

    2008-12-01

    Radiolabeling of liposomes with 64Cu (t(1/2)=12.7 h) is attractive for molecular imaging and monitoring drug delivery. A simple chelation procedure, performed at a low temperature and under mild conditions, is required to radiolabel preloaded liposomes without lipid hydrolysis or the release of the encapsulated contents. Here, we report a 64Cu postlabeling method for liposomes. A 64Cu-specific chelator, 6-[p-(bromoacetamido)benzyl]-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid (BAT), was conjugated with an artificial lipid to form a BAT-PEG-lipid. After incorporation of 0.5% (mol/mol) BAT-PEG-lipid during liposome formulation, liposomes were successfully labeled with 64Cu in 0.1 M NH4OAc pH 5 buffer at 35 degrees C for 30-40 min with an incorporation yield as high as 95%. After 48 h of incubation of 64Cu-liposomes in 50/50 serum/PBS solution, more than 88% of the 64Cu label was still associated with liposomes. After injection of liposomal 64Cu in a mouse model, 44+/-6.9, 21+/-2.7, 15+/-2.5, and 7.4+/-1.1 (n=4) % of the injected dose per cubic centimeter remained within the blood pool at 30 min, 18, 28, and 48 h, respectively. The biodistribution at 48 h after injection verified that 7.0+/-0.47 (n=4) and 1.4+/-0.58 (n=3) % of the injected dose per gram of liposomal 64Cu and free 64Cu remained in the blood pool, respectively. Our results suggest that this fast and easy 64Cu labeling of liposomes could be exploited in tracking liposomes in vivo for medical imaging and targeted delivery.

  16. Enhanced cellular uptake of maleimide-modified liposomes via thiol-mediated transport

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tianshu; Takeoka, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    With a small amount of maleimide modification on the liposome surface, enhanced cellular uptake of liposomes and drug-delivery efficiency can be obtained both in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we describe the mechanisms underlying this enhanced cellular uptake. Suppression of the cellular uptake of maleimide-modified liposomes (M-GGLG, composed of 1,5-dihexadecyl N,N-diglutamyl-lysyl-L-glutamate [GGLG]/cholesterol/poly(ethylene glycol) – 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine [PEG5000-DSPE]/maleimide [M]-PEG5000-Glu2C18 at a molar ratio of 5:5:0.03:0.03) caused by temperature block and addition of serum was alleviated compared with that of liposomes without maleimide modification (GGLG liposomes, composed of GGLG/cholesterol/PEG5000-DSPE/PEG5000-Glu2C18 at a molar ratio of 5:5:0.03:0.03). When 0.01 nM N-ethylmaleimide was used to pre-block cellular thiols, the cellular uptake of M-GGLG liposomes was decreased to approximately 70% in HeLa, HCC1954, MDA-MB-468, and COS-7 cell lines. Moreover, inhibition of a thiol-related reductase such as protein disulfide isomerase resulted in a 15%–45% inhibition of the cellular uptake of M-GGLG liposomes, whereas GGLG liposomes were not influenced. Further, single and mixed inhibitors of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and macropinocytosis did not efficiently inhibit the cellular uptake of M-GGLG liposomes. Using confocal microscopy, we verified that M-GGLG liposomes were localized partially in lysosomes after inhibition of the mentioned conventional endocytic pathways. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the mechanisms underlying the enhanced cellular uptake of liposomes by maleimide modification was thiol-mediated membrane trafficking, including endocytosis and energy-independent transport. PMID:24940060

  17. Enhanced cellular uptake of maleimide-modified liposomes via thiol-mediated transport.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianshu; Takeoka, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    With a small amount of maleimide modification on the liposome surface, enhanced cellular uptake of liposomes and drug-delivery efficiency can be obtained both in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we describe the mechanisms underlying this enhanced cellular uptake. Suppression of the cellular uptake of maleimide-modified liposomes (M-GGLG, composed of 1,5-dihexadecyl N,N-diglutamyl-lysyl-L-glutamate [GGLG]/cholesterol/poly(ethylene glycol) - 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine [PEG₅₀₀₀-DSPE]/maleimide [M]-PEG₅₀₀₀-Glu2C18 at a molar ratio of 5:5:0.03:0.03) caused by temperature block and addition of serum was alleviated compared with that of liposomes without maleimide modification (GGLG liposomes, composed of GGLG/cholesterol/PEG₅₀₀₀-DSPE/PEG₅₀₀₀-Glu2C₁₈ at a molar ratio of 5:5:0.03:0.03). When 0.01 nM N-ethylmaleimide was used to pre-block cellular thiols, the cellular uptake of M-GGLG liposomes was decreased to approximately 70% in HeLa, HCC1954, MDA-MB-468, and COS-7 cell lines. Moreover, inhibition of a thiol-related reductase such as protein disulfide isomerase resulted in a 15%-45% inhibition of the cellular uptake of M-GGLG liposomes, whereas GGLG liposomes were not influenced. Further, single and mixed inhibitors of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and macropinocytosis did not efficiently inhibit the cellular uptake of M-GGLG liposomes. Using confocal microscopy, we verified that M-GGLG liposomes were localized partially in lysosomes after inhibition of the mentioned conventional endocytic pathways. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the mechanisms underlying the enhanced cellular uptake of liposomes by maleimide modification was thiol-mediated membrane trafficking, including endocytosis and energy-independent transport.

  18. Tumor Burden Talks in Cancer Treatment with PEGylated Liposomal Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia-Je; Hwang, Jeng-Jong; Tseng, Yun-Long; Lin, Wuu-Jyh; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Ting, Gann; Wang, Hsin-Ell

    2013-01-01

    Purpose PEGylated liposomes are important drug carriers that can passively target tumor by enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect in neoplasm lesions. This study demonstrated that tumor burden determines the tumor uptake, and also the tumor response, in cancer treatment with PEGylated liposomal drugs in a C26/tk-luc colon carcinoma-bearing mouse model. Methods Empty PEGylated liposomes (NanoX) and those encapsulated with VNB (NanoVNB) were labeled with In-111 to obtain InNanoX and InVNBL in high labeling yield and radiochemical purity (all >90%). BALB/c mice bearing either small (58.4±8.0 mm3) or large (102.4±22.0 mm3) C26/tk-luc tumors in the right dorsal flank were intravenously administered with NanoVNB, InNanoX, InVNBL, or NanoX as a control, every 7 days for 3 times. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by body weight loss, tumor growth inhibition (using calipers and bioluminescence imaging) and survival fraction. The scintigraphic imaging of tumor mouse was performed during and after treatment. Results The biodistribution study of InVNBL revealed a clear inverse correlation (r 2 = 0.9336) between the tumor uptake and the tumor mass ranged from 27.6 to 623.9 mg. All three liposomal drugs showed better therapeutic efficacy in small-tumor mice than in large-tumor mice. Tumor-bearing mice treated with InVNBL (a combination drug) showed the highest tumor growth inhibition rate and survival fraction compared to those treated with NanoVNB (chemodrug only) and InNanoX (radionuclide only). Specific tumor targeting and significantly increased tumor uptake after periodical treatment with InVNBL were evidenced by scintigraphic imaging, especially in mice bearing small tumors. Conclusion The significant differences in the outcomes of cancer treatment and molecular imaging between animals bearing small and large tumors revealed that tumor burden is a critical and discriminative factor in cancer therapy using PEGylated liposomal drugs. PMID:23675454

  19. Novel mucus-penetrating liposomes as a potential oral drug delivery system: preparation, in vitro characterization, and enhanced cellular uptake

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiuying; Chen, Dan; Le, Chaoyi; Zhu, Chunliu; Gan, Yong; Hovgaard, Lars; Yang, Mingshi

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal mucus-penetrating properties and intestinal cellular uptake of two types of liposomes modified by Pluronic F127 (PF127). Methods The two types of liposomes, ie, PF127-inlaid liposomes and PF127-adsorbed liposomes, were prepared by a thin-film hydration method followed by extrusion, in which coumarin 6 was loaded as a fluorescence marker. A modified Franz diffusion cell mounted with the intestinal mucus of rats was used to study the diffusion characteristics of the two types of PF127 liposomes. Cell uptake studies were conducted in Caco-2 cells and analyzed using confocal laser scanning microcopy as well as flow cytometry. Results The diffusion efficiency of the two types of PF127-modified liposomes through intestinal rat mucus was 5–7-fold higher than that of unmodified liposomes. Compared with unmodified liposomes, PF127-inlaid liposomes showed significantly higher cellular uptake of courmarin 6. PF127-adsorbed liposomes showed a lower cellular uptake. Moreover, and interestingly, the two types of PF127-modified liposomes showed different cellular uptake mechanisms in Caco-2 cells. Conclusion PF127-inlaid liposomes with improved intestinal mucus-penetrating ability and enhanced cellular uptake might be a potential carrier candidate for oral drug delivery. PMID:22163166

  20. The role of surface charge density in cationic liposome-promoted dendritic cell maturation and vaccine-induced immune responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yifan; Zhuang, Yan; Xie, Xiaofang; Wang, Ce; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Dongmei; Zeng, Jianqiang; Cai, Lintao

    2011-05-01

    Cationic liposomes have emerged as a novel adjuvant and antigen delivery system to enhance vaccine efficacy. However, the role of surface charge density in cationic liposome-regulated immune responses has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we prepared a series of DOTAP/DOPC cationic liposomes with different surface densities by incorporating varying amounts of DOPC (a neutral lipid) into DOTAP (a cationic lipid). The results showed that DOTAP/DOPC cationic liposome-regulated immune responses relied on the surface charge density, and might occur through ROS signaling. The liposomes with a relatively high charge density, such as DOTAP/DOPC 5 : 0 and 4 : 1 liposomes, potently enhanced dendritic cell maturation, ROS generaion, antigen uptake, as well as the production of OVA-specific IgG2a and IFN-γ. In contrast, low-charge liposomes, such as DOTAP/DOPC 1 : 4 liposome, failed to promote immune responses even at high concentrations, confirming that the immunoregulatory effect of cationic liposomes is mostly attributable to their surface charge density. Moreover, the DOTAP/DOPC 1 : 4 liposome suppressed anti-OVA antibody responses in vivo. Overall, maintaining an appropriate surface charge is crucial for optimizing the adjuvant effect of cationic liposomes and enhancing the efficacy of liposome-based vaccines.

  1. New pH-sensitive liposomes containing phosphatidylethanolamine and a bacterial dirhamnolipid.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Marina; Aranda, Francisco J; Teruel, José A; Ortiz, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Phosphatidylethanolamine-based pH-sensitive liposomes of various compositions have been described as efficient systems for cytoplasmic delivery of molecules into cells. Incorporation of an amphiphile of appropriate structure is needed for the stabilization and performance of these vesicles. Among the wide variety of interesting activities displayed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa dirhamnolipids (diRL), is their capacity to stabilize bilayer structures in phosphatidylethanolamine systems. In this work, X-ray scattering, dynamic light scattering, fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy have been used to study the structure and pH-dependent behaviour of phosphatidylethanolamine/diRL liposomes. We show that diRL, in combination with dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), forms stable multilamellar and unilamellar liposomes. Acidification of DOPE/diRL vesicles leads to membrane destabilization, fusion, and release of entrapped aqueous vesicle contents. Finally, DOPE/diRL pH-sensitive liposomes act as efficient vehicles for the cytoplasmic delivery of fluorescent probes into cultured cells. It is concluded that DOPE/diRL form stable pH-sensitive liposomes, and that these liposomes are incorporated into cultured cells through the endocytic pathway, delivering its contents into the cytoplasm, which means a potential use of these liposomes for the delivery of foreign substances into living cells. Our results establish a new application of diRL as a bilayer stabilizer in phospholipid vesicles, and the use of diRL-containing pH-sensitive liposomes as delivery vehicles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. In vitro synthesis and stabilization of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) nanoparticles within liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Tester, Chantel C.; Brock, Ryan E.; Wu, Ching-Hsuan

    2012-02-07

    We show that amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) can be synthesized in phospholipid bilayer vesicles (liposomes). Liposome-encapsulated ACC nanoparticles are stable against aggregation, do not crystallize for at least 20 h, and are ideally suited to investigate the influence of lipid chemistry, particle size, and soluble additives on ACC in situ.

  3. Targeting to cells of fluorescent liposomes covalently coupled with monoclonal antibody or protein A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leserman, Lee D.; Barbet, Jacques; Kourilsky, François; Weinstein, John N.

    1980-12-01

    Many applications envisioned for liposomes in cell biology and chemotherapy require their direction to specific cellular targets1-3. The ability to use antibody as a means of conferring specificity to liposomes would markedly increase their usefulness. We report here a method for covalently coupling soluble proteins, including monoclonal antibody and Staphylococcus aureus protein A (ref. 4), to small sonicated liposomes, by using the heterobifunctional cross-linking reagent N-hydroxysuccinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionate (SPDP, Pharmacia). Liposomes bearing covalently coupled mouse monoclonal antibody against human β2-microglobulin [antibody B1.1G6 (IgG2a, κ) (B. Malissen et al., in preparation)] bound specifically to human, but not to mouse cells. Liposomes bearing protein A became bound to human cells previously incubated with the B1.1G6 antibody, but not to cells incubated without antibody. The coupling method results in efficient binding of protein to the liposomes without aggregation and without denaturation of the coupled ligand; at least 60% of liposomes bound functional protein. Further, liposomes did not leak encapsulated carboxyfluorescein (CF) as a consequence of the reaction.

  4. Effects of surface displayed targeting ligand GE11 on liposome distribution and extravasation in tumor.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hailing; Chen, Xiaojing; Rui, Mengjie; Sun, Wenqiang; Chen, Jian; Peng, Jinliang; Xu, Yuhong

    2014-10-06

    Targeting ligands displayed on liposome surface had been used to mediate specific interactions and drug delivery to target cells. However, they also affect liposome distribution in vivo, as well as the tissue extravasation processes after IV injection. In this study, we incorporated an EGFR targeting peptide GE11 on liposome surfaces in addition to PEG at different densities and evaluated their targeting properties and antitumor effects. We found that the densities of surface ligand and PEG were critical to target cell binding in vitro as well as pharmacokinetic profiles in vivo. The inclusion of GE11-PEG-DSPE and PEG-DSPE at 2% and 4% mol ratios in the liposome formulation mediated a rapid accumulation of liposomes within 1 h after IV injection in the tumor tissues surrounding neovascular structures. This is in addition to the EPR effect that was most prominently described for surface PEG modified liposomes. Therefore, despite the fact that the distribution of liposomes into interior tumor tissues was still limited by diffusion, GE11 targeted doxorubicin loaded liposomes showed significantly better antitumor activity in tumor bearing mice as a result of the fast active-targeting efficiency. We anticipate these understandings can benefit further optimization of targeted drug delivery systems for improving efficacy in vivo.

  5. Size-dependent extravasation and interstitial localization of polyethyleneglycol liposomes in solid tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Ishida, O; Maruyama, K; Sasaki, K; Iwatsuru, M

    1999-11-10

    We have examined the size dependence of extravasation and interstitial localization of polyethyleneglycol-coated liposomes (PEG-liposomes) in the solid tumor tissue by means of electron microscopic observation. Liposomes composed of distearoyl phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine derivative of polyethyleneglycol (PEG) were prepared in various size ranges. PEG-liposomes with an average diameter of 100-200 nm showed the most prolonged circulation time and the greatest tumor accumulation in all the solid tumors employed in this experiment. Although large PEG-liposomes with a diameter of 400 nm showed a short circulation time in normal mice, the results in splenectomized mice indicated that they do have an intrinsic prolonged circulation character in vivo. However, large PEG-liposomes could not extravasate into solid tumor tissue. These results indicate that the size of liposomes is critical for extravasation. The electron microscopic observations revealed the almost exclusive engulfment of extravasated liposomes by tumor-associated macrophages; very few were taken up by tumor cells.

  6. Transferrin-mediated targeting of hypericin embedded in sterically stabilized PEG-liposomes.

    PubMed

    Derycke, Annelies S L; De Witte, Peter A M

    2002-01-01

    Over the last few decades, photodynamic therapy evolved to a promising new treating modality for cancer. The photosensitizers used, induce light sensitivity to a normal light insensitive chemical or physical process. Third generation photosensitizers are derivatives of second generation photosensitizers introduced into or attached to chemical devices. This modification increases the biological specificity to deliver photosensitizers to a defined cell type. The aim of this study was to improve the specificity of hypericin for tumor cells using transferrin-conjugated PEG-liposomes. Transferrin was used as tumor-seeking molecule, since many tumor cells, among which HeLa cells, overexpress transferrin receptors on their surface. Hypericin, a potent second generation photosensitizer, was integrated in the lipid bilayers of the liposomes. The antiproliferative effect of the targeted PEG-liposomes was determined and compared with the results of non-targeted PEG-liposomes and free hypericin. Additionally, the intracellular accumulation assay was performed. All manipulations were done on HeLa cells. To interpret the results, the data were supplemented by findings concerning embedding stability. Targeting hypericin by transferrin-conjugated PEG-liposomes did not significantly favour the photocytotoxicity and the intracellular accumulation of hypericin, in comparison with non-targeted PEG-liposomes or free hypericin. Embedding stability experiments showed only limited stable embedding. Despite of their proven efficiency as a targeting carrier system, transferrin-conjugated PEG-liposomes seem less effective in targeting hypericin to tumor cells due to the amount of hypericin leaking out of the PEG-liposomes.

  7. Targeting doxorubicin encapsulated in stealth liposomes to solid tumors by non thermal diode laser.

    PubMed

    Ghannam, Magdy M; El Gebaly, Reem; Fadel, Maha

    2016-04-05

    The use of liposomes as drug delivery systems is the most promising technique for targeting drug especially for anticancer therapy. In this study sterically stabilized liposomes was prepared from DPPC/Cholesterol/PEG-PE encapsulated doxorubicin. The effect of lyophilization on liposomal stability and hence expiration date were studied. Moreover, the effect of diode laser on the drug released from liposomesin vitro and in vivo in mice carrying implanted solid tumor were also studied. The results indicated that lyophilization of the prepared liposomes encapsulating doxorubicin led to marked stability when stored at 5 °C and it is possible to use the re-hydrated lyophilized liposomes within 12 days post reconstitution. Moreover, the use of low energy diode laser for targeting anticancer drug to the tumor cells is a promising method in cancer therapy. We can conclude that lyophilization of the liposomes encapsulating doxorubicin lead to marked stability for the liposomes when stored at 5 °C. Moreover, the use of low energy diode laser for targeting anticancer drug to the tumor cells through the use of photosensitive sterically stabilized liposomes loaded with doxorubicin is a promising method. It proved to be applicable and successful for treatment of Ehrlich solid tumors implanted in mice and eliminated toxic side effects of doxorubicin.

  8. Process optimization by use of design of experiments: Application for liposomalization of FK506.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Hiroyasu; Asai, Tomohiro; Oku, Naoto

    2017-05-01

    Design of experiments (DoE) can accelerate the optimization of drug formulations, especially complexed formulas such as those of drugs, using delivery systems. Administration of FK506 encapsulated in liposomes (FK506 liposomes) is an effective approach to treat acute stroke in animal studies. To provide FK506 liposomes as a brain protective agent, it is necessary to manufacture these liposomes with good reproducibility. The objective of this study was to confirm the usefulness of DoE for the process-optimization study of FK506 liposomes. The Box-Behnken design was used to evaluate the effect of the process parameters on the properties of FK506 liposomes. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that there was interaction between the hydration temperature and the freeze-thaw cycle on both the particle size and encapsulation efficiency. An increase in the PBS hydration volume resulted in an increase in encapsulation efficiency. Process parameters had no effect on the ζ-potential. The multiple regression equation showed good predictability of the particle size and the encapsulation efficiency. These results indicated that manufacturing conditions must be taken into consideration to prepare liposomes with desirable properties. DoE would thus be promising approach to optimize the conditions for the manufacturing of liposomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The modulation of physicochemical characterization of innovative liposomal platforms: the role of the grafted thermoresponsive polymers.

    PubMed

    Chountoulesi, Maria; Kyrili, Aimilia; Pippa, Natassa; Meristoudi, Anastasia; Pispas, Stergios; Demetzos, Costas

    2017-05-01

    This study is focused on chimeric advanced drug delivery systems and specifically on thermosensitive liposomes, combining lipids and thermoresponsive polymers. In this investigation, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) chimeric liposomal systems were prepared, incorporating the homopolymer C 12 H 25 -poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-COOH (C 12 H 25 -PNIPAM-COOH) and the block copolymer poly(n-butylacrylate-b-N-isoropylacrylamide) (PnBA-PNIPAM), at six different molar ratios. Both of these polymers contain the thermoresponsive PNIPAM block, which exhibits lower critical solution temperature (LCST) at 32 °C in aqueous solutions, changing its nature from hydrophilic to hydrophobic above LCST. During the preparation of liposomes, the dispersions were observed visually, while after the preparation we studied the alterations of the physicochemical characteristics, by measuring the size, size distribution and ζ-potential of prepared liposomes. The presence of polymer, either C 12 H 25 -PNIPAM-COOH or PnBA-PNIPAM, resulted in liposomes exhibiting different physicochemical characteristics in comparison to conventional DPPC liposomes. At the highest percentage of the polymeric guest, chimeric liposomes were found to retain their size during the stability studies. The incorporation of the appropriate amount of these novel thermoresponsive polymers yields liposomal stabilization and imparts thermoresponsiveness, due to the functional PNIPAM block.

  10. Noninvasive control of the transport function of fluorescent coloured liposomal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelmashchuk, O.; Zherebtsov, E.; Zherebtsova, A.; Kuznetsova, E.; Vinokurov, A.; Dunaev, A.; Mamoshin, A.; Snimshchikova, I.; Borsukov, A.; Bykov, A.; Meglinski, I.

    2017-06-01

    The use of liposomal nanoparticles with an incorporated active substance is an innovative and promising approach to diagnostics and therapy. The application of liposomal nanoparticle-based drugs allows for targeted localized delivery, overcomes the natural barriers within the body effectively, and minimizes possible side effects. Liposomes are able to contain a variety of ingredients with practically no limitations to their chemical composition, chemical properties, or size of constituent molecules. This study evaluated the ability to control the passage of fluorescent dye-filled liposomes through the intestinal mucosal barrier after oral administration. For this purpose, the increase in transcutaneous registered fluorescence from tetrabromofluorescein dye was recorded and analysed. Fluorescence intensity was measured at the proximal end of the tail of an animal model after oral administration of the liposomes. Measurements were taken at the excitation wavelengths of 365 and 450 nm. The fluorescence intensity in the group treated with the fluorescent contrast agent encapsulated in liposomal particles increased 140% of the initial level, but in the group treated with pure contrast agent, the increase in detected fluorescence intensity did not exceed 110%. Mice that received empty liposomes as well as the control group did not demonstrate statistically significant changes in fluorescence intensity. A potential application of our results is an express laser optical method of monitoring the transport of orally administered liposomal particles. The results can be used to help create new optical tools for use in the development of new drugs and in high-throughput screening used during their testing.

  11. Theranostic liposomes loaded with quantum dots and apomorphine for brain targeting and bioimaging

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Chih-Jen; Zhang, Li-Wen; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Fang, Jia-You

    2012-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) and apomorphine were incorporated into liposomes to eliminate uptake by the liver and enhance brain targeting. We describe the preparation, physicochemical characterization, in vivo bioimaging, and brain endothelial cell uptake of the theranostic liposomes. QDs and the drug were mainly located in the bilayer membrane and inner core of the liposomes, respectively. Spherical vesicles with a mean diameter of ~140 nm were formed. QDs were completely encapsulated by the vesicles. Nearly 80% encapsulation percentage was achieved for apomorphine. A greater fluorescence intensity was observed in mouse brains treated with liposomes compared to free QDs. This result was further confirmed by ex vivo imaging of the organs. QD uptake by the heart and liver was reduced by liposomal incorporation. Apomorphine accumulation in the brain increased by 2.4-fold after this incorporation. According to a hyperspectral imaging analysis, multifunctional liposomes but not the aqueous solution carried QDs into the brain. Liposomes were observed to have been efficiently endocytosed into bEND3 cells. The mechanisms involved in the cellular uptake were clathrin- and caveola-mediated endocytosis, which were energy-dependent. To the best of our knowledge, our group is the first to develop liposomes with a QD-drug hybrid for the aim of imaging and treating brain disorders. PMID:22619515

  12. Glioma targeting and blood-brain barrier penetration by dual-targeting doxorubincin liposomes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian-Qing; Lv, Qing; Li, Li-Ming; Tang, Xin-Jiang; Li, Fan-Zhu; Hu, Yu-Lan; Han, Min

    2013-07-01

    Effective chemotherapy for glioblastoma requires a carrier that can penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and subsequently target the glioma cells. Dual-targeting doxorubincin (Dox) liposomes were produced by conjugating liposomes with both folate (F) and transferrin (Tf), which were proven effective in penetrating the BBB and targeting tumors, respectively. The liposome was characterized by particle size, Dox entrapment efficiency, and in vitro release profile. Drug accumulation in cells, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression, and drug transport across the BBB in the dual-targeting liposome group were examined by using bEnd3 BBB models. In vivo studies demonstrated that the dual-targeting Dox liposomes could transport across the BBB and mainly distribute in the brain glioma. The anti-tumor effect of the dual-targeting liposome was also demonstrated by the increased survival time, decreased tumor volume, and results of both hematoxylin-eosin staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling analysis. The dual-targeting Dox liposome could improve the therapeutic efficacy of brain glioma and were less toxic than the Dox solution, showing a dual-targeting effect. These results indicate that this dual-targeting liposome can be used as a potential carrier for glioma chemotherapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Transferrin-modified liposome promotes α-mangostin to penetrate the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Lan; Huang, Man; Wang, Xia-Rong; Fu, Jun; Han, Min; Shen, You-Qing; Xia, Zheng; Gao, Jian-Qing

    2016-02-01

    α-Mangostin (α-M) is a polyphenolic xanthone that protects and improves the survival of cerebral cortical neurons against Aβ oligomer-induced toxicity in rats. α-M is a potential candidate as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the efficacy was limited by the poor penetration of the drug through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this study, we modified the α-M liposome with transferrin (Tf) and investigated the intracellular distribution of liposomes in bEnd3 cells. In addition, the transport of α-M across the BBB in the Tf(α-M) liposome group was examined. In vitro studies demonstrated that the Tf(α-M) liposome could cross the BBB in the form of an integrated liposome. Results of the in vivo studies on the α-M distribution in the brain demonstrated that the Tf(α-M) liposome improved the brain delivery of α-M. These results indicated that the Tf liposome is a potential carrier of α-M against AD. The use of α-Mangostin (α-M) as a potential agent to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been reported. However, its use is limited by the poor penetration through the blood brain barrier. The delivery of this agent by transferrin-modified liposomes was investigated by the authors in this study. The positive results could point to a better drug delivery system for brain targeting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Theranostic liposomes loaded with quantum dots and apomorphine for brain targeting and bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chih-Jen; Zhang, Li-Wen; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Fang, Jia-You

    2012-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) and apomorphine were incorporated into liposomes to eliminate uptake by the liver and enhance brain targeting. We describe the preparation, physicochemical characterization, in vivo bioimaging, and brain endothelial cell uptake of the theranostic liposomes. QDs and the drug were mainly located in the bilayer membrane and inner core of the liposomes, respectively. Spherical vesicles with a mean diameter of ~140 nm were formed. QDs were completely encapsulated by the vesicles. Nearly 80% encapsulation percentage was achieved for apomorphine. A greater fluorescence intensity was observed in mouse brains treated with liposomes compared to free QDs. This result was further confirmed by ex vivo imaging of the organs. QD uptake by the heart and liver was reduced by liposomal incorporation. Apomorphine accumulation in the brain increased by 2.4-fold after this incorporation. According to a hyperspectral imaging analysis, multifunctional liposomes but not the aqueous solution carried QDs into the brain. Liposomes were observed to have been efficiently endocytosed into bEND3 cells. The mechanisms involved in the cellular uptake were clathrin- and caveola-mediated endocytosis, which were energy-dependent. To the best of our knowledge, our group is the first to develop liposomes with a QD-drug hybrid for the aim of imaging and treating brain disorders.

  15. Simple and efficient liposomal encapsulation of topotecan by ammonium sulfate gradient: stability, pharmacokinetic and therapeutic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Jen; Hong, Ruey-Long; Cheng, Wen-Fang; Hong, Keelung; Chang, Fu-Hsiung; Tseng, Yun-Long

    2002-08-01

    Topotecan (TPT), a topoisomerase I inhibitor, is presently undergoing clinical evaluation worldwide. Previous studies have shown that entrapping TPT within multi-lamellar vesicle liposome can stabilize the lactone moiety, which is structurally important for biological activity. However, low drug:lipid ratios due to the amphipathic character and small entrapment volume in the unilamellar vesicle limits the development of pharmaceutically acceptable liposomal formulation. With an aim to improve on this drawback, we herein describe a method that utilizes the ammonium sulfate gradient to entrap TPT into liposomes. By this method, the encapsulation efficiency was over 90% and a drug:lipid molar ratio as high as 1:5.4 was reached. In comparison with free drug, liposome-encapsulated TPT is more stable in physiological conditions and shows higher in vitro cytotoxicity. Because of increased blood circulation time, the initial plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration of liposomal drugs were 14 and 40 times, respectively, of those of free drug. Furthermore, liposome encapsulation enhanced the antitumor activity of TPT in syngeneic murine C-26 and human HTB-9 xenograft models in vivo. At a dose of 5 mg/kg, the tumor growth delay of liposomal formulation was significantly than that of free TPT. Based on these results, we believe that this liposomal TPT formulation is worthy of further clinical study. Copyright 2002 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  16. Body distributioin of RGD-mediated liposome in brain-targeting drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jing; Chen, DaWei; Hu, Haiyang; Qiao, MingXi; Zhao, XiuLi; Chen, Baoyu

    2007-09-01

    RGD conjugation liposomes (RGD-liposomes) were evaluated for brain-targeting drug delivery. The flow cytometric in vitro study demonstrated that RGD-liposomes could bind to monocytes and neutrophils effectively. Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic, FA) was loaded into liposomes. Rats were subjected to intrastriatal microinjections of 100 units of human recombinant IL-1beta to produce brain inflammation and caudal vein injection of three formulations (FA solution, FA liposome and RGD-coated FA liposome). Animals were sacrificed 15, 30, 60 and 120 min after administration to study the body distribution of the FA in the three formulations. HPLC was used to determine the concentration of FA in vivo with salicylic acid as internal standard. The results of body distribution indicated that RGD-coated liposomes could be mediated into the brain with a 6-fold FA concentration compared to FA solution and 3-fold in comparison to uncoated liposome. Brain targeted delivery was achieved and a reduction in dosage might be allowed.

  17. Novel freeze-dried DDA and TPGS liposomes are suitable for nasal delivery of vaccine.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Helmy; Ali, Ahlam A; Orr, Natalie; Tunney, Michael M; McCarthy, Helen O; Kett, Vicky L

    2017-11-25

    There is a pressing need for effective needle-free vaccines that are stable enough for use in the developing world and stockpiling. The inclusion of the cationic lipid DDA and the PEG-containing moiety TPGS into liposomes has the potential to improve mucosal delivery. The aim of this study was to develop stable lyophilized cationic liposomes based on these materials suitable for nasal antigen delivery. Liposomes containing DDA and TPGS were developed. Size and zeta potential measurements, ex vivo, CLSM cell penetration study and cell viability investigations were made. Preliminary immunisation and stability studies using ovalbumin were performed. The liposomes exhibited suitable size and charge for permeation across nasal mucosa. DDA and TPGS increased tissue permeation in ex vivo studies and cell uptake with good cell viability. The liposomes improved immune response both locally and vaginally when compared to i.m administration or control liposomes delivered nasally. Additionally, the lyophilized products demonstrated good stability in terms of Tg, size and antigen retention. This study has shown that the novel liposomes have potential for development as a mucosal vaccine delivery system. Furthermore, the stability of the lyophilized liposomes offers potential additional benefits in terms of thermal stability over liquid formats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Amadori-glycated phosphatidylethanolamine enhances the physical stability and selective targeting ability of liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Miyazawa, Taiki; Kamiyoshihara, Reina; Shimizu, Naoki; Harigae, Takahiro; Otoki, Yurika; Ito, Junya; Kato, Shunji; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2018-01-01

    Liposomes consisting of 100% phosphatidylcholine exhibit poor membrane fusion, cellular uptake and selective targeting capacities. To overcome these limitations, we used Amadori-glycated phosphatidylethanolamine, which is universally present in animals and commonly consumed in foods. We found that liposomes containing Amadori-glycated phosphatidylethanolamine exhibited significantly reduced negative membrane potential and demonstrated high cellular uptake. PMID:29515844

  19. Inhalational System for Etoposide Liposomes: Formulation Development and In Vitro Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, J. J.; Singh, D. J.; Lohade, A. A.; Hegde, Darshana D.; Soni, P. S.; Samad, A.; Menon, Mala D.

    2011-01-01

    Etoposide is a semisynthetic compound, widely used in treatment of non small cell lung cancer. However, frequent dosing and adverse effects remain a major concern in the use of etoposide. Liposomal systems for pulmonary drug delivery have been particularly attractive because of their compatibility with lung surfactant components. In the present investigation, pulmonary liposomal delivery system of etoposide was prepared by film hydration method. Various parameters were optimized with respect to entrapment efficiency as well as particle size of etoposide liposomes. For better shelf life of etoposide liposomes, freeze drying using trehalose as cryoprotectant was carried out. The liposomes were characterized for entrapment efficiency, particle size, surface topography, and in vitro drug release was carried out in simulated lung fluid at 37° at pH 7.4. The respirable or fine particle fraction was determined by using twin stage impinger. The stability study of freeze dried as well as aqueous liposomal systems was carried out at 2-8° and at ambient temperature (28±4°). The freeze dried liposomes showed better fine particle fraction and drug content over the period of six months at ambient as well as at 2-8° storage condition compared to aqueous dispersion of liposomes. PMID:23112400

  20. Inhalational system for Etoposide liposomes: formulation development and in vitro deposition.

    PubMed

    Parmar, J J; Singh, D J; Lohade, A A; Hegde, Darshana D; Soni, P S; Samad, A; Menon, Mala D

    2011-11-01

    Etoposide is a semisynthetic compound, widely used in treatment of non small cell lung cancer. However, frequent dosing and adverse effects remain a major concern in the use of etoposide. Liposomal systems for pulmonary drug delivery have been particularly attractive because of their compatibility with lung surfactant components. In the present investigation, pulmonary liposomal delivery system of etoposide was prepared by film hydration method. Various parameters were optimized with respect to entrapment efficiency as well as particle size of etoposide liposomes. For better shelf life of etoposide liposomes, freeze drying using trehalose as cryoprotectant was carried out. The liposomes were characterized for entrapment efficiency, particle size, surface topography, and in vitro drug release was carried out in simulated lung fluid at 37° at pH 7.4. The respirable or fine particle fraction was determined by using twin stage impinger. The stability study of freeze dried as well as aqueous liposomal systems was carried out at 2-8° and at ambient temperature (28±4°). The freeze dried liposomes showed better fine particle fraction and drug content over the period of six months at ambient as well as at 2-8° storage condition compared to aqueous dispersion of liposomes.

  1. Development and evaluation of inhalational liposomal system of budesonide for better management of asthma.

    PubMed

    Parmar, J J; Singh, D J; Hegde, Darshana D; Lohade, A A; Soni, P S; Samad, A; Menon, Mala D

    2010-07-01

    Budesonide is a corticosteroid used by inhalation in the prophylactic management of asthma. However, frequent dosing and adverse effects (local and systemic) remain a major concern in the use of budesonide. Liposomal systems for sustained pulmonary drug delivery have been particularly attractive because of their compatibility with lung surfactant components. In the present investigation, pulmonary liposomal delivery system of budesonide was prepared by film hydration method and evaluated for sustained release. Various parameters were optimized with respect to entrapment efficiency as well as particle size of budesonide liposomes. For better shelf life of budesonide liposomes, they were freeze dried using trehalose as cryoprotectant. The liposomes were characterized for entrapment efficiency, particle size, and surface topography; in vitro drug release was evaluated out in simulated lung fluid at 37° at pH 7.4. The respirable or fine particle fraction was determined by using twin stage impinger. The stability study of freeze dried as well as aqueous liposomal systems was carried out at 2-8° and at ambient temperature (28±40). The freeze dried liposomes showed better fine particle fraction and drug content over the period of six months at ambient as well as at 2-8° storage condition compared to aqueous dispersion of liposomes.

  2. Development and Evaluation of Inhalational Liposomal System of Budesonide for Better Management of Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, J. J.; Singh, D. J.; Hegde, Darshana D.; Lohade, A. A.; Soni, P. S.; Samad, A.; Menon, Mala D.

    2010-01-01

    Budesonide is a corticosteroid used by inhalation in the prophylactic management of asthma. However, frequent dosing and adverse effects (local and systemic) remain a major concern in the use of budesonide. Liposomal systems for sustained pulmonary drug delivery have been particularly attractive because of their compatibility with lung surfactant components. In the present investigation, pulmonary liposomal delivery system of budesonide was prepared by film hydration method and evaluated for sustained release. Various parameters were optimized with respect to entrapment efficiency as well as particle size of budesonide liposomes. For better shelf life of budesonide liposomes, they were freeze dried using trehalose as cryoprotectant. The liposomes were characterized for entrapment efficiency, particle size, and surface topography; in vitro drug release was evaluated out in simulated lung fluid at 37° at pH 7.4. The respirable or fine particle fraction was determined by using twin stage impinger. The stability study of freeze dried as well as aqueous liposomal systems was carried out at 2-8° and at ambient temperature (28±40). The freeze dried liposomes showed better fine particle fraction and drug content over the period of six months at ambient as well as at 2-8° storage condition compared to aqueous dispersion of liposomes. PMID:21218054

  3. [Enhancing effect of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I modified liposomes on oral insulin absorption in mice].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Ping, Qi-neng; Xu, Wen-fang

    2004-12-01

    To investigate the enhancing effect on insulin absorption through GI. tract in mice by using the Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA1) modified liposomes as the carrier. UEA1 modified phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was prepared by conjugating method of 1-ethyl-3-(3'-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC), then the modified compound (PE-UEA1) was incorporated into the conventional liposomes of insulin to obtain UEA1 modified liposomes. The agglutination test was performed to examine the UEA1 biological activities after synthesis and modification. When liposomes were applied to healthy mice or diabetic mice at insulin dose of 350 u x kg(-1) orally, the hypoglycemic effect was investigated according to the blood glucose level determination. The blood glucose levels of the healthy mice reduced by UEA1 modified liposomes were (84 +/- 15)% at 4 h, (78 +/- 11)% at 8 h and (90 +/- 12)% at 12 h after oral administration. The conventional liposomes and saline showed no effect. The blood glucose levels of the diabetic mice reduced by UEA1 modified liposomes were (73 +/- 7)% at 4 h, (74 +/- 9)% at 8 h, (86 +/- 9)% at 12 h after oral administration. The UEA1 modified liposomes promote the oral absorption of insulin due to the specific-site combination on M cell membrane.

  4. Surface modified liposomes by mannosylated conjugates anchored via the adamantyl moiety in the lipid bilayer.

    PubMed

    Stimac, Adela; Segota, Suzana; Dutour Sikirić, Maja; Ribić, Rosana; Frkanec, Leo; Svetličić, Vesna; Tomić, Srđanka; Vranešić, Branka; Frkanec, Ruža

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to encapsulate mannosylated 1-aminoadamantane and mannosylated adamantyltripeptides, namely [(2R)-N-(adamant-1-yl)-3-(α,β-d-mannopyranosyloxy)-2-methylpropanamide and (2R)-N-[3-(α-d-mannopyranosyloxy)-2-methylpropanoyl]-d,l-(adamant-2-yl)glycyl-l-alanyl-d-isoglutamine] in liposomes. The characterization of liposomes, size and surface morphology was performed using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results have revealed that the encapsulation of examined compounds changes the size and surface of liposomes. After the concanavalin A (ConA) was added to the liposome preparation, increase in liposome size and their aggregation has been observed. The enlargement of liposomes was ascribed to the specific binding of the ConA to the mannose present on the surface of the prepared liposomes. Thus, it has been shown that the adamantyl moiety from mannosylated 1-aminoadamantane and mannosylated adamantyltripeptides can be used as an anchor in the lipid bilayer for carbohydrate moiety exposed on the liposome surface. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship between the adjuvant and cytotoxic effects of the positive charges and polymerization in liposomes.

    PubMed

    Gasparri, Julieta; Speroni, Lucía; Chiaramoni, Nadia Silvia; del Valle Alonso, Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Vaccine development today encounters a main obstacle, which is the need for effective adjuvants suitable for clinical trials. Aluminum salts, discovered 70 years ago and, very recently, MF59, are the only types of adjuvants currently used in vaccines licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Liposomes represent an alternative approach to vaccine adjuvants. In this article, we describe the inflammatory response and biological effect of polymerization and the addition of positive charges in liposome formulations. Nonpolymerized cationic (NP(+)) liposomes significantly reduce metabolism in Vero cells after 24 hours. Correspondingly, both NP(+) and polymerized cationic (P(+)) liposomes reduce cell viability following a 48-hour incubation. Similar results were obtained with cells from the peritoneal cavities of mice. Paradoxically, those liposomes that presented clearly cytostatic or cytotoxic effects in vitro stimulated metabolism and had a mitogenic effect in vivo. Finally, the adjuvant effect was tested by immunization in BALB/c mice. The major effect was obtained with NP(+) liposomes. Accordingly, we also demonstrated that NP(+) liposomes injected into the dermis produced an outstanding inflammatory reaction, showing the histopathological characteristics of an inoculation granuloma. Thus, positive charge would play an important role in the immunoadjuvant effect of liposomes by conferring them cytotoxic capacity.

  6. Incorporation of a selective sigma-2 receptor ligand enhances uptake of liposomes by multiple cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yifei; Huang, Yixian; Zhang, Peng; Gao, Xiang; Gibbs, Robert B; Li, Song

    2012-01-01

    Background: The sigma-2 receptor is an attractive target for tumor imaging and targeted therapy because it is overexpressed in multiple types of solid tumors, including prostate cancer, breast cancer, and lung cancer. SV119 is a synthetic small molecule that binds to sigma-2 receptors with high affinity and specificity. This study investigates the utility of SV119 in mediating the selective targeting of liposomal vectors in various types of cancer cells. Methods: SV119 was covalently linked with polyethylene glycol-dioleyl amido aspartic acid conjugate (PEG-DOA) to generate a novel functional lipid, SV119-PEG-DOA. This lipid was utilized for the preparation of targeted liposomes to enhance their uptake by cancer cells. Liposomes with various SV119 densities (0, 1, 3, and 5 mole%) were prepared and their cellular uptake was investigated in several tumor cell lines. In addition, doxorubicin (DOX) was loaded into the targeted and unmodified liposomes, and the cytotoxic effect on the DU-145 cells was evaluated by MTT assay. Results: Liposomes with or without SV119-PEG-DOA both have a mean diameter of approximately 90 nm and a neutral charge. The incorporation of SV119-PEG-DOA significantly increased the cellular uptake of liposomes by the DU-145, PC-3, A549, 201T, and MCF-7 tumor cells, which was shown by fluorescence microscopy and the quantitative measurement of fluorescence intensity. In contrast, the incorporation of SV119 did not increase the uptake of liposomes by the normal BEAS-2B cells. In a time course study, the uptake of SV119 liposomes by DU-145 cells was also significantly higher at each time point compared to the unmodified liposomes. Furthermore, the DOX-loaded SV119 liposomes showed significantly higher cytotoxicity to DU-145 cells compared to the DOX-loaded unmodified liposomes. Conclusion: SV119 liposomes were developed for targeted drug delivery to cancer cells. The targeting efficiency and specificity of SV119 liposomes to cancer cells was

  7. Frequency domain, time-resolved and spectroscopic investigations of photosensitizers encapsulated in liposomal phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mermut, Ozzy; Bouchard, Jean-Pierre; Cormier, Jean-Francois; Diamond, Kevin R.; Noiseux, Isabelle; Vernon, Marcia L.; Patterson, Michael S.

    2007-07-01

    A broadband frequency domain fluorescence lifetime system (from ns to ms time scale) has been developed to study the photochemical and photodynamic behavior of model, well-controlled photosensitizer-encapsulating liposomes. Liposomes are known to be efficient and selective photosensitizer (PS) drug delivery vesicles, however, their chemical and physical effects on the photochemical properties of the photosensitizer have not been well characterized. The liposomes employed in this study (both blank and photosensitizer-complexed) were characterized to determine their: a) size distribution (dynamic light scattering), b) image (scanning electron microscope, confocal fluorescence microscopy), c) concentration of particles (flow cytometry), d) temperature-dependant phase transition behavior (differential scanning calorimetry, and e) spectrofluorescent spectrophotometric properties, e.g. aggregation, in the confined environment. The fluorescence decay behavior of two families of encapsulated photosensitizers, di-and tetrasulfonated metallophthalocyanines, and 2-(1-hexyloxyethyl)-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide (HPPH), has been examined as a function of the liposome's physical properties (size-scale, distribution and concentration of scatterer) and the impact of the photosensitizer spatial confinement determined. It is found that the achievable size range and distribution of the PS-liposomes is controlled by the chemical nature of the PS for large liposomes (1000 nm), and is PS independent for small PS-liposomes (~140nm). The lifetime decay behavior was studied for all three photosensitizer-liposome systems and compared before and after confinement. We found the nature of the decay to be similar before and after encapsulation for the sulfonated phthalocyanines containing ionic moieties (primarily monoexponential) but not for HPPH. In the latter, the decay transitioned from multi- to monoexponential decay upon localizing lypophilic HPPH to the liposomal membrane. This behavior

  8. pH-sensitive liposomes for drug delivery in cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Diego Dos Santos; Lopes, Sávia Caldeira de Araújo; Franco, Marina Santiago; Oliveira, Mônica Cristina

    2013-09-01

    In recent years, liposomes have been employed with growing success as pharmaceutical carriers for antineoplastic drugs. One specific strategy used to enhance in vivo liposome-mediated drug delivery is the improvement of intracytoplasmic delivery. In this context, pH-sensitive liposomes (pHSLip) have been designed to explore the endosomal acidification process, which may lead to a destabilization of the liposomes, followed by a release of their contents into the cell cytoplasm. This review considers the current status of pHSLip development and its applicability in cancer treatment, focusing on the mechanisms of pH sensitivity and liposomal composition of pHSLip. The final section will discuss the application of these formulations in both in vitro and in vivo studies of antitumor efficacy.

  9. Microspectroscopic Study of Liposome-to-cell Interaction Revealed by Förster Resonance Energy Transfer.

    PubMed

    Yefimova, Svetlana L; Kurilchenko, Irina Yu; Tkacheva, Tatyana N; Kavok, Nataliya S; Todor, Igor N; Lukianova, Nataliya Yu; Chekhun, Vasyl F; Malyukin, Yuriy V

    2014-03-01

    We report the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-labeling of liposomal vesicles as an effective approach to study in dynamics the interaction of liposomes with living cells of different types (rat hepatocytes, rat bone marrow, mouse fibroblast-like cells and human breast cancer cells) and cell organelles (hepatocyte nuclei). The in vitro experiments were performed using fluorescent microspectroscopic technique. Two fluorescent dyes (DiO as the energy donor and DiI as an acceptor) were preloaded in lipid bilayers of phosphatidylcholine liposomes that ensures the necessary distance between the dyes for effective FRET. The change in time of the donor and acceptor relative fluorescence intensities was used to visualize and trace the liposome-to-cell interaction. We show that FRET-labeling of liposome vesicles allows one to reveal the differences in efficiency and dynamics of these interactions, which are associated with composition, fluidity, and metabolic activity of cell plasma membranes.

  10. The Use of Convection-Enhanced Delivery with Liposomal Toxins in Neurooncology

    PubMed Central

    Fiandaca, Massimo S.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Bankiewicz, Krystof S.

    2011-01-01

    Liposomes have long been effective delivery vehicles for transport of toxins to peripheral cancers. The combination of convection-enhanced delivery (CED) with liposomal toxins was originally proposed to circumvent the limited delivery of intravascular liposomes to the central nervous system (CNS) due to the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). CED offers markedly improved distribution of infused therapeutics within the CNS compared to direct injection or via drug eluting polymers, both of which depend on diffusion for parenchymal distribution. This review examines the basis for improved delivery of liposomal toxins via CED within the CNS, and discusses preclinical and clinical experience with these therapeutic techniques. How CED and liposomal technologies may influence future neurooncologic treatments are also considered. PMID:22069714

  11. Cancer Immunotherapy Utilized Bubble Liposomes and Ultrasound as Antigen Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Yusuke; Otake, Shota; Suzuki, Ryo; Otake, Shota; Nishiie, Norihito; Hirata, Keiichi; Taira, Yuichiro; Utoguchi, Naoki; Maruyama, Kazuo

    2010-03-01

    In dendritic cells (DCs)-based cancer immunotherapy, it is important to present the epitope peptide derived from tumor associated antigens (TAAs) on MHC class I in order to induce tumor specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). However, MHC class I molecules generally present the epitope peptides derived from endogenous antigens for DCs but not exogenous ones such as TAAs. Recently, we developed the novel liposomal bubbles (Bubble liposomes) encapsulating perfluoropropane nanobubbles. In this study, we attempted to establish the novel antigen delivery system to induce MHC class I presentation using the combination of ultrasound and Bubble liposomes. Using ovalbumin (OVA) as model antigen, the combination of Bubble liposomes and ultrasound exposure for the DC could induce MHC class I presentation. In addition, the viability of DCs was more than 80%. These results suggest that Bubble liposomes might be a novel ultrasound enhanced antigen delivery tool in DC-based cancer immunotherapy.

  12. Imaging phospholipid conformational disorder and packing in giant multilamellar liposome by confocal Raman microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noothalapati, Hemanth; Iwasaki, Keita; Yoshimoto, Chikako; Yoshikiyo, Keisuke; Nishikawa, Tomoe; Ando, Masahiro; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o.; Yamamoto, Tatsuyuki

    2017-12-01

    Liposomes are closed phospholipid bilayer systems that have profound applications in fundamental cell biology, pharmaceutics and medicine. Depending on the composition (pure or mixture of phospholipids, presence of cholesterol) and preparation protocol, intra- and inter-chain molecular interactions vary leading to changes in the quality (order and packing) of liposomes. So far it is not possible to image conformational disorders and packing densities within a liposome in a straightforward manner. In this study, we utilized confocal Raman microspectroscopy to visualize structural disorders and packing efficiency within a giant multilamellar liposome model by focusing mainly on three regions in the vibrational spectrum (Csbnd C stretching, Csbnd H deformation and Csbnd H stretching). We estimated properties such as trans/gauche isomers and lateral packing probability. Interestingly, our Raman imaging studies revealed gel phase rich domains and heterogeneous lateral packing within the giant multilamellar liposome.

  13. Development of a liposome microbicide formulation for vaginal delivery of octylglycerol for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Sassi, Alexandra Beumer; Patton, Dorothy; Isaacs, Charles; Moncla, B. J.; Gupta, Phalguni; Rohan, Lisa Cencia

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of using a liposome drug delivery system to formulate octylglycerol (OG) as a vaginal microbicide product was explored. A liposome formulation was developed containing 1% OG and phosphatidyl choline in a ratio that demonstrated in vitro activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, HSV-1, HSV-2 and HIV-1 while sparing the innate vaginal flora, Lactobacillus. Two conventional gel formulations were prepared for comparison. The OG liposome formulation with the appropriate OG/lipid ratio and dosing level had greater efficacy than either conventional gel formulation and maintained this efficacy for at least 2 months. No toxicity was observed for the liposome formulation in ex vivo testing in a human ectocervical tissue model or in vivo testing in the macaque safety model. Furthermore, minimal toxicity was observed to lactobacilli in vitro or in vivo safety testing. The OG liposome formulation offers a promising microbicide product with efficacy against HSV, HIV and N. gonorrhoeae. PMID:22149387

  14. Analgesic duration and kinetics of liposomal bupivacaine after subcutaneous injection in mice.

    PubMed

    Grant, G J; Piskoun, B; Bansinath, M

    2003-12-01

    1. The objective of the present study was to assess the time-course profile of analgesia and bupivacaine concentrations at the site of injection after subcutaneous administration of a single dose of standard bupivacaine or a novel controlled-release liposomal bupivacaine formulation. 2. Groups of mice were injected subcutaneously with 0.2 mL of 0.5% standard bupivacaine or 0.5, 1 or 2% liposomal bupivacaine. 3. A prolonged duration of analgesia occurred in mice receiving liposomal bupivacaine. In the liposomal groups, the bupivacaine remained at the injection site for more than 96 h, compared with approximately 8 h in groups injected with standard bupivacaine. 4. These results confirm that the prolonged analgesia observed after injection of the liposomal formulation is associated with sustained higher levels of bupivacaine at the site of injection.

  15. Tat-functionalized liposomes for the treatment of meningitis: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Bartomeu Garcia, Caterina; Shi, Di; Webster, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis has become a global concern, because of the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. It has been demonstrated that liposomes can enter bacteria, thus providing a possible treatment for numerous infections, including meningitis. Fusogenic liposomes are pH-sensitive with a high capacity to fuse with the bacteria membrane and promote intracellular drug release. Moreover, this ability can be improved by using cell-penetrating peptides (such as Tat47–57, which is a peptide derived from the Tat protein of HIV). The purpose of this in vitro study was to demonstrate for the first time the ability of the presently prepared fusogenic liposomes, which were spherical particles with a diameter of 100 nm loaded with antibiotics and functionalized with-cell penetrating peptides (Tat47–57), to fight the main bacteria that cause meningitis. For this, vancomycin, methicillin, and ampicillin antibiotics were loaded inside fusogenic liposomes to fight Streptococcus pneumoniae, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Antibacterial activity of Tat-functionalized and nonfunctionalized liposomes loaded with antibiotics was tested by determining bacteria colony-forming units and growth-curve assays coupled with live/dead assays using fluorescence microscopy. Results showed a remarkable decrease in antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration when all of the bacteria were treated with these novel liposomes, especially for the functionalized liposomes loaded with methicillin. With antibiotic concentrations of 1.7–3 µg/mL for Tat-functionalized liposomes loaded with methicillin, the bacteria population was totally eradicated. Cytotoxicity tests with astrocytes and endothelial cells, major cellular components of the blood–brain barrier, were also performed for all of the liposomes, including free antibiotic and the Tat peptide. Results showed much promise for the further study of the presently formulated liposomes to treat meningitis

  16. Inhibition of tracheal vascular extravasation by liposome-encapsulated albuterol in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Guo, L; Nadel, J A; Papahadjopoulos, D

    1998-03-01

    To develop a liposome-based system for systemic delivery of anti-inflammatory drugs to airways and other inflamed tissues. Postcapillary venular gap junctions open during airway inflammation and allow fluid accumulation and permit molecules (e.g. complement, kininogen) to enter tissues, initiating inflammatory cascades. Beta-adrenergic agonists prevent inflammatory plasma extravasation, but because of their deleterious side effects, they are not used intravenously. When sterically stabilized "stealth" liposomes are injected i.v., they remain in the circulation for long periods. Inflammatory mediators [e.g., substance P(SP)] open postcapillary venular gaps and allow liposomes and their contents to be deposited selectively in the inflamed tissue. We hypothesized that liposomes encapsulating a beta-adrenergic agonist, such as albuterol, would deposit selectively in inflamed airway tissue, where the drug would slowly leak out of the liposomes, resulting in closure of the gaps, thus preventing subsequent inflammatory extravasation. To test this hypothesis, we delivered albuterol-loaded liposomes i.v. in rats. Then we injected SP to open the venular gaps and allow accumulation of the drug-loaded liposomes in airway tissue. We examined whether this treatment resulted in inhibition of subsequent plasma extravasation induced by SP. The results indicate that liposome-encapsulated albuterol inhibits subsequent extravasation, presumably by leaking out of liposomes in airway tissue. This inhibition occurs for prolonged periods of time and with limited side effects compared to the effect of free albuterol. We conclude that liposomes loaded with appropriate drugs, by migrating to inflamed tissue and subsequently inhibiting inflammatory cascades, may be of therapeutic value in inflammatory diseases.

  17. Anti-MRSA malleable liposomes carrying chloramphenicol for ameliorating hair follicle targeting.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ching-Yun; Yang, Shih-Chun; Sung, Calvin T; Weng, Yi-Han; Fang, Jia-You

    2017-01-01

    Pathogens usually invade hair follicles when skin infection occurs. The accumulated bacteria in follicles are difficult to eradicate. The present study aimed to assess the cutaneous and follicular delivery of chloramphenicol (Cm)-loaded liposomes and the antibacterial activity of these liposomes against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Skin permeation was conducted by in vitro Franz diffusion cell. The anti-MRSA potential was checked using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), a well diffusion test, and intracellular MRSA killing. The classic, dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), and deoxycholic acid (DA) liposomes had a vesicle size of 98, 132, and 239 nm, respectively. The incorporation of DMPC or DA into the liposomes increased the bilayer fluidity. The malleable vesicles containing DMPC and DA showed increased follicular Cm uptake over the control solution by 1.5- and 2-fold, respectively. The MIC and MBC of DA liposomes loaded with Cm were 62.5 and 62.5-125 μg/mL, comparable to free Cm. An inhibition zone about 2-fold higher was achieved by DA liposomes as compared to the free control at a Cm dose of 0.5 mg/mL. DA liposomes also augmented antibacterial activity on keratinocyte-infected MRSA. The deformable liposomes had good biocompatibility against keratinocytes and neutrophils (viability >80%). In vivo administration demonstrated that DA liposomes caused negligible toxicity on the skin, based on physiological examination and histology. These data suggest the potential application of malleable liposomes for follicular targeting and the treatment of MRSA-infected dermatologic conditions.

  18. Targeted Therapy for Acute Autoimmune Myocarditis with Nano-Sized Liposomal FK506 in Rats.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Keiji; Fu, Hai Ying; Matsuzaki, Takashi; Araki, Ryo; Tsuchida, Shota; Thanikachalam, Punniyakoti V; Fukuta, Tatsuya; Asai, Tomohiro; Yamato, Masaki; Sanada, Shoji; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Asano, Yoshihiro; Asakura, Masanori; Hanawa, Haruo; Hao, Hiroyuki; Oku, Naoto; Takashima, Seiji; Kitakaze, Masafumi; Sakata, Yasushi; Minamino, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppressive agents are used for the treatment of immune-mediated myocarditis; however, the need to develop a more effective therapeutic approach remains. Nano-sized liposomes may accumulate in and selectively deliver drugs to an inflammatory lesion with enhanced vascular permeability. The aims of this study were to investigate the distribution of liposomal FK506, an immunosuppressive drug encapsulated within liposomes, and the drug's effects on cardiac function in a rat experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) model. We prepared polyethylene glycol-modified liposomal FK506 (mean diameter: 109.5 ± 4.4 nm). We induced EAM by immunization with porcine myosin and assessed the tissue distribution of the nano-sized beads and liposomal FK506 in this model. After liposomal or free FK506 was administered on days 14 and 17 after immunization, the cytokine expression in the rat hearts along with the histological findings and hemodynamic parameters were determined on day 21. Ex vivo fluorescent imaging revealed that intravenously administered fluorescent-labeled nano-sized beads had accumulated in myocarditic but not normal hearts on day 14 after immunization and thereafter. Compared to the administration of free FK506, FK506 levels were increased in both the plasma and hearts of EAM rats when liposomal FK506 was administered. The administration of liposomal FK506 markedly suppressed the expression of cytokines, such as interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α, and reduced inflammation and fibrosis in the myocardium on day 21 compared to free FK506. The administration of liposomal FK506 also markedly ameliorated cardiac dysfunction on day 21 compared to free FK506. Nano-sized liposomes may be a promising drug delivery system for targeting myocarditic hearts with cardioprotective agents.

  19. Comparative dosimetric evaluation of nanotargeted (188)Re-(DXR)-liposome for internal radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Hsien; Stabin, Michael G; Chang, Ya-Jen; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Chen, Min-Hua; Chang, Tsui-Jung; Lee, Te-Wei; Ting, Gann

    2008-12-01

    A dosimetric analysis was performed to evaluate nanoliposomes as carriers of radionuclides ((188)Re-liposomes) and radiochemotherapeutic drugs [(188)Re-doxorubicin (DXR)-liposomes] in internal radiotherapy for colon carcinoma, as evaluated in mice. Pharmacokinetic data for (188)Re-N, N-bis (2-mercaptoethyl)-N',N'-diethylethylenediamine (BMEDA), (188)Re-liposome, and (188)Re-DXR-liposome were obtained for the estimation of absorbed doses in tumors and normal organs. Two colon carcinoma mouse models were employed: subcutaneous growing solid tumor and malignant ascites pervading tumor models. Radiation-dose estimates for normal tissues and tumors were calculated by using the OLINDA/EXM program. An evaluation of a recommended maximum administered activity (MAA) for the nanotargeted drugs was also made. Mean absorbed doses derived from (188)Re-liposome and (188)Re-DXR-liposome in normal tissues were generally similar to those from (188)Re-BMEDA in intraperitoneal and intravenous administration. Tissue-absorbed dose in the liver was 0.24-0.40 and 0.17-0.26 (mGy/MBq) and in red marrow was 0.033-0.050 and 0.038-0.046 (mGy/MBq), respectively, for (188)Re-liposome and (188)Re-DXR-liposome. Tumor-absorbed doses for the nanotargeted (188)Re-liposome and (188)Re-DXR-liposome were higher than those of (188)Re-BMEDA for both routes of administration (4-26-fold). Dose to red marrow defined the recommended MAA. Our results suggest that radionuclide and chemoradiotherapeutic passive targeting delivery, using nanoliposomes as the carrier, is feasible and promising in systemic-targeted radionuclide therapy.

  20. Anti-MRSA malleable liposomes carrying chloramphenicol for ameliorating hair follicle targeting

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Calvin T; Weng, Yi-Han; Fang, Jia-You

    2017-01-01

    Pathogens usually invade hair follicles when skin infection occurs. The accumulated bacteria in follicles are difficult to eradicate. The present study aimed to assess the cutaneous and follicular delivery of chloramphenicol (Cm)-loaded liposomes and the antibacterial activity of these liposomes against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Skin permeation was conducted by in vitro Franz diffusion cell. The anti-MRSA potential was checked using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), a well diffusion test, and intracellular MRSA killing. The classic, dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), and deoxycholic acid (DA) liposomes had a vesicle size of 98, 132, and 239 nm, respectively. The incorporation of DMPC or DA into the liposomes increased the bilayer fluidity. The malleable vesicles containing DMPC and DA showed increased follicular Cm uptake over the control solution by 1.5- and 2-fold, respectively. The MIC and MBC of DA liposomes loaded with Cm were 62.5 and 62.5–125 μg/mL, comparable to free Cm. An inhibition zone about 2-fold higher was achieved by DA liposomes as compared to the free control at a Cm dose of 0.5 mg/mL. DA liposomes also augmented antibacterial activity on keratinocyte-infected MRSA. The deformable liposomes had good biocompatibility against keratinocytes and neutrophils (viability >80%). In vivo administration demonstrated that DA liposomes caused negligible toxicity on the skin, based on physiological examination and histology. These data suggest the potential application of malleable liposomes for follicular targeting and the treatment of MRSA-infected dermatologic conditions. PMID:29184410

  1. Optimization of formulation variables of benzocaine liposomes using experimental design.

    PubMed

    Mura, Paola; Capasso, Gaetano; Maestrelli, Francesca; Furlanetto, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to optimize, by means of an experimental design multivariate strategy, a liposomal formulation for topical delivery of the local anaesthetic agent benzocaine. The formulation variables for the vesicle lipid phase uses potassium glycyrrhizinate (KG) as an alternative to cholesterol and the addition of a cationic (stearylamine) or anionic (dicethylphosphate) surfactant (qualitative factors); the percents of ethanol and the total volume of the hydration phase (quantitative factors) were the variables for the hydrophilic phase. The combined influence of these factors on the considered responses (encapsulation efficiency (EE%) and percent drug permeated at 180 min (P%)) was evaluated by means of a D-optimal design strategy. Graphic analysis of the effects indicated that maximization of the selected responses requested opposite levels of the considered factors: For example, KG and stearylamine were better for increasing EE%, and cholesterol and dicethylphosphate for increasing P%. In the second step, the Doehlert design, applied for the response-surface study of the quantitative factors, pointed out a negative interaction between percent ethanol and volume of the hydration phase and allowed prediction of the best formulation for maximizing drug permeation rate. Experimental P% data of the optimized formulation were inside the confidence interval (P < 0.05) calculated around the predicted value of the response. This proved the suitability of the proposed approach for optimizing the composition of liposomal formulations and predicting the effects of formulation variables on the considered experimental response. Moreover, the optimized formulation enabled a significant improvement (P < 0.05) of the drug anaesthetic effect with respect to the starting reference liposomal formulation, thus demonstrating its actually better therapeutic effectiveness.

  2. Prolonged cardioprotective effect of pyridostigmine encapsulated in liposomes.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Alessandra Teixeira; Guimarães, Homero Nogueira; de Paula, Danielle Cristiane Correa; Frezard, Frederic; Silva-Barcellos, Neila Márcia; Grabe-Guimarães, Andrea

    2010-01-02

    The purpose of the present work was to investigate the ability of pyridostigmine encapsulated in long-circulating liposomes, to protect against ECG (electrocardiogram) alterations induced by sympathetic stimulation in rats. The encapsulation of pyridostigmine was carried out by freeze-thaw and extrusion. Blood pressure and ECG (limb lead II) were monitored in anaesthetized male Wistar rats. The formulation containing pyridostigmine was intravenously administrated in 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0mg/kg doses, and sympathetic stimulation was conducted by administration of 1 or 3 microg of noradrenaline (NA) after 1, 2, 4 or 6h. The obtained cardiovascular parameters were compared to animals that received intravenous injection of pyridostigmine in free form or saline. After saline, NA induced a significant increase in QT interval (22.3% after 3.0 microg). Previous administration of free pyridostigmine significantly prevented the increase of QT interval after sympathetic stimulation and the most prominent effect was observed after 1h for the dose of 0.3mg/kg (6.8% after 3.0 microg of NA) and was no longer observed after 2h of the treatment. On the other hand, the maximum effect of pyridostigmine in liposomal formulation preventing QT interval increase was observed 2h after treatment (9.7% after 3.0 microg of NA) and was still present until 6h when 1mg/kg was previous administrated. The results of the present study, beyond to confirm the cardioprotective action of pyridostigmine, suggest that liposomal pyridostigmine may be a potential therapeutic alternative to prevent cardiovascular disturbances resulting from sympathetic hyperactivity.

  3. Redox responsive liposomal nanohybrid cerasomes for intracellular drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gaoxin; Li, Lushen; Xing, Jing; Jalde, Shivakumar; Li, Yan; Cai, Jin; Chen, Junqing; Liu, Peidang; Gu, Ning; Ji, Min

    2016-12-01

    Cerasome is a freshly developped bilayer vehicle that resemble traditional liposome but has higher mophorlogical stability. In this study, a novel redox-responsive cerasome (RRC) was developed for tumor-targeting drug delivery. The cerasome-forming lipid (CFL) that comprise a cleavable disulfide bond as connector unit of the triethoxysilyl head and the hydrophobic alkyl double chain was synthesized and subsequently used to prepare cerasome through ethanol injection method. RRC that has liposome-resembling lipid bilayer structure was proved being outstanding at drug loading capacity as well as morphological stability as compared to conventional liposomes. In addition, in vitro drug release tests of DOX/RRCs showed a redox-responsive drug release profile: accelerated DOX releasing compared to reduction-insensitive cerasomes (RICs) in the presence of 10mM of GSH. Under the same condition, the reduction sensibility of RRC was further proved by increased hydrodynamic diameter and destroying of integrity from DLS and SEM results. RRC showed non-toxic to human embryonic kidney 293 cells, indicating that this material has good biocompatibility. On the other hand, DOX/RRCs showed a resemble IC 50 (half inhibitory concentration) value to that of free DOX to human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells and breast cancer MCF-7 cells. IC 50 values at 48h were found to decrease in the following order: DOX/RIC>DOX/RRC>DOX. Taken together, the RRC developped in this study is of great potential to be utilized as a promising platform for intracellular anticancer drug delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pharmacology of liposomal vincristine in mice bearing L1210 ascitic and B16/BL6 solid tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, L. D.; Masin, D.; Nayar, R.; Boman, N. L.; Bally, M. B.

    1995-01-01

    Vincristine pharmacokinetic, tumour uptake and therapeutic characteristics were investigated here in order to elucidate the processes underlying the enhanced efficacy observed for vincristine entrapped in small (120 nm) distearoylphosphatidylcholine/cholesterol liposomes. Plasma vincristine levels after intravenous (i.v.) injection are elevated more than 100-fold in the liposomal formulation compared with free drug in tumour-bearing as well as non-tumour-bearing mice over 24 h. Biodistribution studies demonstrate that the extent and duration of tumour exposure to vincristine is dramatically improved when the drug is administered i.v. in liposomal form. Specifically, 72 h trapezoidal area under the curve values for liposomal vincristine in the murine L1210 ascitic and B16/BL6 solid tumours are 12.9- to 4.1-fold larger, respectively, than observed for free drug. Similar to previous results with the L1210 model, increased drug delivery to the B16 tumour results in significant inhibition of tumour growth, whereas no anti-tumour activity is observed with free vincristine. Comparisons of drug and liposomal lipid accumulation in tumour and muscle tissue indicate that the enhanced efficacy of liposomal vincristine is related predominantly to drug delivered by liposomes to the tumour site rather than drug released from liposomes in the circulation. Consequently, improvements in liposomal vincristine formulations must focus on factors that increase uptake of liposomes into tumour sites as well as enhance liposomal drug retention in the circulation. PMID:7880728

  5. Novel multifunctional theranostic liposome drug delivery system: construction, characterization, and multimodality MR, near-infrared fluorescent, and nuclear imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Shihong; Goins, Beth; Zhang, Lujun; Bao, Ande

    2012-06-20

    Liposomes are effective lipid nanoparticle drug delivery systems, which can also be functionalized with noninvasive multimodality imaging agents with each modality providing distinct information and having synergistic advantages in diagnosis, monitoring of disease treatment, and evaluation of liposomal drug pharmacokinetics. We designed and constructed a multifunctional theranostic liposomal drug delivery system, which integrated multimodality magnetic resonance (MR), near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent and nuclear imaging of liposomal drug delivery, and therapy monitoring and prediction. The premanufactured liposomes were composed of DSPC/cholesterol/Gd-DOTA-DSPE/DOTA-DSPE with the molar ratio of 39:35:25:1 and having ammonium sulfate/pH gradient. A lipidized NIR fluorescent tracer, IRDye-DSPE, was effectively postinserted into the premanufactured liposomes. Doxorubicin could be effectively postloaded into the multifunctional liposomes. The multifunctional doxorubicin-liposomes could also be stably radiolabeled with (99m)Tc or (64)Cu for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, respectively. MR images displayed the high-resolution micro-intratumoral distribution of the liposomes in squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (SCCHN) tumor xenografts in nude rats after intratumoral injection. NIR fluorescent, SPECT, and PET images also clearly showed either the high intratumoral retention or distribution of the multifunctional liposomes. This multifunctional drug carrying liposome system is promising for disease theranostics allowing noninvasive multimodality NIR fluorescent, MR, SPECT, and PET imaging of their in vivo behavior and capitalizing on the inherent advantages of each modality.

  6. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of sanguinarine liposomes prepared by a remote loading method with three different ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Ke, X; Bei, J H; Zhang, Y; Li, J

    2011-04-01

    Sanguinarine liposomes were prepared by a remote loading method using three different ammonium salts. A series of studies, including in vitro release, in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor effects and pharmacokinetics in rats, were conducted. The three liposomes showed pH-sensitive release characteristics in vitro, but there were obvious variations in their release profiles. Among the three liposomes, the liposomes made using ammonium citrate and phosphate possessed better anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo, compared with the liposome using ammonium sulfate. Pharmacokinetics test results in rats indicated that sanguinarine liposomes have notably elevated AUC (P<0.05) and markedly lower CL (P<0.05) compared with the solution, but there were no obvious differences between the three liposomes. The present study may be useful for better understanding and better choice of a suitable ammonium salt for the remote loading method.

  7. Quantification of ligand density and stoichiometry on the surface of liposomes using single-molecule fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Belfiore, Lisa; Spenkelink, Lisanne M; Ranson, Marie; van Oijen, Antoine M; Vine, Kara L

    2018-05-28

    Despite the longstanding existence of liposome technology in drug delivery applications, there have been no ligand-directed liposome formulations approved for clinical use to date. This lack of translation is due to several factors, one of which is the absence of molecular tools for the robust quantification of ligand density on the surface of liposomes. We report here for the first time the quantification of proteins attached to the surface of small unilamellar liposomes using single-molecule fluorescence imaging. Liposomes were surface-functionalized with fluorescently labeled human proteins previously validated to target the cancer cell surface biomarkers plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) and trastuzumab (TZ, Herceptin®). These protein-conjugated liposomes were visualized using a custom-built wide-field fluorescence microscope with single-molecule sensitivity. By counting the photobleaching steps of the fluorescently labeled proteins, we calculated the number of attached proteins per liposome, which was 11 ± 4 proteins for single-ligand liposomes. Imaging of dual-ligand liposomes revealed stoichiometries of the two attached proteins in accordance with the molar ratios of protein added during preparation. Preparation of PAI-2/TZ dual-ligand liposomes via two different methods revealed that the post-insertion method generated liposomes with a more equal representation of the two differently sized proteins, demonstrating the ability of this preparation method to enable better control of liposome protein densities. We conclude that the single-molecule imaging method presented here is an accurate and reliable quantification tool for determining ligand density and stoichiometry on the surface of liposomes. This method has the potential to allow for comprehensive characterization of novel ligand-directed liposomes that should facilitate the translation of these nanotherapies through to the clinic. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Biophysical characterization of V3-lipopeptide liposomes influencing HIV-1 infectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Rizos, Apostolos K.; Baritaki, Stavroula; Department of Virology, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete

    2007-04-20

    The V3-loop of the HIV-1 gp120 alters host cell immune function and modulates infectivity. We investigated biophysical parameters of liposome constructs with embedded lipopeptides from the principle neutralizing domain of the V3-loop and their influence on viral infectivity. Dynamic light scattering measurements showed liposome supramolecular structures with hydrodynamic radius of the order of 900 and 1300 nm for plain and V3-lipopeptide liposomes. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements showed almost identical local microenvironment. The difference in liposome hydrodynamic radius was attributed to the fluctuating ionic environment of the V3-lipopeptide liposomes. In vitro HIV-1 infectivity assays showed that plain liposomes reduced virus productionmore » in all cell cultures, probably due to the hydrophobic nature of the aggregates. Liposomes carrying V3-lipopeptides with different cationic potentials restored and even enhanced infectivity (p < 0.05). These results highlight the need for elucidation of the involvement of lipid bilayers as dynamic components in supramolecular structures and in HIV-1 fusion mechanisms.« less

  9. Efficiency of pH-Sensitive Fusogenic Polymer-Modified Liposomes as a Vaccine Carrier

    PubMed Central

    Watarai, Shinobu; Iwase, Tana; Tajima, Tomoko; Yuba, Eiji; Kono, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    The usefulness of pH-sensitive fusogenic polymer-(succinylated poly(glycidol)-(SucPG-) modified liposomes as a vaccine carrier in the induction of immune responses was evaluated. Mice were intraperitoneally immunized with ovalbumin- (OVA-) containing SucPG-modified liposomes. After immunization, significant OVA-specific antibodies were detected in the serum. When sera were analyzed for isotype distribution, OVA-specific IgG1 antibody responses were noted in mice immunized with OVA-containing polymer-unmodified liposomes, whereas immunization with OVA-containing SucPG-modified liposomes resulted in the induction of OVA-specific IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG3 Ab responses. In spleen lymphocytes from mice immunized with OVA-containing SucPG-modified liposomes, both IFN-γ-(Th1-type-) and IL-4-(Th2 type-) specific mRNA were detected. Moreover, substantial production of IFN-γ and IL-4 was demonstrated in spleen cells from OVA-containing SucPG-modified liposomes in vitro. These results suggest that the pH-sensitive fusogenic polymer-(SucPG-) modified liposomes would serve effectively as an antigen delivery vehicle for inducing Th1 and Th2 immune responses. PMID:23431260

  10. Dextran derivative-based pH-sensitive liposomes for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yuba, Eiji; Tajima, Naoki; Yoshizaki, Yuta; Harada, Atsushi; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Kono, Kenji

    2014-03-01

    pH-Sensitive dextran derivatives having 3-methylglutarylated residues (MGlu-Dex) were prepared by reacting dextran with 3-methyl-glutaric anhydride. MGlu-Dex changed the protonation state and their characteristics from hydrophilic to hydrophobic in neutral and acidic pH regions. Surface modification of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine liposomes with MGlu-Dex produced highly pH-sensitive liposomes that were stable at neutral pH but which were destabilized strongly in the weakly acidic pH region. MGlu-Dex-modified liposomes were taken up efficiently by dendritic cells and delivered entrapped ovalbumin (OVA) molecules into the cytosol. When MGlu-Dex-modified liposomes loaded with OVA were administered subcutaneously to mice, the antigen-specific humoral and cellular immunity was induced more effectively than the unmodified liposomes loaded with OVA. Furthermore, administration of MGlu-Dex-modified liposomes loaded with OVA to mice bearing E.G7-OVA tumor significantly suppressed tumor growth and extended the mice survival. Results suggest that MGlu-Dex-modified liposomes are promising for the production of safe and potent antigen delivery systems that contribute to the establishment of efficient cancer immunotherapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficiency of pH-sensitive fusogenic polymer-modified liposomes as a vaccine carrier.

    PubMed

    Watarai, Shinobu; Iwase, Tana; Tajima, Tomoko; Yuba, Eiji; Kono, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    The usefulness of pH-sensitive fusogenic polymer-(succinylated poly(glycidol)-(SucPG-) modified liposomes as a vaccine carrier in the induction of immune responses was evaluated. Mice were intraperitoneally immunized with ovalbumin- (OVA-) containing SucPG-modified liposomes. After immunization, significant OVA-specific antibodies were detected in the serum. When sera were analyzed for isotype distribution, OVA-specific IgG1 antibody responses were noted in mice immunized with OVA-containing polymer-unmodified liposomes, whereas immunization with OVA-containing SucPG-modified liposomes resulted in the induction of OVA-specific IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG3 Ab responses. In spleen lymphocytes from mice immunized with OVA-containing SucPG-modified liposomes, both IFN-γ-(Th1-type-) and IL-4-(Th2 type-) specific mRNA were detected. Moreover, substantial production of IFN-γ and IL-4 was demonstrated in spleen cells from OVA-containing SucPG-modified liposomes in vitro. These results suggest that the pH-sensitive fusogenic polymer-(SucPG-) modified liposomes would serve effectively as an antigen delivery vehicle for inducing Th1 and Th2 immune responses.

  12. Application of multifunctional targeting epirubicin liposomes in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiao-li; Ju, Rui-jun; Xiao, Yao; Wang, Xin; Liu, Shuang; Fu, Min; Liu, Jing-jing; Gu, Li-yan; Li, Xue-tao; Cheng, Lan

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy for aggressive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) usually results in a poor prognosis due to tumor metastasis, vasculogenic mimicry (VM) channels, limited killing of tumor cells, and severe systemic toxicity. Herein, we developed a kind of multifunctional targeting epirubicin liposomes to enhance antitumor efficacy for NSCLC. In the liposomes, octreotide was modified on liposomal surface for obtaining a receptor-mediated targeting effect, and honokiol was incorporated into the lipid bilayer for inhibiting tumor metastasis and eliminating VM channels. In vitro cellular assays showed that multifunctional targeting epirubicin liposomes not only exhibited the strongest cytotoxic effect on Lewis lung tumor cells but also showed the most efficient inhibition on VM channels. Action mechanism studies showed that multifunctional targeting epirubicin liposomes could downregulate PI3K, MMP-2, MMP-9, VE-Cadherin, and FAK and activate apoptotic enzyme caspase 3. In vivo results exhibited that multifunctional targeting epirubicin liposomes could accumulate selectively in tumor site and display an obvious antitumor efficacy. In addition, no significant toxicity of blood system and major organs was observed at a test dose. Therefore, multifunctional targeting epirubicin liposomes may provide a safe and efficient therapy strategy for NSCLC. PMID:29066893

  13. Intra-tumor distribution of PEGylated liposome upon repeated injection: No possession by prior dose.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Abu Lila, Amr S; Nishio, Miho; Tanaka, Masao; Ando, Hidenori; Kiwada, Hiroshi; Ishida, Tatsuhiro

    2015-12-28

    Liposomes have proven to be a viable means for the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to solid tumors. However, significant variability has been detected in their intra-tumor accumulation and distribution, resulting in compromised therapeutic outcomes. We recently examined the intra-tumor accumulation and distribution of weekly sequentially administered oxaliplatin (l-OHP)-containing PEGylated liposomes. In that study, the first and second doses of l-OHP-containing PEGylated liposomes were distributed diversely and broadly within tumor tissues, resulting in a potent anti-tumor efficacy. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying such a diverse and broad liposome distribution. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the influence of dosage interval on the intra-tumor accumulation and distribution of "empty" PEGylated liposomes. Intra-tumor distribution of sequentially administered "empty" PEGylated liposomes was altered in a dosing interval-dependent manner. In addition, the intra-tumor distribution pattern was closely related to the chronological alteration of tumor blood flow as well as vascular permeability in the growing tumor tissue. These results suggest that the sequential administrations of PEGylated liposomes in well-spaced intervals might allow the distribution to different areas and enhance the total bulk accumulation within tumor tissue, resulting in better therapeutic efficacy of the encapsulated payload. This study may provide useful information for a better design of therapeutic regimens involving multiple administrations of nanocarrier drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Transferrin liposomes of docetaxel for brain-targeted cancer applications: formulation and brain theranostics.

    PubMed

    Sonali; Singh, Rahul Pratap; Singh, Nitesh; Sharma, Gunjan; Vijayakumar, Mahalingam R; Koch, Biplob; Singh, Sanjay; Singh, Usha; Dash, Debabrata; Pandey, Bajarangprasad L; Muthu, Madaswamy S

    2016-05-01

    Diagnosis and therapy of brain cancer was often limited due to low permeability of delivery materials across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and their poor penetration into the brain tissue. This study explored the possibility of utilizing theranostic d-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate mono-ester (TPGS) liposomes as nanocarriers for minimally invasive brain-targeted imaging and therapy (brain theranostics). The aim of this work was to formulate transferrin conjugated TPGS coated theranostic liposomes, which contain both docetaxel and quantum dots (QDs) for imaging and therapy of brain cancer. The theranostic liposomes with and without transferrin decoration were prepared and characterized for their particle size, polydispersity, morphology, drug encapsulation efficiency, in-vitro release study and brain theranostics. The particle sizes of the non-targeted and targeted theranostic liposomes were found below 200 nm. Nearly, 71% of drug encapsulation efficiency was achieved with liposomes. The drug release from transferrin conjugated theranostic liposomes was sustained for more than 72 h with 70% of drug release. The in-vivo results indicated that transferrin receptor-targeted theranostic liposomes could be a promising carrier for brain theranostics due to nano-sized delivery and its permeability which provided an improved and prolonged brain targeting of docetaxel and QDs in comparison to the non-targeted preparations.

  15. Immunological response to nitroglycerin-loaded shear-responsive liposomes in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Buscema, Marzia; Matviykiv, Sofiya; Mészáros, Tamás; Gerganova, Gabriela; Weinberger, Andreas; Mettal, Ute; Mueller, Dennis; Neuhaus, Frederik; Stalder, Etienne; Ishikawa, Takashi; Urbanics, Rudolf; Saxer, Till; Pfohl, Thomas; Szebeni, János; Zumbuehl, Andreas; Müller, Bert

    2017-10-28

    Liposomes formulated from the 1,3-diamidophospholipid Pad-PC-Pad are shear-responsive and thus promising nano-containers to specifically release a vasodilator at stenotic arteries. The recommended preclinical safety tests for therapeutic liposomes of nanometer size include the in vitro assessment of complement activation and the evaluation of the associated risk of complement activation-related pseudo-allergy (CARPA) in vivo. For this reason, we measured complement activation by Pad-PC-Pad formulations in human and porcine sera, along with the nanopharmaceutical-mediated cardiopulmonary responses in pigs. The evaluated formulations comprised of Pad-PC-Pad liposomes, with and without polyethylene glycol on the surface of the liposomes, and nitroglycerin as a model vasodilator. The nitroglycerin incorporation efficiency ranged from 25% to 50%. In human sera, liposome formulations with 20mg/mL phospholipid gave rise to complement activation, mainly via the alternative pathway, as reflected by the rises in SC5b-9 and Bb protein complex concentrations. Formulations having a factor of ten lower phospholipid content did not result in measurable complement activation. The weak complement activation induced by Pad-PC-Pad liposomal formulations was confirmed by the results obtained by performing an in vivo study in a porcine model, where hemodynamic parameters were monitored continuously. Our study suggests that, compared to FDA-approved liposomal drugs, Pad-PC-Pad exhibits less or similar risks of CARPA. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of the forces imposed by micro and nanopipettes during DOPC: DOPS liposome manipulation.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kathleen B; Layton, Bradley E

    2009-11-01

    Using micropipette-based probing methods and an image processing algorithm for measuring deformation, the bending energies of aspirated DOPC:DOPS liposomes were estimated both before and during manipulation with an injection pipette. We found that unlike cells, which are penetrable with pipettes as large as 2mum in diameter and at speeds as slow as 4mum/s, liposomes, without a cytoskeleton to resist deformation, are impenetrable with pipettes as small as 25nm in diameter and at speeds as great as 4000mum/s. Using energy calculations and the previously published mechanical properties of DOPC:DOPS liposomes, the forces that injection pipettes of various sizes can exert onto liposomes during probing were estimated. Forces ranged from approximately 1pN to 6pN, and the forces exerted onto these liposomes increased as pipette size diminished. The quantification of the amount of force exerted on liposomes or cells during manipulation can assist in minimizing the damage during single-liposome, single-cell, or single-organelle injections and surgeries.

  17. Influence of different surfactants on the physicochemical properties of elastic liposomes.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, R M; Severino, P; Preté, P S C; Santana, M H A

    2017-05-01

    Elastic liposomes are capable to improve drug transport through the skin by acting as penetration enhancers due to the high fluidity and elasticity of the liposome membranes. Therefore, elastic liposomes were prepared and characterized to facilitate the transdermal transport of bioactive molecules. Liposomes consisted of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) as the structural component, with different surfactants derived from lauric acid as elastic components: C 12 E 5 (polyoxyethylene-5-lauryl ether), PEG4L (polyethyleneglycol-4-lauryl ester), PEG4DL (polyethylene glycol-4-dilauryl ester), PEG8L (polyethylene glycol-8-lauryl ester) and PEG8DL (polyethylene glycol-8-dilauryl ester). The elastic liposomes were characterized in terms of their phospholipid content, mean diameter, size distribution, elasticity and stability during storage, as well as their ability to incorporate surfactant and permeate through 50 nm pore size membranes. The results showed that the phospholipid phase transition temperature, the fluidity of the lipid bilayer resulting from incorporation of the surfactant and the preservation of particle integrity were factors determining the performance of the elastic liposomes in permeating through nanoporous membranes. The best results were obtained using DMPC combined with the surfactants PEG8L or PEG8DL. The findings demonstrate the potential of using elastic liposomes for transdermal administration of drugs.

  18. Adenosine Triphosphate-Encapsulated Liposomes with Plasmonic Nanoparticles for Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering-Based Immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Pham, Xuan-Hung; Hahm, Eunil; Kim, Tae Han; Kim, Hyung-Mo; Lee, Sang Hun; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Jeong, Dae Hong; Jun, Bong-Hyun

    2017-06-23

    In this study, we prepared adenosine triphosphate (ATP) encapsulated liposomes, and assessed their applicability for the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based assays with gold-silver alloy (Au@Ag)-assembled silica nanoparticles (NPs; SiO₂@Au@Ag). The liposomes were prepared by the thin film hydration method from a mixture of l-α-phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and PE-PEG2000 in chloroform; evaporating the solvent, followed by hydration of the resulting thin film with ATP in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Upon lysis of the liposome, the SERS intensity of the SiO₂@Au@Ag NPs increased with the logarithm of number of ATP-encapsulated liposomes after lysis in the range of 8 × 10⁶ to 8 × 10 10 . The detection limit of liposome was calculated to be 1.3 × 10 -17 mol. The successful application of ATP-encapsulated liposomes to SiO₂@Au@Ag NPs based SERS analysis has opened a new avenue for Raman label chemical (RCL)-encapsulated liposome-enhanced SERS-based immunoassays.

  19. Near-infrared light-responsive liposomal contrast agent for photoacoustic imaging and drug release applications.

    PubMed

    Sivasubramanian, Kathyayini; Mathiyazhakan, Malathi; Wiraja, Christian; Upputuri, Paul Kumar; Xu, Chenjie; Pramanik, Manojit

    2017-04-01

    Photoacoustic imaging has become an emerging tool for theranostic applications. Not only does it help in liposomes coated with gold nanostars (AuNSs) for both imaging and drug release applications using a photoacoustic imaging system. Being amphiphilic, the liposomes lipid bilayer and the aqueous core enable encapsulation of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs. The AuNSs on the surface of the liposomes act as photon absorbers due to their intrinsic surface plasmon resonance. Upon excitation by laser light at specific wavelength, AuNSs facilitate rapid release of the contents encapsulated in the liposomes due to local heating and pressure wave formation (photoacoustic wave). Herein, we describe the design and optimization of the AuNSs-coated liposomes and demonstrate the release of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic model drugs (paclitaxel and calcein, respectively) through laser excitation at near-infrared wavelength. The use of AuNSs-coated liposomes as contrast agents for photoacoustic imaging is also explored with tissue phantom experiments. In comparison to blood, the AuNSs-coated liposomes have better contrast (approximately two times) at 2-cm imaging depth.

  20. Near-infrared light-responsive liposomal contrast agent for photoacoustic imaging and drug release applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivasubramanian, Kathyayini; Mathiyazhakan, Malathi; Wiraja, Christian; Upputuri, Paul Kumar; Xu, Chenjie; Pramanik, Manojit

    2017-04-01

    Photoacoustic imaging has become an emerging tool for theranostic applications. Not only does it help in in vivo, noninvasive imaging of biological structures at depths but it can also be used for drug release and therapeutic applications. We explore near-infrared light-sensitive liposomes coated with gold nanostars (AuNSs) for both imaging and drug release applications using a photoacoustic imaging system. Being amphiphilic, the liposomes lipid bilayer and the aqueous core enable encapsulation of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs. The AuNSs on the surface of the liposomes act as photon absorbers due to their intrinsic surface plasmon resonance. Upon excitation by laser light at specific wavelength, AuNSs facilitate rapid release of the contents encapsulated in the liposomes due to local heating and pressure wave formation (photoacoustic wave). Herein, we describe the design and optimization of the AuNSs-coated liposomes and demonstrate the release of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic model drugs (paclitaxel and calcein, respectively) through laser excitation at near-infrared wavelength. The use of AuNSs-coated liposomes as contrast agents for photoacoustic imaging is also explored with tissue phantom experiments. In comparison to blood, the AuNSs-coated liposomes have better contrast (approximately two times) at 2-cm imaging depth.

  1. Concomitant liposomal doxorubicin and daily palliative radiotherapy in advanced feline soft tissue sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Kleiter, Miriam; Tichy, Alexander; Willmann, Michael; Pagitz, Maximilian; Wolfesberger, Birgitt

    2010-01-01

    Local recurrence of feline soft tissue sarcomas is common despite aggressive treatment. Liposomal doxorubicin might serve as a depot radiosensitizer if administered concomitantly with daily radiotherapy and thus improve tumor control. In this pilot study, the feasibility of concomitant liposomal radiochemotherapy was evaluated in a palliative setting in 10 cats with advanced soft tissue sarcomas. Cats were treated with median number of 5 (range 5-7) daily fractions of radiotherapy and a median total dose of 20 Gy (range 20-31.5 Gy). One dose of liposomal doxorubicin was administered at the beginning of radiotherapy. Seven cats received further free or liposomal doxorubicin after completion of the liposomal doxorubicin/radiation protocol. Seven of the treated 10 cats (70%) achieved a partial (n=5) or complete (n=2) response with a median response duration of 237 days. The median progression free interval in all 10 cats was 117 days and the median overall survival time was 324 days. Concomitant liposomal radiochemotherapy was tolerated well in nine cats, one cat experienced temporary anorexia. Although the number of patients is too small to make definitive conclusions, results appear promising enough to investigate the role of liposomal doxorubicin as a radiosensitizer further.

  2. CDP-choline liposomes provide significant reduction in infarction over free CDP-choline in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Adibhatla, Rao Muralikrishna; Hatcher, J.F.; Tureyen, K.

    2007-01-01

    Cytidine-5′-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline, Citicoline, Somazina) is in clinical use (intravenous administration) for stroke treatment in Europe and Japan, while USA phase III stroke clinical trials (oral administration) were disappointing. Others showed that CDP-choline liposomes significantly increased brain uptake over the free drug in cerebral ischemia models. Liposomes were formulated as DPPC, DPPS, cholesterol, GM1 ganglioside; 7/4/7/1.57 molar ratio or 35.8/20.4/35.8/8.0 mol%. GM1 ganglioside confers long-circulating properties to the liposomes by suppressing phagocytosis. CDP-choline liposomes deliver the agent intact to the brain, circumventing the rate-limiting, cytidine triphosphate:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase in phosphatidylcholine synthesis. Our data show that CDP-choline liposomes significantly ( P < 0.01) decreased cerebral infarction (by 62%) compared to the equivalent dose of free CDP-choline (by 26%) after 1 h focal cerebral ischemia and 24 h reperfusion in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Beneficial effects of CDP-choline liposomes in stroke may derive from a synergistic effect between the phospholipid components of the liposomes and the encapsulated CDP-choline. PMID:16153613

  3. Development of a DNA-liposome complex for gene delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Rasoulianboroujeni, M; Kupgan, G; Moghadam, F; Tahriri, M; Boughdachi, A; Khoshkenar, P; Ambrose, J J; Kiaie, N; Vashaee, D; Ramsey, J D; Tayebi, L

    2017-06-01

    The association structures formed by cationic liposomes and DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)-liposome have been effectively utilized as gene carriers in transfection assays. In this research study, cationic liposomes were prepared using a modified lipid film hydration method consisting of a lyophilization step for gene delivery applications. The obtained results demonstrated that the mean particle size had no significant change while the polydispersity (PDI) increased after lyophilization. The mean particle size slightly reduced after lyophilization (520±12nm to 464±25nm) while the PDI increased after lyophilization (0.094±0.017 to 0.220±0.004). In addition. The mean particle size of vesicles increases when DNA is incorporated to the liposomes (673±27nm). According to the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, the spherical shape of liposomes confirmed their successful preservation and reconstitution from the powder. It was found that liposomal formulation has enhanced transfection considerably compared to the naked DNA as negative control. Finally, liposomal formulation in this research had a better function than Lipofectamine® 2000 as a commercialized product because the cellular activity (cellular protein) was higher in the prepared lipoplex than Lipofectamine® 2000. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Carrier-inside-carrier: polyelectrolyte microcapsules as reservoir for drug-loaded liposomes.

    PubMed

    Maniti, Ofelia; Rebaud, Samuel; Sarkis, Joe; Jia, Yi; Zhao, Jie; Marcillat, Olivier; Granjon, Thierry; Blum, Loïc; Li, Junbai; Girard-Egrot, Agnès

    2015-01-01

    Conventional liposomes have a short life-time in blood, unless they are protected by a polymer envelope, most often polyethylene glycol. However, these stabilizing polymers frequently interfere with cellular uptake, impede liposome-membrane fusion and inhibit escape of liposome content from endosomes. To overcome such drawbacks, polymer-based systems as carriers for liposomes are currently developed. Conforming to this approach, we propose a new and convenient method for embedding small size liposomes, 30-100 nm, inside porous calcium carbonate microparticles. These microparticles served as templates for deposition of various polyelectrolytes to form a protective shell. The carbonate particles were then dissolved to yield hollow polyelectrolyte microcapsules. The main advantage of using this method for liposome encapsulation is that carbonate particles can serve as a sacrificial template for deposition of virtually any polyelectrolyte. By carefully choosing the shell composition, bioavailability of the liposomes and of the encapsulated drug can be modulated to respond to biological requirements and to improve drug delivery to the cytoplasm and avoid endosomal escape.

  5. Size-Dependency of the Surface Ligand Density of Liposomes Prepared by Post-insertion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shang-Hsuan; Sato, Yusuke; Hyodo, Mamoru; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2017-01-01

    In the active targeting of a drug delivery system (DDS), the density of the ligand on the functionalized liposome determines its affinity for binding to the target. To evaluate these densities on the surface of different sized liposomes, 4 liposomes with various diameters (188, 137, 70, 40 nm) were prepared and their surfaces were modified with fluorescently labeled ligand-lipid conjugates by the post-insertion method. Each liposomal mixture was fractionated into a series of fractions using size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and the resulting liposome fractions were precisely analyzed and the surface ligand densities calculated. The data collected using this methodology indicate that the density of the ligand on a particle is greatly dependent on the size of the liposome. This, in turn, indicates that smaller liposomes (75-40 nm) tend to possess higher densities. For developing active targeting systems, size and the density of the ligands are two important and independent factors that can affect the efficiency of a system as it relates to medical use.

  6. Lipid based noninvasive vesicular formulation of cytarabine: Nanodeformable liposomes.

    PubMed

    Raj, Rakesh; Raj, Pooja Mongia; Ram, Alpana

    2016-06-10

    Leukemia is the common cause of death and worldwide incidence of this disease is increasing. Chemotherapy is the first choice for leukemia treatment, but the major limitations of standard therapy are its side effects and poor patient compliances. Therefore it is imperative to look for a therapeutic system with lesser side effects urgently to address the underlying causes of poor treatment outcomes. In such a scenario transdermal route for delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs could be a better alternative to provide sustained drug level, enhanced activity, self administration and better patient compliances. The present work is focus on the design of nanolipid based transdermal carrier, deformable liposomes bearing cytarabine as a model drug for effective delivery of drug with enhanced transdermal flux. Developed nanocarriers were characterized for their size, morphology, entrapment efficiency, skin penetration and irritation. It could be concluded that nanodeformable liposomes accentuated transdermal flux of cytarabine and could provide a new strategy for leukemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Zoledronic acid enhances antitumor efficacy of liposomal doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Shibuya, Kazuhiko; Kojima, Kaori; Miatmoko, Andang; Kawano, Kumi; Ozaki, Kei-Ichi; Yonemochi, Etsuo

    2015-07-01

    Previously, we found that the injection of zoledronic acid (ZOL) into mice bearing tumor induced changes of the vascular structure in the tumor. In this study, we examined whether ZOL treatment could decrease interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) via change of tumor vasculature, and enhance the antitumor efficacy of liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil®). When ZOL solution was injected at 40 µg/mouse per day for three consecutive days into mice bearing murine Lewis lung carcinoma LLC tumor, depletion of macrophages in tumor tissue and decreased density of tumor vasculature were observed. Furthermore, ZOL treatments induced inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-10 and -12, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in serum of LLC tumor-bearing mice, but not in normal mice, indicating that ZOL treatments might induce an inflammatory response in tumor tissue. Furthermore, ZOL treatments increased antitumor activity by Doxil in mice bearing a subcutaneous LLC tumor, although they did not significantly increase the tumor accumulation of doxorubicin (DXR). These results suggest that ZOL treatments might increase the therapeutic efficacy of Doxil via improvement of DXR distribution in a tumor by changing the tumor vasculature. ZOL treatment can be an alternative approach to increase the antitumor effect of liposomal drugs.

  8. Liposomes and nanotechnology in drug development: focus on ocular targets

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Miki; Asai, Tomohiro; Oku, Naoto; Araki, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Minoru; Ebihara, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Poor drug delivery to lesions in patients’ eyes is a major obstacle to the treatment of ocular diseases. The accessibility of these areas to drugs is highly restricted by the presence of barriers, including the corneal barrier, aqueous barrier, and the inner and outer blood–retinal barriers. In particular, the posterior segment is difficult to reach for drugs because of its structural peculiarities. This review discusses various barriers to drug delivery and provides comprehensive information for designing nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery systems for the treatment of ocular diseases. Nanoparticles can be designed to improve penetration, controlled release, and drug targeting. As highlighted in this review, the therapeutic efficacy of drugs in ocular diseases has been reported to be enhanced by the use of nanoparticles such as liposomes, micro/nanospheres, microemulsions, and dendrimers. Our recent data show that intravitreal injection of targeted liposomes encapsulating an angiogenesis inhibitor caused significantly greater suppression of choroidal neovascularization than did the injection of free drug. Recent progress in ocular drug delivery systems research has provided new insights into drug development, and the use of nanoparticles for drug delivery is thus a promising approach for advanced therapy of ocular diseases. PMID:23439842

  9. Liposomal Antioxidants for Protection against Oxidant-Induced Damage

    PubMed Central

    Suntres, Zacharias E.

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radical, can be formed as normal products of aerobic metabolism and can be produced at elevated rates under pathophysiological conditions. Overproduction and/or insufficient removal of ROS result in significant damage to cell structure and functions. In vitro studies showed that antioxidants, when applied directly and at relatively high concentrations to cellular systems, are effective in conferring protection against the damaging actions of ROS, but results from animal and human studies showed that several antioxidants provide only modest benefit and even possible harm. Antioxidants have yet to be rendered into reliable and safe therapies because of their poor solubility, inability to cross membrane barriers, extensive first-pass metabolism, and rapid clearance from cells. There is considerable interest towards the development of drug-delivery systems that would result in the selective delivery of antioxidants to tissues in sufficient concentrations to ameliorate oxidant-induced tissue injuries. Liposomes are biocompatible, biodegradable, and nontoxic artificial phospholipid vesicles that offer the possibility of carrying hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and amphiphilic molecules. This paper focus on the use of liposomes for the delivery of antioxidants in the prevention or treatment of pathological conditions related to oxidative stress. PMID:21876690

  10. Magnetic liposomes based on nickel ferrite nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ana Rita O; Gomes, I T; Almeida, Bernardo G; Araújo, J P; Castanheira, Elisabete M S; Coutinho, Paulo J G

    2015-07-21

    Nickel ferrite nanoparticles with superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature were synthesized using a coprecipitation method. These magnetic nanoparticles were either covered with a lipid bilayer, forming dry magnetic liposomes (DMLs), or entrapped in liposomes, originating aqueous magnetoliposomes (AMLs). A new and promising method for the synthesis of DMLs is described. The presence of the lipid bilayer in DMLs was confirmed by FRET (Förster Resonance Energy Transfer) measurements between the fluorescent-labeled lipids NBD-C12-HPC (NBD acting as a donor) included in the second lipid layer and rhodamine B-DOPE (acceptor) in the first lipid layer. An average donor-acceptor distance of 3 nm was estimated. Assays of the non-specific interactions of magnetoliposomes with biological membranes (modeled using giant unilamellar vesicles, GUVs) were performed. Membrane fusion between both aqueous and dry magnetoliposomes and GUVs was confirmed by FRET, which is an important result regarding applications of these systems both as hyperthermia agents and antitumor drug nanocarriers.

  11. Origins of extreme boundary lubrication by phosphatidylcholine liposomes.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Raya; Kampf, Nir; Dror, Yael; Shimoni, Eyal; Klein, Jacob

    2013-07-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles have been shown to have remarkable boundary lubricating properties under physiologically-high pressures. Here we carry out a systematic study, using a surface force balance, of the normal and shear (frictional) forces between two opposing surfaces bearing different PC vesicles across water, to elucidate the origin of these properties. Small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs, diameters < 100 nm) of the symmetric saturated diacyl PCs DMPC (C(14)), DPPC (C(16)) and DSPC (C(18)) attached to mica surfaces were studied in their solid-ordered (SO) phase on the surface. Overall liposome lubrication ability improves markedly with increasing acyl chain length, and correlates strongly with the liposomes' structural integrity on the substrate surface: DSPC-SUVs were stable on the surface, and provided extremely efficient lubrication (friction coefficient μ ≈ 10(-4)) at room temperature at pressures up to at least 18 MPa. DMPC-SUVs ruptured following adsorption, providing poor high-pressure lubrication, while DPPC-SUVs behavior was intermediate between the two. These results can be well understood in terms of the hydration-lubrication paradigm, but suggest that an earlier conjecture, that highly-efficient lubrication by PC-SUVs depended simply on their being in the SO rather than in the liquid-disordered phase, should be more nuanced. Our results indicate that the resistance of the SUVs to mechanical deformation and rupture is the dominant factor in determining their overall boundary lubrication efficiency in our system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of pH-sensitive fusogenic polymer-modified liposomes for development of mucosal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Watarai, Shinobu; Iwase, Tana; Tajima, Tomoko; Yuba, Eiji; Kono, Kenji; Sekiya, Yukio

    2014-03-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of pH-sensitive fusogenic polymer (succinylated poly(glycidol) (SucPG) and 3-methylglutarylated poly(glycidol) (MGluPG))-modified liposomes as mucosal vaccine in the induction of a protective immune responses was evaluated. Mice were nasally immunized with OVA-containing SucPG-modified liposomes. After immunization, significant Ag-specific Abs were detected in the serum and intestine. When sera were analyzed for isotype distribution, antigen-specific IgG1 Ab responses were noted in mice immunized with OVA-containing polymer-unmodified liposomes, whereas immunization with OVA-containing SucPG-modified liposomes resulted in the induction of OVA-specific IgG1, IgG2a and IgG3 Ab responses. In spleen lymphocytes from mice immunized with OVA-containing SucPG-modified liposomes, both IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA were detected. The same result was obtained also in the mouse immunized with OVA-containing MGluPG-modified liposomes. Furthermore, we examined the induction of immune responses in chickens following intraocular immunization with Salmonella Enteritidis Ag-containing MGluPG-modified liposomes, and the protective effect against the challenge with S. Enteritidis. Immunization with S. Enteritidis Ag-containing MGluPG-modified liposomes induced significant Ab responses against S. Enteritidis in the serum and intestine. Less fecal excretion of bacteria was observed in chickens immunized with S. Enteritidis Ag-containing MGluPG-modified liposomes after challenge. The numbers of bacteria in the caecum were also lower in immunized chickens than in unimmunized controls. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A study on characteristic of different sample pretreatment methods to evaluate the entrapment efficiency of liposomes.

    PubMed

    Ran, Congcong; Chen, Dan; Xu, Meng; Du, Chaohui; Li, Qinglian; Jiang, Ye

    2016-08-15

    To examine how methods affect the evaluation of entrapment efficiency (EE) of liposomes, four different sample pretreatment methods were adopted in the experiment. The four sample pretreatment methods were size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), solid-phase extraction (SPE), centrifugation ultrafiltration (CF-UF) and hollow fiber centrifugal ultrafiltration (HF-CF-UF). Amphotericin B (AmB), which could self-associate to form aggregates in water is adopted as the model drugs in this paper. In the present work, it was found that the characterization results of four methods were quite different. The EE of liposome by SEC was about 93%, only 5-13% using C18 or HLB columns, and approximately 100% by CF-UF. The EE of HF-CF-UF reached up to nearly 99.0%. Further, this paper revealed the reasons making the difference of EE among four methods. Conventional SEC may distort the authentic of EE of liposomes with mainly employing some small liposomes or excessive water as eluent. For SPE, cholesterol on liposome surface could interact with the stationary phase making it hard to elute with water, and increase the risk of liposome leakage. While for CF-UF, concentration polarization was a main limitation hindering unentrapped drug to pass through membrane, making unentrapped drug undetectable in liposome. HF-CF-UF could truly reflect EE of liposomes with the concentration of unentrapped AmB lower than 25.0μg/mL. However, when the concentration was higher than 25.0μg/mL, AmB aggregates could be entrapped by hollow fiber. From the above analysis, this paper came to the conclusion that each method had its own feature in characterization. This study provided a reasonable guideline for choosing methods to character the EE of liposome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) entrapped stealth liposomes for improvement of leukemic treatment without hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Umrethia, Manish; Ghosh, Pradip Kumar; Majithya, Rita; Murthy, R S R

    2007-03-01

    6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) is a purine analogue used in childhood leukemia. Because of the oral bioavailability of 6-MP is low and highly variable, the aim of this study was to develop a new parenteral formulation that can prolong the biological half-life of the drug, improve its therapeutic efficacy, and its associated reduce side effects. Conventional and stealth 6-MP liposomes were prepared by a thin film hydration technique followed by a high-pressure homogenization process and characterized for percent entrapment efficiency (%EE), particle size, and stability in human plasma. Pharmacokinetic, tissue distribution, and biochemical analysis were performed after intravenous (IV) administration of all formulations of 6-MP on rats. The conventional liposomes were found less stable than stealth liposomes in human plasma at 37 degrees C. Stealth liposomes exhibited high peak plasma concentration (C(max)), and long circulating capacity in blood and biological half-life. The uptake of stealth liposomes by the liver and spleen and accumulation in the kidney were significantly less than that of conventional liposomes and the free drug. Serum urea, creatinine, GOT (Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase), and GPT (Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase) increased significantly in rats given an IV injection of conventional liposomes and the free drug, but not in those administered with the same dose of stealth liposomes. Stealth liposomes may help to increase therapeutic efficacy of 6-MP and to reduce total amount of dose as well as frequency of the dose. It also may reduce the possibility of the risk of toxicity to the liver and kidney generally associated with free 6-MP.

  15. Liposomes composed of unsaturated lipids for membrane modification of human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Christoph; Holovati, Jelena L; Acker, Jason P; Wolkers, Willem F

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that certain saturated lipids protect red blood cells (RBCs) during hypothermic storage but provide little protection during freezing or freeze-drying, whereas various unsaturated lipids destabilize RBCs during hypothermic storage but protect during freezing and freeze-drying. The protective effect of liposomes has been attributed to membrane modifications. We have previously shown that cholesterol exchange and lipid transfer between liposomes composed of saturated lipids and RBCs critically depends on the length of the lipid acyl chains. In this study the effect of unsaturated lipids with differences in their number of unsaturated bonds (18:0/18:1, 18:1/18:1, 18:2/18:2) on RBC membrane properties has been studied. RBCs were incubated in the presence of liposomes and both the liposomal and RBC fraction were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) after incubation. The liposomes caused an increase in RBC membrane conformational disorder at suprazero temperatures. The fluidizing effect of the liposomes on the RBC membranes, however, was found to be similar for the different lipids irrespective of their unsaturation level. The gel to liquid crystalline phase transition temperature of the liposomes increased after incubation with RBCs. RBC membrane fluidity increased linearly during the first 8 hours of incubation in the presence of liposomes. The increase in RBC membrane fluidity was found to be temperature dependent and displayed Arrhenius behaviour between 20 and 40°C, with an activation energy of 88 kJ mol⁻¹. Taken together, liposomes composed of unsaturated lipids increase RBC membrane conformational disorder, which could explain their cryoprotective action.

  16. Extended acute toxicity study of (188) Re-liposome in rats.

    PubMed

    Chi-Mou, Liu; Chia-Che, Tsai; Chia-Yu, Yu; Wan-Chi, Lee; Chung-Li, Ho; Tsui-Jung, Chang; Chih-Hsien, Chang; Te-Wei, Lee

    2013-09-01

    Liposomes can selectively target cancer sites and carry payloads, thereby improving diagnostic and therapeutic effectiveness as well as reducing toxicity. To evaluate therapeutic strategies, it is essential to use animal models reflecting important safety aspects before clinical application. As our previous study found that a high dosage (185 of MBq) of (188) Re-N,N-bis (2-mercaptoethyl)-N',N'-diethylethylenediamine-labeled pegylated liposomes ((188) Re-liposome) induced a decrease in white blood cell (WBC) count in Sprague-Dawley rats 7 days postinjection, the objective of the present study was to investigate extended acute radiotoxicity of (188) Re-liposome. Rats were administered via intravenous (i.v.) injection with (188) Re-liposome (185, 55.5 and 18.5 MBq), normal saline as a blank control or non-radioactive liposome as a vehicle control. Mortality, clinical signs, food consumption, body weights, urinary, biochemical and hematological analyzes were examined. In addition, gross necropsy and histopathological examinations were also performed at the end of the follow-up period. None of the rats died and no clinical sign was observed during the 28-day study period. Only male rats receiving (188) Re-liposome at a high dosage (185 MBq) displayed a slight weight loss compared with the control rats. In both male and female rats, the WBC counts of both high-dose and medium-dose (55.5 MBq) groups reduced significantly 7 days postinjection, but recovered to the normal range on Study Day 29. There was no significant difference in urinary analyzes, biochemical parameters and histopathological assessments between the (188) Re-liposome-treated and control groups. The information generated from the present study on extended acute toxicity of (188) Re-liposome will serve as a safety reference for radiopharmaceuticals in early-phase clinical trials. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Liposomalization of oxaliplatin induces skin accumulation of it, but negligible skin toxicity.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Kentaro; Kashiwagi, Misaki; Shiba, Shunsuke; Muroki, Kiwamu; Ohishi, Akihiro; Doi, Yusuke; Ando, Hidenori; Ishida, Tatsuhiro; Nagasawa, Kazuki

    2017-12-15

    Liposomalization causes alteration of the pharmacokinetics of encapsulated drugs, and allows delivery to tumor tissues through passive targeting via an enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil ® , Lipo-DXR), a representative liposomal drug, is well-known to reduce cardiotoxicity and increase the anti-tumor activity of DXR, but to induce the hand-foot syndrome (HFS) as a result of skin DXR accumulation, which is one of its severe adverse effects. We have developed a new liposomal preparation of oxaliplatin (l-OHP), an important anti-tumor drug for treatment of colorectal cancer, using PEGylated liposomes (Lipo-l-OHP), and showed that Lipo-l-OHP exhibits increased anti-tumor activity in tumor-bearing mice compared to the original preparation of l-OHP. However, whether Lipo-l-OHP causes HFS-like skin toxicity similar to Lipo-DXR remains to be determined. Administration of Lipo-l-OHP promoted accumulation of platinum in rat hind paws, however, it caused negligible morphological and histological alterations on the plantar surface of the paws. Administration of DiI-labeled empty PEGylated liposomes gave almost the same distribution profile of dyes into the dermis of hind paws with DXR as in the case of Lipo-DXR. Treatment with Lipo-l-OHP, Lipo-DXR, DiI-labeled empty PEGylated liposomes or empty PEGylated liposomes caused migration of CD68 + macrophages into the dermis of hind paws. These findings suggest that the skin toxicity on administration of liposomalized drugs is reflected in the proinflammatory characteristics of encapsulated drugs, and indicate that Lipo-l-OHP with a higher anti-cancer effect and no HFS may be an outstanding l-OHP preparation leading to an improved quality of life of cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Liposomal Fasudil, a Rho-Kinase Inhibitor, for Prolonged Pulmonary Preferential Vasodilation in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vivek; Gupta, Nilesh; Shaik, Imam H.; Mehvar, Reza; McMurtry, Ivan F.; Oka, Masahiko; Nozik-Grayck, Eva; Komatsu, Masanobu; Ahsan, Fakhrul

    2013-01-01

    Current pharmacological interventions for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) require continuous infusions, multiple inhalations, or oral administration of drugs that act on various pathways involved in the pathogenesis of PAH. However, invasive methods of administration, short duration of action, and lack of pulmonary selectivity result in noncompliance and poor patient outcomes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that encapsulation of an investigational anti-PAH molecule fasudil (HA-1077), a Rho-kinase inhibitor, into liposomal vesicles results in prolonged vasodilation in distal pulmonary arterioles. Liposomes were prepared by hydration and extrusion method and fasudil was loaded by ammonium sulfate-induced transmembrane electrochemical gradient. Liposomes were then characterized for various physicochemical properties. Optimized formulations were tested for pulmonary absorption and their pharmacological efficacy in a monocrotaline (MCT) induced rat model of PAH. The entrapment efficiency of optimized liposomal fasudil formulations was between 68.1±0.8% and 73.6±2.3%, and the cumulative release at 37°C was 98–99% over a period of 5 days. Compared to intravenous (IV) fasudil, a ~10 fold increase in the terminal plasma half-life was observed when liposomal fasudil was administered as aerosols. The t1/2 of IV fasudil was 0.39±0.12 h. and when given as liposomes via pulmonary route, the t1/2 extended to 4.71±0.72 h. One h after intratracheal instillation of liposomal fasudil, mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP) was reduced by 37.6±5.7% and continued to decrease for about 3 h, suggesting that liposomal formulations produced pulmonary preferential vasodilation in MCT induced PAH rats. Overall, this study established the proof-of-principle that aerosolized liposomal fasudil is a feasible option for a non-invasive, controlled release and pulmonary preferential treatment of PAH. PMID:23353807

  19. Safety and Side Effect Profile of Liposome Bupivacaine (Exparel) in Peripheral Nerve Blocks.

    PubMed

    Ilfeld, Brian M; Viscusi, Eugene R; Hadzic, Admir; Minkowitz, Harold S; Morren, Michael D; Lookabaugh, Janice; Joshi, Girish P

    2015-01-01

    Liposome bupivacaine (Exparel) is a multivesicular liposomal formulation of bupivacaine currently approved in the United States for single-dose administration into the surgical site to provide postsurgical analgesia. This retrospective analysis examined safety data from clinical trials involving the off-label use of this formulation in peripheral nerve blocks. Data from 6 controlled (phases I-III) studies were compiled involving single-injection ankle, femoral nerve, and intercostal nerve blocks (2 each). Adverse events (AEs) were monitored for 1 to 30 days after study drug administration. Of 575 subjects, 335 received liposome bupivacaine (2-310 mg), 33 received bupivacaine HCl (75-125 mg), and 207 received normal saline (placebo). Overall, 76% of subjects receiving liposome bupivacaine experienced 1 or more AEs compared with 61% receiving bupivacaine HCl and 76% receiving placebo. The most frequently reported AEs among subjects receiving liposome bupivacaine were nausea, pyrexia, pruritus, constipation, and vomiting. The most common treatment-related AE was hypesthesia among subjects treated with liposome bupivacaine or bupivacaine HCl. Incidence of nervous system AEs for liposome bupivacaine, bupivacaine HCl, and placebo was 21%, 27%, and 21%, respectively. Similarly, incidence of cardiac AEs was 9%, 0%, and 12%, respectively. At least 1 serious AE occurred in 8% of subjects receiving liposome bupivacaine compared with 10% of those receiving placebo (none assessed by investigators as related to study medication). Liposome bupivacaine has a similar safety and side effect profile to bupivacaine HCl and normal saline, suggesting that most of the more common AEs are related to either opioid rescue or the surgical procedure itself.

  20. Influence of polymer size, liposomal composition, surface charge, and temperature on the permeability of pH-sensitive liposomes containing lipid-anchored poly(2-ethylacrylic acid)

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Tingli; Wang, Zhao; Ma, Yufan; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Background Liposomes containing pH-sensitive polymers are promising candidates for the treatment of tumors and localized infection. This study aimed to identify parameters influencing the extent of contents release from poly(ethylacrylic acid) (PEAA) vesicles, focusing on the effects of polymer size, lipid composition, vesicle surface charge, and temperature. Methods Anchored lipid pH-sensitive PEAA was synthesized using PEAA with a molecular weight of 8.4 kDa. PEAA vesicles were prepared by insertion of the lipid-anchored PEAA into preformed large unilamellar vesicles. The preformed liposomes were manipulated by varying the phosphocholine and cholesterol content, and by adding negative or positive charges to the liposomes. A calcein release assay was used to evaluate the effects of polymer size, liposome composition, surface charge, and temperature on liposomal permeability. Results The release efficiency of the calcein-entrapped vesicles was found to be dependent on the PEAA polymer size. PEAA vesicles containing a phosphatidylcholine to cholesterol ratio of 60:40 (mol/mol) released more than 80% of their calcein content when the molecular weight of PEAA was larger than 8.4 kDa. Therefore, the same-sized polymer of 8.4 kDa was used for the rest of study. The calcein release potential was found to decrease as the percentage of cholesterol increased and with an increase in the phosphocholine acyl chain length (DMPC DPPC DSPC). Negatively charged and neutral vesicles released similar amounts of calcein, whereas positively charged liposomes released a significant amount of their contents. pH-sensitive release was dependent on temperature. Dramatic content release was observed at higher temperatures. Conclusion The observed synergistic effect of pH and temperature on release of the contents of PEAA vesicles suggests that this pH-sensitive liposome might be a good candidate for intracellular drug delivery in the treatment of tumors or localized infection. PMID:23028220

  1. Influence of polymer size, liposomal composition, surface charge, and temperature on the permeability of pH-sensitive liposomes containing lipid-anchored poly(2-ethylacrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Lu, Tingli; Wang, Zhao; Ma, Yufan; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Liposomes containing pH-sensitive polymers are promising candidates for the treatment of tumors and localized infection. This study aimed to identify parameters influencing the extent of contents release from poly(ethylacrylic acid) (PEAA) vesicles, focusing on the effects of polymer size, lipid composition, vesicle surface charge, and temperature. Anchored lipid pH-sensitive PEAA was synthesized using PEAA with a molecular weight of 8.4 kDa. PEAA vesicles were prepared by insertion of the lipid-anchored PEAA into preformed large unilamellar vesicles. The preformed liposomes were manipulated by varying the phosphocholine and cholesterol content, and by adding negative or positive charges to the liposomes. A calcein release assay was used to evaluate the effects of polymer size, liposome composition, surface charge, and temperature on liposomal permeability. The release efficiency of the calcein-entrapped vesicles was found to be dependent on the PEAA polymer size. PEAA vesicles containing a phosphatidylcholine to cholesterol ratio of 60:40 (mol/mol) released more than 80% of their calcein content when the molecular weight of PEAA was larger than 8.4 kDa. Therefore, the same-sized polymer of 8.4 kDa was used for the rest of study. The calcein release potential was found to decrease as the percentage of cholesterol increased and with an increase in the phosphocholine acyl chain length (DMPC DPPC DSPC). Negatively charged and neutral vesicles released similar amounts of calcein, whereas positively charged liposomes released a significant amount of their contents. pH-sensitive release was dependent on temperature. Dramatic content release was observed at higher temperatures. The observed synergistic effect of pH and temperature on release of the contents of PEAA vesicles suggests that this pH-sensitive liposome might be a good candidate for intracellular drug delivery in the treatment of tumors or localized infection.

  2. Liposomes coated with thiolated chitosan enhance oral peptide delivery to rats☆

    PubMed Central

    Gradauer, K.; Barthelmes, J.; Vonach, C.; Almer, G.; Mangge, H.; Teubl, B.; Roblegg, E.; Dünnhaupt, S.; Fröhlich, E.; Bernkop-Schnürch, A.; Prassl, R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the in vivo evaluation of thiomer-coated liposomes for an oral application of peptides. For this purpose, salmon calcitonin was chosen as a model drug and encapsulated within liposomes. Subsequently, the drug loaded liposomes were coated with either chitosan–thioglycolic acid (CS–TGA) or an S-protected version of the same polymer (CS–TGA–MNA), leading to an increase in the particle size of about 500 nm and an increase in the zeta potential from approximately − 40 mV to a maximum value of about + 44 mV, depending on the polymer. Coated liposomes were demonstrated to effectively penetrate the intestinal mucus layer where they came in close contact with the underlying epithelium. To investigate the permeation enhancing properties of the coated liposomes ex vivo, we monitored the transport of fluoresceinisothiocyanate-labeled salmon calcitonin (FITC-sCT) through rat small intestine. Liposomes coated with CS–TGA–MNA showed the highest effect, leading to a 3.8-fold increase in the uptake of FITC-sCT versus the buffer control. In vivo evaluation of the different formulations was carried out by the oral application of 40 μg of sCT per rat, either encapsulated within uncoated liposomes, CS–TGA-coated liposomes or CS–TGA–MNA-coated liposomes, or given as a solution serving as negative control. The blood calcium level was monitored over a time period of 24 h. The highest reduction in the blood calcium level, to a minimum of 65% of the initial value after 6 h, was achieved for CS–TGA–MNA-coated liposomes. Comparing the areas above curves (AAC) of the blood calcium levels, CS–TGA–MNA-coated liposomes led to an 8.2-fold increase compared to the free sCT solution if applied orally in the same concentration. According to these results, liposomes coated with S-protected thiomers have demonstrated to be highly valuable carriers for enhancing the oral bioavailability of salmon calcitonin. PMID:24140721

  3. Liposomes coated with thiolated chitosan enhance oral peptide delivery to rats.

    PubMed

    Gradauer, K; Barthelmes, J; Vonach, C; Almer, G; Mangge, H; Teubl, B; Roblegg, E; Dünnhaupt, S; Fröhlich, E; Bernkop-Schnürch, A; Prassl, R

    2013-12-28

    The aim of the present study was the in vivo evaluation of thiomer-coated liposomes for an oral application of peptides. For this purpose, salmon calcitonin was chosen as a model drug and encapsulated within liposomes. Subsequently, the drug loaded liposomes were coated with either chitosan-thioglycolic acid (CS-TGA) or an S-protected version of the same polymer (CS-TGA-MNA), leading to an increase in the particle size of about 500 nm and an increase in the zeta potential from approximately -40 mV to a maximum value of about +44 mV, depending on the polymer. Coated liposomes were demonstrated to effectively penetrate the intestinal mucus layer where they came in close contact with the underlying epithelium. To investigate the permeation enhancing properties of the coated liposomes ex vivo, we monitored the transport of fluoresceinisothiocyanate-labeled salmon calcitonin (FITC-sCT) through rat small intestine. Liposomes coated with CS-TGA-MNA showed the highest effect, leading to a 3.8-fold increase in the uptake of FITC-sCT versus the buffer control. In vivo evaluation of the different formulations was carried out by the oral application of 40 μg of sCT per rat, either encapsulated within uncoated liposomes, CS-TGA-coated liposomes or CS-TGA-MNA-coated liposomes, or given as a solution serving as negative control. The blood calcium level was monitored over a time period of 24h. The highest reduction in the blood calcium level, to a minimum of 65% of the initial value after 6h, was achieved for CS-TGA-MNA-coated liposomes. Comparing the areas above curves (AAC) of the blood calcium levels, CS-TGA-MNA-coated liposomes led to an 8.2-fold increase compared to the free sCT solution if applied orally in the same concentration. According to these results, liposomes coated with S-protected thiomers have demonstrated to be highly valuable carriers for enhancing the oral bioavailability of salmon calcitonin. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Accelerated healing of skin burns by anti-Gal/alpha-gal liposomes interaction.

    PubMed

    Galili, Uri; Wigglesworth, Kim; Abdel-Motal, Ussama M

    2010-03-01

    Topical application of alpha-gal liposomes on burns results in rapid local recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages. Recruited macrophages are pivotal for healing of burns because they secrete cytokines/growth factors that induce epidermis regeneration and tissue repair. alpha-Gal liposomes have glycolipids with alpha-gal epitopes (Galalpha1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAc-R) which bind anti-Gal, the most abundant natural antibody in humans constituting approximately 1% of immunoglobulins. Interaction of alpha-gal liposomes with anti-Gal within the fluid film formed on burns, activates complement and generates chemotactic complement cleavage peptides which effectively recruit neutrophils and macrophages. Anti-Gal IgG coating alpha-gal liposomes further binds to Fcgamma receptors on macrophages and activates them to secrete cytokines/growth factors. Efficacy of alpha-gal liposomes treatment in accelerating burn healing is demonstrated in the experimental model of alpha1,3galactosyltransferase knockout mice. These mice are the only available nonprimate mammals that can produce anti-Gal in titers similar to those in humans. Pairs of burns in mice were covered either with a spot bandage coated with 10mg alpha-gal liposomes, or with a control spot bandage coated with saline. On Day 3 post-treatment, the alpha-gal liposomes treated burns contained approximately 5-fold as many neutrophils as control burns, whereas macrophages were found only in alpha-gal liposomes treated burns. On Day 6, 50-100% of the surface area of alpha-gal liposomes treated burns were covered with regenerating epidermis (re-epithelialization), whereas almost no epidermis was found in control burns. The extensive recruitment of macrophages by anti-Gal/alpha-gal liposomes interaction was further demonstrated in vivo with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponge discs containing alpha-gal liposomes, implanted subcutaneously. Since anti-Gal is abundant in all humans, it is suggested that treatment with alpha-gal liposomes

  5. Effect of gangliosides in the autoimmune response induced by liposome-associated antigens.

    PubMed

    Correa, S G; Rivero, V E; Yranzo-Volonté, N; Romero-Piffiguer, M; Ferro, M E; Riera, C M

    1993-01-01

    A model of autoimmunity to rat male accessory glands (RAG) was recently developed by intraperitoneal administration of three doses of native RAG associated with liposomes. In this work we analysed the effects of gangliosides in the cellular response to RAG when they were intraperitoneally administrated prior to the second dose of liposome-associated RAG. Results show that the ganglioside treatment could modify an established DTH response. Also, gangliosides markedly reduced the number of Ia antigen-positive peritoneal exudated cells (PEC). However, they modified neither the processing of liposomes through PEC nor their viability. Moreover, we obtained cellular response by transferring PEC from immunized donors into naive receptors.

  6. Multifunctional liposomes delay phenotype progression and prevent memory impairment in a presymptomatic stage mouse model of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Simona; Balducci, Claudia; Micotti, Edoardo; Tolomeo, Daniele; Forloni, Gianluigi; Masserini, Massimo; Re, Francesca

    2017-07-28

    The failure of clinical trials largely focused on mild to moderate stages of Alzheimer disease has suggested to the scientific community that the effectiveness of Amyloid-β (Aβ)-centered treatments should be evaluated starting as early as possible, well before irreversible brain damage has occurred. Accordingly, also the preclinical development of new therapies should be carried out taking into account this suggestion. In the present investigation we evaluated the efficacy of a treatment with liposomes multifunctionalized for crossing the blood-brain barrier and targeting Aβ, carried out on young APP/PS1 Tg mice, taken as a model of pre-symptomatic disease stage. Liposomes were administered once a week to Tg mice for 7months, starting at the age of 5months and up to the age of 12 when they display AD-like cognitive and brain biochemical/anatomical features. The treatment prevented the onset of the long-term memory impairment and slowed down the deposition of brain Aβ; at anatomical level, prevented both ventricle enlargement and entorhinal cortex thickness reduction, otherwise occurring in untreated mice. Strikingly, these effects were maintained 3months after treatment discontinuation. An increase of Aβ levels in the liver was detected at the end of the treatment, then followed also by reduction of brain Amyloid Precursor Protein and increase of Aβ-degrading enzymes. These results suggest that the treatment promotes brain Aβ clearance by a peripheral 'sink' effect and ultimately affects Aβ turnover in the brain. Worth of note, the treatment was apparently not toxic for all the organs analyzed, in particular for brain, as suggested by the lower brain TNF-α and MDA levels, and by higher level of SOD activity in treated mice. Together, these findings promote a very early treatment with multi-functional liposomes as a well-tolerated nanomedicine-based approach, potentially suitable for a disease-modifying therapy of AD, able to delay or prevent relevant

  7. Construction of a liposome dialyzer for the preparation of high-value, small-volume liposome formulations.

    PubMed

    Adamala, Katarzyna; Engelhart, Aaron E; Kamat, Neha P; Jin, Lin; Szostak, Jack W

    2015-06-01

    The liposome dialyzer is a small-volume equilibrium dialysis device, built from commercially available materials, that is designed for the rapid exchange of small volumes of an extraliposomal reagent pool against a liposome preparation. The dialyzer is prepared by modification of commercially available dialysis cartridges (Slide-A-Lyzer cassettes), and it consists of a reactor with two 300-μl chambers and a 1.56-cm(2) dialysis surface area. The dialyzer is prepared in three stages: (i) disassembling the dialysis cartridges to obtain the required parts, (ii) assembling the dialyzer and (iii) sealing the dialyzer with epoxy. Preparation of the dialyzer takes ∼1.5 h, not including overnight epoxy curing. Each round of dialysis takes 1-24 h, depending on the analyte and membrane used. We previously used the dialyzer for small-volume non-enzymatic RNA synthesis reactions inside fatty acid vesicles. In this protocol, we demonstrate other applications, including removal of unencapsulated calcein from vesicles, remote loading and vesicle microscopy.

  8. Investigation of the interface in silica-encapsulated liposomes by combining solid state NMR and first principles calculations.

    PubMed

    Folliet, Nicolas; Roiland, Claire; Bégu, Sylvie; Aubert, Anne; Mineva, Tzonka; Goursot, Annick; Selvaraj, Kaliaperumal; Duma, Luminita; Tielens, Frederik; Mauri, Francesco; Laurent, Guillaume; Bonhomme, Christian; Gervais, Christel; Babonneau, Florence; Azaïs, Thierry

    2011-10-26

    In the context of nanomedicine, liposils (liposomes and silica) have a strong potential for drug storage and release schemes: such materials combine the intrinsic properties of liposome (encapsulation) and silica (increased rigidity, protective coating, pH degradability). In this work, an original approach combining solid state NMR, molecular dynamics, first principles geometry optimization, and NMR parameters calculation allows the building of a precise representation of the organic/inorganic interface in liposils. {(1)H-(29)Si}(1)H and {(1)H-(31)P}(1)H Double Cross-Polarization (CP) MAS NMR experiments were implemented in order to explore the proton chemical environments around the silica and the phospholipids, respectively. Using VASP (Vienna Ab Initio Simulation Package), DFT calculations including molecular dynamics, and geometry optimization lead to the determination of energetically favorable configurations of a DPPC (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine) headgroup adsorbed onto a hydroxylated silica surface that corresponds to a realistic model of an amorphous silica slab. These data combined with first pri