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Sample records for a2 icrh antennas

  1. Operations of the External Conjugate-T Matching System for the A2 ICRH Antennas at JET

    SciTech Connect

    Monakhov, I.; Graham, M.; Blackman, T.

    2009-11-26

    The External Conjugate-T (ECT) matching system was successfully commissioned on two A2 ICRH antennas at JET in 2009. The system allows trip-free injection of RF power into ELMy H-mode plasmas in the 32-52 MHz band without antenna phasing restrictions. The ECT demonstrates robust and predictable performance and high load-tolerance during routine operations, injecting up to 4 MW average power into H-mode plasma with Type-I ELMs. The total power coupled to ELMy plasma by all the A2 antennas using the ECT and 3dB systems has been increased to 7 MW. Antenna arcing during ELMs has been identified as a new challengemore » to high-power ICRH operations in H-mode plasma. The implemented Advanced Wave Amplitude Comparison System (AWACS) has proven to be an efficient protection tool for the ECT scheme.« less

  2. Operations of the External Conjugate-T Matching System for the A2 ICRH Antennas at JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monakhov, I.; Graham, M.; Blackman, T.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Nightingale, M.; Sheikh, H.; Whitehurst, A.

    2009-11-01

    The External Conjugate-T (ECT) matching system was successfully commissioned on two A2 ICRH antennas at JET in 2009. The system allows trip-free injection of RF power into ELMy H-mode plasmas in the 32-52 MHz band without antenna phasing restrictions. The ECT demonstrates robust and predictable performance and high load-tolerance during routine operations, injecting up to 4 MW average power into H-mode plasma with Type-I ELMs. The total power coupled to ELMy plasma by all the A2 antennas using the ECT and 3dB systems has been increased to 7 MW. Antenna arcing during ELMs has been identified as a new challenge to high-power ICRH operations in H-mode plasma. The implemented Advanced Wave Amplitude Comparison System (AWACS) has proven to be an efficient protection tool for the ECT scheme.

  3. Design and operations of a load-tolerant external conjugate-T matching system for the A2 ICRH antennas at JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monakhov, I.; Graham, M.; Blackman, T.; Dowson, S.; Durodie, F.; Jacquet, P.; Lehmann, J.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Nightingale, M. P. S.; Noble, C.; Sheikh, H.; Vrancken, M.; Walden, A.; Whitehurst, A.; Wooldridge, E.; Contributors, JET-EFDA

    2013-08-01

    A load-tolerant external conjugate-T (ECT) impedance matching system for two A2 ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antennas was successfully put into operation at JET. The system allows continuous injection of the radio-frequency (RF) power into plasma in the presence of strong antenna loading perturbations caused by edge-localized modes (ELMs). Reliable ECT performance was demonstrated under a variety of antenna loading conditions including H-mode plasmas with radial outer gaps (ROGs) in the range 4-14 cm. The high resilience to ELMs predicted during the circuit simulations was fully confirmed experimentally. Dedicated arc-detection techniques and real-time matching algorithms were developed as a part of the ECT project. The new advanced wave amplitude comparison system has proven highly efficient in detection of arcs both between and during ELMs. The ECT system has allowed the delivery of up to 4 MW of RF power without trips into plasmas with type-I ELMs. Together with the 3 dB system and the ITER-like antenna, the ECT has brought the total RF power coupled to ELMy plasma to over 8 MW, considerably enhancing JET research capabilities. This paper provides an overview of the key design features of the ECT system and summarizes the main experimental results achieved so far.

  4. Modeling of the JET-EP ICRH antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, R.; Amarante, G. S.; Heuraux, S.; Pécoul, S.; Louche, F.

    2001-10-01

    The new ICRH antenna planned for the Enhanced Performance phase of JET (JET-EP) is analyzed using the antenna coupling code ICANT, which self-consistently determines the currents on all antenna parts. This study addresses, using a simplified antenna model, the question of the impact on the coupling of the poloidal segmentation of the conductors, of their width and of their poloidal phasing. We also address the question of the relation between the imaginary part of the power computed by the code and the input impedance of the antenna. An example of current distribution on the complete antenna in vacuum is also shown.

  5. Thermal analysis and optimization of the EAST ICRH antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qingxi, YANG; Wei, SONG; Qunshan, DU; Yuntao, SONG; Chengming, QIN; Xinjun, ZHANG; Yanping, ZHAO

    2018-02-01

    The ion cyclotron resonance of frequency heating (ICRH) plays an important role in plasma heating. Two ICRH antennas were designed and applied on the EAST tokamak. In order to meet the requirement imposed by high-power and long-pulse operation of EAST in the future, an active cooling system is mandatory to be designed to remove the heat load deposited on the components. Thermal analyses for high heat-load components have been carried out, which presented clear temperature distribution on each component and provided the reference data to do the optimization. Meanwhile, heat pipes were designed to satisfy the high requirement imposed by a Faraday shield and lateral limiter.

  6. Self-consistent computation of the electric field near ICRH antennas. Application to the Tore Supra antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pécoul, S.; Heuraux, S.; Koch, R.; Leclert, G.; Bécoulet, A.; Colas, L.

    1999-09-01

    Self-consistent calculations of the 3D electric field patterns between the screen and the plasma have been made with the ICANT code for realistic antennas. Here we explain how the ICRH antennas of the Tore Supra tokamak are modelled.

  7. Self-consistent computation of the electric field near ICRH antennas. Application to the Tore Supra antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Pecoul, S.; Heuraux, S.; Koch, R.

    1999-09-20

    Self-consistent calculations of the 3D electric field patterns between the screen and the plasma have been made with the ICANT code for realistic antennas. Here we explain how the ICRH antennas of the Tore Supra tokamak are modelled.

  8. ICRH antenna S-matrix measurements and plasma coupling characterisation at JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monakhov, I.; Jacquet, P.; Blackman, T.; Bobkov, V.; Dumortier, P.; Helou, W.; Lerche, E.; Kirov, K.; Milanesio, D.; Maggiora, R.; Noble, C.; Contributors, JET

    2018-04-01

    The paper is dedicated to the characterisation of multi-strap ICRH antenna coupling to plasma. Relevance of traditional concept of coupling resistance to antennas with mutually coupled straps is revised and the importance of antenna port excitation consistency for application of the concept is highlighted. A method of antenna S-matrix measurement in presence of plasma is discussed allowing deeper insight into the problem of antenna-plasma coupling. The method is based entirely on the RF plant hardware and control facilities available at JET and it involves application of variable phasing between the antenna straps during the RF plant operations at  >100 kW. Unlike traditional techniques relying on low-power (~10 mW) network analysers, the applied antenna voltage amplitudes are relevant to practical conditions of ICRH operations; crucially, they are high enough to minimise possible effects of antenna loading non-linearity due to the RF sheath effects and other phenomena which could affect low-power measurements. The method has been successfully applied at JET to conventional 4-port ICRH antennas energised at frequencies of 33 MHz, 42 MHz and 51 MHz during L-mode plasma discharges while different gas injection modules (GIMs) were used to maintain comparable plasma densities during the pulses. The S-matrix assessment and its subsequent processing yielding ‘global’ antenna coupling resistances in conditions of equalised port maximum voltages allowed consistent description of antenna coupling to plasma at different strap phasing, operational frequencies and applied GIMs. Comprehensive experimental characterisation of mutually coupled antenna straps in presence of plasma also provided a unique opportunity for in-depth verification of TOPICA computer simulations.

  9. Progress in Arc Safety System Based on Harmonics Detection for ICRH Antennae

    SciTech Connect

    Berger-By, G.; Beaumont, B.; Lombard, G.

    2007-09-28

    The arc detection systems based on harmonics detection have been tested n USA (TFTR, DIII, Alcator C-mod) and Germany (Asdex). These systems have some advantages in comparison with traditonal securities which use a threshold on the Vr/Vf (Reflected to Forward voltage ratio) calculation and are ITER relevant. On Tore Supra (TS) 3 systems have been built using this principle with some improvements and new features to increase the protection of the 3 ICRH generators and antennae. On JET 2 arc safety systems based on the TS principle wil also be used to mprove the JET ITER-like antenna safety. In ordermore » to have the maximum security level on the TS ICRH system, the 3 antennae are used with these systems during all plasma shots n redundancy with the other systems. This TS RF principle and ts electronic interactions with the VME control of the generator are described. The results on the TS ICRH transmitter feeding the 3 antennae are summarized and some typical signals are given.« less

  10. Numerical modeling of the coupling of an ICRH antenna with a plasma with self-consistent antenna currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pécoul, S.; Heuraux, S.; Koch, R.; Leclert, G.

    2002-07-01

    A realistic modeling of ICRH antennas requires the knowledge of the antenna currents. The code ICANT determines self-consistently these currents and, as a byproduct, the electrical characteristics of the antenna (radiated power, propagation constants on straps, frequency response, … ). The formalism allows for the description of three-dimensional antenna elements (for instance, finite size thick screen blades). The results obtained for various cases where analytical results are available are discussed. The resonances appearing in the spectrum and the occurrence of unphysical resonant modes are discussed. The capability of this self-consistent method is illustrated by a number of examples, e.g., fully conducting thin or thick screen bars leading to magnetic shielding effects, frequency response and resonances of an end-tuned antenna, field distributions in front of a Tore-Supra type antenna with tilted screen blades.

  11. Improvements to the ICRH antenna time-domain 3D plasma simulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithe, David N.; Jenkins, Thomas G.; King, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    We present a summary of ongoing improvements to the 3D time-domain plasma modeling software that has been used to look at ICRH antennas on Alcator C-Mod, NSTX, and ITER [1]. Our past investigations have shown that in low density cases where the slow wave is propagating, strong amplitude lower hybrid resonant fields can occur. Such a scenario could result in significant parasitic power loss in the SOL. The primary resonance broadening in this case is likely collisions with neutral gas, and thus we are upgrading the model to include realistic neutral gas in the SOL, in order to provide a better understanding of energy balance in these situations. Related to this, we are adding a temporal variation capability to the local plasma density in front of the antenna in order to investigate whether the near fields of the antenna could modify the local density sufficiently to initiate a low density situation. We will start with a simple scalar ponderomotive potential density expulsion model [2] for the density evolution, but are also looking to eventually couple to a more complex fluid treatment that would include tensor pressures and convective physics and sources of neutrals and ionization. We also review continued benchmarking efforts, and ongoing and planned improvements to the computational algorithms, resulting from experience gained during our recent supercomputing runs on the Titan supercomputer, including GPU operations.

  12. Prediction of plasma-facing ICRH antenna behavior via a Finite-Element solution of coupled Integral Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancellotti, V.; Milanesio, D.; Maggiora, R.; Vecchi, G.; Kyrytsya, V.

    2005-09-01

    The demand for a predictive tool to help designing ICRH antennas for fusion experiments has driven the development of codes like ICANT, RANT3D, and the early developments and further upgrades of TOPICA code. Currently, TOPICA handles the actual geometry of ICRH antennas (with their housing, etc.) as well as a realistic plasma model, including density and temperature profiles and FLR effects. Both goals have been attained by formally splitting the problem into two parts: the vacuum region around the antenna, and the plasma region inside the toroidal chamber. Field continuity and boundary conditions allow writing a set of coupled integral equations for the unknown equivalent (current) sources; finite elements are used on a triangular-cell mesh and a linear system is obtained on application of the weighted-residual solution scheme. In the vacuum region calculations are done in the spatial domain, whereas in the plasma region a spectral (wavenumber) representation of fields and currents is adopted, thus allowing a description of the plasma by a surface impedance matrix. Thanks to this approach, any plasma model can be used in principle, and at present Brambilla's FELICE code has been employed. The natural outputs of TOPICA are the induced currents on the conductors and the electric field in front of the plasma, whence the antenna circuit parameters (impedance/scattering matrices), the radiated power and the fields (at locations other than the chamber aperture) are then obtained. An accurate model of the feeding coaxial lines is also included. This paper is precisely devoted to the description of TOPICA, whereas examples of results for real-life antennas are reported in a companion paper [1] in this proceedings.

  13. Prediction of plasma-facing ICRH antenna behavior via a Finite-Element solution of coupled Integral Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Lancellotti, V.; Milanesio, D.; Maggiora, R.

    2005-09-26

    The demand for a predictive tool to help designing ICRH antennas for fusion experiments has driven the development of codes like ICANT, RANT3D, and the early developments and further upgrades of TOPICA code. Currently, TOPICA handles the actual geometry of ICRH antennas (with their housing, etc.) as well as a realistic plasma model, including density and temperature profiles and FLR effects. Both goals have been attained by formally splitting the problem into two parts: the vacuum region around the antenna, and the plasma region inside the toroidal chamber. Field continuity and boundary conditions allow writing a set of coupled integralmore » equations for the unknown equivalent (current) sources; finite elements are used on a triangular-cell mesh and a linear system is obtained on application of the weighted-residual solution scheme. In the vacuum region calculations are done in the spatial domain, whereas in the plasma region a spectral (wavenumber) representation of fields and currents is adopted, thus allowing a description of the plasma by a surface impedance matrix. Thanks to this approach, any plasma model can be used in principle, and at present Brambilla's FELICE code has been employed. The natural outputs of TOPICA are the induced currents on the conductors and the electric field in front of the plasma, whence the antenna circuit parameters (impedance/scattering matrices), the radiated power and the fields (at locations other than the chamber aperture) are then obtained. An accurate model of the feeding coaxial lines is also included. This paper is precisely devoted to the description of TOPICA, whereas examples of results for real-life antennas are reported in a companion paper in this proceedings.« less

  14. ICANT, a code for the self-consistent computation of ICRH antenna coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pécoul, S.; Heuraux, S.; Koch, R.; Leclert, G.

    1996-02-01

    The code deals with 3D antenna structures (finite length antennae) that are used to launch electromagnetic waves into tokamak plasmas. The antenna radiation problem is solved using a finite boundary element technique combined with a spectral solution of the interior problem. The slab approximation is used, and periodicity in y and z directions is introduced to account for toroidal geometry. We present results for various types of antennae radiating in vacuum: antenna with a finite Faraday screen and ideal Faraday screen, antenna with side limiters and phased antenna arrays. The results (radiated power, current profile) obtained are very close to analytical solutions when available.

  15. Conceptual study of an ICRH traveling-wave antenna system for low-coupling conditions as expected in DEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragona, R.; Messiaen, A.

    2016-07-01

    For the central heating of a fusion reactor ion cyclotron radio frequency heating (ICRH) is the first choice method as it is able to couple RF power to the ions without density limit. The drawback of this heating method is the problem of excitation of the magneto-sonic wave through the plasma boundary layer from the antenna located along the wall, without exceeding its voltage standoff. The amount of coupling depends on the antenna excitation and the surface admittance at the antenna output due to the plasma profile. The paper deals with the optimization of the antenna excitation by the use of sections of traveling-wave antennas (TWAs) distributed all along the reactor wall between the blanket modules. They are mounted and fed in resonant ring system(s). First, the physics of the coupling of a strap array is studied by simple models and the coupling code ANTITER II. Then, after the study of the basic properties of a TWA section, its feeding problem is solved by hybrids driving them in resonant ring circuit(s). The complete modeling is obtained from the matrices of the TWA sections connected to one of the feeding hybrid(s). The solution is iterated with the coupling code to determine the loading for a reference low-coupling ITER plasma profile. The resulting wave pattern up to the plasma bulk is derived. The proposed system is totally load resilient and allows us to obtain a very selective exciting wave spectrum. A discussion of some practical implementation problems is added.

  16. Analysis of the phase control of the ITER ICRH antenna array. Influence on the load resilience and radiated power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Messiaen, A., E-mail: a.messiaen@fz-juelich.de; Ongena, J.; Vervier, M.

    2015-12-10

    The paper analyses how the phasing of the ITER ICRH 24 strap array evolves from the power sources up to the strap currents of the antenna. The study of the phasing control and coherence through the feeding circuits with prematching and automatic matching and decoupling network is made by modeling starting from the TOPICA matrix of the antenna array for a low coupling plasma profile and for current drive phasing (worst case for mutual coupling effects). The main results of the analysis are: (i) the strap current amplitude is well controlled by the antinode V{sub max} amplitude of the feedingmore » lines, (ii) the best toroidal phasing control is done by the adjustment of the mean phase of V{sub max} of each poloidal straps column, (iii) with well adjusted system the largest strap current phasing error is ±20°, (iv) the effect on load resilience remains well below the maximum affordable VSWR of the generators, (v) the effect on the radiated power spectrum versus k{sub //} computed by means of the coupling code ANTITER II remains small for the considered cases.« less

  17. ICANT, a code for the self-consistent computation of ICRH antenna coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Pecoul, S.; Heuraux, S.; Koch, R.

    1996-02-01

    The code deals with 3D antenna structures (finite length antennae) that are used to launch electromagnetic waves into tokamak plasmas. The antenna radiation problem is solved using a finite boundary element technique combined with a spectral solution of the interior problem. The slab approximation is used, and periodicity in {ital y} and {ital z} directions is introduced to account for toroidal geometry. We present results for various types of antennae radiating in vacuum: antenna with a finite Faraday screen and ideal Faraday screen, antenna with side limiters and phased antenna arrays. The results (radiated power, current profile) obtained are verymore » close to analytical solutions when available. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}« less

  18. Study of the effects of corrugated wall structures due to blanket modules around ICRH antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Dumortier, Pierre; Louche, Fabrice; Messiaen, André

    2014-02-12

    In future fusion reactors, and in ITER, the first wall will be covered by blanket modules. These blanket modules, whose dimensions are of the order of the ICRF wavelengths, together with the clearance gaps between them will constitute a corrugated structure which will interact with the electromagnetic waves launched by ICRF antennas. The conditions in which the grooves constituted by the clearance gaps between the blanket modules can become resonant are studied. Simple analytical models and numerical simulations show that mushroom type structures (with larger gaps at the back than at the front) can bring down the resonance frequencies, whichmore » could lead to large voltages in the gaps between the blanket modules and perturb the RF properties of the antenna if they are in the ICRF operating range. The effect on the wave propagation along the wall structure, which is acting as a spatially periodic (toroidally and poloidally) corrugated structure, and hence constitutes a slow wave structure modifying the wall boundary condition, is examined.« less

  19. JET ICRH plant statistics from 2008-2012

    SciTech Connect

    Wooldridge, E.; Monakhov, I.; Blackman, T.

    2014-02-12

    JET ICRH plant faults from 2008 - 2012 have been catalogued and a new assessment of the reliability of the plant by sub-system is given. Data from pulses where ICRH was used, excluding the ITER-Like Antenna (ILA) and its generators, has been collated. This is compared to fault data in order to investigate any correlation between faults and operations. The number of faults is shown to have decreased between 2011-2012 in comparison to 2008-2009 as the time between faults is shown to have increased. Future electronic fault logging requirements to enable easier analysis are discussed. Due to the changing configurationmore » of the ICRH plant; the introduction of ELM tolerant systems, generator upgrade, changes to the settings of the VSWR protection et cetera, a method to expand the fault database to include more historical data [1] in a consistent way are discussed.« less

  20. Composite Materials and Meta Materials for a New Approach to ITER ICRH Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Bottollier-Curtet, H.; Argouarch, A.; Vulliez, K.

    Preliminary laboratory testing of ICRH antennas is a very useful step before their commissioning. Traditionally, pure water, salt water or baking soda water loads are used. These 'water' loads are convenient but strongly limited in terms of performance testing. We have started two feasibility studies for advanced ICRH loads made of ferroelectric ceramics (passive loads) and meta materials (active loads). Preliminary results are very encouraging.

  1. ICRH system performance during ITER-Like Wall operations at JET and the outlook for DT campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monakhov, Igor; Blackman, Trevor; Dumortier, Pierre; Durodié, Frederic; Jacquet, Philippe; Lerche, Ernesto; Noble, Craig

    2017-10-01

    Performance of JET ICRH system since installation of the metal ITER-Like Wall (ILW) has been assessed statistically. The data demonstrate steady increase of the RF power coupled to plasmas over recent years with the maximum pulse-average and peak values exceeding respectively 6MW and 8MW in 2016. Analysis and extrapolation of power capabilities of conventional JET ICRH antennas is provided and key performance-limiting factors are discussed. The RF plant operational frequency options are presented highlighting the issues of efficient ICRH application within a foreseeable range of DT plasma scenarios.

  2. Antennae

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-12-09

    Atlas Image mosaic, covering 7 x 7 on the sky of the interacting galaxies NGC 4038 and NGC 4039, better known as the Antennae, or Ring Tail galaxies. The two galaxies are engaged in a tug-of-war as they collide.

  3. Ion Cyclotron Resonant Heating (ICRH) system used on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U)

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, S.W.; Maxwell, T.M.; Antelman, D.R.

    1985-11-11

    Ion Cyclotron Resonant Heating (ICRH) is part of the plasma heating system used on the TMX-U experiment. Radio frequency (RF) energy is injected into the TMX-U plasma at a frequency near the fundamental ion resonance (2 to 5 MHz). The RF fields impart high velocities to the ions in a direction perpendicular to the TMX-U magnetic field. Particle collision then converts this perpendicular heating to uniform plasma heating. This paper describes the various aspects of the ICRH system: antennas, power supplies, computer control, and data acquisition. 4 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Antennae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Atlas Image mosaic, covering 7' x 7' on the sky of the interacting galaxies NGC 4038 and NGC 4039, better known as the Antennae, or Ring Tail galaxies. The two galaxies are engaged in a tug-of-war as they collide. The mutual gravitation between them is working to distort each spiral galaxy's appearance as the two merge. The interaction is evidently impetus for an intense burst of new star formation, as can be seen from the many infrared-bright knots and bright galactic nuclei. Compare the 2MASS view of this system with that obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope in the optical. Many of the same features are seen, although 2MASS is able to peer through much of the dust seen in the galaxies' disks. The galaxy light looks smoother. Also, in the near-infrared the bright knots of star formation are likely highlighted by the light of massive red supergiant stars. The much more extended 'tidal tails,' which give the Antennae their name, are quite faint in the 2MASS image mosaic.

  5. Developments for the ICRH System of the Ignitor Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassi, M.; Mantovani, S.; Coppi, B.

    2014-10-01

    The ICRH system that is suitable for the high-density plasmas to be produced by the Ignitor machine has been designed and components of it have been tested. This system will operate over the range 80-120 MHz, consistently with magnetic fields in the range 9-13 T. The maximum delivered power is in the interval 8 MW (at 80 MHz) to 6 MW (at 120 MHz) distributed over 4 ports. A full size prototype of the VTL between the port flange and the antenna straps, with the external support and precise guiding system has been constructed. The innovative quick latching system located at the end of the coaxial cable has been successfully tested, providing perfect interference with the spring Be-Cu electrical contacts. Vacuum levels of 10-6, compatible with the limit of material degassing, and electrical tests up to 12 kV without discharges have been obtained. Sponsored in part by the US DOE.

  6. Use of a 2.3-GHz traveling-wave maser on the Usuda 64-meter antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, D.

    1987-01-01

    A 2.3 GHz traveling-wave maser/closed-cycle refrigeration system was installed on the 64 m antenna at Usuda, Japan. This was done to evaluate the beam-waveguide antenna noise performance, and to support the International Cometary Explorer's (ICE's) comet flyby mission. System noise temperature at 2270 MHz was measured to be 15 K, including the maser noise contribution of 2.5 K. Maser installation and noise performance are described. The Usuda 64 m antenna is of high quality with a system operating noise temperature better than the DSN 64 m antennas.

  7. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Performance Verification Report: Antenna Drive Subsystem METSAT AMSU-A2 (PN:1331200-2, SN:108)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haapala, C.

    1999-01-01

    This is the Performance Verification Report, Antenna Drive Subassembly, Antenna Drive Subsystem, METSAT AMSU-A2 (P/N 1331200-2, SN: 108), for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  8. Generation of multiple analog pulses with different duty cycles within VME control system for ICRH Aditya system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Ramesh; Singh, Manoj; Jadav, H. M.; Misra, Kishor; Kulkarni, S. V.; ICRH-RF Group

    2010-02-01

    Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) is a promising heating method for a fusion device due to its localized power deposition profile, a direct ion heating at high density, and established technology for high RF power generation and transmission at low cost. Multiple analog pulse with different duty cycle in master of digital pulse for Data acquisition and Control system for steady state RF ICRH System(RF ICRH DAC) to be used for operating of RF Generator in Aditya to produce pre ionization and second analog pulse will produce heating. The control system software is based upon single digital pulse operation for RF source. It is planned to integrate multiple analog pulses with different duty cycle in master of digital pulse for Data acquisition and Control system for RF ICRH System(RF ICRH DAC) to be used for operating of RF Generator in Aditya tokamak. The task of RF ICRH DAC is to control and acquisition of all ICRH system operation with all control loop and acquisition for post analysis of data with java based tool. For pre ionization startup as well as heating experiments using multiple RF Power of different powers and duration. The experiment based upon the idea of using single RF generator to energize antenna inside the tokamak to radiate power twise, out of which first analog pulse will produce pre ionization and second analog pulse will produce heating. The whole system is based on standard client server technology using tcp/ip protocol. DAC Software is based on linux operating system for highly reliable, secure and stable system operation in failsafe manner. Client system is based on tcl/tk like toolkit for user interface with c/c++ like environment which is reliable programming languages widely used on stand alone system operation with server as vxWorks real time operating system like environment. The paper is focused on the Data acquisition and monitoring system software on Aditya RF ICRH System with analog pulses in slave mode with digital pulse in

  9. Study of the choice of the decoupling layout for the ITER ICRH system

    SciTech Connect

    Vervier, M., E-mail: michel.vervier@rma.ac.be; Messiaen, A.; Ongena, J.

    10 decouplers are used to neutralize the mutual coupling effects and to control the current amplitude of the 24 straps array of the ITER ICRH antenna in the case of current drive phasing. In the case of heating phasing only 4 decouplers are active and the array current control needs to act on the ratio between the power delivered by the 4 generators. This ratio is very sensitive to the precise adjustment of the antenna array phasing. The maximum total radiated power capability is then limited when the power of one generator reaches its maximum value. With the addition ofmore » four switches all 10 installed decouplers are made active and can act on all mutual coupling effects with equal source power from the 4 generators. With four more switches the current drive phasing could work with a reduced poloidal phasing resulting in a 35% increase of its coupling to the plasma.« less

  10. A 2×1 Coplanar Monopole Antenna Structure for Wireless RF Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, Monika; Agarwal, Ankit; Singh, Ghanshyam; Bhatnagar, S. K.

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to design an efcient wireless energy harvesting (WEH) system to eliminate the problem to continuous charging of a battery operated electronics devices. Most of the devices are battery operated so charging of a battery time to time is serious issue. This WEH system receives the Radio Frequency (RF) and Microwave frequency signals present in the atmosphere and converting it into DC signal so that it can stores in Capacitor or charges a battery for utilize the power. For this RF energy harvesting purposes 21 antenna array structure of the coplanar monopole antenna is presented. This structure shows the gain of 10.2 dBi and 83% efciency. This structure is designed for resonating on multiple bands (Radio, GSM, ISM, and UWB). It is useful for this application because it covers almost all useful bands in the maximum capturing area. The antenna can be connected directly to an RF-DC converter module and it uses about 60% of the total PCB area. And RF to DC convertor circuit can be implemented in that remaining 40% area on the same substrate so it eliminates the need of port connectors and impedance matching circuit between them. This design is worked in receiving mode only when used for energy harvesting purposes. This may be useful for the biomedical and satellite applications.

  11. Radio antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, S. W.

    This book is concerned with providing an explanation of the function of an antenna without delving too deeply into the mathematics or theory. The characteristics of an antenna are examined, taking into account aspects of antenna radiation, wave motion on the antenna, resistance in the antenna, impedance, the resonant antenna, the effect of the ground, polarization, radiation patterns, coupling effects between antenna elements, and receiving vs. transmitting. Aspects of propagation are considered along with the types of antennas, transmission lines, matching devices, questions of antenna design, antennas for the lower frequency bands, antennas for more than one band, limited space antennas, VHF antennas, and antennas for 20, 15, and 10 meters. Attention is given to devices for measuring antenna parameters, approaches for evaluating the antenna, questions of safety, and legal aspects.

  12. Construction of a Full-size Component of the ICRH System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantovani, S.; Sassi, M.; Coppi, B.

    2012-10-01

    The ICRH system is an important component of the Ignitor project and all efforts have been made to ensure that its design takes into account the construction experience gained in the most advanced laboratories. The system is designed to operate over a frequency range 80-120 MHz, which is consistent with the use of magnetic fields in the range 9-13 T. The maximum delivered power ranges from 8 MW (at 80 MHz) to 6 MW (at 120 MHz) distributed over 4 ports. Since the transition from a detailed design to the actual construction is not without surprises we have constructed a full size prototype of the VTL between the port flange and the antenna straps, with the external support and precise guiding system. The innovative quick latching system located at the end of the coaxial cable was successfully tested, providing perfect interference with the spring Be-Cu electrical contacts. Special care was given to the finishing of the inox surfaces, and to the TIG welds. Vacuum levels of 10-6, compatible with the limit of material degassing, and electrical tests up to 12 kV without discharges have been obtained. A revision of the other key components of the Ignitor machine has been undertaken, taking into account the experience gained in the fabrication of the corresponding prototypes.

  13. Beam ion acceleration by ICRH in JET discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budny, R. V.; Gorelenkova, M.; Bertelli, N.; JET Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    The ion Monte-Carlo orbit integrator NUBEAM, used in TRANSP has been enhanced to include an ``RF-kick'' operator to simulate the interaction of RF fields and fast ions. The RF quasi-linear operator (localized in space) uses a second R-Z orbit integrator. We apply this to analysis of recent JET discharges using ICRH with the ITER-like first wall. An example of results for a high performance Hybrid discharge for which standard TRANSP analysis simulated the DD neutron emission rate below measurements, re-analysis using the RF-kick operator results in increased beam parallel and perpendicular energy densities (~=40% and 15% respectively), and increased beam-thermal neutron emission (~= 35%), making the total rate closer to the measurement. Checks of the numerics, comparisons with measurements, and ITER implications will be presented. Supported in part by the US DoE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466 and by EUROfusion No 633053.

  14. Development of pre pre-driver amplifier stage for generator of SST-1 ICRH system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sunil; Sinh Makwana, Azad; Srinivas, Y. S. S.; Kulkarni, S. V.; ICRH-RF Group

    2010-02-01

    The Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) system for SST1 consists mainly of the cwrf power generator to deliver 1.5MW for 1000sec duration at the frequencies 22.8, 24.3 and 45.6±1MHz, the transmission line and the antenna. This is planned to develop a independent and dedicated cwrf generator that consists of a oscillator, buffer, rf switch, modulator, rf attenuator, directional coupler, three stage solid state low power amplifier and four stage triode & tetrode based high power amplifier with specific performance at 45.6±1MHz including frequencies 22.8 and 24.3±1MHz. The pre pre-driver high power amplifier stage is fabricated about triode 3CX3000A7. The tube has sufficient margin in terms of plate dissipation and grid dissipation that makes it suitable to withstand momentarily load mismatch and to upgrade the source in terms of output power later. This indigenously developed amplifier is integrated inside a radiation resistant rack with all required biasing power supplies, cooling blower, controls, monitors and interlocks for manual or remote control operation. This grounded grid mode amplifier will be operated at plate with 3.8KV/ 800mA in class AB for 1.8KW cwrf output power rating. The input circuit is broadband and the output circuit is tunable with slide variable inductor and a vacuum variable capacitor in the frequency range of 22.8 to 45.6MHz. It is designed for a gain of about 12dB, fabrication completed and undergoing cwrf power testing. This paper presents specifications, design criteria, circuit used, operating parameters, tests conducted and the results obtained.

  15. Deployable antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor); Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Scully, Robert C. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A deployable antenna and method for using wherein the deployable antenna comprises a collapsible membrane having at least one radiating element for transmitting electromagnetic waves, receiving electromagnetic waves, or both.

  16. User Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamnejad, Vahraz; Cramer, Paul

    1990-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: (1) impact of frequency change of user and spacecraft antenna gain and size; (2) basic personal terminal antennas (impact of 20/30 GHz frequency separation; parametric studies - gain, size, weight; gain and figure of merit (G/T); design data for selected antenna concepts; critical technologies and development goals; and recommendations); and (3) user antenna radiation safety concerns.

  17. Experimental Study of Convective Cells and RF Sheaths Excited by a Fast Wave Antenna in the LAPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Michael; Gekelman, Walter; Pribyl, Patrick; van Compernolle, Bart; Carter, Troy; van Eester, Dirk; Crombé, Kristel

    2016-10-01

    Ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) will be essential for ITER where it is planned to couple 20 MW to the plasma. During ICRH, radio frequency (RF) sheaths may form on the antenna or farther away, and convective cells are suspected to form adjacent to ICRH antennas, negatively affecting both machine and plasma performance. The LAPD (ne 10 12 - 13cm-3 , Te 1-10 eV, B0 0.4 to 2 kG, diameter 60 cm, length 17m) is an ideal device for performing detailed experiments to fully diagnose these phenomena. A 200 kW RF system capable of pulsing at the 1 Hz. rep. rate of the LAPD and operating from 2 to 2.5 MHz has been constructed to perform such studies. B0 can be adjusted so that this encompasses the 1st to 7th harmonic of fci in H plasmas. Emissive, Mach, Langmuir, and B-field probes measured plasma potential, bulk plasma flows, wave patterns, ne, and Te in 2D planes at various axial locations from the antenna. Plasma potential enhancements of up to 90 V along magnetic field lines connected to the antenna and induced ExB flows consistent in structure with convective cells were observed. Details of these observations along with power scaling of RF sheath voltage and convective cell flows will be presented.

  18. Reconfigurable antenna pattern verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drexler, Jerome P. (Inventor); Becker, Robert C. (Inventor); Meyers, David W. (Inventor); Muldoon, Kelly P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of verifying programmable antenna configurations is disclosed. The method comprises selecting a desired antenna configuration from a plurality of antenna configuration patterns, with the selected antenna configuration forming at least one reconfigurable antenna from reconfigurable antenna array elements. The method validates the formation of the selected antenna configuration to determine antenna performance of the at least one reconfigurable antenna.

  19. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Performance Verification Report: METSAT AMSU-A2 Antenna Drive Subsystem, P/N 1331200-2, S/N 106

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, T.

    1998-01-01

    An antenna drive subsystem test was performed on the METSAT AMSU-A2 S/N 106 instrument. The objective of the test was to demonstrate compliance with applicable paragraphs of AMSU-A specifications S480-80. Tests were conducted at both the subassembly and instrument level.

  20. Comsat Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The antenna shown is the new, multiple-beam, Unattended Earth Terminal, located at COMSAT Laboratories in Clarksburg, Maryland. Seemingly simple, it is actually a complex structure capable of maintaining contact with several satellites simultaneously (conventional Earth station antennas communicate with only one satellite at a time). In developing the antenna, COMSAT Laboratories used NASTRAN, NASA's structural analysis computer program, together with BANDIT, a companion program. The computer programs were used to model several structural configurations and determine the most suitable, The speed and accuracy of the computerized design analysis afforded appreciable savings in time and money.

  1. Notch Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Richard Q.

    2004-01-01

    Notch antennas, also known as the tapered slot antenna (TSA), have been the topics of research for decades. TSA has demonstrated multi-octave bandwidth, moderate gain (7 to 10 dB), and symmetric E- and H- plane beam patterns and can be used for many different applications. This chapter summarizes the research activities on notch antennas over the past decade with emphasis on their most recent advances and applications. This chapter begins with some discussions on the designs of single TSA; then follows with detailed discussions of issues associated with TSA designs and performance characteristics. To conclude the chapter, some recent developments in TSA arrays and their applications are highlighted.

  2. Spacecraft Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamnejad, Vahraz; Manshadi, Farzin; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya; Cramer, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Some of the various categories of issues that must be considered in the selection and design of spacecraft antennas for a Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) are addressed, and parametric studies for some of the antenna concepts to help the system designer in making the most appropriate antenna choice with regards to weight, size, and complexity, etc. are provided. The question of appropriate polarization for the spacecraft as well as for the User Terminal Antenna required particular attention and was studied in some depth. Circular polarization seems to be the favored outcome of this study. Another problem that has generally been a complicating factor in designing the multiple beam reflector antennas, is the type of feeds (single vs. multiple element and overlapping vs. non-overlapping clusters) needed for generating the beams. This choice is dependent on certain system design factors, such as the required frequency reuse, acceptable interbeam isolation, antenna efficiency, number of beams scanned, and beam-forming network (BFN) complexity. This issue is partially addressed, but is not completely resolved. Indications are that it may be possible to use relatively simple non-overlapping clusters of only a few elements, unless a large frequency reuse and very stringent isolation levels are required.

  3. Estimates of RF-induced erosion at antenna-connected beryllium plasma-facing components in JET

    DOE PAGES

    Klepper, C. C.; Borodin, D.; Groth, M.; ...

    2016-01-18

    Radio-frequency (RF)-enhanced surface erosion of beryllium (Be) plasma-facing components is explored, for the first time, using the ERO code. We applied the code in order to measure the RF-enhanced edge Be line emission at JET Be outboard limiters, in the presence of high-power, ion cyclotronresonance heating (ICRH) in L-mode discharges. In this first modelling study, the RF sheath effect from an ICRH antenna on a magnetically connected, limiter region is simulated by adding a constant potential to the local sheath, in an attempt to match measured increases in local Be I and Be II emission of factors of 2 3.more » It was found that such increases are readily simulated with added potentials in the range of 100 200 V, which is compatible with expected values for potentials arising from rectification of sheath voltage oscillations from ICRH antennas in the scrape-off layer plasma. We also estimated absolute erosion values within the uncertainties in local plasma conditions.« less

  4. New Techniques For The Improvement Of The ICRH System ELM Tolerance On JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monakhov, I.; Blackman, T.; Walden, A.; Nightingale, M.; Whitehurst, A.; Durodie, F.; Jet Efda Contributors

    2003-12-01

    Two complementary improvements to the ELM tolerance of the existing A2 antennas on JET are being assessed. The use of external conjugate-T matching of straps of adjacent antenna arrays could reduce the VSWR levels at RF amplifier output during fast load perturbations. The scheme under consideration uses coaxial line-stretchers (trombones) for tuning the conjugate-T to low resistive impedance (3-6 Ohm) with subsequent stub/trombone circuit impedance transformation to 30 Ohms. Another technique is to modify the RF plant protection system logic to reduce the high VSWR trip duration to an absolute minimum corresponding to a typical ELM response (˜1-2ms) without compromising the plant safety. Both projects are presently being tested and could increase the average power delivered by RF plant into ELMy plasmas at JET.

  5. DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA

    DOEpatents

    Bittner, B.J.

    1958-05-20

    A high-frequency directional antenna of the 360 d scaring type is described. The antenna has for its desirable features the reduction in both size and complexity of the mechanism for rotating the antenna through its scanning movement. These advantages result from the rotation of only the driven element, the reflector remaining stationary. The particular antenna structure comprises a refiector formed by a plurality of metallic slats arranged in the configuration of an annular cage having the shape of a zone of revolution. The slats are parallel to each other and are disposed at an angle of 45 d to the axis of the cage. A directional radiator is disposed inside the cage at an angle of 45 d to the axis of the cage in the same direction as the reflecting slats which it faces. As the radiator is rotated, the electromagnetic wave is reflected from the slats facing the radiator and thereafter passes through the cage on the opposite side, since these slats are not parallel with the E vector of the wave.

  6. Experimental Study of RF Sheath Formation on a Fast Wave Antenna and Limiter in the LAPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Michael; Gekelman, Walter; Pribyl, Patrick; van Compernolle, Bart; Carter, Troy

    2015-11-01

    Ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) will be an essential component of heating power in ITER. During ICRH, radio frequency (RF) sheaths may form both at the exciting antenna and further away, e.g. in the divertor region, and may cause wall material sputtering and decreased RF power coupling to the plasma. It is important to do detailed laboratory experiments that fully diagnose the sheaths and wave fields. This is not possible in fusion devices. A new RF system has recently been constructed for performing such studies in the LAPD plasma column (ne ~1012 -1013cm-3 , Te ~ 1 - 10 eV ,B0 ~ 400 - 2000 G , diameter ~ 60cm , length ~ 18 m) . The RF system is capable of pulsing at the 1 Hz rep. rate of the LAPD plasma and operating between 2-6 MHz (1st - 9th harmonic of fci in H) with a power output of 200 kW. First results of this system driving a single-strap fast wave antenna will be presented. Emissive and Langmuir probe measurements in the vicinity of both the antenna and a remote limiter and wave coupling measured by magnetic pickup loops will be presented.

  7. Superluminal antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, John; Earley, Lawrence M.; Krawczyk, Frank L.

    A superluminal antenna element integrates a balun element to better impedance match an input cable or waveguide to a dielectric radiator element, thus preventing stray reflections and consequent undesirable radiation. For example, a dielectric housing material can be used that has a cutout area. A cable can extend into the cutout area. A triangular conductor can function as an impedance transition. An additional cylindrical element functions as a sleeve balun to better impedance match the radiator element to the cable.

  8. Superluminal antenna

    DOEpatents

    Singleton, John; Earley, Lawrence M.; Krawczyk, Frank L.; Potter, James M.; Romero, William P.; Wang, Zhi-Fu

    2018-04-17

    A superluminal antenna element integrates a balun element to better impedance match an input cable or waveguide to a dielectric radiator element, thus preventing stray reflections and consequent undesirable radiation. For example, a dielectric housing material can be used that has a cutout area. A cable can extend into the cutout area. A triangular conductor can function as an impedance transition. An additional cylindrical element functions as a sleeve balun to better impedance match the radiator element to the cable.

  9. Broadband standard dipole antenna for antenna calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Kunimasa; Sugiura, Akira; Morikawa, Takao

    1995-06-01

    Antenna calibration of EMI antennas is mostly performed by the standard antenna method at an open-field test site using a specially designed dipole antenna as a reference. In order to develop broadband standard antennas, the antenna factors of shortened dipples are theoretically investigated. First, the effects of the dipole length are analyzed using the induced emf method. Then, baluns and loads are examined to determine their influence on the antenna factors. It is found that transformer-type baluns are very effective for improving the height dependence of the antenna factors. Resistive loads are also useful for flattening the frequency dependence. Based on these studies, a specification is developed for a broadband standard antenna operating in the 30 to 150 MHz frequency range.

  10. Astigmatism in reflector antennas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogdell, J. R.; Davis, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    Astigmatic phase error in large parabolic reflector antennas is discussed. A procedure for focusing an antenna and diagnosing the presence and degree of astigmatism is described. Theoretical analysis is conducted to determine the nature of this error in such antennas.

  11. Development of Data Acquisition Card Driver for ICRH System on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Daming; Luo, Jiarong; Zhao, Yanping; Qin, Chengming

    2008-04-01

    Presented in this paper is the development of the driver for the data acquisition card with a peripheral component interconnection (PCI) local bus on the ion cyclotron range of frequency heating (ICRH) system. The driver is mainly aimed at the embedded VxWorks system (real-time operating system) which is widely used in various fields of real-time systems. An efficient way is employed to develop this driver, which will advance the real-time control of the ICRH system on the experimental advanced superconductor tokamak (EAST). The driver is designed using the TORNADO integrated development environment (IDE), and implemented in C plus language. The details include the hardware configuration, analogue/digital (A/D) and digital/analogue (D/A) conversion, input and output (I/O) operation of the driver to support over five cards. The data acquisition card can be manipulated in a low-level program and meet the requirements of A/D conversion and D/A outputs.

  12. On efficiency and interpretation of sawteeth pacing with on-axis ICRH modulation in JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murari, A.; Craciunescu, T.; Peluso, E.; Lerche, E.; Gelfusa, M.; Contributors, JET

    2017-12-01

    In metallic machines ICRH heating is playing an increasingly important role. One of its most recent applications on the Joint Europena Torus (JET) is sawtooth control by ICRH modulation, for avoiding triggering dangerous neo-classical tearing modes (NTMs) and counteracting impurity accumulation. Some of the main difficulties of these experiments are the assessment of the synchronization efficiency and the understanding of the main physical mechanisms at play. In this paper, three independent classes of statistical indicators are introduced to address these issues: Recurrence Plots, Convergent Cross Mapping and Transfer Entropy. The application to JET experiments with the ILW shows that the proposed indicators agree quite well among themselves and provide sound estimates of the efficiency of the synchronisation scheme investigated. They also support, with a shot to shot basis analysis and an estimate of the uncertainties, the interpretation that the fast ions play a fundamental role in the stabilization of the sawteeth, in both L and H mode. Proposals for experiments to be carried out in the future to consolidate the interpretation of the results are discussed.

  13. ARISE antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Arthur B.; Noca, Muriel; Ulvestad, James

    2000-03-01

    Supermassive black holes are among the most spectacular objects in the Universe, and are laboratories for physics in extreme conditions. Understanding the physics of massive black holes and related phenomena is a primary goal of the ARISE mission. The scientific goals of the mission are described in detail on the ARISE web site http://arise.ipl.nasa.gov and in the ARISE Science Goals document. The following paper, as the title suggests, is not intended to be a comprehensive description of ARISE, but deals only with one aspect of the ARISE mission-the inflatable antenna which is the key element of the ARISE spacecraft. This spacecraft,due to the extensive reliance on inflatables, may be considered as the first generation Gossamer spacecraft

  14. Optical antenna gain. I - Transmitting antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, B. J.; Degnan, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    The gain of centrally obscured optical transmitting antennas is analyzed in detail. The calculations, resulting in near- and far-field antenna gain patterns, assume a circular antenna illuminated by a laser operating in the TEM-00 mode. A simple polynomial equation is derived for matching the incident source distribution to a general antenna configuration for maximum on-axis gain. An interpretation of the resultant gain curves allows a number of auxiliary design curves to be drawn that display the losses in antenna gain due to pointing errors and the cone angle of the beam in the far field as a function of antenna aperture size and its central obscuration. The results are presented in a series of graphs that allow the rapid and accurate evaluation of the antenna gain which may then be substituted into the conventional range equation.

  15. Turbulent transport stabilization by ICRH minority fast ions in low rotating JET ILW L-mode plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanomi, N.; Mantica, P.; Di Siena, A.; Delabie, E.; Giroud, C.; Johnson, T.; Lerche, E.; Menmuir, S.; Tsalas, M.; Van Eester, D.; Contributors, JET

    2018-05-01

    The first experimental demonstration that fast ion induced stabilization of thermal turbulent transport takes place also at low values of plasma toroidal rotation has been obtained in JET ILW (ITER-like wall) L-mode plasmas with high (3He)-D ICRH (ion cyclotron resonance heating) power. A reduction of the gyro-Bohm normalized ion heat flux and higher values of the normalized ion temperature gradient have been observed at high ICRH power and low NBI (neutral beam injection) power and plasma rotation. Gyrokinetic simulations indicate that ITG (ion temperature gradient) turbulence stabilization induced by the presence of high-energetic 3He ions is the key mechanism in order to explain the experimental observations. Two main mechanisms have been identified to be responsible for the turbulence stabilization: a linear electrostatic wave-fast particle resonance mechanism and a nonlinear electromagnetic mechanism. The dependence of the stabilization on the 3He distribution function has also been studied.

  16. Equipment: Antenna systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, L. E.

    1983-05-01

    Some antenna fundamentals as well as definitions of the principal terms used in antenna engineering are described. Methods are presented for determining the desired antenna radiation patterns for an HF communication circuit or service area. Sources for obtaining or computing radiation pattern information are outlined. Comparisons are presented between the measured and computed radiation patterns. The effect of the properties of the ground on the antenna gain and pattern are illustrated for several types of antennas. Numerous examples are given of the radiation patterns for typical antennas used on short, intermediate and long distance circuits or both mobile and fixed service operations. The application of adaptive antenna arrays and active antennas in modern HF communication systems are briefly reviewed.

  17. Equipment: Antenna systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, L. E.

    1986-03-01

    Some antenna fundamentals as well as definitions of the principal terms used in antenna engineering are described. Methods are presented for determining the desired antenna radiation patterns for HF communication circuit or service area. Sources for obtaining or computing radiation pattern information are outlined. Comparisons are presented between the measured and computed radiation patterns. The effect of the properties of the ground on the antenna gain and the pattern are illustrated for several types of antennas. Numerous examples are given of the radiation patterns for typical antennas used on short, intermediate and long distance circuits for both mobile and fixed service operations. The application of adaptive antenna arrays and active antennas in modern HF communication systems are briefly reviewed.

  18. ATCRBS Antenna Modification Kit

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1976-06-01

    The report describes the design, fabrication and test results of an improved ATCRBS (Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System) array antenna for mounting on the reflector of an ASR radar antenna. The antenna consists of a 4-foot high by 26-foot wide a...

  19. Antenna theory: Analysis and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanis, C. A.

    The book's main objective is to introduce the fundamental principles of antenna theory and to apply them to the analysis, design, and measurements of antennas. In a description of antennas, the radiation mechanism is discussed along with the current distribution on a thin wire. Fundamental parameters of antennas are examined, taking into account the radiation pattern, radiation power density, radiation intensity, directivity, numerical techniques, gain, antenna efficiency, half-power beamwidth, beam efficiency, bandwidth, polarization, input impedance, and antenna temperature. Attention is given to radiation integrals and auxiliary potential functions, linear wire antennas, loop antennas, linear and circular arrays, self- and mutual impedances of linear elements and arrays, broadband dipoles and matching techniques, traveling wave and broadband antennas, frequency independent antennas and antenna miniaturization, the geometrical theory of diffraction, horns, reflectors and lens antennas, antenna synthesis and continuous sources, and antenna measurements.

  20. Antenna Controller Replacement Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Roger Y.; Morgan, Scott C.; Strain, Martha M.; Rockwell, Stephen T.; Shimizu, Kenneth J.; Tehrani, Barzia J.; Kwok, Jaclyn H.; Tuazon-Wong, Michelle; Valtier, Henry; Nalbandi, Reza; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Antenna Controller Replacement (ACR) software accurately points and monitors the Deep Space Network (DSN) 70-m and 34-m high-efficiency (HEF) ground-based antennas that are used to track primarily spacecraft and, periodically, celestial targets. To track a spacecraft, or other targets, the antenna must be accurately pointed at the spacecraft, which can be very far away with very weak signals. ACR s conical scanning capability collects the signal in a circular pattern around the target, calculates the location of the strongest signal, and adjusts the antenna pointing to point directly at the spacecraft. A real-time, closed-loop servo control algorithm performed every 0.02 second allows accurate positioning of the antenna in order to track these distant spacecraft. Additionally, this advanced servo control algorithm provides better antenna pointing performance in windy conditions. The ACR software provides high-level commands that provide a very easy user interface for the DSN operator. The operator only needs to enter two commands to start the antenna and subreflector, and Master Equatorial tracking. The most accurate antenna pointing is accomplished by aligning the antenna to the Master Equatorial, which because of its small size and sheltered location, has the most stable pointing. The antenna has hundreds of digital and analog monitor points. The ACR software provides compact displays to summarize the status of the antenna, subreflector, and the Master Equatorial. The ACR software has two major functions. First, it performs all of the steps required to accurately point the antenna (and subreflector and Master Equatorial) at the spacecraft (or celestial target). This involves controlling the antenna/ subreflector/Master-Equatorial hardware, initiating and monitoring the correct sequence of operations, calculating the position of the spacecraft relative to the antenna, executing the real-time servo control algorithm to maintain the correct position, and

  1. A True Metasurface Antenna.

    PubMed

    El Badawe, Mohamed; Almoneef, Thamer S; Ramahi, Omar M

    2016-01-13

    We present a true metasurface antenna based on electrically-small resonators. The resonators are placed on a flat surface and connected to one feed point using corporate feed. Unlike conventional array antennas where the distance between adjacent antennas is half wavelength to reduce mutual coupling between adjacent antennas, here the distance between the radiating elements is electrically very small to affect good impedance matching of each resonator to its feed. A metasurface antenna measuring 1.2λ × 1.2λ and designed to operate at 3 GHz achieved a gain of 12 dBi. A prototype was fabricated and tested showing good agreement between numerical simulations and experimental results. Through numerical simulation, we show that the metasurface antenna has the ability to provide beam steering by phasing all the resonators appropriately.

  2. Evidence of 9Be  +  p nuclear reactions during 2ω CH and hydrogen minority ICRH in JET-ILW hydrogen and deuterium plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasilnikov, A. V.; Kiptily, V.; Lerche, E.; Van Eester, D.; Afanasyev, V. I.; Giroud, C.; Goloborodko, V.; Hellesen, C.; Popovichev, S. V.; Mironov, M. I.; contributors, JET

    2018-02-01

    The intensity of 9Be  +  p nuclear fusion reactions was experimentally studied during second harmonic (2ω CH) ion-cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) and further analyzed during fundamental hydrogen minority ICRH of JET-ILW hydrogen and deuterium plasmas. In relatively low-density plasmas with a high ICRH power, a population of fast H+ ions was created and measured by neutral particle analyzers. Primary and secondary nuclear reaction products, due to 9Be  +  p interaction, were observed with fast ion loss detectors, γ-ray spectrometers and neutron flux monitors and spectrometers. The possibility of using 9Be(p, d)2α and 9Be(p, α)6Li nuclear reactions to create a population of fast alpha particles and study their behaviour in non-active stage of ITER operation is discussed in the paper.

  3. Advanced Antenna Measurement Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-18

    reflector antenna where the reflector functions as a passive scatterer. Here we proposed to demonstrate this separation scheme using experimentally derived...orders in the multiple reflections between these antennas . The nature of these composite patterns is not known a priori so one cannot know the accuracy...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This research project is focused on the advancement of methods of post measurement processing of antenna pattern

  4. Compact Directional Microwave Antenna for Localized Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W.; Lin, Gregory Y.; Chu, Andrew W.; Dobbins, Justin A.; Arndt, G. Dickey; Ngo, Phong

    2008-01-01

    A directional, catheter-sized cylindrical antenna has been developed for localized delivery of microwave radiation for heating (and thus killing) diseased tissue without excessively heating nearby healthy tissue. By "localized" is meant that the antenna radiates much more in a selected azimuthal direction than in the opposite radial direction, so that it heats tissue much more on one side than it does on the opposite side. This antenna can be inserted using either a catheter or a syringe. A 2.4-mm prototype was tested, although smaller antennas are possible. Prior compact, cylindrical antennas designed for therapeutic localized hyperthermia do not exhibit such directionality; that is, they radiate in approximately axisymmetric patterns. Prior directional antennas designed for the same purpose have been, variously, (1) too large to fit within catheters or (2) too large, after deployment from catheters, to fit within the confines of most human organs. In contrast, the present antenna offers a high degree of directionality and is compact enough to be useable as a catheter in some applications.

  5. MASTER TELEVISION ANTENNA SYSTEM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence.

    SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE FURNISHING AND INSTALLATION OF TELEVISION MASTER ANTENNA SYSTEMS FOR SECONDARY AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS ARE GIVEN. CONTRACTOR REQUIREMENTS, EQUIPMENT, PERFORMANCE STANDARDS, AND FUNCTIONS ARE DESCRIBED. (MS)

  6. MSU Antenna Pattern Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mo, Tsan; Kleespies, Thomas J.; Green, J. Philip

    2000-01-01

    The Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) antenna pattern data for nine MSU Flight Models (FMs) have been successfully rescued from 22-year old 7-track and 9-track magnetic tapes and cartridges. These antenna pattern data were unpacked into user-friendly ASCII format, and are potentially useful for making antenna pattern corrections to MSU antenna temperatures in retrieving the true brightness temperatures. We also properly interpreted the contents of the data and show how to convert the measured antenna signal amplitude in volts into relative antenna power in dB with proper normalization. It is found that the data are of high quality with a 60-dB drop in the co-polarized antenna patterns from the central peak value to its side-lobe regions at scan angles beyond 30 deg. The unpacked antenna pattern data produced in this study provide a useful database for data users to correct the antenna side-lobe contribution to MSU measurements. All of the data are available to the scientific community on a single CD-ROM.

  7. Wide sector coverage antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaw, D. F.

    1984-09-01

    The general design and performance characteristics of transmit and receive antennas that are currently used in electronic warfare systems are reviewed. Among transmit antennas, three-to-one bandwidth, asymmetric-beam, and circularly polarized horns are discussed, as are extremely broadband monopoles and spiral antennas. In a discussion of receive antennas, attention is given to flat and conical spirals, including cavity-backed flat spirals operating over the 2.5-18 GHz range; log periodic dipoles; and biconical horns. Finally, the design configurations and performance of interferometer direction-finding systems are briefly discussed.

  8. Cellular Reflectarray Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    The cellular reflectarray antenna is intended to replace conventional parabolic reflectors that must be physically aligned with a particular satellite in geostationary orbit. These arrays are designed for specified geographical locations, defined by latitude and longitude, each called a "cell." A particular cell occupies nominally 1,500 square miles (3,885 sq. km), but this varies according to latitude and longitude. The cellular reflectarray antenna designed for a particular cell is simply positioned to align with magnetic North, and the antenna surface is level (parallel to the ground). A given cellular reflectarray antenna will not operate in any other cell.

  9. Dual Mode Slotted Monopole Antenna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-05

    of 15 DUAL MODE SLOTTED MONOPOLE ANTENNA STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by...to a dual mode antenna having one mode as a slotted cylinder antenna and another mode as a monopole antenna . (2) Description of the Prior Art...0004] Slotted cylinder antennas are popular antennas for use in line of sight communications systems, especially where the carrier frequency exceeds

  10. Scanning means for Cassegrainian antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giandomenico, A.; Rusch, W. V. T.

    1967-01-01

    Mechanical antenna beam switching device detects weak signals over atmospheric and equipment noise sources in microwave antennas. It periodically nutates the paraboloidal subdish in a Cassegrainian reflector system.

  11. Deformations in VLBI antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, T. A.; Thomsen, P.

    1988-01-01

    A study is presented of deformations in antennas with the emphasis on their influence on VLBI measurements. The GIFTS structural analysis program has been used to model the VLBI antenna in Fairbanks (Alaska). The report identifies key deformations and studies the effect of gravity, wind, and temperature. Estimates of expected deformations are given.

  12. Broadband Pillbox Antennas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-21

    Identify by block number) - FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Double layer pillbox antennas Triple layer pillbox antenna The possibility of designing very broadband... Design .................... 1 Broadband Feed De gn ........................................... 2 Ex mental Simulation of Double Layer Pillbox...5 REFERENCES ................................................... 6 APPENDIX - COAXIAL TO WAVEGUIDE JUNCTION DESIGN

  13. Experiments with Dipole Antennas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2009-01-01

    Employment of a data-acquisition system for data collection and calculations makes experiments with antennas more convenient and less time consuming. The determined directional patterns of the dipole antennas of different lengths are in reasonable agreement with theory. The enhancement of the signal by using a reflector is demonstrated, and a…

  14. Milestones in Broadcasting: Antennas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Media in Education and Development, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Briefly describes the development of antennas in the prebroadcast era (elevated antenna, selectivity to prevent interference between stations, birth of diplex, directional properties, support structures), as well as technological developments used in long-, medium-, and short-wave broadcasting, VHF/FM and television broadcasting, and satellite…

  15. GPS antenna designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laube, Samuel J. P.

    1987-01-01

    Application of the current GPS NAVSTAR system to civilian service requires that a right hand, circularly polarized, -160 dBW spread spectrum signal be received from an orbiting satellite, where the antenna environment is also moving. This presents a design challenge when inexpensive antennas are desired. The intent of this survey is to provide information on the antennas mentioned and to construct and test prototypes to determine whether the choice made by the industry, the quadrifilar helix, is the best. The helix antenna is currently the low cost standard for GPS. Prototype versions were constructed using 12 gauge wire and subminiature coaxial hardline. The constructed antennas were tested using a signal generator and a reference turnstile. A spectrum analyzer was used to measure the level of the received signal.

  16. Antenna Technologies for NASA Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix

    2007-01-01

    This presentation addresses the efforts being performed at GRC to develop antenna technology in support of NASA s Exploration Vision. In particular, the presentation discusses the communications architecture asset-specific data services, as well as wide area coverage, high gain, low mass deployable antennas. Phased array antennas as well as electrically small, lightweight, low power, multifunctional antennas will be also discussed.

  17. Antenna Technologies for NASA Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation addresses the efforts being performed at GRC to develop antenna technology in support of NASA s Exploration Vision. In particular, the presentation discusses the communications architecture asset-specific data services, as well as wide area coverage, high gain, low mass deployable antennas. Phased array antennas as well as electrically small, lightweight, low power, multifunctional antennas will be also discussed.

  18. Autonomous omnidirectional spacecraft antenna system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, T. H.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a low gain Electronically Switchable Spherical Array Antenna is discussed. This antenna provides roughly 7 dBic gain for receive/transmit operation between user satellites and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System. When used as a pair, the antenna provides spherical coverage. The antenna was tested in its primary operating modes: directed beam, retrodirective, and Omnidirectional.

  19. Electric Fields near RF Heating and Current Drive Antennas in Tore Supra Measured with Dynamic Stark Effect Spectroscopy*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepper, C. C.; Martin, E. H.; Isler, R. C.; Colas, L.; Hillairet, J.; Marandet, Y.; Lotte, Ph.; Colledani, G.; Martin, V.; Hillis, D. L.; Harris, J. H.; Saoutic, B.

    2011-10-01

    Computational models of the interaction between RF waves and the scrape-off layer plasma near ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH) and lower hybrid current drive launch antennas are continuously improving. These models mainly predict the RF electric fields produced in the SOL and, therefore, the best measurement for verification of these models would be a direct measurement of these electric fields. Both types of launch antennas are used on Tore Supra and are designed for high power (up to 4MW/antenna) and long pulse (> > 25s) operation. Direct, non-intrusive measurement of the RF electric fields in the vicinity of these structures is achieved by fitting spectral profiles of deuterium Balmer-alpha and Balmer-beta to a model that includes the dynamic, external-field Stark effect, as well as Zeeman splitting and Doppler broadening mechanisms. The measurements are compared to the mentioned, near-field region, RF antenna models. *Work supported in part by the US DOE under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC.

  20. Satellite Antenna Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Through the Technology Affiliates Program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the ACTS antenna system was transferred from experimental testing status to commercial development with KVH Industries, Inc. The ACTS design enables mobile satellite antennas to remain pointed at the satellite, regardless of the motion or vibration on which it is mounted. KVH's first product based on the ACTS design is a land-mobile satellite antenna system that will enable direct broadcast satellite television aboard moving trucks, recreational vehicles, trains, and buses. Future products could include use in broadcasting, emergency medical and military vehicles.

  1. SPS antenna pointing control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The pointing control of a microwave antenna of the Satellite Power System was investigated emphasizing: (1) the SPS antenna pointing error sensing method; (2) a rigid body pointing control design; and (3) approaches for modeling the flexible body characteristics of the solar collector. Accuracy requirements for the antenna pointing control consist of a mechanical pointing control accuracy of three arc-minutes and an electronic phased array pointing accuracy of three arc-seconds. Results based on the factors considered in current analysis, show that the three arc-minute overall pointing control accuracy can be achieved in practice.

  2. SAR antenna calibration techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carver, K. R.; Newell, A. C.

    1978-01-01

    Calibration of SAR antennas requires a measurement of gain, elevation and azimuth pattern shape, boresight error, cross-polarization levels, and phase vs. angle and frequency. For spaceborne SAR antennas of SEASAT size operating at C-band or higher, some of these measurements can become extremely difficult using conventional far-field antenna test ranges. Near-field scanning techniques offer an alternative approach and for C-band or X-band SARs, give much improved accuracy and precision as compared to that obtainable with a far-field approach.

  3. X-Antenna: A graphical interface for antenna analysis codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, B. L.; Newman, E. H.; Shamansky, H. T.

    1995-01-01

    This report serves as the user's manual for the X-Antenna code. X-Antenna is intended to simplify the analysis of antennas by giving the user graphical interfaces in which to enter all relevant antenna and analysis code data. Essentially, X-Antenna creates a Motif interface to the user's antenna analysis codes. A command-file allows new antennas and codes to be added to the application. The menu system and graphical interface screens are created dynamically to conform to the data in the command-file. Antenna data can be saved and retrieved from disk. X-Antenna checks all antenna and code values to ensure they are of the correct type, writes an output file, and runs the appropriate antenna analysis code. Volumetric pattern data may be viewed in 3D space with an external viewer run directly from the application. Currently, X-Antenna includes analysis codes for thin wire antennas (dipoles, loops, and helices), rectangular microstrip antennas, and thin slot antennas.

  4. Dielectric Covered Planar Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Llombart Juan, Nuria (Inventor); Lee, Choonsup (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Gill, John J. (Inventor); Skalare, Anders J. (Inventor); Siegel, Peter H. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An antenna element suitable for integrated arrays at terahertz frequencies is disclosed. The antenna element comprises an extended spherical (e.g. hemispherical) semiconductor lens, e.g. silicon, antenna fed by a leaky wave waveguide feed. The extended spherical lens comprises a substantially spherical lens adjacent a substantially planar lens extension. A couple of TE/TM leaky wave modes are excited in a resonant cavity formed between a ground plane and the substantially planar lens extension by a waveguide block coupled to the ground plane. Due to these modes, the primary feed radiates inside the lens with a directive pattern that illuminates a small sector of the lens. The antenna structure is compatible with known semiconductor fabrication technology and enables production of large format imaging arrays.

  5. Multiple beam antenna system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    Using a computer program which plots beams from antennas located on synchronous satellites onto the earth's surface, several circular and elliptical reflectors were analyzed for pattern coverage. The reflectors considered were circular paraboloid and elliptical shaped.

  6. Voyager: Antenna Dish Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1976-07-09

    This archival photo shows an engineer working on the construction of a large, dish-shaped Voyager high-gain antenna. The picture was taken on July 9, 1976. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21480

  7. CIRCULAR CAVITY SLOT ANTENNA

    DOEpatents

    Kerley, P.L.

    1959-01-01

    A small-size antenna having a doughnut-shaped field pattern and which can act both as an antenna and a resonant circuit is described. The antenna is of the slotted type and comprises a resonant cavity with a center hole. A circular slot is provided in one wall of the cavity concentric with the hole and a radio frequency source is connected across the slot. The pattern and loading of the antenna are adjusted by varying the position and shape of a center element slidably disposed within the hole and projecting from the slotted side of the resonant cavity. The disclosed structure may also be used to propagate the oscillator signal down a transniission line by replacing the center element with one leg of the transmission line in a spaced relation from the walls of the cavity.

  8. Fundamental Fractal Antenna Design Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L. P.; Kim, T. C.; Kakas, G. D.

    2017-12-01

    Antenna designers are always looking to come up with new ideas to push the envelope for new antennas, using a smaller volume while striving for higher bandwidth, wider bandwidth, and antenna gain. One proposed method of increasing bandwidth or shrinking antenna size is via the use of fractal geometry, which gives rise to fractal antennas. Fractals are those fun shapes that if one zooms in or zoom out, the structure is always the same. Design a new type of antenna based on fractal antenna design by utilize the Design of Experiment (DOE) will be shown in fractal antenna design process. Investigate conformal fractal antenna design for patterns, dimensions, and size, of the antenna but maintaining or improving the antenna performance. Research shows an antenna designer how to create basic requirements of the fractal antenna through a step by step process, and provides how to optimize the antenna design with the model prediction, lab measurement, and actual results from the compact range measurement on the antenna patterns.

  9. Multifunctional Antenna Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-25

    the planar structure that can be sufficiently isolated from the radiation mechanism of the antenna and transformed into a TEM transmission line feed...an equivalent transmission line structure, and isolate the physical 5 | P a g e mechanisms responsible for impedance and radiation behavior...gap-fed Archimedean spiral antenna in free space with non-negligible metal width, insertion PMC boundaries to isolate the radiation and propagation

  10. Multibeam antenna study, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellamy, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    A multibeam antenna concept was developed for providing spot beam coverage of the contiguous 48 states. The selection of a suitable antenna concept for the multibeam application and an experimental evaluation of the antenna concept selected are described. The final analysis indicates that the preferred concept is a dual-antenna, circular artificial dielectric lens. A description of the analytical methods is provided, as well as a discussion of the absolute requirements placed on the antenna concepts. Finally, a comparative analysis of reflector antenna off-axis beam performance is presented.

  11. Antenna cab interior showing equipment rack and fiberglass antenna panels, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Antenna cab interior showing equipment rack and fiberglass antenna panels, looking west. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

  12. View of Antenna #1 (foreground), and Antenna #2 surface doors. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Antenna #1 (foreground), and Antenna #2 surface doors. Image looking northeast - Titan One Missile Complex 2A, .3 miles west of 129 Road and 1.5 miles north of County Line Road, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  13. Antenna cab interior showing equipment rack and fiberglass antenna panels, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Antenna cab interior showing equipment rack and fiberglass antenna panels, looking southeast. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

  14. Antenna cab interior showing waveguide from external parabolic antenna (later ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Antenna cab interior showing waveguide from external parabolic antenna (later addition), looking north. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

  15. Cup Cylindrical Waveguide Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Roberto J.; Darby, William G.; Kory, Carol L.; Lambert, Kevin M.; Breen, Daniel P.

    2008-01-01

    The cup cylindrical waveguide antenna (CCWA) is a short backfire microwave antenna capable of simultaneously supporting the transmission or reception of two distinct signals having opposite circular polarizations. Short backfire antennas are widely used in mobile/satellite communications, tracking, telemetry, and wireless local area networks because of their compactness and excellent radiation characteristics. A typical prior short backfire antenna contains a half-wavelength dipole excitation element for linear polarization or crossed half-wavelength dipole elements for circular polarization. In order to achieve simultaneous dual circular polarization, it would be necessary to integrate, into the antenna feed structure, a network of hybrid components, which would introduce significant losses. The CCWA embodies an alternate approach that entails relatively low losses and affords the additional advantage of compactness. The CCWA includes a circular cylindrical cup, a circular disk subreflector, and a circular waveguide that serves as the excitation element. The components that make it possible to obtain simultaneous dual circular polarization are integrated into the circular waveguide. These components are a sixpost polarizer and an orthomode transducer (OMT) with two orthogonal coaxial ports. The overall length of the OMT and polarizer (for the nominal middle design frequency of 2.25 GHz) is about 11 in. (approximately equal to 28 cm), whereas the length of a commercially available OMT and polarizer for the same frequency is about 32 in. (approximately equal to 81 cm).

  16. Aperture excited dielectric antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosswell, W. F.; Chatterjee, J. S.; Mason, V. B.; Tai, C. T.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the effect of placing dielectric objects over the aperture of waveguide antennas are presented. Experimental measurements of the radiation patterns, gain, impedance, near-field amplitude, and pattern and impedance coupling between pairs of antennas are given for various Plexiglas shapes, including the sphere and the cube, excited by rectangular, circular, and square waveguide feed apertures. The waveguide excitation of a dielectric sphere is modeled using the Huygens' source, and expressions for the resulting electric fields, directivity, and efficiency are derived. Calculations using this model show good overall agreement with experimental patterns and directivity measurements. The waveguide under an infinite dielectric slab is used as an impedance model. Calculations using this model agree qualitatively with the measured impedance data. It is concluded that dielectric loaded antennas such as the waveguide excited sphere, cube, or sphere-cylinder can produce directivities in excess of that obtained by a uniformly illuminated aperture of the same cross section, particularly for dielectric objects with dimensions of 2 wavelengths or less. It is also shown that for certain configurations coupling between two antennas of this type is less than that for the same antennas without dielectric loading.

  17. View north of the antenna array, note the communications antenna ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north of the antenna array, note the communications antenna in the middleground - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Christmas Valley Radar Site Transmit Sector Four Antenna Array, On unnamed road west of Lost Forest Road, Christmas Valley, Lake County, OR

  18. View of antenna tunnel end. Right to Antenna Silo #1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of antenna tunnel end. Right to Antenna Silo #1, left to Antenna Silo #2 - Titan One Missile Complex 2A, .3 miles west of 129 Road and 1.5 miles north of County Line Road, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  19. Galileo satellite antenna modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Dach, Rolf; Prange, Lars; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The space segment of the European satellite navigation system Galileo currently consists of six satellites. Four of them belong to the first generation of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) satellites whereas the other two are Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites. High-precision geodetic applications require detailed knowledge about the actual phase center of the satellite and receiver antenna. The deviation of this actual phase center from a well-defined reference point is described by phase center offsets (PCOs) and phase center variations (PCVs). Unfortunately, no public information is available about the Galileo satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs, neither for the IOV, nor the FOC satellites. Therefore, conventional values for the IOV satellite antenna PCOs have been adopted for the Multi-GNSS experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The effect of the PCVs is currently neglected and no PCOs for the FOC satellites are available yet. To overcome this deficiency in GNSS observation modeling, satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs are estimated for the Galileo IOV satellites based on global GNSS tracking data of the MGEX network and additional stations of the legacy IGS network. Two completely independent solutions are computed with the Bernese and Napeos software packages. The PCO and PCV values of the individual satellites are analyzed and the availability of two different solutions allows for an accuracy assessment. The FOC satellites are built by a different manufacturer and are also equipped with another type of antenna panel compared to the IOV satellites. Signal transmission of the first FOC satellite has started in December 2014 and activation of the second satellite is expected for early 2015. Based on the available observations PCO estimates and, optionally PCVs of the FOC satellites will be presented as well. Finally, the impact of the new antenna model on the precision and accuracy of the Galileo orbit determination is analyzed.

  20. Mode Matching for Optical Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feichtner, Thorsten; Christiansen, Silke; Hecht, Bert

    2017-11-01

    The emission rate of a point dipole can be strongly increased in the presence of a well-designed optical antenna. Yet, optical antenna design is largely based on radio-frequency rules, ignoring, e.g., Ohmic losses and non-negligible field penetration in metals at optical frequencies. Here, we combine reciprocity and Poynting's theorem to derive a set of optical-frequency antenna design rules for benchmarking and optimizing the performance of optical antennas driven by single quantum emitters. Based on these findings a novel plasmonic cavity antenna design is presented exhibiting a considerably improved performance compared to a reference two-wire antenna. Our work will be useful for the design of high-performance optical antennas and nanoresonators for diverse applications ranging from quantum optics to antenna-enhanced single-emitter spectroscopy and sensing.

  1. Satellite communication antenna technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittra, R. (Editor); Imbriale, W. A. (Editor); Maanders, E. J. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    A general overview of current technology in the field of communication satellite antennas is presented. Among the topics discussed are: the design of multiple beam systems; frequency reuse; and polarization control of antenna measurements. Consideration is also given to: contour beam synthesis; dual shaped reflector synthesis; beam shaping; and offset reflector design. The applications of the above technologies to present and future generations of communications satellites is considered, with emphasis given to such systems as: the Intelsats; the Defense Satellite Communications System, (DSCS-III); Satellite Business System (SBS), and Comstar.

  2. Spaced antenna drift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royrvik, O.

    1983-01-01

    It has been suggested that the spaced antenna drift (SAD) technique could be successfully used by VHF radars and that it would be superior to a Doppler-beam-swinging (DBS) technique because it would take advantage of the aspect sensitivity of the scattered signal, and might also benefit from returns from single meteors. It appears, however, that the technique suffers from several limitations. On the basis of one SAD experiment performed at the very large Jicamarca radar, it is concluded that the SAD technique can be compared in accuracy to the DBS technique only if small antenna dimensions are used.

  3. Ionospheric effects to antenna impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bethke, K. H.

    1986-01-01

    The reciprocity between high power satellite antennas and the surrounding plasma are examined. The relevant plasma states for antenna impedance calculations are presented and plasma models, and hydrodynamic and kinetic theory, are discussed. A theory from which a variation in antenna impedance with regard to the radiated power can be calculated for a frequency range well above the plasma resonance frequency is give. The theory can include photo and secondary emission effects in antenna impedance calculations.

  4. Improved Gain Microstrip Patch Antenna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-06

    08-2015 Publication Improved Gain Microstrip Patch Antenna David A. Tonn Naval Under Warfare Center Division, Newport 1176 Howell St., Code 00L...GAIN MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by or for the...patch antenna having increased gain, and an apparatus for increasing the gain and bandwidth of an existing microstrip patch antenna . (2) Description

  5. Broadband Cylindrical Antenna and Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-27

    1 of 12 BROADBAND CYLINDRICAL ANTENNA AND METHOD STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and...directed to a cylindrical antenna having a broader bandwidth and a method for making such an antenna . (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004...Slotted cylinder antennas have been proposed in submarine applications before. For example, in U.S. Patent No. 6,127,983, Rivera and Josypenko disclose

  6. Unfurlable satellite antennas - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roederer, Antoine G.; Rahmat-Samii, Yahia

    1989-01-01

    A review of unfurlable satellite antennas is presented. Typical application requirements for future space missions are first outlined. Then, U.S. and European mesh and inflatable antenna concepts are described. Precision deployables using rigid panels or petals are not included in the survey. RF modeling and performance analysis of gored or faceted mesh reflector antennas are then reviewed. Finally, both on-ground and in-orbit RF test techniques for large unfurlable antennas are discussed.

  7. Modelling of radio frequency sheath and fast wave coupling on the realistic ion cyclotron resonant antenna surroundings and the outer wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, L.; Colas, L.; Jacquot, J.; Després, B.; Heuraux, S.; Faudot, E.; Van Eester, D.; Crombé, K.; Křivská, A.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Helou, W.; Hillairet, J.

    2018-03-01

    In order to model the sheath rectification in a realistic geometry over the size of ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH) antennas, the self-consistent sheaths and waves for ICH (SSWICH) code couples self-consistently the RF wave propagation and the DC SOL biasing via nonlinear RF and DC sheath boundary conditions applied at plasma/wall interfaces. A first version of SSWICH had 2D (toroidal and radial) geometry, rectangular walls either normal or parallel to the confinement magnetic field B 0 and only included the evanescent slow wave (SW) excited parasitically by the ICRH antenna. The main wave for plasma heating, the fast wave (FW) plays no role on the sheath excitation in this version. A new version of the code, 2D SSWICH-full wave, was developed based on the COMSOL software, to accommodate full RF field polarization and shaped walls tilted with respect to B 0 . SSWICH-full wave simulations have shown the mode conversion of FW into SW occurring at the sharp corners where the boundary shape varies rapidly. It has also evidenced ‘far-field’ sheath oscillations appearing at the shaped walls with a relatively long magnetic connection length to the antenna, that are only accessible to the propagating FW. Joint simulation, conducted by SSWICH-full wave within a multi-2D approach excited using the 3D wave coupling code (RAPLICASOL), has recovered the double-hump poloidal structure measured in the experimental temperature and potential maps when only the SW is modelled. The FW contribution on the potential poloidal structure seems to be affected by the 3D effects, which was ignored in the current stage. Finally, SSWICH-full wave simulation revealed the left-right asymmetry that has been observed extensively in the unbalanced strap feeding experiments, suggesting that the spatial proximity effects in RF sheath excitation, studied for SW only previously, is still important in the vicinity of the wave launcher under full wave polarizations.

  8. Optical response of bowtie antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ying-Nan; Pan, Shi; Li, Xu-Feng; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Qiao

    2010-10-01

    Optical properties of bowtie antennas are investigated using a numerical method of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD). The optical response in the antenna feed gap is simulated as functions of its geometry parameters (flare angle, arm length, apex width, thickness, gap dimension, as well as the index of substrate), which provide a clear guideline to exploit such antenna structures in practice.

  9. Structural Test and Analysis of a Hybrid Inflatable Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspar, James L.; Mann, Troy; Sreekantamurthy, Tham; Behun, Vaughn

    2007-01-01

    NASA is developing ultra-lightweight structures technology for communication antennas for space missions. One of the research goals is to evaluate the structural characteristics of inflatable and rigidizable antennas through test and analysis. Being able to test and analyze the structural characteristics of a full scale antenna is important to enable the simulation of various mission scenarios to determine system performance in space. Recent work completed to evaluate a Hybrid Inflatable Antenna concept will be discussed. Tests were completed on a 2-m prototype to optimize its static shape and identify its modal dynamics that are important for analytical model validation. These test results were used to evaluate a preliminary finite element model of the antenna, and this model development and correlation activity is also described in the paper.

  10. Community Antenna Television (CATV).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    The number of households hooked up to cable television or community antenna television (CATV) is expanding rapidly, and Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has been developing regulations since 1962 to guide the growth of the industry. By 1965 the FCC had claimed jurisdiction over all CATV systems in the U. S. This jurisdiction was challenged…

  11. Quartz antenna with hollow conductor

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Benabou, Elie

    2002-01-01

    A radio frequency (RF) antenna for plasma ion sources is formed of a hollow metal conductor tube disposed within a glass tube. The hollow metal tubular conductor has an internal flow channel so that there will be no coolant leakage if the outer glass tube of the antenna breaks. A portion of the RF antenna is formed into a coil; the antenna is used for inductively coupling RF power to a plasma in an ion source chamber. The antenna is made by first inserting the metal tube inside the glass tube, and then forming the glass/metal composite tube into the desired coil shape.

  12. Modern Antenna Design Using Computers and Measurement: Application to Antenna Problems of Military Interest

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    admittance of a dipole antenna co’puted Fig. 2. Input admittance of a A/2 dipole antenna corn - by NEC-3S, NEC-3D and NEC3VLF. The dipole was puted by...The upper half space is air, the corn - results are incorrect as a result of using the reflection plex relative permittivity of the medium surrounding...UNCLASSIFIED UNLIMITED (U) ANAFTIM AIUI 87-03964 UNCLASSIFIED UNLIMITED STC Defence Systems, Paigonton (England) (U) AIRIAFT IJ= ANITEIAS AGAR -LS-151

  13. ERO modeling and sensitivity analysis of locally enhanced beryllium erosion by magnetically connected antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasa, A.; Borodin, D.; Canik, J. M.; Klepper, C. C.; Groth, M.; Kirschner, A.; Airila, M. I.; Borodkina, I.; Ding, R.; Contributors, JET

    2018-01-01

    Experiments at JET showed locally enhanced, asymmetric beryllium (Be) erosion at outer wall limiters when magnetically connected ICRH antennas were in operation. A first modeling effort using the 3D erosion and scrape-off layer impurity transport modeling code ERO reproduced qualitatively the experimental outcome. However, local plasma parameters—in particular when 3D distributions are of interest—can be difficult to determine from available diagnostics and so erosion / impurity transport modeling input relies on output from other codes and simplified models, increasing uncertainties in the outcome. In the present contribution, we introduce and evaluate the impact of improved models and parameters with largest uncertainties of processes that impact impurity production and transport across the scrape-off layer, when simulated in ERO: (i) the magnetic geometry has been revised, for affecting the separatrix position (located 50-60 mm away from limiter surface) and thus the background plasma profiles; (ii) connection lengths between components, which lead to shadowing of ion fluxes, are also affected by the magnetic configuration; (iii) anomalous transport of ionized impurities, defined by the perpendicular diffusion coefficient, has been revisited; (iv) erosion yields that account for energy and angular distributions of background plasma ions under the present enhanced sheath potential and oblique magnetic field, have been introduced; (v) the effect of additional erosion sources, such as charge-exchange neutral fluxes, which are dominant in recessed areas like antennas, has been evaluated; (vi) chemically assisted release of Be in molecular form has been included. Sensitivity analysis highlights a qualitative effect (i.e. change in emission patterns) of magnetic shadowing, anomalous diffusion, and inclusion of neutral fluxes and molecular release of Be. The separatrix location, and energy and angular distribution of background plasma fluxes impact erosion

  14. JPL Large Advanced Antenna Station Array Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In accordance with study requirements, two antennas are described: a 30 meter standard antenna and a 34 meter modified antenna, along with a candidate array configuration for each. Modified antenna trade analyses are summarized, risks analyzed, costs presented, and a final antenna array configuration recommendation made.

  15. 47 CFR 80.866 - Spare antenna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spare antenna. 80.866 Section 80.866... Spare antenna. A spare transmitting antenna completely assembled for immediate erection must be provided. If the installed transmitting antenna is suspended between supports, this spare antenna must be a...

  16. 47 CFR 73.69 - Antenna monitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna monitors. 73.69 Section 73.69... Broadcast Stations § 73.69 Antenna monitors. (a) Each station using a directional antenna must have in operation at the transmitter site an FCC authorized antenna monitor. (b) In the event that the antenna...

  17. 47 CFR 73.69 - Antenna monitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna monitors. 73.69 Section 73.69... Broadcast Stations § 73.69 Antenna monitors. (a) Each station using a directional antenna must have in operation at the transmitter site an FCC authorized antenna monitor. (b) In the event that the antenna...

  18. 47 CFR 73.69 - Antenna monitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna monitors. 73.69 Section 73.69... Broadcast Stations § 73.69 Antenna monitors. (a) Each station using a directional antenna must have in operation at the transmitter site an FCC authorized antenna monitor. (b) In the event that the antenna...

  19. 47 CFR 80.866 - Spare antenna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spare antenna. 80.866 Section 80.866... Spare antenna. A spare transmitting antenna completely assembled for immediate erection must be provided. If the installed transmitting antenna is suspended between supports, this spare antenna must be a...

  20. 47 CFR 80.863 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.863 Section 80.863... Antenna system. (a) An antenna system must be installed which is as nondirectional and as efficient as is... construction of the required antenna must insure operation in time of emergency. (b) If the required antenna is...

  1. 47 CFR 80.863 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.863 Section 80.863... Antenna system. (a) An antenna system must be installed which is as nondirectional and as efficient as is... construction of the required antenna must insure operation in time of emergency. (b) If the required antenna is...

  2. 47 CFR 80.866 - Spare antenna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Spare antenna. 80.866 Section 80.866... Spare antenna. A spare transmitting antenna completely assembled for immediate erection must be provided. If the installed transmitting antenna is suspended between supports, this spare antenna must be a...

  3. 47 CFR 80.866 - Spare antenna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spare antenna. 80.866 Section 80.866... Spare antenna. A spare transmitting antenna completely assembled for immediate erection must be provided. If the installed transmitting antenna is suspended between supports, this spare antenna must be a...

  4. 47 CFR 73.69 - Antenna monitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna monitors. 73.69 Section 73.69... Broadcast Stations § 73.69 Antenna monitors. (a) Each station using a directional antenna must have in operation at the transmitter site an FCC authorized antenna monitor. (b) In the event that the antenna...

  5. 47 CFR 73.69 - Antenna monitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna monitors. 73.69 Section 73.69... Broadcast Stations § 73.69 Antenna monitors. (a) Each station using a directional antenna must have in operation at the transmitter site an FCC authorized antenna monitor. (b) In the event that the antenna...

  6. 47 CFR 80.866 - Spare antenna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spare antenna. 80.866 Section 80.866... Spare antenna. A spare transmitting antenna completely assembled for immediate erection must be provided. If the installed transmitting antenna is suspended between supports, this spare antenna must be a...

  7. 47 CFR 80.863 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.863 Section 80.863... Antenna system. (a) An antenna system must be installed which is as nondirectional and as efficient as is... construction of the required antenna must insure operation in time of emergency. (b) If the required antenna is...

  8. 47 CFR 80.863 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.863 Section 80.863... Antenna system. (a) An antenna system must be installed which is as nondirectional and as efficient as is... construction of the required antenna must insure operation in time of emergency. (b) If the required antenna is...

  9. Spiral microstrip antenna with resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, David G. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to microstrip antennas, and more particularly to wide bandwidth spiral antennas with resistive loading. A spiral microstrip antenna having resistor element embedded in each of the spiral arms is provided. The antenna is constructed using a conductive back plane as a base. The back plane supports a dielectric slab having a thickness between one-sixteenth and one-quarter of an inch. A square spiral, having either two or four arms, is attached to the dielectric slab. Each arm of the spiral has resistor elements thereby dissipating an excess energy not already emitted through radiation. The entire configuration provides a thin, flat, high gain, wide bandwidth antenna which requires no underlying cavity. The configuration allows the antenna to be mounted conformably on an aircraft surface.

  10. A Mars Riometer: Antenna Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Craig D.

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report on NASA Grant NAG5-9706. This project explored riometer (relative ionospheric opacity meter) antenna designs that would be practical for a Mars surface or balloon mission. The riometer is an important radio science instrument for terrestrial aeronomy investigations. The riometer measures absorption of cosmic radio waves by the overhead ionosphere. Studies have shown the instrument should work well on Mars, which has an appreciable daytime ionosphere. There has been concern that the required radio receiver antenna (with possibly a 10 meter scale size) would be too large or too difficult to deploy on Mars. This study addresses those concerns and presents several antenna designs and deployment options. It is found that a Mars balloon would provide an excellent platform for the riometer antenna. The antenna can be incorporated into the envelope design, allowing self-deployment of the antenna as the balloon inflates.

  11. Antenna structure with distributed strip

    DOEpatents

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.

    2008-10-21

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element is in proximity to a ground conductor. The folded line and the distributed strip can be electrically interconnected and substantially coplanar. The ground conductor can be spaced from, and coplanar to, the radiating element, or can alternatively lie in a plane set at an angle to the radiating element. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise a ground plane and radiating element on opposed sides of a printed wiring board. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise conductors that can be arranged as free standing "foils". Other embodiments include antennas that are encapsulated into a package containing the antenna.

  12. Antenna structure with distributed strip

    DOEpatents

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-03-18

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element is in proximity to a ground conductor. The folded line and the distributed strip can be electrically interconnected and substantially coplanar. The ground conductor can be spaced from, and coplanar to, the radiating element, or can alternatively lie in a plane set at an angle to the radiating element. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise a ground plane and radiating element on opposed sides of a printed wiring board. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise conductors that can be arranged as free standing "foils". Other embodiments include antennas that are encapsulated into a package containing the antenna.

  13. Antenna Calibration and Measurement Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochblatt, David J.; Cortes, Manuel Vazquez

    2012-01-01

    A document describes the Antenna Calibration & Measurement Equipment (ACME) system that will provide the Deep Space Network (DSN) with instrumentation enabling a trained RF engineer at each complex to perform antenna calibration measurements and to generate antenna calibration data. This data includes continuous-scan auto-bore-based data acquisition with all-sky data gathering in support of 4th order pointing model generation requirements. Other data includes antenna subreflector focus, system noise temperature and tipping curves, antenna efficiency, reports system linearity, and instrument calibration. The ACME system design is based on the on-the-fly (OTF) mapping technique and architecture. ACME has contributed to the improved RF performance of the DSN by approximately a factor of two. It improved the pointing performances of the DSN antennas and productivity of its personnel and calibration engineers.

  14. Wideband QAMC reflector's antenna for low profile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grelier, M.; Jousset, M.; Mallégol, S.; Lepage, A. C.; Begaud, X.; LeMener, J. M.

    2011-06-01

    A wideband reflector's antenna based on quasi-artificial magnetic conductor is proposed. To validate the design, an Archimedean spiral has been backed to this new reflector. In comparison to classical solution using absorbent material, the prototype presents a very low thickness of λ/15 at the lowest operating frequency and an improved gain over a 2.4:1 bandwidth. The whole methodology to design this reflector can be applied to other wideband antennas.

  15. Deployable antenna phase A study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, J.; Bernstein, J.; Fischer, G.; Jacobson, G.; Kadar, I.; Marshall, R.; Pflugel, G.; Valentine, J.

    1979-01-01

    Applications for large deployable antennas were re-examined, flight demonstration objectives were defined, the flight article (antenna) was preliminarily designed, and the flight program and ground development program, including the support equipment, were defined for a proposed space transportation system flight experiment to demonstrate a large (50 to 200 meter) deployable antenna system. Tasks described include: (1) performance requirements analysis; (2) system design and definition; (3) orbital operations analysis; and (4) programmatic analysis.

  16. Project Echo: Antenna Steering System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klahn, R.; Norton, J. A.; Githens, J. A.

    1961-01-01

    The Project Echo communications experiment employed large, steerable,transmitting and receiving antennas at the ground terminals. It was necessary that these highly directional antennas be continuously and accurately pointed at the passing satellite. This paper describes a new type of special purpose data converter for directing narrow-beam communication antennas on the basis of predicted information. The system is capable of converting digital input data into real-time analog voltage commands with a dynamic accuracy of +/- 0.05 degree, which meets the requirements of the present antennas.

  17. Miniaturization of Microwave Ablation Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luyen, Hung

    Microwave ablation (MWA) is a promising minimally invasive technique for the treatment of various types of cancers as well as non-oncological diseases. In MWA, an interstitial antenna is typically used to deliver microwave energy to the diseased tissue and heat it up to lethal temperature levels that induce cell death. The desired characteristics of the interstitial antenna include a narrow diameter to minimize invasiveness of the treatment, a low input reflection coefficient at the operating frequency, and a localized heating zone. Most interstitial MWA antennas are fed by coaxial cables and designed for operation at either 915 MHz or 2.45 GHz. Coax-fed MWA antennas are commonly equipped with coaxial baluns to achieve localized heating. However, the conventional implementation of coaxial baluns increases the overall diameters of the antennas and therefore make them more invasive. It is highly desirable to develop less invasive antennas with shorter active lengths and smaller diameters for MWA applications. In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility of using higher frequency microwaves for tissue ablation and present several techniques for decreasing diameters of MWA antennas. First, we investigated MWA at higher frequencies by conducting numerical and experimental studies to compare ablation performance at 10 GHz and 1.9 GHz. Simulation and ex vivo ablation experiment results demonstrate comparable ablation zone dimensions achieved at these two frequencies. Operating at higher frequencies enables interstitial antennas with shorter active lengths. This can be combined with smaller-diameter antenna designs to create less invasive applicators or allow integration of multiple radiating elements on a single applicator to have better control and customization of the heating patterns. Additionally, we present three different coax-fed antenna designs and a non-coaxial-based balanced antenna that have smaller-diameter configurations than conventional coax-fed balun

  18. Antenna system for MSAT mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlsson, Ingmar; Patenaude, Yves; Stipelman, Leora

    1988-01-01

    Spar has evaluated and compared several antenna concepts for the North American Mobile Satellite. The paper describes some of the requirements and design considerations for the antennas and demonstrates the performance of antenna concepts that can meet them. Multiple beam reflector antennas are found to give best performance and much of the design effort has gone into the design of the primary feed radiators and beam forming networks to achieve efficient beams with good overlap and flexibility. Helices and cup dipole radiators have been breadboarded as feed element candidates and meausured results are presented. The studies and breadboard activities have made it possible to proceed with a flight program.

  19. Metamaterial-based "sabre" antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafdallah Ouslimani, Habiba; Yuan, Tangjie; Kanane, Houcine; Priou, Alain; Collignon, Gérard; Lacotte, Guillaume

    2014-05-01

    The "sabre" antenna is an array of two monopole elements, vertically polarized with omnidirectional radiation patterns, and placed on either side of a composite material on the tail of an airplane. As an in-phase reflector plane, the antenna uses a compact dual-layer high-impedance surface (DL-HIS) with offset mushroom-like Sivenpiper square shape unit cells. This topology allows one to control both operational frequency and bandgap width, while reducing the total height of the antenna to under λ0/36. The designed antenna structure has a wide bandwidth higher than 24% around 1.4 GHz. The measurements and numerical simulations agree very well.

  20. Spiral Microstrip Antenna with Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, David G. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A spiral microstrip antenna having resistor elements embedded in each of the spiral arms is provided. The antenna is constructed using a conductive back plane as a base. The back plane supports a dielectric slab having a thickness between one-sixteenth and one-quarter of an inch. A square spiral, having either two or four arms, is attached to the dielectric slab. Each arm of the spiral has resistor elements thereby dissipating an excess energy not already emitted through radiation. The entire configuration provides a thin, flat, high gain, wide bandwidth antenna which requires no underlying cavity. The configuration allows the antenna to be mounted conformably on an aircraft surface.

  1. Electronic switching spherical array antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockton, R.

    1978-01-01

    This work was conducted to demonstrate the performance levels attainable with an ESSA (Electronic Switching Spherical Array) antenna by designing and testing an engineering model. The antenna was designed to satisfy general spacecraft environmental requirements and built to provide electronically commandable beam pointing capability throughout a hemisphere. Constant gain and beam shape throughout large volumetric coverage regions are the principle characteristics. The model is intended to be a prototype of a standard communications and data handling antenna for user scientific spacecraft with the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). Some additional testing was conducted to determine the feasibility of an integrated TDRSS and GPS (Global Positioning System) antenna system.

  2. Large Space Antenna Systems Technology, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, W. J. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Mission applications for large space antenna systems; large space antenna structural systems; materials and structures technology; structural dynamics and control technology, electromagnetics technology, large space antenna systems and the Space Station; and flight test and evaluation were examined.

  3. An antenna pointing mechanism for large reflector antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimerdinger, H.

    1981-01-01

    An antenna pointing mechanism for large reflector antennas on direct broadcasting communication satellites was built and tested. After listing the requirements and constraints for this equipment the model is described, and performance figures are given. Futhermore, results of the qualification level tests, including functional, vibrational, thermovacuum, and accelerated life tests are reported. These tests were completed successfully.

  4. View of Antenna #1 (foreground), and Antenna #2 surface doors. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Antenna #1 (foreground), and Antenna #2 surface doors. Orientation Target #2 in background. Image looking northeast - Titan One Missile Complex 2A, .3 miles west of 129 Road and 1.5 miles north of County Line Road, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  5. View of Antenna #2 (foreground), and Antenna #1 surface doors. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Antenna #2 (foreground), and Antenna #1 surface doors. Orientation Target #1 in background. Image looking northwest - Titan One Missile Complex 2A, .3 miles west of 129 Road and 1.5 miles north of County Line Road, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  6. Airborne antenna pattern calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knerr, T. J.; Mielke, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Progress on the development of modeling software, testing software against caclulated data from program VPAP and measured patterns, and calculating roll plane patterns for general aviation aircraft is reported. Major objectives are the continued development of computer software for aircraft modeling and use of this software and program OSUVOL to calculate principal plane and volumetric radiation patterns. The determination of proper placement of antennas on aircraft to meet the requirements of the Microwave Landing System is discussed. An overview of the performed work, and an example of a roll plane model for the Piper PA-31T Cheyenne aircraft and the resulting calculated roll plane radiation pattern are included.

  7. Patch antenna terahertz photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Palaferri, D.; Todorov, Y., E-mail: yanko.todorov@univ-paris-diderot.fr; Chen, Y. N.

    2015-04-20

    We report on the implementation of 5 THz quantum well photodetector exploiting a patch antenna cavity array. The benefit of our plasmonic architecture on the detector performance is assessed by comparing it with detectors made using the same quantum well absorbing region, but processed into a standard 45° polished facet mesa. Our results demonstrate a clear improvement in responsivity, polarization insensitivity, and background limited performance. Peak detectivities in excess of 5 × 10{sup 12} cmHz{sup 1/2}/W have been obtained, a value comparable with that of the best cryogenic cooled bolometers.

  8. Polarimetric SAR Antenna Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-28

    an Alpha Industries model A858-12 scalar-horn/lens antenna that scans in azimuth and elevation inside a monolithic spherical radome. Figure 1-1 shows a...ADTS1ADIR. DAT LINEAR XMIT, LINEAR RECEIVE. W/SHARD, W/SHROUD, W/O POLARIZER COPOL 79198-53 Figure 2-4. VV/ power versus azimuth and elevation for 33.6...GHz.. 9 -’ / 8160 7. 𔄁 / (Z Z 󈧄 \\ w ~~~ 0 0 C \\,- -- 23 MAX XPOL (dB) REL TO COPOL AT SAME Az, El MAXIMUM XPOL = -29.52 dB ADTSIADIR.DAT LINEAR XMIT

  9. Microelectromechanical Systems Actuator Based Reconfigurable Printed Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A polarization reconfigurable patch antenna is disclosed. The antenna includes a feed element, a patch antenna element electrically connected to the feed element, and at least one microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) actuator, with a partial connection to the patch antenna element along an edge of the patch antenna element. The polarization of the antenna can be switched between circular polarization and linear polarization through action of the at least one MEMS actuator.

  10. Response functions of free mass gravitational wave antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, F. B.

    1985-01-01

    The work of Gursel, Linsay, Spero, Saulson, Whitcomb and Weiss (1984) on the response of a free-mass interferometric antenna is extended. Starting from first principles, the earlier work derived the response of a 2-arm gravitational wave antenna to plane polarized gravitational waves. Equivalent formulas (generalized slightly to allow for arbitrary elliptical polarization) are obtained by a simple differencing of the '3-pulse' Doppler response functions of two 1-arm antennas. A '4-pulse' response function is found, with quite complicated angular dependences for arbitrary incident polarization. The differencing method can as readily be used to write exact response functions ('3n+1 pulse') for antennas having multiple passes or more arms.

  11. Emergency-vehicle VHF antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. E.; Carlson, A. W.; Lewis, J.

    1977-01-01

    Helical VHF antenna mounts on roof of moving vehicle to communicate with distant stations via earth satellites. Antenna requires no pointing and can provide two-way communication while vehicle moves at high speed. Device has proved extremely successful in electrocardiogram transmission tests between medical services vehicle and hospital emergency room.

  12. Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission

    PubMed Central

    Eggleston, Michael S.; Messer, Kevin; Zhang, Liming; Yablonovitch, Eli; Wu, Ming C.

    2015-01-01

    Atoms and molecules are too small to act as efficient antennas for their own emission wavelengths. By providing an external optical antenna, the balance can be shifted; spontaneous emission could become faster than stimulated emission, which is handicapped by practically achievable pump intensities. In our experiments, InGaAsP nanorods emitting at ∼200 THz optical frequency show a spontaneous emission intensity enhancement of 35× corresponding to a spontaneous emission rate speedup ∼115×, for antenna gap spacing, d = 40 nm. Classical antenna theory predicts ∼2,500× spontaneous emission speedup at d ∼ 10 nm, proportional to 1/d2. Unfortunately, at d < 10 nm, antenna efficiency drops below 50%, owing to optical spreading resistance, exacerbated by the anomalous skin effect (electron surface collisions). Quantum dipole oscillations in the emitter excited state produce an optical ac equivalent circuit current, Io = qω|xo|/d, feeding the antenna-enhanced spontaneous emission, where q|xo| is the dipole matrix element. Despite the quantum-mechanical origin of the drive current, antenna theory makes no reference to the Purcell effect nor to local density of states models. Moreover, plasmonic effects are minor at 200 THz, producing only a small shift of antenna resonance frequency. PMID:25624503

  13. Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission

    SciTech Connect

    Eggleston, Michael S.; Messer, Kevin; Zhang, Liming

    Atoms and molecules are too small to act as efficient antennas for their own emission wavelengths. By providing an external optical antenna, the balance can be shifted; spontaneous emission could become faster than stimulated emission, which is handicapped by practically achievable pump intensities. In our experiments, InGaAsP nanorods emitting at ~200 THz optical frequency show a spontaneous emission intensity enhancement of 35 × corresponding to a spontaneous emission rate speedup ~115 ×, for antenna gap spacing, d = 40 nm. Classical antenna theory predicts ~2,500 × spontaneous emission speedup at d ~10 nm, proportional to 1/d 2. Unfortunately, at dmore » < 10 nm, antenna efficiency drops below 50%, owing to optical spreading resistance, exacerbated by the anomalous skin effect (electron surface collisions). Quantum dipole oscillations in the emitter excited state produce an optical ac equivalent circuit current, I(o) = qω|x(o)|/d, feeding the antenna-enhanced spontaneous emission, where q|x(o)| is the dipole matrix element. Despite the quantum-mechanical origin of the drive current, antenna theory makes no reference to the Purcell effect nor to local density of states models. Additionally, plasmonic effects are minor at 200 THz, producing only a small shift of antenna resonance frequency.« less

  14. Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission.

    PubMed

    Eggleston, Michael S; Messer, Kevin; Zhang, Liming; Yablonovitch, Eli; Wu, Ming C

    2015-02-10

    Atoms and molecules are too small to act as efficient antennas for their own emission wavelengths. By providing an external optical antenna, the balance can be shifted; spontaneous emission could become faster than stimulated emission, which is handicapped by practically achievable pump intensities. In our experiments, InGaAsP nanorods emitting at ∼ 200 THz optical frequency show a spontaneous emission intensity enhancement of 35 × corresponding to a spontaneous emission rate speedup ∼ 115 ×, for antenna gap spacing, d = 40 nm. Classical antenna theory predicts ∼ 2,500 × spontaneous emission speedup at d ∼ 10 nm, proportional to 1/d(2). Unfortunately, at d < 10 nm, antenna efficiency drops below 50%, owing to optical spreading resistance, exacerbated by the anomalous skin effect (electron surface collisions). Quantum dipole oscillations in the emitter excited state produce an optical ac equivalent circuit current, I(o) = qω|x(o)|/d, feeding the antenna-enhanced spontaneous emission, where q|x(o)| is the dipole matrix element. Despite the quantum-mechanical origin of the drive current, antenna theory makes no reference to the Purcell effect nor to local density of states models. Moreover, plasmonic effects are minor at 200 THz, producing only a small shift of antenna resonance frequency.

  15. Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission

    DOE PAGES

    Eggleston, Michael S.; Messer, Kevin; Zhang, Liming; ...

    2015-01-26

    Atoms and molecules are too small to act as efficient antennas for their own emission wavelengths. By providing an external optical antenna, the balance can be shifted; spontaneous emission could become faster than stimulated emission, which is handicapped by practically achievable pump intensities. In our experiments, InGaAsP nanorods emitting at ~200 THz optical frequency show a spontaneous emission intensity enhancement of 35 × corresponding to a spontaneous emission rate speedup ~115 ×, for antenna gap spacing, d = 40 nm. Classical antenna theory predicts ~2,500 × spontaneous emission speedup at d ~10 nm, proportional to 1/d 2. Unfortunately, at dmore » < 10 nm, antenna efficiency drops below 50%, owing to optical spreading resistance, exacerbated by the anomalous skin effect (electron surface collisions). Quantum dipole oscillations in the emitter excited state produce an optical ac equivalent circuit current, I(o) = qω|x(o)|/d, feeding the antenna-enhanced spontaneous emission, where q|x(o)| is the dipole matrix element. Despite the quantum-mechanical origin of the drive current, antenna theory makes no reference to the Purcell effect nor to local density of states models. Additionally, plasmonic effects are minor at 200 THz, producing only a small shift of antenna resonance frequency.« less

  16. Microsecond switchable thermal antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe, E-mail: pba@institutoptique.fr; Benisty, Henri; Besbes, Mondher

    2014-07-21

    We propose a thermal antenna that can be actively switched on and off at the microsecond scale by means of a phase transition of a metal-insulator material, the vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}). This thermal source is made of a periodically patterned tunable VO{sub 2} nanolayer, which support a surface phonon-polariton in the infrared range in their crystalline phase. Using electrodes properly registered with respect to the pattern, the VO{sub 2} phase transition can be locally triggered by ohmic heating so that the surface phonon-polariton can be diffracted by the induced grating, producing a highly directional thermal emission. Conversely, when heatingmore » less, the VO{sub 2} layers cool down below the transition temperature, the surface phonon-polariton cannot be diffracted anymore so that thermal emission is inhibited. This switchable antenna could find broad applications in the domain of active thermal coatings or in those of infrared spectroscopy and sensing.« less

  17. Transcatheter Microwave Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, Dickey G. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method, simulation, and apparatus are provided that are highly suitable for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A catheter is disclosed that includes a small diameter disk loaded monopole antenna surrounded by fusion material having a high heat of fusion and a melting point preferably at or near body temperature. Microwaves from the antenna heat prostatic tissue to promote necrosing of the prostatic tissue that relieves the pressure of the prostatic tissue against the urethra as the body reabsorbs the necrosed or dead tissue. The fusion material keeps the urethra cool by means of the heat of fusion of the fusion material. This prevents damage to the urethra while the prostatic tissue is necrosed. A computer simulation is provided that can be used to predict the resulting temperature profile produced in the prostatic tissue. By changing the various control features of the catheter and method of applying microwave energy a temperature profile can be predicted and produced that is similar to the temperature profile desired for the particular patient.

  18. Large-Aperture Membrane Active Phased-Array Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasik, Boris; McGrath, William; Leduc, Henry

    2009-01-01

    this article, an 8 16 passive array (not including T/R modules) and a 2 4 active array (including T/R modules) had been demonstrated, and it was planned to fabricate and test larger arrays.

  19. Implantable multilayer microstrip antenna for retinal prosthesis: antenna testing.

    PubMed

    Permana, Hans; Fang, Qiang; Rowe, Wayne S T

    2012-01-01

    Retinal prosthesis has come to a more mature stage and become a very strategic answer to Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) and Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) diseases. In a retinal prosthesis system, wireless link holds a great importance for the continuity of the system. In this paper, an implantable multilayer microstrip antenna was proposed for the retinal prosthesis system. Simulations were performed in High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS) with the surrounding material of air and Vitreous Humor fluid. The fabricated antenna was measured for characteristic validation in free space. The results showed that the real antenna possessed similar return loss and radiation pattern, while there was discrepancy with the gain values.

  20. Antenna sunshield membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogorad, Alexander (Inventor); Bowman, Jr., Charles K. (Inventor); Meder, Martin G. (Inventor); Dottore, Frank A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An RF-transparent sunshield membrane covers an antenna reflector such as a parabolic dish. The blanket includes a single dielectric sheet of polyimide film 1/2-mil thick. The surface of the film facing away from the reflector is coated with a transparent electrically conductive coating such as vapor-deposited indium-tin oxide. The surface of the film facing the reflector is reinforced by an adhesively attached polyester or glass mesh, which in turn is coated with a white paint. In a particular embodiment of the invention, polyurethane paint is used. In another embodiment of the invention, a layer of paint primer is applied to the mesh under a silicone paint, and the silicone paint is cured after application for several days at room temperature to enhance adhesion to the primer.

  1. Rydberg Dipole Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stack, Daniel; Rodenburg, Bradon; Pappas, Stephen; Su, Wangshen; St. John, Marc; Kunz, Paul; Simon, Matt; Gordon, Joshua; Holloway, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    Measurements of microwave frequency electric fields by traditional methods (i.e. engineered antennas) have limited sensitivity and can be difficult to calibrate properly. A useful tool to address this problem are highly-excited (Rydberg) neutral atoms which have very large electric-dipole moments and many dipole-allowed transitions in the range of 1-500 GHz. Using Rydberg states, it is possible to sensitively probe the electric field in this frequency range using the combination of two quantum interference phenomena: electromagnetically induced transparency and the Autler-Townes effect. This atom-light interaction can be modeled by the classical description of a harmonically bound electron. The classical damped, driven, coupled-oscillators model yields significant insights into the deep connections between classical and quantum physics. We will present a detailed experimental analysis of the noise processes in making such measurements in the laboratory and discuss the prospects for building a practical atomic microwave receiver.

  2. IAE - Inflatable Antenna Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-06-10

    STS077-705-051 (20 May 1996) --- Following its deployment from the Space Shuttle Endeavour and its subsequent inflation process, the Spartan 207/Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE) payload is backdropped over mountains. The view was photographed with a handheld 70mm camera during the first full day of orbital operations by the six-member crew. Managed by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Spartan is designed to provide short-duration, free-flight opportunities for a variety of scientific studies. The Spartan configuration on this flight is unique in that the IAE is part of an additional separate unit which is ejected once the experiment is completed. The IAE experiment will lay the groundwork for future technology development in inflatable space structures, which will be launched and then inflated like a balloon on-orbit.

  3. IAE - Inflatable Antenna Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-06-10

    STS077-705-012 (20 May 1996) --- Following its deployment from the Space Shuttle Endeavour, the Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE) portion of the Spartan 207 payload is backdropped over Earth as it continues its inflation process. The view was photographed with a handheld 70mm camera during the first full day of orbital operations by the six-member crew. Managed by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Spartan is designed to provide short-duration, free-flight opportunities for a variety of scientific studies. The Spartan configuration on this flight is unique in that the IAE is part of an additional separate unit which is ejected once the experiment is completed. The IAE experiment will lay the groundwork for future technology development in inflatable space structures, which will be launched and then inflated like a balloon on-orbit.

  4. IAE - Inflatable Antenna Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-05-20

    STS077-150-094 (20 May 1996) --- Following its deployment from the Space Shuttle Endeavour, the Spartan 207/Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE) payload is backdropped over the Mississippi River and metropolitan St. Louis. The metropolitan area lies just below the gold-colored Spartan at bottom of photo. The view was photographed with a large format still camera on the first full day of in-space operations by the six-member crew. Managed by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Spartan is designed to provide short-duration, free-flight opportunities for a variety of scientific studies. The Spartan configuration on this flight is unique in that the IAE is part of an additional separate unit which is ejected once the experiment is completed. The IAE experiment will lay the groundwork for future technology development in inflatable space structures, which will be launched and then inflated like a balloon on-orbit.

  5. IAE - Inflatable Antenna Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-06-10

    STS077-705-016 (20 May 1996) --- Following its deployment from the Space Shuttle Endeavour, the Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE) part of the Spartan 207 payload nears completion of its inflation process over California?s Pacific Coast near Santa Barbara and Point Conception. The view was photographed with a handheld 70mm camera during the first full day of orbital operations by the six-member crew. Managed by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Spartan is designed to provide short-duration, free-flight opportunities for a variety of scientific studies. The Spartan configuration on this flight is unique in that the IAE is part of an additional separate unit which is ejected once the experiment is completed. The IAE experiment will lay the groundwork for future technology development in inflatable space structures, which will be launched and then inflated like a balloon on-orbit.

  6. Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-05-20

    S77-E-5022 (20 May 1996)--- Following its deployment from the Space Shuttle Endeavour, the Spartan 207/Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE) payload is backdropped over clouds and water. The view was photographed with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC) and downlinked to flight controllers on the first full day of orbital operations by the six-member crew. Managed by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Spartan is designed to provide short-duration, free-flight opportunities for a variety of scientific studies. The Spartan configuration on this flight is unique in that the IAE is part of an additional separate unit which is ejected once the experiment is completed. The IAE experiment will lay the groundwork for future technology development in inflatable space structures, which will be launched and then inflated like a balloon on-orbit.

  7. IAE - Inflatable Antenna Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-05-20

    STS077-150-010 (20 May 1996) --- Soon after leaving the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Endeavour, the Spartan 207/Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE) payload goes through its inflation process, backdropped over clouds. The view was photographed with a large format still camera on the first full day of in-space operations by the six-member crew. Managed by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Spartan is designed to provide short-duration, free-flight opportunities for a variety of scientific studies. The Spartan configuration on this flight is unique in that the IAE is part of an additional separate unit which is ejected once the experiment is completed. The IAE experiment will lay the groundwork for future technology development in inflatable space structures, which will be launched and then inflated like a balloon on-orbit.

  8. Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-05-20

    S77-E-5027 (20 May 1996)--- Following its deployment from the Space Shuttle Endeavour, the Spartan 207/Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE) payload is backdropped over clouds and water. The view was photographed with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC) and downlinked to flight controllers on the first full day of orbital operations by the six-member crew. Managed by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Spartan is designed to provide short-duration, free-flight opportunities for a variety of scientific studies. The Spartan configuration on this flight is unique in that the IAE is part of an additional separate unit which is ejected once the experiment is completed. The IAE experiment will lay the groundwork for future technology development in inflatable space structures, which will be launched and then inflated like a balloon on-orbit.

  9. IAE - Inflatable Antenna Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-05-20

    STS077-150-044 (20 May 1996) --- Following its deployment from the Space Shuttle Endeavour, the Spartan 207/Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE) payload is backdropped over the Grand Canyon. After the IAE completed its inflation process in free-flight, this view was photographed with a large format still camera. The activity came on the first full day of in-space operations by the six-member crew. Managed by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Spartan is designed to provide short-duration, free-flight opportunities for a variety of scientific studies. The Spartan configuration on this flight is unique in that the IAE is part of an additional separate unit which is ejected once the experiment is completed. The IAE experiment will lay the groundwork for future technology development in inflatable space structures, which will be launched and then inflated like a balloon on-orbit.

  10. IAE - Inflatable Antenna Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-06-10

    STS077-705-004 (20 May 1996) --- Following its deployment from the Space Shuttle Endeavour, the Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE) portion of the Spartan 207 payload begins to inflate, backdropped against clouds over the Pacific Ocean. The view was photographed with a handheld 70mm camera during the first full day of orbital operations by the six-member crew. Managed by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Spartan is designed to provide short-duration, free-flight opportunities for a variety of scientific studies. The Spartan configuration on this flight is unique in that the IAE is part of an additional separate unit which is ejected once the experiment is completed. The IAE experiment will lay the groundwork for future technology development in inflatable space structures, which will be launched and then inflated like a balloon on-orbit.

  11. Metal Patch Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Neil F. (Inventor); Zawadzki, Mark S. (Inventor); Hodges, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a patch antenna comprises a planar conductive patch attached to a ground plane by a support member, and a probe connector in electrical communication with the conductive patch arranged to conduct electromagnetic energy to or from the conductive patch, wherein the conductive patch is disposed essentially parallel to the ground plane and is separated from the ground plane by a spacing distance; wherein the support member comprises a plurality of sides disposed about a central axis oriented perpendicular to the conductive patch and the ground plane; wherein the conductive patch is solely supported above the ground plane by the support member; and wherein the support member provides electrical communication between the planer conductive patch and the ground plane.

  12. IAE - Inflatable Antenna Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-05-20

    STS077-150-022 (20 May 1996) --- After leaving the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Endeavour, the Spartan 207/Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE) payload goes through the final stages its inflation process, backdropped over clouds and blue water. The view was photographed with a large format still camera on the first full day of in-space operations by the six-member crew. Managed by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Spartan is designed to provide short-duration, free-flight opportunities for a variety of scientific studies. The Spartan configuration on this flight is unique in that the IAE is part of an additional separate unit which is ejected once the experiment is completed. The IAE experiment will lay the groundwork for future technology development in inflatable space structures, which will be launched and then inflated like a balloon on-orbit.

  13. Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-05-20

    S77-E-5033 (20 May 1996) --- Following its deployment from the Space Shuttle Endeavour, the Spartan 207/Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE) payload is backdropped against a wall of grayish clouds. The view was photographed with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC) and downlinked to flight controllers on the first full day of orbital operations by the six-member crew. Managed by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Spartan is designed to provide short-duration, free-flight opportunities for a variety of scientific studies. The Spartan configuration on this flight is unique in that the IAE is part of an additional separate unit which is ejected once the experiment is completed. The IAE experiment will lay the groundwork for future technology development in inflatable space structures, which will be launched and then inflated like a balloon on-orbit.

  14. Troposcatter Antenna Positioner

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    that ’ Z ’ WecT ie(hu1)s n 1) adue h atta t i vnt id() W= 41TRd(O0) (12) Using (10) twice, we get the second moment . 2S(W)e Wdw -21R 10 (0)( Papoulis...tu 4~e~eawd, deu~entpr,, te~ t and Le~ t ~td acqwiU’On Po4au6m in 4uappo’Lt oj Counand, Conto COuusuwi6 m lantettigexce (01) m40tie.6. Ted*tma and...275 - 7 4.] 󈧕 kL L. d TROPOSCATTER ANTENNA POSITIONR Finalechnical Iep t ." 6Sep 7-_Feb _W1 j( W. P /irkemeier F3 16O2 77-CQl48WpA 9. PERFORMING

  15. Cylindrical Antenna Using Near Zero Index Metamaterial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-24

    circularly polarized microstrip patch antenna (SFCP-MPA). Simultaneous enhancement on antenna gain, impedance bandwidth (ZBW) and axial-ratio...K. L. Chung, and P. Akkaraekthalin, "Simultaneous gain and bandwidths enhancement of a single-feed circularly polarized microstrip patch antenna ...device for enhancing the directivity and port isolation of a dual-frequency dual- polarization (DFDP) microstrip antenna by using metamaterial

  16. 47 CFR 15.203 - Antenna requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna requirement. 15.203 Section 15.203... Antenna requirement. An intentional radiator shall be designed to ensure that no antenna other than that furnished by the responsible party shall be used with the device. The use of a permanently attached antenna...

  17. 47 CFR 15.203 - Antenna requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna requirement. 15.203 Section 15.203... Antenna requirement. An intentional radiator shall be designed to ensure that no antenna other than that furnished by the responsible party shall be used with the device. The use of a permanently attached antenna...

  18. 47 CFR 73.753 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.753 Section 73.753... International Broadcast Stations § 73.753 Antenna systems. All international broadcasting stations shall operate with directional antennas. Such antennas shall be designed and operated so that the radiated power in...

  19. 47 CFR 15.203 - Antenna requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna requirement. 15.203 Section 15.203... Antenna requirement. An intentional radiator shall be designed to ensure that no antenna other than that furnished by the responsible party shall be used with the device. The use of a permanently attached antenna...

  20. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be more...

  1. 47 CFR 73.510 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.510 Section 73.510... Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.510 Antenna systems. (a) All noncommercial educational... § 73.316 concerning antenna systems contained in subpart B of this part. (b) Directional antenna. No...

  2. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Auxiliary antennas. 73.1675 Section 73.1675... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1675 Auxiliary antennas. (a)(1) An auxiliary antenna is one that is permanently installed and available for use when the main antenna is out of service for...

  3. 47 CFR 73.510 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.510 Section 73.510... Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.510 Antenna systems. (a) All noncommercial educational... § 73.316 concerning antenna systems contained in subpart B of this part. (b) Directional antenna. No...

  4. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Auxiliary antennas. 73.1675 Section 73.1675... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1675 Auxiliary antennas. (a)(1) An auxiliary antenna is one that is permanently installed and available for use when the main antenna is out of service for...

  5. 47 CFR 73.1680 - Emergency antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency antennas. 73.1680 Section 73.1680... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1680 Emergency antennas. (a) An emergency antenna is one that is erected for temporary use after the authorized main and auxiliary antennas are damaged and...

  6. 47 CFR 73.753 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.753 Section 73.753... International Broadcast Stations § 73.753 Antenna systems. All international broadcasting stations shall operate with directional antennas. Such antennas shall be designed and operated so that the radiated power in...

  7. 47 CFR 73.753 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.753 Section 73.753... International Broadcast Stations § 73.753 Antenna systems. All international broadcasting stations shall operate with directional antennas. Such antennas shall be designed and operated so that the radiated power in...

  8. 47 CFR 95.1013 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antennas. 95.1013 Section 95.1013... SERVICES Low Power Radio Service (LPRS) General Provisions § 95.1013 Antennas. (a) The maximum allowable... this chapter, at the band edges. (b) AMTS stations must employ directional antennas. (c) Antennas used...

  9. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be more...

  10. 47 CFR 73.1680 - Emergency antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency antennas. 73.1680 Section 73.1680... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1680 Emergency antennas. (a) An emergency antenna is one that is erected for temporary use after the authorized main and auxiliary antennas are damaged and...

  11. 47 CFR 95.1213 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antennas. 95.1213 Section 95.1213... SERVICES Medical Device Radiocommunication Service (MedRadio) § 95.1213 Antennas. No antenna for a MedRadio transmitter shall be configured for permanent outdoor use. In addition, any MedRadio antenna used outdoors...

  12. 47 CFR 73.510 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.510 Section 73.510... Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.510 Antenna systems. (a) All noncommercial educational... § 73.316 concerning antenna systems contained in subpart B of this part. (b) Directional antenna. No...

  13. 47 CFR 95.1013 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antennas. 95.1013 Section 95.1013... SERVICES Low Power Radio Service (LPRS) General Provisions § 95.1013 Antennas. (a) The maximum allowable... this chapter, at the band edges. (b) AMTS stations must employ directional antennas. (c) Antennas used...

  14. 47 CFR 15.203 - Antenna requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna requirement. 15.203 Section 15.203... Antenna requirement. An intentional radiator shall be designed to ensure that no antenna other than that furnished by the responsible party shall be used with the device. The use of a permanently attached antenna...

  15. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Auxiliary antennas. 73.1675 Section 73.1675... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1675 Auxiliary antennas. (a)(1) An auxiliary antenna is one that is permanently installed and available for use when the main antenna is out of service for...

  16. 47 CFR 73.1680 - Emergency antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency antennas. 73.1680 Section 73.1680... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1680 Emergency antennas. (a) An emergency antenna is one that is erected for temporary use after the authorized main and auxiliary antennas are damaged and...

  17. 47 CFR 95.1213 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antennas. 95.1213 Section 95.1213... SERVICES Medical Device Radiocommunication Service (MedRadio) § 95.1213 Antennas. No antenna for a MedRadio transmitter shall be configured for permanent outdoor use. In addition, any MedRadio antenna used outdoors...

  18. 47 CFR 73.510 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.510 Section 73.510... Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.510 Antenna systems. (a) All noncommercial educational... § 73.316 concerning antenna systems contained in subpart B of this part. (b) Directional antenna. No...

  19. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be more...

  20. 47 CFR 95.1013 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antennas. 95.1013 Section 95.1013... SERVICES Low Power Radio Service (LPRS) General Provisions § 95.1013 Antennas. (a) The maximum allowable... this chapter, at the band edges. (b) AMTS stations must employ directional antennas. (c) Antennas used...

  1. 47 CFR 73.1680 - Emergency antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency antennas. 73.1680 Section 73.1680... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1680 Emergency antennas. (a) An emergency antenna is one that is erected for temporary use after the authorized main and auxiliary antennas are damaged and...

  2. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Auxiliary antennas. 73.1675 Section 73.1675... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1675 Auxiliary antennas. (a)(1) An auxiliary antenna is one that is permanently installed and available for use when the main antenna is out of service for...

  3. 47 CFR 73.753 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.753 Section 73.753... International Broadcast Stations § 73.753 Antenna systems. All international broadcasting stations shall operate with directional antennas. Such antennas shall be designed and operated so that the radiated power in...

  4. 47 CFR 73.753 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.753 Section 73.753... International Broadcast Stations § 73.753 Antenna systems. All international broadcasting stations shall operate with directional antennas. Such antennas shall be designed and operated so that the radiated power in...

  5. 47 CFR 95.1013 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antennas. 95.1013 Section 95.1013... SERVICES Low Power Radio Service (LPRS) General Provisions § 95.1013 Antennas. (a) The maximum allowable... this chapter, at the band edges. (b) AMTS stations must employ directional antennas. (c) Antennas used...

  6. 47 CFR 15.203 - Antenna requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna requirement. 15.203 Section 15.203... Antenna requirement. An intentional radiator shall be designed to ensure that no antenna other than that furnished by the responsible party shall be used with the device. The use of a permanently attached antenna...

  7. 47 CFR 73.510 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.510 Section 73.510... Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.510 Antenna systems. (a) All noncommercial educational... § 73.316 concerning antenna systems contained in subpart B of this part. (b) Directional antenna. No...

  8. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be more...

  9. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be more...

  10. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary antennas. 73.1675 Section 73.1675... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1675 Auxiliary antennas. (a)(1) An auxiliary antenna is one that is permanently installed and available for use when the main antenna is out of service for...

  11. 47 CFR 95.1013 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antennas. 95.1013 Section 95.1013... SERVICES Low Power Radio Service (LPRS) General Provisions § 95.1013 Antennas. (a) The maximum allowable... this chapter, at the band edges. (b) AMTS stations must employ directional antennas. (c) Antennas used...

  12. 47 CFR 73.1680 - Emergency antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency antennas. 73.1680 Section 73.1680... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1680 Emergency antennas. (a) An emergency antenna is one that is erected for temporary use after the authorized main and auxiliary antennas are damaged and...

  13. Large inflated-antenna system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinson, W. F.; Keafer, L. S.

    1984-01-01

    It is proposed that for inflatable antenna systems, technology feasibility can be demonstrated and parametric design and scalability (scale factor 10 to 20) can be validated with an experiment using a 16-m-diameter antenna attached to the Shuttle. The antenna configuration consists of a thin film cone and paraboloid held to proper shape by internal pressure and a self-rigidizing torus. The cone and paraboloid would be made using pie-shaped gores with the paraboloid being coated with aluminum to provide reflectivity. The torus would be constructed using an aluminum polyester composite that when inflated would erect to a smooth shell that can withstand loads without internal pressure.

  14. Reconfigurable antenna using plasma reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusoh, Mohd Taufik; Ahmad, Khairol Amali; Din, Muhammad Faiz Md; Hashim, Fakroul Ridzuan

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the feasibility study and design of plasma implementation in industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) communication band. A reflector antenna with rounded shaped is proposed to collimate beam in particular direction radiated by a quarter wave antenna operating at 2.4GHz. The simulations result has shown that by using plasma as the reflector elements, the gain, directivity and radiation patterns are identical with metal elements with only small different in the broadside direction. The versatility of the antenna is achievable by introducing electrical reconfigurable option to change the beam pattern.

  15. Kurs antenna on the Progress

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-11-23

    ISS014-E-07953 (22 Nov. 2006) ---This photo shows the position of the KURS antennae on 23 Progress as seen by spacewalkers Michael Lopez-Alegria and Mikhail Tyurin during Russian EVA 17 on Nov. 22. During docking of the Progress to the International Space Station on Oct. 26, 2006, flight controllers were unable to confirm if the antenna had retracted as commanded. On the right-hand side of the photo, there is a visible clearance between the antennae's satellite dish and handrail 2745 on the ISS Service Module.

  16. Estimates of RF-Induced Erosion at Antenna-Connected Beryllium Plasma-Facing Components in JET

    SciTech Connect

    Borodin, D.; Groth, M.; Airila, M.

    2016-01-01

    During high-power, ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH), RF sheath rectification and RF induced plasma-wall interactions (RF-PWI) can potentially limit long-pulse operation. With toroidally-spaced ICRH antennas, in an ITER-like wall (ILW) environment, JET provides an ideal environment for ITER-relevant, RF-PWI studies. JET pulses combining sequential toggling of the antennas with q95 (edge safety factor) sweeping were recently used to localize RF-enhanced Be I and Be II spectral line emission at outboard poloidal (beryllium) limiters. These measurements were carried out in the early stages of JET-ILW and in ICRF-only, L-mode discharges. The appearance of enhanced emission spots was explained by their magneticmore » connection to regions of ICRH antennas associated with higher RF-sheath rectification [1]. The measured emission lines were the same as those already qualified in ERO modelling of inboard limiter beryllium erosion in JET limiter plasmas [2]. In the present work, we revisit this spectroscopic study with the focus on obtaining estimates of the impact of these RF-PWI on sputtering and on net erosion of the affected limiter regions. To do this, the ERO erosion and re-deposition code [2] is deployed with the detailed geometry of a JET outboard limiter. The effect of RF-PWI on sputtering is represented by varying the surface negative biasing, which affects the incidence energy and the resulting sputtering yield. The observed variations in line emission, from [1], for JET pulse 81173 of about factor 3 can be reproduced with ~ 100 200 V bias. ERO simulations show that the influence of the respective E-field on the local Be transport is localized near the surface and relatively small. Still, the distribution of the 3D plasma parameters, shadowing and other geometrical effects are quite important. The plasma parameter simulated by Edge2D-EIRENE [3] are extrapolated towards the surface and mapped in 3D. These initial modelling results are consistent with the

  17. Ion source with external RF antenna

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ji, Qing; Wilde, Stephen

    2005-12-13

    A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source.

  18. Measurements of AAFE RADSCAT antenna characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, A. E.; Jones, W. L., Jr.; Jones, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    Antenna characteristics (active and passive) for a modified AAFE-RADSCAT parabolic dish antenna are documented for a variety of antenna configurations. The modified antenna was a replacement for the original unit which was damaged in January 1975. Pattern measurements made at Langley Research Center and Johnson Space Center are presented, with an analysis of the results. Antenna loss measurements are also presented and summarized.

  19. Broadband Circularly Polarized Patch Antenna and Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-16

    300152 1 of 14 BROADBAND CIRCULARLY POLARIZED PATCH ANTENNA AND METHOD STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may...present invention provides a method and apparatus for a broadband circularly polarized patch antenna . (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] A...patch antenna , also referred to as a microstrip antenna , is a type of radio antenna with a low profile that can be mounted on a flat surface. The

  20. Electrically floating, near vertical incidence, skywave antenna

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Allen A.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Tremblay, Paul A.; Mays, Belva L.

    2014-07-08

    An Electrically Floating, Near Vertical Incidence, Skywave (NVIS) Antenna comprising an antenna element, a floating ground element, and a grounding element. At least part of said floating ground element is positioned between said antenna element and said grounding element. The antenna is separated from the floating ground element and the grounding element by one or more electrical insulators. The floating ground element is separated from said antenna and said grounding element by one or more electrical insulators.

  1. International Conference on Antenna Theory and Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-12-03

    modeling; (5) mobile —nicaWon^a^nas^ radane? and absorbing coatings; (7) antenna measurements; (8) microwave ccmponents and feeders; (9 SSrial^d...LOW-GAIN ANTENNAS PRINTED ANTENNAS ANTENNAS FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS 299 Radiation of the multi-mode slotted radiator V. Antyfeev, A. Borsov, A...band antenna alternatives for the European mobile satellite (EMSAT) network G. de Balbine (Tarzana, USA) 304 Optimization of characteristics of

  2. Planar microstrip YAGI antenna array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, John (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A directional microstrip antenna includes a driven patch surrounded by an isolated reflector and one or more coplanar directors, all separated from a ground plane on the order of 0.1 wavelength or less to provide end fire beam directivity without requiring power dividers or phase shifters. The antenna may be driven at a feed point a distance from the center of the driven patch in accordance with conventional microstrip antenna design practices for H-plane coupled or horizontally polarized signals. The feed point for E-plane coupled or vertically polarized signals is at a greater distance from the center than the first distance. This feed point is also used for one of the feed signals for circularly polarized signals. The phase shift between signals applied to feed points for circularly polarized signals must be greater than the conventionally required 90 degrees and depends upon the antenna configuration.

  3. Circularly-Polarized Microstrip Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    Microstrip construction compact for mobile applications. Circularly polarized microstrip antenna made of concentric cylindrical layers of conductive and dielectric materials. Coaxial cable feedlines connected to horizontal and vertical subelements from inside. Vertical subelement acts as ground for horizontal subelement.

  4. The new 34-meter antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pompa, M. F.

    1986-01-01

    The new 34-m high efficiency Azimuth - Elevation antenna configuration, including its features, dynamic characteristics and performance at 8.4-GHz frequencies is described. The current-technology features of this antenna produce a highly reliable configuration by incorporation of a main wheel and track azimuth support, central pintle pivot bearing, close tolerance surface panels and all-welded construction. Also described are basic drive controls that, as slaved to three automatic microprocessors, provide accurate and safe control of the antenna's steering tasks. At this time antenna installations are completed at Goldstone and Canberra and have operationally supported the Voyager - Uranus encounter. A third installation is being constructed currently in Madrid and is scheduled for completion in late 1986.

  5. Inflatable Antennas Support Emergency Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Glenn Research Center awarded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts to ManTech SRS Technologies, of Newport Beach, California, to develop thin film inflatable antennas for space communication. With additional funding, SRS modified the concepts for ground-based inflatable antennas. GATR (Ground Antenna Transmit and Receive) Technologies, of Huntsville, Alabama, licensed the technology and refined it to become the world s first inflatable antenna certified by the Federal Communications Commission. Capable of providing Internet access, voice over Internet protocol, e-mail, video teleconferencing, broadcast television, and other high-bandwidth communications, the systems have provided communication during the wildfires in California, after Hurricane Katrina in Mississippi, and following the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

  6. Expected antenna utilization and overload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, Edward C.

    1991-01-01

    The trade-offs between the number of antennas at Deep Space Network (DSN) Deep-Space Communications Complex and the fraction of continuous coverage provided to a set of hypothetical spacecraft, assuming random placement of the space craft passes during the day. The trade-offs are fairly robust with respect to the randomness assumption. A sample result is that a three-antenna complex provides an average of 82.6 percent utilization of facilities and coverage of nine spacecraft that each have 8-hour passes, whereas perfect phasing of the passes would yield 100 percent utilization and coverage. One key point is that sometimes fewer than three spacecraft are visible, so an antenna is idle, while at other times, there aren't enough antennas, and some spacecraft do without service. This point of view may be useful in helping to size the network or to develop a normalization for a figure of merit of DSN coverage.

  7. Twin-Axial Wire Antenna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-06

    12 and 14 can be of differing gauges and can be either stranded or solid. In a prototype, both conductors were made from #22 solid copper wire ...08-2015 Publication Twin-Axial Wire Antenna David A. Tonn Naval Under Warfare Center Division, Newport 1176 Howell St., Code 00L, Bldg 102T...Approved for Public Release Distribution is unlimited Attorney Docket No. 300030 1 of 10 TWIN-AXIAL WIRE ANTENNA STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST

  8. Embedded Meta-Material Antennas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-31

    influence of the overall capacitance . Based on the tunable SRRs, we designed a tunable loop antenna with SRRs and HPTs as tuning elements. In this case, we...are those of the authors) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy or decision, unless so designated by...single aperture, which can provide significant miniaturization and flexibility to the entire system. To design such miniaturized antennas, new materials

  9. Fin-line horn antenna

    DOEpatents

    Reindel, John

    1990-01-01

    A fin line circuit card containing a fin line slot feeds a dipole antenna ich extends a quarterwave outside the waveguide and provides an energy beam focal point at or near the open end of the waveguide. The dipole antenna thus maintains a wide and nearly constant beamwidth, low VSWR and a circular symmetric radiation pattern for use in electronic warfare direction finding and surveillance applications.

  10. Antennas for mobile satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, John

    1991-01-01

    A NASA sponsored program, called the Mobile Satellite (MSAT) system, has prompted the development of several innovative antennas at L-band frequencies. In the space segment of the MSAT system, an efficient, light weight, circularly polarized microstrip array that uses linearly polarized elements was developed as a multiple beam reflector feed system. In the ground segment, a low-cost, low-profile, and very efficient microstrip Yagi array was developed as a medium-gain mechanically steered vehicle antenna. Circularly shaped microstrip patches excited at higher-order modes were also developed as low-gain vehicle antennas. A more recent effort called for the development of a 20/30 GHz mobile terminal antenna for future-generation mobile satellite communications. To combat the high insertion loss encountered at 20/30 GHz, series-fed Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) microstrip array antennas are currently being developed. These MMIC arrays may lead to the development of several small but high-gain Ka-band antennas for the Personal Access Satellite Service planned for the 2000s.

  11. IAE - Inflatable Antenna Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-05-20

    STS077-150-129 (20 May 1996) --- Following its deployment from the Space Shuttle Endeavour, the Spartan 207/Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE) payload is backdropped over the Atlantic Ocean and Hampton Roads, Virginia. (Hold photograph vertically with land mass at top.) Virginia Beach and part of Newport News can be delineated in the upper left quadrant of the frame. The view was photographed with a large format still camera on the first full day of in-space operations by the six-member crew. Managed by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Spartan is designed to provide short-duration, free-flight opportunities for a variety of scientific studies. The Spartan configuration on this flight is unique in that the IAE is part of an additional separate unit which is ejected once the experiment is completed. The IAE experiment will lay the groundwork for future technology development in inflatable space structures, which will be launched and then inflated like a balloon on-orbit.

  12. Wide scanning spherical antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Bing (Inventor); Stutzman, Warren L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A novel method for calculating the surface shapes for subreflectors in a suboptic assembly of a tri-reflector spherical antenna system is introduced, modeled from a generalization of Galindo-Israel's method of solving partial differential equations to correct for spherical aberration and provide uniform feed to aperture mapping. In a first embodiment, the suboptic assembly moves as a single unit to achieve scan while the main reflector remains stationary. A feed horn is tilted during scan to maintain the illuminated area on the main spherical reflector fixed throughout the scan thereby eliminating the need to oversize the main spherical reflector. In an alternate embodiment, both the main spherical reflector and the suboptic assembly are fixed. A flat mirror is used to create a virtual image of the suboptic assembly. Scan is achieved by rotating the mirror about the spherical center of the main reflector. The feed horn is tilted during scan to maintain the illuminated area on the main spherical reflector fixed throughout the scan.

  13. Sequential modelling of ICRF wave near RF fields and asymptotic RF sheaths description for AUG ICRF antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquot, Jonathan; Tierens, Wouter; Zhang, Wei; Bobkov, Volodymyr; Colas, Laurent; Noterdaeme, Jean-Marie

    2017-10-01

    A sequence of simulations is performed with RAPLICASOL and SSWICH to compare two AUG ICRF antennas. RAPLICASOL outputs have been used as input to SSWICH-SW for the AUG ICRF antennas. Using parallel electric field maps and the scattering matrix produced by RAPLICASOL, SSWICH-SW, reduced to its asymptotic part, is able to produce a 2D radial/poloidal map of the DC plasma potential accounting for the antenna input settings (total power, power balance, phasing). Two models of antennas are compared: 2-strap antenna vs 3-strap antenna. The 2D DC potential structures are correlated to structures of the parallel electric field map for different phasing and power balance. The overall DC plasma potential on the 3-strap antenna is lower due to better global RF currents compensation. Spatial proximity between regions of high RF electric field and regions where high DC plasma potentials are observed is an important factor for sheath rectification.

  14. 'Invisible' antenna takes up less space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelley, M.; Bond, K.

    1986-06-01

    A compensated microstrip patch design is described that also uses grounded coplanar waveguide to permit a second, independent antenna to be mounted on any type of existing primary radar antenna aboard an aircraft without affecting its radiation. Successful integration of the IFF (identification friend or foe) antenna, which works at D-band, and the primary radar antenna is possible because of the diversity in frequency between the two antennas. Construction of a microstrip radiating element, electromagnetically invisible to the primary antenna, requires orthogonal grating elements and use of the primary antenna as the ground plane. Coplanar mounting of a stripline array with the primary antenna reduces the manufacturing costs and increases the functional performance of the IFF antenna.

  15. E-Textile Antennas for Space Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Timothy F.; Fink, Patrick W.; Chu, Andrew W.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to integrate antennas and other radio frequency (RF) devices into wearable systems is increasingly important as wireless voice, video, and data sources become ubiquitous. Consumer applications including mobile computing, communications, and entertainment, as well as military and space applications for integration of biotelemetry, detailed tracking information and status of handheld tools, devices and on-body inventories are driving forces for research into wearable antennas and other e-textile devices. Operational conditions for military and space applications of wireless systems are often such that antennas are a limiting factor in wireless performance. The changing antenna platform, i.e. the dynamic wearer, can detune and alter the radiation characteristics of e-textile antennas, making antenna element selection and design challenging. Antenna designs and systems that offer moderate bandwidth, perform well with flexure, and are electronically reconfigurable are ideally suited to wearable applications. Several antennas, shown in Figure 1, have been created using a NASA-developed process for e-textiles that show promise in being integrated into a robust wireless system for space-based applications. Preliminary characterization of the antennas with flexure indicates that antenna performance can be maintained, and that a combination of antenna design and placement are useful in creating robust designs. Additionally, through utilization of modern smart antenna techniques, even greater flexibility can be achieved since antenna performance can be adjusted in real-time to compensate for the antenna s changing environment.

  16. Antenna for passive RFID tags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiopu, Paul; Manea, Adrian; Cristea, Ionica; Grosu, Neculai; Vladescu, Marian; Craciun, Anca-Ileana; Craciun, Alexandru

    2015-02-01

    Minuscule devices, called RFID tags are attached to objects and persons and emit information which positioned readers may capture wirelessly. Many methods of identification have been used, but that of most common is to use a unique serial number for identification of person or object. RFID tags can be characterized as either active or passive [1,2]. Traditional passive tags are typically in "sleep" state until awakened by the reader's emitted field. In passive tags, the reader's field acts to charge the capacitor that powers the badge and this can be a combination of antenna and barcodes obtained with SAW( Surface Acoustic Wave) devices [1,2,3] . The antenna in an RFID tag is a conductive element that permits the tag to exchange data with the reader. The paper contribution are targeted to antenna for passive RFID tags. The electromagnetic field generated by the reader is somehow oriented by the reader antenna and power is induced in the tag only if the orientation of the tag antenna is appropriate. A tag placed orthogonal to the reader yield field will not be read. This is the reason that guided manufacturers to build circular polarized antenna capable of propagating a field that is alternatively polarized on all planes passing on the diffusion axis. Passive RFID tags are operated at the UHF frequencies of 868MHz (Europe) and 915MHz (USA) and at the microwave frequencies of 2,45 GHz and 5,8 GHz . Because the tags are small dimensions, in paper, we present the possibility to use circular polarization microstrip antenna with fractal edge [2].

  17. Antennas in matter: Fundamentals, theory, and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. W. P.; Smith, G. S.; Owens, M.; Wu, T. T.

    1981-01-01

    The volume provides an introduction to antennas and probes embedded within or near material bodies such as the earth, the ocean, or a living organism. After a fundamental analysis of insulated and bare antennas, an advanced treatment of antennas in various media is presented, including a detailed study of the electromagnetic equations in homogeneous isotropic media, the complete theory of the bare dipole in a general medium, and a rigorous analysis of the insulated antenna as well as bare and insulated loop antennas. Finally, experimental models and measuring techniques related to antennas and probes in a general dissipative or dielectric medium are examined.

  18. Vehicle antenna development for mobile satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, K.

    1988-01-01

    The paper summarizes results of a vehicle antenna program at JPL in support of a developing U.S. mobile satellite services (MSS) designed to provide telephone and data services for the continental United States. Two classes of circularly polarized vehicle antennas have been considered for the MSS: medium-gain, satellite-tracking antennas with 10-12-dBic gain; and low-gain, azimuthally omnidirectional antennas with 3-5-dBic gain. The design and performance of these antennas are described, and the two antennas are shown to have peculiar advantages and disadvantages.

  19. Cassegrain antenna with a semitransparent secondary mirror.

    PubMed

    Caiyang, Weinan; Yang, Huajun; Jiang, Ping; He, Wensen; Tian, Yu; Chen, Xue

    2017-06-10

    With the help of the vector theory of reflection and refraction, a novel emitting Cassegrain antenna with a semitransparent secondary mirror has been proposed and analyzed for a distant point source. Based on the absorptivity valued at 3.00% and the reflectivity valued at 0.10%, this new emitting antenna can increase the transmission efficiency from 63.65% to 93.85%. In addition, an off-axis parabolic receiving antenna corresponding to the emitting antenna is designed and the 3D ray-trace simulation result is given. According to the simulation result, this receiving antenna can nicely converge the rays from the emitting antenna.

  20. Study of array plasma antenna parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajneesh; Kumar, Prince

    2018-04-01

    This paper is aimed to investigate the array plasma antenna parameters to help the optimization of an array plasma antenna. Single plasma antenna is transformed into array plasma antenna by changing the operating parameters. The re-configurability arises in the form of striations, due to transverse bifurcation of plasma column by changing the operating parameters. Each striation can be treated as an antenna element and system performs like an array plasma antenna. In order to achieve the goal of this paper, three different configurations of array plasma antenna (namely Array 1, Array 2 and Array 3) are simulated. The observations are made on variation in antenna parameters like resonance frequency, radiation pattern, directivity and gain with variation in length and number of antenna elements for each array plasma antenna. Moreover experiments are also performed and results are compared with simulation. Further array plasma antenna parameters are also compared with monopole plasma antenna parameters. The study of present paper invoke the array plasma antenna can be applied for steering and controlling the strength of Wi-Fi signals as per requirement.

  1. Interaction of ICRF Fields with the Plasma Boundary in AUG and JET and Guidelines for Antenna Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobkov, V.; Bilato, R.; Braun, F.; Colas, L.; Dux, R.; Van Eester, D.; Giannone, L.; Goniche, M.; Herrmann, A.; Jacquet, P.; Kallenbach, A.; Krivska, A.; Lerche, E.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Milanesio, D.; Monakhov, I.; Müller, H. W.; Neu, R.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Pütterich, Th.; Rohde, V.

    2009-11-01

    W sputtering during ICRF on ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) and temperature rise on JET A2 antenna septa are considered in connection with plasma conditions at the antenna plasma facing components and E‖ near-fields. Large antenna-plasma clearance, high gas puff and low light impurity content are favorable to reduce W sputtering in AUG. The spatial distribution of spectroscopically measured effective W sputtering yields clearly points to the existence of strong E‖ fields at the antenna box ("feeder fields") which dominate over the fields in front of the antenna straps. The picture of E‖ fields, obtained by HFSS code, corroborates the dominant role of E‖ at the antenna box on the formation of sheath-driving RF voltages for AUG. Large antenna-plasma clearance and low gas puff are favorable to reduce septum temperature of JET A2 antennas. Assuming a linear relation between the septum temperature and the sheath driving RF voltage calculated by HFSS, the changes of the temperature with dipole phasing (00ππ, 0ππ0 or 0π0π) are well described by the related changes of the RF voltages. Similarly to the AUG antenna, the strongest E‖ are found at the limiters of the JET A2 antenna for all used dipole phasings and at the septum for the phasings different from 0π0π. A simple general rule can be used to minimize E‖ at the antenna: image currents can be allowed only at the surfaces which do not intersect magnetic field lines at large angles of incidence. Possible antenna modifications generally rely either on a reduction of the image currents, on their short-circuiting by introducing additional conducting surfaces or on imposing the E‖ = 0 boundary condition. On the example of AUG antenna, possible options to minimize the sheath driving voltages are presented.

  2. Antenna Technology Shuttle Experiment (ATSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeland, R. E.; Mettler, E.; Miller, L. J.; Rahmet-Samii, Y.; Weber, W. J., III

    1987-01-01

    Numerous space applications of the future will require mesh deployable antennas of 15 m in diameter or greater for frequencies up to 20 GHz. These applications include mobile communications satellites, orbiting very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) astrophysics missions, and Earth remote sensing missions. A Lockheed wrap rip antennas was used as the test article. The experiments covered a broad range of structural, control, and RF discipline objectives, which is fulfilled in total, would greatly reduce the risk of employing these antenna systems in future space applications. It was concluded that a flight experiment of a relatively large mesh deployable reflector is achievable with no major technological or cost drivers. The test articles and the instrumentation are all within the state of the art and in most cases rely on proven flight hardware. Every effort was made to design the experiments for low cost.

  3. Kurs antenna on the Progress

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-02-22

    ISS014-E-14451 (22 Feb. 2007) --- A close-up view of the Kurs antenna on the Progress vehicle docked to the International Space Station's Zvezda Service Module was photographed during a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) on Feb. 22, 2007. During the 6-hour, 18-minute spacewalk, astronaut Michael E. Lopez-Alegria (out of frame), Expedition 14 commander and NASA space station science officer; and cosmonaut Mikhail Tyurin (out of frame), flight engineer representing Russia's Federal Space Agency, were able to retract the stuck antenna which did not properly retract when the Progress docked to the station on Oct. 26, 2006. Moving the antenna was necessary to ensure it would not interfere with the undocking scheduled in April.

  4. Compact Low Frequency Radio Antenna

    DOEpatents

    Punnoose, Ratish J.

    2008-11-11

    An antenna is disclosed that comprises a pair of conductive, orthogonal arches and a pair of conductive annular sector plates, wherein adjacent legs of each arch are fastened to one of the annular sector plates and the opposite adjacent pair of legs is fastened to the remaining annular sector plate. The entire antenna structure is spaced apart from a conductive ground plane by a thin dielectric medium. The antenna is driven by a feed conduit passing through the conductive ground plane and dielectric medium and attached to one of the annular sector plates, wherein the two orthogonal arched act as a pair of crossed dipole elements. This arrangement of elements provides a radiation pattern that is largely omni-directional above the horizon.

  5. Antenna coupled photonic wire lasers

    DOE PAGES

    Kao, Tsung-Kao; Cai, Xiaowei; Lee, Alan W. M.; ...

    2015-06-22

    Slope efficiency (SE) is an important performance metric for lasers. In conventional semiconductor lasers, SE can be optimized by careful designs of the facet (or the modulation for DFB lasers) dimension and surface. However, photonic wire lasers intrinsically suffer low SE due to their deep sub-wavelength emitting facets. Inspired by microwave engineering techniques, we show a novel method to extract power from wire lasers using monolithically integrated antennas. These integrated antennas significantly increase the effective radiation area, and consequently enhance the power extraction efficiency. When applied to wire lasers at THz frequency, we achieved the highest single-side slope efficiency (~450more » mW/A) in pulsed mode for DFB lasers at 4 THz and a ~4x increase in output power at 3 THz compared with a similar structure without antennas. This work demonstrates the versatility of incorporating microwave engineering techniques into laser designs, enabling significant performance enhancements.« less

  6. 47 CFR 80.863 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... suspended between masts or other supports liable to whipping, a safety link which, under heavy stress, will operate to greatly reduce such stress without breakage of the antenna, the halyards, or other antenna...

  7. High-temperature superconductor antenna investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasack, Vincent G.

    1990-01-01

    The use of superconductors to increase antenna radiation efficiency and gain is examined. Although the gain of all normal-metal antennas can be increased through the use of superconductors, some structures have greater potential for practical improvement than others. Some structures suffer a great degradation in bandwidth when replaced with superconductors, while for others the improvement in efficiency is trivial due to the minimal contribution of the conductor loss mechanism to the total losses, or the already high efficiency of the structure. The following antennas and related structures are discussed: electrically small antennas, impedance matching of antennas, microstrip antennas, microwave and millimeter-wave antenna arrays, and superdirective arrays. The greatest potential practical improvements occur for large microwave and millimeter-wave arrays and the impedance matching of antennas.

  8. Integrated resonant tunneling diode based antenna

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, Vincent M.; Tiggers, Chris P.; Plut, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    An antenna comprising a plurality of negative resistance devices and a method for making same comprising employing a removable standoff layer to form the gap between the microstrip antenna metal and the bottom contact layer.

  9. L-Band Orthogonal-Mode Crossed-Slot Antenna and VHF Crossed-Loop Antenna

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1972-01-01

    A low-gain, circularly polarized, L-ban antenna; a low-gain, lineraly polarized, L-band antenna; and a low-gain, lineraly polarized, L-ban antenna; and a low-gain, circularly polarized, upper hemisphere, VHF satellite communications antenna intended ...

  10. Nested-cone transformer antenna

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, C.A.

    1991-05-28

    A plurality of conical transmission lines are concentrically nested to form an output antenna for pulsed-power, radio-frequency, and microwave sources. The diverging conical conductors enable a high power input density across a bulk dielectric to be reduced below a breakdown power density at the antenna interface with the transmitting medium. The plurality of cones maintain a spacing between conductors which minimizes the generation of high order modes between the conductors. Further, the power input feeds are isolated at the input while enabling the output electromagnetic waves to add at the transmission interface. Thus, very large power signals from a pulse rf, or microwave source can be radiated. 6 figures.

  11. Nested-cone transformer antenna

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, Carl A.

    1991-01-01

    A plurality of conical transmission lines are concentrically nested to form n output antenna for pulsed-power, radio-frequency, and microwave sources. The diverging conical conductors enable a high power input density across a bulk dielectric to be reduced below a breakdown power density at the antenna interface with the transmitting medium. The plurality of cones maintain a spacing between conductors which minimizes the generation of high order modes between the conductors. Further, the power input feeds are isolated at the input while enabling the output electromagnetic waves to add at the transmission interface. Thus, very large power signals from a pulse rf, or microwave source can be radiated.

  12. Microstrip Patch Antenna And Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for a microstrip feeder structure for supplying properly phased signals to each radiator element in a microstrip antenna array that may be utilized for radiating circularly polarized electromagnetic waves. In one disclosed embodiment. the microstrip feeder structure includes a plurality of microstrip sections many or all of which preferably have an electrical length substantially equal to one-quarter wavelength at the antenna operating frequency. The feeder structure provides a low loss feed structure that may be duplicated multiple times through a set of rotations and translations to provide a radiating array of the desired size.

  13. Microstrip antenna developments at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, John

    1991-01-01

    The in-house development of microstrip antennas, initiated in 1981, when a spaceborne lightweight and low-profile planar array was needed for a satellite communication system, is described. The work described covers the prediction of finite-ground-plane effects by the geometric theory of diffraction, higher-order-mode circularly polarized circular patch antennas, circularly polarized microstrip arrays with linearly polarized elements, an impedance-matching teardrop-shaped probe feed, a dual-polarized microstrip array with high isolation and low cross-polarization, a planar microstrip Yagi array, a microstrip reflectarray, a Ka-band MMIC array, and a series-fed linear arrays.

  14. Interleaved array antenna technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This is the third phase of a program to establish an antenna concept for shuttle and free flying spacecraft earth resources experiments using Synthetic Aperture Radar. The feasibility of a plated graphite epoxy waveguide for a space antenna was evaluated. A quantity of flat panels and waveguides were developed, procured, and tested for electrical and mechanical properties. In addition, processes for the assembly of a unique waveguide array were investigated. Finally, trades between various configurations that would allow elevation (range) electronic scanning and that would minimize feed complexity for various RF bandwidths were made.

  15. High-gain Antenna & Terrain

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-06

    Areas of rocky Martian terrain are seen in this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 2. Portions of a lander petal and deflated airbag are at lower left. The dark disk at center is the high-gain antenna, and the silver cylindrical objects at upper right are part of the antenna's mechanism. An area of relatively smooth terrain is seen at upper right, which may offer clues to how this area was formed, and may be a future target for Sojourner's studies. The black area at lower right and small strip at top center is missing data. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00625

  16. Antenna reconfiguration verification and validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Robert C. (Inventor); Meyers, David W. (Inventor); Muldoon, Kelly P. (Inventor); Carlson, Douglas R. (Inventor); Drexler, Jerome P. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method of testing the electrical functionality of an optically controlled switch in a reconfigurable antenna is provided. The method includes configuring one or more conductive paths between one or more feed points and one or more test point with switches in the reconfigurable antenna. Applying one or more test signals to the one or more feed points. Monitoring the one or more test points in response to the one or more test signals and determining the functionality of the switch based upon the monitoring of the one or more test points.

  17. The Galileo high gain antenna deployment anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Michael R.

    1994-01-01

    On April 11, 1991, the Galileo spacecraft executed a sequence that would open the spacecraft's High Gain Antenna. The Antenna's launch restraint had been released just after deployment sequence, the antenna, which opens like an umbrella, never reached the fully deployed position. The analyses and tests that followed allowed a conclusive determination of the likely failure mechanisms and pointed to some strategies to use for recovery of the high gain antenna.

  18. Analysis of Satellite Communications Antenna Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahmat-Samii, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Computer program accurately and efficiently predicts far-field patterns of offset, or symmetric, parabolic reflector antennas. Antenna designer uses program to study effects of varying geometrical and electrical (RF) parameters of parabolic reflector and its feed system. Accurate predictions of far-field patterns help designer predict overall performance of antenna. These reflectors used extensively in modern communications satellites and in multiple-beam and low side-lobe antenna systems.

  19. Large Space Antenna Systems Technology, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, W. J. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers are presented which provide a comprehensive review of space missions requiring large antenna systems and of the status of key technologies required to enable these missions. Topic areas include mission applications for large space antenna systems, large space antenna structural systems, materials and structures technology, structural dynamics and control technology, electromagnetics technology, large space antenna systems and the space station, and flight test and evaluation.

  20. Slotted Antenna with Uniaxial Dielectric Covering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-08

    1 of 12 SLOTTED ANTENNA WITH UNIAXIAL DIELECTRIC COVERING STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be...invention is directed to a slotted antenna having enhanced broadband characteristics. (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] Slotted cylinder antennas ...slotted cylinder antenna for use in a towed buoy. Though somewhat broadband in performance, it is not suitable for vertical mounting over a

  1. Slotted Antenna with Anisotropic Magnetic Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-26

    10 SLOTTED ANTENNA WITH ANISOTROPIC MAGNETIC LOADING STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured...is directed to a slotted antenna having enhanced broadband characteristics. (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] Slotted cylinder antennas are...popular antennas for use in line of sight communications systems, especially where the carrier frequency exceeds 300 MHz. FIG. 1 provides a diagram

  2. High power fast wave experiments in LAPD: interaction with density fluctuations and status/plans for ICRH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Troy; Martin, Michael; van Compernolle, Bart; Gekelman, Walter; Pribyl, Pat; Vincena, Stephen; Tripathi, Shreekrishna; van Eester, Dirk; Crombe, Kristel

    2016-10-01

    The LArge Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA is a 17 m long, up to 60 cm diameter magnetized plasma column with typical plasma parameters ne 1012 -1013 cm-3, Te 1 - 10 eV, and B 1 kG. A new high-power ( 200 kW) RF system and antenna has been developed for LAPD, enabling the generation of large amplitude fast waves in LAPD. Interaction between the fast waves and density fluctuations is observed, resulting in modulation of the coupled RF power. Two classes of RF-induced density fluctuations are observed. First, a coherent (10 kHz) oscillation is observed spatially near the antenna in response to the initial RF turn-on transient. Second, broadband density fluctuations are enhanced when the RF power is above a threshold a threshold. Strong modulation of the fast wave magnetic fluctuations is observed along with broadening of the primary RF spectral line. Ultimately, high power fast waves will be used for ion heating in LAPD through minority species fundamental heating or second harmonic minority or majority heating. Initial experimental results from heating experiments will be presented along with a discussion of future plans. BaPSF supported by NSF and DOE.

  3. Collapsible structure for an antenna reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trubert, M. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A collapsible support for an antenna reflector for use in supporting spacecraft antennas is described. The support has a regid base and a number of struts which are pivoted at the base. The deployment of the struts and their final configuration for supporting the antenna are illustrated.

  4. Adaptive Nulling in Hybrid Reflector Antennas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    correction of reflector distortion and vernier beamsteering, MEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat, 36:1351-1358. 4 Cherrette , A.R., et al (1989) Compensation of...Propagat, 36:1351-1358. 4. Cherrette , A.R., et al (1989) Compensation of reflector antenna surface distortion using an array feed,IEEE Trans. Antennas

  5. Microwave performance characterization of large space antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bathker, D. A. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Performance capabilities of large microwave space antenna configurations with apertures generally from 100 wavelengths upwards are discussed. Types of antennas considered include: phased arrays, lenses, reflectors, and hybrid combinations of phased arrays with reflectors or lenses. The performance characteristics of these broad classes of antennas are examined and compared in terms of applications.

  6. New Concepts in Electromagnetic Materials and Antennas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Bae-Ian Wu Antennas & Electromagnetics Technology Branch Multispectral Sensing & Detection Division JANUARY 2015 Final Report...Signature// //Signature// BRADLEY A. KRAMER, Program Manager TONY C. KIM, Branch Chief Antenna & Electromagnetic Technology ...Branch Antenna & Electromagnetic Technology Branch Multispectral Sensing & Detection Division Multispectral Sensing & Detection Division

  7. Small X-Band Oscillator Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Miranda, Felix A.; Clark, Eric B.; Wilt, David M.; Mueller, Carl H.; Kory, Carol L.; Lambert, Kevin M.

    2009-01-01

    A small, segmented microstrip patch antenna integrated with an X-band feedback oscillator on a high-permittivity substrate has been built and tested. This oscillator antenna is a prototype for demonstrating the feasibility of such devices as compact, low-power-consumption building blocks of advanced, lightweight, phased antenna arrays that would generate steerable beams for communication and remotesensing applications.

  8. 47 CFR 74.1237 - Antenna location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna location. 74.1237 Section 74.1237... FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1237 Antenna location. (a) An applicant for a new station to be... at which there is available a suitable signal from the primary station. The transmitting antenna...

  9. 47 CFR 101.117 - Antenna polarization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna polarization. 101.117 Section 101.117... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.117 Antenna polarization. Except as set forth herein, stations operating... polarization for antennas located within 20 kilometers of the outermost edge of their service area. [68 FR 4957...

  10. 47 CFR 95.859 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antennas. 95.859 Section 95.859... SERVICES 218-219 MHz Service Technical Standards § 95.859 Antennas. (a) The overall height from ground to topmost tip of the CTS antenna shall not exceed the height necessary to assure adequate service. Certain...

  11. 47 CFR 101.517 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antennas. 101.517 Section 101.517... SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.517 Antennas. (a) Transmitting antennas may be omnidirectional or directional, consistent with coverage and interference requirements. (b...

  12. 47 CFR 74.737 - Antenna location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna location. 74.737 Section 74.737... Booster Stations § 74.737 Antenna location. (a) An applicant for a new low power TV, TV translator, or TV.... (b) The transmitting antenna should be placed above growing vegetation and trees lying in the...

  13. 47 CFR 95.1213 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antennas. 95.1213 Section 95.1213... SERVICES Medical Device Radiocommunication Service (MedRadio) § 95.1213 Antennas. Link to an amendment published at 77 FR 55733, Sept. 11, 2012. No antenna for a MedRadio transmitter shall be configured for...

  14. 47 CFR 101.517 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antennas. 101.517 Section 101.517... SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.517 Antennas. (a) Transmitting antennas may be omnidirectional or directional, consistent with coverage and interference requirements. (b...

  15. 47 CFR 74.737 - Antenna location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna location. 74.737 Section 74.737... Booster Stations § 74.737 Antenna location. (a) An applicant for a new low power TV, TV translator, or TV.... (b) The transmitting antenna should be placed above growing vegetation and trees lying in the...

  16. 47 CFR 101.115 - Directional antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Directional antennas. 101.115 Section 101.115... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.115 Directional antennas. (a) Unless otherwise authorized upon specific... antenna adjusted with the center of the major lobe of radiation in the horizontal plane directed toward...

  17. 47 CFR 15.317 - Antenna requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna requirement. 15.317 Section 15.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed Personal Communications Service Devices § 15.317 Antenna requirement. An unlicensed PCS device must meet the antenna...

  18. 47 CFR 80.1017 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.1017 Section 80.1017... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1017 Antenna system. (a) An antenna must be provided for nonportable bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installations...

  19. 47 CFR 101.115 - Directional antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Directional antennas. 101.115 Section 101.115... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.115 Directional antennas. (a) Unless otherwise authorized upon specific... antenna adjusted with the center of the major lobe of radiation in the horizontal plane directed toward...

  20. 47 CFR 80.967 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.967 Section 80.967... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installation Required for Vessels on the Great Lakes § 80.967 Antenna system. The antenna must be omni-directional, vertically polarized and located as high as practicable on...

  1. 47 CFR 80.967 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.967 Section 80.967... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installation Required for Vessels on the Great Lakes § 80.967 Antenna system. The antenna must be omni-directional, vertically polarized and located as high as practicable on...

  2. 47 CFR 74.641 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna systems. 74.641 Section 74.641... Stations § 74.641 Antenna systems. (a) For fixed stations operating above 2025 MHz, the following standards apply: (1) Fixed TV broadcast auxiliary stations shall use directional antennas that meet the...

  3. 47 CFR 74.1237 - Antenna location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna location. 74.1237 Section 74.1237... FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1237 Antenna location. (a) An applicant for a new station to be... at which there is available a suitable signal from the primary station. The transmitting antenna...

  4. 47 CFR 15.317 - Antenna requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna requirement. 15.317 Section 15.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed Personal Communications Service Devices § 15.317 Antenna requirement. An unlicensed PCS device must meet the antenna...

  5. 47 CFR 78.105 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna systems. 78.105 Section 78.105... SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.105 Antenna systems. (a) For fixed stations operating in the 12.7-13.2... directional antennas that meet the performance standards indicated in the following table. (i) Stations must...

  6. 47 CFR 95.859 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antennas. 95.859 Section 95.859... SERVICES 218-219 MHz Service Technical Standards § 95.859 Antennas. (a) The overall height from ground to topmost tip of the CTS antenna shall not exceed the height necessary to assure adequate service. Certain...

  7. 47 CFR 73.816 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antennas. 73.816 Section 73.816... Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.816 Antennas. (a) Permittees and licensees may employ nondirectional antennas with horizontal only polarization, vertical only polarization, circular polarization or...

  8. 47 CFR 80.923 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.923 Section 80.923... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.923 Antenna system. An antenna must be provided in accordance with the applicable requirements of § 80.81 of this part...

  9. 47 CFR 73.816 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antennas. 73.816 Section 73.816... Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.816 Antennas. (a) Permittees and licensees may employ nondirectional antennas with horizontal only polarization, vertical only polarization, circular polarization or...

  10. 47 CFR 80.967 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.967 Section 80.967... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installation Required for Vessels on the Great Lakes § 80.967 Antenna system. The antenna must be omni-directional, vertically polarized and located as high as practicable on...

  11. 47 CFR 80.923 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.923 Section 80.923... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.923 Antenna system. An antenna must be provided in accordance with the applicable requirements of § 80.81 of this part...

  12. 47 CFR 15.317 - Antenna requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna requirement. 15.317 Section 15.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed Personal Communications Service Devices § 15.317 Antenna requirement. An unlicensed PCS device must meet the antenna...

  13. 47 CFR 78.105 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna systems. 78.105 Section 78.105... SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.105 Antenna systems. (a) For fixed stations operating in the 12.7-13.2... directional antennas that meet the performance standards indicated in the following table. (i) Stations must...

  14. 47 CFR 74.641 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna systems. 74.641 Section 74.641... Stations § 74.641 Antenna systems. (a) For fixed stations operating above 2025 MHz, the following standards apply: (1) Fixed TV broadcast auxiliary stations shall use directional antennas that meet the...

  15. 47 CFR 73.816 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antennas. 73.816 Section 73.816... Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.816 Antennas. (a) Permittees and licensees may employ nondirectional antennas with horizontal only polarization, vertical only polarization, circular polarization or...

  16. 47 CFR 80.1017 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.1017 Section 80.1017... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1017 Antenna system. (a) An antenna must be provided for nonportable bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installations...

  17. 47 CFR 80.1017 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.1017 Section 80.1017... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1017 Antenna system. (a) An antenna must be provided for nonportable bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installations...

  18. 47 CFR 74.1237 - Antenna location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna location. 74.1237 Section 74.1237... FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1237 Antenna location. (a) An applicant for a new station to be... at which there is available a suitable signal from the primary station. The transmitting antenna...

  19. 47 CFR 95.859 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antennas. 95.859 Section 95.859... SERVICES 218-219 MHz Service Technical Standards § 95.859 Antennas. (a) The overall height from ground to topmost tip of the CTS antenna shall not exceed the height necessary to assure adequate service. Certain...

  20. 47 CFR 80.923 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.923 Section 80.923... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.923 Antenna system. An antenna must be provided in accordance with the applicable requirements of § 80.81 of this part...

  1. 47 CFR 101.517 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antennas. 101.517 Section 101.517... SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.517 Antennas. (a) Transmitting antennas may be omnidirectional or directional, consistent with coverage and interference requirements. (b...

  2. 47 CFR 95.1213 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antennas. 95.1213 Section 95.1213... SERVICES Medical Device Radiocommunication Service (MedRadio) § 95.1213 Antennas. Except for the 2390-2400 MHz band, no antenna for a MedRadio transmitter shall be configured for permanent outdoor use. In...

  3. 47 CFR 101.517 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antennas. 101.517 Section 101.517... SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.517 Antennas. (a) Transmitting antennas may be omnidirectional or directional, consistent with coverage and interference requirements. (b...

  4. 47 CFR 80.923 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.923 Section 80.923... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.923 Antenna system. An antenna must be provided in accordance with the applicable requirements of § 80.81 of this part...

  5. 47 CFR 73.816 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antennas. 73.816 Section 73.816... Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.816 Antennas. (a) Permittees and licensees may employ nondirectional antennas with horizontal only polarization, vertical only polarization, circular polarization or...

  6. 47 CFR 15.317 - Antenna requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna requirement. 15.317 Section 15.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed Personal Communications Service Devices § 15.317 Antenna requirement. An unlicensed PCS device must meet the antenna...

  7. 47 CFR 80.967 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.967 Section 80.967... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installation Required for Vessels on the Great Lakes § 80.967 Antenna system. The antenna must be omni-directional, vertically polarized and located as high as practicable on...

  8. 47 CFR 78.105 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems. 78.105 Section 78.105... SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.105 Antenna systems. (a) For fixed stations operating in the 12.7-13.2... directional antennas that meet the performance standards indicated in the following table. (i) Stations must...

  9. 47 CFR 95.859 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antennas. 95.859 Section 95.859... SERVICES 218-219 MHz Service Technical Standards § 95.859 Antennas. (a) The overall height from ground to topmost tip of the CTS antenna shall not exceed the height necessary to assure adequate service. Certain...

  10. 47 CFR 15.317 - Antenna requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna requirement. 15.317 Section 15.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed Personal Communications Service Devices § 15.317 Antenna requirement. An unlicensed PCS device must meet the antenna...

  11. 47 CFR 73.816 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antennas. 73.816 Section 73.816... Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.816 Antennas. (a) Permittees and licensees may employ nondirectional antennas with horizontal only polarization, vertical only polarization, circular polarization or...

  12. 47 CFR 80.1017 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.1017 Section 80.1017... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1017 Antenna system. (a) An antenna must be provided for nonportable bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installations...

  13. 47 CFR 80.1017 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.1017 Section 80.1017... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1017 Antenna system. (a) An antenna must be provided for nonportable bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installations...

  14. 47 CFR 101.115 - Directional antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Directional antennas. 101.115 Section 101.115... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.115 Directional antennas. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 59572... authorized under the rules of this part must employ a directional antenna adjusted with the center of the...

  15. 47 CFR 74.641 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna systems. 74.641 Section 74.641... Stations § 74.641 Antenna systems. (a) For fixed stations operating above 2025 MHz, the following standards apply: (1) Fixed TV broadcast auxiliary stations shall use directional antennas that meet the...

  16. 47 CFR 80.967 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.967 Section 80.967... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installation Required for Vessels on the Great Lakes § 80.967 Antenna system. The antenna must be omni-directional, vertically polarized and located as high as practicable on...

  17. 47 CFR 101.117 - Antenna polarization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna polarization. 101.117 Section 101.117... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.117 Antenna polarization. Except as set forth herein, stations operating... polarization for antennas located within 20 kilometers of the outermost edge of their service area. [68 FR 4957...

  18. 47 CFR 95.1213 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antennas. 95.1213 Section 95.1213... SERVICES Medical Device Radiocommunication Service (MedRadio) § 95.1213 Antennas. Except for the 2390-2400 MHz band, no antenna for a MedRadio transmitter shall be configured for permanent outdoor use. In...

  19. 47 CFR 78.105 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna systems. 78.105 Section 78.105... SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.105 Antenna systems. (a) For fixed stations operating in the 12.7-13.2... directional antennas that meet the performance standards indicated in the following table. (i) Stations must...

  20. 47 CFR 74.641 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems. 74.641 Section 74.641... Stations § 74.641 Antenna systems. (a) For fixed stations operating above 2025 MHz, the following standards apply: (1) Fixed TV broadcast auxiliary stations shall use directional antennas that meet the...

  1. 47 CFR 101.117 - Antenna polarization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna polarization. 101.117 Section 101.117... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.117 Antenna polarization. Except as set forth herein, stations operating... polarization for antennas located within 20 kilometers of the outermost edge of their service area. [68 FR 4957...

  2. 47 CFR 95.859 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antennas. 95.859 Section 95.859... SERVICES 218-219 MHz Service Technical Standards § 95.859 Antennas. (a) The overall height from ground to topmost tip of the CTS antenna shall not exceed the height necessary to assure adequate service. Certain...

  3. Antenna Construction and Propagation of Radio Waves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on antenna construction and propagation of radio waves is designed to provide communicators with instructions in the selection and/or construction of the proper antenna(s) for use with current field radio equipment. Introductory materials include…

  4. 47 CFR 74.1237 - Antenna location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna location. 74.1237 Section 74.1237... FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1237 Antenna location. (a) An applicant for a new station to be... at which there is available a suitable signal from the primary station. The transmitting antenna...

  5. 47 CFR 74.737 - Antenna location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna location. 74.737 Section 74.737... Booster Stations § 74.737 Antenna location. (a) An applicant for a new low power TV, TV translator, or TV.... (b) The transmitting antenna should be placed above growing vegetation and trees lying in the...

  6. 47 CFR 101.117 - Antenna polarization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna polarization. 101.117 Section 101.117... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.117 Antenna polarization. Except as set forth herein, stations operating... polarization for antennas located within 20 kilometers of the outermost edge of their service area. [68 FR 4957...

  7. 47 CFR 101.115 - Directional antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Directional antennas. 101.115 Section 101.115... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.115 Directional antennas. Link to an amendment published at 77 FR 54432... authorized under the rules of this part must employ a directional antenna adjusted with the center of the...

  8. 47 CFR 74.737 - Antenna location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna location. 74.737 Section 74.737... Booster Stations § 74.737 Antenna location. (a) An applicant for a new low power TV, TV translator, or TV.... (b) The transmitting antenna should be placed above growing vegetation and trees lying in the...

  9. 47 CFR 101.517 - Antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antennas. 101.517 Section 101.517... SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.517 Antennas. (a) Transmitting antennas may be omnidirectional or directional, consistent with coverage and interference requirements. (b...

  10. 47 CFR 74.737 - Antenna location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna location. 74.737 Section 74.737... Booster Stations § 74.737 Antenna location. (a) An applicant for a new low power TV, TV translator, or TV.... (b) The transmitting antenna should be placed above growing vegetation and trees lying in the...

  11. 47 CFR 101.117 - Antenna polarization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna polarization. 101.117 Section 101.117... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.117 Antenna polarization. Except as set forth herein, stations operating... polarization for antennas located within 20 kilometers of the outermost edge of their service area. [68 FR 4957...

  12. 47 CFR 74.1237 - Antenna location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna location. 74.1237 Section 74.1237... FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1237 Antenna location. (a) An applicant for a new station to be... at which there is available a suitable signal from the primary station. The transmitting antenna...

  13. 47 CFR 80.923 - Antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.923 Section 80.923... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.923 Antenna system. An antenna must be provided in accordance with the applicable requirements of § 80.81 of this part...

  14. 47 CFR 101.115 - Directional antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Directional antennas. 101.115 Section 101.115... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.115 Directional antennas. (a) Unless otherwise authorized upon specific... antenna adjusted with the center of the major lobe of radiation in the horizontal plane directed toward...

  15. ATCRBS Antenna Modification Kit - Phase I

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1973-06-01

    The report describes the design, fabrication and test results of an improved ATCRBS (Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System) array antenna for mounting on the reflector of an ASR radar antenna. The antenna consists of a 4-foot high by 26-foot wide a...

  16. Inflatable antenna for earth observing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong-Jian; Guan, Fu-ling; Xu, Yan; Yi, Min

    2010-09-01

    This paper describe mechanical design, dynamic analysis, and deployment demonstration of the antenna , and the photogrammetry detecting RMS of inflatable antenna surface, the possible errors results form the measurement are also analysed. Ticra's Grasp software are used to predict the inflatable antenna pattern based on the coordinates of the 460 points on the parabolic surface, the final results verified the whole design process.

  17. 47 CFR 74.641 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... elevation planes. (2) New periscope antenna systems will be authorized upon a certification that the... receiving antennas is left to the discretion of the licensee. However, licensees will not be protected from... congestion and must employ a Category A antenna when: (1) A showing by an applicant of a new TV auxiliary...

  18. Low Profile Tunable Dipole Antennas Using BST Varactors for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cure, David; Weller, Thomas; Price, Tony; Miranda, Felix A.

    2013-01-01

    In this presentation a 2.4 GHz low profile (lambda45) tunable dipole antenna is evaluated in the presence of a human core model (HCM) body phantom. The antenna uses a frequency selective surface (FSS) with interdigital barium strontium titanate (BST) varactor-tuned unit cells and its performance is compared to a similar low profile antenna that uses an FSS with semiconductor varactor diodes. The measured data of the antenna demonstrate tunability from 2.2 GHz to 2.55 GHz in free space and impedance match improvement in the presence of a HCM at different distances. This antenna has smaller size, lower cost and less weight compared to the semiconductor varactor diode counterpart.

  19. Low Profile Tunable Dipole Antenna Using BST Varactors for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cure, David; Weller, Thomas M.; Miranda, Felix A.; Price, Tony

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a 2.4 GHz low profile (lambda/47) tunable dipole antenna is evaluated in the presence of a human core model (HCM) body phantom. The antenna uses a frequency selective surface (FSS) with interdigital barium strontium titanate (BST) varactor-tuned unit cells and its performance is compared to a similar low profile antenna that uses an FSS with semiconductor varactor diodes. The measured data of the antenna demonstrate tunability from 2.2 GHz to 2.55 GHz in free space and impedance match improvement in the presence of a HCM at different distances. This antenna has smaller size, lower cost and less weight compared to the semiconductor varactor diode counterpart.

  20. The Antenna Bride and Bridegroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    ALMA Achieves Major Milestone With Antenna-Link Success The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international telescope project, reached a major milestone on 2 March, when two 12-m ALMA prototype antennas were first linked together as an integrated system to observe an astronomical object. "This achievement results from the integration of many state-of-the-art components from Europe and North America and bodes well for the success of ALMA in Chile", said Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General. ESO PR Photo 10/07 ESO PR Photo 10/07 The Prototype Antennas The milestone achievement, technically termed 'First Fringes', came at the ALMA Test Facility (ATF), located near Socorro in New Mexico. Faint radio waves emitted by the planet Saturn were collected by two ALMA prototype antennas, then processed by new, high-tech electronics to turn the two antennas into a single, high-resolution telescope system, called an interferometer. The planet's radio emissions at a frequency of 104 gigahertz were tracked by the ALMA system for more than an hour. Such pairs of antennas are the basic building blocks of the multi-antenna imaging system ALMA. In such a system, the signals recorded by each antenna are electronically combined with the signals of every other antenna to form a multitude of pairs. Each pair contributes unique information that is used to build a highly detailed image of the astronomical object under observation. When completed in the year 2012, ALMA will have 66 antennas. "Our congratulations go to the dedicated team of scientists, engineers and technicians who produced this groundbreaking achievement for ALMA. Much hard work and many long hours went into this effort, and we appreciate it all. This team should be very proud today," said NRAO Director Fred K.Y. Lo. "With this milestone behind us, we now can proceed with increased confidence toward completing ALMA," he added. ALMA, located at an elevation of 5,000m in the Atacama Desert of

  1. Photogrammetry Of A Parabolic Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrick, W. D.; Lansing, F. L.; Stoller, F. W.; Lobb, V. B.

    1988-01-01

    Surface measured with accuracy better than 10 to the negative fifth power times diameter. Report describes use of advanced close-range photogrammetry to determine deviations of 34-m-diameter antenna main reflector and subreflector from nominal paraboloidal shapes. Measurements enable removal of linear offsets and angular misalignments of subreflector, with consequent increase of 4 percent in aperture efficiency.

  2. DSS 13 microprocessor antenna controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosline, R. M.

    1988-01-01

    A microprocessor-based antenna monitor and control system with multiple CPUs are described. The system was developed as part of the unattended station project for DSS 13 and was enhanced for use by the SETI project. The operational features, hardware, and software designs are described, and a discussion is provided of the major problems encountered.

  3. A new fabrication method for precision antenna reflectors for space flight and ground test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, G. Richard; Wanhainen, Joyce S.; Ketelsen, Dean A.

    1991-01-01

    Communications satellites are using increasingly higher frequencies that require increasingly precise antenna reflectors for use in space. Traditional industry fabrication methods for space antenna reflectors employ successive modeling techniques using high- and low-temperature molds for reflector face sheets and then a final fit-up of the completed honeycomb sandwich panel antenna reflector to a master pattern. However, as new missions are planned at much higher frequencies, greater accuracies will be necessary than are achievable using these present methods. A new approach for the fabrication of ground-test solid-surface antenna reflectors is to build a rigid support structure with an easy-to-machine surface. This surface is subsequently machined to the desired reflector contour and coated with a radio-frequency-reflective surface. This method was used to fabricate a 2.7-m-diameter ground-test antenna reflector to an accuracy of better than 0.013 mm (0.0005 in.) rms. A similar reflector for use on spacecraft would be constructed in a similar manner but with space-qualified materials. The design, analysis, and fabrication of the 2.7-m-diameter precision antenna reflector for antenna ground tests and the extension of this technology to precision, space-based antenna reflectors are described.

  4. A broadband double-slot waveguide antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisliuk, M.; Axelrod, A.

    1987-09-01

    A double transverse slot broadband antenna based on the H-guide transverse-slot radiator design of Kisliuk and Axelrod (1985) is described. The double transverse slot antenna may be used in microwave and mm-wave applications (as a phased array element), in imaging systems, or as a stand-alone linearly polarized antenna. The equations for calculating the radiation efficiency and the input impedance and the experimental and theoretical curves for radiation efficiency of the double-slot antenna are presented along with diagrams of the antenna and the equivalent circuit of an individual slot in a slot array.

  5. Measurement of Antenna Bore-Sight Gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortinberry, Jarrod; Shumpert, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The absolute or free-field gain of a simple antenna can be approximated using standard antenna theory formulae or for a more accurate prediction, numerical methods may be employed to solve for antenna parameters including gain. Both of these methods will result in relatively reasonable estimates but in practice antenna gain is usually verified and documented via measurements and calibration. In this paper, a relatively simple and low-cost, yet effective means of determining the bore-sight free-field gain of a VHF/UHF antenna is proposed by using the Brewster angle relationship.

  6. Non-Gimbaled Antenna Pointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigil, Jeannine S.

    1997-01-01

    The small satellite community has been interested in accessing fixed ground stations for means of space-to-ground transmissions, although a problem arises from the limited global coverage. There is a growing interest for using the Space Network (SN) or Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS) as the primary support for communications because of the coverage it provides. This thesis will address the potential for satellite access of the Space Network with a non-gimbaled antenna configuration and low-power, coded transmission. The non-gimbaled antenna and the TDRS satellites, TDRS-East, TDRS-West, and TDRS-Zone of Exclusion, were configured in an orbital analysis software package called Satellite Tool Kit to emulate the three-dimensional position of the satellites. The access potential, which is the average number of contacts per day and the average time per contact, were obtained through simulations run over a 30-day period to gain all the possible orientations. The orbital altitude was varied from 600 km through 1200 km with the results being a function of orbital inclination angles varying from 20 deg through 100 deg and pointing half-angles of I0 deg through 40 deg. To compare the validity of the simulations, Jet Propulsion Laboratory granted the use of the TOPEX satellite. The TOPEX satellite was configured to emulate a spin-stabilized antenna with its communications antenna stowed in the zenith-pointing direction. This mimicked the antenna pointing spin-stabilized satellite in the simulations. To make valid comparisons, the TOPEX orbital parameters were entered into Satellite Tool Kit and simulated over five test times provided by Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  7. Third generation of correlators for six antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Marc

    2000-07-01

    The technical evolution of the correlators of the Plateau de Bure interferometer since the first fringes, 14 years ago, is shortly presented. The progressive addition of antennas over this period has allowed the Grenoble correlator group to undertake several 'start-from-scratch' designs, which have replaced on-site equipment as it came obsolete. The tradeoff between design cycle time and lifetime of such equipment is discussed. The latest design is described in detail. The new correlator can be set to analyze up to eight simultaneous windows, adjustable in size and center frequency, thanks to a 2 X 220 MHz image rejection mixer. Advantages of analog IF processing are presented. The frequency plan of the IF processor has been designed to be fully compatible with MarkIV VLBI recording. The correlator is then used to sum up the signals of the 6 antennas over 256 MHz. The digital section mainly uses an IRAM-designed low-power, low-cost ASIC. Delay lines use FPGA's and phase rotators use DDS's. Surface-mount technology is used everywhere. A commercial CPU module runs the real-time software under Linux. A 21-slot VME chassis hosts the hardware. Test results and measurements of performance on the full-size machine are presented. The difficulties encountered in achieving this kind of machine within schedule in today's industrial environment are retrospectively analyzed.

  8. Design of broadband single polarized antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Phoo Kho; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abd.; Ahmad, Badrul Hisham; Ramli, Mohamad Hafize Bin; Fauzi, Noor Azamiah Md; Malek, Mohd Fareq Abd

    2015-05-01

    In practical wireless communication application, bandwidth enhancement becomes one of the major design considerations. At the same time, circular polarized (CP) antenna received much attention for the applications of modern wireless communication system when compared to linear polarized (LP) antenna. This is because CP antenna can reduce the multipath effect. Hence, broadband antenna with operating frequency at 2.4GHz for WLAN application is proposed. The proposed antenna is done by using L-probe amendment with rectangular patch. The rectangular patch and copper ground plane is separated with 10mm air gap. This approach is used to enhance the bandwidth and the gain of the proposed antenna. The bandwidth of the designed antenna is more than 200MHz which meet broadband application. The return loss for the antenna is below -10dB to achieved 90% matching efficiency. The position of L-probe feed is altered in order to obtained different polarizations. The broadband antenna had been designed and simulated by using Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software. In this paper, the comparison for single polarized antenna with the design of non-inverted patch and inverted patch is discussed. The characteristics of the S-parameter, axial ratio, gain, surface current for each designed antenna are analyzed.

  9. Improvement of antenna decoupling in radar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anchidin, Liliana; Topor, Raluca; Tamas, Razvan D.; Dumitrascu, Ana; Danisor, Alin; Berescu, Serban

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we present a type of antipodal Vivaldi antenna design, which can be used for pulse radiation in UWB communication. The Vivaldi antenna is a special tapered slot antenna with planar structure which is easily to be integrated with transmitting elements and receiving elements to form a compact structure. When the permittivity is very large, the wavelength of slot mode is so short that the electromagnetic fields concentrate in the slot to form an effective and balanced transmission line. Due to its simple structure and small size the Vivaldi antennas are one of the most popular designs used in UWB applications. However, for a two-antenna radar system, there is a high mutual coupling between two such antennas due to open configuration. In this paper, we propose a new method for reducing this effect. The method was validated by simulating a system of two Vivaldi antennas in front of a standard target.

  10. Land vehicle antennas for satellite mobile communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, H. A.; Paschen, D.; Pieper, B. V.

    1985-01-01

    Antenna designs applicable to future satellite mobile vehicle communications are examined. Microstrip disk, quadrifilar helix, cylindrical microstrip, and inverted V and U crossed-dipole low gain antennas (3-5 dBic) that provide omnidirectional coverage are described. Diagrams of medium gain antenna (9-12 dBic) concepts are presented; the antennas are classified into three types: (1) electronically steered with digital phase shifters; (2) electronically switched with switchable power divider/combiner; and (3) mechanically steered with motor. The operating characteristics of a conformal antenna with electronic beam steering and a nonconformal design with mechanical steering are evaluated with respect to isolation levels in a multiple satellite system. Vehicle antenna pointing systems and antenna system costs are investigated.

  11. Broad band antennas and feed methods

    SciTech Connect

    Benzel, David M.; Twogood, Richard E.

    Two or more Vivaldi antennas, consisting of two plates each, each with the antenna's natural impedance of approximately 100 ohms, are placed in parallel to achieve a 50 ohm impedance in the case of two antennas or other impedances (100/n ohms) for more than two antennas. A single Vivaldi antenna plate (half Vivaldi antenna) over a ground plane can also be used to achieve a 50 ohm impedance, or two or more single plates over a ground plane to achieve other impedances. Unbalanced 50 ohm transmission lines, e.g. coaxial cables, can be used to directly feed, the dual Vivaldi (fourmore » plate) antenna in a center fed angled center departure, or more desirably, a center fed offset departure configuration.« less

  12. UHF Antenna Design for AFIT Random Noise Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    relatives of monopole , dipole, and slot antennas. One particularly interesting style amongst these is the Vivaldi antenna. There are two primary... monopole versions using Earth’s surface as a ground plane [26]. Antenna design and construction caught up with these early innovations over the next...Frequency independent antennas  Electric antennas (e.g. dipoles and monopoles )  Magnetic antennas (e.g. loops)  Electrically small antennas

  13. Creation of short microwave ablation zones: in vivo characterization of single and paired modified triaxial antennas.

    PubMed

    Lubner, Meghan G; Ziemlewicz, Tim J; Hinshaw, J Louis; Lee, Fred T; Sampson, Lisa A; Brace, Christopher L

    2014-10-01

    To characterize modified triaxial microwave antennas configured to produce short ablation zones. Fifty single-antenna and 27 paired-antenna hepatic ablations were performed in domestic swine (N = 11) with 17-gauge gas-cooled modified triaxial antennas powered at 65 W from a 2.45-GHz generator. Single-antenna ablations were performed at 2 (n = 16), 5 (n = 21), and 10 (n = 13) minutes. Paired-antenna ablations were performed at 1-cm and 2-cm spacing for 5 (n = 7 and n = 8, respectively) and 10 minutes (n = 7 and n = 5, respectively). Mean transverse width, length, and aspect ratio of sectioned ablation zones were measured and compared. For single antennas, mean ablation zone lengths were 2.9 cm ± 0.45, 3.5 cm ± 0.55, and 4.2 cm ± 0.40 at 2, 5, and 10 minutes, respectively. Mean widths were 1.8 cm ± 0.3, 2.0 cm ± 0.32, and 2.5 cm ± 0.25 at 2, 5, and 10 minutes, respectively. For paired antennas, mean length at 5 minutes with 1-cm and 2-cm spacing and 10 minutes with 1-cm and 2-cm spacing was 4.2 cm ± 0.9, 4.9 cm ± 1.0, 4.8 cm ± 0.5, and 4.8 cm ± 1.3, respectively. Mean width was 3.1 cm ± 1.0, 4.4 cm ± 0.7, 3.8 cm ± 0.4, and 4.5 cm ± 0.7, respectively. Paired-antenna ablations were more spherical (aspect ratios, 0.72-0.79 for 5-10 min) than single-antenna ablations (aspect ratios, 0.57-0.59). For paired-antenna ablations, 1-cm spacing appeared optimal, with improved circularity and decreased clefting compared with 2-cm spacing (circularity, 0.85 at 1 cm, 0.78 at 2 cm). Modified triaxial antennas can generate relatively short, spherical ablation zones. Paired-antenna ablations were rounder and larger in transverse dimension than single antenna ablations, with 1-cm spacing optimal for confluence of the ablation zone. Copyright © 2014 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Negative ion source with external RF antenna

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Hahto, Sami K.; Hahto, Sari T.

    2007-02-13

    A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source. A converter can be included in the ion source to produce negative ions.

  15. Plasmonic Antenna Coupling for QWIPs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, John

    2007-01-01

    In a proposed scheme for coupling light into a quantum-well infrared photodetector (QWIP), an antenna or an array of antennas made of a suitable metal would be fabricated on the face of what would otherwise be a standard QWIP. This or any such coupling scheme is required to effect polarization conversion: Light incident perpendicularly to the face is necessarily polarized in the plane of the face, whereas, as a matter of fundamental electrodynamics and related quantum selection rules, light must have a non-zero component of perpendicular polarization in order to be absorbed in the photodetection process. In a prior coupling scheme, gratings in the form of surface corrugations diffract normally gles, thereby imparting some perpendicular polarization. Unfortunately, the corrugation- fabrication process increases the overall nonuniformity of a large QWIP array. The proposed scheme is an alternative to the use of surface corrugations.

  16. Distributed antenna system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    System and methods are disclosed for employing one or more radiators having non-unique phase centers mounted to a body with respect to a plurality of transmitters to determine location characteristics of the body such as the position and/or attitude of the body. The one or more radiators may consist of a single, continuous element or of two or more discrete radiation elements whose received signals are combined. In a preferred embodiment, the location characteristics are determined using carrier phase measurements whereby phase center information may be determined or estimated. A distributed antenna having a wide angle view may be mounted to a moveable body in accord with the present invention. The distributed antenna may be utilized for maintaining signal contact with multiple spaced apart transmitters, such as a GPS constellation, as the body rotates without the need for RF switches to thereby provide continuous attitude and position determination of the body.

  17. Omnidirectional antenna having constant phase

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, Matthew

    Various technologies presented herein relate to constructing and/or operating an antenna having an omnidirectional electrical field of constant phase. The antenna comprises an upper plate made up of multiple conductive rings, a lower ground-plane plate, a plurality of grounding posts, a conical feed, and a radio frequency (RF) feed connector. The upper plate has a multi-ring configuration comprising a large outer ring and several smaller rings of equal size located within the outer ring. The large outer ring and the four smaller rings have the same cross-section. The grounding posts ground the upper plate to the lower plate while maintainingmore » a required spacing/parallelism therebetween.« less

  18. Band-notched spiral antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, Jae; Chang, John

    A band-notched spiral antenna having one or more spiral arms extending from a radially inner end to a radially outer end for transmitting or receiving electromagnetic radiation over a frequency range, and one or more resonance structures positioned adjacent one or more segments of the spiral arm associated with a notch frequency band or bands of the frequency range so as to resonate and suppress the transmission or reception of electromagnetic radiation over said notch frequency band or bands.

  19. DSS 13 Microprocessor Antenna Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosline, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    A microprocessor based antenna controller system developed as part of the unattended station project for DSS 13 is described. Both the hardware and software top level designs are presented and the major problems encounted are discussed. Developments useful to related projects include a JPL standard 15 line interface using a single board computer, a general purpose parser, a fast floating point to ASCII conversion technique, and experience gained in using off board floating point processors with the 8080 CPU.

  20. Transcatheter Antenna For Microwave Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor); Karasack, Vincent G. (Inventor); Pacifico, Antonio (Inventor); Pieper, Carl F. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for propagating microwave energy into heart tissues to produce a desired temperature profile therein at tissue depths sufficient for thermally ablating arrhythmogenic cardiac tissue to treat ventricular tachycardia and other arrhythmias while preventing excessive heating of surrounding tissues, organs, and blood. A wide bandwidth double-disk antenna is effective for this purpose over a bandwidth of about six gigahertz. A computer simulation provides initial screening capabilities for an antenna such as antenna, frequency, power level, and power application duration. The simulation also allows optimization of techniques for specific patients or conditions. In operation, microwave energy between about 1 Gigahertz and 12 Gigahertz is applied to monopole microwave radiation having a surface wave limiter. A test setup provides physical testing of microwave radiators to determine the temperature profile created in actual heart tissue or ersatz heart tissue. Saline solution pumped over the heart tissue with a peristaltic pump simulates blood flow. Optical temperature sensors disposed at various tissue depths within the heart tissue detect the temperature profile without creating any electromagnetic interference. The method may he used to produce a desired temperature profile in other body tissues reachable by catheter such as tumors and the like.

  1. Membrane Shell Reflector Segment Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Houfei; Im, Eastwood; Lin, John; Moore, James

    2012-01-01

    The mesh reflector is the only type of large, in-space deployable antenna that has successfully flown in space. However, state-of-the-art large deployable mesh antenna systems are RF-frequency-limited by both global shape accuracy and local surface quality. The limitations of mesh reflectors stem from two factors. First, at higher frequencies, the porosity and surface roughness of the mesh results in loss and scattering of the signal. Second, the mesh material does not have any bending stiffness and thus cannot be formed into true parabolic (or other desired) shapes. To advance the deployable reflector technology at high RF frequencies from the current state-of-the-art, significant improvements need to be made in three major aspects: a high-stability and highprecision deployable truss; a continuously curved RF reflecting surface (the function of the surface as well as its first derivative are both continuous); and the RF reflecting surface should be made of a continuous material. To meet these three requirements, the Membrane Shell Reflector Segment (MSRS) antenna was developed.

  2. 47 CFR 22.365 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 22... Antenna structures; air navigation safety. Licensees that own their antenna structures must not allow these antenna structures to become a hazard to air navigation. In general, antenna structure owners are...

  3. 47 CFR 73.316 - FM antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FM antenna systems. 73.316 Section 73.316... Broadcast Stations § 73.316 FM antenna systems. (a) It shall be standard to employ horizontal polarization...) Directional antennas. A directional antenna is an antenna that is designed or altered for the purpose of...

  4. 47 CFR 22.365 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 22... Antenna structures; air navigation safety. Licensees that own their antenna structures must not allow these antenna structures to become a hazard to air navigation. In general, antenna structure owners are...

  5. 47 CFR 22.365 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 22... Antenna structures; air navigation safety. Licensees that own their antenna structures must not allow these antenna structures to become a hazard to air navigation. In general, antenna structure owners are...

  6. 47 CFR 73.316 - FM antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FM antenna systems. 73.316 Section 73.316... Broadcast Stations § 73.316 FM antenna systems. (a) It shall be standard to employ horizontal polarization...) Directional antennas. A directional antenna is an antenna that is designed or altered for the purpose of...

  7. 47 CFR 73.316 - FM antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FM antenna systems. 73.316 Section 73.316... Broadcast Stations § 73.316 FM antenna systems. (a) It shall be standard to employ horizontal polarization...) Directional antennas. A directional antenna is an antenna that is designed or altered for the purpose of...

  8. 47 CFR 73.316 - FM antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FM antenna systems. 73.316 Section 73.316... Broadcast Stations § 73.316 FM antenna systems. (a) It shall be standard to employ horizontal polarization...) Directional antennas. A directional antenna is an antenna that is designed or altered for the purpose of...

  9. 47 CFR 22.365 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 22... Antenna structures; air navigation safety. Licensees that own their antenna structures must not allow these antenna structures to become a hazard to air navigation. In general, antenna structure owners are...

  10. 47 CFR 73.316 - FM antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FM antenna systems. 73.316 Section 73.316... Broadcast Stations § 73.316 FM antenna systems. (a) It shall be standard to employ horizontal polarization...) Directional antennas. A directional antenna is an antenna that is designed or altered for the purpose of...

  11. 47 CFR 22.365 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 22... Antenna structures; air navigation safety. Licensees that own their antenna structures must not allow these antenna structures to become a hazard to air navigation. In general, antenna structure owners are...

  12. Multi-mode horn antenna simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dod, L. R.; Wolf, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation patterns were computed for a circular multimode horn antenna using waveguide electric field radiation expressions. The circular multimode horn was considered as a possible reflector feed antenna for the Large Antenna Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer (LAMMR). This horn antenna uses a summation of the TE sub 11 deg and TM sub 11 deg modes to generate far field primary radiation patterns with equal E and H plane beamwidths and low sidelobes. A computer program for the radiation field expressions using the summation of waveguide radiation modes is described. The sensitivity of the multimode horn antenna radiation patterns to phase variations between the two modes is given. Sample radiation pattern calculations for a reflector feed horn for LAMMR are shown. The multimode horn antenna provides a low noise feed suitable for radiometric applications.

  13. Distributed control of large space antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, J. M.; Hamidi, M.; Lin, Y. H.; Wang, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    A systematic way to choose control design parameters and to evaluate performance for large space antennas is presented. The structural dynamics and control properties for a Hoop and Column Antenna and a Wrap-Rib Antenna are characterized. Some results of the effects of model parameter uncertainties to the stability, surface accuracy, and pointing errors are presented. Critical dynamics and control problems for these antenna configurations are identified and potential solutions are discussed. It was concluded that structural uncertainties and model error can cause serious performance deterioration and can even destabilize the controllers. For the hoop and column antenna, large hoop and long meat and the lack of stiffness between the two substructures result in low structural frequencies. Performance can be improved if this design can be strengthened. The two-site control system is more robust than either single-site control systems for the hoop and column antenna.

  14. Mobile satellite communications - Vehicle antenna technology update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, D.; Naderi, F. M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses options for vehicle antennas to be used in mobile satellite communications systems. Two types of antennas are identified. A non-steerable, azimuthally omnidirectional antenna with a modest gain of 3 to 5 dBi is suggested when a low cost is desired. Alternatively, mechanically or electronically steerable antennas with a higher gain of 10 to 12 dBi are suggested to alleviate power and spectrum scarcity associated with mobile satellite communications. For steerable antennas, both open-loop and closed-loop pointing schemes are discussed. Monopulse and sequential lobing are proposed for the mechanically steered and electronically steered antennas, respectively. This paper suggests a hybrid open-loop/closed-loop pointing technique as the best performer in the mobile satellite environment.

  15. Millimeter wave micro-CPW integrated antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzuang, Ching-Kuang C.; Lin, Ching-Chyuan

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents the latest result of applying the microstrip's leaky mode for a millimeter-wave active integrated antenna design. In contrast to the use of the first higher-order leaky mode, the second higher-order leaky mode, the second higher-order leaky mode of even symmetry is employed in the new approach, which allows larger dimension for leaky-wave antenna design and thereby reduces its performance sensitivity to the photolithographic tolerance. The new active integrated antenna operating at frequency about 34 GHz comprises of a microstrip and a coplanar waveguide stacked on top of each other, named as the millimeter wave micro-CPW integrated antenna. The feed is through the CPW that would be connected to the active uniplanar millimeter-wave (M)MIC's. Our experimental and theoretical investigations on the new integrated antenna show good input matching characteristics for such a highly directed leaky-wave antenna with the first-pass success.

  16. Adaptive antenna arrays for weak interfering signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, I. J.

    1985-01-01

    The interference protection provided by adaptive antenna arrays to an Earth station or satellite receive antenna system is studied. The case where the interference is caused by the transmission from adjacent satellites or Earth stations whose signals inadverently enter the receiving system and interfere with the communication link is considered. Thus, the interfering signals are very weak. To increase the interference suppression, one can either decrease the thermal noise in the feedback loops or increase the gain of the auxiliary antennas in the interfering signal direction. Both methods are examined. It is shown that one may have to reduce the noise correlation to impractically low values and if directive auxiliary antennas are used, the auxiliary antenna size may have to be too large. One can, however, combine the two methods to achieve the specified interference suppression with reasonable requirements of noise decorrelation and auxiliary antenna size. Effects of the errors in the steering vector on the adaptive array performance are studied.

  17. Compact Miniaturized Antenna for 210 MHz RFID

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Chun, Kue

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the design and simulation of a miniaturized square-ring antenna. The miniaturized antenna, with overall dimensions of approximately one tenth of a wavelength (0.1 ), was designed to operate at around 210 MHz, and was intended for radio-frequency identification (RFID) application. One unique feature of the design is the use of a parasitic element to improve the performance and impedance matching of the antenna. The use of parasitic elements to enhance the gain and bandwidth of patch antennas has been demonstrated and reported in the literature, but such use has never been applied to miniaturized antennas. In this work, we will present simulation results and discuss design parameters and their impact on the antenna performance.

  18. Orthogonal feeding techniques for tapered slot antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Simons, Rainee N.

    1998-01-01

    For array of "brick" configuration there are electrical and mechanical advantages to feed the antenna with a feed on a substrate perpendicular to the antenna substrate. Different techniques have been proposed for exciting patch antennas using such a feed structure.Rncently, an aperture-coupled dielectric resonator antenna using a perpendicular feed substrate has been demonstrated to have very good power coupling efficiency. For a two-dimensional rectangular array with tapered slot antenna elements, a power combining network on perpendicular substrate is generally required to couple power to or from the array. In this paper, we will describe two aperture-coupled techniques for coupling microwave power from a linearly tapered slot antenna (LTSA) to a microstrip feed on a perpendicular substrate. In addition, we will present measured results for return losses and radiation patterns.

  19. Advanced microwave radiometer antenna system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kummer, W. H.; Villeneuve, A. T.; Seaton, A. F.

    1976-01-01

    The practicability of a multi-frequency antenna for spaceborne microwave radiometers was considered in detail. The program consisted of a comparative study of various antenna systems, both mechanically and electronically scanned, in relation to specified design goals and desired system performance. The study involved several distinct tasks: definition of candidate antennas that are lightweight and that, at the specified frequencies of 5, 10, 18, 22, and 36 GHz, can provide conical scanning, dual linear polarization, and simultaneous multiple frequency operation; examination of various feed systems and phase-shifting techniques; detailed analysis of several key performance parameters such as beam efficiency, sidelobe level, and antenna beam footprint size; and conception of an antenna/feed system that could meet the design goals. Candidate antennas examined include phased arrays, lenses, and optical reflector systems. Mechanical, electrical, and performance characteristics of the various systems were tabulated for ease of comparison.

  20. Equalization in Aeronautical Telemetry Using Multiple Antennas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Multiple Antennas April 2014 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. Test Resource Management Center...Telemetry Using Multiple Antennas 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER: W900KK-13-C- 0026 5b. GRANT NUMBER: N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Michael...employing two transmit antennas and as a method for exploiting partial channel state information by the transmitter. The generalization involves

  1. Numerical Modeling of Ultra Wideband Combined Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorkal'tseva, M. Yu.; Koshelev, V. I.; Petkun, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    With the help of a program we developed, based on the finite difference method in the time domain, we have investigated the characteristics of ultra wideband combined antennas in detail. The antennas were developed to radiate bipolar pulses with durations in the range 0.5-3 ns. Data obtained by numerical modeling are compared with the data of experimental studies on antennas and have been used in the synthesis of electromagnetic pulses with maximum field strength.

  2. An Approach for Smart Antenna Testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawitkar, R. S.; Wakde, D. G.

    2003-07-01

    The use of wireless, mobile, personal communications services are expanding rapidly. Adaptive or "Smart" antenna arrays can increase channel capacity through spatial division. Adaptive antennas can also track mobile users, improving both signal range and quality. For these reasons, smart antenna systems have attracted widespread interest in the telecommunications industry for applications to third generation wireless systems.This paper aims to design and develop an advanced antennas testbed to serve as a common reference for testing adaptive antenna arrays and signal combining algorithms, as well as complete systems. A flexible suite of off line processing software should be written using matlab to perform system calibration, test bed initialization, data acquisition control, data storage/transfer, off line signal processing and analysis and graph plotting. The goal of this paper is to develop low complexity smart antenna structures for 3G systems. The emphasis will be laid on ease of implementation in a multichannel / multi-user environment. A smart antenna test bed will be developed, and various state-of-the-art DSP structures and algorithms will be investigated.Facing the soaring demand for mobile communications, the use of smart antenna arrays in mobile communications systems to exploit spatial diversity to further improve spectral efficiency has recently received considerable attention. Basically, a smart antenna array comprises a number of antenna elements combined via a beamforming network (amplitude and phase control network). Some of the benefits that can be achieved by using SAS (Smart Antenna System) include lower mobile terminal power consumption, range extension, ISI reduction, higher data rate support, and ease of integration into the existing base station system. In terms of economic benefits, adaptive antenna systems employed at base station, though increases the per base station cost, can increase coverage area of each cell site, thereby reducing

  3. Buoyant Helical Twin-Axial Wire Antenna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-15

    300169 1 of 9 BUOYANT HELICAL TWIN-AXIAL WIRE ANTENNA CROSS REFERENCE TO OTHER PATENT APPLICATIONS [0001] This application is a divisional...Wire Antenna ” by the inventor, David A. Tonn. STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0002] The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by...BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION (1) Field of the Invention [0003] The present invention is directed to a linear antenna for dual frequencies and a method for

  4. One antenna, two antennae, big antennae, small: total antennae length, not bilateral symmetry, predicts odor-tracking performance in the American cockroach Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Lockey, Jacob K; Willis, Mark A

    2015-07-01

    Determining the location of a particular stimulus is often crucial to an animal's survival. One way to determine the local distribution of an odor is to make simultaneous comparisons across multiple sensors. If the sensors detect differences in the distribution of an odor in space, the animal can then steer toward the source. American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana, have 4 cm long antennae and are thought to track odor plumes using a spatial sampling strategy, comparing the amount of odor detected between these bilateral sensors. However, it is not uncommon for cockroaches to lose parts of their antennae and still track a wind-borne odor to its source. We examined whether bilateral odor input is necessary to locate an odor source in a wind-driven environment and how the loss of increasing lengths of the antennae affects odor tracking. The tracking performances of individuals with two bilaterally symmetrical antennae of decreasing length were compared with antennal length-matched individuals with one antenna. Cockroaches with one antenna were generally able to track an odor plume to its source. In fact, the performances of unilaterally antennectomized individuals were statistically identical to those of their bilaterally symmetrical counterparts when the combined length of both antennae equaled the length of the single antenna of the antennectomized individuals. This suggests that the total length of available antennae influences odor tracking performance more than any specific piece of antenna, and that they may be doing something more complex than a simple bilateral comparison between their antennae. The possibility of an antenna-topic map is discussed. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Porous textile antenna designs for improved wearability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahariar, Hasan; Soewardiman, Henry; Muchler, Clifford A.; Adams, Jacob J.; Jur, Jesse S.

    2018-04-01

    Textile antennas are an integral part of the next generation personalized wearable electronics system. However, the durability of textile antennas are rarely discussed in the literature. Typical textile antennas are prone to damage during normal wearable user scenarios, washing, and heat cycling over time. Fabricating a durable, washable, flexible, and breathable (like textile materials) antenna is challenging due to the incompatibility of the mechanical properties of conductive materials and soft textile materials. This paper describes a scalable screen printing process on an engineered nonwoven substrate to fabricate microstrip patch antennas with enhanced durability. This work used an Evolon® nonwoven substrate with low surface roughness (˜Ra = 18 μm) and high surface area (˜2.05 mm2 mm-2 of fabric area) compared to traditional textile materials, which allows the ink to penetrate evenly in the fiber bulk with its strong capillary wicking force and enhances print resolution. The composite layer of ink and fiber is conductive and enables the antennas to maintain high mechanical flexibility without varying its RF (Radio Frequency) properties. Additionally, the antennas are packaged by laminating porous polyurethane web to make the device durable and washable. The fully packaged antennas maintain the structural flexibility and RF functionality after 15 cycles of washing and drying. To improve the air permeability and enhance flexibility the antenna is also modified by incorporating holes in the both patch and ground layer of the antenna. The antennas were analyzed before and after submerging in water to observe the effect of wetting and drying with respect to frequency response. The porous antenna with holes recovered 3x times faster than the one without holes (solid) from fully wet state (saturated with water) to the dry state, demonstrating its potential use as a moisture sensor system.

  6. Microwave Ablation: Comparison of Simultaneous and Sequential Activation of Multiple Antennas in Liver Model Systems.

    PubMed

    Harari, Colin M; Magagna, Michelle; Bedoya, Mariajose; Lee, Fred T; Lubner, Meghan G; Hinshaw, J Louis; Ziemlewicz, Timothy; Brace, Christopher L

    2016-01-01

    To compare microwave ablation zones created by using sequential or simultaneous power delivery in ex vivo and in vivo liver tissue. All procedures were approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Microwave ablations were performed in both ex vivo and in vivo liver models with a 2.45-GHz system capable of powering up to three antennas simultaneously. Two- and three-antenna arrays were evaluated in each model. Sequential and simultaneous ablations were created by delivering power (50 W ex vivo, 65 W in vivo) for 5 minutes per antenna (10 and 15 minutes total ablation time for sequential ablations, 5 minutes for simultaneous ablations). Thirty-two ablations were performed in ex vivo bovine livers (eight per group) and 28 in the livers of eight swine in vivo (seven per group). Ablation zone size and circularity metrics were determined from ablations excised postmortem. Mixed effects modeling was used to evaluate the influence of power delivery, number of antennas, and tissue type. On average, ablations created by using the simultaneous power delivery technique were larger than those with the sequential technique (P < .05). Simultaneous ablations were also more circular than sequential ablations (P = .0001). Larger and more circular ablations were achieved with three antennas compared with two antennas (P < .05). Ablations were generally smaller in vivo compared with ex vivo. The use of multiple antennas and simultaneous power delivery creates larger, more confluent ablations with greater temperatures than those created with sequential power delivery. © RSNA, 2015.

  7. Cable-catenary large antenna concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akle, W.

    1985-01-01

    Deployable to very large diameters (over 1000 ft), while still remaining compatible with a complete satellite system launch by STS, the cable-catenary antenna comprises: 8 radial deployable boom masts; a deployable hub and feed support center mast; balanced front and back, radial and circumferential catenary cabling for highly accurate (mm) surface control; no interfering cabling in the antenna field; and an RF reflecting mesh supported on the front catenaries. Illustrations show the antenna-satellite system deployed and stowed configurations; the antenna deployment sequence; the design analysis logic; the sizing analysis output, and typical parametric design data.

  8. Radiation pattern of a borehole radar antenna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, K.J.; Wright, D.L.

    2002-01-01

    To understand better how a borehole antenna radiates radar waves into a formation, this phenomenon is simulated numerically using the finite-difference, time-domain method. The simulations are of two different antenna models that include features like a driving point fed by a coaxial cable, resistive loading of the antenna, and a water-filled borehole. For each model, traces are calculated in the far-field region, and then, from these traces, radiation patterns are calculated. The radiation patterns show that the amplitude of the radar wave is strongly affected by its frequency, its propagation direction, and the resistive loading of the antenna.

  9. Submillimeter-wave antennas on thin membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebeiz, Gabriel M.; Regehr, Wade G.; Rutledge, David B.; Savage, Richard L.; Luhmann, Neville C., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Submillimeter-wave antennas have been fabricated on 1-micron thick silicon-oxynitride membranes. This approach results in better patterns than previous lens-coupled antennas, and eliminates the dielectric loss associated with the substrate lens. Measurements on a wideband log-periodic antenna at 700 GHz, 370 GHz and 167 GHz show no sidelobes and 3-dB beamwidths between 40 and 60 deg. A linear imaging array has similar patterns at 700 GHz. Possible applications for membrane antennas include wideband superconducting tunnel-junction receivers for radio astronomy and imaging arrays for radiometry and plasma diagnostics.

  10. Carbon Nanotube Thin-Film Antennas.

    PubMed

    Puchades, Ivan; Rossi, Jamie E; Cress, Cory D; Naglich, Eric; Landi, Brian J

    2016-08-17

    Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) dipole antennas have been successfully designed, fabricated, and tested. Antennas of varying lengths were fabricated using flexible bulk MWCNT sheet material and evaluated to confirm the validity of a full-wave antenna design equation. The ∼20× improvement in electrical conductivity provided by chemically doped SWCNT thin films over MWCNT sheets presents an opportunity for the fabrication of thin-film antennas, leading to potentially simplified system integration and optical transparency. The resonance characteristics of a fabricated chlorosulfonic acid-doped SWCNT thin-film antenna demonstrate the feasibility of the technology and indicate that when the sheet resistance of the thin film is >40 ohm/sq no power is absorbed by the antenna and that a sheet resistance of <10 ohm/sq is needed to achieve a 10 dB return loss in the unbalanced antenna. The dependence of the return loss performance on the SWCNT sheet resistance is consistent with unbalanced metal, metal oxide, and other CNT-based thin-film antennas, and it provides a framework for which other thin-film antennas can be designed.

  11. Ultrawideband combined antenna with improved matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzovsky, E. V.; Buyanov, Yu I.; Koshelev, V. I.; Nekrasov, E. S.

    2018-05-01

    To study the immunity of electronic equipment to ultrawideband irradiation, a combined antenna with improved matching has been created. In contrast to the previously presented, a novel antenna has a modified input node with a flat part instead of a cylindrical one. As a result of optimizing the geometry of the antenna electrodes, a matching band with the feeder of 0.38-2.4 GHz was achieved by the VSWR = 2. The results of the investigations of antenna characteristics in the frequency domain, as well as the waveforms of the radiated short ultrawideband pulses are presented.

  12. Integrated reflector antenna design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, M. L.; Lee, S. W.; Ni, S.; Christensen, M.; Wang, Y. M.

    1993-01-01

    Reflector antenna design is a mature field and most aspects were studied. However, of that most previous work is distinguished by the fact that it is narrow in scope, analyzing only a particular problem under certain conditions. Methods of analysis of this type are not useful for working on real-life problems since they can not handle the many and various types of perturbations of basic antenna design. The idea of an integrated design and analysis is proposed. By broadening the scope of the analysis, it becomes possible to deal with the intricacies attendant with modem reflector antenna design problems. The concept of integrated reflector antenna design is put forward. A number of electromagnetic problems related to reflector antenna design are investigated. Some of these show how tools for reflector antenna design are created. In particular, a method for estimating spillover loss for open-ended waveguide feeds is examined. The problem of calculating and optimizing beam efficiency (an important figure of merit in radiometry applications) is also solved. Other chapters deal with applications of this general analysis. The wide angle scan abilities of reflector antennas is examined and a design is proposed for the ATDRSS triband reflector antenna. The development of a general phased-array pattern computation program is discussed and how the concept of integrated design can be extended to other types of antennas is shown. The conclusions are contained in the final chapter.

  13. Antenna technology for advanced mobile communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rammos, Emmanuel; Roederer, Antoine; Rogard, Roger

    1988-01-01

    The onboard antenna front end is the key subsystem conditioning configuration and performance of mobile communication satellites. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate this key role and to review L-band satellite antenna technology for earth coverage and regional applications. Multibeam arrays are first discussed, then unfurlable and inflatable reflector antennas are described. These technologies are now qualified in Europe for future mobile systems, for which the optimum choice of antenna technology has been found to be the key to efficient use of spectrum and power resources.

  14. An antenna-pointing mechanism for the ETS-6 K-band Single Access (KSA) antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takada, Noboru; Amano, Takahiro; Ohhashi, Toshiro; Wachi, Shigeo

    1991-01-01

    Both the design philosophy for the Antenna Pointing Mechanism (APM) to be used for the K-band Single Access (KSA) antenna system and experimental results of the APM Engineering Model (EM) tests are described. The KSA antenna system will be flown on the Engineering Test Satellite 6 (ETS-6).

  15. Antenna and Electronics Cost Tradeoffs For Large Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Addario, Larry R.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the cost tradeoffs for large antenna arrays. The contents include: 1) Cost modeling for large arrays; 2) Antenna mechanical cost over a wide range of sizes; and 3) Cost of per-antenna electronics.

  16. Magnetic antenna excitation of whistler modes. IV. Receiving antennas and reciprocity

    SciTech Connect

    Stenzel, R. L., E-mail: stenzel@physics.ucla.edu; Urrutia, J. M.

    Antenna radiation patterns are an important property of antennas. Reciprocity holds in free space and the radiation patterns for exciting and receiving antennas are the same. In anisotropic plasmas, radiation patterns are complicated by the fact that group and phase velocities differ and certain wave properties like helicity depend on the direction of wave propagation with respect to the background magnetic field B{sub 0}. Interference and wave focusing effects are different than in free space. Reciprocity does not necessarily hold in a magnetized plasma. The present work considers the properties of various magnetic antennas used for receiving whistler modes. Itmore » is based on experimental data from exciting low frequency whistler modes in a large uniform laboratory plasma. By superposition of linear waves from different antennas, the radiation patterns of antenna arrays are derived. Plane waves are generated and used to determine receiving radiation patterns of different receiving antennas. Antenna arrays have radiation patterns with narrow lobes, whose angular position can be varied by physical rotation or electronic phase shifting. Reciprocity applies to broadside antenna arrays but not to end fire arrays which can have asymmetric lobes with respect to B{sub 0}. The effect of a relative motion between an antenna and the plasma has been modeled by the propagation of a short wave packet moving along a linear antenna array. An antenna moving across B{sub 0} has a radiation pattern characterized by an oscillatory “whistler wing.” A receiving antenna in motion can detect any plane wave within the group velocity resonance cone. The radiation pattern also depends on loop size relative to the wavelength. Motional effects prevent reciprocity. The concept of the radiation pattern loses its significance for wave packets since the received signal does not only depend on the antenna but also on the properties of the wave packet. The present results are of

  17. Antenna pattern study, task 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Warren

    1989-01-01

    Two electromagnetic scattering codes, NEC-BSC and ESP3, were delivered and installed on a NASA VAX computer for use by Marshall Space Flight Center antenna design personnel. The existing codes and certain supplementary software were updated, the codes installed on a computer that will be delivered to the customer, to provide capability for graphic display of the data to be computed by the use of the codes and to assist the customer in the solution of specific problems that demonstrate the use of the codes. With the exception of one code revision, all of these tasks were performed.

  18. Large space deployable antenna systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The design technology is described for manufacturing a 20 m or larger space erectable antenna with high thermal stability, high dynamic stiffness, and minimum stowed size. The selected approach includes a wrap rib design with a cantilever beam basic element and graphite-epoxy composite lenticular cross section ribs. The rib configuration and powered type operated deploying mechanism are described and illustrated. Other features of the parabolic reflector discussed include weight and stowed diameter characteristics, structural dynamics characteristics, orbit thermal aperture limitations, and equivalent element and secondary (on axis) patterns. A block diagram of the multiple beam pattern is also presented.

  19. Study of Antenna Radome Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    115 DISTRIBUTION LIST .... ......................... 117 4 - #iE MU aM . a--. LIST 01 FICURZS Figure Page 1. Antenna A end radoe E...coetficiente at points 1 and 2 (Figure 26a) T -T n1E + (1/0) (5.18) In a sitmitar manner, we can calculate the field on the multiply refracted rays (t. twice...34 Differential geometry for GTD applications," ElectromagneticsLaboratory Report 77-21, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, 1977. (lij F. W. Sears, M. W

  20. Interleaved arrays antenna technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Phase one and two of a program to further develop and investigate advanced graphite epoxy waveguides, radiators, and components with application to space antennas are discussed. The objective of the two phases were to demonstrate mechanical integrity of a small panel of radiators and parts procured under a previous contract and to develop alternate designs and applications of the technology. Most of the emphasis was on the assembly and test of a 5 x 5 element module. This effort was supported by evaluation of adhesives and waveguide joint configurations. The evaluation and final assembly considered not only mechanical performance but also producibility in large scale.

  1. Parker Solar Probe Antenna Deployment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-04-19

    Antenna's on NASA's Parker Solar Probe are deployed for testing at the Astrotech processing facility in Titusville, Florida, near NASA's Kennedy Space Center on Thursday, April 19, 2018. The Parker Solar Probe will launch on a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket from Space Launch Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida no earlier than Aug. 4, 2018. The mission will perform the closest-ever observations of a star when it travels through the Sun's atmosphere, called the corona. The probe will rely on measurements and imaging to revolutionize our understanding of the corona and the Sun-Earth connection.

  2. Antenna analysis using neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, William T.

    1992-01-01

    Conventional computing schemes have long been used to analyze problems in electromagnetics (EM). The vast majority of EM applications require computationally intensive algorithms involving numerical integration and solutions to large systems of equations. The feasibility of using neural network computing algorithms for antenna analysis is investigated. The ultimate goal is to use a trained neural network algorithm to reduce the computational demands of existing reflector surface error compensation techniques. Neural networks are computational algorithms based on neurobiological systems. Neural nets consist of massively parallel interconnected nonlinear computational elements. They are often employed in pattern recognition and image processing problems. Recently, neural network analysis has been applied in the electromagnetics area for the design of frequency selective surfaces and beam forming networks. The backpropagation training algorithm was employed to simulate classical antenna array synthesis techniques. The Woodward-Lawson (W-L) and Dolph-Chebyshev (D-C) array pattern synthesis techniques were used to train the neural network. The inputs to the network were samples of the desired synthesis pattern. The outputs are the array element excitations required to synthesize the desired pattern. Once trained, the network is used to simulate the W-L or D-C techniques. Various sector patterns and cosecant-type patterns (27 total) generated using W-L synthesis were used to train the network. Desired pattern samples were then fed to the neural network. The outputs of the network were the simulated W-L excitations. A 20 element linear array was used. There were 41 input pattern samples with 40 output excitations (20 real parts, 20 imaginary). A comparison between the simulated and actual W-L techniques is shown for a triangular-shaped pattern. Dolph-Chebyshev is a different class of synthesis technique in that D-C is used for side lobe control as opposed to pattern

  3. Antenna analysis using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, William T.

    1992-09-01

    Conventional computing schemes have long been used to analyze problems in electromagnetics (EM). The vast majority of EM applications require computationally intensive algorithms involving numerical integration and solutions to large systems of equations. The feasibility of using neural network computing algorithms for antenna analysis is investigated. The ultimate goal is to use a trained neural network algorithm to reduce the computational demands of existing reflector surface error compensation techniques. Neural networks are computational algorithms based on neurobiological systems. Neural nets consist of massively parallel interconnected nonlinear computational elements. They are often employed in pattern recognition and image processing problems. Recently, neural network analysis has been applied in the electromagnetics area for the design of frequency selective surfaces and beam forming networks. The backpropagation training algorithm was employed to simulate classical antenna array synthesis techniques. The Woodward-Lawson (W-L) and Dolph-Chebyshev (D-C) array pattern synthesis techniques were used to train the neural network. The inputs to the network were samples of the desired synthesis pattern. The outputs are the array element excitations required to synthesize the desired pattern. Once trained, the network is used to simulate the W-L or D-C techniques. Various sector patterns and cosecant-type patterns (27 total) generated using W-L synthesis were used to train the network. Desired pattern samples were then fed to the neural network. The outputs of the network were the simulated W-L excitations. A 20 element linear array was used. There were 41 input pattern samples with 40 output excitations (20 real parts, 20 imaginary).

  4. Proceedings of the Antenna Applications Symposium (1988) Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Antennas)p Microstrip, ,.Multibeam Antennas 6 Satellite Antennas. Reflector Array Antennas, ____________I____ Broadband Antennas...C. Sullivan and G. E. Evans 8. " Broadband MMIC T/R Module/Subarray Performance," D. Brubaker, 157 D. Scott, S. Ludvik, M. Lynch, H. II. Chung, W...34 S. Sanzgiri, 277 B. Powers, Jr., and J. Hart ib. " broadbanding Techniques for Microstrip Patch Antennas - A ’.93 kReview," K. C. Gupta * NUT INCLUDED

  5. Apparatus and methods for packaging integrated circuit chips with antenna modules providing closed electromagnetic environment for integrated antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaucher, Brian P. (Inventor); Grzyb, Janusz (Inventor); Liu, Duixian (Inventor); Pfeiffer, Ullrich R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Apparatus and methods are provided for packaging IC chips together with integrated antenna modules designed to provide a closed EM (electromagnetic) environment for antenna radiators, thereby allowing antennas to be designed independent from the packaging technology.

  6. Antenna Allocation in MIMO Radar with Widely Separated Antennas for Multi-Target Detection

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hao; Wang, Jian; Jiang, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xudong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we explore a new resource called multi-target diversity to optimize the performance of multiple input multiple output (MIMO) radar with widely separated antennas for detecting multiple targets. In particular, we allocate antennas of the MIMO radar to probe different targets simultaneously in a flexible manner based on the performance metric of relative entropy. Two antenna allocation schemes are proposed. In the first scheme, each antenna is allocated to illuminate a proper target over the entire illumination time, so that the detection performance of each target is guaranteed. The problem is formulated as a minimum makespan scheduling problem in the combinatorial optimization framework. Antenna allocation is implemented through a branch-and-bound algorithm and an enhanced factor 2 algorithm. In the second scheme, called antenna-time allocation, each antenna is allocated to illuminate different targets with different illumination time. Both antenna allocation and time allocation are optimized based on illumination probabilities. Over a large range of transmitted power, target fluctuations and target numbers, both of the proposed antenna allocation schemes outperform the scheme without antenna allocation. Moreover, the antenna-time allocation scheme achieves a more robust detection performance than branch-and-bound algorithm and the enhanced factor 2 algorithm when the target number changes. PMID:25350505

  7. Antenna allocation in MIMO radar with widely separated antennas for multi-target detection.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hao; Wang, Jian; Jiang, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xudong

    2014-10-27

    In this paper, we explore a new resource called multi-target diversity to optimize the performance of multiple input multiple output (MIMO) radar with widely separated antennas for detecting multiple targets. In particular, we allocate antennas of the MIMO radar to probe different targets simultaneously in a flexible manner based on the performance metric of relative entropy. Two antenna allocation schemes are proposed. In the first scheme, each antenna is allocated to illuminate a proper target over the entire illumination time, so that the detection performance of each target is guaranteed. The problem is formulated as a minimum makespan scheduling problem in the combinatorial optimization framework. Antenna allocation is implemented through a branch-and-bound algorithm and an enhanced factor 2 algorithm. In the second scheme, called antenna-time allocation, each antenna is allocated to illuminate different targets with different illumination time. Both antenna allocation and time allocation are optimized based on illumination probabilities. Over a large range of transmitted power, target fluctuations and target numbers, both of the proposed antenna allocation schemes outperform the scheme without antenna allocation. Moreover, the antenna-time allocation scheme achieves a more robust detection performance than branch-and-bound algorithm and the enhanced factor 2 algorithm when the target number changes.

  8. Polymer (PDMS-Fe3O4) magneto-dielectric substrate for a MIMO antenna array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alqadami, Abdulrahman Shueai Mohsen; Jamlos, Mohd Faizal; Soh, Ping Jack; Kamarudin, Muhammad Ramlee

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a 2 × 4 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna array fabricated on a nanocomposite magneto-dielectric polymer substrate. The 10-nm iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite is used as substrate to enhance the performance of a MIMO antenna array. The measured results showed up to 40.8 % enhancement in terms of bandwidth, 9.95 dB gain, and 57 % of radiation efficiency. Furthermore, it is found that the proposed magneto-dielectric (PDMS-Fe3O4) composite substrate provides excellent MIMO parameters such as correlation coefficient, diversity gain, and mutual coupling. The prototype of the proposed antenna is transparent, flexible, lightweight, and resistant against dust and corrosion. Measured results indicate that the proposed antenna is suitable for WLAN and ultra-wideband biomedical applications within frequency range of 5.33-7.70 GHz.

  9. Determination of antenna factors using a three-antenna method at open-field test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuzawa, Hiroshi; Tejima, Teruo; Harima, Katsushige; Morikawa, Takao

    1992-09-01

    Recently NIST has used the three-antenna method for calibration of the antenna factor of an antenna used for EMI measurements. This method does not require the specially designed standard antennas which are necessary in the standard field method or the standard antenna method, and can be used at an open-field test site. This paper theoretically and experimentally examines the measurement errors of this method and evaluates the precision of the antenna-factor calibration. It is found that the main source of the error is the non-ideal propagation characteristics of the test site, which should therefore be measured before the calibration. The precision of the antenna-factor calibration at the test site used in these experiments, is estimated to be 0.5 dB.

  10. Rectangular Microstrip Antenna with Slot Embedded Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambresh, P. A.; Hadalgi, P. M.; Hunagund, P. V.; Sujata, A. A.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a novel design that improves the performance of conventional rectangular microstrip antenna is discussed. Design adopts basic techniques such as probe feeding technique with rectangular inverted patch structure as superstrate, air filled dielectric medium as substrate and slot embedded patch. Prototype of the proposed antenna has been fabricated and various antenna performance parameters such as impedance bandwidth, return loss, radiation pattern and antenna gain are considered for Electromagnetic-study. The antennas are designed for the wireless application operating in the frequency range of 3.3 GHz to 3.6 GHz, and UK based fixed satellite service application (3 GHz to 4 GHz), and are named as single inverted patch conventional rectangular microstrip antenna (SIP-CRMSA) and slots embedded inverted patch rectangular microstrip antenna (SEIP-RMSA), respectively. Measurement outcomes for SEIP-RMSA1 and SEIP-RMSA2 showed the satisfactory performance with an achievable impedance bandwidth of 260 MHz (7 %) and 250 MHz (6.72 %), with return loss (RL) of -11.06 dB and -17.98 dB, achieved gain of 8.17 dB and 5.17 dB with 10% and 8% size reduction in comparison with the conventional patch antenna.

  11. The ITER ICRF Antenna Design with TOPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanesio, Daniele; Maggiora, Riccardo; Meneghini, Orso; Vecchi, Giuseppe

    2007-11-01

    TOPICA (Torino Polytechnic Ion Cyclotron Antenna) code is an innovative tool for the 3D/1D simulation of Ion Cyclotron Radio Frequency (ICRF), i.e. accounting for antennas in a realistic 3D geometry and with an accurate 1D plasma model [1]. The TOPICA code has been deeply parallelized and has been already proved to be a reliable tool for antennas design and performance prediction. A detailed analysis of the 24 straps ITER ICRF antenna geometry has been carried out, underlining the strong dependence and asymmetries of the antenna input parameters due to the ITER plasma response. We optimized the antenna array geometry dimensions to maximize loading, lower mutual couplings and mitigate sheath effects. The calculated antenna input impedance matrices are TOPICA results of a paramount importance for the tuning and matching system design. Electric field distributions have been also calculated and they are used as the main input for the power flux estimation tool. The designed optimized antenna is capable of coupling 20 MW of power to plasma in the 40 -- 55 MHz frequency range with a maximum voltage of 45 kV in the feeding coaxial cables. [1] V. Lancellotti et al., Nuclear Fusion, 46 (2006) S476-S499

  12. Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Actuators for Antenna Reconfigurability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Chun, Donghoon; Katehi, Linda P. B.

    2001-01-01

    A novel microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) actuator for patch antenna reconfiguration, is presented for the first time. A key feature is the capability of multi-band operation without greatly increasing the antenna element dimensions. Experimental results demonstrate that the center frequency can be reconfigured from few hundred MHz to few GHz away from the nominal operating frequency.

  13. ASDE-3 Antenna Development and Test

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-01-01

    The ASDE-3 radar antenna was developed so that closely spaced targets on an airport surface could be resolved. The requirement of accurately detecting targets as close as 500 feet from the antenna necessitated some type of near field focussing. A var...

  14. Wireless SAW Sensors Having Integrated Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malocha, Donald C. (Inventor); Gallagher, Mark (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A wireless surface acoustic wave sensor includes a piezoelectric substrate, a surface acoustic wave device formed on the substrate, and an antenna formed on the substrate. In some embodiments, the antenna is formed on the surface of the substrate using one or more of photolithography, thin film processing, thick film processing, plating, and printing.

  15. Simplified Fabrication of Helical Copper Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    A simplified technique has been devised for fabricating helical antennas for use in experiments on radio-frequency generation and acceleration of plasmas. These antennas are typically made of copper (for electrical conductivity) and must have a specific helical shape and precise diameter.

  16. Stripline Antenna Beam-Forming Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, P. W.

    1984-01-01

    Stripline antenna beam-forming network includes 87 beam ports and 136 feed-element ports and contained on only two microstrip boards. Both uplink and downlink strips supported on same boards. Originally used for communications coverage of continental United States for Land Mobile Satellite System, structure of interest to antenna designers in other applications.

  17. WA1 Antenna assembly cables and connector

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-06

    ISS005-E-08718 (6 August 2002) --- Astronaut Peggy A. Whitson, Expedition Five flight engineer, holds one of the two amateur radio antennas in the Unity node on the International Space Station (ISS). The antennas will be installed during a spacewalk scheduled for August 22, 2002.

  18. WA1 Antenna assembly cables and connector

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-06

    ISS005-E-08721 (6 August 2002) --- Cosmonaut Valery G. Korzun, Expedition Five mission commander, holds one of the two amateur radio antennas in the Unity node on the International Space Station (ISS). The antennas will be installed during a spacewalk scheduled for August 22, 2002. Korzun represents Rosaviakosmos.

  19. 47 CFR 78.105 - Antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... planes. (2) New periscope antenna systems will be authorized upon a certification that the radiation, in... antennas is left to the discretion of the licensee. However, licensees will not be protected from... provisions of this paragraph are effective for all new applications accepted for filing after October 1, 1981...

  20. GPS Antenna Data Needed : GPS Adjacent Band Compatibility Workshop Volpe Center, Cambridge MA

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-09-18

    Topics. 1. Technical Objective: Receiver Antenna Mask and Electronics Data. 2. Definition of Receiver Antenna Mask. 3. Use of Receiver Antenna Mask. 4. Approaches to Generate the Antenna Mask. 5. Request for Receiver Antenna Data. 6. Next Steps.

  1. Omnidirectional, circularly polarized, cylindrical microstrip antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, Philip H. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A microstrip cylindrical antenna comprised of two concentric subelements on a ground cylinder, a vertically polarized (E-field parallel to the axis of the antenna cylinder) subelement on the inside and a horizontally polarized (E-field perpendicular to the axis) subelement on the outside. The vertical subelement is a wraparound microstrip radiator. A Y-shaped microstrip patch configuration is used for the horizontally polarized radiator that is wrapped 1.5 times to provide radiating edges on opposite sides of the cylindrical antenna for improved azimuthal pattern uniformity. When these subelements are so fed that their far fields are equal in amplitude and phased 90.degree. from each other, a circularly polarized EM wave results. By stacking a plurality of like antenna elements on the ground cylinder, a linear phased array antenna is provided that can be beam steered to the desired elevation angle.

  2. Evolutionary Optimization of Yagi-Uda Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohn, Jason D.; Kraus, William F.; Linden, Derek S.; Colombano, Silvano P.

    2001-01-01

    Yagi-Uda antennas are known to be difficult to design and optimize due to their sensitivity at high gain, and the inclusion of numerous parasitic elements. We present a genetic algorithm-based automated antenna optimization system that uses a fixed Yagi-Uda topology and a byte-encoded antenna representation. The fitness calculation allows the implicit relationship between power gain and sidelobe/backlobe loss to emerge naturally, a technique that is less complex than previous approaches. The genetic operators used are also simpler. Our results include Yagi-Uda antennas that have excellent bandwidth and gain properties with very good impedance characteristics. Results exceeded previous Yagi-Uda antennas produced via evolutionary algorithms by at least 7.8% in mainlobe gain. We also present encouraging preliminary results where a coevolutionary genetic algorithm is used.

  3. Baseline antenna design for space exploration initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y. L.; Nasir, M. A.; Lee, S. W.; Zaman, Afroz

    1993-01-01

    A key element of the future NASA Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) mission is the lunar and Mars telecommunication system. This system will provide voice, image, and data transmission to monitor unmanned missions to conduct experiments, and to provide radiometric data for navigation. In the later half of 1991, a study was conducted on antennas for the Mars Exploration Communication. Six antenna configurations were examined: three reflector and three phased array. The conclusion was that due to wide-angle scan requirement, and multiple simultaneous tracking beams, phased arrays are more suitable. For most part, this report studies phased array antenna designs for two different applications for Space Exploration Initiative. It also studies one design for a tri-reflector type antenna. These antennas will be based on a Mars orbiting satellite.

  4. Modified Minkowski Fractal Antenna for Wireless Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brar, Amandeep Singh; Sivia, Jagtar Singh

    2018-06-01

    A multiband Modified Minkowski Fractal Antenna which can operate at UHF, L, S, C and X band of IEEE standard is presented in this paper. The proposed antenna is simple and low cost. It can work on many bands starting from few hundred megahertz (500 MHz) frequency up to gigahertz (7.1 GHz) frequency. Structure of antenna has been designed by combining Minkowski curve with its inverted Minkowski curve. A maximum gain up to 20 dB, VSWR, radiation pattern and twenty resonant frequencies has been achieved using proposed antenna structure. Simulated results executed in HFSS software. Proposed antenna works on resonant frequencies of 496 MHz to 1.06 GHz (wide band), 1.45, 2.09, 2.38, 3.23, 3.79, 4.06, 4.35, 4.65, 4.82, 5.24, 5.62, 6.12 GHz etc.

  5. Extreme Precision Antenna Reflector Study Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, G. R.; Gilger, L. D.; Ard, K. E.

    1985-01-01

    Thermal and mechanical distortion degrade the RF performance of antennas. The complexity of future communications antennas requires accurate, dimensionally stable antenna reflectors and structures built from materials other than those currently used. The advantages and disadvantages of using carbon fibers in an epoxy matrix are reviewed as well as current reflector fabrications technology and adjustment. The manufacturing sequence and coefficient of thermal expansion of carbon fiber/borosilicate glass composites is described. The construction of a parabolic reflector from this material and the assembling of both reflector and antenna are described. A 3M-aperture-diameter carbon/glass reflector that can be used as a subassembly for large reflectors is depicted. The deployment sequence for a 10.5M-aperture-diameter antenna, final reflector adjustment, and the deployment sequence for large reflectors are also illustrated.

  6. Structurally Integrated Antenna Concepts for HALE UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cravey, Robin L.; Vedeler, Erik; Goins, Larry; Young, W. Robert; Lawrence, Roland W.

    2006-01-01

    This technical memorandum describes work done in support of the Multifunctional Structures and Materials Team under the Vehicle Systems Program's ITAS (Integrated Tailored Aero Structures) Project during FY 2005. The Electromagnetics and Sensors Branch (ESB) developed three ultra lightweight antenna concepts compatible with HALE UAVs (High Altitude Long Endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicles). ESB also developed antenna elements that minimize the interaction between elements and the vehicle to minimize the impact of wing flexure on the EM (electromagnetic) performance of the integrated array. In addition, computer models were developed to perform phase correction for antenna arrays whose elements are moving relative to each other due to wing deformations expected in HALE vehicle concepts. Development of lightweight, conformal or structurally integrated antenna elements and compensating for the impact of a lightweight, flexible structure on a large antenna array are important steps in the realization of HALE UAVs for microwave applications such as passive remote sensing and communications.

  7. Antennas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-03

    drum of a particular diameter [3]. The supply drum was braked in doing this in order to create the necessary stretching force. The rewinding was done...Solar .4 and Lunar disc . Unfortunately, the accuracy of this method is low, and side lobes are practically impossible to measure. Preliminary trueing of...component). This recording of the Sun contains radiation from a group of spots on the right half (of the recording) of the Solar disc . Since the

  8. Evolutionary Optimization of a Quadrifilar Helical Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohn, Jason D.; Kraus, William F.; Linden, Derek S.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Automated antenna synthesis via evolutionary design has recently garnered much attention in the research literature. Evolutionary algorithms show promise because, among search algorithms, they are able to effectively search large, unknown design spaces. NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft is due to reach final Martian orbit insertion in January, 2002. Onboard the spacecraft is a quadrifilar helical antenna that provides telecommunications in the UHF band with landed assets, such as robotic rovers. Each helix is driven by the same signal which is phase-delayed in 90 deg increments. A small ground plane is provided at the base. It is designed to operate in the frequency band of 400-438 MHz. Based on encouraging previous results in automated antenna design using evolutionary search, we wanted to see whether such techniques could improve upon Mars Odyssey antenna design. Specifically, a co-evolutionary genetic algorithm is applied to optimize the gain and size of the quadrifilar helical antenna. The optimization was performed in-situ in the presence of a neighboring spacecraft structure. On the spacecraft, a large aluminum fuel tank is adjacent to the antenna. Since this fuel tank can dramatically affect the antenna's performance, we leave it to the evolutionary process to see if it can exploit the fuel tank's properties advantageously. Optimizing in the presence of surrounding structures would be quite difficult for human antenna designers, and thus the actual antenna was designed for free space (with a small ground plane). In fact, when flying on the spacecraft, surrounding structures that are moveable (e.g., solar panels) may be moved during the mission in order to improve the antenna's performance.

  9. Antenna complexes protect Photosystem I from Photoinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Alboresi, Alessandro; Ballottari, Matteo; Hienerwadel, Rainer; Giacometti, Giorgio M; Morosinotto, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    Background Photosystems are composed of two moieties, a reaction center and a peripheral antenna system. In photosynthetic eukaryotes the latter system is composed of proteins belonging to Lhc family. An increasing set of evidences demonstrated how these polypeptides play a relevant physiological function in both light harvesting and photoprotection. Despite the sequence similarity between antenna proteins associated with the two Photosystems, present knowledge on their physiological role is mostly limited to complexes associated to Photosystem II. Results In this work we analyzed the physiological role of Photosystem I antenna system in Arabidopsis thaliana both in vivo and in vitro. Plants depleted in individual antenna polypeptides showed a reduced capacity for photoprotection and an increased production of reactive oxygen species upon high light exposure. In vitro experiments on isolated complexes confirmed that depletion of antenna proteins reduced the resistance of isolated Photosystem I particles to high light and that the antenna is effective in photoprotection only upon the interaction with the core complex. Conclusion We show that antenna proteins play a dual role in Arabidopsis thaliana Photosystem I photoprotection: first, a Photosystem I with an intact antenna system is more resistant to high light because of a reduced production of reactive oxygen species and, second, antenna chlorophyll-proteins are the first target of high light damages. When photoprotection mechanisms become insufficient, the antenna chlorophyll proteins act as fuses: LHCI chlorophylls are degraded while the reaction center photochemical activity is maintained. Differences with respect to photoprotection strategy in Photosystem II, where the reaction center is the first target of photoinhibition, are discussed. PMID:19508723

  10. Microwave ablation of ex vivo bovine tissues using a dual slot antenna with a floating metallic sleeve.

    PubMed

    Ibitoye, Ayo Zaccheaus; Nwoye, Ephraim Okeke; Aweda, Adebayo Moses; Oremosu, Ademola A; Anunobi, Chidozie Charles; Akanmu, Nurudeen Olanrewaju

    2016-12-01

    To study the efficiency of a dual slot antenna with a floating metallic sleeve on the ablation of different ex vivo bovine tissues. COMSOL Multiphysics® version 4.4 (Stockholm, Sweden), which is based on finite element methods (FEM), was used to design and simulate monopole and dual slot with sleeve antennas. Power, specific absorption rate (SAR), temperature and necrosis distributions in the selected tissues were determined using these antennas. Monopole and dual slot with sleeve antennas were designed, simulated, constructed and applied in this study based on a semi-rigid coaxial cable. Ex vivo experiments were performed on liver, lung, muscle and heart of bovine obtained from a public animal slaughter house. The microwave energy was delivered using a 2.45 GHz solid-state microwave generator at 40 W for 3, 5 and 10 min. Aspect ratio, ablation length and ablation diameter were also determined on ablated tissues and compared with simulated results. Student's t-test was used to compare the statistically significant difference between the performance of the two antennas. The dual slot antenna with sleeve produces localised microwave energy better than the monopole antenna in all ablated tissues using simulation and experimental validation methods. There were significant differences in ablation diameter and aspect ratio between the sleeve antenna and monopole antenna. Additionally, there were no significant differences between the simulation and experimental results. This study demonstrated that the dual slot antenna with sleeve produced larger ablation zones and higher sphericity index in ex vivo bovine tissues with minimal backward heating when compared with the monopole antenna.

  11. Telecommunications Antennas for the Juno Mission to Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vacchione, Joseph D.; Kruid, Ronald C.; Prata, Aluizio, Jr.; Amaro, Luis R.; Mittskus, Anthony P.

    2012-01-01

    The Juno Mission to Jupiter requires a full sphere of coverage throughout its cruise to and mission at Jupiter. This coverage is accommodated through the use of five (5) antennas; forward facing low gain, medium gain, and high gain antennas, and an aft facing low gain antenna along with an aft mounted low gain antenna with a torus shaped antenna pattern. Three of the antennas (the forward low and medium gain antennas) are classical designs that have been employed on several prior NASA missions. Two of the antennas employ new technology developed to meet the Juno mission requirements. The new technology developed for the low gain with torus shaped radiation pattern represents a significant evolution of the bicone antenna. The high gain antenna employs a specialized surface shaping designed to broaden the antenna's main beam at Ka-band to ease the requirements on the spacecraft's attitude control system.

  12. Smart skin spiral antenna with chiral absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.

    1995-05-01

    Recently there has been considerable interest toward designing 'smart skins' for aircraft. The smart skin is a composite layer which may contain conformal radars, conformal microstrip antennas or spiral antennas for electromagnetic applications. These embedded antennas will give rise to very low radar cross section (RCS) or can be completely 'hidden' to tracking radar. In addition, they can be used to detect, monitor or even jam other unwanted electromagnetic field signatures. This paper is designed to address some technical advances made to reduce the size of spiral antennas using tunable dielectric materials and chiral absorbers. The purpose is to design, develop and fabricate a thin, wideband, conformal spiral antenna architecture that is structurally integrable and which uses advanced Penn State dielectric and absorber materials to achieve wideband ground planes, and together with low RCS. Traditional practice has been to design radome and antenna as separate entities and then resolve any interface problems during an integration phase. A structurally integrable conformal antenna, however, demands that the functional components be highly integrated both conceptually and in practice. Our concept is to use the lower skin of the radome as a substrate on which the radiator can be made using standard photolithography, thick film or LTCC techniques.

  13. Validating and comparing GNSS antenna calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallio, Ulla; Koivula, Hannu; Lahtinen, Sonja; Nikkonen, Ville; Poutanen, Markku

    2018-03-01

    GNSS antennas have no fixed electrical reference point. The variation of the phase centre is modelled and tabulated in antenna calibration tables, which include the offset vector (PCO) and phase centre variation (PCV) for each frequency according to the elevations and azimuths of the incoming signal. Used together, PCV and PCO reduce the phase observations to the antenna reference point. The remaining biases, called the residual offsets, can be revealed by circulating and rotating the antennas on pillars. The residual offsets are estimated as additional parameters when combining the daily GNSS network solutions with full covariance matrix. We present a procedure for validating the antenna calibration tables. The dedicated test field, called Revolver, was constructed at Metsähovi. We used the procedure to validate the calibration tables of 17 antennas. Tables from the IGS and three different calibration institutions were used. The tests show that we were able to separate the residual offsets at the millimetre level. We also investigated the influence of the calibration tables from the different institutions on site coordinates by performing kinematic double-difference baseline processing of the data from one site with different antenna tables. We found small but significant differences between the tables.

  14. Microstrip Antennas with Broadband Integrated Phase Shifting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhard, Jennifer T.; Romanofsky, Robert R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using a spiral microstrip antenna that incorporates a thin ferroelectric layer to achieve both radiation and phase shifting. This material is placed between the conductive spiral antenna structure and the grounded substrate. Application of a DC bias between the two arms of the spiral antenna will change the effective permittivity of the radiating structure and the degree of coupling between contiguous spiral arms, therefore changing the phase of the RF signal transmitted or received by the antenna. This could eliminate the need for a separate phase shifter apart from the antenna structure. The potential benefits of such an antenna element compared to traditional phased array elements include: continuous, broadband phase shifting at the antenna, lower overall system losses, lighter, more efficient, and more compact phased arrays, and simpler control algorithms. Professor Jennifer Bernhard, graduate student Gregory Huff, and undergraduate student Brian Huang participated in this effort from March 1, 2000 to February 28, 2001. No inventions resulted from the research undertaken in this cooperative agreement.

  15. Electromagnetic characterization of conformal antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volakis, John L.; Kempel, Leo C.; Alexanian, Angelos; Jin, J. M.; Yu, C. L.; Woo, Alex C.

    1992-01-01

    The ultimate objective of this project is to develop a new technique which permits an accurate simulation of microstrip patch antennas or arrays with various feed, superstrate and/or substrate configurations residing in a recessed cavity whose aperture is planar, cylindrical or otherwise conformed to the substructure. The technique combines the finite element and boundary integral methods to formulate a system suitable for solution via the conjugate gradient method in conjunction with the fast Fourier transform. The final code is intended to compute both scattering and radiation patterns of the structure with an affordable memory demand. With upgraded capabilities, the four included papers examined the radar cross section (RCS), input impedance, gain, and resonant frequency of several rectangular configurations using different loading and substrate/superstrate configurations.

  16. Magnetic antenna using metallic glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, Michael D. (Inventor); Farrell, William M. (Inventor); Houser, Jeffrey G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A lightweight search-coil antenna or sensor assembly for detecting magnetic fields and including a multi-turn electromagnetic induction coil wound on a spool type coil form through which is inserted an elongated coil loading member comprised of metallic glass material wrapped around a dielectric rod. The dielectric rod consists of a plastic or a wooden dowel having a length which is relatively larger than its thickness so as to provide a large length-to-diameter ratio. A tri-axial configuration includes a housing in which is located three substantially identical mutually orthogonal electromagnetic induction coil assemblies of the type described above wherein each of the assemblies include an electromagnetic coil wound on a dielectric spool with an elongated metallic glass coil loading member projecting therethrough.

  17. The spaced antenna drift method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hocking, W. K.

    1983-01-01

    The spaced antenna drift method is a simple and relatively inexpensive method for determination of atmospheric wind velocities using radars. The technique has been extensively tested in the mesosphere at high and medium frequencies, and found to give reliable results. Recently, the method has also been applied to VHF observations of the troposphere and stratosphere, and results appear to be reliable. This paper discusses briefly the principle of the method, and investigates both its strengths and weaknesses. Some discussions concerning criticisms of the technique are also given, and it is concluded that while these criticisms may be of some concern at times, appropriate care can ensure that the method is at least as viable as any other method of remote wind measurement. At times, the technique has definite advantages.

  18. Multiplexed Cassegrain Reflector Antenna for Simultaneous Generation of Three Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) Modes

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Woo Jin; Kim, Kwang Seon; Kim, Bong Su; Lee, Young Seung; Song, Myung Sun; Choi, Hyung Do; Cho, Yong Heui

    2016-01-01

    A multiplexed Cassegrain reflector antenna with a 2 × 2 open-ended rectangular waveguide (OERW) matrix feed and an orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode mux is proposed for the simultaneous generation of three OAM modes (l = 0, ±1). The OAM mode mux (OMM) was designed using sequential combinations of quadrature hybrids, crossovers, and phase shifters to multiplex and demultiplex three OAM modes at the same time. The 2 × 2 OERW matrix feed and the OMM were separately measured and their performances were verified according to proposed theories. A near-field antenna measurement for a multiplexed Cassegrain reflector antenna was conducted to obtain the far-field magnitude and phase patterns around polar elevation angle θ and azimuthal angle ϕ, thus confirming that our antenna can produce three OAM modes simultaneously. We also measured the communication link characteristics of two identical multiplexed antennas. The measurement results show that the channel isolation of three OAM modes is more than 12.7 [dB] and 17 [dB] for fixed and compensated receiver positions, respectively, indicating that the proposed antenna system can be used for independent communication links with the same frequency and polarisation. PMID:27252079

  19. Multiplexed Cassegrain Reflector Antenna for Simultaneous Generation of Three Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) Modes.

    PubMed

    Byun, Woo Jin; Kim, Kwang Seon; Kim, Bong Su; Lee, Young Seung; Song, Myung Sun; Choi, Hyung Do; Cho, Yong Heui

    2016-06-02

    A multiplexed Cassegrain reflector antenna with a 2 × 2 open-ended rectangular waveguide (OERW) matrix feed and an orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode mux is proposed for the simultaneous generation of three OAM modes (l = 0, ±1). The OAM mode mux (OMM) was designed using sequential combinations of quadrature hybrids, crossovers, and phase shifters to multiplex and demultiplex three OAM modes at the same time. The 2 × 2 OERW matrix feed and the OMM were separately measured and their performances were verified according to proposed theories. A near-field antenna measurement for a multiplexed Cassegrain reflector antenna was conducted to obtain the far-field magnitude and phase patterns around polar elevation angle θ and azimuthal angle ϕ, thus confirming that our antenna can produce three OAM modes simultaneously. We also measured the communication link characteristics of two identical multiplexed antennas. The measurement results show that the channel isolation of three OAM modes is more than 12.7 [dB] and 17 [dB] for fixed and compensated receiver positions, respectively, indicating that the proposed antenna system can be used for independent communication links with the same frequency and polarisation.

  20. Aerogel-Based Antennas for Aerospace and Terrestrial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann (Inventor); Miranda, Felix (Inventor); Van Keuls, Frederick (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for lightweight, customizable antenna with improved performance and mechanical properties are disclosed. In some aspects, aerogels can be used, for example, as a substrate for antenna fabrication. The reduced weight and expense, as well as the increased ability to adapt antenna designs, permits a systems to mitigate a variety of burdens associated with antennas while providing added benefits.

  1. 47 CFR 27.56 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., WTB, 1270 Fairfield Road, Gettysburg, PA 17325. (b) Maintenance contracts. Antenna structure owners... contracts with other entities to monitor and carry out necessary maintenance of antenna structures. Antenna... make such contractual arrangements continue to be responsible for the maintenance of antenna structures...

  2. 47 CFR 97.15 - Station antenna structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station antenna structures. 97.15 Section 97.15... SERVICE General Provisions § 97.15 Station antenna structures. (a) Owners of certain antenna structures... part 17 of this chapter. (b) Except as otherwise provided herein, a station antenna structure may be...

  3. 47 CFR 22.1011 - Antenna height limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna height limitations. 22.1011 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1011 Antenna height limitations. The antenna height of offshore stations must not exceed 61 meters (200 feet) above mean sea level. The antenna height of...

  4. 47 CFR 24.55 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 24... SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 24.55 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. Licensees that own their antenna structures must not allow these antenna structures to become a...

  5. 47 CFR 17.4 - Antenna structure registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna structure registration. 17.4 Section 17... ANTENNA STRUCTURES General Information § 17.4 Antenna structure registration. (a) Effective July 1, 1996, the owner of any proposed or existing antenna structure that requires notice of proposed construction...

  6. 47 CFR 17.4 - Antenna structure registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna structure registration. 17.4 Section 17... ANTENNA STRUCTURES General Information § 17.4 Antenna structure registration. (a) Effective July 1, 1996, the owner of any proposed or existing antenna structure that requires notice of proposed construction...

  7. 47 CFR 80.290 - Auxiliary receiving antenna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Auxiliary receiving antenna. 80.290 Section 80... antenna. An auxiliary receiving antenna must be provided when necessary to avoid unauthorized interruption or reduced efficiency of the required watch because the normal receiving antenna is not available...

  8. 47 CFR 17.8 - Establishment of antenna farm areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Establishment of antenna farm areas. 17.8... LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Federal Aviation Administration Notification Criteria § 17.8 Establishment of antenna farm areas. (a) Each antenna farm area will be established by an appropriate rulemaking...

  9. 47 CFR 24.55 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 24... SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 24.55 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. Licensees that own their antenna structures must not allow these antenna structures to become a...

  10. General view looking northnorthwest at antenna array. Troposhperic scatter communications ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view looking north-northwest at antenna array. Troposhperic scatter communications antennas are seen at far left, transmitter building is in center, antenna array at right - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Moscow Radar Site Transmit Sector One Antenna Array, At the end of Steam Road, Moscow, Somerset County, ME

  11. 47 CFR 27.56 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 27... SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.56 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. A licensee that owns its antenna structure(s) must not allow such antenna structure(s) to...

  12. 47 CFR 17.9 - Designated antenna farm areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designated antenna farm areas. 17.9 Section 17... ANTENNA STRUCTURES Federal Aviation Administration Notification Criteria § 17.9 Designated antenna farm areas. The areas described in the following paragraphs of this section are established as antenna farm...

  13. 47 CFR 97.15 - Station antenna structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station antenna structures. 97.15 Section 97.15... SERVICE General Provisions § 97.15 Station antenna structures. (a) Owners of certain antenna structures... part 17 of this chapter. (b) Except as otherwise provided herein, a station antenna structure may be...

  14. 47 CFR 17.9 - Designated antenna farm areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designated antenna farm areas. 17.9 Section 17... ANTENNA STRUCTURES Federal Aviation Administration Notification Criteria § 17.9 Designated antenna farm areas. The areas described in the following paragraphs of this section are established as antenna farm...

  15. 47 CFR 73.1213 - Antenna structure, marking and lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna structure, marking and lighting. 73... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1213 Antenna structure... of Antenna Structures), requires certain antenna structures to be painted and/or lighted in...

  16. 47 CFR 17.8 - Establishment of antenna farm areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Establishment of antenna farm areas. 17.8... LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Federal Aviation Administration Notification Criteria § 17.8 Establishment of antenna farm areas. (a) Each antenna farm area will be established by an appropriate rulemaking...

  17. 47 CFR 80.290 - Auxiliary receiving antenna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Auxiliary receiving antenna. 80.290 Section 80... antenna. An auxiliary receiving antenna must be provided when necessary to avoid unauthorized interruption or reduced efficiency of the required watch because the normal receiving antenna is not available...

  18. 47 CFR 80.290 - Auxiliary receiving antenna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Auxiliary receiving antenna. 80.290 Section 80... antenna. An auxiliary receiving antenna must be provided when necessary to avoid unauthorized interruption or reduced efficiency of the required watch because the normal receiving antenna is not available...

  19. 47 CFR 17.8 - Establishment of antenna farm areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Establishment of antenna farm areas. 17.8... LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Federal Aviation Administration Notification Criteria § 17.8 Establishment of antenna farm areas. (a) Each antenna farm area will be established by an appropriate rulemaking...

  20. 47 CFR 73.1213 - Antenna structure, marking and lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna structure, marking and lighting. 73... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1213 Antenna structure... of Antenna Structures), requires certain antenna structures to be painted and/or lighted in...

  1. 47 CFR 22.1011 - Antenna height limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna height limitations. 22.1011 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1011 Antenna height limitations. The antenna height of offshore stations must not exceed 61 meters (200 feet) above mean sea level. The antenna height of...

  2. 47 CFR 27.56 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 27... SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.56 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. A licensee that owns its antenna structure(s) must not allow such antenna structure(s) to...

  3. 47 CFR 24.55 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 24... SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 24.55 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. Licensees that own their antenna structures must not allow these antenna structures to become a...

  4. 47 CFR 17.9 - Designated antenna farm areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Designated antenna farm areas. 17.9 Section 17... ANTENNA STRUCTURES Federal Aviation Administration Notification Criteria § 17.9 Designated antenna farm areas. The areas described in the following paragraphs of this section are established as antenna farm...

  5. 47 CFR 73.1213 - Antenna structure, marking and lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna structure, marking and lighting. 73... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1213 Antenna structure... of Antenna Structures), requires certain antenna structures to be painted and/or lighted in...

  6. 47 CFR 24.55 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 24... SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 24.55 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. Licensees that own their antenna structures must not allow these antenna structures to become a...

  7. 47 CFR 22.1011 - Antenna height limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna height limitations. 22.1011 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1011 Antenna height limitations. The antenna height of offshore stations must not exceed 61 meters (200 feet) above mean sea level. The antenna height of...

  8. 47 CFR 80.290 - Auxiliary receiving antenna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Auxiliary receiving antenna. 80.290 Section 80... antenna. An auxiliary receiving antenna must be provided when necessary to avoid unauthorized interruption or reduced efficiency of the required watch because the normal receiving antenna is not available...

  9. 47 CFR 97.15 - Station antenna structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station antenna structures. 97.15 Section 97.15... SERVICE General Provisions § 97.15 Station antenna structures. (a) Owners of certain antenna structures... part 17 of this chapter. (b) Except as otherwise provided herein, a station antenna structure may be...

  10. 47 CFR 1.30003 - Installations on an AM antenna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Installations on an AM antenna. 1.30003 Section... Random Selection Disturbance of AM Broadcast Station Antenna Patterns § 1.30003 Installations on an AM antenna. (a) Installations on a nondirectional AM tower. When antennas are installed on a nondirectional...

  11. 47 CFR 22.1011 - Antenna height limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna height limitations. 22.1011 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1011 Antenna height limitations. The antenna height of offshore stations must not exceed 61 meters (200 feet) above mean sea level. The antenna height of...

  12. 47 CFR 97.15 - Station antenna structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station antenna structures. 97.15 Section 97.15... SERVICE General Provisions § 97.15 Station antenna structures. (a) Owners of certain antenna structures... part 17 of this chapter. (b) Except as otherwise provided herein, a station antenna structure may be...

  13. 47 CFR 17.8 - Establishment of antenna farm areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Establishment of antenna farm areas. 17.8... LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Federal Aviation Administration Notification Criteria § 17.8 Establishment of antenna farm areas. (a) Each antenna farm area will be established by an appropriate rulemaking...

  14. 47 CFR 24.55 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 24... SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 24.55 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. Licensees that own their antenna structures must not allow these antenna structures to become a...

  15. 47 CFR 73.1213 - Antenna structure, marking and lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna structure, marking and lighting. 73... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1213 Antenna structure... of Antenna Structures), requires certain antenna structures to be painted and/or lighted in...

  16. 47 CFR 80.290 - Auxiliary receiving antenna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary receiving antenna. 80.290 Section 80... antenna. An auxiliary receiving antenna must be provided when necessary to avoid unauthorized interruption or reduced efficiency of the required watch because the normal receiving antenna is not available...

  17. 47 CFR 17.9 - Designated antenna farm areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Designated antenna farm areas. 17.9 Section 17... ANTENNA STRUCTURES Federal Aviation Administration Notification Criteria § 17.9 Designated antenna farm areas. The areas described in the following paragraphs of this section are established as antenna farm...

  18. 47 CFR 27.56 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 27... SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.56 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. A licensee that owns its antenna structure(s) must not allow such antenna structure(s) to...

  19. 47 CFR 97.15 - Station antenna structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station antenna structures. 97.15 Section 97.15... SERVICE General Provisions § 97.15 Station antenna structures. (a) Owners of certain antenna structures... part 17 of this chapter. (b) Except as otherwise provided herein, a station antenna structure may be...

  20. 47 CFR 17.9 - Designated antenna farm areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Designated antenna farm areas. 17.9 Section 17... ANTENNA STRUCTURES Federal Aviation Administration Notification Criteria § 17.9 Designated antenna farm areas. The areas described in the following paragraphs of this section are established as antenna farm...

  1. 47 CFR 73.1213 - Antenna structure, marking and lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna structure, marking and lighting. 73... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1213 Antenna structure... of Antenna Structures), requires certain antenna structures to be painted and/or lighted in...

  2. 47 CFR 22.1011 - Antenna height limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna height limitations. 22.1011 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1011 Antenna height limitations. The antenna height of offshore stations must not exceed 61 meters (200 feet) above mean sea level. The antenna height of...

  3. 47 CFR 27.56 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 27... SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.56 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. A licensee that owns its antenna structure(s) must not allow such antenna structure(s) to...

  4. 47 CFR 17.8 - Establishment of antenna farm areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Establishment of antenna farm areas. 17.8... LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Federal Aviation Administration Notification Criteria § 17.8 Establishment of antenna farm areas. (a) Each antenna farm area will be established by an appropriate rulemaking...

  5. Modified Coaxial Probe Feeds for Layered Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W.; Chu, Andrew W.; Dobbins, Justin A.; Lin, Greg Y.

    2006-01-01

    In a modified configuration of a coaxial probe feed for a layered printed-circuit antenna (e.g., a microstrip antenna), the outer conductor of the coaxial cable extends through the thickness of at least one dielectric layer and is connected to both the ground-plane conductor and a radiator-plane conductor. This modified configuration simplifies the incorporation of such radio-frequency integrated circuits as power dividers, filters, and low-noise amplifiers. It also simplifies the design and fabrication of stacked antennas with aperture feeds.

  6. Rectifying antenna and method of manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhansali, Shekhar (Inventor); Buckle, Kenneth (Inventor); Goswami, D. Yogi (Inventor); Stefanakos, Elias (Inventor); Weller, Thomas (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention, an aperture rectenna is provided where the substrate is transparent and of sufficient mechanical strength to support the fabricated structure above it. An aperture antenna is deposited on the transparent substrate and a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diode is constructed on top of the aperture antenna. There is an insulating layer between the aperture antenna metal and the metal ground plane optimized to maximize the collection of incident radiation. The top of the structure is capped with a metal ground plane layer, which also serves as the DC connection points for each rectenna element.

  7. Microwave holographic metrology for antenna diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmat-Samii, Y.

    1990-11-01

    Advances in antenna diagnostic methodologies have been very significant in recent years. In particular, microwave holographic diagnostic techniques have been applied very successfully in improving the performance of reflector and array antennas. These techniques use the knowledge of the measured amplitude and phase of the antenna radiated fields and then take advantage of the existing Fourier transform relationships between the radiated fields and the effective aperture or current distribution to eventually determine the reflector surface or array excitation coefficients anomalies. In this paper an overview of the recent developments in applying microwave holography is presented. The theoretical, numerical and measurement aspects of this technique is detailed by providing representative results.

  8. Wideband Microstrip Antenna-Feeding Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, John

    1990-01-01

    Special impedance-matching probes help reduce feed complexity. Lightweight array of microstrip antenna elements designed to transmit and illuminate reflector antenna with circularly polarized radiation at 1,545 to 1,550 MHz and to receive circularly polarized radiation at 1,646 to 1,660 MHz. Microstrip array is cluster of 7 subarrays containing total of 28 microstrip patches. Produces cicularly polarized beam with suitable edge taper to illuminate reflector antenna. Teardrop-shaped feed probe provides gradual change of field from coaxial transmission line into microstrip substrate. Intended to be part of larger overlapping-cluster array generating multiple contiguous beams.

  9. Study of wrap-rib antenna design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, W. D.; Sinha, A.; Singh, R.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a parametric design study conducted to develop the significant characteristics and technology limitations of space deployable antenna systems with aperture sizes ranging from 50 up to 300 m and F/D ratios between 0.5 and 3.0 are presented. Wrap/rib type reflectors of both the prime and offset fed geometry and associated feed support structures were considered. The significant constraints investigated as limitations on achievable aperture were inherent manufacturability, orbit dynamic and thermal stability, antenna weight, and antenna stowed volume. A data base, resulting in the defined maximum achievable aperture size as a function of diameter, frequency and estimated cost, was formed.

  10. Graphene array antenna for 5G applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sa'don, Siti Nor Hafizah; Kamarudin, Muhammad Ramlee; Ahmad, Fauzan; Jusoh, Muzammil; Majid, Huda A.

    2017-02-01

    Fifth generation (5G) needs to provide better coverage than the previous generation. However, high frequency and millimeter wave experience penetration loss, propagation loss and even more loss in energy for long distance. Hence, a graphene array antenna is proposed for high gain to cover a long distance communications since array antenna enables in providing more directive beams. The investigation is conducted on three types of substrates with gain achieved is more than 7 dBi. The gain obtained is good since it is comparable with other studies. In addition, these antennas consume small numbers of elements to achieve high gain.

  11. FDTD simulation tools for UWB antenna analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes the development of a set of software tools useful for analyzing ultra-wideband (UWB) antennas and structures. These tools are used to perform finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulation of a conical antenna with continuous wave (CW) and UWB pulsed excitations. The antenna is analyzed using spherical coordinate-based FDTD equations that are derived from first principles. The simulation results for CW excitation are compared to simulation and measured results from published sources; the results for UWB excitation are new.

  12. Land vehicle antennas for satellite mobile communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, H. A.; Pieper, B. V.; Mckenna, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    The RF performance, size, pointing system, and cost were investigated concepts are: for a mechanically steered 1 x 4 tilted microstrip array, a mechanically steered fixed-beam conformal array, and an electronically steered conformal phased array. Emphasis is on the RF performance of the tilted 1 x 4 antenna array and methods for pointing the various antennas studied to a geosynchronous satellite. An updated version of satellite isolations in a two-satellite system is presented. Cost estimates for the antennas in quantities of 10,000 and 100,000 unites are summarized.

  13. The principles of radio engineering and antennas. II Antennas (2nd revised and enlarged edition)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belotserkovskii, G. B.

    This book represents the second part of a textbook for technical schools. The characteristics and parameters of antennas are considered along with transmission lines, the theory of single dipoles and radiator systems, and the technological realization of elements and units of the antenna-feeder system, taking into account filters and multiport networks for microwave communications applications, and ferrite circulators and isolators. The first edition of this textbook was published in 1969. For the current edition, the material in the first edition has been revised, and new material has been introduced. Much attention is given to microwave antennas, including, in particular, arrays with electrical scanning characteristics. Other topics discussed are related to the general principles of antennas, the matching of the impedance of transmission lines, the elements of transmission lines, aperture-type antennas for microwaves, and the functional characteristics of antennas for ultrashort waves.

  14. Antenna Efficiency and the Genius of the IEEE Standard for Antenna Terms [Education Column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnick, Karl F.

    2012-08-01

    At a 2007 Square Kilometre Array Design Studies (SKADS) workshop in Dwingeloo, Wim van Cappellen of the Nether lands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON) gave a presentation on figures of merit, in which he memorably compared antenna terms to apples. What seems like a simple, homogeneous fruit comes in all colors and varieties. Similarly, a survey of antenna literature and textbooks shows that authors use a wide variety of antenna figures of merit, often not in compliance with the relevant IEEE Standard Definitions of Terms for Antennas [1]. Since this standard is now in the process of revision by the Antennas and Propagation Society Antenna Standards Committee, it seems worth while to consider the standard, and clarify some common misunderstandings and inconsistent usages.

  15. Modeling of the EAST ICRF antenna with ICANT Code

    SciTech Connect

    Qin Chengming; Zhao Yanping; Colas, L.

    2007-09-28

    A Resonant Double Loop (RDL) antenna for ion-cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) is under construction. The new antenna is analyzed using the antenna coupling code ICANT which self-consistently determines the surface currents on all antenna parts. In this work, the modeling of the new ICRF antenna using this code is to assess the near-fields in front of the antenna and analysis its coupling capabilities. Moreover, the antenna reactive radiated power computed by ICANT and shows a good agreement with deduced from Transmission Line (TL) theory.

  16. Modeling of the EAST ICRF antenna with ICANT Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Chengming; Zhao, Yanping; Colas, L.; Heuraux, S.

    2007-09-01

    A Resonant Double Loop (RDL) antenna for ion-cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) is under construction. The new antenna is analyzed using the antenna coupling code ICANT which self-consistently determines the surface currents on all antenna parts. In this work, the modeling of the new ICRF antenna using this code is to assess the near-fields in front of the antenna and analysis its coupling capabilities. Moreover, the antenna reactive radiated power computed by ICANT and shows a good agreement with deduced from Transmission Line (TL) theory.

  17. Development of Novel Integrated Antennas for CubeSats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, David; Fink, Patrick W.; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Development of Novel Integrated Antennas for CubeSats project is directed at the development of novel antennas for CubeSats to replace the bulky and obtrusive antennas (e.g., whip antennas) that are typically used. The integrated antennas will not require mechanical deployment and thus will allow future CubeSats to avoid potential mechanical problems and therefore improve mission reliability. Furthermore, the integrated antennas will have improved functionality and performance, such as circular polarization for improved link performance, compared with the conventional antennas currently used on CubeSats.

  18. Technique for Radiometer and Antenna Array Calibration with Two Antenna Noise Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Karthik; Limaye, Ashutosh; Laymon, Charles; Meyer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new technique to calibrate a microwave radiometer and phased array antenna system. This calibration technique uses a radiated noise source in addition to an injected noise sources for calibration. The plane of reference for this calibration technique is the face of the antenna and therefore can effectively calibration the gain fluctuations in the active phased array antennas. This paper gives the mathematical formulation for the technique and discusses the improvements brought by the method over the existing calibration techniques.

  19. Automated Antenna Design with Evolutionary Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornby, Gregory S.; Globus, Al; Linden, Derek S.; Lohn, Jason D.

    2006-01-01

    Current methods of designing and optimizing antennas by hand are time and labor intensive, and limit complexity. Evolutionary design techniques can overcome these limitations by searching the design space and automatically finding effective solutions. In recent years, evolutionary algorithms have shown great promise in finding practical solutions in large, poorly understood design spaces. In particular, spacecraft antenna design has proven tractable to evolutionary design techniques. Researchers have been investigating evolutionary antenna design and optimization since the early 1990s, and the field has grown in recent years as computer speed has increased and electromagnetic simulators have improved. Two requirements-compliant antennas, one for ST5 and another for TDRS-C, have been automatically designed by evolutionary algorithms. The ST5 antenna is slated to fly this year, and a TDRS-C phased array element has been fabricated and tested. Such automated evolutionary design is enabled by medium-to-high quality simulators and fast modern computers to evaluate computer-generated designs. Evolutionary algorithms automate cut-and-try engineering, substituting automated search though millions of potential designs for intelligent search by engineers through a much smaller number of designs. For evolutionary design, the engineer chooses the evolutionary technique, parameters and the basic form of the antenna, e.g., single wire for ST5 and crossed-element Yagi for TDRS-C. Evolutionary algorithms then search for optimal configurations in the space defined by the engineer. NASA's Space Technology 5 (ST5) mission will launch three small spacecraft to test innovative concepts and technologies. Advanced evolutionary algorithms were used to automatically design antennas for ST5. The combination of wide beamwidth for a circularly-polarized wave and wide impedance bandwidth made for a challenging antenna design problem. From past experience in designing wire antennas, we chose to

  20. Microwave mode shifting antenna system for regenerating particulate filters

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Kirby, Kevin W [Calabasas Hills, CA; Phelps, Amanda [Malibu, CA; Gregoire, Daniel J [Thousand Oaks, CA

    2011-04-26

    A regeneration system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter including a microwave energy absorbing surface, and an antenna system comprising N antennas and an antenna driver module that sequentially drives the antenna system in a plurality of transverse modes of the antenna system to heat selected portions of the microwave absorbing surface to regenerate the PM filter, where N is an integer greater than one. The transverse modes may include transverse electric (TE) and/or transverse magnetic (TM) modes.