Science.gov

Sample records for a2 inhibition protects

  1. EndophilinA2 protects against angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy by inhibiting angiotensin II type 1 receptor trafficking in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Shen, Huan-Jia; Wang, Xin-Qiu-Yue; Liu, Hai-Qi; Zheng, Ling-Yun; Luo, Jian-Dong

    2018-06-20

    Cardiac hypertrophy is one of the major risk factors for chronic heart failure. The role of endophilinA2 (EndoA2) in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and clathrin-independent endocytosis is well documented. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that EndoA2 protects against angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac hypertrophy by mediating intracellular angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) trafficking in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs). Cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by using cell surface area and quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) analyses. For the first time, we found that EndoA2 attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis induced by Ang II. Moreover, EndoA2 inhibited apoptosis induced by excessive endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), which accounted for the beneficial effects of EndoA2 on cardiac hypertrophy. We further revealed that there was an interaction between EndoA2 and AT1-R.The expression levels of EndoA2, which inhibits AT1-R transport from the cytoplasm to the membrane, and the interaction between EndoA2 and AT1-R were obviously decreased after Ang II treatment. Furthermore, Ang II inhibited the co-localization of AT1-R with GRP-78, which was reversed by EndoA2 overexpression. In conclusion, our results suggested that EndoA2 plays a role in protecting against cardiac hypertrophy induced by Ang II, possibly by inhibiting AT1-R transport from the cytoplasm to the membrane to suppress signal transduction. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. RAAS inhibition and renal protection.

    PubMed

    Leoncini, Giovanna; Giovanna, Leoncini; Viazzi, Francesca; Francesca, Viazzi; Pontremoli, Roberto; Roberto, Pontremoli

    2012-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease has become a major public health problem worldwide mainly as a consequence of the emerging epidemic of hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. It is currently estimated that nearly 15% of the general population has some degree of renal damage, a figure that reaches 50% in at-risk subgroups. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors represent the agents of choice to control hypertension and reduce urinary albumin excretion, thereby delaying renal function deterioration. Greater blockade of the RAAS either by the combined use of multiple drugs or by supramaximal doses of single agents may provide greater renal protection. Furthermore, it has been proposed especially in the presence of proteinuria. However, at this time there is insufficient evidence to routinely recommend this therapeutic approach in patients with chronic kidney disease. The present article examines the currently available evidence and practical implications of pharmacological disruption of RAAS activity for renal protection.

  3. Scutellarin inhibits cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 1A2 (CYP1A2) in rats.

    PubMed

    Jian, Tun-Yu; He, Jian-Chang; He, Gong-Hao; Feng, En-Fu; Li, Hong-Liang; Bai, Min; Xu, Gui-Li

    2012-08-01

    Scutellarin is the most important flavone glycoside in the herbal drug Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz. It is used frequently in the clinic to treat ischemic vascular diseases in China. However, the direct relationship between scutellarin and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) is unclear. The present study investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of scutellarin on cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP 1A2) metabolism. According to in vitro experiments, scutellarin (10-250 µM) decreased the formation of 4-acetamidophenol in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC₅₀ value of 108.20 ± 0.657 µM. Furthermore, scutellarin exhibited a weak mixed-type inhibition against the activity of CYP1A2 in rat liver microsomes, with a K(i) value of 95.2 µM. Whereas in whole animal studies, scutellarin treatment for 7 days (at 5, 15, 30 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased the clearance (CL), and increased the T(1/2) (at 15, 30 mg/kg, i.p.), it did not affect the V(d) of phenacetin. Scutellarin treatment (at 5, 15, 30 mg/kg, i.p.) increased the AUC(0-∞) by 14.3%, 67.3% and 159.2%, respectively. Scutellarin at 30 mg/kg also weakly inhibited CYP1A2 activity, in accordance with our in vitro study. Thus, the results indicate that CYP1A2 is inhibited directly, but weakly, by scutellarin in vivo, and provide useful information on the safe and effective use of scutellarin in clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. A tripartite fusion, FaeG-FedF-LT(192)A2:B, of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) elicits antibodies that neutralize cholera toxin, inhibit adherence of K88 (F4) and F18 fimbriae, and protect pigs against K88ac/heat-labile toxin infection.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Liu, Mei; Casey, Thomas A; Zhang, Weiping

    2011-10-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains expressing K88 (F4) or F18 fimbriae and heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) toxins are the major cause of diarrhea in young pigs. Effective vaccines inducing antiadhesin (anti-K88 and anti-F18) and antitoxin (anti-LT and anti-ST) immunity would provide broad protection to young pigs against ETEC. In this study, we genetically fused nucleotides coding for peptides from K88ac major subunit FaeG, F18 minor subunit FedF, and LT toxoid (LT(192)) A2 and B subunits for a tripartite adhesin-adhesin-toxoid fusion (FaeG-FedF-LT(192)A2:B). This fusion was used for immunizations in mice and pigs to assess the induction of antiadhesin and antitoxin antibodies. In addition, protection by the elicited antiadhesin and antitoxin antibodies against a porcine ETEC strain was evaluated in a gnotobiotic piglet challenge model. The data showed that this FaeG-FedF-LT(192)A2:B fusion elicited anti-K88, anti-F18, and anti-LT antibodies in immunized mice and pigs. In addition, the anti-porcine antibodies elicited neutralized cholera toxin and inhibited adherence against both K88 and F18 fimbriae. Moreover, immunized piglets were protected when challenged with ETEC strain 30302 (K88ac/LT/STb) and did not develop clinical disease. In contrast, all control nonvaccinated piglets developed severe diarrhea and dehydration after being challenged with the same ETEC strain. This study clearly demonstrated that this FaeG-FedF-LT(192)A2:B fusion antigen elicited antibodies that neutralized LT toxin and inhibited the adherence of K88 and F18 fimbrial E. coli strains and that this fusion could serve as an antigen for vaccines against porcine ETEC diarrhea. In addition, the adhesin-toxoid fusion approach used in this study may provide important information for developing effective vaccines against human ETEC diarrhea.

  5. Inhibition of proanthocyanidin A2 on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yao; Duan, Mubing; Tian, Ge; Deng, Xianbo; Sun, Yankuo; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Guihong; Chen, Weisan

    2018-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a widely prevalent and endemic swine pathogen that causes significant economic losses for the global pig industry annually. Currently, the most prevalent strategy for PRRSV control remains the prevention of virus transmission, with highly effective therapeutic agents and vaccines still lacking. Proanthocyanidin A2 (PA2) belongs to the family of tea polyphenols, which have been reported to exhibit a range of biological activities including anti-oxidative, cardio-protective, anti-tumoural, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro as well as in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that PA2 exhibits potent anti-viral activity against PRRSV infection in Marc-145 cells. Similar inhibitory effects were also found in porcine alveolar macrophages, the primary target cell type of PRRSV infection in pigs in vivo. For traditional type II PRRSV CH-1a strain and high pathogenic GD-XH strain and GD-HD strain, PA2 exhibited broad-spectrum and comparable inhibitory activities in vitro with EC50 ranging from 2.2 to 3.2 μg/ml. Treatment of PRRSV-infected Marc-145 cells with PA2 significantly inhibited viral RNA synthesis, viral protein expression and progeny virus production in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, PA2 treatment reduced gene expressions of cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-α, IL-1β and IL-6) induced by PRRSV infection in PAMs. Mechanistically, PA2 inhibited PRRSV replication by targeting multiple pathways including blockade of viral entry and progeny virus release. Altogether, our findings suggest that PA2 has the potential to serve as a novel prophylactic and therapeutic strategies against PRRSV infection. PMID:29489892

  6. Deletion of striatal adenosine A2A receptor spares latent inhibition and prepulse inhibition but impairs active avoidance learning

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Philipp; Wei, Catherine J.; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Boison, Detlev; Yee, Benjamin K.

    2013-01-01

    Following early clinical leads, the adenosine A2AR receptor (A2AR) has continued to attract attention as a potential novel target for treating schizophrenia; especially against the negative and cognitive symptoms of the disease because of A2AR’s unique modulatory action over glutamatergic in addition to dopaminergic signaling. Through the antagonistic interaction with the dopamine D2 receptor, and by regulating glutamate release and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor function, striatal A2AR is ideally positioned to fine-tune the dopamine-glutamate balance whose disturbance is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, the precise function of striatal A2ARsin the regulation of schizophrenia-relevant behavior is poorly understood. Here, we tested the impact of conditional striatum-specific A2AR knockout (st-A2AR-KO) on latent inhibition (LI) and prepulse inhibition (PPI) – behavior that is tightly regulated by striatal dopamine and glutamate. These are two common cross-species translational tests for the assessment of selective attention and sensorimotor gating deficits reported in schizophrenia patients; and enhanced performance in these tests is associated with antipsychotic drug action. We found that neither LI nor PPI was significantly affected in st-A2AR-KO mice; although a deficit in active avoidance learning was identified in these animals. The latter phenotype, however, was not replicated in another form of aversive conditioning – conditioned taste aversion. Hence, the present study shows that neither learned inattention (as measured by LI) nor sensory gating (as indexed by PPI) requires the integrity of striatal A2ARs– a finding that may undermine the hypothesized importance of A2AR in the genesis and/or treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:23276608

  7. Mechanism of inhibition of human secretory phospholipase A2 by flavonoids: rationale for lead design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lättig, Jens; Böhl, Markus; Fischer, Petra; Tischer, Sandra; Tietböhl, Claudia; Menschikowski, Mario; Gutzeit, Herwig O.; Metz, Peter; Pisabarro, M. Teresa

    2007-08-01

    The human secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (PLA2-IIA) is a lipolytic enzyme. Its inhibition leads to a decrease in eicosanoids levels and, thereby, to reduced inflammation. Therefore, PLA2-IIA is of high pharmacological interest in treatment of chronic diseases such as asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. Quercetin and naringenin, amongst other flavonoids, are known for their anti-inflammatory activity by modulation of enzymes of the arachidonic acid cascade. However, the mechanism by which flavonoids inhibit Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) remained unclear so far. Flavonoids are widely produced in plant tissues and, thereby, suitable targets for pharmaceutical extractions and chemical syntheses. Our work focuses on understanding the binding modes of flavonoids to PLA2, their inhibition mechanism and the rationale to modify them to obtain potent and specific inhibitors. Our computational and experimental studies focused on a set of 24 compounds including natural flavonoids and naringenin-based derivatives. Experimental results on PLA2-inhibition showed good inhibitory activity for quercetin, kaempferol, and galangin, but relatively poor for naringenin. Several naringenin derivatives were synthesized and tested for affinity and inhibitory activity improvement. 6-(1,1-dimethylallyl)naringenin revealed comparable PLA2 inhibition to quercetin-like compounds. We characterized the binding mode of these compounds and the determinants for their affinity, selectivity, and inhibitory potency. Based on our results, we suggest C(6) as the most promising position of the flavonoid scaffold to introduce chemical modifications to improve affinity, selectivity, and inhibition of PLA2-IIA by flavonoids.

  8. Pyridostigmine bromide protection against acetylcholinesterase inhibition by pesticides.

    PubMed

    Henderson, John D; Glucksman, Gabriela; Leong, Bryan; Tigyi, Andras; Ankirskaia, Anna; Siddique, Imteaz; Lam, Helen; DePeters, Ed; Wilson, Barry W

    2012-01-01

    Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) has been used to protect soldiers from the toxic effects of soman, a chemical warfare agent. Recent research shows that pyridostigmine bromide protects a significant percentage of acetylcholinesterase in isolated human intercostal muscle. Findings presented here indicate that red blood cell acetylcholinesterase is similarly protected by pyridostigmine bromide from the action of diisopropyl fluorophosphate and several organophosphate pesticides including chlorpyrifos-oxon, diazinon-oxon, and paraoxon, but not malaoxon, using the bovine red blood cell as a subject. These findings suggest that pretreatment with PB may protect growers, farmworkers, first responders, and the public, in general, from the effects of selected pesticides. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Characterization of cellular protective effects of ATP13A2/PARK9 expression and alterations resulting from pathogenic mutants.

    PubMed

    Covy, Jason P; Waxman, Elisa A; Giasson, Benoit I

    2012-12-01

    Mutations in ATP13A2, which encodes a lysosomal P-type ATPase of unknown function, cause an autosomal recessive parkinsonian syndrome. With mammalian cells, we show that ATP13A2 expression protects against manganese and nickel toxicity, in addition to proteasomal, mitochondrial, and oxidative stress. Consistent with a recessive mode of inheritance of gene defects, disease-causing mutations F182L and G504R are prone to misfolding and do not protect against manganese and nickel toxicity because they are unstable as a result of degradation via the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD)-proteasome system. The protective effects of ATP13A2 expression are not due to inhibition of apoptotic pathways or a reduction in typical stress pathways, insofar as these pathways are still activated in challenged ATP13A2-expressing cells; however, these cells display a dramatic reduction in the accumulation of oxidized and damaged proteins. These data indicate that, contrary to a previous suggestion, ATP13A2 is unlikely to convey cellular resilience simply by acting as a lysosomal manganese transporter. Consistent with the recent identification of an ATP13A2 recessive mutation in Tibetan terriers that develop neurodegeneration with neuronal ceroid lipofucinoses, our data suggest that ATP13A2 may function to import a cofactor required for the function of a lysosome enzyme(s). Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Intracellular sodium hydrogen exchange inhibition and clinical myocardial protection.

    PubMed

    Mentzer, Robert M; Lasley, Robert D; Jessel, Andreas; Karmazyn, Morris

    2003-02-01

    Although the mechanisms underlying ischemia/reperfusion injury remain elusive, evidence supports the etiologic role of intracellular calcium overload and oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species. Activation of the sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE) is associated with intracellular calcium accumulation. Inhibition of the NHE-1 isoform may attenuate the consequences of this injury. Although there is strong preclinical and early clinical evidence that NHE inhibitors may be cardioprotective, definitive proof of this concept in humans awaits the results of ongoing clinical trials.

  11. Suppressing effect of C a2 + blips on puff amplitudes by inhibiting channels to prevent recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuan; Qi, Hong; Li, Xiang; Cai, Meichun; Chen, Xingqiang; Liu, Wen; Shuai, Jianwei

    2016-08-01

    As local signals, calcium puffs arise from the concerted opening of a few nearby inositol 1,4,5-trisphospate receptor channels to release C a2 + ions from the endoplasmic reticulum. Although C a2 + puffs have been well studied, little is known about the modulation of cytosolic basal C a2 + concentration ([Ca2 +] Basal) on puff dynamics. In this paper we consider a puff model to study how the statistical properties of puffs are modulated by [Ca2 +] Basal. The puff frequency and lifetime trivially increase with the increasing [Ca2 +] Basal, but an unexpected result is that the puff amplitude and the maximum open-channel number of the puff show decreasing relationship with the increasing [Ca2 +] Basal. The underlying dynamics is related not only to the increasing puff frequency which gives a shorter recovery time, but also to the increasing frequency of blips with only one channel open. We indicate that C a2 + blips cause the channels to be inhibited and prevent their recovery during interpuff intervals, resulting in the suppressing effect on puff amplitudes. With increasing [Ca2 +] Basal, more blips occur to cause more channels to be inhibited, leaving fewer channels available for puff events. This study shows that the blips may play relevant functions in global C a2 + waves through modulating puff dynamics.

  12. The SAM domain inhibits EphA2 interactions in the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deo R; Ahmed, Fozia; Paul, Michael D; Gedam, Manasee; Pasquale, Elena B; Hristova, Kalina

    2017-01-01

    All members of the Eph receptor family of tyrosine kinases contain a SAM domain near the C terminus, which has been proposed to play a role in receptor homotypic interactions and/or interactions with binding partners. The SAM domain of EphA2 is known to be important for receptor function, but its contribution to EphA2 lateral interactions in the plasma membrane has not been determined. Here we use a FRET-based approach to directly measure the effect of the SAM domain on the stability of EphA2 dimers on the cell surface in the absence of ligand binding. We also investigate the functional consequences of EphA2 SAM domain deletion. Surprisingly, we find that the EphA2 SAM domain inhibits receptor dimerization and decreases EphA2 tyrosine phosphorylation. This role is dramatically different from the role of the SAM domain of the related EphA3 receptor, which we previously found to stabilize EphA3 dimers and increase EphA3 tyrosine phosphorylation in cells in the absence of ligand. Thus, the EphA2 SAM domain likely contributes to a unique mode of EphA2 interaction that leads to distinct signaling outputs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ketamine Protects Gamma Oscillations by Inhibiting Hippocampal LTD

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lanting; Yang, Xiu-Juan; Huang, Ying; Sun, Eve Y.

    2016-01-01

    NMDA receptors have been widely reported to be involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity through effects on long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). LTP and LTD have been implicated in learning and memory processes. Besides synaptic plasticity, it is known that the phenomenon of gamma oscillations is critical in cognitive functions. Synaptic plasticity has been widely studied, however it is still not clear, to what degree synaptic plasticity regulates the oscillations of neuronal networks. Two NMDA receptor antagonists, ketamine and memantine, have been shown to regulate LTP and LTD, to promote cognitive functions, and have even been reported to bring therapeutic effects in major depression and Alzheimer’s disease respectively. These compounds allow us to investigate the putative interrelationship between network oscillations and synaptic plasticity and to learn more about the mechanisms of their therapeutic effects. In the present study, we have identified that ketamine and memantine could inhibit LTD, without impairing LTP in the CA1 region of mouse hippocampus, which may underlie the mechanism of these drugs’ therapeutic effects. Our results suggest that NMDA-induced LTD caused a marked loss in the gamma power, and pretreatment with 10 μM ketamine prevented the oscillatory loss via its inhibitory effect on LTD. Our study provides a new understanding of the role of NMDA receptors on hippocampal plasticity and oscillations. PMID:27467732

  14. Activation of Adenosine A2A Receptors Inhibits Neutrophil Transuroepithelial Migration ▿

    PubMed Central

    Säve, Susanne; Mohlin, Camilla; Vumma, Ravi; Persson, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine has been identified as a significant inhibitor of inflammation by acting on adenosine A2A receptors. In this study, we examined the role of adenosine and A2A receptors in the transmigration of human neutrophils across an in vitro model of the transitional bladder urothelium. Human uroepithelial cells (UROtsa) were grown on transwell inserts; uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and neutrophils were added to the transwell system; and the number of migrating neutrophils was evaluated. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry were used to investigate the expression of adenosine receptors, the epithelial adhesion molecule ICAM-1, and the neutrophil integrin CD11b. Levels of proinflammatory interleukin-8 (IL-8) and phosphorylated IκBα were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and Luminex assays, respectively. The neutrophils expressed all four adenosine receptor subtypes (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 receptors), but A3 receptors were not expressed by UROtsa cells. UPEC stimulated neutrophil transuroepithelial migration, which was significantly decreased in response to the specific A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680. The inhibitory effect of CGS 21680 on neutrophil migration was reversed by the A2A receptor antagonist SCH 58261. The production of chemotactic IL-8 and the expression of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1 or CD11b were not significantly affected by CGS 21680. However, a significant decrease in the level of phosporylated IκBα was revealed in response to CGS 21680. In conclusion, UPEC infection in vitro evoked neutrophil migration through a multilayered human uroepithelium. The UPEC-evoked neutrophil transmigration decreased in response to A2A receptor activation, possibly through inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:21646447

  15. Intracellular targeting of annexin A2 inhibits tumor cell adhesion, migration, and in vivo grafting.

    PubMed

    Staquicini, Daniela I; Rangel, Roberto; Guzman-Rojas, Liliana; Staquicini, Fernanda I; Dobroff, Andrey S; Tarleton, Christy A; Ozbun, Michelle A; Kolonin, Mikhail G; Gelovani, Juri G; Marchiò, Serena; Sidman, Richard L; Hajjar, Katherine A; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2017-06-26

    Cytoskeletal-associated proteins play an active role in coordinating the adhesion and migration machinery in cancer progression. To identify functional protein networks and potential inhibitors, we screened an internalizing phage (iPhage) display library in tumor cells, and selected LGRFYAASG as a cytosol-targeting peptide. By affinity purification and mass spectrometry, intracellular annexin A2 was identified as the corresponding binding protein. Consistently, annexin A2 and a cell-internalizing, penetratin-fused version of the selected peptide (LGRFYAASG-pen) co-localized and specifically accumulated in the cytoplasm at the cell edges and cell-cell contacts. Functionally, tumor cells incubated with LGRFYAASG-pen showed disruption of filamentous actin, focal adhesions and caveolae-mediated membrane trafficking, resulting in impaired cell adhesion and migration in vitro. These effects were paralleled by a decrease in the phosphorylation of both focal adhesion kinase (Fak) and protein kinase B (Akt). Likewise, tumor cells pretreated with LGRFYAASG-pen exhibited an impaired capacity to colonize the lungs in vivo in several mouse models. Together, our findings demonstrate an unrecognized functional link between intracellular annexin A2 and tumor cell adhesion, migration and in vivo grafting. Moreover, this work uncovers a new peptide motif that binds to and inhibits intracellular annexin A2 as a candidate therapeutic lead for potential translation into clinical applications.

  16. Resveratrol inhibits estrogen-induced breast carcinogenesis through induction of NRF2-mediated protective pathways

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bhupendra; Shoulson, Rivka; Chatterjee, Anwesha; Ronghe, Amruta; Bhat, Nimee K.; Dim, Daniel C.; Bhat, Hari K.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of estrogens in the etiology of breast cancer is widely recognized. Estrogen-induced oxidative stress has been implicated in this carcinogenic process. Resveratrol (Res), a natural antioxidant phytoestrogen has chemopreventive effects against a variety of illnesses including cancer. The objective of the present study was to characterize the mechanism(s) of Res-mediated protection against estrogen-induced breast carcinogenesis. Female August Copenhagen Irish rats were treated with 17β-estradiol (E2), Res and Res + E2 for 8 months. Cotreatment of rats with Res and E2 inhibited E2-mediated proliferative changes in mammary tissues and significantly increased tumor latency and reduced E2-induced breast tumor development. Resveratrol treatment alone or in combination with E2 significantly upregulated expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) in mammary tissues. Expression of NRF2-regulated antioxidant genes NQO1, SOD3 and OGG1 that are involved in protection against oxidative DNA damage was increased in Res- and Res + E2-treated mammary tissues. Resveratrol also prevented E2-mediated inhibition of detoxification genes AOX1 and FMO1. Inhibition of E2-mediated alterations in NRF2 promoter methylation and expression of NRF2 targeting miR-93 after Res treatment indicated Res-mediated epigenetic regulation of NRF2 during E2-induced breast carcinogenesis. Resveratrol treatment also induced apoptosis and inhibited E2-mediated increase in DNA damage in mammary tissues. Increased apoptosis and decreased DNA damage, cell migration, colony and mammosphere formation in Res- and Res + E2-treated MCF-10A cells suggested a protective role of Res against E2-induced mammary carcinogenesis. Small-interfering RNA-mediated silencing of NRF2 inhibited Res-mediated preventive effects on the colony and mammosphere formation. Taken together, these results suggest that Res inhibits E2-induced breast carcinogenesis via induction of NRF2-mediated protective

  17. Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) E1 Binds to hnRNP A2 and Inhibits Translation of A2 Response Element mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Kosturko, Linda D.; Maggipinto, Michael J.; Korza, George; Lee, Joo Won; Carson, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2 is a trans-acting RNA-binding protein that mediates trafficking of RNAs containing the cis-acting A2 response element (A2RE). Previous work has shown that A2RE RNAs are transported to myelin in oligodendrocytes and to dendrites in neurons. hnRNP E1 is an RNA-binding protein that regulates translation of specific mRNAs. Here, we show by yeast two-hybrid analysis, in vivo and in vitro coimmunoprecipitation, in vitro cross-linking, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy that hnRNP E1 binds to hnRNP A2 and is recruited to A2RE RNA in an hnRNP A2-dependent manner. hnRNP E1 is colocalized with hnRNP A2 and A2RE mRNA in granules in dendrites of oligodendrocytes. Overexpression of hnRNP E1 or microinjection of exogenous hnRNP E1 in neural cells inhibits translation of A2RE mRNA, but not of non-A2RE RNA. Excess hnRNP E1 added to an in vitro translation system reduces translation efficiency of A2RE mRNA, but not of nonA2RE RNA, in an hnRNP A2-dependent manner. These results are consistent with a model where hnRNP E1 recruited to A2RE RNA granules by binding to hnRNP A2 inhibits translation of A2RE RNA during granule transport. PMID:16775011

  18. Cytosolic PhospholipaseA2 Inhibition with PLA-695 Radiosensitizes Tumors in Lung Cancer Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Daniel J.; Kotipatruni, Rama P.; Bhave, Sandeep R.; Jaboin, Jerry J.; Hallahan, Dennis E.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States and the rest of the world. The advent of molecularly directed therapies holds promise for improvement in therapeutic efficacy. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) is associated with tumor progression and radioresistance in mouse tumor models. Utilizing the cPLA2 specific inhibitor PLA-695, we determined if cPLA2 inhibition radiosensitizes non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and tumors. Treatment with PLA-695 attenuated radiation induced increases of phospho-ERK and phospho-Akt in endothelial cells. NSCLC cells (LLC and A549) co-cultured with endothelial cells (bEND3 and HUVEC) and pre-treated with PLA-695 showed radiosensitization. PLA-695 in combination with irradiation (IR) significantly reduced migration and proliferation in endothelial cells (HUVEC & bEND3) and induced cell death and attenuated invasion by tumor cells (LLC &A549). In a heterotopic tumor model, the combination of PLA-695 and radiation delayed growth in both LLC and A549 tumors. LLC and A549 tumors treated with a combination of PLA-695 and radiation displayed reduced tumor vasculature. In a dorsal skin fold model of LLC tumors, inhibition of cPLA2 in combination with radiation led to enhanced destruction of tumor blood vessels. The anti-angiogenic effects of PLA-695 and its enhancement of the efficacy of radiotherapy in mouse models of NSCLC suggest that clinical trials for its capacity to improve radiotherapy outcomes are warranted. PMID:23894523

  19. Cytosolic phospholipaseA2 inhibition with PLA-695 radiosensitizes tumors in lung cancer animal models.

    PubMed

    Thotala, Dinesh; Craft, Jeffrey M; Ferraro, Daniel J; Kotipatruni, Rama P; Bhave, Sandeep R; Jaboin, Jerry J; Hallahan, Dennis E

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States and the rest of the world. The advent of molecularly directed therapies holds promise for improvement in therapeutic efficacy. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) is associated with tumor progression and radioresistance in mouse tumor models. Utilizing the cPLA2 specific inhibitor PLA-695, we determined if cPLA2 inhibition radiosensitizes non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and tumors. Treatment with PLA-695 attenuated radiation induced increases of phospho-ERK and phospho-Akt in endothelial cells. NSCLC cells (LLC and A549) co-cultured with endothelial cells (bEND3 and HUVEC) and pre-treated with PLA-695 showed radiosensitization. PLA-695 in combination with irradiation (IR) significantly reduced migration and proliferation in endothelial cells (HUVEC & bEND3) and induced cell death and attenuated invasion by tumor cells (LLC &A549). In a heterotopic tumor model, the combination of PLA-695 and radiation delayed growth in both LLC and A549 tumors. LLC and A549 tumors treated with a combination of PLA-695 and radiation displayed reduced tumor vasculature. In a dorsal skin fold model of LLC tumors, inhibition of cPLA2 in combination with radiation led to enhanced destruction of tumor blood vessels. The anti-angiogenic effects of PLA-695 and its enhancement of the efficacy of radiotherapy in mouse models of NSCLC suggest that clinical trials for its capacity to improve radiotherapy outcomes are warranted.

  20. Protective effect of creatine against inhibition by methylglyoxal of mitochondrial respiration of cardiac cells.

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Soumya Sinha; Biswas, Swati; Ray, Manju; Ray, Subhankar

    2003-01-01

    Previous publications from our laboratory have shown that methylglyoxal inhibits mitochondrial respiration of malignant and cardiac cells, but it has no effect on mitochondrial respiration of other normal cells [Biswas, Ray, Misra, Dutta and Ray (1997) Biochem. J. 323, 343-348; Ray, Biswas and Ray (1997) Mol. Cell. Biochem. 171, 95-103]. However, this inhibitory effect of methylglyoxal is not significant in cardiac tissue slices. Moreover, post-mitochondrial supernatant (PMS) of cardiac cells could almost completely protect the mitochondrial respiration against the inhibitory effect of methylglyoxal. A systematic search indicated that creatine present in cardiac cells is responsible for this protective effect. Glutathione has also some protective effect. However, creatine phosphate, creatinine, urea, glutathione disulphide and beta-mercaptoethanol have no protective effect. The inhibitory and protective effects of methylglyoxal and creatine respectively on cardiac mitochondrial respiration were studied with various concentrations of both methylglyoxal and creatine. Interestingly, neither creatine nor glutathione have any protective effect on the inhibition by methylglyoxal on the mitochondrial respiration of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells. The creatine and glutathione contents of several PMS, which were tested for the possible protective effect, were measured. The activities of two important enzymes, namely glyoxalase I and creatine kinase, which act upon glutathione plus methylglyoxal and creatine respectively, were also measured in different PMS. Whether mitochondrial creatine kinase had any role in the protective effect of creatine had also been investigated using 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, an inhibitor of creatine kinase. The differential effect of creatine on mitochondria of cardiac and malignant cells has been discussed with reference to the therapeutic potential of methylglyoxal. PMID:12605598

  1. The adenosine A2A receptor — Myocardial protectant and coronary target in endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Reichelt, Melissa E.; Ashton, Kevin J.; Tan, Xing Lin; Mustafa, S. Jamal; Ledent, Catherine; Delbridge, Lea M.D.; Hofmann, Polly A.; Headrick, John P.; Morrison, R. Ray

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiac injury and dysfunction are contributors to disease progression and mortality in sepsis. This study evaluated the cardiovascular role of intrinsic A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR) activity during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Methods We assessed the impact of 24 h of LPS challenge (20 mg/kg, IP) on cardiac injury, coronary function and inflammatory mediator levels in Wild-Type (WT) mice and mice lacking functional A2AARs (A2AAR KO). Results Cardiac injury was evident in LPS-treated WTs, with ∼7-fold elevation in serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI), and significant ventricular and coronary dysfunction. Absence of A2AARs increased LPS-provoked cTnI release at 24 h by 3-fold without additional demise of contraction function. Importantly, A2AAR deletion per se emulated detrimental effects of LPS on coronary function, and LPS was without effect in coronary vessels lacking A2AARs. Effects of A2AAR KO were independent of major shifts in circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and haptoglobin. Cytokine responses were largely insensitive to A2AAR deletion; substantial LPS-induced elevations (up to 100-fold) in IFN-γ and IL-10 were unaltered in A2AAR KO mice, as were levels of IL-4 and TNF-α. However, late elevations in IL-2 and IL-5 were differentially modulated by A2AAR KO (IL-2 reduced, IL-5 increased). Data demonstrate that in the context of LPS-triggered cardiac and coronary injury, A2AAR activity protects myocardial viability without modifying contractile dysfunction, and selectively modulates cytokine (IL-2, IL-5) release. A2AARs also appear to be targeted by LPS in the coronary vasculature. Conclusions These experimental data suggest that preservation of A2AAR functionality might provide therapeutic benefit in human sepsis. PMID:22192288

  2. The phosphatase inhibitor menadione (vitamin K3) protects cells from EGFR inhibition by erlotinib and cetuximab.

    PubMed

    Perez-Soler, Roman; Zou, Yiyu; Li, Tianhong; Ling, Yi He

    2011-11-01

    Skin toxicity is the main side effect of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, often leading to dose reduction or discontinuation. We hypothesized that phosphatase inhibition in the skin keratinocytes may prevent receptor dephosphorylation caused by EGFR inhibitors and be used as a new potential strategy for the prevention or treatment of this side effect. Menadione (Vitamin K3) was used as the prototype compound to test our hypothesis. HaCat human skin keratinocyte cells and A431 human squamous carcinoma cells were used. EGFR inhibition was measured by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Phosphatase inhibition and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were measured by standard ELISA and fluorescence assays. Menadione caused significant and reversible EGFR activation in a dose-dependent manner starting at nontoxic concentrations. EGFR activation by menadione was associated with reversible protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibition, which seemed to be mediated by ROS generation as exposure to antioxidants prevented both menadione-induced ROS generation and phosphatase inhibition. Short-term coincubation of cells with nontoxic concentrations of menadione and the EGFR inhibitors erlotinib or cetuximab prevented EGFR dephosphorylation. Seventy-two-hour coincubation of cells with the highest nontoxic concentration of menadione and erlotinib provided for a fourfold cell growth inhibitory protection in HaCat human keratinocyte cells. Menadione at nontoxic concentrations causes EGFR activation and prevents EGFR dephosphorylation by erlotinib and cetuximab. This effect seems to be mediated by ROS generation and secondary phosphatase inhibition. Mild oxidative stress in skin keratinocytes by topical menadione may protect the skin from the toxicity secondary to EGFR inhibitors without causing cytotoxicity. ©2011 AACR

  3. Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein protects cells against locostatin-mediated inhibition of migration.

    PubMed

    Shemon, Anne N; Eves, Eva M; Clark, Matthew C; Heil, Gary; Granovsky, Alexey; Zeng, Lingchun; Imamoto, Akira; Koide, Shohei; Rosner, Marsha Rich

    2009-06-24

    Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein (RKIP, also PEBP1), a member of the Phosphatidylethanolamine Binding Protein family, negatively regulates growth factor signaling by the Raf/MAP kinase pathway. Since an organic compound, locostatin, was reported to bind RKIP and inhibit cell migration by a Raf-dependent mechanism, we addressed the role of RKIP in locostatin function. We analyzed locostatin interaction with RKIP and examined the biological consequences of locostatin binding on RKIP function. NMR studies show that a locostatin precursor binds to the conserved phosphatidylethanolamine binding pocket of RKIP. However, drug binding to the pocket does not prevent RKIP association with its inhibitory target, Raf-1, nor affect RKIP phosphorylation by Protein Kinase C at a regulatory site. Similarly, exposure of wild type, RKIP-depleted HeLa cells or RKIP-deficient (RKIP(-/-)) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to locostatin has no effect on MAP kinase activation. Locostatin treatment of wild type MEFs causes inhibition of cell migration following wounding. RKIP deficiency impairs migration further, indicating that RKIP protects cells against locostatin-mediated inhibition of migration. Locostatin treatment of depleted or RKIP(-/-) MEFs reveals cytoskeletal disruption and microtubule abnormalities in the spindle. These results suggest that locostatin's effects on cytoskeletal structure and migration are caused through mechanisms independent of its binding to RKIP and Raf/MAP kinase signaling. The protective effect of RKIP against drug inhibition of migration suggests a new role for RKIP in potentially sequestering toxic compounds that may have deleterious effects on cells.

  4. N-n-butyl haloperidol iodide protects cardiomyocytes against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury by inhibiting autophagy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Zhong, Shuping; Zheng, Fuchun; Zhang, Yanmei; Gao, Fenfei; Chen, Yicun; Lu, Binger; Xu, Han; Shi, Ganggang

    2015-09-22

    N-n-butyl haloperidol iodide (F2), a novel compound derived from haloperidol, protects against the damaging effects of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we hypothesized the myocardial protection of F2 on cardiomyocyte hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury is mediated by inhibiting autophagy in H9c2 cells. The degree of autophagy by treatment with F2 exposed to H/R in H9c2 cell was characterized by monodansylcadaverine, transmission electron microscopy, and expression of autophagy marker protein LC3. Our results indicated that treatment with F2 inhibited autophagy in H9c2 cells exposed to H/R. 3-methyladenine, an inhibitor of autophagy, suppressed H/R-induced autophagy, and decreased apoptosis, whereas rapamycin, a classical autophagy sensitizer, increased autophagy and apoptosis. Mechanistically, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was inhibited by F2 treatment after H/R. Accordingly, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated MIF knockdown decreased H/R-induced autophagy. In summary, F2 protects cardiomyocytes during H/R injury through suppressing autophagy activation. Our results provide a new mechanistic insight into a functional role of F2 against H/R-induced cardiomyocyte injury and death.

  5. Environmentally persistent free radical-containing particulate matter competitively inhibits metabolism by cytochrome P450 1A2

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, James R., E-mail: rreed@lsuhsc.edu; Cruz, Albert Leo N. dela, E-mail: adelac2@tigers.lsu.edu; Lomnicki, Slawo M., E-mail: slomni1@lsu.edu

    Combustion processes generate different types of particulate matter (PM) that can have deleterious effects on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems. Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) represent a type of particulate matter that is generated after combustion of environmental wastes in the presence of redox-active metals and aromatic hydrocarbons. Cytochromes P450 (P450/CYP) are membrane-bound enzymes that are essential for the phase I metabolism of most lipophilic xenobiotics. The EPFR formed by chemisorption of 2-monochlorophenol to silica containing 5% copper oxide (MCP230) has been shown to generally inhibit the activities of different forms of P450s without affecting those of cytochrome P450 reductasemore » and heme oxygenase-1. The mechanism of inhibition of rat liver microsomal CYP2D2 and purified rabbit CYP2B4 by MCP230 has been shown previously to be noncompetitive with respect to substrate. In this study, MCP230 was shown to competitively inhibit metabolism of 7-benzyl-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin and 7-ethoxyresorufin by the purified, reconstituted rabbit CYP1A2. MCP230 is at least 5- and 50-fold more potent as an inhibitor of CYP1A2 than silica containing 5% copper oxide and silica, respectively. Thus, even though PM generally inhibit multiple forms of P450, PM interacts differently with the forms of P450 resulting in different mechanisms of inhibition. P450s function as oligomeric complexes within the membrane. We also determined the mechanism by which PM inhibited metabolism by the mixed CYP1A2–CYP2B4 complex and found that the mechanism was purely competitive suggesting that the CYP2B4 is dramatically inhibited when bound to CYP1A2. - Highlights: • Combustion of organic pollutants generates long-lived particulate radicals (EPFRs). • Particulate matter (PM) competitively inhibited CYP1A2 activity. • EPFRs were much more potent CYP1A2 inhibitors than other types of PM. • PM interacts differently with different forms of P450.

  6. Paeoniflorin, a Monoterpene Glycoside, Protects the Brain from Cerebral Ischemic Injury via Inhibition of Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuqin; Li, Huang; Huang, Mingqing; Huang, Mei; Chu, Kedan; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Shengnan; Que, Jinhua; Chen, Lidian

    2015-01-01

    Paeoniflorin (PF) is a principal bioactive component, which exhibits many pharmacological effects, including protection against ischemic injury. This paper aimed to investigate the protective effect of PF both in vivo and in vitro. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed on male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat for 2 h, and different doses of PF or vehicle were administered 2 h after reperfusion. Rats were sacrificed after 7 days treatment of PF/vehicle. PF treatment for 7 days ameliorated MCAO-induced neurological deficit and decreased the infarct area. Further study demonstrated that PF inhibited the over-activation of astrocytes and apoptosis of neurons, and PF promoted up-regulation of neuronal specific marker neuron-specific nuclear (NeuN) and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2) in brain. Moreover, NMDA-induced neuron apoptosis was employed. The in vitro study revealed that PF treatment protected against NMDA-induced cell apoptosis and neuronal loss via up-regulation of neuronal specific marker NeuN, MAP-2 and Bcl-2 and the down-regulation Bax. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that PF produces its protective effect by inhibiting the over-activation of astrocytes, apoptosis of neurons and up-regulation of neuronal specific marker NeuN, MAP-2, and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), and down-regulation Bax. Our study reveals that PF may be a potential neuroprotective agent for stroke and can provide basic data for clinical use.

  7. Alpha-lipoic acid protects cardiomyocytes against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury by inhibiting autophagy

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Xueming; Chen, Aihua, E-mail: aihuachen2012@sina.com; Yang, Pingzhen

    Highlights: •We observed the cell viability and death subjected to H/R in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. •We observed the degree of autophagy subjected to H/R in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. •LA inhibited the degree of autophagy in parallel to the enhanced cell survival. •LA inhibited the autophagy in parallel to the decreased total cell death. •We concluded that LA protected cardiomyocytes against H/R by inhibiting autophagy. -- Abstract: Hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) is an important in vitro model for exploring the molecular mechanisms and functions of autophagy during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) plays an important role in the etiology of cardiovascular disease. Autophagy ismore » widely implicated in myocardial I/R injury. We assessed the degree of autophagy by pretreatment with LA exposed to H/R in H9c2 cell based on the expression levels of Beclin-1, LC3II/LC3I, and green fluorescent protein-labeled LC3 fusion proteins. Autophagic vacuoles were confirmed in H9c2 cells exposed to H/R using transmission electron microscopy. Our findings indicated that pretreatment with LA inhibited the degree of autophagy in parallel to the enhanced cell survival and decreased total cell death in H9c2 cells exposed to H/R. We conclude that LA protects cardiomyocytes against H/R injury by inhibiting autophagy.« less

  8. Puerarin protects against CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in mice: possible role of PARP-1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Shi, Xiao-Lei; Feng, Min; Wang, Xun; Zhang, Zhi-Heng; Zhao, Xin; Han, Bing; Ma, Hu-Cheng; Dai, Bo; Ding, Yi-Tao

    2016-09-01

    Liver fibrosis, which is the pathophysiologic process of the liver due to sustained wound healing in response to chronic liver injury, will eventually progress to cirrhosis. Puerarin, a bioactive isoflavone glucoside derived from the traditional Chinese medicine pueraria, has been reported to have many anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrosis properties. However, the detailed mechanisms are not well studied yet. This study aimed to investigate the effects of puerarin on liver function and fibrosis process in mice induced by CCl4. C57BL/6J mice were intraperitoneally injected with 10% CCl4 in olive oil(2mL/kg) with or without puerarin co-administration (100 and 200mg/kg intraperitoneally once daily) for four consecutive weeks. As indicated by the ameliorative serum hepatic enzymes and the reduced histopathologic abnormalities, the data collected showed that puerarin can protect against CCl4-induced chronic liver injury. Moreover, CCl4-induced development of fibrosis, as evidenced by increasing expression of alpha smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), collagen-1, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and connective tissue growth factor(CTGF) in liver, were suppressed by puerarin. Possible mechanisms related to these suppressive effects were realized by inhibition on NF-κB signaling pathway, reactive oxygen species(ROS) production and mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo. In addition, these protective inhibition mentioned above were driven by down-regulation of PARP-1 due to puerarin because puerarin can attenuate the PARP-1 expression in CCl4-damaged liver and PJ34, a kind of PARP-1 inhibitor, mimicked puerarin's protection. In conclusion, puerarin played a protective role in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis probably through inhibition of PARP-1 and subsequent attenuation of NF-κB, ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Adenosine A2A receptor inhibition restores the normal transport of endothelial glutamate transporters in the brain.

    PubMed

    Bai, Wei; Li, Ping; Ning, Ya-Lei; Peng, Yan; Xiong, Ren-Ping; Yang, Nan; Chen, Xing; Zhou, Yuan-Guo

    2018-04-15

    Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) on cerebral vascular endothelial cells play an important role in maintaining glutamate homeostasis in the brain. The dysfunction of endothelial EAATs is an important reason for the dramatically elevated brain glutamate levels after brain injury, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI). The adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2A R) plays an important role in regulating the brain glutamate level after brain injury; however, researchers have not clearly determined whether this role was related to its ability to regulate endothelial EAATs. Activation of A 2A R in vitro not only decreased the PKA- and glutamate level-dependent strengthening of the interaction between NKA-α1 and the FXYD1 subunit and the subsequent decrease in the activity of Na + /K + -ATPases (NKAs) but also enhanced its interaction with EAATs and ultimately aggravated the reverse transport function of endothelial EAATs under oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) conditions. Conversely, inhibition of A 2A R restored the normal transport of EAAT. Moreover, A 2A R inhibition increased NKA activity and decreased its interaction with EAATs in isolated brain capillaries after TBI, further confirming its role in endothelial EAATs in vivo. Based on our results, A 2A R played an important role in regulating endothelial EAAT function, and strategies that restore the normal transport of endothelial EAATs through the inhibition of A 2A R might serve as an effective treatment for brain injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Edaravone protects osteoblastic cells from dexamethasone through inhibiting oxidative stress and mPTP opening.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wen-xiao; Zheng, Hai-ya; Lan, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Existing evidences have emphasized an important role of oxidative stress in dexamethasone (Dex)-induced osteoblastic cell damages. Here, we investigated the possible anti-Dex activity of edaravone in osteoblastic cells, and studied the underlying mechanisms. We showed that edaravone dose-dependently attenuated Dex-induced death and apoptosis of established human or murine osteoblastic cells. Further, Dex-mediated damages to primary murine osteoblasts were also alleviated by edaravone. In osteoblastic cells/osteoblasts, Dex induced significant oxidative stresses, tested by increased levels of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation, which were remarkably inhibited by edaravone. Meanwhile, edaravone repressed Dex-induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, or mitochondrial membrane potential reduction, in osteoblastic cells/osteoblasts. Significantly, edaravone-induced osteoblast-protective activity against Dex was alleviated with mPTP inhibition through cyclosporin A or cyclophilin-D siRNA. Together, we demonstrate that edaravone protects osteoblasts from Dex-induced damages probably through inhibiting oxidative stresses and following mPTP opening.

  11. Bcl-2 protects tubular epithelial cells from ischemia reperfusion injury by inhibiting apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Chigure; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Shimizu, Shigeomi; Tsujimoto, Yoshihide; Takabatake, Yoshitsugu; Ito, Takahito; Takahara, Shiro; Imai, Enyu

    2008-01-01

    Ischemia followed by reperfusion leads to severe organ injury and dysfunction. Inflammation is considered to be the most important cause of graft dysfunction in kidney transplantation subjected to ischemia. The mechanism that triggers inflammation and renal injury after ischemia remains to be elucidated; however, cellular stress may induce apoptosis during the first hours and days after transplantation, which might play a crucial role in early graft dysfunction. Bcl-2 is known to inhibit apoptosis induced by the etiological factors promoting ischemia and reperfusion injury. Accordingly, we hypothesized that an augmentation of the antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2 may thus protect tubular epithelial cells by inhibiting apoptosis, thereby ameliorating the subsequent tubulointerstitial injury. We examined the effects of Bcl-2 overexpression on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury using Bcl-2 transgenic mice (Bcl-2 TG) and their wild-type littermates (WT). To investigate the effects of I/R injury, the left renal artery and vein were clamped for 45 min, followed by reperfusion for 0-96 h. Bcl-2 TG exhibited decreased active caspase protein in the tubular cells, which led to a reduction in TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells. Consequently, interstitial fibrosis and phenotypic changes were ameliorated in Bcl-2 TG. In conclusion, Bcl-2 augmentation protected renal tubular epithelial cells from I/R, and subsequent interstitial injury by inhibiting tubular apoptosis.

  12. Pancreatic and snake venom presynaptically active phospholipases A2 inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Vulfius, Catherine A; Kasheverov, Igor E; Kryukova, Elena V; Spirova, Ekaterina N; Shelukhina, Irina V; Starkov, Vladislav G; Andreeva, Tatyana V; Faure, Grazyna; Zouridakis, Marios; Tsetlin, Victor I; Utkin, Yuri N

    2017-01-01

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are enzymes found throughout the animal kingdom. They hydrolyze phospholipids in the sn-2 position producing lysophospholipids and unsaturated fatty acids, agents that can damage membranes. PLA2s from snake venoms have numerous toxic effects, not all of which can be explained by phospholipid hydrolysis, and each enzyme has a specific effect. We have earlier demonstrated the capability of several snake venom PLA2s with different enzymatic, cytotoxic, anticoagulant and antiproliferative properties, to decrease acetylcholine-induced currents in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons, and to compete with α-bungarotoxin for binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and acetylcholine binding protein. Since nAChRs are implicated in postsynaptic and presynaptic activities, in this work we probe those PLA2s known to have strong presynaptic effects, namely β-bungarotoxin from Bungarus multicinctus and crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus. We also wished to explore whether mammalian PLA2s interact with nAChRs, and have examined non-toxic PLA2 from porcine pancreas. It was found that porcine pancreatic PLA2 and presynaptic β-bungarotoxin blocked currents mediated by nAChRs in Lymnaea neurons with IC50s of 2.5 and 4.8 μM, respectively. Crotoxin competed with radioactive α-bungarotoxin for binding to Torpedo and human α7 nAChRs and to the acetylcholine binding protein. Pancreatic PLA2 interacted similarly with these targets; moreover, it inhibited radioactive α-bungarotoxin binding to the water-soluble extracellular domain of human α9 nAChR, and blocked acetylcholine induced currents in human α9α10 nAChRs heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. These and our earlier results show that all snake PLA2s, including presynaptically active crotoxin and β-bungarotoxin, as well as mammalian pancreatic PLA2, interact with nAChRs. The data obtained suggest that this interaction may be a general property of all PLA2s, which should be proved by

  13. Actin and DNA Protect Histones from Degradation by Bacterial Proteases but Inhibit Their Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sol, Asaf; Skvirsky, Yaniv; Blotnick, Edna; Bachrach, Gilad; Muhlrad, Andras

    2016-01-01

    Histones are small polycationic proteins located in the cell nucleus. Together, DNA and histones are integral constituents of the nucleosomes. Upon apoptosis, necrosis, and infection – induced cell death, histones are released from the cell. The extracellular histones have strong antimicrobial activity but are also cytotoxic and thought as mediators of cell death in sepsis. The antimicrobial activity of the cationic extracellular histones is inhibited by the polyanionic DNA and F-actin, which also become extracellular upon cell death. DNA and F-actin protect histones from degradation by the proteases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Porphyromonas gingivalis. However, though the integrity of the histones is protected, the activity of histones as antibacterial agents is lost. The inhibition of the histone’s antibacterial activity and their protection from proteolysis by DNA and F-actin indicate a tight electrostatic interaction between the positively charged histones and negatively charged DNA and F-actin, which may have physiological significance in maintaining the equilibrium between the beneficial antimicrobial activity of extracellular histones and their cytotoxic effects. PMID:27555840

  14. Inhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupperman, Joel J.

    1978-01-01

    Explores the use of the concept of inhibition in moral philosophy. Argues that there are strong practical reasons for basing moral teaching on simple moral rules and for inculcating inhibitions about breaking these rules. (Author)

  15. Inhibition of the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier protects from excitotoxic neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Divakaruni, Ajit S; Wallace, Martina; Buren, Caodu; Martyniuk, Kelly; Andreyev, Alexander Y; Li, Edward; Fields, Jerel A; Cordes, Thekla; Reynolds, Ian J; Bloodgood, Brenda L; Raymond, Lynn A; Metallo, Christian M; Murphy, Anne N

    2017-04-03

    Glutamate is the dominant excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, but under conditions of metabolic stress it can accumulate to excitotoxic levels. Although pharmacologic modulation of excitatory amino acid receptors is well studied, minimal consideration has been given to targeting mitochondrial glutamate metabolism to control neurotransmitter levels. Here we demonstrate that chemical inhibition of the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) protects primary cortical neurons from excitotoxic death. Reductions in mitochondrial pyruvate uptake do not compromise cellular energy metabolism, suggesting neuronal metabolic flexibility. Rather, MPC inhibition rewires mitochondrial substrate metabolism to preferentially increase reliance on glutamate to fuel energetics and anaplerosis. Mobilizing the neuronal glutamate pool for oxidation decreases the quantity of glutamate released upon depolarization and, in turn, limits the positive-feedback cascade of excitotoxic neuronal injury. The finding links mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism to glutamatergic neurotransmission and establishes the MPC as a therapeutic target to treat neurodegenerative diseases characterized by excitotoxicity. © 2017 Divakaruni et al.

  16. Inhibition of the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier protects from excitotoxic neuronal death

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Martina; Buren, Caodu; Martyniuk, Kelly; Andreyev, Alexander Y.; Li, Edward; Fields, Jerel A.; Cordes, Thekla; Reynolds, Ian J.; Bloodgood, Brenda L.; Metallo, Christian M.

    2017-01-01

    Glutamate is the dominant excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, but under conditions of metabolic stress it can accumulate to excitotoxic levels. Although pharmacologic modulation of excitatory amino acid receptors is well studied, minimal consideration has been given to targeting mitochondrial glutamate metabolism to control neurotransmitter levels. Here we demonstrate that chemical inhibition of the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) protects primary cortical neurons from excitotoxic death. Reductions in mitochondrial pyruvate uptake do not compromise cellular energy metabolism, suggesting neuronal metabolic flexibility. Rather, MPC inhibition rewires mitochondrial substrate metabolism to preferentially increase reliance on glutamate to fuel energetics and anaplerosis. Mobilizing the neuronal glutamate pool for oxidation decreases the quantity of glutamate released upon depolarization and, in turn, limits the positive-feedback cascade of excitotoxic neuronal injury. The finding links mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism to glutamatergic neurotransmission and establishes the MPC as a therapeutic target to treat neurodegenerative diseases characterized by excitotoxicity. PMID:28254829

  17. Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein Protects Cells against Locostatin-Mediated Inhibition of Migration

    PubMed Central

    Shemon, Anne N.; Eves, Eva M.; Clark, Matthew C.; Heil, Gary; Granovsky, Alexey; Zeng, Lingchun; Imamoto, Akira

    2009-01-01

    Background Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein (RKIP, also PEBP1), a member of the Phosphatidylethanolamine Binding Protein family, negatively regulates growth factor signaling by the Raf/MAP kinase pathway. Since an organic compound, locostatin, was reported to bind RKIP and inhibit cell migration by a Raf-dependent mechanism, we addressed the role of RKIP in locostatin function. Methods/Findings We analyzed locostatin interaction with RKIP and examined the biological consequences of locostatin binding on RKIP function. NMR studies show that a locostatin precursor binds to the conserved phosphatidylethanolamine binding pocket of RKIP. However, drug binding to the pocket does not prevent RKIP association with its inhibitory target, Raf-1, nor affect RKIP phosphorylation by Protein Kinase C at a regulatory site. Similarly, exposure of wild type, RKIP-depleted HeLa cells or RKIP-deficient (RKIP−/−) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to locostatin has no effect on MAP kinase activation. Locostatin treatment of wild type MEFs causes inhibition of cell migration following wounding. RKIP deficiency impairs migration further, indicating that RKIP protects cells against locostatin-mediated inhibition of migration. Locostatin treatment of depleted or RKIP−/− MEFs reveals cytoskeletal disruption and microtubule abnormalities in the spindle. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that locostatin's effects on cytoskeletal structure and migration are caused through mechanisms independent of its binding to RKIP and Raf/MAP kinase signaling. The protective effect of RKIP against drug inhibition of migration suggests a new role for RKIP in potentially sequestering toxic compounds that may have deleterious effects on cells. PMID:19551145

  18. Dimethyl ester of bilirubin exhibits anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of secretory phospholipase A2, lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Vikram; Umashankara, M; Ramakrishnan, Chandrasekaran; Nanjaraj Urs, Ankanahalli N; Suvilesh, Kanve Nagaraj; Velmurugan, Devadasan; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S; Vishwanath, Bannikuppe Sannanaik

    2016-05-15

    Overproduction of arachidonic acid (AA) mediated by secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (sPLA2IIA) is a hallmark of many inflammatory disorders. AA is subsequently converted into pro-inflammatory eicosanoids through 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and cyclooxygenase-1/2 (COX-1/2) activities. Hence, inhibition of sPLA2IIA, 5-LOX and COX-1/2 activities is critical in regulating inflammation. We have previously reported unconjugated bilirubin (UCB), an endogenous antioxidant, as sPLA2IIA inhibitor. However, lipophilic UCB gets conjugated in liver with glucuronic acid into hydrophilic conjugated bilirubin (CB). Since hydrophobicity is pre-requisite for sPLA2IIA inhibition, conjugation reduces the efficacy of UCB. In this regard, UCB was chemically modified and derivatives were evaluated for sPLA2IIA, 5-LOX and COX-1/2 inhibition. Among the derivatives, BD1 (dimethyl ester of bilirubin) exhibited ∼ 3 fold greater inhibitory potency towards sPLA2IIA compared to UCB. Both UCB and BD1 inhibited human 5-LOX and COX-2 activities; however only BD1 inhibited AA induced platelet aggregation. Molecular docking studies demonstrated BD1 as better inhibitor of aforesaid enzymes than UCB and other endogenous antioxidants. These data suggest that BD1 exhibits strong anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of AA cascade enzymes which is of great therapeutic importance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Piperine Inhibits the Activities of Platelet Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 and Thromboxane A2 Synthase without Affecting Cyclooxygenase-1 Activity: Different Mechanisms of Action Are Involved in the Inhibition of Platelet Aggregation and Macrophage Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Son, Dong Ju; Akiba, Satoshi; Hong, Jin Tae; Yun, Yeo Pyo; Hwang, Seock Yeon; Park, Young Hyun; Lee, Sung Eun

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Piperine, a major alkaloid of black pepper (Piper nigrum) and long pepper (Piper longum), was shown to have anti-inflammatory activity through the suppression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 gene expression and enzyme activity. It is also reported to exhibit anti-platelet activity, but the mechanism underlying this action remains unknown. In this study, we investigated a putative anti-platelet aggregation mechanism involving arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism and how this compares with the mechanism by which it inhibits macrophage inflammatory responses; METHODS: Rabbit platelets and murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were treated with piperine, and the effect of piperine on the activity of AA-metabolizing enzymes, including cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), COX-1, COX-2, and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) synthase, as well as its effect on AA liberation from the plasma membrane components, were assessed using isotopic labeling methods and enzyme immunoassay kit; RESULTS: Piperine significantly suppressed AA liberation by attenuating cPLA2 activity in collagen-stimulated platelets. It also significantly inhibited the activity of TXA2 synthase, but not of COX-1, in platelets. These results suggest that piperine inhibits platelet aggregation by attenuating cPLA2 and TXA2 synthase activities, rather than through the inhibition of COX-1 activity. On the other hand, piperine significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced generation of prostaglandin (PG)E2 and PGD2 in RAW264.7 cells by suppressing the activity of COX-2, without effect on cPLA2; CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that piperine inhibits platelet aggregation and macrophage inflammatory response by different mechanisms. PMID:25153972

  20. Bacopa monnieri-Induced Protective Autophagy Inhibits Benzo[a]pyrene-Mediated Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Das, Durgesh Nandini; Naik, Prajna Paramita; Nayak, Aditi; Panda, Prashanta Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Subhadip; Sinha, Niharika; Bhutia, Sujit K

    2016-11-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is capable of inducing oxidative stress and cellular injuries leading to cell death and associates with a significant risk of cancer development. Prevention of B[a]P-induced cellular toxicity with herbal compound through regulation of mitochondrial oxidative stress might protect cell death and have therapeutic benefit to human health. In this study, we demonstrated the cytoprotective role of Bacopa monnieri (BM) against B[a]P-induced apoptosis through autophagy induction. Pretreatment with BM rescued the reduction in cell viability in B[a]P-treated human keratinocytes (HaCaT) cells indicating the cytoprotective potential of BM against B[a]P. Moreover, BM was found to inhibit B[a]P-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced apoptosis activation in HaCaT cells. Furthermore, BM was found to preserve mitochondrial membrane potential and inhibited release of cytochrome c in B[a]P-treated HaCaT cells. Bacopa monnieri induced protective autophagy; we knocked down Beclin-1, and data showed that BM was unable to protect from B[a]P-induced mitochondrial ROS-mediated apoptosis in Beclin-1-deficient HaCaT cells. Moreover, we established that B[a]P-induced damaged mitochondria were found to colocalize and degraded within autolysosomes in order to protect HaCaT cells from mitochondrial injury. In conclusion, B[a]P-induced apoptosis was rescued by BM treatment and provided cytoprotection through Beclin-1-dependent autophagy activation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Pharmacological TLR4 Inhibition Protects against Acute and Chronic Fat-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Liang, Hanyu; Farese, Robert V.; Li, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Aims To evaluate whether pharmacological TLR4 inhibition protects against acute and chronic fat-induced insulin resistance in rats. Materials and Methods For the acute experiment, rats received a TLR4 inhibitor [TAK-242 or E5564 (2x5 mg/kg i.v. bolus)] or vehicle, and an 8-h Intralipid (20%, 8.5 mg/kg/min) or saline infusion, followed by a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. For the chronic experiment, rats were subcutaneously implanted with a slow-release pellet of TAK-242 (1.5 mg/d) or placebo. Rats then received a high fat diet (HFD) or a low fat control diet (LFD) for 10 weeks, followed by a two-step insulin clamp. Results Acute experiment; the lipid-induced reduction (18%) in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (Rd) was attenuated by TAK-242 and E5564 (the effect of E5564 was more robust), suggesting improved peripheral insulin action. Insulin was able to suppress hepatic glucose production (HGP) in saline- but not lipid-treated rats. TAK-242, but not E5564, partially restored this effect, suggesting improved HGP. Chronic experiment; insulin-stimulated Rd was reduced ~30% by the HFD, but completely restored by TAK-242. Insulin could not suppress HGP in rats fed a HFD and TAK-242 had no effect on HGP. Conclusions Pharmacological TLR4 inhibition provides partial protection against acute and chronic fat-induced insulin resistance in vivo. PMID:26196892

  2. Pharmacological TLR4 Inhibition Protects against Acute and Chronic Fat-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Liang, Hanyu; Farese, Robert V; Li, Ji; Musi, Nicolas; Hussey, Sophie E

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether pharmacological TLR4 inhibition protects against acute and chronic fat-induced insulin resistance in rats. For the acute experiment, rats received a TLR4 inhibitor [TAK-242 or E5564 (2x5 mg/kg i.v. bolus)] or vehicle, and an 8-h Intralipid (20%, 8.5 mg/kg/min) or saline infusion, followed by a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. For the chronic experiment, rats were subcutaneously implanted with a slow-release pellet of TAK-242 (1.5 mg/d) or placebo. Rats then received a high fat diet (HFD) or a low fat control diet (LFD) for 10 weeks, followed by a two-step insulin clamp. Acute experiment; the lipid-induced reduction (18%) in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (Rd) was attenuated by TAK-242 and E5564 (the effect of E5564 was more robust), suggesting improved peripheral insulin action. Insulin was able to suppress hepatic glucose production (HGP) in saline- but not lipid-treated rats. TAK-242, but not E5564, partially restored this effect, suggesting improved HGP. Chronic experiment; insulin-stimulated Rd was reduced ~30% by the HFD, but completely restored by TAK-242. Insulin could not suppress HGP in rats fed a HFD and TAK-242 had no effect on HGP. Pharmacological TLR4 inhibition provides partial protection against acute and chronic fat-induced insulin resistance in vivo.

  3. Novel mechanisms for caspase inhibition protecting cardiac function with chronic pressure overload

    PubMed Central

    Vatner, Stephen F.; Yan, Lin; Gao, Shumin; Yoon, Seunghun; Lee, Grace Jung Ah; Xie, Lai-Hua; Kitsis, Richard N.; Vatner, Dorothy E.

    2013-01-01

    Myocyte apoptosis is considered a major mechanism in the pathogenesis of heart failure. Accordingly, manipulations that inhibit apoptosis are assumed to preserve cardiac function by maintaining myocyte numbers. We tested this assumption by examining the effects of caspase inhibition (CI) on cardiac structure and function in C57BL/6 mouse with pressure overload model induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). CI preserved left ventricular (LV) function following TAC compared with the vehicle. TAC increased apoptosis in non-myocytes more than in myocytes and these increases were blunted more in non-myocytes by CI. Total myocyte number, however, did not differ significantly among control and TAC groups and there was no correlation between myocyte number and apoptosis, but there was a strong correlation between myocyte number and an index of myocyte proliferation, Ki67-positive myocytes. Despite comparable pressure gradients, LV hypertrophy was less in the CI group, likely attributable to decreased wall stress. Since changes in myocyte numbers did not account for protection from TAC, several other CI-mediated mechanisms were identified including: (a) lessening of TAC-induced fibrosis, (b) augmentation of isolated myocyte contractility, and (c) increased angiogenesis and Ki67-positive myocytes, which were due almost entirely to the non-myocyte apoptosis, but not myocyte apoptosis, with CI. CI maintained LV function following TAC not by protecting against myocyte loss, but rather by augmenting myocyte contractile function, myocyte proliferation, and angiogenesis resulting in reduced LV wall stress, hypertrophy, and fibrosis. PMID:23277091

  4. Acetoacetate protects hippocampal neurons against glutamate-mediated neuronal damage during glycolysis inhibition.

    PubMed

    Massieu, L; Haces, M L; Montiel, T; Hernández-Fonseca, K

    2003-01-01

    Glucose is the main substrate that fulfills energy brain demands. However, in some circumstances, such as diabetes, starvation, during the suckling period and the ketogenic diet, brain uses the ketone bodies, acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate, as energy sources. Ketone body utilization in brain depends directly on its blood concentration, which is normally very low, but increases substantially during the conditions mentioned above. Glutamate neurotoxicity has been implicated in neurodegeneration associated with brain ischemia, hypoglycemia and cerebral trauma, conditions related to energy failure, and to elevation of glutamate extracellular levels in brain. In recent years substantial evidence favoring a close relation between glutamate neurotoxic potentiality and cellular energy levels, has been compiled. We have previously demonstrated that accumulation of extracellular glutamate after inhibition of its transporters, induces neuronal death in vivo during energy impairment induced by glycolysis inhibition. In the present study we have assessed the protective potentiality of the ketone body, acetoacetate, against glutamate-mediated neuronal damage in the hippocampus of rats chronically treated with the glycolysis inhibitor, iodoacetate, and in hippocampal cultured neurons exposed to a toxic concentration of iodoacetate. Results show that acetoacetate efficiently protects against glutamate neurotoxicity both in vivo and in vitro probably by a mechanism involving its role as an energy substrate.

  5. Hydrogen sulfide increases survival during sepsis: Protective effect of CHOP inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Ferlito, Marcella; Wang, Qihong; Fulton, William B; Colombani, Paul; Marchionni, Luigi; Fox-Talbot, Karen; Paolocci, Nazareno; Steenbergen, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is a major cause of mortality, and dysregulation of the immune response plays a central role in this syndrome. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a recently discovered gaso-transmitter, is endogenously generated by many cell types, regulating a number of physiologic processes and pathophysiologic conditions. Here we report that H2S increased survival after experimental sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in mice. Exogenous H2S decreased the systemic inflammatory response, reduced apoptosis in the spleen, and accelerated bacterial eradication. We found that CHOP, a mediator of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, was elevated in several organs after CLP and its expression was inhibited by H2S treatment. Using CHOP knockout (KO) mice, we demonstrated for the first time that genetic deletion of Chop increased survival after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection or CLP. CHOP KO mice displayed diminished splenic caspase-3 activation and apoptosis, decreased cytokine production and augmented bacterial clearance. Furthermore, septic CHOP KO mice treated with H2S showed no additive survival benefit compared to septic CHOP KO mice. Finally, we showed that H2S inhibited CHOP expression in macrophages by a mechanism involving Nrf2 activation. In conclusion, our findings show a protective effect of H2S treatment afforded, at least partially, by inhibition of CHOP expression. The data reveal a major negative role for the transcription factor CHOP in overall survival during sepsis and suggest a new target for clinical intervention as well potential strategies for treatment. PMID:24403532

  6. Partial protection from organophosphate-induced cholinesterase inhibition by metyrapone treatment.

    PubMed

    Swiercz, Radosław; Lutz, Piotr; Gralewicz, Sławomir; Grzelińska, Zofia; Piasecka-Zelga, Joanna; Wąsowicz, Wojciech

    2013-08-01

    Organophosphates are cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors with worldwide use as insecticides. Stress response, evidenced by a dramatic and relatively long-lasting (several hours) rise in the plasma glucocorticoid concentration is an integral element of the organophosphate (OP) poisoning symptomatology. In rodents, corticosterone (CORT) is the main glucocorticoid. There are several reports suggesting a relationship between the stressor-induced rise in CORT concentration (the CORT response) and the activity of the cerebral and peripheral ChE. Thus, it seems reasonable to presume that, in OP intoxication, the rise in plasma CORT concentration may somehow affect the magnitude of the OP-induced ChE inhibition. Metyrapone (MET) [2-methyl-1,2-di(pyridin-3-yl)propan-1-one] blocks CORT synthesis by inhibiting steroid 11β-hydroxylase, thereby preventing the CORT response. Chlorfenvinphos (CVP) [2-chloro-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl) ethenyl diethyl phosphate] is an organophosphate insecticide still in use in some countries. The purpose of the present work was to compare the CVP-induced effects - the rise of the plasma CORT concentration and the reduction in ChE activity - in MET-treated and MET-untreated rats. Chlorfenvinphos was administered once at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg i.p. Metyrapone, at 100 mg/kg i.p., was administered five times, at 24-h intervals. The first MET dose was given two hours before CVP. The following was observed in the MET-treated rats: i) no rise in plasma CORT concentration after the CVP administration, ii) a reduced inhibition and a faster restitution of blood and brain ChE activities. The results suggest that MET treatment may confer significant protection against at least some effects of OP poisoning. The likely mechanism of the protective MET action has been discussed.

  7. MiR-26b inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion by targeting EphA2.

    PubMed

    Li, Hesheng; Sun, Qinglei; Han, Bing; Yu, Xingquan; Hu, Baoguang; Hu, Sanyuan

    2015-01-01

    Deregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play important roles in cancer progression as a result of changes in expression of their target genes. In this study, we investigated the expression of miR-16b in eight hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, revealed the roles of miR-26b on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and confirmed that EphA2 is a direct target of miR-26b. The miR-26b expression was decreased and EphA2 expression was evaluated in HCC cell lines. Luciferase assays revealed that miR-26b inhibited EphA2 expression by targeting the 3'-untranslated region of EphA2 mRNA. Overexpression of miR-26b dramatically inhibited the proliferation, invasion, and migration of HCC cells by targeting EphA2. Moreover, miR-26b down-regulated c-Myc and CyclinD1 expression, which was reversed by overexpressed EphA2. Taken together, our data demonstrated the mechanism of miR-26b contributed to HCC progression and implicated that miR-26b's potential in HCC therapy.

  8. Inhibition of HDACs-EphA2 Signaling Axis with WW437 Demonstrates Promising Preclinical Antitumor Activity in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Jingjie; Ma, Xiaojun; Yang, Yang; Sun, Wei; Jin, Wangrui; Wang, Lei; He, Yuan; Yang, Feifei; Yi, Zhengfang; Hua, Yingqi; Liu, Mingyao; Chen, Yihua; Cai, Zhengdong

    2018-05-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are small molecules targeting epigenetic enzymes approved for hematologic neoplasms, which have also demonstrated clinical activities in solid tumors. In our present study, we screened our internal compound library and discovered a novel HDACi, WW437, with potent anti-breast cancer ability in vitro and in vivo. WW437 significantly inhibited phosphorylated EphA2 and EphA2 expression. Further study demonstrated WW437 blocked HDACs-EphA2 signaling axis in breast cancer. In parallel, we found that EphA2 expression positively correlates with breast cancer progression; and combined use of WW437 and an EphA2 inhibitor (ALW-II-41-27) exerted more remarkable effect on breast cancer growth than either drug alone. Our findings suggested inhibition of HDACs-EphA2 signaling axis with WW437 alone or in combination with other agents may be a promising therapeutic strategy for advanced breast cancer. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Up-regulation of eEF1A2 promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yue; Du, Chengli; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Yanling; Liu, Xiaoyan; Ren, Guoping

    2014-07-18

    eEF1A2 is a protein translation factor involved in protein synthesis, which possesses important function roles in cancer development. This study aims at investigating the expression pattern of eEF1A2 in prostate cancer and its potential role in prostate cancer development. We examined the expression level of eEF1A2 in 30 pairs of prostate cancer tissues by using RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining (IHC). Then we applied siRNA specifically targeting eEF1A2 to down-regulate its expression in DU-145 and PC-3 cells. Flow cytometer was used to explore apoptosis and Western-blot was used to detect the pathway proteins of apoptosis. Our results showed that the expression level of eEF1A2 in prostate cancer tissues was significantly higher compared to their corresponding normal tissues. Reduction of eEF1A2 expression in DU-145 and PC-3 cells led to a dramatic inhibition of proliferation accompanied with enhanced apoptosis rate. Western blot revealed that apoptosis pathway proteins (caspase3, BAD, BAX, PUMA) were significantly up-regulated after suppression of eEF1A2. More importantly, the levels of eEF1A2 and caspase3 were inversely correlated in prostate cancer tissues. Our data suggests that eEF1A2 plays an important role in prostate cancer development, especially in inhibiting apoptosis. So eEF1A2 might serve as a potential therapeutic target in prostate cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. INHIBITION OF HUMAN AND RAT CYP1A2 BY TCDD AND DIOXIN-LIKE CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dioxins have been shown to bind and induce rodent CYP1A2, producing a dose-dependent hepatic sequestration in vivo. The induction of CYP1A2 activity has been used as a noninvasive biomarker for human exposure to dioxins; while there is a consistent relationship between exposure ...

  11. XuefuZhuyu decoction protected cardiomyocytes against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury by inhibiting autophagy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaowen; Zhu, Haiyan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Mingmei; Tang, Danli; Zhang, Huamin

    2017-06-19

    XuefuZhuyu decoction (XFZY) is a well-known traditional Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases, such as unstable angina pectoris and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the mechanism by which XFZY contributes to the amelioration of cardiac injury remains unclear. H9C2 cells were cultured under the hypoxic condition for 10 h and reoxygenated for 2 h. In the presence of various concentrations of XFZY for 12 h, the cell viability was measured by MTT assay. The protective effect of XFZY in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) cell model was confirmed by measuring the amount of LDH released into the extracellular fluid. Cell apoptosis was measured by western blotting. The autophagy level of H9C2 cells and the correlative pathway were determined by transmission electron microscopy, Cyto-ID® Autophagy Detection Kit, and western blotting. In this study, we investigated the effects of XFZY on H/R induced cardiac injury. The results showed that treatment with XFZY significantly inhibited autophagy induced by H/R, with decreased formation of autophagosomes as well as the expression of LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and Beclin 1 after H/R. Importantly, inhibition of autophagy by XFZY resulted in enhanced cell viability and decreased apoptosis. XFZY also inhibited the activation of AMPK and upregulated the phosphorylation of mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR). The cardioprotective effects of XFZY during H/R were mediated by inhibiting autophagy via regulating AMPK-mTOR signaling pathways.

  12. Inhibition of HDAC6 protects against rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yingfeng; Xu, Liuqing; Tang, Jinhua; Fang, Lu; Ma, Shuchen; Ma, Xiaoyan; Nie, Jing; Pi, Xiaoling; Qiu, Andong; Zhuang, Shougang

    2017-01-01

    Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) inhibition has been reported to protect against ischemic stroke and prolong survival after sepsis in animal models. However, it remains unknown whether HDAC6 inhibition offers a renoprotective effect after acute kidney injury (AKI). In this study, we examined the effect of tubastatin A (TA), a highly selective inhibitor of HDAC6, on AKI in a murine model of glycerol (GL) injection-induced rhabdomyolysis. Following GL injection, the mice developed severe acute tubular injury as indicated by renal dysfunction; expression of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), an injury marker of renal tubules; and an increase of TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive tubular cells. These changes were companied by increased HDAC6 expression in the cytoplasm of renal tubular cells. Administration of TA significantly reduced serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels as well as attenuated renal tubular damage in injured kidneys. HDAC6 inhibition also resulted in decreased expression of NGAL, reduced apoptotic cell, and inactivated caspase-3 in the kidney after acute injury. Moreover, injury to the kidney increased phosphorylation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and expression of multiple cytokines/chemokines including tumor necrotic factor-α and interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, as well as macrophage infiltration. Treatment with TA attenuated all those responses. Finally, HDAC6 inhibition reduced the level of oxidative stress by suppressing malondialdehyde (MDA) and preserving expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the injured kidney. Collectively, these data indicate that HDAC6 contributes to the pathogenesis of rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI and suggest that HDAC6 inhibitors have therapeutic potential for AKI treatment. PMID:28052874

  13. Inhibition of HDAC6 protects against rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yingfeng; Xu, Liuqing; Tang, Jinhua; Fang, Lu; Ma, Shuchen; Ma, Xiaoyan; Nie, Jing; Pi, Xiaoling; Qiu, Andong; Zhuang, Shougang; Liu, Na

    2017-03-01

    Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) inhibition has been reported to protect against ischemic stroke and prolong survival after sepsis in animal models. However, it remains unknown whether HDAC6 inhibition offers a renoprotective effect after acute kidney injury (AKI). In this study, we examined the effect of tubastatin A (TA), a highly selective inhibitor of HDAC6, on AKI in a murine model of glycerol (GL) injection-induced rhabdomyolysis. Following GL injection, the mice developed severe acute tubular injury as indicated by renal dysfunction; expression of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), an injury marker of renal tubules; and an increase of TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive tubular cells. These changes were companied by increased HDAC6 expression in the cytoplasm of renal tubular cells. Administration of TA significantly reduced serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels as well as attenuated renal tubular damage in injured kidneys. HDAC6 inhibition also resulted in decreased expression of NGAL, reduced apoptotic cell, and inactivated caspase-3 in the kidney after acute injury. Moreover, injury to the kidney increased phosphorylation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and expression of multiple cytokines/chemokines including tumor necrotic factor-α and interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, as well as macrophage infiltration. Treatment with TA attenuated all those responses. Finally, HDAC6 inhibition reduced the level of oxidative stress by suppressing malondialdehyde (MDA) and preserving expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the injured kidney. Collectively, these data indicate that HDAC6 contributes to the pathogenesis of rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI and suggest that HDAC6 inhibitors have therapeutic potential for AKI treatment. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Inhibition of the protein kinase MK-2 protects podocytes from nephrotic syndrome-related injury

    PubMed Central

    Pengal, Ruma; Guess, Adam J.; Agrawal, Shipra; Manley, Joshua; Ransom, Richard F.; Mourey, Robert J.; Smoyer, William E.

    2011-01-01

    While mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various glomerular diseases, including nephrotic syndrome (NS), its specific role in podocyte injury is not known. We hypothesized that MK-2, a downstream substrate of p38 MAPK, mediates the adverse effects of this pathway and that inhibition of MK-2 would protect podocytes from NS-related injury. Using cultured podocytes, we analyzed 1) the roles of MK-2 and p38 MAPK in puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN)-induced podocyte injury; 2) the ability of specific MK-2 and p38 MAPK inhibitors to protect podocytes against injury; 3) the role of serum albumin, known to induce podocyte injury, in activating p38 MAPK/MK-2 signaling; and 4) the role of p38 MAPK/MK-2 signaling in the expression of Cox-2, an enzyme associated with podocyte injury. Treatment with protein kinase inhibitors specific for both MK-2 (C23, a pyrrolopyridine-type compound) or p38 MAPK (SB203580) reduced PAN-induced podocyte injury and actin cytoskeletal disruption. Both inhibitors reduced baseline podocyte p38 MAPK/MK-2 signaling, as measured by the degree of phosphorylation of HSPB1, a downstream substrate of MK-2, but exhibited disparate effects on upstream signaling. Serum albumin activated p38 MAPK/MK-2 signaling and induced Cox-2 expression, and these responses were blocked by both inhibitors. Given the critical importance of podocyte injury to both NS and other progressive glomerular diseases, these data suggest an important role for p38 MAPK/MK-2 signaling in podocyte injury and identify MK-2 inhibition as a promising potential therapeutic strategy to protect podocytes in various glomerular diseases. PMID:21613416

  15. Secreted and intracellular phospholipases A2 inhibition by 1-decyl 2-octyl-glycerophosphocholine in rat peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Boucrot, P; Bobin-Dubigeon, C; Elkihel, L; Letourneux, Y; Jugé, M; Gandemer, G; Petit, J Y

    1998-01-01

    Compounds able to inhibit phospholipases A2 can be considered as potential anti-inflammatory drugs. In this respect, the inhibitory effect of the phospholipid analogue 1-decyl 2-octyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine (decyloctyl-GPC) added to the culture medium of rat peritoneal macrophages stimulated with ionophore A23187 was determined. (a) The substrate of phospholipase A2 1-octadecanoyl 2-[14C]eicosatetraenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine ([14C]20:4-GPC) was added to the culture medium. In macrophages + extracellular fluids, its hydrolysis at the 2-position, produced [14C]non-phosphorous lipids which reached 12% of the dose at 0.14 microM, 73% at 0.9 and > 90% at 1.6 microM; in experiments where macrophages and extracellular fluids were analyzed separately, decyloctyl-GPC initially added at 4 microM, significantly inhibited the release of [14C]fatty acids and the eicosanoid synthesis, demonstrating its ability to inhibit secreted and/or intracellular phospholipases A2. (b) Extracellular fluids were separated from the macrophages and incubated with [14C]20:4-GPC: 48% of the dose was hydrolyzed by extracellular fluid-associated secreted phospholipase A2 and decyloctyl-GPC at 3 microM, reduced this hydrolysis by 50%. (c) [3H]arachidonic acid ([3H]20:4) was added to the culture medium and was esterified in the macrophage membrane phospholipids. Activation of intracellular phospholipase A2 induced the release of [3H] fatty acids and eicosanoid synthesis. These releases were inhibited by 50% with decyloctyl-GPC added at 4 microM. (d) [3H]20:4 and [14C]20:4-GPC were added to the culture medium of the macrophages. [3H] and [14C] fatty acids and eicosanoids were released in macrophages or extracellular fluids. They were significantly reduced by the phospholipid analogue added at 4 microM. It is concluded that secreted and intracellular phospholipases A2 were both inhibited by decyloctyl-GPC which extensively reduced the 20:4 release from exogenous and membrane phospholipids

  16. Orphan nuclear receptor NR4A2 inhibits hepatic stellate cell proliferation through MAPK pathway in liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pengguo; Li, Jie; Huo, Yan; Lu, Jin; Wan, Lili; Li, Bin; Gan, Run; Guo, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a crucial role in liver fibrosis, which is a pathological process characterized by extracellular matrix accumulation. NR4A2 is a nuclear receptor belonging to the NR4A subfamily and vital in regulating cell growth, metabolism, inflammation and other biological functions. However, its role in HSCs is unclear. We analyzed NR4A2 expression in fibrotic liver and stimulated HSCs compared with control group and studied the influence on cell proliferation, cell cycle, cell apoptosis and MAPK pathway after NR4A2 knockdown. NR4A2 expression was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analyses. NR4A2 expression was significantly lower in fibrotic liver tissues and PDGF BB or TGF-β stimulated HSCs compared with control group. After NR4A2 knockdown α-smooth muscle actin and Col1 expression increased. In addition, NR4A2 silencing led to the promotion of cell proliferation, increase of cell percentage in S phase and reduced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, P38 and JNK in HSCs. These results indicate that NR4A2 can inhibit HSC proliferation through MAPK pathway and decrease extracellular matrix in liver fibrogenesis. NR4A2 may be a promising therapeutic target for liver fibrosis.

  17. NcoA2-Dependent Inhibition of HIF-1α Activation Is Regulated via AhR.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chi-Hao; Li, Ching-Hao; Liao, Po-Lin; Cheng, Yu-Wen; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Huang, Shih-Hsuan; Kang, Jaw-Jou

    2015-12-01

    High endogenous levels of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) contribute to hypoxia signaling pathway inhibition following exposure to the potent AhR ligand benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and could alter cellular homeostasis and disease condition. Increasing evidence indicates that AhR might compete with AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) for complex formation with hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) for transactivation, which could alter several physiological variables. Nuclear receptor coactivator 2 (NcoA2) is a transcription coactivator that regulates transcription factor activation and inhibition of basic helix-loop-helix Per (Period)-ARNT-SIM (single-minded) (bHLH-PAS) family proteins, such as HIF-1α, ARNT, and AhR, through protein-protein interactions. In this study, we demonstrated that both hypoxia and hypoxia-mimic conditions decreased NcoA2 protein expression in HEK293T cells. Hypoxia response element (HRE) and xenobiotic-responsive element (XRE) transactivation also were downregulated with NcoA2 knockdown under hypoxic conditions. In addition, B[a]P significantly decreased NcoA2 protein expression be accompanied with AhR degradation. We next evaluated whether the absence of AhR could affect NcoA2 protein function under hypoxia-mimetic conditions. NcoA2 and HIF-1α nuclear localization decreased in both B[a]P-pretreated and AhR-knockdown HepG2 cells under hypoxia-mimic conditions. Interestingly, NcoA2 overexpression downregulated HRE transactivation by competing with HIF-1α and AhR to form protein complexes with ARNT. Both NcoA2 knockdown and overexpression inhibited endothelial cell tube formation in vitro. We also demonstrated using the in vivo plug assay that NcoA2-regulated vascularization decreased in mice. Taken together, these results revealed a biphasic role of NcoA2 between AhR and hypoxic conditions, thus providing a novel mechanism underlying the cross talk between AhR and hypoxia that affects disease development and progression. © The Author 2015

  18. Inhibiting PSMα-induced neutrophil necroptosis protects mice with MRSA pneumonia by blocking the agr system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Niu, Chao; Ma, Bo; Xue, Xiaoyan; Li, Zhi; Chen, Zhou; Li, Fen; Zhou, Shan; Luo, Xiaoxing; Hou, Zheng

    2018-03-02

    Given its high resistance, enhanced virulence, and high transmissibility, community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) pneumonia is highly associated with high morbidity and mortality. Anti-virulence therapy is a promising strategy that bypasses the evolutionary pressure on the bacterium to develop resistance. RNAIII-inhibiting peptide (RIP), as an accessory gene regulator (agr)-specific inhibitor, significantly restricts the virulence of S. aureus and protects infected mice from death by blocking the agr quorum sensing system. The protective effects of RIP on the neutropenic mice completely disappeared in a neutrophil-deleted mouse infection model, but not in the macrophage-deleted mice. This result confirmed that the in vivo antibacterial activity of RIP is highly associated with neutrophil function. Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs), as major leukocyte lysis toxins of CA-MRSA, are directly regulated by the agr system. In this experiment, PSMα1, 2, and 3 significantly induced neutrophil necroptosis by activating mixed lineage kinase-like protein (MLKL) phosphorylation and increasing lactate dehydrogenase release. The S. aureus supernatants harvested from the agr or psmα mutant strains both decreased the phosphorylation level of MLKL and cell lysis. PSMα1-mediated neutrophil lysis was significantly inhibited by necrosulfonamide, necrostatin-1, TNFα antibody, and WRW4. These results showed PSMα1 induced necroptosis depends on formylpeptide receptor 2 (FPR2)-mediated autocrine TNFα. Moreover, the neutrophil necroptosis induced by S. aureus was significantly suppressed and pneumonia was effectively prevented by the blockage of agrA and psmα expression levels. These findings indicate that PSMα-induced necroptosis is a major cause of lung pathology in S. aureus pneumonia and suggest that interfering with the agr quorum sensing signaling pathway is a potential therapeutic strategy.

  19. Renalase Protects against Renal Fibrosis by Inhibiting the Activation of the ERK Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yiru; Wang, Liyan; Deng, Dai; Zhang, Qidong; Liu, Wenhu

    2017-01-01

    Renal interstitial fibrosis is a common pathway for the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) to end-stage renal disease. Renalase, acting as a signaling molecule, has been reported to have cardiovascular and renal protective effects. However, its role in renal fibrosis remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of renalase in rats with complete unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and examined the inhibitory effects of renalase on transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human proximal renal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells. We found that in the UUO model, the expression of renalase was markedly downregulated and adenoviral-mediated expression of renalase significantly attenuated renal interstitial fibrosis, as evidenced by the maintenance of E-cadherin expression and suppressed expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), fibronectin and collagen-I. In vitro, renalase inhibited TGF-β1-mediated upregulation of α-SMA and downregulation of E-cadherin. Increased levels of Phospho-extracellular regulated protein kinases (p-ERK1/2) in TGF-β1-stimulated cells were reversed by renalase cotreatment. When ERK1 was overexpressed, the inhibition of TGF-β1-induced EMT and fibrosis mediated by renalase was attenuated. Our study provides the first evidence that renalase can ameliorate renal interstitial fibrosis by suppression of tubular EMT through inhibition of the ERK pathway. These results suggest that renalase has potential renoprotective effects in renal interstitial fibrosis and may be an effective agent for slowing CKD progression. PMID:28448446

  20. Micropatterned Protective Membranes Inhibit Lens Epithelial Cell Migration in Posterior Capsule Opacification Model

    PubMed Central

    Magin, Chelsea M.; May, Rhea M.; Drinker, Michael C.; Cuevas, Kevin H.; Brennan, Anthony B.; Reddy, Shravanthi T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the ability of Sharklet (SK) micropatterns to inhibit lens epithelial cell (LEC) migration. Sharklet Technologies, Inc. (STI) and InSight Innovations, LLC have proposed to develop a Sharklet-patterned protective membrane (PM) to be implanted in combination with a posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) to inhibit cellular migration across the posterior capsule, and thereby reduce rates of posterior capsular opacification (PCO). Methods A variety of STI micropatterns were evaluated versus smooth (SM) controls in a modified scratch wound assay for the ability to reduce or inhibit LEC migration. The best performing topography was selected, translated to a radial design, and applied to PM prototypes. The PM prototypes were tested in an in vitro PCO model for reduction of cell migration behind an IOL versus unpatterned prototypes and IOLs with no PM. In both assays, cell migration was analyzed with fluorescent microscopy. Results All SK micropatterns significantly reduced LEC migration compared with SM controls. Micropatterns that protruded from the surface reduced migration more than recessed features. The best performing micropattern reduced LEC coverage by 80%, P = 0.0001 (ANOVA, Tukey Test). Micropatterned PMs reduced LEC migration in a PCO model by 50%, P = 0.0005 (ANOVA, Tukey Test) compared with both IOLs with no PM and IOLs with SM PMs. Conclusions Collectively, in vitro results indicate the implantation of micropatterned PMs in combination with posterior chamber IOLs could significantly reduce rates of clinically relevant PCO. This innovative technology is a globally accessible solution to high PCO rates. Translational Relevance A novel IOL incorporating the SK micropattern in a membrane design surrounding the optic may help increase the success of cataract surgery by reducing secondary cataract, or PCO. PMID:25883876

  1. Adiponectin inhibits leptin signaling via multiple mechanisms to exert protective effects against hepatic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    HANDY, Jeffrey A.; FU, Ping P.; KUMAR, Pradeep; MELLS, Jamie E.; SHARMA, Shvetank; SAXENA, Neeraj K.; ANANIA, Frank A.

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Adiponectin is protective against hepatic fibrosis, while leptin promotes fibrosis. In hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), leptin signals via a Janus Kinase 2/Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription 3 (Jak2/Stat3) pathway, producing effects that enhance extracellular matrix deposition. Suppressors of Cytokine Signaling-3 (SOCS-3) and Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) are both negative regulators of Jak/Stat signaling, and recent studies demonstrated a role for adiponectin in regulating SOCS-3 expression. In this study we investigated mechanisms whereby adiponectin dampens leptin signaling and prevents excess ECM production. We treated culture-activated rat HSCs with recombinant adiponectin, leptin, both or neither, and also treated adiponectin knockout (Ad−/−) and wild-type mice with leptin and/or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), or saline. We analyzed Jak2 and Ob-Rb phosphorylation, and PTP1B expression and activity. We also explored potential mechanisms through which adiponectin regulates SOCS-3/Ob-Rb association. Adiponectin inhibited leptin-stimulated Jak2 activation and Ob-Rb phosphorylation in HSCs, while both were increased in Ad−/− mice. Adiponectin stimulated PTP1B expression and activity, in vitro, while PTP1B expression was lower in Ad−/−mice than in wild-type mice. Adiponectin also promoted SOCS-3/Ob-R association, and blocked leptin-stimulated formation of extracellular TIMP-1/MMP-1 complexes, in vitro. These data suggest two novel mechanisms whereby adiponectin inhibits hepatic fibrosis: by promoting binding of SOCS-3 to Ob-Rb, and stimulating PTP1B expression and activity, thus inhibiting Jak2-Stat3 signaling at multiple points. PMID:21846328

  2. Adiponectin inhibits leptin signalling via multiple mechanisms to exert protective effects against hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Handy, Jeffrey A; Fu, Ping P; Kumar, Pradeep; Mells, Jamie E; Sharma, Shvetank; Saxena, Neeraj K; Anania, Frank A

    2011-12-15

    Adiponectin is protective against hepatic fibrosis, whereas leptin promotes fibrosis. In HSCs (hepatic stellate cells), leptin signals via a JAK2 (Janus kinase 2)/STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) pathway, producing effects that enhance ECM (extracellular matrix) deposition. SOCS-3 (suppressor of cytokine signalling-3) and PTP1B (protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B) are both negative regulators of JAK/STAT signalling, and recent studies have demonstrated a role for adiponectin in regulating SOCS-3 expression. In the present study we investigate mechanisms whereby adiponectin dampens leptin signalling and prevents excess ECM production. We treated culture-activated rat HSCs with recombinant adiponectin, leptin, both or neither, and also treated adiponectin knockout (Ad-/-) and wild-type mice with leptin and/or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or saline. We analyse JAK2 and Ob-Rb (long form of the leptin receptor) phosphorylation, and PTP1B expression and activity. We also explore potential mechanisms through which adiponectin regulates SOCS-3-Ob-Rb association. Adiponectin inhibits leptin-stimulated JAK2 activation and Ob-Rb phosphorylation in HSCs, whereas both were increased in Ad-/- mice. Adiponectin stimulates PTP1B expression and activity in vitro, whereas PTP1B expression was lower in Ad-/-mice than in wild-type mice. Adiponectin also promotes SOCS-3-Ob-R association and blocks leptin-stimulated formation of extracellular TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1)-MMP-1 (matrix metalloproteinase-1) complexes in vitro. These results suggest two novel mechanisms whereby adiponectin inhibits hepatic fibrosis: (i) by promoting binding of SOCS-3 to Ob-Rb, and (ii) by stimulating PTP1B expression and activity, thus inhibiting JAK2/STAT3 signalling at multiple points.

  3. Ibutilide protects against cardiomyocytes injury via inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial stress pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Yi-Li; Huang, Xia; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Ya-Jun; Wei, Cheng-Xi; Zhao, Ming

    2017-02-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a complex disease with multiple inter-relating causes culminating in rapid atrial activation and atrial structural remodeling. The contribution of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria stress to AF has been highlighted. As the class III antiarrhythmic agent, ibutilide are widely used to AF. This study was designed to explore whether ibutilide could treat AF by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways and mitochondria stress. The neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were isolated and exposed to H 2 O 2 , ibutilide was add to the culture medium 12 h. Then the cell viability, oxidative stress levels and apoptotic rate were analyzed. In addition, endoplasmic reticulum stress related protein (GRP78, GRP94, CHOP), mitochondria-dependent protein (Bax, Bcl-2) and caspase-3/9/12 were identified by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. In our results, remarkable decreased cell viability and oxidative stress levels were detected in cardiomyocytes after treating with H 2 O 2 . The apoptotic rate and the expression of proteins involved in mitochondrial stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways increased. While ibutilide significantly inhibited these changes. These data suggested that ibutilide serves a protective role against H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, and the mechanism is related to suppression of mitochondrial stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

  4. Apigenin protects mice from pneumococcal pneumonia by inhibiting the cytolytic activity of pneumolysin.

    PubMed

    Song, Meng; Li, Li; Li, Meng; Cha, Yonghong; Deng, Xuming; Wang, Jianfeng

    2016-12-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogenic bacterium that can cause various life-threatening infections. Pneumolysin (PLY), the pore-forming toxin that forms large pores in the cell membrane, is a key virulence factor secreted by S. pneumoniae that penetrates the physical defenses of the host and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of pneumococcal diseases, such as pneumonia, meningitis, bacteremia and otitis media. This study showed that apigenin, one of the bioflavonoids widely found in herbs, inhibits PLY-induced hemolysis by inhibiting the oligomerization of PLY and has no anti-S. pneumoniae activity. In addition, when PLY was incubated with human alveolar epithelial (A549) cells, apigenin could effectively alleviate PLY-mediated cell injury. In vivo studies further demonstrated that apigenin could protect mice against S. pneumoniae pneumonia. These results imply that apigenin could directly interact with PLY to decrease the pathogenicity of S. pneumoniae and that novel therapeutics against S. pneumoniae PLY might provide greater effectiveness in combatting S. pneumoniae pneumonia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase protects against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in mice by two step mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yimin; Luo, Xiao; Pan, Hao; Huang, Wei; Wang, Xueping; Wen, Huali; Shen, Kezhen; Jin, Baiye

    2015-09-01

    Cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity is primarily caused by ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) induced proximal tubular cell death. NADPH oxidase is major source of ROS production by cisplatin. Here, we reported that pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase by acetovanillone (obtained from medicinal herb Picrorhiza kurroa) led to reduced cisplatin nephrotoxicity in mice. In this study we used various molecular biology and biochemistry methods a clinically relevant model of nephropathy, induced by an important chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin. Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity was evident by histological damage from loss of the tubular structure. The damage was also marked by the increase in blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, protein nitration as well as cell death markers such as caspase 3/7 activity and DNA fragmentation. Tubular cell death by cisplatin led to pro-inflammatory response by production of TNFα and IL1β followed by leukocyte/neutrophil infiltration which resulted in new wave of ROS involving more NADPH oxidases. Cisplatin-induced markers of kidney damage such as oxidative stress, cell death, inflammatory cytokine production and nephrotoxicity were attenuated by acetovanillone. In addition to that, acetovanillone enhanced cancer cell killing efficacy of cisplatin. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase can be protective for cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Inhibition of carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema by crotapotin, a polypeptide complexed with phospholipase A2.

    PubMed Central

    Landucci, E C; Antunes, E; Donato, J L; Faro, R; Hyslop, S; Marangoni, S; Oliveira, B; Cirino, G; de Nucci, G

    1995-01-01

    1. The effect of purified crotapotin, a non-toxic non-enzymatic chaperon protein normally complexed to a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in South America rattlesnake venom, was studied in the acute inflammatory response induced by carrageenin (1 mg/paw), compound 48/80 (3 micrograms/paw) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) (3 micrograms/paw) in the rat hind-paw. The effects of crotapotin on platelet aggregation, mast cell degranulation and eicosanoid release from guinea-pig isolated lung were also investigated. 2. Subplantar co-injection of crotapotin (1 and 10 micrograms/paw) with carrageenin or injection of crotapotin (10 micrograms/paw) into the contralateral paw significantly inhibited the carrageenin-induced oedema. This inhibition was also observed when crotapotin (10-30 micrograms/paw) was administered either intraperitoneally or orally. Subplantar injection of heated crotapotin (15 min at 60 degrees C) failed to inhibit carrageenin-induced oedema. Subplantar injection of crotapotin (10 micrograms/paw) also significantly inhibited the rat paw oedema induced by compound 48/80, but it did not affect 5-HT-induced oedema. 3. In adrenalectomized animals, subplantar injection of crotapotin markedly inhibited the oedema induced by carrageenin. The inhibitory effect of crotapotin was also observed in rats depleted of histamine and 5-HT stores. 4. Crotapotin (30 micrograms/paw) had no effect on either the histamine release induced by compound 48/80 in vitro or on the platelet aggregation induced by both arachidonic acid (1 nM) and platelet activating factor (1 microM) in human platelet-rich plasma. The platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) release induced by thrombin (100 mu ml-1) in washed human platelets were also not affected by crotapotin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7537590

  7. Nrf2 inhibits oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy via protection of mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Luo, Lan; Cai, Xueting; Fang, Yuan; Wang, Jiaqi; Chen, Gang; Yang, Jie; Zhou, Qian; Sun, Xiaoyan; Cheng, Xiaolan; Yan, Huaijiang; Lu, Wuguang; Hu, Chunping; Cao, Peng

    2018-05-20

    Oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (OIPN) is a severe, dose-limiting toxicity associated with cancer chemotherapy. The efficacy of antioxidant administration in OIPN is debatable, as the promising preliminary results obtained with a number of antioxidants have not been confirmed in larger clinical trials. Besides its antioxidant activity, the transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid 2 (NF-E2) p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a crucial role in the maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis, and mitochondrial dysfunction is a key contributor to OIPN. Here, we have investigated the protective properties of Nrf2 in OIPN. Nrf2 -/- mice displayed severe mechanical allodynia and cold sensitivity and thus experienced increased peripheral nervous system injury compared to Nrf2 +/+ mice. Furthermore, Nrf2 knockout aggravated oxaliplatin-induced reactive oxygen species production, decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, led to abnormal intracellular calcium levels, and induced cytochrome c-related apoptosis and overexpression of the TRP protein family. Sulforaphane-induced activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway alleviated morphological alterations, mitochondrial dysfunction in dorsal root ganglion neurons, and nociceptive sensations in mice. Our findings reveal that Nrf2 may play a critical role in ameliorating OIPN, through protection of mitochondrial function by alleviating oxidative stress and inhibiting TRP protein family expression. This suggests that pharmacological or therapeutic activation of Nrf2 may be used to prevent or slow down the progression of OIPN. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Baicalin Inhibits Renal Cell Apoptosis and Protects Against Acute Kidney Injury in Pediatric Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yanping; Fu, Yanxia; Lin, Hairong

    2016-01-01

    Background Pediatric sepsis has high morbidity in children, may lead to acute kidney injury (AKI), and further aggravate the disease. Baicalin is a kind of flavonoid in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and has been reported to protect against several diseases, but its roles in septic AKI remain unclear. This study aimed to uncover the effects of baicalin in AKI during pediatric sepsis. Material/Methods Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Cr) levels were detected in 50 pediatric patients, who underwent basic therapy with or without baicalin adjunctive therapy. Mouse sepsis models were constructed by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and treated with baicalin intragastrically, after which BUN and Cr examination, TUNEL apoptosis assay, and expression analyses of BAX and BCL2 were performed. Results Baicalin adjunctive therapy significantly decreased BUN and Cr levels in pediatric sepsis patients (P<0.05). CLP led to elevated BUN and Cr levels in the mouse model (P<0.01), indicating kidney injury accompanied by sepsis. Baicalin decreased BUN and Cr levels (P<0.05), and reduced the apoptotic cell percent in the renal tissue (P<0.05) of the CLP model. It inhibited BAX and promoted BCL2 in the renal tissue, which was consistent with cell apoptosis changes. Conclusions Baicalin is capable of suppressing renal cell apoptosis and protecting against AKI in pediatric sepsis. This study provides a potential adjunctive therapy for treating AKI in pediatric sepsis, and further research is necessary to reveal its deeper mechanisms. PMID:28013315

  9. Phycocyanin and phycocyanobilin from Spirulina platensis protect against diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jing; Inoguchi, Toyoshi; Sasaki, Shuji; Maeda, Yasutaka; McCarty, Mark F; Fujii, Masakazu; Ikeda, Noriko; Kobayashi, Kunihisa; Sonoda, Noriyuki; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

    2013-01-15

    We and other investigators have reported that bilirubin and its precursor biliverdin may have beneficial effects on diabetic vascular complications, including nephropathy, via its antioxidant effects. Here, we investigated whether phycocyanin derived from Spirulina platensis, a blue-green algae, and its chromophore phycocyanobilin, which has a chemical structure similar to that of biliverdin, protect against oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in db/db mice, a rodent model for Type 2 diabetes. Oral administration of phycocyanin (300 mg/kg) for 10 wk protected against albuminuria and renal mesangial expansion in db/db mice, and normalized tumor growth factor-β and fibronectin expression. Phycocyanin also normalized urinary and renal oxidative stress markers and the expression of NAD(P)H oxidase components. Similar antioxidant effects were observed following oral administration of phycocyanobilin (15 mg/kg) for 2 wk. Phycocyanobilin, bilirubin, and biliverdin also inhibited NADPH dependent superoxide production in cultured renal mesangial cells. In conclusion, oral administration of phycocyanin and phycocyanobilin may offer a novel and feasible therapeutic approach for preventing diabetic nephropathy.

  10. Baicalin Inhibits Renal Cell Apoptosis and Protects Against Acute Kidney Injury in Pediatric Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanping; Fu, Yanxia; Lin, Hairong

    2016-12-25

    BACKGROUND Pediatric sepsis has high morbidity in children, may lead to acute kidney injury (AKI), and further aggravate the disease. Baicalin is a kind of flavonoid in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and has been reported to protect against several diseases, but its roles in septic AKI remain unclear. This study aimed to uncover the effects of baicalin in AKI during pediatric sepsis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Cr) levels were detected in 50 pediatric patients, who underwent basic therapy with or without baicalin adjunctive therapy. Mouse sepsis models were constructed by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and treated with baicalin intragastrically, after which BUN and Cr examination, TUNEL apoptosis assay, and expression analyses of BAX and BCL2 were performed. RESULTS Baicalin adjunctive therapy significantly decreased BUN and Cr levels in pediatric sepsis patients (P<0.05). CLP led to elevated BUN and Cr levels in the mouse model (P<0.01), indicating kidney injury accompanied by sepsis. Baicalin decreased BUN and Cr levels (P<0.05), and reduced the apoptotic cell percent in the renal tissue (P<0.05) of the CLP model. It inhibited BAX and promoted BCL2 in the renal tissue, which was consistent with cell apoptosis changes. CONCLUSIONS Baicalin is capable of suppressing renal cell apoptosis and protecting against AKI in pediatric sepsis. This study provides a potential adjunctive therapy for treating AKI in pediatric sepsis, and further research is necessary to reveal its deeper mechanisms.

  11. Allicin protects against cisplatin-induced vestibular dysfunction by inhibiting the apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xianmin; Cai, Jing; Li, Xiaofei; Li, He; Li, Jianfeng; Bai, Xiaohui; Liu, Wenwen; Han, Yuechen; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Daogong; Wang, Haibo; Fan, Zhaomin

    2017-06-15

    Cisplatin is an anticancer drug that causes the impairment of inner ear function as side effects, including hearing loss and balance dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of allicin against cisplatin-induced vestibular dysfunction in mice and to make clear the mechanism underlying the protective effects of allicin on oto-vestibulotoxicity. Mice intraperitoneally injected with cisplatin exhibited vestibular dysfunction in swimming test, which agreed with impairment in vestibule. However, these impairments were significantly prevented by pre-treatment with allicin. Allicin markedly reduced cisplatin-activated expression of cleaved-caspase-3 in hair cells and vascular layer cells of utricule, saccule and ampulla, but also decreased AIF nuclear translocation of hair cells in utricule, saccule and ampulla. These results showed that allicin played an effective role in protecting vestibular dysfunction induced by cisplatin via inhibiting caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptotic pathways. Therefore, allicin may be useful in preventing oto-vestibulotoxicity mediated by cisplatin. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Inhibition of BTK protects lungs from trauma-hemorrhagic shock-induced injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinwei; Zhang, Jingdong; Han, Wenfeng; Wang, Yu; Liu, Yunen; Zhang, Yubiao; Zhou, Dapeng; Xiang, Liangbi

    2017-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) in the pathogenesis of lung injury induced by trauma‑hemorrhagic shock (THS), and to examine the pulmonary protective effects of BTK inhibition. Male Sprague‑Dawley rats were divided into four groups (n=12/group): i) A Sham group, which received surgery without induced trauma; ii) a THS‑induced injury group; iii) a THS‑induced injury group that also received treatment with the BTK inhibitor LFM‑A13 prior to trauma induction; and iv) a Sham group that was pretreated with LFM‑A13 prior to surgery but did not receive induced trauma. The expression of phosphorylated‑BTK protein in the lungs was measured by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) protein concentration, total leukocyte and eosinophil numbers, and the expression levels of peripheral blood proinflammatory factors were measured. Morphological alterations in the lungs were detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Pulmonary nitric oxide (NO) concentration and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression were also assessed. Activities of the nuclear factor (NF)‑κB and mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways were determined by western blotting or electrophoretic mobility shift assay. BTK was notably activated in lungs of THS rats. BALF protein concentration, total leukocytes and eosinophils, peripheral blood expression levels of tumor necrosis factor‑α, interleukin (IL)‑1β, IL‑6 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 were significantly upregulated after THS induction, and each exhibited decreased expression upon LFM‑A13 treatment. THS‑induced interstitial hyperplasia, edema and neutrophilic infiltration in lungs were improved by the inhibition of BTK. In addition, THS‑induced NO release, iNOS overexpression, and NF‑κB and MAPK signaling were suppressed by BTK inhibition. Results from the present study demonstrate that BTK may serve

  13. Systemic Inhibition of NF-κB Activation Protects from Silicosis

    PubMed Central

    Di Giuseppe, Michelangelo; Gambelli, Federica; Hoyle, Gary W.; Lungarella, Giuseppe; Studer, Sean M.; Richards, Thomas; Yousem, Sam; McCurry, Ken; Dauber, James; Kaminski, Naftali; Leikauf, George; Ortiz, Luis A.

    2009-01-01

    a dominant negative IκBα mutant protein under the control of epithelial cell specific promoters demonstrate enhanced apoptosis and collagen deposition in their lungs in response to silica. Conclusions Although limited by its size, our data support that patients with silicosis appear to have poor outcome following lung transplantation. Experimental data indicate that while the systemic inhibition of NF-κB protects from silica-induced lung injury, epithelial cell specific NF-κB inhibition appears to aggravate the outcome of experimental silicosis. PMID:19479048

  14. Selective inhibition of tumor cell associated Vacuolar-ATPase 'a2' isoform overcomes cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kulshrestha, Arpita; Katara, Gajendra K; Ginter, Jordyn; Pamarthy, Sahithi; Ibrahim, Safaa A; Jaiswal, Mukesh K; Sandulescu, Corina; Periakaruppan, Ramayee; Dolan, James; Gilman-Sachs, Alice; Beaman, Kenneth D

    2016-06-01

    Development of resistance to platinum compounds significantly hinders successful ovarian cancer (OVCA) treatment. In tumor cells, dysregulated pH gradient across cell membranes is a key physiological mechanism of metastasis/chemo-resistance. These pH alterations are mediated by aberrant activation of key multi-subunit proton pumps, Vacuolar-ATPases (V-ATPases). In tumor cells, its 'a2' isoform (V-ATPase-V0a2) is a component of functional plasma-membrane complex and promotes tumor invasion through tumor-acidification and immuno-modulation. Its involvement in chemo-resistance has not been studied. Here, we show that V-ATPase-V0a2 is over-expressed in acquired-cisplatin resistant OVCA cells (cis-A2780/cis-TOV112D). Of all the 'a' subunit isoforms, V-ATPase-V0a2 exhibited an elevated expression on plasma membrane of cisplatin-resistant cells compared to sensitive counterparts. Immuno-histochemistry revealed V-ATPase-V0a2 expression in both low grade (highly drug-resistant) and high grade (highly recurrent) human OVCA tissues indicating its role in a centralized mechanism of tumor resistance. In cisplatin resistant cells, shRNA mediated inhibition of V-ATPase-V0a2 enhanced sensitivity towards both cisplatin and carboplatin. This improved cytotoxicity was mediated by enhanced cisplatin-DNA-adduct formation and suppressed DNA-repair pathway, leading to enhanced apoptosis. Suppression of V0a2 activity strongly reduced cytosolic pH in resistant tumor cells, which is known to enhance platinum-associated DNA-damage. As an indicator of reduced metastasis and chemo-resistance, in contrast to plasma membrane localization, a diffused cytoplasmic localization of acidic vacuoles was observed in V0a2-knockdown resistant cells. Interestingly, pre-treatment with monoclonal V0a2-inhibitory antibody enhanced cisplatin cytotoxicity in resistant cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that the isoform specific inhibition of V-ATPase-V0a2 could serve as a therapeutic strategy for chemo

  15. Inhibition of EphA2/EphrinA1 signal attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji Young; Shin, Mi Hwa; Douglas, Ivor S; Chung, Kyung Soo; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Ji Ye; Kang, Young Ae; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Kim, Young Sam; Park, Moo Suk

    2016-11-01

    Eph-Ephrin signalling mediates various cellular processes, including vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, cell migration, axon guidance, fluid homoeostasis and repair after injury. Although previous studies have demonstrated that stimulation of the EphA receptor induces increased vascular permeability and inflammatory response in lung injury, the detailed mechanisms of EphA2 signalling are unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the role of EphA2 signalling in mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury. Acute LPS exposure significantly up-regulated EphA2 and EphrinA1 expression. Compared with LPS+IgG mice (IgG instillation after LPS exposure), LPS+EphA2 mAb mice [EphA2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) instillation posttreatment after LPS exposure] had attenuated lung injury and reduced cell counts and protein concentration of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). EphA2 mAb posttreatment down-regulated the expression of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) 110γ, phospho-Akt, phospho-NF-κB p65, phospho-Src and phospho-S6K in lung lysates. In addition, inhibiting the EphA2 receptor augmented the expression of E-cadherin, which is involved in cell-cell adhesion. Our study identified EphA2 receptor as an unrecognized modulator of several signalling pathways-including PI3K-Akt-NF-kB, Src-NF-κB, E-cadherin and mTOR-in LPS-induced lung injury. These results suggest that EphA2 receptor inhibitors may function as novel therapeutic agents for LPS-induced lung injury. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  16. The Alzheimer Disease Protective Mutation A2T Modulates Kinetic and Thermodynamic Properties of Amyloid-β (Aβ) Aggregation*

    PubMed Central

    Benilova, Iryna; Gallardo, Rodrigo; Ungureanu, Andreea-Alexandra; Castillo Cano, Virginia; Snellinx, An; Ramakers, Meine; Bartic, Carmen; Rousseau, Frederic; Schymkowitz, Joost; De Strooper, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Missense mutations in alanine 673 of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), which corresponds to the second alanine of the amyloid β (Aβ) sequence, have dramatic impact on the risk for Alzheimer disease; A2V is causative, and A2T is protective. Assuming a crucial role of amyloid-Aβ in neurodegeneration, we hypothesized that both A2V and A2T mutations cause distinct changes in Aβ properties that may at least partially explain these completely different phenotypes. Using human APP-overexpressing primary neurons, we observed significantly decreased Aβ production in the A2T mutant along with an enhanced Aβ generation in the A2V mutant confirming earlier data from non-neuronal cell lines. More importantly, thioflavin T fluorescence assays revealed that the mutations, while having little effect on Aβ42 peptide aggregation, dramatically change the properties of the Aβ40 pool with A2V accelerating and A2T delaying aggregation of the Aβ peptides. In line with the kinetic data, Aβ A2T demonstrated an increase in the solubility at equilibrium, an effect that was also observed in all mixtures of the A2T mutant with the wild type Aβ40. We propose that in addition to the reduced β-secretase cleavage of APP, the impaired propensity to aggregate may be part of the protective effect conferred by A2T substitution. The interpretation of the protective effect of this mutation is thus much more complicated than proposed previously. PMID:25253695

  17. Artemisinin protects mice against burn sepsis through inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Long, Huibao; Xu, Bincan; Luo, Yanling; Luo, Keqin

    2016-05-01

    NLRP3 inflammasome activation is recently reported to be linked to the pathogenesis of sepsis. Artemisinin is shown to play beneficial effects in sepsis. However, the impacts of artemisinin on burn sepsis have not been investigated. This study is designed to investigate the role of artemisinin in burn sepsis and the involvement of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into sham burn, burn, burn sepsis, and artemisinin treated groups. Inflammatory cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adhesion molecules and neutrophil infiltration in lung and heart were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Mortality rates were monitored. Artemisinin was added to Raw 264.7 cells that were stimulated with burn sepsis serum in the presence/absence of an inhibitor of NLRP3 inflammasome, 3, 4-methylenedioxy-β-nitrostyrene. Interleukin (IL) 1β and IL-18 messenger RNA expression as well as NLRP3 and caspase 1 protein were measured. Production of inflammatory cytokines in serum, levels of adhesion molecules and neutrophil infiltration in lung and heart, and mortality rate of burn septic mice were significantly higher than those of control. These effects were attenuated by artemisinin. Artemisinin down-regulated protein levels of NLRP3 and caspase 1 and inhibited the increases of IL-1β and IL-18 messenger RNA expression from Raw 264.7 cells that were stimulated with burn sepsis serum. These effects of artemisinin were not further strengthened in the presence of 4-methylenedioxy-β-nitrostyrene. Artemisinin protects mice from burn sepsis by attenuating the inflammatory response and alleviating inflammatory infiltration in vital organs, likely through inhibiting the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. MANF prevents traumatic brain injury in rats by inhibiting inflammatory activation and protecting Blood Brain Barrier.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing-Xin; Shen, Yu-Xian; Ahmad, Akhlaq; Shen, Yu-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Quan; Xu, Pei-Kun; Chen, Wei-Wei; Yu, Yong-Qiang

    2018-06-05

    Our previous studies have shown that MANF provides neuroprotective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury and is also involved in inflammatory disease models. This work investigates the potential role and mechanism of MANF in acute brain damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The model of TBI was induced by Feeney free falling methods with male Sprauge-Dawley rats. The expression of MANF, 24 hrs after TBI, was detected by the immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, Western blot and Reverse transcription PCR(RT-PCR) techniques. After treatment with recombinant human MANF following TBI, assessment was conducted - 24 hrs later for brain water content(BWC), cerebral edema volume in MRI, neurobehavioral testing and Evans blue extravasation. Moreover, by the techniques of Western blot and RT-PCR, the expression of inflammatory cytokines(IL-1β, TNF-α) and P65 was also analyzed to explore the underlying protective mechanism of MANF. At 24 hrs after TBI, we found that endogenous MANF was widely expressed in the rat's brain tissues and different types of cells. Treatment with high dose of recombinant human MANF(20 μg/20 μL) - significantly increased the modified Garcia score, and reduced BWC as well as cerebral edema volume in MRI. Furthermore, MANF alleviated not only the blood-brain barrier(BBB) permeability, but also the expressions of IL-1β and TNF-α mRNA and protein. Besides, the activation of P65 was also inhibited. These results suggest that MANF provides neuroprotective effect against acute brain injury after TBI, via attenuating BBB disruption and intracranial neuroinflammation, while the inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathway might be a potential mechanism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adenosine A(2B) receptor antagonist PSB603 suppresses tumor growth and metastasis by inhibiting induction of regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Wakako; Tanaka, Satomi; Tsukimoto, Mitsutoshi; Kojima, Shuji

    2014-04-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a role in suppression of immune response, including anti-tumor immunity. We have recently reported that treatment of naïve CD4 T cells with adenosine A(2B) receptor antagonist PSB603 under Treg-skewing conditions inhibits expression of Foxp3, a marker of differentiation to Treg, without blocking IL-2 production or CD25 expression, which are activation markers, in CD4 T cells. We hypothesized that PSB603 suppresses cancer growth and metastasis by inhibiting induction of Treg, thereby facilitating anti-tumor immunity. In this study, we first examined the effect of PSB603 on tumor growth in B16 melanoma-bearing C57BL/6 mice. Administration of PSB603 significantly suppressed the increase of tumor volume as well as the increase of Treg population in these mice. The populations of CD4 and CD8 T cells were higher and splenic lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity towards B16 melanoma was significantly increased in PSB603-treated mice. We confirmed that PSB603 did not reduce the viability of B16 melanoma cells in vitro. Moreover, we also examined the effect of PSB603 on tumor metastasis in pulmonary metastasis model mice intravenously injected with B16 melanoma cells. The metastasis was also suppressed in PSB603-treated mice, in which the population of Treg was significantly lower. Overall, our results suggest that A(2B) receptor antagonist PSB603 enhances anti-tumor immunity by inhibiting differentiation to Treg, resulting in a delay of tumor growth and a suppression of metastasis.

  20. Resetting microbiota by Lactobacillus reuteri inhibits T reg deficiency–induced autoimmunity via adenosine A2A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Thomas K.; Tian, Xiangjun; Luo, Meng; Zhou, Jain; Tatevian, Nina; Molina, Jose G.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Gomez, Thomas H.

    2017-01-01

    Regulatory T (T reg) cell deficiency causes lethal, CD4+ T cell–driven autoimmune diseases. Stem cell transplantation is used to treat these diseases, but this procedure is limited by the availability of a suitable donor. The intestinal microbiota drives host immune homeostasis by regulating the differentiation and expansion of T reg, Th1, and Th2 cells. It is currently unclear if T reg cell deficiency–mediated autoimmune disorders can be treated by targeting the enteric microbiota. Here, we demonstrate that Foxp3+ T reg cell deficiency results in gut microbial dysbiosis and autoimmunity over the lifespan of scurfy (SF) mouse. Remodeling microbiota with Lactobacillus reuteri prolonged survival and reduced multiorgan inflammation in SF mice. L. reuteri changed the metabolomic profile disrupted by T reg cell deficiency, and a major effect was to restore levels of the purine metabolite inosine. Feeding inosine itself prolonged life and inhibited multiorgan inflammation by reducing Th1/Th2 cells and their associated cytokines. Mechanistically, the inhibition of inosine on the differentiation of Th1 and Th2 cells in vitro depended on adenosine A2A receptors, which were also required for the efficacy of inosine and of L. reuteri in vivo. These results reveal that the microbiota–inosine–A2A receptor axis might represent a potential avenue for combatting autoimmune diseases mediated by T reg cell dysfunction. PMID:27994068

  1. MyD88 signaling inhibits protective immunity to the gastrointestinal helminth parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Lisa A; Harcus, Yvonne; Smith, Katherine A; Webb, Lauren M; Hewitson, James P; Ross, Ewan A; Brown, Sheila; Uematsu, Satoshi; Akira, Shizuo; Gray, David; Gray, Mohini; MacDonald, Andrew S; Cunningham, Adam F; Maizels, Rick M

    2014-09-15

    Helminth parasites remain one of the most common causes of infections worldwide, yet little is still known about the immune signaling pathways that control their expulsion. C57BL/6 mice are chronically susceptible to infection with the gastrointestinal helminth parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus. In this article, we report that C57BL/6 mice lacking the adapter protein MyD88, which mediates signaling by TLRs and IL-1 family members, showed enhanced immunity to H. polygyrus infection. Alongside increased parasite expulsion, MyD88-deficient mice showed heightened IL-4 and IL-17A production from mesenteric lymph node CD4(+) cells. In addition, MyD88(-/-) mice developed substantial numbers of intestinal granulomas around the site of infection, which were not seen in MyD88-sufficient C57BL/6 mice, nor when signaling through the adapter protein TRIF (TIR domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-β adapter protein) was also ablated. Mice deficient solely in TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, or TLR9 did not show enhanced parasite expulsion, suggesting that these TLRs signal redundantly to maintain H. polygyrus susceptibility in wild-type mice. To further investigate signaling pathways that are MyD88 dependent, we infected IL-1R1(-/-) mice with H. polygyrus. This genotype displayed heightened granuloma numbers compared with wild-type mice, but without increased parasite expulsion. Thus, the IL-1R-MyD88 pathway is implicated in inhibiting granuloma formation; however, protective immunity in MyD88-deficient mice appears to be granuloma independent. Like IL-1R1(-/-) and MyD88(-/-) mice, animals lacking signaling through the type 1 IFN receptor (i.e., IFNAR1(-/-)) also developed intestinal granulomas. Hence, IL-1R1, MyD88, and type 1 IFN receptor signaling may provide pathways to impede granuloma formation in vivo, but additional MyD88-mediated signals are associated with inhibition of protective immunity in susceptible C57BL/6 mice. Copyright © 2014 The Authors.

  2. Oral pirfenidone protects against fibrosis by inhibiting fibroblast proliferation and TGF-β signaling in a murine colitis model.

    PubMed

    Li, Guanwei; Ren, Jianan; Hu, Qiongyuan; Deng, Youming; Chen, Guopu; Guo, Kun; Li, Ranran; Li, Yuan; Wu, Lei; Wang, Gefei; Gu, Guosheng; Li, Jieshou

    2016-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), particularly Crohn's disease, frequently causes intestinal fibrosis that ultimately leads to formation of strictures requiring bowel resection. Currently there is no effective antifibrotic therapy available for this disease. Pirfenidone is a small compound that has a broad spectrum of antifibrogenic effect and has been used for the treatment of fibrotic diseases in various organs. The present study aimed to investigate the antifibrogenic effect of pirfenidone in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced murine colitis model. C57BL/6 mice were used and animals were randomly divided into groups receiving pirfenidone or vehicle by oral or transanal routes. Inflammation- and fibrosis-related indexes including body weight, colon length, disease activity, histological change, mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic cytokines were assessed. Furthermore, we performed in vitro analysis using CCD18-Co fibroblasts to evaluate cell proliferation, transdifferentiation, and viability after the cells were cultured with pirfenidone. It was found that oral administration of pirfenidone reduced deposition of collagen in colitis-associated fibrosis, and significantly suppressed the mRNA expression of col1a2, col3a1, and TGF-β. Moreover, pirfenidone inhibited the activation of TGF-β-related smad and MAPK pathways both in vitro and in vivo. Clinical and histological evaluation demonstrated that pirfenidone had no anti-inflammatory effect. The antifibrogenic effect was reduced when pirfenidone was administered in a delayed manner and was unobserved if given locally. Pirfenidone suppressed fibroblast proliferation and transdifferentiation without observed toxicity. Altogether, our results suggested that oral pirfenidone protects against fibrosis of DSS-induced colitis through inhibiting the proliferation of colonic fibroblasts and TGF-β signaling pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Berberine protects HK-2 cells from hypoxia/reoxygenation induced apoptosis via inhibiting SPHK1 expression.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianrao; Yi, Yang; Pan, Ronghua; Zhang, Chuanfu; Han, Haiyan; Chen, Jie; Liu, Wenrui

    2018-03-01

    Renal ischemia reperfusion injury (RIRI) refers to the irreversible damage for renal function when blood perfusion is recovered after ischemia for an extended period, which is common in clinical surgeries and has been regarded as a major risk for acute renal failures (ARF) that is accompanied with unimaginably high morbidity and mortality. Hypoxia during ischemia followed by reoxygenation via reperfusion serves as a major event contributing to cell apoptosis, which has been widely accepted as the vital pathogenesis in RIRI. Preventing apoptosis in renal tubular epithelial cell has been considered as effective method for blocking RIRI. In this paper, we established a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury model in human proximal tubular epithelial HK-2 cells. Here, we found increased SPHK1 levels in H/R injured HK-2 cells, which could be significantly down regulated after berberine treatment. Berberine has been reported to exert a protective effect on H/R-induced apoptosis of HK-2 cells. So, in our present study, we planned to investigate whether SPHK1 participated in the anti-apoptosis process of berberine in H/R injured HK-2 cells. Our study confirmed the protective effect of berberine against H/R-induced apoptosis in HK-2 cells through promoting cells viability, inhibiting cells apoptosis, and down-regulating p-P38, caspase-3, caspase-9 as well as SPHK1, while up regulating the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. However, SPHK1 overexpression in HK-2 cells induced severe apoptosis, which can be significantly ameliorated with additional berberine treatment. We concluded that berberine could remarkably prevent H/R-induced apoptosis in HK-2 cells through down-regulating SPHK1 expression levels, and the mechanisms included the suppression of p38 MAPK activation and mitochondrial stress pathways.

  4. BDNF/TrkB signaling protects HT-29 human colon cancer cells from EGFR inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Brunetto de Farias, Caroline; Children's Cancer Institute, 90420-140 Porto Alegre, RS; Laboratory of Neuropharmacology and Neural Tumor Biology, Department of Pharmacology, Institute for Basic Health Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 90050-170 Porto Alegre, RS

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BDNF protected HT-29 colorectal cancer cells from the antitumor effect of cetuximab. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TrkB inhibition potentiated the antitumor effect of cetuximab. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BDNF/TrkB signaling might be involved in resistance to anti-EGFR therapy. -- Abstract: The clinical success of targeted treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) is often limited by resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy. The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor TrkB have recently emerged as anticancer targets, and we have previously shown increased BDNF levels in CRC tumor samples. Here we report the findings from in vitro experiments suggesting that BDNF/TrkB signaling canmore » protect CRC cells from the antitumor effects of EGFR blockade. The anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab reduced both cell proliferation and the mRNA expression of BDNF and TrkB in human HT-29 CRC cells. The inhibitory effect of cetuximab on cell proliferation and survival was counteracted by the addition of human recombinant BDNF. Finally, the Trk inhibitor K252a synergistically enhanced the effect of cetuximab on cell proliferation, and this effect was blocked by BDNF. These results provide the first evidence that increased BDNF/TrkB signaling might play a role in resistance to EGFR blockade. Moreover, it is possible that targeting TrkB could potentiate the anticancer effects of anti-EGFR therapy.« less

  5. Melanin Protects Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from the Effects of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Inhibition and Antifungal Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Baltazar, Ludmila Matos; Werneck, Silvia Maria Cordeiro; Soares, Betânia Maria; Ferreira, Marcus Vinicius L.; Souza, Danielle G.; Pinotti, Marcos; Santos, Daniel Assis

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a public health concern in Latin America and South America that when not correctly treated can lead to patient death. In this study, the influence of melanin produced by Paracoccidioides spp. on the effects of treatment with antimicrobial photodynamic inhibition (aPI) and antifungal drugs was evaluated. aPI was performed using toluidine blue (TBO) as a photosensitizer and a 630-nm light-emitting diode (LED) light. The antifungals tested were itraconazole and amphotericin B. We evaluated the effects of each approach, aPI or antifungals, against nonmelanized and melanized yeast cells by performing susceptibility tests and by quantifying oxidative and nitrosative bursts during the experiments. aPI reduced nonmelanized cells by 3.0 log units and melanized cells by 1.3 log units. The results showed that melanization protects the fungal cell, probably by acting as a scavenger of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species, but not of peroxynitrite. Melanin also increased the MICs of itraconazole and amphotericin B, and the drugs were fungicidal for nonmelanized and fungistatic for melanized yeast cells. Our study shows that melanin production by Paracoccidioides yeast cells serves a protective function during aPI and treatment with itraconazole and amphotericin B. The results suggest that melanin binds to the drugs, changing their antifungal activities, and also acts as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide, but not of peroxynitrite, indicating that peroxynitrite is the main radical that is responsible for fungal death after aPI. PMID:25896704

  6. Transient CDK4/6 inhibition protects hematopoietic stem cells from chemotherapy-induced exhaustion.

    PubMed

    He, Shenghui; Roberts, Patrick J; Sorrentino, Jessica A; Bisi, John E; Storrie-White, Hannah; Tiessen, Renger G; Makhuli, Karenann M; Wargin, William A; Tadema, Henko; van Hoogdalem, Ewoud-Jan; Strum, Jay C; Malik, Rajesh; Sharpless, Norman E

    2017-04-26

    Conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy is highly effective in certain cancers but causes dose-limiting damage to normal proliferating cells, especially hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Serial exposure to cytotoxics causes a long-term hematopoietic compromise ("exhaustion"), which limits the use of chemotherapy and success of cancer therapy. We show that the coadministration of G1T28 (trilaciclib), which is a small-molecule inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6), contemporaneously with cytotoxic chemotherapy protects murine hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from chemotherapy-induced exhaustion in a serial 5-fluorouracil treatment model. Consistent with a cell-intrinsic effect, we show directly preserved HSC function resulting in a more rapid recovery of peripheral blood counts, enhanced serial transplantation capacity, and reduced myeloid skewing. When administered to healthy human volunteers, G1T28 demonstrated excellent in vivo pharmacology and transiently inhibited bone marrow (BM) HSPC proliferation. These findings suggest that the combination of CDK4/6 inhibitors with cytotoxic chemotherapy should provide a means to attenuate therapy-induced BM exhaustion in patients with cancer. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Ebselen exhibits glycation-inhibiting properties and protects against osmotic fragility of human erythrocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Soares, Julio C M; Folmer, Vanderlei; Da Rocha, João B T; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2014-05-01

    Diabetic status is associated with an increase on oxidative stress markers in humans and animal models. We have investigated the in vitro effects of high concentrations of glucose on the profile of oxidative stress and osmotic fragility of blood from control and diabetic patients; we considered whether its antioxidant properties could afford some protection against glucose-induced osmotic fragility, and whether ebselen could act as an inhibitor of hemoglobin glycation. Raising blood glucose to 5-100 mmol/L resulted in a concentration-dependent increase of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c; P < 0.001) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBA-RS) content (P < 0.004). Non-protein SH groups (NPSH) also increased significantly as the concentration of glucose increased up to 30 mmol/L (P < 0.001). The osmotic fragility was more pronounced in blood of uncontrolled diabetic patients than in these non-diabetic subjects. Ebselen significantly reduced the glucose-induced increase in osmotic fragility and inhibited HbA1c formation (P < 0.0001). These results indicate that blood from patients with uncontrolled diabetes are more sensitive to osmotic shock than from patients with controlled diabetes and control subjects in relation to increased production of free radicals in vivo. © 2014 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  8. Calcium-activated butyrylcholinesterase in human skin protects acetylcholinesterase against suicide inhibition by neurotoxic organophosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Schallreuter, Karin U.; Institute for Pigmentary Disorders in Association with EM Arndt University of Greifswald; University of Bradford

    The human epidermis holds an autocrine acetylcholine production and degradation including functioning membrane integrated and cytosolic butyrylcholinesterase (BuchE). Here we show that BuchE activities increase 9-fold in the presence of calcium (0.5 x 10{sup -3}M) via a specific EF-hand calcium binding site, whereas acetylcholinesterase (AchE) is not affected. {sup 45}Calcium labelling and computer simulation confirmed the presence of one EF-hand binding site per subunit which is disrupted by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation. Moreover, we confirmed the faster hydrolysis by calcium-activated BuchE using the neurotoxic organophosphate O-ethyl-O-(4-nitrophenyl)-phenylphosphonothioate (EPN). Considering the large size of the human skin with 1.8 m{sup 2} surfacemore » area with its calcium gradient in the 10{sup -3}M range, our results implicate calcium-activated BuchE as a major protective mechanism against suicide inhibition of AchE by organophosphates in this non-neuronal tissue.« less

  9. Alzheimer’s Protective A2T Mutation Changes the Conformational Landscape of the Aβ1–42 Monomer Differently Than Does the A2V Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Das, Payel; Murray, Brian; Belfort, Georges

    2015-01-01

    The aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides plays a crucial role in the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Recently, it has been reported that an A2T mutation in Aβ can protect against AD. Interestingly, a nonpolar A2V mutation also has been found to offer protection against AD in the heterozygous state, although it causes early-onset AD in homozygous carriers. Since the conformational landscape of the Aβ monomer is known to directly contribute to the early-stage aggregation mechanism, it is important to characterize the effects of the A2T and A2V mutations on Aβ1–42 monomer structure. Here, we have performed extensive atomistic replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations of the solvated wild-type (WT), A2V, and A2T Aβ1–42 monomers. Our simulations reveal that although all three variants remain as collapsed coils in solution, there exist significant structural differences among them at shorter timescales. A2V exhibits an enhanced double-hairpin population in comparison to the WT, similar to those reported in toxic WT Aβ1–42 oligomers. Such double-hairpin formation is caused by hydrophobic clustering between the N-terminus and the central and C-terminal hydrophobic patches. In contrast, the A2T mutation causes the N-terminus to engage in unusual electrostatic interactions with distant residues, such as K16 and E22, resulting in a unique population comprising only the C-terminal hairpin. These findings imply that a single A2X (where X = V or T) mutation in the primarily disordered N-terminus of the Aβ1–42 monomer can dramatically alter the β-hairpin population and switch the equilibrium toward alternative structures. The atomistically detailed, comparative view of the structural landscapes of A2V and A2T variant monomers obtained in this study can enhance our understanding of the mechanistic differences in their early-stage aggregation. PMID:25650940

  10. Crystal structures of human group-VIIA phospholipase A2 inhibited by organophosphorus nerve agents exhibit non-aged complexes.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Uttamkumar; Kirby, Stephen D; Srinivasan, Prabhavathi; Cerasoli, Douglas M; Bahnson, Brian J

    2009-08-15

    The enzyme group-VIIA phospholipase A2 (gVIIA-PLA2) is bound to lipoproteins in human blood and hydrolyzes the ester bond at the sn-2 position of phospholipid substrates with a short sn-2 chain. The enzyme belongs to a serine hydrolase superfamily of enzymes, which react with organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents. OPs ultimately exert their toxicity by inhibiting human acetycholinesterase at nerve synapses, but may additionally have detrimental effects through inhibition of other serine hydrolases. We have solved the crystal structures of gVIIA-PLA2 following inhibition with the OPs diisopropylfluorophosphate, sarin, soman and tabun. The sarin and soman complexes displayed a racemic mix of P(R) and P(S) stereoisomers at the P-chiral center. The tabun complex displayed only the P(R) stereoisomer in the crystal. In all cases, the crystal structures contained intact OP adducts that had not aged. Aging refers to a secondary process OP complexes can go through, which dealkylates the nerve agent adduct and results in a form that is highly resistant to either spontaneous or oxime-mediated reactivation. Non-aged OP complexes of the enzyme were corroborated by trypsin digest and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry of OP-enzyme complexes. The lack of stereoselectivity of sarin reaction was confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using a chiral column to separate and quantitate the unbound stereoisomers of sarin following incubation with enzyme. The structural details and characterization of nascent reactivity of several toxic nerve agents is discussed with a long-term goal of developing gVIIA-PLA2 as a catalytic bioscavenger of OP nerve agents.

  11. Crystal structures of human group-VIIA phospholipase A2 inhibited by organophosphorus nerve agents exhibit non-aged complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, Uttamkumar; Kirby, Stephen D.; Srinivasan, Prabhavathi

    The enzyme group-VIIA phospholipase A2 (gVIIA-PLA2) is bound to lipoproteins in human blood and hydrolyzes the ester bond at the sn-2 position of phospholipid substrates with a short sn-2 chain. The enzyme belongs to a serine hydrolase superfamily of enzymes, which react with organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents. OPs ultimately exert their toxicity by inhibiting human acetycholinesterase at nerve synapses, but may additionally have detrimental effects through inhibition of other serine hydrolases. We have solved the crystal structures of gVIIA-PLA2 following inhibition with the OPs diisopropylfluorophosphate, sarin, soman and tabun. The sarin and soman complexes displayed a racemic mix of P{submore » R} and P{sub S} stereoisomers at the P-chiral center. The tabun complex displayed only the P{sub R} stereoisomer in the crystal. In all cases, the crystal structures contained intact OP adducts that had not aged. Aging refers to a secondary process OP complexes can go through, which dealkylates the nerve agent adduct and results in a form that is highly resistant to either spontaneous or oxime-mediated reactivation. Non-aged OP complexes of the enzyme were corroborated by trypsin digest and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry of OP-enzyme complexes. The lack of stereoselectivity of sarin reaction was confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using a chiral column to separate and quantitate the unbound stereoisomers of sarin following incubation with enzyme. The structural details and characterization of nascent reactivity of several toxic nerve agents is discussed with a long-term goal of developing gVIIA-PLA2 as a catalytic bioscavenger of OP nerve agents.« less

  12. Mechanism study of endothelial protection and inhibits platelet activation of low molecular weight fucoidan from Laminaria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Anjin; Zhang, Fang; Shi, Jie; Zhao, Xue; Yan, Meixing

    2016-10-01

    Several studies have indicated that fucoidan fractions with low molecular weight and different sulfate content from Laminaria japonica could inhibit the activation of platelets directly by reducing the platelet aggregation. To explore the direct effect of LMW fucoidan on the platelet system furthermore and examine the possible mechanism, the endothelial protection and inhibits platelet activation effects of two LMW fucoidan were investigated. In the present study, Endothelial injury model of rats was made by injection of adrenaline (0.4 mg kg-1) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cultured. vWF level was be investigated in vivo and in vitro as an important index of endothelial injury. LMW fucoidan could significantly reduce vWF level in vascular endothelial injury rats and also significantly reduce vWF level in vitro. The number of EMPs was be detected as another important index of endothelial injury. The results showed that LMW fucoidan reduced EMPs stimulated by tumor necrosis factor. In this study, it was found that by inhibiting platelet adhesion, LMW fucoidan played a role in anti-thrombosis and the specific mechanism of action is to inhibit the flow of extracellular Ca2+. All in a word, LMW fucoidan could inhibit the activation of platelets indirectly by reducing the concentration of EMPs and vWF, at the same time; LMW fucoidan inhibited the activation of platelets directly by inhibiting the flow of extracellular Ca2+.

  13. Renal protection from ischemia mediated by A2A adenosine receptors on bone marrow–derived cells

    PubMed Central

    Day, Yuan-Ji; Huang, Liping; McDuffie, Marcia J.; Rosin, Diane L.; Ye, Hong; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Fink, J. Stephen; Linden, Joel; Okusa, Mark D.

    2003-01-01

    Activation of A2A adenosine receptors (A2ARs) protects kidneys from ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). A2ARs are expressed on bone marrow–derived (BM-derived) cells and renal smooth muscle, epithelial, and endothelial cells. To measure the contribution of A2ARs on BM-derived cells in suppressing renal IRI, we examined the effects of a selective agonist of A2ARs, ATL146e, in chimeric mice in which BM was ablated by lethal radiation and reconstituted with donor BM cells derived from GFP, A2AR-KO, or WT mice to produce GFP→WT, A2A-KO→WT, or WT→WT mouse chimera. We found little or no repopulation of renal vascular endothelial cells by donor BM with or without renal IRI. ATL146e had no effect on IRI in A2A-KO mice or A2A-KO→WT chimera, but reduced the rise in plasma creatinine from IRI by 75% in WT mice and by 60% in WT→WT chimera. ATL146e reduced the induction of IL-6, IL-1β, IL-1ra, and TGF-α mRNA in WT→WT mice but not in A2A-KO→WT mice. Plasma creatinine was significantly greater in A2A-KO than in WT mice after IRI, suggesting some renal protection by endogenous adenosine. We conclude that protection from renal IRI by A2AR agonists or endogenous adenosine requires activation of receptors expressed on BM-derived cells. PMID:12975473

  14. Specific inhibition of Xenorhabdus hominickii, an entomopathogenic bacterium, against different types of host insect phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Sadekuzzaman, Md; Kim, Yonggyun

    2017-10-01

    Phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) hydrolyzes ester bond of phospholipids at the sn-2 position to release free fatty acid and lysophospholipids. Some PLA 2 s preferentially release arachidonic acid which is subsequently oxygenated into eicosanoids to mediate immune responses in insects. Xenorhabdus hominickii is an entomopathogenic bacterium that can suppress insect immunity by inhibiting PLA 2 activity. However, little is known about target PLA 2 types inhibited by X. hominickii. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine PLA 2 types in the host insect, Spodoptera exigua using specific inhibitors. All developmental stages of S. exigua possessed significant PLA 2 activities, with late larval stages showing relatively higher PLA 2 activities. In different larval tissues, hemocytes had higher PLA 2 activities than fat body, gut, or epidermis. Various developmental and tissue extracts exhibited differential susceptibilities to three different PLA 2 inhibitors. Late larva-to-adult stages were highly susceptible to all three different types of PLA 2 inhibitors. In contrast, extracts from egg and young larval stages were not susceptible to secretory PLA 2 (sPLA 2 ) or calcium-independent cellular PLA 2 (iPLA 2 ) inhibitors, although they were susceptible to a calcium-dependent cellular PLA 2 (cPLA 2 ) inhibitor in a dose-dependent manner. Different tissues of fifth instars exhibited variation in susceptibility to inhibitors, with epidermal tissue being sensitive to cPLA 2 inhibitor only while other tissues were sensitive to all three types of inhibitors. Bacterial challenge with heat-killed X. hominickii significantly increased PLA 2 activity. However, live bacteria suppressed the induction of PLA 2 activity. An organic extract of X. hominickii-culture broth inhibited the susceptibility of S. exigua to sPLA 2 - and iPLA 2 - specific inhibitors, but not to cPLA 2 -specific inhibitor. Oxindole, a component of the organic extract, exhibited an inhibitory pattern

  15. Hyperin protects against LPS-induced acute kidney injury by inhibiting TLR4 and NLRP3 signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chunzhi, Gong; Zunfeng, Li; Chengwei, Qin; Xiangmei, Bu; Jingui, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Hyperin is a flavonoid compound derived from Ericaceae, Guttifera, and Celastraceae that has been shown to have various biological effects, such as anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. However, there is no evidence to show the protective effects of hyperin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Therefore, we investigated the protective effects and mechanism of hyperin on LPS-induced AKI in mice. The levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β were tested by ELISA. The effects of hyperin on blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine were also detected. In addition, the expression of TLR4, NF-κB, and NLRP3 were detected by western blot analysis. The results showed that hyperin significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β production. The levels of BUN and creatinine were also suppressed by hyperin. Furthermore, LPS-induced TLR4 expression and NF-κB activation were also inhibited by hyperin. In addition, treatment of hyperin dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced NLRP3 signaling pathway. In conclusion, the results showed that hyperin inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory response by inhibiting TLR4 and NLRP3 signaling pathways. Hyperin has potential application prospects in the treatment of sepsis-induced AKI. PMID:27813491

  16. Protective effects of TES trioleate, an inhibitor of phospholipase A2, on reactive oxygen species and UVA-induced cell damage.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo Nam; Kim, Moon Jin; Ha, Ji Hoon; Lee, Nan Hee; Park, Jino; Lee, Jiwon; Kim, Dukha; Yoon, Chulsoo

    2016-11-01

    2-[Tris(oleoyloxymethyl)methylamino]-1-ethane sulfonic acid (TES trioleate) is an inhibitor of phospholipase A 2 (PLA2), which hydrolyzes cell membrane phospholipids to produce arachidonic acid (AA) and lysophospholipids (LysoPLs). Here, we investigated the protective effects of TES trioleate on cell damage caused by ultraviolet A (UVA) light and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Pre-incubation with 250-1000μM TES trioleate resulted in concentration-dependent protection from UVA-induced damage in HaCaT cells. Additionally, 25-1000μM TES trioleate provided protection against H 2 O 2 in a concentration-dependent manner. In human erythrocytes treated with 1 O 2 , 10-100μM TES trioleate showed concentration-dependent protective effects, similar to but stronger than the controls, 4-BPB and lipophilic antioxidant (+)-α-tocopherol at 100μM. TES trioleate did not have detectable radical scavenging activity. Moreover, compared with (+)-α-tocopherol and rutin, TES trioleate showed low ROS scavenging activity. Thus, although TES trioleate showed cell protective effects against UVA, H 2 O 2 , and 1 O 2 -induced damages, these effects were not caused by the scavenging ability of the radical or ROS. Finally, pretreatment of HaCaT cells and human erythrocytes with l-α-lysophosphatidylcholine produced by PLA2 promoted increased cell damage at low concentrations. Thus, the protective effects of TES trioleate on cellular damage by UVA and ROS may be associated with inhibition of PLA2-dependent cell damage rather than ROS scavenging. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Dietary spices protect against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and inhibit nicotine-induced cancer cell migration.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, R; Kanthimathi, M S

    2012-10-01

    Spices are rich sources of antioxidants due to the presence of phenols and flavonoids. In this study, the DNA protecting activity and inhibition of nicotine-induced cancer cell migration of 9 spices were analysed. Murine fibroblasts (3T3-L1) and human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells were pre-treated with spice extracts and then exposed to H₂O₂ and nicotine. The comet assay was used to analyse the DNA damage. Among the 9 spices, ginger, at 50 μg/ml protected against 68% of DNA damage in 3T3-L1 cells. Caraway, cumin and fennel showed statistically significant (p<0.05) DNA protecting activity. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with nicotine induced cell migration, whereas pre-treatment with spices reduced this migration. Pepper, long pepper and ginger exhibited a high rate of inhibition of cell migration. The results of this study prove that spices protect DNA and inhibit cancer cell migration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Acetylcholine protects mesenteric arteries against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury via inhibiting calcium-sensing receptor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; He, Xi; Yang, Yong-Hua; Yu, Xiao-Jiang; Bi, Xue-Yuan; Yang, Yang; Xu, Man; Lu, Xing-Zhu; Sun, Qiang; Zang, Wei-Jin

    2015-04-01

    The Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaSR) plays an important role in regulating vascular tone. In the present study, we investigated the positive effects of the vagal neurotransmitter acetylcholine by suppressing CaSR activation in mesenteric arteries exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). The artery rings were exposed to a modified 'ischemia mimetic' solution and an anaerobic environment to simulate an H/R model. Our results showed that acetylcholine (10(-6) mol/L) significantly reduced the contractions induced by KCl and phenylephrine and enhanced the endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine. Additionally, acetylcholine reduced CaSR mRNA expression and activity when the rings were subjected to 4 h of hypoxia and 12 h of reoxygenation. Notably, the CaSR antagonist NPS2143 significantly reduced the contractions but did not improve the endothelium-dependent relaxation. When a contractile response was achieved with extracellular Ca(2+), both acetylcholine and NPS2143 reversed the H/R-induced abnormal vascular vasoconstriction, and acetylcholine reversed the calcimimetic R568-induced abnormal vascular vasoconstriction in the artery rings. In conclusion, this study suggests that acetylcholine ameliorates the dysfunctional vasoconstriction of the arteries after H/R, most likely by decreasing CaSR expression and activity, thereby inhibiting the increase in intracellular calcium concentration. Our findings may be indicative of a novel mechanism underlying ACh-induced vascular protection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Taurine protects against methotrexate-induced toxicity and inhibits leukocyte death

    SciTech Connect

    Cetiner, Mustafa; Sener, Goeksel; Sehirli, A. Ozer

    2005-11-15

    The efficacy of methotrexate (MTX), a widely used cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agent, is often limited by severe side effects and toxic sequelae. Regarding the mechanisms of these side effects, several hypotheses have been put forward, among which oxidative stress is noticeable. The present study was undertaken to determine whether taurine, a potent free radical scavenger, could ameliorate MTX-induced oxidative injury and modulate immune response. Following a single dose of methotrexate (20 mg/kg), either saline or taurine (50 mg/kg) was administered for 5 days. After decapitation of the rats, trunk blood was obtained and the ileum, liver, and kidney were removed tomore » measure malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and collagen content, as well as histological examination. Our results showed that MTX administration increased the MDA, MPO activity, and collagen contents and decreased GSH levels in all tissues (P < 0.001), while these alterations were reversed in taurine-treated group (P < 0.05-0.01). Elevated (P < 0.001) TNF-{alpha} level observed following MTX treatment was depressed with taurine (P < 0.01). Oxidative burst of neutrophils stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate was reduced in saline-treated MTX group (P < 0.001), while taurine abolished this effect. Similarly, flow cytometric measurements revealed that leukocyte apoptosis and cell death were increased in MTX-treated animals, while taurine reversed these effects (P < 0.05). Reduced cellularity in bone marrow samples of MTX-treated group (P < 0.01) was reversed back to control levels in taurine-treated rats. Severe degeneration of the intestinal mucosa, liver parenchyma, glomerular, and tubular epithelium observed in saline-treated group was improved by taurine treatment. In conclusion, it appears that taurine protects against methotrexate-induced oxidant organ injury and inhibits leukocyte apoptosis and may be of therapeutic potential in alleviating

  20. Microenvironment mesenchymal cells protect ovarian cancer cell lines from apoptosis by inhibiting XIAP inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Castells, M; Milhas, D; Gandy, C; Thibault, B; Rafii, A; Delord, J-P; Couderc, B

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is characterized by high frequency of recurrence (70% of patients) and carboplatin resistance acquisition. Carcinoma-associated mesenchymal stem cells (CA-MSC) have been shown to induce ovarian cancer chemoresistance through trogocytosis. Here we examined CA-MSC properties to protect ovarian cancer cells from carboplatin-induced apoptosis. Apoptosis was determined by Propidium Iodide and Annexin-V-FITC labelling and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage analysis. We showed a significant increase of inhibitory concentration 50 and a 30% decrease of carboplatin-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells incubated in the presence of CA-MSC-conditioned medium (CM). A molecular analysis of apoptosis signalling pathway in response to carboplatin revealed that the presence of CA-MSC CM induced a 30% decrease of effector caspases-3 and -7 activation and proteolysis activity. CA-MSC secretions promoted Akt and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP; caspase inhibitor from inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family) phosphorylation. XIAP depletion by siRNA strategy permitted to restore apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells stimulated by CA-MSC CM. The factors secreted by CA-MSC are able to confer chemoresistance to carboplatin in ovarian cancer cells through the inhibition of effector caspases activation and apoptosis blockade. Activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling pathway and the phosphorylation of its downstream target XIAP underlined the implication of this signalling pathway in ovarian cancer chemoresistance. This study reveals the potentialities of targeting XIAP in ovarian cancer therapy. PMID:24176845

  1. Mechanism and Site of Inhibition of AMPA Receptors: Pairing a Thiadiazole with a 2,3-Benzodiazepine Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    2,3-Benzodiazepine compounds are synthesized as drug candidates for treatment of various neurological disorders involving excessive activity of AMPA receptors. Here we report that pairing a thiadiazole moiety with a 2,3-benzodiazepine scaffold via the N-3 position yields an inhibitor type with >28-fold better potency and selectivity on AMPA receptors than the 2,3-benzodiazepine scaffold alone. Using whole-cell recording, we characterized two thiadiazolyl compounds, that is, one contains a 1,3,4-thiadiazole moiety and the other contains a 1,2,4-thiadiazole-3-one moiety. These compounds exhibit potent, equal inhibition of both the closed-channel and the open-channel conformations of all four homomeric AMPA receptor channels and two GluA2R-containing complex AMPA receptor channels. Furthermore, these compounds bind to the same receptor site as GYKI 52466 does, a site we previously termed as the “M” site. A thiadiazole moiety is thought to occupy more fully the side pocket of the receptor site or the “M” site, thereby generating a stronger, multivalent interaction between the inhibitor and the receptor binding site. We suggest that, as a heterocycle, a thiadiazole can be further modified chemically to produce a new class of even more potent, noncompetitive inhibitors of AMPA receptors. PMID:24313227

  2. Quantification of indirect pathway inhibition by the adenosine A2a antagonist SYN115 in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Black, Kevin J; Koller, Jonathan M; Campbell, Meghan C; Gusnard, Debra A; Bandak, Stephen I

    2010-12-01

    Adenosine A(2a) receptor antagonists reduce symptom severity in Parkinson disease (PD) and animal models. Rodent studies support the hypothesis that A(2a) antagonists produce this benefit by reducing the inhibitory output of the basal ganglia indirect pathway. One way to test this hypothesis in humans is to quantify regional pharmacodynamic responses with cerebral blood flow (CBF) imaging. That approach has also been proposed as a tool to accelerate pharmaceutical dose finding, but has not yet been applied in humans to drugs in development. We successfully addressed both these aims with a perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of the novel adenosine A(2a) antagonist SYN115. During a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 21 PD patients on levodopa but no agonists, we acquired pulsed arterial spin labeling MRI at the end of each treatment period. SYN115 produced a highly significant decrease in thalamic CBF, consistent with reduced pallidothalamic inhibition via the indirect pathway. Similar decreases occurred in cortical regions whose activity decreases with increased alertness and externally focused attention, consistent with decreased self-reported sleepiness on SYN115. Remarkably, we also derived quantitative pharmacodynamic parameters from the CBF responses to SYN115. These results suggested that the doses tested were on the low end of the effective dose range, consistent with clinical data reported separately. We conclude that (1) SYN115 enters the brain and exerts dose-dependent regional effects, (2) the most prominent of these effects is consistent with deactivation of the indirect pathway as predicted by preclinical studies; and (3) perfusion MRI can provide rapid, quantitative, clinically relevant dose-finding information for pharmaceutical development.

  3. Quantification of indirect pathway inhibition by the adenosine A2a antagonist SYN115 in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Black, Kevin J.; Koller, Jonathan M.; Campbell, Meghan C.; Gusnard, Debra A.; Bandak, Stephen I.

    2010-01-01

    Adenosine A2a receptor antagonists reduce symptom severity in Parkinson disease (PD) and animal models. Rodent studies support the hypothesis that A2a antagonists produce this benefit by reducing the inhibitory output of the basal ganglia indirect pathway. One way to test this hypothesis in humans is to quantify regional pharmacodynamic responses with cerebral blood flow (CBF) imaging. That approach has also been proposed as a tool to accelerate pharmaceutical dose-finding, but has not yet been applied in humans to drugs in development. We successfully addressed both these aims with a perfusion MRI study of the novel adenosine A2a antagonist SYN115. During a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 21 PD patients on levodopa but no agonists, we acquired pulsed arterial spin labeling MRI at the end of each treatment period. SYN115 produced a highly significant decrease in thalamic CBF, consistent with reduced pallidothalamic inhibition via the indirect pathway. Similar decreases occurred in cortical regions whose activity decreases with increased alertness and externally-focused attention, consistent with decreased self-reported sleepiness on SYN115. Remarkably, we also derived quantitative pharmacodynamic parameters from the CBF responses to SYN115. These results suggested that the doses tested were on the low end of the effective dose range, consistent with clinical data reported separately. We conclude that (1) SYN115 enters the brain and exerts dose-dependent regional effects, (2) the most prominent of these effects is consistent with deactivation of the indirect pathway as predicted by preclinical studies; and (3) perfusion MRI can provide rapid, quantitative, clinically relevant dose-finding information for pharmaceutical development. PMID:21123574

  4. An update on polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP), a leucine-rich repeat protein that protects crop plants against pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kalunke, Raviraj M.; Tundo, Silvio; Benedetti, Manuel; Cervone, Felice; De Lorenzo, Giulia; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are cell wall proteins that inhibit the pectin-depolymerizing activity of polygalacturonases secreted by microbial pathogens and insects. These ubiquitous inhibitors have a leucine-rich repeat structure that is strongly conserved in monocot and dicot plants. Previous reviews have summarized the importance of PGIP in plant defense and the structural basis of PG-PGIP interaction; here we update the current knowledge about PGIPs with the recent findings on the composition and evolution of pgip gene families, with a special emphasis on legume and cereal crops. We also update the information about the inhibition properties of single pgip gene products against microbial PGs and the results, including field tests, showing the capacity of PGIP to protect crop plants against fungal, oomycetes and bacterial pathogens. PMID:25852708

  5. Lipid droplets induced by secreted phospholipase A2 and unsaturated fatty acids protect breast cancer cells from nutrient and lipotoxic stress.

    PubMed

    Jarc, Eva; Kump, Ana; Malavašič, Petra; Eichmann, Thomas O; Zimmermann, Robert; Petan, Toni

    2018-03-01

    Cancer cells driven by the Ras oncogene scavenge unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) from their environment to counter nutrient stress. The human group X secreted phospholipase A 2 (hGX sPLA 2 ) releases FAs from membrane phospholipids, stimulates lipid droplet (LD) biogenesis in Ras-driven triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells and enables their survival during starvation. Here we examined the role of LDs, induced by hGX sPLA 2 and unsaturated FAs, in protection of TNBC cells against nutrient stress. We found that hGX sPLA 2 releases a mixture of unsaturated FAs, including ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), from TNBC cells. Starvation-induced breakdown of LDs induced by low micromolar concentrations of unsaturated FAs, including PUFAs, was associated with protection from cell death. Interestingly, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) contributed to LD breakdown during starvation, but it was not required for the pro-survival effects of hGX sPLA 2 and unsaturated FAs. High micromolar concentrations of PUFAs, but not OA, induced oxidative stress-dependent cell death in TNBC cells. Inhibition of triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis suppressed LD biogenesis and potentiated PUFA-induced cell damage. On the contrary, stimulation of LD biogenesis by hGX sPLA 2 and suppression of LD breakdown by ATGL depletion reduced PUFA-induced oxidative stress and cell death. Finally, lipidomic analyses revealed that sequestration of PUFAs in LDs by sPLA 2 -induced TAG remodelling and retention of PUFAs in LDs by inhibition of ATGL-mediated TAG lipolysis protect from PUFA lipotoxicity. LDs are thus antioxidant and pro-survival organelles that guard TNBC cells against nutrient and lipotoxic stress and emerge as attractive targets for novel therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Protective immunity provided by HLA-A2 epitopes for fusion and hemagglutinin proteins of measles virus

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Sang Kon; Stegman, Brian; Pendleton, C. David

    2006-09-01

    Natural infection and vaccination with a live-attenuated measles virus (MV) induce CD8{sup +} T-cell-mediated immune responses that may play a central role in controlling MV infection. In this study, we show that newly identified human HLA-A2 epitopes from MV hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) proteins induced protective immunity in HLA-A2 transgenic mice challenged with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing F or H protein. HLA-A2 epitopes were predicted and synthesized. Five and four peptides from H and F, respectively, bound to HLA-A2 molecules in a T2-binding assay, and four from H and two from F could induce peptide-specific CD8{sup +} T cellmore » responses in HLA-A2 transgenic mice. Further experiments proved that three peptides from H (H9-567, H10-250, and H10-516) and one from F protein (F9-57) were endogenously processed and presented on HLA-A2 molecules. All peptides tested in this study are common to 5 different strains of MV including Edmonston. In both A2K{sup b} and HHD-2 mice, the identified peptide epitopes induced protective immunity against recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing H or F. Because F and H proteins induce neutralizing antibodies, they are major components of new vaccine strategies, and therefore data from this study will contribute to the development of new vaccines against MV infection.« less

  7. ATR Kinase Inhibition Protects Non-cycling Cells from the Lethal Effects of DNA Damage and Transcription Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Michael G.; Sancar, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad-3-related) is a protein kinase that maintains genome stability and halts cell cycle phase transitions in response to DNA lesions that block DNA polymerase movement. These DNA replication-associated features of ATR function have led to the emergence of ATR kinase inhibitors as potential adjuvants for DNA-damaging cancer chemotherapeutics. However, whether ATR affects the genotoxic stress response in non-replicating, non-cycling cells is currently unknown. We therefore used chemical inhibition of ATR kinase activity to examine the role of ATR in quiescent human cells. Although ATR inhibition had no obvious effects on the viability of non-cycling cells, inhibition of ATR partially protected non-replicating cells from the lethal effects of UV and UV mimetics. Analyses of various DNA damage response signaling pathways demonstrated that ATR inhibition reduced the activation of apoptotic signaling by these agents in non-cycling cells. The pro-apoptosis/cell death function of ATR is likely due to transcription stress because the lethal effects of compounds that block RNA polymerase movement were reduced in the presence of an ATR inhibitor. These results therefore suggest that whereas DNA polymerase stalling at DNA lesions activates ATR to protect cell viability and prevent apoptosis, the stalling of RNA polymerases instead activates ATR to induce an apoptotic form of cell death in non-cycling cells. These results have important implications regarding the use of ATR inhibitors in cancer chemotherapy regimens. PMID:26940878

  8. Trehalose protects against cadmium-induced cytotoxicity in primary rat proximal tubular cells via inhibiting apoptosis and restoring autophagic flux

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin-Yu; Yang, Heng; Wang, Min-Ge; Yang, Du-Bao; Wang, Zhen-Yong; Wang, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy has an important renoprotective function and we recently found that autophagy inhibition is involved in cadmium (Cd)-induced nephrotoxicity. Here, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of trehalose (Tre), a novel autophagy activator, against Cd-induced cytotoxicity in primary rat proximal tubular (rPT) cells. First, data showed that Tre treatment significantly decreased Cd-induced apoptotic cell death of rPT cells via inhibiting caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway, evidenced by morphological analysis, flow cytometric and immunoblot assays. Also, administration with Tre protected rPT cells against Cd-induced lipid peroxidation. Inhibition of autophagic flux in Cd-exposed rPT cells was markedly restored by Tre administration, demonstrated by immunoblot analysis of autophagy marker proteins and GFP and RFP tandemly tagged LC3 method. Resultantly, Cd-induced autophagosome accumulation was obviously alleviated by Tre treatment. Meanwhile, blockage of autophagosome–lysosome fusion by Cd exposure was noticeably restored by Tre, which promoted the autophagic degradation in Cd-exposed rPT cells. Moreover, Tre treatment markedly recovered Cd-induced lysosomal alkalinization and impairment of lysosomal degradation capacity in rPT cells, demonstrating that Tre has the ability to restore Cd-impaired lysosomal function. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that Tre treatment alleviates Cd-induced cytotoxicity in rPT cells by inhibiting apoptosis and restoring autophagic flux. PMID:29022917

  9. Pu-erh Tea Protects the Nervous System by Inhibiting the Expression of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunjie; Chai, Shaomeng; Ju, Yongzhi; Hou, Lu; Zhao, Hang; Ma, Wei; Li, Tian; Sheng, Jun; Shi, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Glutamate is one of the major excitatory neurotransmitters of the CNS and is essential for numerous key neuronal functions. However, excess glutamate causes massive neuronal death and brain damage owing to excitotoxicity via the glutamate receptors. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) is one of the glutamate receptors and represents a promising target for studying neuroprotective agents of potential application in neurodegenerative diseases. Pu-erh tea, a fermented tea, mainly produced in Yunnan province, China, has beneficial effects, including the accommodation of the CNS. In this study, pu-erh tea markedly decreased the transcription and translation of mGluR5 compared to those by black and green teas. Pu-erh tea also inhibited the expression of Homer, one of the synaptic scaffolding proteins binding to mGluR5. Pu-erh tea protected neural cells from necrosis via blocked Ca 2+ influx and inhibited protein kinase C (PKC) activation induced by excess glutamate. Pu-erh tea relieved rat epilepsy induced by LiCl-pilocarpine in behavioural and physiological assays. Pu-erh tea also decreased the expression of mGluR5 in the hippocampus. These results show that the inhibition of mGluR5 plays a role in protecting neural cells from glutamate. The results also indicate that pu-erh tea contains biological compounds binding transcription factors and inhibiting the expression of mGluR5 and identify pu-erh tea as a novel natural neuroprotective agent.

  10. Antibody-based inhibition of circulating DLK1 protects from estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in mice.

    PubMed

    Figeac, Florence; Andersen, Ditte C; Nipper Nielsen, Casper A; Ditzel, Nicholas; Sheikh, Søren P; Skjødt, Karsten; Kassem, Moustapha; Jensen, Charlotte H; Abdallah, Basem M

    2018-05-01

    Soluble delta-like 1 homolog (DLK1) is a circulating protein that belongs to the Notch/Serrate/delta family, which regulates many differentiation processes including osteogenesis and adipogenesis. We have previously demonstrated an inhibitory effect of DLK1 on bone mass via stimulation of bone resorption and inhibition of bone formation. Further, serum DLK1 levels are elevated and positively correlated to bone turnover markers in estrogen (E)-deficient rodents and women. In this report, we examined whether inhibition of serum DLK1 activity using a neutralizing monoclonal antibody protects from E deficiency-associated bone loss in mice. Thus, we generated mouse monoclonal anti-mouse DLK1 antibodies (MAb DLK1) that enabled us to reduce and also quantitate the levels of bioavailable serum DLK1 in vivo. Ovariectomized (ovx) mice were injected intraperitoneally twice weekly with MAb DLK1 over a period of one month. DEXA-, microCT scanning, and bone histomorphometric analyses were performed. Compared to controls, MAb DLK1 treated ovx mice were protected against ovx-induced bone loss, as revealed by significantly increased total bone mass (BMD) due to increased trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and inhibition of bone resorption. No significant changes were observed in total fat mass or in the number of bone marrow adipocytes. These results support the potential use of anti-DLK1 antibody therapy as a novel intervention to protect from E deficiency associated bone loss. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Protection by naringin and some other flavonoids of hepatocytic autophagy and endocytosis against inhibition by okadaic acid.

    PubMed

    Gordon, P B; Holen, I; Seglen, P O

    1995-03-17

    In isolated rat hepatocytes, the protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid exerts a strong inhibitory effect on autophagy, which can be partially overcome by certain protein kinase inhibitors like the isoflavone genistein. To see if other, more specific okadaic acid antagonists could be found among the flavonoids, 55 different flavonoids were tested for their effect on okadaic acid-inhibited autophagy, measured as the sequestration of electroinjected [3H]raffinose. Naringin (naringenin 7-hesperidoside) and several other flavanone and flavone glycosides (prunin, neoeriocitrin, neohesperidin, apiin, rhoifolin, kaempferol 3-rutinoside) offered virtually complete protection against the autophagy-inhibitory effect of okadaic acid. Unlike genistein, these compounds had little or no autophagy-inhibitory effect of their own. Their innocuousness appeared to be related to glycosylation, because the corresponding aglycones (naringenin, eriodictyol, hesperetin, apigenin, kaempferol) were all inhibitory, in particular apigenin (80% inhibition at 100 microM). Naringin, the most potent okadaic acid-antagonistic flavonoid, gave half-maximal protection at 5 microM and maximal effect at 100 microM. Naringin also prevented the okadaic acid-induced inhibition of endogenous, autophagic lysosomal protein degradation and of receptor-mediated asialoglycoprotein uptake and degradation. Naringin and other okadaic acid-antagonistic flavonoids may be useful tools in the study of intracellular protein phosphorylation and could have potential therapeutic value as protectants against pathological hyperphosphorylations, environmental toxins, or side effects of chemotherapeutic drugs.

  12. Inhibiting poly ADP-ribosylation increases fatty acid oxidation and protects against fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Gariani, Karim; Ryu, Dongryeol; Menzies, Keir J; Yi, Hyon-Seung; Stein, Sokrates; Zhang, Hongbo; Perino, Alessia; Lemos, Vera; Katsyuba, Elena; Jha, Pooja; Vijgen, Sandrine; Rubbia-Brandt, Laura; Kim, Yong Kyung; Kim, Jung Tae; Kim, Koon Soon; Shong, Minho; Schoonjans, Kristina; Auwerx, Johan

    2017-01-01

    To date, no pharmacological therapy has been approved for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in mouse models of NAFLD. As poly ADP-ribosylation (PARylation) of proteins by PARPs consumes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ), we hypothesized that overactivation of PARPs drives NAD + depletion in NAFLD. Therefore, we assessed the effectiveness of PARP inhibition to replenish NAD + and activate NAD + -dependent sirtuins, hence improving hepatic fatty acid oxidation. To do this, we examined the preventive and therapeutic benefits of the PARP inhibitor (PARPi), olaparib, in different models of NAFLD. The induction of NAFLD in C57BL/6J mice using a high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS)-diet increased PARylation of proteins by PARPs. As such, increased PARylation was associated with reduced NAD + levels and mitochondrial function and content, which was concurrent with elevated hepatic lipid content. HFHS diet supplemented with PARPi reversed NAFLD through repletion of NAD + , increasing mitochondrial biogenesis and β-oxidation in liver. Furthermore, PARPi reduced reactive oxygen species, endoplasmic reticulum stress and fibrosis. The benefits of PARPi treatment were confirmed in mice fed with a methionine- and choline-deficient diet and in mice with lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatitis; PARP activation was attenuated and the development of hepatic injury was delayed in both models. Using Sirt1 hep-/- mice, the beneficial effects of a PARPi-supplemented HFHS diet were found to be Sirt1-dependent. Our study provides a novel and practical pharmacological approach for treating NAFLD, fueling optimism for potential clinical studies. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now considered to be the most common liver disease in the Western world and has no approved pharmacological therapy. PARP inhibitors given as a treatment in two different mouse

  13. Attenuation of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer with Cochinchina momordica seed extract through inhibiting cytoplasmic phospholipase A2/5-lipoxygenase and activating γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ki-Seok; Kim, Eun-Hee; Hong, Hua; Ock, Chan Young; Lee, Jeong Sang; Kim, Joo-Hyun; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2012-04-01

    Cysteamine is a reducing aminothiol used for inducing duodenal ulcer through mechanisms of oxidative stress related to thiol-derived H(2)O(2) reaction. Cochinchina momordica saponins have been suggested to be protective against various gastric diseases based on their cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. This study was aimed to document the preventive effects of Cochinchina momordica seed extract against cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer as well as the elucidation of its pharmacological mechanisms. Cochinchina momordica seed extract (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) was administrated intragastrically before cysteamine administration, after which the incidence of the duodenal ulcer, ulcer size, serum gastrin level, and the ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione disulfide (GSSG) as well as biochemical and molecular measurements of cytoplasmic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), 5-lipoxygenase and the expression of proinflammatory genes including IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2 were measured in rat model. Additional experiments of electron spin resonance measurement and the changes of glutathione were performed. Cochinchina momordica seed extract effectively prevented cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer in a dose-dependent manner as reflected with significant decreases in either duodenal ulcerogenesis or perforation accompanied with significantly decreased in serum gastrin in addition to inflammatory mediators including cPLA(2), COX-2, and 5-lipoxygenase. Cochinchina momordica seed extract induced the expression of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS)-related glutathione synthesis as well as significantly reduced the expression of cPLA(2). Cochinchina momordica seed extract preserved reduced glutathione through increased expressions of γ-GCS. Cochinchina momordica seed extracts exerted significantly protective effect against cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer by either cPLA2 inhibition or glutathione preservation. © 2012 Journal of

  14. Paeoniflorin protects against ischemia-induced brain damages in rats via inhibiting MAPKs/NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ruo-Bing; Wang, Guo-Feng; Zhao, An-Peng; Gu, Jun; Sun, Xiu-Lan; Hu, Gang

    2012-01-01

    Paeoniflorin (PF), the principal component of Paeoniae Radix prescribed in traditional Chinese medicine, has been reported to exhibit many pharmacological effects including protection against ischemic injury. However, the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of PF on cerebral ischemia are still under investigation. The present study showed that PF treatment for 14 days could significantly inhibit transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced over-activation of astrocytes and microglia, and prevented up-regulations of pro-inflamamtory mediators (TNFα, IL-1β, iNOS, COX(2) and 5-LOX) in plasma and brain. Further study demonstrated that chronic treatment with PF suppressed the activations of JNK and p38 MAPK, but enhanced ERK activation. And PF could reverse ischemia-induced activation of NF-κB signaling pathway. Moreover, our in vitro study revealed that PF treatment protected against TNFα-induced cell apoptosis and neuronal loss. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that PF produces a delayed protection in the ischemia-injured rats via inhibiting MAPKs/NF-κB mediated peripheral and cerebral inflammatory response. Our study reveals that PF might be a potential neuroprotective agent for stroke.

  15. Chemical Glucosylation of Labile Natural Products Using a (2-Nitrophenyl)acetyl-Protected Glucosyl Acetimidate Donor.

    PubMed

    Weber, Julia; Schwarz, Markus; Schiefer, Andrea; Hametner, Christian; Häubl, Georg; Fröhlich, Johannes; Mikula, Hannes

    2018-06-07

    The synthesis of (2-nitrophenyl)acetyl (NPAc)-protected glucosyl donors is described that were designed for the neighboring-group assisted glucosylation of base-labile natural products also being sensitive to hydrogenolysis. Glycosylation conditions were optimized using a trichloroacetimidate glucosyl donor, and cyclohexylmethanol and (+)-menthol as model acceptors. The approach was then extended to a one-pot procedure for the synthesis of 1,2- trans -glycosides. This method was finally applied for improved synthesis of the masked mycotoxin T2- O -β,d-glucoside.

  16. Thiopental Inhibits Global Protein Synthesis by Repression of Eukaryotic Elongation Factor 2 and Protects from Hypoxic Neuronal Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Schwer, Christian I.; Lehane, Cornelius; Guelzow, Timo; Zenker, Simone; Strosing, Karl M.; Spassov, Sashko; Erxleben, Anika; Heimrich, Bernd; Buerkle, Hartmut; Humar, Matjaz

    2013-01-01

    Ischemic and traumatic brain injury is associated with increased risk for death and disability. The inhibition of penumbral tissue damage has been recognized as a target for therapeutic intervention, because cellular injury evolves progressively upon ATP-depletion and loss of ion homeostasis. In patients, thiopental is used to treat refractory intracranial hypertension by reducing intracranial pressure and cerebral metabolic demands; however, therapeutic benefits of thiopental-treatment are controversially discussed. In the present study we identified fundamental neuroprotective molecular mechanisms mediated by thiopental. Here we show that thiopental inhibits global protein synthesis, which preserves the intracellular energy metabolite content in oxygen-deprived human neuronal SK-N-SH cells or primary mouse cortical neurons and thus ameliorates hypoxic cell damage. Sensitivity to hypoxic damage was restored by pharmacologic repression of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase. Translational inhibition was mediated by calcium influx, activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase, and inhibitory phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2. Our results explain the reduction of cerebral metabolic demands during thiopental treatment. Cycloheximide also protected neurons from hypoxic cell death, indicating that translational inhibitors may generally reduce secondary brain injury. In conclusion our study demonstrates that therapeutic inhibition of global protein synthesis protects neurons from hypoxic damage by preserving energy balance in oxygen-deprived cells. Molecular evidence for thiopental-mediated neuroprotection favours a positive clinical evaluation of barbiturate treatment. The chemical structure of thiopental could represent a pharmacologically relevant scaffold for the development of new organ-protective compounds to ameliorate tissue damage when oxygen availability is limited. PMID:24167567

  17. Naringin protects human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced inhibition of osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yu-Ge; Wang, Xiu-Mei; Ma, Long-Fei; Zhang, Yuan-Min

    2015-12-05

    Extensive evidence indicates that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the development of osteoporosis. We show that naringin, a natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound, effectively protects human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced inhibition of osteogenic differentiation. Naringin increased viability of hAMDSCs and attenuated H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. Naringin also reversed H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Oxidative stress induced by H2O2 inhibits osteogenic differentiation by decreasing alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium content and mRNA expression levels of osteogenesis marker genes RUNX2 and OSX in hADMSCs. However, addition of naringin leads to a significant recovery, suggesting the protective effects of naringin against H2O2-induced inhibition of osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, the H2O2-induced decrease of protein expressions of β-catenin and clyclin D1, two important transcriptional regulators of Wnt-signaling, was successfully rescued by naringin treatment. Also, in the presence of Wnt inhibitor DKK-1, naringin is no longer effective in stimulating ALP activity, increasing calcium content and mRNA expression levels of RUNX2 and OSX in H2O2-exposed hADMSCs. These data clearly demonstrates that naringin protects hADMSCs against oxidative stress-induced inhibition of osteogenic differentiation, which may involve Wnt signaling pathway. Our work suggests that naringin may be a useful addition to the treatment armamentarium for osteoporosis and activation of Wnt signaling may represent attractive therapeutic strategy for the treatment of degenerative disease of bone tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Acetylcholine Protects against Candida albicans Infection by Inhibiting Biofilm Formation and Promoting Hemocyte Function in a Galleria mellonella Infection Model.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Ranjith; Borghi, Elisa; Falleni, Monica; Perdoni, Federica; Tosi, Delfina; Lappin, David F; O'Donnell, Lindsay; Greetham, Darren; Ramage, Gordon; Nile, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    Both neuronal acetylcholine and nonneuronal acetylcholine have been demonstrated to modulate inflammatory responses. Studies investigating the role of acetylcholine in the pathogenesis of bacterial infections have revealed contradictory findings with regard to disease outcome. At present, the role of acetylcholine in the pathogenesis of fungal infections is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether acetylcholine plays a role in fungal biofilm formation and the pathogenesis of Candida albicans infection. The effect of acetylcholine on C. albicans biofilm formation and metabolism in vitro was assessed using a crystal violet assay and phenotypic microarray analysis. Its effect on the outcome of a C. albicans infection, fungal burden, and biofilm formation were investigated in vivo using a Galleria mellonella infection model. In addition, its effect on modulation of host immunity to C. albicans infection was also determined in vivo using hemocyte counts, cytospin analysis, larval histology, lysozyme assays, hemolytic assays, and real-time PCR. Acetylcholine was shown to have the ability to inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation in vitro and in vivo. In addition, acetylcholine protected G. mellonella larvae from C. albicans infection mortality. The in vivo protection occurred through acetylcholine enhancing the function of hemocytes while at the same time inhibiting C. albicans biofilm formation. Furthermore, acetylcholine also inhibited inflammation-induced damage to internal organs. This is the first demonstration of a role for acetylcholine in protection against fungal infections, in addition to being the first report that this molecule can inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation. Therefore, acetylcholine has the capacity to modulate complex host-fungal interactions and plays a role in dictating the pathogenesis of fungal infections. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Acetylcholine Protects against Candida albicans Infection by Inhibiting Biofilm Formation and Promoting Hemocyte Function in a Galleria mellonella Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Ranjith; Borghi, Elisa; Falleni, Monica; Perdoni, Federica; Tosi, Delfina; Lappin, David F.; O'Donnell, Lindsay; Greetham, Darren; Ramage, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Both neuronal acetylcholine and nonneuronal acetylcholine have been demonstrated to modulate inflammatory responses. Studies investigating the role of acetylcholine in the pathogenesis of bacterial infections have revealed contradictory findings with regard to disease outcome. At present, the role of acetylcholine in the pathogenesis of fungal infections is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether acetylcholine plays a role in fungal biofilm formation and the pathogenesis of Candida albicans infection. The effect of acetylcholine on C. albicans biofilm formation and metabolism in vitro was assessed using a crystal violet assay and phenotypic microarray analysis. Its effect on the outcome of a C. albicans infection, fungal burden, and biofilm formation were investigated in vivo using a Galleria mellonella infection model. In addition, its effect on modulation of host immunity to C. albicans infection was also determined in vivo using hemocyte counts, cytospin analysis, larval histology, lysozyme assays, hemolytic assays, and real-time PCR. Acetylcholine was shown to have the ability to inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation in vitro and in vivo. In addition, acetylcholine protected G. mellonella larvae from C. albicans infection mortality. The in vivo protection occurred through acetylcholine enhancing the function of hemocytes while at the same time inhibiting C. albicans biofilm formation. Furthermore, acetylcholine also inhibited inflammation-induced damage to internal organs. This is the first demonstration of a role for acetylcholine in protection against fungal infections, in addition to being the first report that this molecule can inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation. Therefore, acetylcholine has the capacity to modulate complex host-fungal interactions and plays a role in dictating the pathogenesis of fungal infections. PMID:26092919

  20. Bacterial β-glucuronidase inhibition protects mice against enteropathy induced by indomethacin, ketoprofen or diclofenac: mode of action and pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Saitta, Kyle S.; Zhang, Carmen; Lee, Kang Kwang; Fujimoto, Kazunori; Redinbo, Matthew R.; Boelsterli, Urs A.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that a small molecule inhibitor of bacterial β-glucuronidase (Inh-1; [1-((6,8-dimethyl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinolin-3-yl)-3-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)thiourea]) protected mice against diclofenac (DCF)-induced enteropathy. Here we report that Inh-1 was equally protective against small intestinal injury induced by other carboxylic acid-containing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), indomethacin (10 mg/kg, ip) and ketoprofen (100 mg/kg, ip).Inh-1 provided complete protection if given prior to DCF (60 mg/kg, ip), and partial protection if administered 3-h post-DCF, suggesting that the temporal window of mucosal protection can be extended for drugs undergoing extensive enterohepatic circulation.Pharmacokinetic analysis of Inh-1 revealed an absolute bioavailability (F) of 21% and a short t1/2 of <1 h. This low F was shown to be due to hepatic first-pass metabolism, as confirmed with the pan-CYP inhibitor, 1-aminobenzotriazole.Using the fluorescent probe 5 (and 6)-carboxy-2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein, we demonstrated that Inh-1 did not interfere with hepatobiliary export of glucuronides in gall bladder-cannulated mice.These data are compatible with the hypothesis that pharmacological inhibition of bacterial β-glucuronidase-mediated cleavage of NSAID glucuronides in the small intestinal lumen can protect against NSAID-induced enteropathy caused by locally high concentrations of NSAID aglycones. PMID:23829165

  1. Edaravone Protected Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells from Methylglyoxal-Induced Injury by Inhibiting AGEs/RAGE/Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenlu; Xu, Hongjiao; Hu, Yangmin; He, Ping; Ni, Zhenzhen; Xu, Huimin; Zhang, Zhongmiao; Dai, Haibin

    2013-01-01

    Subjects with diabetes experience an increased risk of cerebrovascular disease and stroke compared with nondiabetic age-matched individuals. Increased formation of reactive physiological dicarbonyl compound methylglyoxal (MGO) seems to be implicated in the development of diabetic vascular complication due to its protein glycation and oxidative stress effect. Edaravone, a novel radical scavenger, has been reported to display the advantageous effects on ischemic stroke both in animals and clinical trials; however, little is known about whether edaravone has protective effects on diabetic cerebrovascular injury. Using cultured human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), protective effects of edaravone on MGO and MGO enhancing oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) induced injury were investigated. Cell injury was measured by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) formation, cell account, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and Rhodamine 123 staining. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) formation and receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) expression were measured by western blotting. Cellular oxidative stress was measured by reactive oxygen species (ROS) release. Treatment of MGO for 24 h significantly induced HBMEC injury, which was inhibited by pretreatment of edaravone from 10–100 µmol/l. What’s more, treatment of MGO enhanced AGEs accumulation, RAGE expression and ROS release in the cultured HBMEC, which were inhibited by 100 µmol/l edaravone. Finally, treatment of MGO for 24 h and then followed by 3 h OGD insult significantly enhanced cell injury when compared with OGD insult only, which was also protected by 100 µmol/l edaravone. Thus, edaravone protected HBMEC from MGO and MGO enhancing OGD-induced injury by inhibiting AGEs/RAGE/oxidative stress. PMID:24098758

  2. Inhibition of the human liver microsomal and human cytochrome P450 1A2 and 3A4 metabolism of estradiol by deployment-related and other chemicals.

    PubMed

    Usmani, Khawja A; Cho, Taehyeon M; Rose, Randy L; Hodgson, Ernest

    2006-09-01

    Cytochromes P450 (P450s) are major catalysts in the metabolism of xenobiotics and endogenous substrates such as estradiol (E2). It has previously been shown that E2 is predominantly metabolized in humans by CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 with 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2) the major metabolite. This study examines effects of deployment-related and other chemicals on E2 metabolism by human liver microsomes (HLM) and individual P450 isoforms. Kinetic studies using HLM, CYP3A4, and CYP1A2 showed similar affinities (Km) for E2 with respect to 2-OHE2 production. Vmax and CLint values for HLM are 0.32 nmol/min/mg protein and 7.5 microl/min/mg protein; those for CYP3A4 are 6.9 nmol/min/nmol P450 and 291 microl/min/nmol P450; and those for CYP1A2 are 17.4 nmol/min/nmol P450 and 633 microl/min/nmol P450. Phenotyped HLM use showed that individuals with high levels of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 have the greatest potential to metabolize E2. Preincubation of HLM with a variety of chemicals, including those used in military deployments, resulted in varying levels of inhibition of E2 metabolism. The greatest inhibition was observed with organophosphorus compounds, including chlorpyrifos and fonofos, with up to 80% inhibition for 2-OHE2 production. Carbaryl, a carbamate pesticide, and naphthalene, a jet fuel component, inhibited ca. 40% of E2 metabolism. Preincubation of CYP1A2 with chlorpyrifos, fonofos, carbaryl, or naphthalene resulted in 96, 59, 84, and 87% inhibition of E2 metabolism, respectively. Preincubation of CYP3A4 with chlorpyrifos, fonofos, deltamethrin, or permethrin resulted in 94, 87, 58, and 37% inhibition of E2 metabolism. Chlorpyrifos inhibition of E2 metabolism is shown to be irreversible.

  3. High Mobility Group A2 protects cancer cells against telomere dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Suchitra; Begum, Farhana; Gim, Jeonga; Wark, Landon; Henderson, Dana; Davie, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The non-histone chromatin binding protein High Mobility Group AT-hook protein 2 (HMGA2) plays important roles in the repair and protection of genomic DNA in embryonic stem cells and cancer cells. Here we show that HMGA2 localizes to mammalian telomeres and enhances telomere stability in cancer cells. We present a novel interaction of HMGA2 with the key shelterin protein TRF2. We found that the linker (L1) region of HMGA2 contributes to this interaction but the ATI-L1-ATII molecular region of HMGA2 is required for strong interaction with TRF2. This interaction was independent of HMGA2 DNA-binding and did not require the TRF2 interacting partner RAP1 but involved the homodimerization and hinge regions of TRF2. HMGA2 retained TRF2 at telomeres and reduced telomere-dysfunction despite induced telomere stress. Silencing of HMGA2 resulted in (i) reduced binding of TRF2 to telomere DNA as observed by ChIP, (ii) increased telomere instability and (iii) the formation of telomere dysfunction-induced foci (TIF). This resulted in increased telomere aggregation, anaphase bridges and micronuclei. HMGA2 prevented ATM-dependent pTRF2T188 phosphorylation and attenuated signaling via the telomere specific ATM-CHK2-CDC25C DNA damage signaling axis. In summary, our data demonstrate a unique and novel role of HMGA2 in telomere protection and promoting telomere stability in cancer cells. This identifies HMGA2 as a new therapeutic target for the destabilization of telomeres in HMGA2+ cancer cells. PMID:26799419

  4. Sialidase-Inhibiting Antibody Titers Correlate with Protection from Heterologous Influenza Virus Strains of the Same Neuraminidase Subtype.

    PubMed

    Walz, Lisa; Kays, Sarah-Katharina; Zimmer, Gert; von Messling, Veronika

    2018-06-20

    Immune responses induced by currently licensed inactivated influenza vaccines are mainly directed against the hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein, the immunodominant antigen of influenza viruses. The resulting antigenic drift of HA requires frequent updating of the vaccine composition and annual revaccination. On the other hand, the level of antibodies directed against the neuraminidase (NA) glycoprotein, the second major influenza virus antigen, vary greatly. To investigate the potential of the more conserved NA protein for the induction of a subtype-specific protection, vesicular stomatitis virus-based replicons expressing a panel of N1 proteins from prototypic seasonal and pandemic H1N1 strain and human H5N1 and H7N9 isolates were generated. Immunization of mice and ferrets with the replicon carrying the matched N1 protein resulted in robust humoral and cellular immune responses and protected against challenge with the homologous influenza virus with similar efficacy as the matched HA protein, illustrating the potential of the NA protein as vaccine antigen. The extent of protection after immunization with mismatched N1 proteins correlated with the level of cross-reactive sialidase-inhibiting antibody titers. Passive serum transfer experiments in mice confirmed that these functional antibodies determine subtype-specific cross-protection. Our findings illustrate the potential of NA-specific immunity for achieving broader protection against antigenic drift variants or newly emerging viruses carrying the same NA but a different HA subtype. IMPORTANCE Despite the availability of vaccines, annual influenza virus epidemics cause 250,000 to 500,000 deaths worldwide. Currently licensed inactivated vaccines, which are standardized for the amount of the hemagglutinin (HA) antigen, primarily induce strain-specific antibodies whereas the immune response to the neuraminidase (NA) antigen, which is also present on the viral surface, is usually low. Using NA-expressing single

  5. Skin protective effect of guava leaves against UV-induced melanogenesis via inhibition of ORAI1 channel and tyrosinase activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Ung; Weon, Kwon Yeon; Nam, Da-Yeong; Nam, Joo Hyun; Kim, Woo Kyung

    2016-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is a major environmental factor affecting photoageing, which is characterized by skin wrinkle formation and hyperpigmentation. Although many factors are involved in the photoageing process, UV irradiation is thought to play a major role in melanogenesis. Tyrosinase is the key enzyme in melanin synthesis; therefore, many whitening agents target tyrosinase through various mechanisms, such as direct interference of tyrosinase catalytic activity or inhibition of tyrosinase mRNA expression. Furthermore, the highly selective calcium channel ORAI1 has been shown to be associated with UV-induced melanogenesis. Thus, ORAI1 antagonists may have applications in the prevention of melanogenesis. Here, we aimed to identify the antimelanogenesis agents from methanolic extract of guava leaves (Psidium guajava) that can inhibit tyrosinase and ORAI1 channel. The n-butanol (47.47%±7.503% inhibition at 10 μg/mL) and hexane (57.88%±7.09% inhibition at 10 μg/mL) fractions were found to inhibit ORAI1 channel activity. In addition, both fractions showed effective tyrosinase inhibitory activity (68.3%±0.50% and 56.9%±1.53% inhibition, respectively). We also confirmed that the hexane fraction decreased the melanin content induced by UVB irradiation and the ET-1-induced melanogenesis in murine B16F10 melanoma cells. These results suggest that the leaves of P. guajava can be used to protect against direct and indirect UV-induced melanogenesis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Amlodipine Inhibits Vascular Cell Senescence and Protects Against Atherogenesis Through the Mechanism Independent of Calcium Channel Blockade.

    PubMed

    Kayamori, Hiromi; Shimizu, Ippei; Yoshida, Yohko; Hayashi, Yuka; Suda, Masayoshi; Ikegami, Ryutaro; Katsuumi, Goro; Wakasugi, Takayuki; Minamino, Tohru

    2018-05-30

    Vascular cells have a finite lifespan and eventually enter irreversible growth arrest called cellular senescence. We have previously suggested that vascular cell senescence contributes to the pathogenesis of human atherosclerosis. Amlodipine is a mixture of two enantiomers, one of which (S- enantiomer) has L-type channel blocking activity, while the other (R+ enantiomer) shows ~1000-fold weaker channel blocking activity than S- enantiomer and has other unknown effects. It has been reported that amlodipine inhibits the progression of atherosclerosis in humans, but the molecular mechanism of this beneficial effect remains unknown. Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice on a high-fat diet were treated with amlodipine, its R+ enantiomer or vehicle for eight weeks. Compared with vehicle treatment, both amlodipine and the R+ enantiomer significantly reduced the number of senescent vascular cells and inhibited plaque formation to a similar extent. Expression of the pro-inflammatory molecule interleukin-1β was markedly upregulated in vehicle-treated mice, but was inhibited to a similar extent by treatment with amlodipine or the R+ enantiomer. Likewise, activation of p53 (a critical inducer of senescence) was markedly suppressed by treatment with amlodipine or the R+ enantiomer. These results suggest that amlodipine inhibits vascular cell senescence and protects against atherogenesis at least partly by a mechanism that is independent of calcium channel blockade.

  7. Curcumin Protects against Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E-Knockout Mice by Inhibiting Toll-like Receptor 4 Expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanshan; Zou, Jun; Li, Peiyang; Zheng, Xiumei; Feng, Dan

    2018-01-17

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been reported to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, the current study aimed to investigate whether curcumin suppresses atherosclerosis development in ApoE-knockout (ApoE -/- ) mice by inhibiting TLR4 expression. ApoE -/- mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with or without curcumin (0.1% w/w) for 16 weeks. Curcumin supplementation significantly reduced TLR4 expression and macrophage infiltration in atherosclerotic plaques. Curcumin also reduced aortic interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity, and plasma IL-1β, TNF-α, soluble VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 levels. In addition, aortic sinus sections revealed that curcumin treatment reduced the extent of atherosclerotic lesions and inhibited atherosclerosis development. In vitro, curcumin inhibited NF-κB activation in macrophages and reduced TLR4 expression induced by lipopolysaccharide. Our results indicate that curcumin protects against atherosclerosis at least partially by inhibiting TLR4 expression and its related inflammatory reaction.

  8. Inhibition of de novo ceramide biosynthesis by FTY720 protects rat retina from light-induced degeneration[S

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Tran, Julie-Thu A.; Eckerd, Annette; Huynh, Tuan-Phat; Elliott, Michael H.; Brush, Richard S.; Mandal, Nawajes A.

    2013-01-01

    Light-induced retinal degeneration (LIRD) in albino rats causes apoptotic photoreceptor cell death. Ceramide is a second messenger for apoptosis. We tested whether increases in ceramide mediate photoreceptor apoptosis in LIRD and if inhibition of ceramide synthesis protects the retina. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 2,700 lux white light for 6 h, and the retinal levels of ceramide and its intermediary metabolites were measured by GC-MS or electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Enzymes of the de novo biosynthetic and sphingomyelinase pathways of ceramide generation were assayed, and gene expression was measured. The dosage and temporal effect of the ceramide synthase inhibitor FTY720 on the LIRD retina were measured by histological and functional analyses. Retinal ceramide levels increased coincident with the increase of dihydroceramide at various time points after light stress. Light stress in retina induces ceramide generation predominantly through the de novo pathway, which was prevented by systemic administration of FTY720 (10 mg/kg) leading to the protection of retinal structure and function. The neuroprotection of FTY720 was independent of its immunosuppressive action. We conclude that ceramide increase by de novo biosynthesis mediates photoreceptor apoptosis in the LIRD model and that inhibition of ceramide production protects the retina against light stress. PMID:23468130

  9. Human antibodies fix complement to inhibit Plasmodium falciparum invasion of erythrocytes and are associated with protection against malaria.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Michelle J; Reiling, Linda; Feng, Gaoqian; Langer, Christine; Osier, Faith H; Aspeling-Jones, Harvey; Cheng, Yik Sheng; Stubbs, Janine; Tetteh, Kevin K A; Conway, David J; McCarthy, James S; Muller, Ivo; Marsh, Kevin; Anders, Robin F; Beeson, James G

    2015-03-17

    Antibodies play major roles in immunity to malaria; however, a limited understanding of mechanisms mediating protection is a major barrier to vaccine development. We have demonstrated that acquired human anti-malarial antibodies promote complement deposition on the merozoite to mediate inhibition of erythrocyte invasion through C1q fixation and activation of the classical complement pathway. Antibody-mediated complement-dependent (Ab-C') inhibition was the predominant invasion-inhibitory activity of human antibodies; most antibodies were non-inhibitory without complement. Inhibitory activity was mediated predominately via C1q fixation, and merozoite surface proteins 1 and 2 were identified as major targets. Complement fixation by antibodies was very strongly associated with protection from both clinical malaria and high-density parasitemia in a prospective longitudinal study of children. Ab-C' inhibitory activity could be induced by human immunization with a candidate merozoite surface-protein vaccine. Our findings demonstrate that human anti-malarial antibodies have evolved to function by fixing complement for potent invasion-inhibitory activity and protective immunity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Plant Food Delphinidin-3-Glucoside Significantly Inhibits Platelet Activation and Thrombosis: Novel Protective Roles against Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan; Shi, Zhenyin; Reheman, Adili; Jin, Joseph W.; Li, Conglei; Wang, Yiming; Andrews, Marc C.; Chen, Pingguo; Zhu, Guangheng; Ling, Wenhua; Ni, Heyu

    2012-01-01

    Delphinidin-3-glucoside (Dp-3-g) is one of the predominant bioactive compounds of anthocyanins in many plant foods. Although several anthocyanin compounds have been reported to be protective against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), the direct effect of anthocyanins on platelets, the key players in atherothrombosis, has not been studied. The roles of Dp-3-g in platelet function are completely unknown. The present study investigated the effects of Dp-3-g on platelet activation and several thrombosis models in vitro and in vivo. We found that Dp-3-g significantly inhibited human and murine platelet aggregation in both platelet-rich plasma and purified platelets. It also markedly reduced thrombus growth in human and murine blood in perfusion chambers at both low and high shear rates. Using intravital microscopy, we observed that Dp-3-g decreased platelet deposition, destabilized thrombi, and prolonged the time required for vessel occlusion. Dp-3-g also significantly inhibited thrombus growth in a carotid artery thrombosis model. To elucidate the mechanisms, we examined platelet activation markers via flow cytometry and found that Dp-3-g significantly inhibited the expression of P-selectin, CD63, CD40L, which reflect platelet α- and δ-granule release, and cytosol protein secretion, respectively. We further demonstrated that Dp-3-g downregulated the expression of active integrin αIIbβ3 on platelets, and attenuated fibrinogen binding to platelets following agonist treatment, without interfering with the direct interaction between fibrinogen and integrin αIIbβ3. We found that Dp-3-g reduced phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, which may contribute to the observed inhibitory effects on platelet activation. Thus, Dp-3-g significantly inhibits platelet activation and attenuates thrombus growth at both arterial and venous shear stresses, which likely contributes to its protective roles against thrombosis and CVDs. PMID:22624015

  11. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta during heart failure is protective.

    PubMed

    Hirotani, Shinichi; Zhai, Peiyong; Tomita, Hideharu; Galeotti, Jonathan; Marquez, Juan Pablo; Gao, Shumin; Hong, Chull; Yatani, Atsuko; Avila, Jesús; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2007-11-26

    Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3, a negative regulator of cardiac hypertrophy, is inactivated in failing hearts. To examine the histopathological and functional consequence of the persistent inhibition of GSK-3beta in the heart in vivo, we generated transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of dominant negative GSK-3beta (Tg-GSK-3beta-DN) and tetracycline-regulatable wild-type GSK-3beta. GSK-3beta-DN significantly reduced the kinase activity of endogenous GSK-3beta, inhibited phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B epsilon, and induced accumulation of beta-catenin and myeloid cell leukemia-1, confirming that GSK-3beta-DN acts as a dominant negative in vivo. Tg-GSK-3beta-DN exhibited concentric hypertrophy at baseline, accompanied by upregulation of the alpha-myosin heavy chain gene and increases in cardiac function, as evidenced by a significantly greater Emax after dobutamine infusion and percentage of contraction in isolated cardiac myocytes, indicating that inhibition of GSK-3beta induces well-compensated hypertrophy. Although transverse aortic constriction induced a similar increase in hypertrophy in both Tg-GSK-3beta-DN and nontransgenic mice, Tg-GSK-3beta-DN exhibited better left ventricular function and less fibrosis and apoptosis than nontransgenic mice. Induction of the GSK-3beta transgene in tetracycline-regulatable wild-type GSK-3beta mice induced left ventricular dysfunction and premature death, accompanied by increases in apoptosis and fibrosis. Overexpression of GSK-3beta-DN in cardiac myocytes inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced apoptosis, and the antiapoptotic effect of GSK-3beta-DN was abrogated in the absence of myeloid cell leukemia-1. These results suggest that persistent inhibition of GSK-3beta induces compensatory hypertrophy, inhibits apoptosis and fibrosis, and increases cardiac contractility and that the antiapoptotic effect of GSK-3beta inhibition is mediated by myeloid cell leukemia-1. Thus

  12. Petroselinum crispum has antioxidant properties, protects against DNA damage and inhibits proliferation and migration of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Esther Lai-Har; Rajarajeswaran, Jayakumar; Fung, ShinYee; Kanthimathi, M S

    2015-10-01

    Petroselinum crispum (English parsley) is a common herb of the Apiaceae family that is cultivated throughout the world and is widely used as a seasoning condiment. Studies have shown its potential as a medicinal herb. In this study, P. crispum leaf and stem extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant properties, protection against DNA damage in normal 3T3-L1 cells, and the inhibition of proliferation and migration of the MCF-7 cells. The dichloromethane extract of P. crispum exhibited the highest phenolic content (42.31 ± 0.50 mg GAE g(-1) ) and ferric reducing ability (0.360 ± 0.009 mmol g(-1) ) of the various extractions performed. The extract showed DPPH radical scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 3310.0 ± 80.5 µg mL(-1) . Mouse fibroblasts (3T3-L1) pre-treated with 400 µg mL(-1) of the extract showed 50.9% protection against H2 O2 -induced DNA damage, suggesting its potential in cancer prevention. The extract (300 µg mL(-1) ) inhibited H2 O2 -induced MCF-7 cell migration by 41% ± 4%. As cell migration is necessary for metastasis of cancer cells, inhibition of migration is an indication of protection against metastasis. Petroselinum crispum has health-promoting properties with the potential to prevent oxidative stress-related diseases and can be developed into functional food. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Inhibiting post-translational core fucosylation protects against albumin-induced proximal tubular epithelial cell injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dapeng; Fang, Ming; Shen, Nan; Li, Longkai; Wang, Weidong; Wang, Lingyu; Lin, Hongli

    2017-01-01

    Albuminuria is an independent risk factor for renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF). Glomerular-filtered albumin in endocytic and non-endocytic pathways may injure proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) via megalin and TGFβRII, respectively. Since megalin and TGFβRII are both modified by post-translational core fucosylation, which plays a critical role in RIF. Thus, we sought to identify whether core fucosylation is a potential target for reducing albumin-induced injury to PTECs. We constructed a human PTEC-derived cell line (HK-2 cells) and established an in vitro model of bovine serum albumin (BSA) injury. RNAi was used to inhibit the expression of megalin, TGFβRII, and Fut8. Western blotting, immunostaining, ELISA, lectin blotting, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting were used to identify BSA-induced endocytic and non-endocytic damage in HK-2 cells. Fut8 is a core fucosylation-related gene, which is significantly increased in HK-2 cells following an incubation with BSA. Fut8 siRNA significantly reduced the core fucosylation of megalin and TGFβRII and also inhibited the activation of the TGFβ/TGFβRII/Smad2/3 signaling pathway. Furthermore, Fut8 siRNA could reduce monocyte chemotactic protein-1, reactive oxygen species, and apoptosis, as well as significantly decrease the fibronectin and collagen I levels in BSA-overloaded HK-2 cells. Core fucosylation inhibition was more effective than inhibiting either megalin or TGFβRII for the prevention of albumin-induced injury to PTECs. Our findings indicate that post-translational core fucosylation is essential for the albumin-induced injury to PTECs. Thus, the inhibition of core fucosylation could effectively alleviate albumin-induced endocytic and non-endocytic injury to PTECs. Our study provides a potential therapeutic target for albuminuria-induced injury.

  14. Selective inhibition of class I but not class IIb histone deacetylases exerts cardiac protection from ischemia reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Aune, Sverre E.; Herr, Daniel J.; Mani, Santhosh K.; Menick, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    While inhibition of class I/IIb histone deacetylases (HDACs) protects the mammalian heart from ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury, class selective effects remain unexamined. We hypothesized that selective inhibition of class I HDACs would preserve left ventricular contractile function following IR in isolated hearts. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n=6 per group) were injected with vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide, 0.63 mg/kg), the class I/IIb HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (1 mg/kg), the class I HDAC inhibitor entinostat (MS-275, 10 mg/kg), or the HDAC6 (class IIb) inhibitor tubastatin A (10 mg/kg). After 24 h, hearts were isolated and perfused in Langendorff mode for 30 min (Sham) or subjected to 30 min global ischemia and 120 min global reperfusion (IR). A saline filled balloon attached to a pressure transducer was placed in the LV to monitor contractile function. After perfusion, LV tissue was collected for measurements of antioxidant protein levels and infarct area. At the conclusion of IR, MS-275 pretreatment was associated with significant preservation of developed pressure, rate of pressure generation, rate of pressure relaxation and rate pressure product, as compared to vehicle treated hearts. There was significant reduction of infarct area with MS-275 pretreatment. Contractile function was not significantly restored in hearts treated with trichostatin A or tubastatin A. Mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2) and catalase protein and mRNA in hearts from animals pretreated with MS-275 were increased following IR, as compared to Sham. This was associated with a dramatic enrichment of nuclear FOXO3a transcription factor, which mediates the expression of SOD2 and catalase. Tubastatin A treatment was associated with significantly decreased catalase levels after IR. Class I HDAC inhibition elicits protection of contractile function following IR, which is associated with increased expression of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. Class I/IIb HDAC inhibition with trichostatin A

  15. Inhibition of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2α Impairs an Early Step of Coronavirus Replication in Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christin; Hardt, Martin; Schwudke, Dominik; Neuman, Benjamin W; Pleschka, Stephan; Ziebuhr, John

    2018-02-15

    Coronavirus replication is associated with intracellular membrane rearrangements in infected cells, resulting in the formation of double-membrane vesicles (DMVs) and other membranous structures that are referred to as replicative organelles (ROs). The latter provide a structural scaffold for viral replication/transcription complexes (RTCs) and help to sequester RTC components from recognition by cellular factors involved in antiviral host responses. There is increasing evidence that plus-strand RNA (+RNA) virus replication, including RO formation and virion morphogenesis, affects cellular lipid metabolism and critically depends on enzymes involved in lipid synthesis and processing. Here, we investigated the role of cytosolic phospholipase A 2 α (cPLA 2 α) in coronavirus replication using a low-molecular-weight nonpeptidic inhibitor, pyrrolidine-2 (Py-2). The inhibition of cPLA 2 α activity, which produces lysophospholipids (LPLs) by cleaving at the sn -2 position of phospholipids, had profound effects on viral RNA and protein accumulation in human coronavirus 229E-infected Huh-7 cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that DMV formation in infected cells was significantly reduced in the presence of the inhibitor. Furthermore, we found that (i) viral RTCs colocalized with LPL-containing membranes, (ii) cellular LPL concentrations were increased in coronavirus-infected cells, and (iii) this increase was diminished in the presence of the cPLA 2 α inhibitor Py-2. Py-2 also displayed antiviral activities against other viruses representing the Coronaviridae and Togaviridae families, while members of the Picornaviridae were not affected. Taken together, the study provides evidence that cPLA 2 α activity is critically involved in the replication of various +RNA virus families and may thus represent a candidate target for broad-spectrum antiviral drug development. IMPORTANCE Examples of highly conserved RNA virus proteins that qualify as drug targets for broad

  16. NP-313, 2-acetylamino-3-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone, a novel antithrombotic agent with dual inhibition of thromboxane A2 synthesis and calcium entry

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Heng-Lan; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Chang, Chien-Hsin; Chung, Ching-Hu; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Hsu, Chun-Chieh; Peng, Hui-Chin; Huang, Tur-Fu

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE 1,4-Naphthoquinones exhibit antiplatelet activity both in vivo and in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the antiplatelet effect of a novel naphthoquinone derivative NP-313, 2-acetylamino-3-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone and its mechanism of action. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We measured platelet aggregation, Ca2+ mobilization, thromboxane B2 formation and P-selectin expression and examined several enzymatic activities. Furthermore, we used the irradiated mesenteric venules in fluorescein sodium–treated mice to monitor the antithrombotic effect of NP-313 in vivo. KEY RESULTS NP-313 concentration-dependently inhibited human platelet aggregation induced by collagen, arachidonic acid, thapsigargin, thrombin and A23187. NP-313 also inhibited P-selectin expression, thromboxane B2 formation and [Ca2+]i elevation in platelets stimulated by thrombin and collagen. NP-313 at 10 µM inhibited cyclooxygenase, thromboxane A2 synthase, and protein kinase Cα, whereas it did not affect phospholipase A2 or phospholipase C activity. In the presence of indomethacin and an adenosine 5-diphosphate scavenger, NP-313 concentration-dependently inhibited thrombin- and A23187-induced [Ca2+]i increase through its inhibitory effects on Ca2+ influx, rather than blocking Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. NP-313 also inhibited thapsigargin-mediated Ca2+ influx through store-operated calcium channel but had no effect on Ca2+ influx through store-independent calcium channel evoked by the diacylglycerol analogue 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol. Nevertheless, it had little effect on cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels. Also, intravenously administered NP-313 dose-dependently inhibited the thrombus occlusion of the irradiated mesenteric vessels of fluorescein-pretreated mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Taken together, these results indicate that NP-313 exerts its antithrombotic activity through dual inhibition of thromboxane A2 synthesis and Ca2+ influx through SOCC. PMID

  17. Muscarinic Receptor Activation Protects Cells from Apoptotic Effects of DNA Damage, Oxidative Stress, and Mitochondrial Inhibition*

    PubMed Central

    De Sarno, Patrizia; Shestopal, Svetlana A.; King, Taj D.; Zmijewska, Anna; Song, Ling; Jope, Richard S.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of muscarinic receptor stimulation was examined on apoptotic signaling induced by DNA damage, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial impairment. Exposure of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells to the DNA-damaging agent camptothecin increased p53 levels, activated caspase-3, and caused cell death. Pretreatment with oxotremorine-M, a selective agonist of muscarinic receptors that are expressed endogenously in these cells, did not affect the accumulation of p53 but greatly attenuated caspase-3 activation and protected from cell death to nearly the same extent as treatment with a general caspase inhibitor. Treatment with 50–200 μm H2O2 caused the activation of caspase-3 beginning after 2–3 h, followed by eventual cell death. Oxotremorine-M pretreatment protected cells from H2O2-inducedcaspase-3 activation and death, and this was equivalent to protection afforded by a caspase inhibitor. Muscarinic receptor stimulation also protected cells from caspase-3 activation induced by exposure to rotenone, a mitochondrial complex 1 inhibitor, but no protection was evident from staurosporine-induced caspase-3 activation. The mechanism of protection afforded by muscarinic receptor activation from camptothecin-induced apoptotic signaling involved blockade of mitochondrial cytochrome c release associated with a bolstering of mitochondrial bcl-2 levels and blockade of the translocation of Bax to mitochondria. Likely the most proximal of these events to muscarinic receptor activation, mitochondrial Bax accumulation, also was attenuated by oxotremorine-M treatment after treatment with H2O2 or rotenone. These results demonstrate that stimulation of muscarinic receptors provides substantial protection from DNA damage, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial impairment, insults that may be encountered by neurons in development, aging, or neurodegenerative diseases. These findings suggest that neurotransmitter-induced signaling bolsters survival mechanisms, and inadequate

  18. Overexpression of TIMP3 Protects Against Cardiac Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Inhibiting Myocardial Apoptosis Through ROS/Mapks Pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Jing, Xibo; Dong, Aiqiao; Bai, Baobao; Wang, Haiyan

    2017-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains a great challenge in clinical therapy. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 (TIMP3) plays a crucial role in heart physiological and pathophysiological processes. However, the effects of TIMP3 on I/R injury remain unknown. C57BL/6 mice were infected with TIMP3 adenovirus by local delivery in myocardium followed by I/R operation or doxorubicin treatment. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were pretreated with TIMP3 adenovirus prior to anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R) treatment in vitro. Histology, echocardiography, in vivo phenotypical analysis, flow cytometry and western blotting were used to investigate the altered cardiac function and underlying mechanisms. The results showed that upregulation of TIMP3 in myocardium markedly inhibited myocardial infarct areas and the cardiac dysfunction induced by I/R or by doxorubicin treatment. TUNEL staining revealed that TIMP3 overexpression attenuated I/R-induced myocardial apoptosis, accompanied by decreased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, Cleaved Caspase-3 and Cleaved Caspase-9 expression. In vitro, A/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis was abrogated by pharmacological inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production or MAPKs signaling. Attenuation of ROS production reversed A/R-induced MAPKs activation, whereas MAPKs inhibitors showed on effect on ROS production. Furthermore, in vivo or in vitro overexpression of TIMP3 significantly inhibited I/R- or A/R-induced ROS production and MAPKs activation. Our findings demonstrate that TIMP3 upregulation protects against cardiac I/R injury through inhibiting myocardial apoptosis. The mechanism may be related to inhibition of ROS-initiated MAPKs pathway. This study suggests that TIMP3 may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of I/R injury. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Inhibition of the NOD-Like Receptor Protein 3 Inflammasome Is Protective in Juvenile Influenza A Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Coates, Bria M.; Staricha, Kelly L.; Ravindran, Nandini; Koch, Clarissa M.; Cheng, Yuan; Davis, Jennifer M.; Shumaker, Dale K.; Ridge, Karen M.

    2017-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is a significant cause of life-threatening lower respiratory tract infections in children. Antiviral therapy is the mainstay of treatment, but its effectiveness in this age group has been questioned. In addition, damage inflicted on the lungs by the immune response to the virus may be as important to the development of severe lung injury during IAV infection as the cytotoxic effects of the virus itself. A crucial step in the immune response to IAV is activation of the NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and the subsequent secretion of the inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-18 (IL-18). The IAV matrix 2 proton channel (M2) has been shown to be an important activator of the NLRP3 inflammasome during IAV infection. We sought to interrupt this ion channel-mediated activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome through inhibition of NLRP3 or the cytokine downstream from its activation, IL-1β. Using our juvenile mouse model of IAV infection, we show that inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome with the small molecule inhibitor, MCC950, beginning 3 days after infection with IAV, improves survival in juvenile mice. Treatment with MCC950 reduces NLRP3 levels in lung homogenates, decreases IL-18 secretion into the alveolar space, and inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation in alveolar macrophages. Importantly, inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome with MCC950 does not impair viral clearance. In contrast, inhibition of IL-1β signaling with the IL-1 receptor antagonist, anakinra, is insufficient to protect juvenile mice from IAV. Our findings suggest that targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome in juvenile IAV infection may improve disease outcomes in this age group. PMID:28740490

  20. Inhibition of the NOD-Like Receptor Protein 3 Inflammasome Is Protective in Juvenile Influenza A Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Coates, Bria M; Staricha, Kelly L; Ravindran, Nandini; Koch, Clarissa M; Cheng, Yuan; Davis, Jennifer M; Shumaker, Dale K; Ridge, Karen M

    2017-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is a significant cause of life-threatening lower respiratory tract infections in children. Antiviral therapy is the mainstay of treatment, but its effectiveness in this age group has been questioned. In addition, damage inflicted on the lungs by the immune response to the virus may be as important to the development of severe lung injury during IAV infection as the cytotoxic effects of the virus itself. A crucial step in the immune response to IAV is activation of the NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and the subsequent secretion of the inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-18 (IL-18). The IAV matrix 2 proton channel (M2) has been shown to be an important activator of the NLRP3 inflammasome during IAV infection. We sought to interrupt this ion channel-mediated activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome through inhibition of NLRP3 or the cytokine downstream from its activation, IL-1β. Using our juvenile mouse model of IAV infection, we show that inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome with the small molecule inhibitor, MCC950, beginning 3 days after infection with IAV, improves survival in juvenile mice. Treatment with MCC950 reduces NLRP3 levels in lung homogenates, decreases IL-18 secretion into the alveolar space, and inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation in alveolar macrophages. Importantly, inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome with MCC950 does not impair viral clearance. In contrast, inhibition of IL-1β signaling with the IL-1 receptor antagonist, anakinra, is insufficient to protect juvenile mice from IAV. Our findings suggest that targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome in juvenile IAV infection may improve disease outcomes in this age group.

  1. Temporary protection of metals against atmospheric corrosion by saturated straight chain aliphatic monocarboxylates. Mechanisms of inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Kapin, C.; Steinmetz, P.; Steinmetz, J.

    1998-12-31

    This work was devoted to the investigations of the ability of saturated straight chain aliphatic monocarboxylates to inhibit corrosion of mild steel and zinc in aerated aqueous solutions. Performances of inhibitors were shown to be dependent on their chain length, their concentration and the immersion duration. Both crystallographic parameters and solubilities of iron and zinc carboxylates were determined. Then potential-pH diagrams of iron and zinc in water were built taking the presence of metallic soaps into account. According to these diagrams, the passivation of metals was attributed to the growth of films containing metallic soaps. This model confirms that previouslymore » proposed for inhibition of copper and magnesium by the same carboxylates.« less

  2. Chk1 protects against chromatin bridges by constitutively phosphorylating BLM serine 502 to inhibit BLM degradation.

    PubMed

    Petsalaki, Eleni; Dandoulaki, Maria; Morrice, Nick; Zachos, George

    2014-09-15

    Chromatin bridges represent incompletely segregated chromosomal DNA connecting the anaphase poles and can result in chromosome breakage. The Bloom's syndrome protein helicase (BLM, also known as BLMH) suppresses formation of chromatin bridges. Here, we show that cells deficient in checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1, also known as CHEK1) exhibit higher frequency of chromatin bridges and reduced BLM protein levels compared to controls. Chk1 inhibition leads to BLM ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation during interphase. Furthermore, Chk1 constitutively phosphorylates human BLM at serine 502 (S502) and phosphorylated BLM localises to chromatin bridges. Mutation of S502 to a non-phosphorylatable alanine residue (BLM-S502A) reduces the stability of BLM, whereas expression of a phospho-mimicking BLM-S502D, in which S502 is mutated to aspartic acid, stabilises BLM and prevents chromatin bridges in Chk1-deficient cells. In addition, wild-type but not BLM-S502D associates with cullin 3, and cullin 3 depletion rescues BLM accumulation and localisation to chromatin bridges after Chk1 inhibition. We propose that Chk1 phosphorylates BLM-S502 to inhibit cullin-3-mediated BLM degradation during interphase. These results suggest that Chk1 prevents deleterious anaphase bridges by stabilising BLM. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Bax-inhibiting peptide protects glutamate-induced cerebellar granule cell death by blocking Bax translocation.

    PubMed

    Iriyama, Takayuki; Kamei, Yoshimasa; Kozuma, Shiro; Taketani, Yuji

    2009-02-13

    Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various neurological damages and disorders. In the brain damage of immature animals such as neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, the excitotoxicity appears to be more intimately involved through apoptosis. Bax, a member of the Bcl-2 family proteins, plays a key role in the promotion of apoptosis by translocation from the cytosol to the mitochondria and the release of apoptogenic factors such as cytochrome c. Recently, Bax-inhibiting peptide (BIP), a novel membrane-permeable peptide which can bind Bax in the cytosol and inhibit its translocation to the mitochondria, was developed. To investigate the possibility of a new neuroprotection strategy targeting Bax translocation in glutamate-induced neuronal cell death, cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) were exposed to glutamate with or without BIP. Pretreatment of CGNs with BIP elicited a dose-dependent reduction of glutamate-induced neuronal cell death as measured by MTT assay. BIP significantly suppressed both the number of TUNEL-positive cells and the increase in caspases 3 and 9 activities induced by glutamate. In addition, immunoblotting after subcellular fractionation revealed that BIP prevented the glutamate-induced Bax translocation to the mitochondria and the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. These results suggest that agents capable of inhibiting Bax activity such as BIP might lead to new drugs for glutamate-related diseases in the future.

  4. Agmatine Protects against Zymosan-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice by Inhibiting NF-κB-Mediated Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zheng; Jin, He; Fan, Xia; Yang, Xue; Tang, Wanqi; Liang, Huaping

    2014-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by overwhelming lung inflammation and anti-inflammation treatment is proposed to be a therapeutic strategy for ALI. Agmatine, a cationic polyamine formed by decarboxylation of L-arginine, is an endogenous neuromodulator that plays protective roles in diverse central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Consistent with its neuromodulatory and neuroprotective properties, agmatine has been reported to have beneficial effects on depression, anxiety, hypoxic ischemia, Parkinson's disease, and gastric disorder. In this study, we tested the effect of agmatine on the lung inflammation induced by Zymosan (ZYM) challenge in mice. We found that agmatine treatment relieved ZYM-induced acute lung injury, as evidenced by the reduced histological scores, wet/dry weight ratio, and myeloperoxidase activity in the lung tissue. This was accompanied by reduced levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in lung and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and decreased iNOS expression in lung. Furthermore, agmatine inhibited the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB and subsequently blocked the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB induced by Zymosan. Taken together, our results showed that agmatine treatment inhibited NF-κB signaling in lungs and protected mice against ALI induced by Zymosan, suggesting agmatine may be a potential safe and effective approach for the treatment of ALI. PMID:25243152

  5. Agmatine protects against zymosan-induced acute lung injury in mice by inhibiting NF-κB-mediated inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuanfei; Liu, Zheng; Jin, He; Fan, Xia; Yang, Xue; Tang, Wanqi; Yan, Jun; Liang, Huaping

    2014-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by overwhelming lung inflammation and anti-inflammation treatment is proposed to be a therapeutic strategy for ALI. Agmatine, a cationic polyamine formed by decarboxylation of L-arginine, is an endogenous neuromodulator that plays protective roles in diverse central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Consistent with its neuromodulatory and neuroprotective properties, agmatine has been reported to have beneficial effects on depression, anxiety, hypoxic ischemia, Parkinson's disease, and gastric disorder. In this study, we tested the effect of agmatine on the lung inflammation induced by Zymosan (ZYM) challenge in mice. We found that agmatine treatment relieved ZYM-induced acute lung injury, as evidenced by the reduced histological scores, wet/dry weight ratio, and myeloperoxidase activity in the lung tissue. This was accompanied by reduced levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in lung and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and decreased iNOS expression in lung. Furthermore, agmatine inhibited the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB and subsequently blocked the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB induced by Zymosan. Taken together, our results showed that agmatine treatment inhibited NF-κB signaling in lungs and protected mice against ALI induced by Zymosan, suggesting agmatine may be a potential safe and effective approach for the treatment of ALI.

  6. Protective effect of Trillium tschonoskii saponin on CCl4-induced acute liver injury of rats through apoptosis inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Qiu, Yong; Shu, Ziyang; Zhang, Xu; Li, Renpeng; Liu, Su; Chen, Longquan; Liu, Hong; Chen, Ning

    2016-12-01

    To explore hepatoprotective role and underlying mechanisms of Trillium tschonoskii Maxim (TTM), 36 rats were randomly divided into control, CCl 4 -induced liver injury model, and biphenyl dimethyl dicarboxylate (DDB) and low-, moderate-, and high-dose TTM treatment groups. After CCl 4 -induced model establishment, the rats from DDB and TTM groups were administrated with DDB at 0.2 g/kg per day and TTM at 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 g/kg per day, while the rats from control and model groups were administrated with saline. After 5 days of treatments, all rats were sacrificed for determining serum ALT and AST levels and liver index, examining histopathological changes in liver through HE and TUNEL staining, and evaluating TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression by real-time PCR, and caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax expression by Western blot. Results indicated that CCl 4 could induce acute liver injury and abnormal liver function in rats with obvious hepatomegaly, increased liver index, high ALT and AST levels, up-regulated TNF-α and IL-6, and overexpressed Bax and caspase-3. However, DDB and TTM could execute protective role in CCl 4 -induced liver injury in rats through reducing ALT and AST levels, rescuing hepatomegaly, down-regulating inflammatory factors and inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, TTM has obvious protective role in CCl 4 -induced liver injury of rats through inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis.

  7. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide protects against LPS-induced ARDS by inhibiting apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation in pulmonary endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lan; Li, Wen; Qi, Di; Wang, Daoxin

    2018-04-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a heterogenous syndrome characterised by diffuse alveolar damage, with an increase in lung endothelial and epithelial permeability. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP), the most biologically active fraction of wolfberry, possesses antiapoptotic and antioxidative effects in distinct situations. In the present study, the protective effects and potential molecular mechanisms of LBP against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ARDS were investigated in the mice and in the human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs). The data indicated that pretreatment with LBP significantly attenuated LPS-induced lung inflammation and pulmonary oedema in vivo. LBP significantly reversed LPS-induced decrease in cell viability, increase in apoptosis and oxidative stress via inhibiting caspase-3 activation and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in vitro. Moreover, the scratch assay verified that LBP restored the dysfunction of endothelial cells (ECs) migration induced by LPS stimulation. Furthermore, LBP also significantly suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activation, and subsequently reversed the release of cytochrome c. These results showed the antiapoptosis and antioxidant LBP could partially protect against LPS-induced ARDS through promoting the ECs survival and scavenging ROS via inhibition of NF-κB signalling pathway. Thus, LBP could be potentially used for ARDS against pulmonary inflammation and pulmonary oedema.

  8. Binding of the Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus to the Ephrin Binding Surface of the EphA2 Receptor and Its Inhibition by a Small Molecule

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ephrin receptor tyrosine kinase A2 (EphA2) is an entry receptor for Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) that is engaged by the virus through its gH/gL glycoprotein complex. We describe here that natural ephrin ligands inhibit the gH/gL-EphA2 interaction. The effects of point mutations within EphA2 demonstrated that KSHV gH/gL interacts with EphA2 through a restricted set of the same residues that mediate binding of A-type ephrins. Two previously described inhibitors of the EphA2 interaction with ephrin A5 also inhibited binding of KSHV gH/gL to EphA2. The more potent of the two compounds inhibited KSHV infection of blood vessel and lymphatic endothelial cells in the micromolar concentration range. Our results demonstrate that interaction of KSHV with EphA2 occurs in a fashion similar to that of the natural ephrin ligands. Our data further indicate a new avenue for drug development against KSHV. IMPORTANCE Our study reports two important findings. First, we show that KSHV engages its receptor, the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2, at a site that overlaps the binding site of the natural ephrin ligands. Second, we demonstrate that KSHV infection of target cells can be blocked by a small-molecule inhibitor of the viral glycoprotein-EphA2 interaction. These findings represent a novel avenue for the development of strategies to treat KSHV-associated diseases. PMID:24899181

  9. Corrosion inhibition with different protective layers in tinplate cans for food preservation.

    PubMed

    Grassino, Antonela Ninčević; Grabarić, Zorana; Pezzani, Aldo; Squitieri, Giuseppe; Berković, Katarina

    2010-11-01

    In this work the influence of essential onion oil (EOO) on the protection of tinplates was compared with dioctyl sebacate oil (DOS) and epoxy phenolic lacquers, which are frequently used in the food canning industry. When EOO as the protective layer instead of DOS oil was used, tinplate porosity, measured electrochemically (7.58 ± 1.97 µA cm(-2) and 23.0 ± 1.3 µA cm(-2), respectively), and iron coating mass, calculated from AAS data (1.52 ± 0.15 mg m(-2) and 3.14 ± 0.42, respectively), was much lower indicating better corrosion protection. At higher storing temperature (36 °C) the addition of EOO to canned tomato purée enhanced the formation of hydrogen with time. The increasing volume fraction of H(2) (from 34.0 to 90.9% for cans without nitrates, and from 33.8 to 89.2% for cans with nitrates) is an indicator that corrosion takes place. As the use of EOO improves the protection of tinplate compared with DOS oil, and is almost as effective as epoxy phenolic lacquer, the addition of EOO can be recommended due to lower cost of canned food production and enhanced organoleptic properties, but the storage temperature has to be lower then 36 °C. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry

  10. Ghrelin protects the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury via inhibition of TLR4/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Lin, Ping; Li, Peng; Feng, Li; Ren, Qian; Xie, Xiaofeng; Xu, Jing

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cardioprotective effects of ghrelin against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and the underlying mechanism. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into Sham, I/R and I/R+ghrelin groups. After 30 minutes ischemia, ghrelin (8nmol/kg) was injected intraperitoneally at the time of reperfusion in the I/R+ghrelin group. Then hemodynamic parameters were observed at 24h after reperfusion. Ghrelin exhibited dramatic improvement in cardiac functions, as manifested by increased LVSP and ±dP/dt max and decreased LVDP. At 24h after reperfusion, ghrelin significantly attenuated the myocardial infarction area and apoptosis, accompanied with a decrease in the levels of the myocyte injury marker enzymes. Oxidative stress injury and inflammatory response were also relieved by ghrelin. Western blot showed that the expression of TLR4, NLRP3, and caspase-1 were obviously increased in I/R group, while ghrelin significantly inhibited the I/R-induced TLR4, NLRP3, and caspase-1 expression. Ghrelin could inhibit the increased protein levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, and IL-1β induced by lipopolysacharide in primary cultured cardiomyocytes of neonatal rats. Ghrelin protected the heart against I/R injury by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation via TLR4/NLRP3 signaling pathway. Our results might provide new strategy and target for treatment of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 4-Phenylbutyrate protects rat skin flaps against ischemia-reperfusion injury and apoptosis by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    YUE, ZHEN-SHUANG; ZENG, LIN-RU; QUAN, REN-FU; TANG, YANG-HUA; ZHENG, WEN-JIE; QU, GANG; XU, CAN-DA; ZHU, FANG-BING; HUANG, ZHONG-MING

    2016-01-01

    4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) is a low molecular weight fatty acid, which has been demonstrated to regulate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. ER stress-induced cell apoptosis has an important role in skin flap ischemia; however, a pharmacological approach for treating ischemia-induced ER dysfunction has yet to be reported. In the present study, the effects of 4-PBA-induced ER stress inhibition on ischemia-reperfusion injury were investigated in the skin flap of rats, and transcriptional regulation was examined. 4-PBA attenuated ischemia-reperfusion injury and inhibited cell apoptosis in the skin flap. Furthermore, 4-PBA reversed the increased expression levels of two ER stress markers: CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein and glucose-regulated protein 78. These results suggested that 4-PBA was able to protect rat skin flaps against ischemia-reperfusion injury and apoptosis by inhibiting ER stress marker expression and ER stress-mediated apoptosis. The beneficial effects of 4-PBA may prove useful in the treatment of skin flap ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:26648447

  12. IGF-1 protects against Aβ25-35-induced neuronal cell death via inhibition of PUMA expression and Bax activation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xunyao; Jin, Yan; Chen, Jian; Hong, Yan; Luo, Dingzhen; Yin, Qingqing; Liu, Xueping

    2017-01-10

    Amyloid-β-peptide (Aβ) is considered to be the toxic species in AD and causes cell death in the affected areas of patient's brain. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has been reported to attenuate Aβ toxicity in neuronal cells. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the neuroprotective function of IGF-1 remain largely unknown. In the present study, we for the first time demonstrated that IGF-1 protects against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity via inhibition of PUMA expression and Bax activation. We found that IGF-1 could activate Akt, which in turn inhibited Aβ-induced FOXO3a nuclear translocation and thus decreased the binding ability of FOXO3a to PUMA promoter, leading to decreased PUMA expression. In addition, IGF-1 inhibited the translocation of Bax to the mitochondria induced by Aβ. Notably, addition of wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of PI3K, significantly abolished the neuroprotective effect of IGF-1, suggesting that IGF-1 exerts its anti-apoptotic effect depend on PI3K activity. Our findings may provide new insights into molecular mechanisms mediated by IGF-1 in cell survival against Aβ-induced apoptosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 4‑Phenylbutyrate protects rat skin flaps against ischemia‑reperfusion injury and apoptosis by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Yue, Zhen-Shuang; Zeng, Lin-Ru; Quan, Ren-Fu; Tang, Yang-Hua; Zheng, Wen-Jie; Qu, Gang; Xu, Can-Da; Zhu, Fang-Bing; Huang, Zhong-Ming

    2016-02-01

    4‑phenylbutyrate (4‑PBA) is a low molecular weight fatty acid, which has been demonstrated to regulate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. ER stress‑induced cell apoptosis has an important role in skin flap ischemia; however, a pharmacological approach for treating ischemia‑induced ER dysfunction has yet to be reported. In the present study, the effects of 4‑PBA‑induced ER stress inhibition on ischemia‑reperfusion injury were investigated in the skin flap of rats, and transcriptional regulation was examined. 4‑PBA attenuated ischemia‑reperfusion injury and inhibited cell apoptosis in the skin flap. Furthermore, 4‑PBA reversed the increased expression levels of two ER stress markers: CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein‑homologous protein and glucose‑regulated protein 78. These results suggested that 4‑PBA was able to protect rat skin flaps against ischemia‑reperfusion injury and apoptosis by inhibiting ER stress marker expression and ER stress‑mediated apoptosis. The beneficial effects of 4‑PBA may prove useful in the treatment of skin flap ischemia‑reperfusion injury.

  14. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells protect against n-hexane-induced neuropathy through beclin 1-independent inhibition of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jie; Li, Shuangyue; Shi, Xiaoxia; Qian, Zhiqiang; Sun, Yijie; Wang, Dunjia; Zhou, Xueying; Qu, Hongxin; Hu, Shuhai; Zuo, Enjun; Zhang, Cong; Hou, Liyan; Wang, Qingshan; Piao, Fengyuan

    2018-03-14

    Chronic exposure to n-hexane, a widely used organic solvent in industry, induces central-peripheral neuropathy, which is mediated by its active metabolite, 2,5-hexanedione (HD). We recently reported that transplantation of bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) significantly ameliorated HD-induced neuronal damage and motor deficits in rats. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we reported that inhibition of HD-induced autophagy contributed to BMSC-afforded protection. BMSC transplantation significantly reduced the levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II) and the degradation of sequestosome-1 (p62) in the spinal cord and sciatic nerve of HD-intoxicated rats. Downregulation of autophagy by BMSC was also confirmed in VSC4.1 cells exposed to HD. Moreover, inhibition of autophagy by PIK III mitigated the neurotoxic effects of HD and, meanwhile, abolished BMSC-afforded neuroprotection. Furthermore, we found that BMSC failed to interfere with Beclin 1, but promoted activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Unc-like kinse 1 (ULK1) was further recognized as the downstream target of mTOR responsible for BMSC-mediated inhibition of autophagy. Altogether, BMSC transplantation potently ameliorated HD-induced autophagy through beclin 1-independent activation of mTOR pathway, providing a novel insight for the therapeutic effects of BMSC against n-hexane and other environmental toxicants-induced neurotoxicity.

  15. The protective effect of dopamine on ventilator-induced lung injury via the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaomei; Sun, Xiaotong; Chen, Hongli; Xi, Guangmin; Hou, Yonghao; Wu, Jianbo; Liu, Dejie; Wang, Huanliang; Hou, Yuedong; Yu, Jingui

    2017-04-01

    Dopamine (DA), a neurotransmitter, was previously shown to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, its role in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) has not been explicitly demonstrated. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy and molecular mechanisms of dopamine in VILI. Rats were treated with dopamine during mechanical ventilation. Afterwards, the influence of dopamine on histological changes, pulmonary edema, the lung wet/dry (W/D) ratio, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, polymorphonuclear(PMN)counts, inflammatory cytokine levels, and NLRP3 inflammasome protein expression were examined. Our results showed that dopamine significantly attenuated lung tissue injury, the lung W/D ratio, MPO activity and neutrophil infiltration. Moreover, it inhibited inflammatory cytokine levels in the Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL). In addition, dopamine significantly inhibited ventilation-induced NLRP3 activation. Our experimental findings demonstrate that dopamine exerted protective effects in VILI by alleviating the inflammatory response through inhibition of NLRP3 signaling pathways. The present study indicated that dopamine could be a potential effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of VILI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The alpha2-adrenoreceptor agonist dexmedetomidine protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis via inhibition of gap junctions in lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Tan, Xiaoming; Xue, Lianfang

    2018-01-01

    The α2-adrenoceptor inducer dexmedetomidine protects against acute lung injury (ALI), but the mechanism of this effect is largely unknown. The present study investigated the effect of dexmedetomidine on apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the relationship between this effect and gap junction intercellular communication in human lung fibroblast cell line. Flow cytometry was used to detect apoptosis induced by LPS. Parachute dye coupling assay was used to measure gap junction function, and western blot analysis was used to determine the expression levels of connexin43 (Cx43). The results revealed that exposure of human lung fibroblast cell line to LPS for 24 h increased the apoptosis, and pretreatment of dexmedetomidine and 18α-GA significantly reduced LPS-induced apoptosis. Dexmedetomidine exposure for 1 h inhibited gap junction function mainly via a decrease in Cx43 protein levels in human lung fibroblast cell line. These results demonstrated that the inhibition of gap junction intercellular communication by dexmedetomidine affected the LPS-induced apoptosis through inhibition of gap junction function by reducing Cx43 protein levels. The present study provides evidence of a novel mechanism underlying the effects of analgesics in counteracting ALI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. MiR-130a inhibition protects rat cardiac myocytes from hypoxia-triggered apoptosis by targeting Smad4.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanshi; Du, Yingrong; Cao, Junxian; Gao, Qianping; Li, Hongjuan; Chen, Yangjun; Lu, Nihong

    2018-02-05

    Cardiomyocyte death facilitates the pathological process underlying ischemic heart diseases, such as myocardial infarction. Emerging evidence suggests that microRNAs play a critical role in the pathological process underlying myocardial infarction by regulating cardiomyocyte apoptosis. However, the relevance of miR-130a in regulating cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the mechanism of regulation is still uncertain. This study aimed to explore the regulatory effect of miR-130a on hypoxic cardiomyocyte apoptosis. The expression of miR-130a was measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Cell survival was determined by the MTT assay. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay was performed to determine the severity of hypoxia-induced cell injury. Apoptosis was assessed via caspase-3 analysis. Protein expression level was determined by Western blotting. The genes targeted by miR-130a were predicted using bioinformatics and were validated via the dual-luciferase reporter assay. We found that miR-130a expression was greatly increased in hypoxic cardiac myocytes, and that the downregulation of miR-130a effectively shielded cardiac myocytes from hypoxia-triggered apoptosis. The results of our bioinformatic analysis predicted the Smad4 gene to be the target of miR-130a. This finding was validated through the Western blot assay, dual-luciferase reporter gene assay, and qRT-PCR. MiR-130a inhibition significantly promoted the activation of Smad4 in hypoxic cardiomyocytes. Interestingly, knockdown of Smad4 markedly reversed the protective effects induced by miR-130a inhibition. Moreover, we found that the inhibition of miR-130a promoted the activation of TGF-β signaling. Blocking Smad4 signaling significantly abrogated the protective effects of miR-130a inhibition. Overall, these findings indicate that inhibition of miR-130a, which targets the Smad4 gene, shields cardiac myocytes from hypoxic apoptosis. This study offers a novel perspective of the

  18. Valsartan Protects Against Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Rats by Inhibiting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Peng, Ping-An; Ma, Yue; Liu, Xiao-Li; Yu, Yi; Jia, Shuo; Xu, Xiao-Han; Wu, Si-Jing; Zhou, Yu-Jie

    2017-01-01

    Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is a serious complication of the administration of iodinated contrast media (CM) for diagnostic and interventional cardiovascular procedures and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. While the preventative measures can mitigate the risk of CI-AKI, there remains a need for novel and effective therapeutic approaches. The pathogenesis of CI-AKI is complex and not completely understood. CM-induced renal tubular cell apoptosis caused by the activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in CIAKI. We previously demonstrated that valsartan alleviated CM-induced human renal tubular cell apoptosis by inhibiting ER stress in vitro. However, the nephroprotective effect of valsartan on CI-AKI in vivo has not been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the protective effect of valsartan in a rat model of CI-AKI by measuring the amelioration of renal damage and the changes in ER stressrelated biomarkers. Our results showed that the radiocontrast agent meglumine diatrizoate caused significant renal insufficiency, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation, and renal tubular apoptosis by triggering ER stress through activation of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), caspase 12, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP) and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) (P<0.05; n=6 in each group). Pre-treatment with valsartan significantly alleviated renal dysfunction, pathological injury, and apoptosis along with the inhibition of ER stressrelated biomarkers (P<0.05; n=8 in each group). Valsartan could protect against meglumine diatrizoate-induced kidney injury in rats by inhibiting the ER stress-induced apoptosis, making it a promising strategy for preventing CI-AKI. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Resveratrol protects primary cortical neuron cultures from transient oxygen-glucose deprivation by inhibiting MMP-9.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dakuan; Huang, Tao; Jiang, Xiaofan; Hu, Shijie; Zhang, Lei; Fei, Zhou

    2014-06-01

    It was recently shown that resveratrol exerts neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia in mice. The aim of the present study was to further confirm these effects in in vitro primary cortical neuron cultures with transient oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), and to investigate whether these effects are due to the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and of cell apoptosis. Neuronal primary cultures of cerebral cortex were prepared from BALB/c mice embryos (13-15 days). Cells from 14- to 16-day cultures were subjected to OGD for 3 h, followed by 21 h of reoxygenation to simulate transient ischemia. Different doses of resveratrol were added into the culture medium during the simulation of transient ischemia. The effect of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor U0126 was studied by adding U0126 (5 µg/µl, 4 µl) into the culture medium during transient ischemia; as a control, we used treatment of cells with 50 µM of resveratrol. Cell viability was investigated using the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay. Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. The effects of resveratrol on the expression of MMP-9 were analyzed by western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), while the levels of ERK, phosphorylated (p)-ERK, cleaved caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 were measured by western blotting. The results of the MTT assay showed that cell viability is significantly reduced by transient OGD. OGD induced cell apoptosis, the expression of Bax and the activation of caspase-3 and ERK, inhibited the expression of Bcl-2 and increased the expression of MMP-9, while these effects were reversed by treatment with resveratrol. The therapeutic efficacy of resveratrol was shown to be dose-dependent, with the most suitable dose range determined at 50-100 µM. Treatment with U0126 inhibited MMP-9 and Bax expression and caspase-3 activation, while it further promoted the

  20. Protective effect of caspase inhibition on compression-induced muscle damage

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Bee T; Tam, Eric W; Benzie, Iris F; Siu, Parco M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract There are currently no effective therapies for treating pressure-induced deep tissue injury. This study tested the efficacy of pharmacological inhibition of caspase in preventing muscle damage following sustained moderate compression. Adult Sprague–Dawley rats were subjected to prolonged moderate compression. Static pressure of 100 mmHg compression was applied to an area of 1.5 cm2 in the tibialis region of the right limb of the rats for 6 h each day for two consecutive days. The left uncompressed limb served as intra-animal control. Rats were randomized to receive either vehicle (DMSO) as control treatment (n = 8) or 6 mg kg−1 of caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk; n = 8) prior to the 6 h compression on the two consecutive days. Muscle tissues directly underneath the compression region of the compressed limb and the same region of control limb were harvested after the compression procedure. Histological examination and biochemical/molecular measurement of apoptosis and autophagy were performed. Caspase inhibition was effective in alleviating the compression-induced pathohistology of muscle. The increases in caspase-3 protease activity, TUNEL index, apoptotic DNA fragmentation and pro-apoptotic factors (Bax, p53 and EndoG) and the decreases in anti-apoptotic factors (XIAP and HSP70) observed in compressed muscle of DMSO-treated animals were not found in animals treated with caspase inhibitor. The mRNA content of autophagic factors (Beclin-1, Atg5 and Atg12) and the protein content of LC3, FoxO3 and phospho-FoxO3 that were down-regulated in compressed muscle of DMSO-treated animals were all maintained at their basal level in the caspase inhibitor treated animals. Our data provide evidence that caspase inhibition attenuates compression-induced muscle apoptosis and maintains the basal autophagy level. These findings demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of caspase/apoptosis is effective in alleviating muscle damage as induced by prolonged compression

  1. A Small Molecule Agonist of EphA2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibits Tumor Cell Migration In Vitro and Prostate Cancer Metastasis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hong; Miao, Hui; Tochtrop, Gregory P.; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Page, Phillip; Liu, Lili; Lindner, Daniel J.; Acharya, Chayan; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Ficker, Eckhard; Song, Jianxing; Wang, Bingcheng

    2012-01-01

    During tumor progression, EphA2 receptor can gain ligand-independent pro-oncogenic functions due to Akt activation and reduced ephrin-A ligand engagement. The effects can be reversed by ligand stimulation, which triggers the intrinsic tumor suppressive signaling pathways of EphA2 including inhibition of PI3/Akt and Ras/ERK pathways. These observations argue for development of small molecule agonists for EphA2 as potential tumor intervention agents. Through virtual screening and cell-based assays, we report here the identification and characterization of doxazosin as a novel small molecule agonist for EphA2 and EphA4, but not for other Eph receptors tested. NMR studies revealed extensive contacts of doxazosin with EphA2/A4, recapitulating both hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions recently found in the EphA2/ephrin-A1 complex. Clinically used as an α1-adrenoreceptor antagonist (Cardura®) for treating hypertension and benign prostate hyperplasia, doxazosin activated EphA2 independent of α1-adrenoreceptor. Similar to ephrin-A1, doxazosin inhibited Akt and ERK kinase activities in an EphA2-dependent manner. Treatment with doxazosin triggered EphA2 receptor internalization, and suppressed haptotactic and chemotactic migration of prostate cancer, breast cancer, and glioma cells. Moreover, in an orthotopic xenograft model, doxazosin reduced distal metastasis of human prostate cancer cells and prolonged survival in recipient mice. To our knowledge, doxazosin is the first small molecule agonist of a receptor tyrosine kinase that is capable of inhibiting malignant behaviors in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22916121

  2. Deficits in Response Inhibition in Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: The Impaired Self-Protection System Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Thales Vianna; Reis, Samara Passos Santos; da Silva, Antonio Geraldo; Miranda, Debora Marques; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes

    2018-01-01

    Problems in inhibitory control are regarded in Psychology as a key problem associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). They, however, might not be primary deficits, but instead a consequence of inattention. At least two components have been identified and dissociated in studies in regards to inhibitory control: interference suppression, responsible for controlling interference by resisting irrelevant or misleading information, and response inhibition, referring to withholding a response or overriding an ongoing behavior. Poor error awareness and self-monitoring undermine an individual’s ability to inhibit inadequate responses and change course of action. In non-social contexts, an individual depends on his own cognition to regulate his mistakes. In social contexts, however, there are many social cues that should help that individual to perceive his mistakes and inhibit inadequate responses. The processes involved in perceiving and interpreting those social cues are arguably part of a self-protection system (SPS). Individuals with ADHD not only present impulsive behaviors in social contexts, but also have difficulty perceiving their inadequate responses and overriding ongoing actions toward more appropriate ones. In this paper, we discuss that those difficulties are arguably a consequence of an impaired SPS, due to visual attention deficits and subsequent failure in perceiving and recognizing accurately negative emotions in facial expressions, especially anger. We discuss evidence that children with ADHD exhibit problems in a series of components involved in the activation of that system and advocate that the inability to identify the anger expressed by others, and thus, not experiencing the fear response that should follow, is, ultimately, what prevents them from inhibiting the ongoing inappropriate behavior, since a potential threat is not registered. Getting involved in high-risk situations, such as reckless driving, could also be a

  3. Deficits in Response Inhibition in Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: The Impaired Self-Protection System Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Thales Vianna; Reis, Samara Passos Santos; da Silva, Antonio Geraldo; Miranda, Debora Marques; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Problems in inhibitory control are regarded in Psychology as a key problem associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). They, however, might not be primary deficits, but instead a consequence of inattention. At least two components have been identified and dissociated in studies in regards to inhibitory control: interference suppression, responsible for controlling interference by resisting irrelevant or misleading information, and response inhibition, referring to withholding a response or overriding an ongoing behavior. Poor error awareness and self-monitoring undermine an individual's ability to inhibit inadequate responses and change course of action. In non-social contexts, an individual depends on his own cognition to regulate his mistakes. In social contexts, however, there are many social cues that should help that individual to perceive his mistakes and inhibit inadequate responses. The processes involved in perceiving and interpreting those social cues are arguably part of a self-protection system (SPS). Individuals with ADHD not only present impulsive behaviors in social contexts, but also have difficulty perceiving their inadequate responses and overriding ongoing actions toward more appropriate ones. In this paper, we discuss that those difficulties are arguably a consequence of an impaired SPS, due to visual attention deficits and subsequent failure in perceiving and recognizing accurately negative emotions in facial expressions, especially anger. We discuss evidence that children with ADHD exhibit problems in a series of components involved in the activation of that system and advocate that the inability to identify the anger expressed by others, and thus, not experiencing the fear response that should follow, is, ultimately, what prevents them from inhibiting the ongoing inappropriate behavior, since a potential threat is not registered. Getting involved in high-risk situations, such as reckless driving, could also be a

  4. Artesunate protects pancreatic beta cells against cytokine-induced damage via SIRT1 inhibiting NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Yu, L; Chen, J F; Shuai, X; Xu, Y; Ding, Y; Zhang, J; Yang, W; Liang, X; Su, D; Yan, C

    2016-01-01

    Artesunate (ART) has been known as the most effective and safe reagents to treat malaria for many years. In this study, we explored whether ART could protect pancreatic beta-cell against cytokine-induced damage. The production of nitrite (NO) was detected with the Griess Assay Kit. SIRT1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression were determined with Western blot. The transcriptional activity of NF-κB was evaluated by luciferase reporter assay. The expression of Sirt1 was silenced by RNA interference. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and potassium-stimulated insulin secretion (KSIS) assays were performed to measure the effect of ART on pancreatic beta-cells' function. The effect of ART on beta-cells apoptosis was evaluated by using Hochest/PI staining and TUNEL assay. ART enhanced GSIS (KSIS) and reduced apoptosis of pancreatic beta-cells induced by IL-1β. Further study showed that ART inhibited IL-1β-induced increase of NF-κB activity, iNOS expression, and NO production. Moreover, ART up-regulated SIRT1 expression in INS-1 cells and islets exposed to IL-1β. Inhibition of SIRT1 expression could partially abolished the inhibitory effect of ART on NF-κB activity in IL-1β-treated beta-cells. More importantly, the protective effect of ART on cytokine-induced damage was reversed by silencing SIRT1 expression. ART can elicit a protective effect on beta-cells exposed to IL-1β by stimulating SIRT1 expression, which resulted in the decrease of NF-κB activity, iNOS expression, and NO production. Hence, ART might be an effective drug for diabetes.

  5. Edaravone protects endotoxin-induced liver injury by inhibiting apoptosis and reducing proinflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Zong, L; Yu, Q H; Du, Y X; Deng, X M

    2014-02-01

    Studies have shown that edaravone may prevent liver injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of edaravone on the liver injury induced by D-galactosamine (GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in female BALB/c mice. Edaravone was injected into mice 30 min before and 4 h after GalN/LPS injection. The survival rate was determined within the first 24 h. Animals were killed 8 h after GalN/LPS injection, and liver injury was biochemically and histologically assessed. Hepatocyte apoptosis was measured by TUNEL staining; proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] in the liver were assayed by ELISA; expression of caspase-8 and caspase-3 proteins was detected by Western blot assay; and caspase-3 activity was also determined. Results showed that GalN/LPS induced marked elevations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Edaravone significantly inhibited elevation of serum AST and ALT, accompanied by an improvement in histological findings. Edaravone lowered the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells. In addition, 24 h after edaravone treatment, caspase-3 activity and mortality were reduced. Edaravone may effectively ameliorate GalN/LPS-induced liver injury in mice by reducing proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting apoptosis.

  6. Edaravone protects endotoxin-induced liver injury by inhibiting apoptosis and reducing proinflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Zong, L.; Yu, Q.H.; Du, Y.X.; Deng, X.M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that edaravone may prevent liver injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of edaravone on the liver injury induced by D-galactosamine (GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in female BALB/c mice. Edaravone was injected into mice 30 min before and 4 h after GalN/LPS injection. The survival rate was determined within the first 24 h. Animals were killed 8 h after GalN/LPS injection, and liver injury was biochemically and histologically assessed. Hepatocyte apoptosis was measured by TUNEL staining; proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] in the liver were assayed by ELISA; expression of caspase-8 and caspase-3 proteins was detected by Western blot assay; and caspase-3 activity was also determined. Results showed that GalN/LPS induced marked elevations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Edaravone significantly inhibited elevation of serum AST and ALT, accompanied by an improvement in histological findings. Edaravone lowered the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells. In addition, 24 h after edaravone treatment, caspase-3 activity and mortality were reduced. Edaravone may effectively ameliorate GalN/LPS-induced liver injury in mice by reducing proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:24554039

  7. A novel pyrazole derivative protects from ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis through the inhibition of NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Jung Hee; Huh, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Jee Hyun; Park, Doo Ri; Lee, Yoonji; Lee, Seul Gee; Choi, Sun; Lee, Hwa Jeong; Song, Seong-Won; Jeong, Yongmi; Goo, Ja-Il; Choi, Yongseok; Baek, Hye Kyung; Yi, Sun Shin; Park, Soo Jin; Lee, Ji Eun; Ku, Sae Kwang; Lee, Won Jae; Lee, Kee-In; Lee, Soo Young; Bae, Yun Soo

    2016-01-01

    Osteoclast cells (OCs) are differentiated from bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) by activation of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL). Activation of NADPH oxidase (Nox) isozymes is involved in RANKL-dependent OC differentiation, implicating Nox isozymes as therapeutic targets for treatment of osteoporosis. Here, we show that a novel pyrazole derivative, Ewha-18278 has high inhibitory potency on Nox isozymes. Blocking the activity of Nox with Ewha-18278 inhibited the responses of BMMs to RANKL, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and NF-κB, and OC differentiation. To evaluate the anti-osteoporotic function of Ewha-18278, the derivative was applied to estrogen-deficient ovariectomized (OVX) ddY mice. Oral administration of Ewha-18278 (10 mg/kg/daily, 4 weeks) into the mice recovered bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume, trabecular bone length, number and thickness, compared to control OVX ddY mice. Moreover, treatment of OVX ddY mice with Ewha-18278 increased bone strength by increasing cortical bone thickness. We provide that Ewha-18278 displayed Nox inhibition and blocked the RANKL-dependent cell signaling cascade leading to reduced differentiation of OCs. Our results implicate Ewha-18278 as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:26975635

  8. Biofriendly nanocomposite containers with inhibition properties for the protection of metallic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Vakhitov, T R; Katnov, V E; Grishin, P V; Stepin, S N; Grigoriev, D O

    2017-03-01

    An attempt to combine two 'green' compounds in nanocomposite microcontainers in order to increase protection properties of waterborne acryl-styrene copolymer (ASC) coatings has been made. N -lauroylsarcosine (NLS) served as a corrosion inhibitor, and linseed oil (LO) as a carrier-forming component. LO is compatible with this copolymer and can impart to the coating self-healing properties. For the evaluation of the protective performance, three types of coatings were compared. In the first two, NLS was introduced in the coating formulation in the forms of free powder and micro-containers filled with LO, correspondingly. The last one was a standard ASC coating without inhibitor at all. Low-carbon steel substrates were coated by these formulations by spraying and subjected subsequently to the neutral salt spray test according to DIN ISO 9227. Results of these tests as well as the data obtained by electrochemical study suggest that such containers can be used for the improvement of adhesion of ASC-based coatings to the substrate and for the enhancement of their protective performance upon integrity damage, whereas the barrier properties of intact coatings were decreased.

  9. Pharmacological inhibition of myostatin protects against skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness after anterior cruciate ligament tear.

    PubMed

    Wurtzel, Caroline Nw; Gumucio, Jonathan P; Grekin, Jeremy A; Khouri, Roger K; Russell, Alan J; Bedi, Asheesh; Mendias, Christopher L

    2017-11-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are among the most frequent knee injuries in sports medicine, with tear rates in the US up to 250,000 per year. Many patients who suffer from ACL tears have persistent atrophy and weakness even after considerable rehabilitation. Myostatin is a cytokine that directly induces muscle atrophy, and previous studies rodent models and patients have demonstrated an upregulation of myostatin after ACL tear. Using a preclinical rat model, our objective was to determine if the use of a bioneutralizing antibody against myostatin could prevent muscle atrophy and weakness after ACL tear. Rats underwent a surgically induced ACL tear and were treated with either a bioneutralizing antibody against myostatin (10B3, GlaxoSmithKline) or a sham antibody (E1-82.15, GlaxoSmithKline). Muscles were harvested at either 7 or 21 days after induction of a tear to measure changes in contractile function, fiber size, and genes involved in muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. These time points were selected to evaluate early and later changes in muscle structure and function. Compared to the sham antibody group, 7 days after ACL tear, myostatin inhibition reduced the expression of proteolytic genes and induced the expression of hypertrophy genes. These early changes in gene expression lead to a 22% increase in muscle fiber cross-sectional area and a 10% improvement in maximum isometric force production that were observed 21 days after ACL tear. Overall, myostatin inhibition lead to several favorable, although modest, changes in molecular biomarkers of muscle regeneration and reduced muscle atrophy and weakness following ACL tear. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2499-2505, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The Glucotoxicity Protecting Effect of Ezetimibe in Pancreatic Beta Cells via Inhibition of CD36.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ji Sung; Moon, Jun Sung; Kim, Yong-Woon; Won, Kyu Chang; Lee, Hyoung Woo

    2016-04-01

    Inhibition of CD36, a fatty acid transporter, has been reported to prevent glucotoxicity and ameliorate high glucose induced beta cell dysfunction. Ezetimibe is a selective cholesterol absorption inhibitor that blocks Niemann Pick C1-like 1 protein, but may exert its effect through suppression of CD36. We attempted to clarify the beneficial effect of ezetimibe on insulin secreting cells and to determine whether this effect is related to change of CD36 expression. mRNA expression of insulin and CD36, intracellular peroxide level and glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) under normal (5.6 mM) or high glucose (30 mM) condition in INS-1 cells and primary rat islet cells were compared. Changes of the aforementioned factors with treatment with ezetimibe (20 μM) under normal or high glucose condition were also assessed. mRNA expression of insulin was decreased with high glucose, which was reversed by ezetimibe in both INS-1 cells and primary rat islets. CD36 mRNA expression was increased with high glucose, but decreased by ezetimibe in INS-1 cells and primary rat islets. Three-day treatment with high glucose resulted in an increase in intracellular peroxide level; however, it was decreased by treatment with ezetimibe. Decrease in GSIS by three-day treatment with high glucose was reversed by ezetimibe. Palmitate uptake following exposure to high glucose conditions for three days was significantly elevated, which was reversed by ezetimibe in INS-1 cells. Ezetimibe may prevent glucotoxicity in pancreatic β-cells through a decrease in fatty acid influx via inhibition of CD36.

  11. The Glucotoxicity Protecting Effect of Ezetimibe in Pancreatic Beta Cells via Inhibition of CD36

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of CD36, a fatty acid transporter, has been reported to prevent glucotoxicity and ameliorate high glucose induced beta cell dysfunction. Ezetimibe is a selective cholesterol absorption inhibitor that blocks Niemann Pick C1-like 1 protein, but may exert its effect through suppression of CD36. We attempted to clarify the beneficial effect of ezetimibe on insulin secreting cells and to determine whether this effect is related to change of CD36 expression. mRNA expression of insulin and CD36, intracellular peroxide level and glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) under normal (5.6 mM) or high glucose (30 mM) condition in INS-1 cells and primary rat islet cells were compared. Changes of the aforementioned factors with treatment with ezetimibe (20 μM) under normal or high glucose condition were also assessed. mRNA expression of insulin was decreased with high glucose, which was reversed by ezetimibe in both INS-1 cells and primary rat islets. CD36 mRNA expression was increased with high glucose, but decreased by ezetimibe in INS-1 cells and primary rat islets. Three-day treatment with high glucose resulted in an increase in intracellular peroxide level; however, it was decreased by treatment with ezetimibe. Decrease in GSIS by three-day treatment with high glucose was reversed by ezetimibe. Palmitate uptake following exposure to high glucose conditions for three days was significantly elevated, which was reversed by ezetimibe in INS-1 cells. Ezetimibe may prevent glucotoxicity in pancreatic β-cells through a decrease in fatty acid influx via inhibition of CD36. PMID:27051238

  12. Inhibition of KV7 Channels Protects the Rat Heart against Myocardial Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Hedegaard, Elise R; Johnsen, Jacob; Povlsen, Jonas A; Jespersen, Nichlas R; Shanmuganathan, Jeffrey A; Laursen, Mia R; Kristiansen, Steen B; Simonsen, Ulf; Bøtker, Hans Erik

    2016-04-01

    The voltage-gated KV7 (KCNQ) potassium channels are activated by ischemia and involved in hypoxic vasodilatation. We investigated the effect of KV7 channel modulation on cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury and its interaction with cardioprotection by ischemic preconditioning (IPC). Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed expression of KV7.1, KV7.4, and KV7.5 in the left anterior descending rat coronary artery and all KV7 subtypes (KV7.1-KV7.5) in the left and right ventricles of the heart. Isolated hearts were subjected to no-flow global ischemia and reperfusion with and without IPC. Infarct size was quantified by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Two blockers of KV7 channels, XE991 [10,10-bis(4-pyridinylmethyl)-9(10H)-anthracenone] (10 µM) and linopirdine (10 µM), reduced infarct size and exerted additive infarct reduction to IPC. An opener of KV7 channels, flupirtine (10 µM) abolished infarct size reduction by IPC. Hemodynamics were measured using a catheter inserted in the left ventricle and postischemic left ventricular recovery improved in accordance with reduction of infarct size and deteriorated with increased infarct size. XE991 (10 µM) reduced coronary flow in the reperfusion phase and inhibited vasodilatation in isolated small branches of the left anterior descending coronary artery during both simulated ischemia and reoxygenation. KV7 channels are expressed in rat coronary arteries and myocardium. Inhibition of KV7 channels exerts cardioprotection and opening of KV7 channels abrogates cardioprotection by IPC. Although safety issues should be further addressed, our findings suggest a potential role for KV7 blockers in the treatment of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  13. Inhibition of Methylglyoxal-Induced AGEs/RAGE Expression Contributes to Dermal Protection by N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun-Tao; Meng, Fu-Hui; Chen, Li; Li, Xiang; Cen, Lai-Jian; Wen, Yu-Hua; Li, Cai-Chen; Zhang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is a major cause of diabetes mellitus (DM) skin complications. Methylglyoxal (MGO), a reactive dicarbonyl compound, is a crucial intermediate of AGEs generation. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an active ingredient of some medicines, can induce endogenous GSH and hydrogen sulfide generation, and set off a condensation reaction with MGO. However, there is rare evidence to show NAC can alleviate DM-induced skin injury through inhibition of AGEs generation or toxicity. The present study aimed to observe the effects of NAC on MGO-induced inflammatory injury and investigate the roles of AGEs and its receptor (RAGE) in NAC's dermal protection in human HaCaT keratinocytes. The cells were exposed to MGO to simulate a high MGO status in diabetic blood or tissues. The content of AGEs in serum or cell medium was measured with ELISA. The protective effects of NAC against MGO-induce injury were evaluated by administration before MGO one hour, in virtue of cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, inflammation reaction, nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 expression, as well as cellular behavioral function. We found the AGEs levels of patients with DM were elevated comparing with healthy volunteers. The in vitro AGEs generation was also able to be enhanced by the exposure of HaCaT cells to MGO, which reduced dose-dependently cellular viability, damaged mitochondrial function, triggered secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, activated NF-κB and upregulated MMP-9 expression. Furthermore, the exposure caused cellular adhesion and migration dysfunction, as well as collagen type I inhibition. Importantly, before the exposure to MGO, the preconditioning with NAC significantly attenuated MGO-induced AGEs generation, improved cellular viability and mitochondrial function, partially reversed the overexpression of proinflammatory factors and MMP-9, as well as the activation of NF-κB. Lastly

  14. Stimulation or Inhibition: Conflicting evidence for (+/-)-catechin's role as a chemical facilitator and disease protecting agent.

    PubMed

    Bais, Harsh P; Venkatachalam, L; Biedrzycki, Meredith L

    2010-03-01

    The occurrence of plant hormesis is a poorly understood phenomenon, wherein low doses of phytotoxins unusually promote growth responses in higher plants. In contrast, negative plant-plant interactions mediated through secreted small molecular weight compounds initiate growth inhibitory responses. Studies related to (+/-)-catechin mediated allelopathy have transpired both novel information and generated significant controversy. Specifically, studies related to the phytotoxicity responses mediated by (+/-)-catechins have been seriously debated. The pronged opinion that (+/-)-catechin is phytotoxic versus non-phytotoxic relies more on the target plant systems and the conditions used to test phytotoxic responses. It is reported that lower than MIC dosage supplementation of (+/-)-catechin could promote growth responses in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Furthermore, it was shown that sub-MIC levels of (+/-)-catechin supplementation leads to elicitation of disease resistance against Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 (hereafter DC3000). Intrigued by the unique hormesis response observed, we tested whether (+/-)-catechin indeed promotes growth responses in A. thaliana. In our hands, we observed no growth promotion responses of (+/-)-catechin against A. thaliana under in vitro or in soil conditions. We also evaluated the previously reported disease protecting properties of (+/-)-catechin in A. thaliana against DC3000. The systematic observations to evaluate disease protecting properties entailing colony counts, disease incidences and loss of chlorophyll studies showed no disease protecting properties of (+/-)-catechin. The transcriptional response for a marker pathogenesis related PR1 defense gene showed no induction post (+/-)-catechin supplementation. The cell death genes (ACD2 and CAD1) associated with programmed cell death revealed unchanged expression levels in plants treated with sub-MIC levels of (+/-)-catechin. Further, we report supplementation of sub-MIC levels of

  15. Adenosine A2A receptors modulate the dopamine D2 receptor-mediated inhibition of synaptic transmission in the mouse prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Real, Joana I; Simões, Ana Patrícia; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Ferreira, Samira G; Rial, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    Prefrontal cortex (PFC) circuits are modulated by dopamine acting on D 1 - and D 2 -like receptors, which are pharmacologically exploited to manage neuropsychiatric conditions. Adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2 A R) also control PFC-related responses and A 2 A R antagonists are potential anti-psychotic drugs. As tight antagonistic A 2 A R-D 2 R and synergistic A 2 A R-D 1 R interactions occur in other brain regions, we now investigated the crosstalk between A 2 A R and D 1 /D 2 R controlling synaptic transmission between layers II/III and V in mouse PFC coronal slices. Dopamine decreased synaptic transmission, a presynaptic effect based on the parallel increase in paired-pulse responses. Dopamine inhibition was prevented by the D 2 R-like antagonist sulpiride but not by the D 1 R antagonist SCH23390 and was mimicked by the D 2 R agonist sumanirole, but not by the agonists of either D 4 R (A-412997) or D 3 R (PD128907). Dopamine inhibition was prevented by the A 2 A R antagonist, SCH58261, and attenuated in A 2 A R knockout mice. Accordingly, triple-labelling immunocytochemistry experiments revealed the co-localization of A 2 A R and D 2 R immunoreactivity in glutamatergic (vGluT1-positive) nerve terminals of the PFC. This reported positive A 2 A R-D 2 R interaction controlling PFC synaptic transmission provides a mechanistic justification for the anti-psychotic potential of A 2 A R antagonists. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Inhibition of calcium-independent phospholipase A2 prevents arachidonic acid incorporation and phospholipid remodeling in P388D1 macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Balsinde, J; Bianco, I D; Ackermann, E J; Conde-Frieboes, K; Dennis, E A

    1995-01-01

    Cellular levels of free arachidonic acid (AA) are controlled by a deacylation/reacylation cycle whereby the fatty acid is liberated by phospholipases and reincorporated by acyltransferases. We have found that the esterification of AA into membrane phospholipids is a Ca(2+)-independent process and that it is blocked up to 60-70% by a bromoenollactone (BEL) that is a selective inhibitor of a newly discovered Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in macrophages. The observed inhibition correlates with a decreased steady-state level of lysophospholipids as well as with the inhibition of the Ca(2+)-independent PLA2 activity in these cells. This inhibition is specific for the Ca(2+)-independent PLA2 in that neither group IV PLA2, group II PLA2, arachidonoyl-CoA synthetase, lysophospholipid:arachidonoyl-CoA acyltransferase, nor CoA-independent transacylase is affected by treatment with BEL. Moreover, two BEL analogs that are not inhibitors of the Ca(2+)-independent PLA2--namely a bromomethyl ketone and methyl-BEL--do not inhibit AA incorporation into phospholipids. Esterification of palmitic acid is only slightly affected by BEL, indicating that de novo synthetic pathways are not inhibited by BEL. Collectively, the data suggest that the Ca(2+)-independent PLA2 in P388D1 macrophages plays a major role in regulating the incorporation of AA into membrane phospholipids by providing the lysophospholipid acceptor employed in the acylation reaction. PMID:7667324

  17. Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibition in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: early benefit during medical treatment only, with additional protection during percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Boersma, E; Akkerhuis, K M; Théroux, P; Califf, R M; Topol, E J; Simoons, M L

    1999-11-16

    Glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor blockers prevent life-threatening cardiac complications in patients with acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation and protect against thrombotic complications associated with percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs). The question arises as to whether these 2 beneficial effects are independent and additive. We analyzed data from the CAPTURE, PURSUIT, and PRISM-PLUS randomized trials, which studied the effects of the GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors abciximab, eptifibatide, and tirofiban, respectively, in acute coronary syndrome patients without persistent ST-segment elevation, with a period of study drug infusion before a possible PCI. During the period of pharmacological treatment, each trial demonstrated a significant reduction in the rate of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction in patients randomized to the GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor compared with placebo. The 3 trials combined showed a 2.5% event rate in this period in the GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor group (N=6125) versus 3.8% in placebo (N=6171), which implies a 34% relative reduction (P<0.001). During study medication, a PCI was performed in 1358 patients assigned GP IIb/IIIa inhibition and 1396 placebo patients. The event rate during the first 48 hours after PCI was also significantly lower in the GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor group (4. 9% versus 8.0%; 41% reduction; P<0.001). No further benefit or rebound effect was observed beyond 48 hours after the PCI. There is conclusive evidence of an early benefit of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors during medical treatment in patients with acute coronary syndromes without persistent ST-segment elevation. In addition, in patients subsequently undergoing PCI, GP IIb/IIIa inhibition protects against myocardial damage associated with the intervention.

  18. Grape seed proanthocyanidines and skin cancer prevention: Inhibition of oxidative stress and protection of immune system

    PubMed Central

    Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2008-01-01

    Overexposure of the skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has a variety of adverse effects on human health, including the development of skin cancers. There is a need to develop nutrition-based efficient chemopreventive strategies. The proanthocyanidins present in grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) have been shown to have some biological effects, including prevention of photocarcinogenesis. The present communication discusses the in vitro and in vivo studies of the possible protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) and the molecular mechanism for these effects. In SKH-1 hairless mice, dietary supplementation with GSPs is associated with a decrease of UVB-induced skin tumor development in terms of tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and a decrease in the malignant transformation of papillomas to carcinomas. It is suggested that the chemopreventive effects of dietary GSPs are mediated through the attenuation of UV-induced: (a) oxidative stress; (b) activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-κB signaling pathways; and (c) immunosuppression through alterations in immunoregulatory cytokines. Collectively, these studies indicate protective potential of GSPs against experimental photocarcinogenesis in SKH-1 hairless mice, and the possible mechanisms of action of GSPs, and suggest that dietary GSPs could be useful in the attenuation of the adverse UV-induced health effects in human skin. PMID:18384090

  19. Inhibition of the plasma SCUBE1, a novel platelet adhesive protein, protects mice against thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meng-Ying; Lin, Yuh-Charn; Liao, Wei-Ju; Tu, Cheng-Fen; Chen, Ming-Huei; Roffler, Steve R; Yang, Ruey-Bing

    2014-07-01

    Signal peptide-CUB-EGF domain-containing protein 1 (SCUBE1), a secreted and surface-exposed glycoprotein on activated platelets, promotes platelet-platelet interaction and supports platelet-matrix adhesion. Its plasma level is a biomarker of platelet activation in acute thrombotic diseases. However, the exact roles of plasma SCUBE1 in vivo remain undefined. We generated new mutant (Δ) mice lacking the soluble but retaining the membrane-bound form of SCUBE1. Plasma SCUBE1-depleted Δ/Δ mice showed normal hematologic and coagulant features and expression of major platelet receptors, but Δ/Δ platelet-rich plasma showed impaired platelet aggregation in response to ADP and collagen treatment. The addition of purified recombinant SCUBE1 protein restored the aggregation of platelets in Δ/Δ platelet-rich plasma and further enhanced platelet aggregation in +/+ platelet-rich plasma. Plasma deficiency of SCUBE1 diminished arterial thrombosis in mice and protected against lethal thromboembolism induced by collagen-epinephrine treatment. Last, antibodies directed against the epidermal growth factor-like repeats of SCUBE1, which are involved in trans-homophilic protein-protein interactions, protected mice against fatal thromboembolism without causing bleeding in vivo. We conclude that plasma SCUBE1 participates in platelet aggregation by bridging adjacent activated platelets in thrombosis. Blockade of soluble SCUBE1 might represent a novel antithrombotic strategy. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Inhibition of Langerhans cell maturation by human papillomavirus type 16: a novel role for the annexin A2 heterotetramer in immune suppression1

    PubMed Central

    Woodham, Andrew W.; Raff, Adam B.; Raff, Laura M.; Da Silva, Diane M.; Yan, Lisa; Skeate, Joseph G.; Wong, Michael K.; Lin, Yvonne G.; Kast, W. Martin

    2014-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) are sexually transmitted viruses causally associated with several cancers. During its natural life cycle, HPV16, the most common high-risk genotype, infects the epithelial basal cellsin a process facilitated through a recently identified receptor, the annexin A2 heterotetramer (A2t). During infection, HPV16 also interacts with Langerhans cells (LC), the antigen presenting cells of the epithelium, inducing immune suppression, which is mediated by the HPV16 L2 minor capsid protein. Despite the importance of these virus-immune cell interactions, the specific mechanisms of HPV16 entry into LC and HPV16-induced immune suppression remain undefined. An N-terminal peptide of HPV16 L2 (aa 108-126) has been shown to specifically interact with A2t. Here, we show that incubation of human LC with this peptide blocks binding of HPV16. Inhibiting this interaction with an A2t ligand or by siRNA downregulation of A2t, significantly decreases HPV16 internalization into LC in an L2-dependent manner. A2t is associated with suppression of LC maturation as demonstrated through attenuated secretion of Th1-associated cytokines and decreased surface expression of MHC II on LC exposed to A2t. Conversely, small molecule inhibition of A2t prevents HPV16-induced suppression of LC immune function as indicated by significantly increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines and surface expression of CD86 in HPV16 treated LC pre-exposed to A2t inhibitors. These results demonstrate that HPV16 suppresses LC maturation through an interaction with A2t, revealing a novel role for this protein. PMID:24719459

  1. Inhibition of Langerhans cell maturation by human papillomavirus type 16: a novel role for the annexin A2 heterotetramer in immune suppression.

    PubMed

    Woodham, Andrew W; Raff, Adam B; Raff, Laura M; Da Silva, Diane M; Yan, Lisa; Skeate, Joseph G; Wong, Michael K; Lin, Yvonne G; Kast, W Martin

    2014-05-15

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are sexually transmitted viruses causally associated with several cancers. During its natural life cycle, HPV16, the most common high-risk genotype, infects the epithelial basal cells in a process facilitated through a recently identified receptor, the annexin A2 heterotetramer (A2t). During infection, HPV16 also interacts with Langerhans cells (LC), the APC of the epithelium, inducing immune suppression, which is mediated by the HPV16 L2 minor capsid protein. Despite the importance of these virus-immune cell interactions, the specific mechanisms of HPV16 entry into LC and HPV16-induced immune suppression remain undefined. An N-terminal peptide of HPV16 L2 (aa 108-126) has been shown to specifically interact with A2t. In this study, we show that incubation of human LC with this peptide blocks binding of HPV16. Inhibiting this interaction with an A2t ligand or by small interfering RNA downregulation of A2t significantly decreases HPV16 internalization into LC in an L2-dependent manner. A2t is associated with suppression of LC maturation as demonstrated through attenuated secretion of Th1-associated cytokines and decreased surface expression of MHC class II on LC exposed to A2t. Conversely, small molecule inhibition of A2t prevents HPV16-induced suppression of LC immune function as indicated by significantly increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines and surface expression of CD86 in HPV16 treated LC pre-exposed to A2t inhibitors. These results demonstrate that HPV16 suppresses LC maturation through an interaction with A2t, revealing a novel role for this protein.

  2. Inhibition of untransformed prostaglandin H(2) production and stretch-induced contraction of rabbit pulmonary arteries by indoxam, a selective secretory phospholipase A(2) inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Maki; Morikawa, Yuki; Kamataki, Akihisa; Sawai, Takashi; Hirose, Masamichi; Nakayama, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    Involvement of secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) in the stretch-induced production of untransformed prostaglandin H(2) (PGH(2)) in the endothelium of rabbit pulmonary arteries was investigated. The stretch-induced contraction was significantly inhibited by indoxam, a selective inhibitor for sPLA(2), and NS-398, a selective inhibitor for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Indoxam inhibited the RGD-sensitive-integrin-independent production of untransformed PGH(2), but did not affect the RGD-sensitive-integrin-dependent production of thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)). These results suggest that the stretch-induced contraction and untransformed PGH(2) production was mediated by sPLA(2)-COX-2 pathway, making it a new possible target for pharmacological intervention of pulmonary artery contractility.

  3. Epithelial-specific A2B adenosine receptor signaling protects the colonic epithelial barrier during acute colitis

    PubMed Central

    Aherne, CM; Saeedi, B; Collins, CB; Masterson, JC; McNamee, EN; Perrenoud, L; Rapp, CR; Curtis, VF; Bayless, A; Fletcher, A; Glover, LE; Evans, CM; Jedlicka, P; Furuta, GT; de Zoeten, EF; Colgan, SP; Eltzschig, HK

    2015-01-01

    Central to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis is loss of mucosal barrier function. Emerging evidence implicates extracellular adenosine signaling in attenuating mucosal inflammation. We hypothesized that adenosine-mediated protection from intestinal barrier dysfunction involves tissue-specific signaling through the A2B adenosine receptor (Adora2b) at the intestinal mucosal surface. To address this hypothesis, we combined pharmacologic studies and studies in mice with global or tissue-specific deletion of the Adora2b receptor. Adora2b−/− mice experienced a significantly heightened severity of colitis, associated with a more acute onset of disease and loss of intestinal epithelial barrier function. Comparison of mice with Adora2b deletion on vascular endothelial cells (Adora2bfl/flVeCadCre+) or intestinal epithelia (Adora2bfl/flVillinCre+) revealed a selective role for epithelial Adora2b signaling in attenuating colonic inflammation. In vitro studies with Adora2b knockdown in intestinal epithelial cultures or pharmacologic studies highlighted Adora2b-driven phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) as a specific barrier repair response. Similarly, in vivo studies in genetic mouse models or treatment studies with an Adora2b agonist (BAY 60-6583) recapitulate these findings. Taken together, our results suggest that intestinal epithelial Adora2b signaling provides protection during intestinal inflammation via enhancing mucosal barrier responses. PMID:25850656

  4. Inhibition of Baicalin on Metabolism of Phenacetin, a Probe of CYP1A2, in Human Liver Microsomes and in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Na; Qi, Bing; Liu, Fang-jun; Fang, Yan; Zhou, Jun; Jia, Lin-jing; Qiao, Hai-ling

    2014-01-01

    Baicalin has been used as mainly bioactive constituent of about 100 kinds of traditional Chinese medicines in Chinese pharmacopoeia. The effect of baicalin on cytochrome P450 should be paid more attention because baicalin was used widely. The aim of this study was to investigate whether baicalin could inhibit CYP1A2 in pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs) and in rats in vivo and the gene polymorphisms could affect inter-individual variation in IC50 in 28 human livers. Phenacetin was used as probe of CYP1A2. Kinetic parameter of CYP1A2 and IC50 of baicalin on CYP1A2 to each sample were measured and the common CYP1A2 polymorphisms (−3860G>A and −163C>A) were genotyped. The results showed that baicalin exhibited a mixed-type inhibition in pooled HLMs, with a Ki value of 25.4 µM. There was substantial variation in Km, Vmax, CLint of CYP1A2 and IC50 of baicalin on CYP1A2 (3∼10-fold). The range was from 26.6 to 114.8 µM for Km, from 333 to 1330 pmol·min−1·mg−1protein for Vmax and from 3.8 to 45.3 µL·min−1·mg−1 protein for CLint in HLMs (n = 28). The Mean (range) value of IC50 in 28 HLMs was 36.3 (18.9 to 56.1) µM. The genotypes of −3860G>A and −163C>A had no significant effect on the inhibition of baicalin on CYP1A2. The animal experiment results showed that baicalin (450 mg/kg, i.v.) significantly decreased the Cmax and CL of phenacetin, and increased C60 min, t1/2, Vd and AUC (P<0.05). There were significant correlations between percentage of control in C60 min, t1/2, CL, AUC of phenacetin and Cmax of baicalin in 11 rats (P<0.05). Protein binding experiments in vitro showed that baicalin (0–2000 mg/L) increased the unbound phenacetin from 14.5% to 28.3%. In conclusion, baicalin can inhibit the activity of CYP1A2 in HLMs and exhibit large inter-individual variation that has no relationship with gene polymorphism. Baicalin can change the pharmacokinetics of phenacetin in rats. PMID:24587011

  5. Inhibition of Drp1 hyper-activation is protective in animal models of experimental multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Fucheng; Herrup, Karl; Qi, Xin; Yang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS), a leading neurological disorder of young adults, is characterized by the loss of oligodendrocytes (OLs), demyelination, inflammation and neuronal degeneration. Here we show that dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a mitochondrial fission protein, is activated in primary OL cells exposed to TNF-α induced inflammation or oxidative stress, as well as in EAE-immunized and cuprizone toxicity-induced demyelinating mouse models. Inhibition of Drp1 hyper-activation by the selective inhibitor P110 abolishes Drp1 translocation to the mitochondria, reduces mitochondrial fragmentation and stems necrosis in primary OLs exposed to TNF-α and H2O2. Notably, in both types of mouse models, treatment with P110 significantly reduces the loss of mature OLs and demyelination, attenuates the number of active microglial cells and astrocytes, yet has no effect on the differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Drp1 activation appears to be mediated through the RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL/PGAM5 pathway during TNF-α-induced oligodendroglia necroptosis. Our results demonstrate a critical role of Drp1 hyper-activation in OL cell death and suggest that an inhibitor of Drp1 hyper-activation such as P110 is worth exploring for its ability to halt or slow the progression of MS. PMID:28238799

  6. Quercitrin offers protection against brain injury in mice by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie-Qiong; Luo, Rong-Zhen; Jiang, Hai-Xia; Liu, Chan-Min

    2016-01-01

    Quercitrin is one of the primary flavonoid compounds present in vegetables and fruits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of quercitrin against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced brain injury and further to elucidate its probable mechanisms. ICR mice received CCl4 intraperitoneally with or without quercitrin co-administration for 4 weeks. Our data showed that quercitrin significantly suppressed the elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, reduced tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) activity, enhanced the antioxidant enzyme activities and abrogated cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) induction in mouse brains. Quercitrin also prevented CCl4 induced cerebral function disorders associated with its ability to inhibit the activities of monoamine oxidase (MAO), acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor 2B subunit (NR2B). In addition, western blot analysis showed that quercitrin suppressed the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Taken together, our findings suggested that quercitrin may be a potential candidate to be developed as a neuroprotective agent.

  7. Inhibition of Drp1 hyper-activation is protective in animal models of experimental multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fucheng; Herrup, Karl; Qi, Xin; Yang, Yan

    2017-06-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS), a leading neurological disorder of young adults, is characterized by the loss of oligodendrocytes (OLs), demyelination, inflammation and neuronal degeneration. Here we show that dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a mitochondrial fission protein, is activated in primary OL cells exposed to TNF-α induced inflammation or oxidative stress, as well as in EAE-immunized and cuprizone toxicity-induced demyelinating mouse models. Inhibition of Drp1 hyper-activation by the selective inhibitor P110 abolishes Drp1 translocation to the mitochondria, reduces mitochondrial fragmentation and stems necrosis in primary OLs exposed to TNF-α and H 2 O 2 . Notably, in both types of mouse models, treatment with P110 significantly reduces the loss of mature OLs and demyelination, attenuates the number of active microglial cells and astrocytes, yet has no effect on the differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Drp1 activation appears to be mediated through the RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL/PGAM5 pathway during TNF-α-induced oligodendroglia necroptosis. Our results demonstrate a critical role of Drp1 hyper-activation in OL cell death and suggest that an inhibitor of Drp1 hyper-activation such as P110 is worth exploring for its ability to halt or slow the progression of MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Valsartan protects HK-2 cells from contrast media-induced apoptosis by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ping-An; Wang, Le; Ma, Qian; Xin, Yi; Zhang, Ou; Han, Hong-Ya; Liu, Xiao-Li; Ji, Qing-Wei; Zhou, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Ying-Xin

    2015-12-01

    Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is associated with increasing in-hospital and long-term adverse clinical outcomes in high-risk patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Contrast media (CM)-induced renal tubular cell apoptosis is reported to participate in this process by activating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. An angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonist can alleviate ER stress-induced renal apoptosis in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice and can reduce CM-induced renal apoptosis by reducing oxidative stress and reversing the enhancement of bax mRNA and the reduction of bcl-2 mRNA, but the effect of the AT1R blocker on ER stress in the pathogenesis of CI-AKI is still unknown. In this study, we explored the effect of valsartan on meglumine diatrizoate-induced human renal tubular cell apoptosis by measuring changes in ER stress-related biomarkers. The results showed that meglumine diatrizoate caused significant cell apoptosis by up-regulating the expression of ER stress markers, including glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP) and caspase 12, in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which could be alleviated by preincubation with valsartan. In conclusion, valsartan had a potential nephroprotective effect on meglumine diatrizoate-induced renal cell apoptosis by inhibiting ER stress. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  9. Inhibiting connexin channels protects against cryopreservation-induced cell death in human blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Bol, M; Van Geyt, C; Baert, S; Decrock, E; Wang, N; De Bock, M; Gadicherla, A K; Randon, C; Evans, W H; Beele, H; Cornelissen, R; Leybaert, L

    2013-04-01

    Cryopreserved blood vessels are being increasingly employed in vascular reconstruction procedures but freezing/thawing is associated with significant cell death that may lead to graft failure. Vascular cells express connexin proteins that form gap junction channels and hemichannels. Gap junction channels directly connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells and may facilitate the passage of cell death messengers leading to bystander cell death. Two hemichannels form a gap junction channel but these channels are also present as free non-connected hemichannels. Hemichannels are normally closed but may open under stressful conditions and thereby promote cell death. We here investigated whether blocking gap junctions and hemichannels could prevent cell death after cryopreservation. Inclusion of Gap27, a connexin channel inhibitory peptide, during cryopreservation and thawing of human saphenous veins and femoral arteries was evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assays and histological examination. We report that Gap27 significantly reduces cell death in human femoral arteries and saphenous veins when present during cryopreservation/thawing. In particular, smooth muscle cell death was reduced by 73% in arteries and 71% in veins, while endothelial cell death was reduced by 32% in arteries and 51% in veins. We conclude that inhibiting connexin channels during cryopreservation strongly promotes vascular cell viability. Copyright © 2012 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. C-phycocyanin protects against low fertility by inhibiting reactive oxygen species in aging mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-Jiao; Han, Zhe; Ge, Lei; Zhou, Cheng-Jie; Zhao, Yue-Fang; Wang, Dong-Hui; Ren, Jing; Niu, Xin-Xin; Liang, Cheng-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Women over 35 have higher rates of infertility, largely due to deterioration of oocyte quality characterized by fragmentation, abnormal meiotic spindle-chromosome complexes, and oxidative stress. C-phycocyanin (PC) is a biliprotein enriched in Spirulina platensis that is known to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and radical-scavenging properties. D-galactose-induced aging acceleration in mice has been extensively used to study aging mechanisms and for pharmaceutical screening. In this study, adult female B6D2F/1 mice injected with D-galactose were used as a model to test the age-reversing effects of PC on degenerated reproductive ability. Our results show that PC can prevent oocyte fragmentation and aneuploidy by maintaining cytoskeletal integrity. Moreover, PC can reverse the expression of antioxidant genes, increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and decrease methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) content, and normalize mitochondria distribution. PC exerts its benefit by inhibiting reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which decreases apoptosis. Finally, we observe a significant increase in litter size after PC administration to D-galactose-induced aging mice. Our study demonstrates for the first time that D-galactose-induced impaired female reproductive capability can be partially rescued by the antioxidant effects of PC. PMID:27008700

  11. Minocycline Inhibition of Monocyte Activation Correlates with Neuronal Protection in SIV NeuroAIDS

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Jennifer H.; Burdo, Tricia H.; Autissier, Patrick; Bombardier, Jeffrey P.; Westmoreland, Susan V.; Soulas, Caroline; González, R. Gilberto; Ratai, Eva-Maria; Williams, Kenneth C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Minocycline is a tetracycline antibiotic that has been proposed as a potential conjunctive therapy for HIV-1 associated cognitive disorders. Precise mechanism(s) of minocycline's functions are not well defined. Methods Fourteen rhesus macaques were SIV infected and neuronal metabolites measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS). Seven received minocycline (4 mg/kg) daily starting at day 28 post-infection (pi). Monocyte expansion and activation were assessed by flow cytometry, cell traffic to lymph nodes, CD16 regulation, viral replication, and cytokine production were studied. Results Minocycline treatment decreased plasma virus and pro-inflammatory CD14+CD16+ and CD14loCD16+ monocytes, and reduced their expression of CD11b, CD163, CD64, CCR2 and HLA-DR. There was reduced recruitment of monocyte/macrophages and productively infected cells in axillary lymph nodes. There was an inverse correlation between brain NAA/Cr (neuronal injury) and circulating CD14+CD16+ and CD14loCD16+ monocytes. Minocycline treatment in vitro reduced SIV replication CD16 expression on activated CD14+CD16+ monocytes, and IL-6 production by monocytes following LPS stimulation. Conclusion Neuroprotective effects of minocycline are due in part to reduction of activated monocytes, monocyte traffic. Mechanisms for these effects include CD16 regulation, reduced viral replication, and inhibited immune activation. PMID:21494695

  12. Inhibiting the CD38/cADPR pathway protected rats against sepsis associated brain injury.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qian-Yi; Wang, Yi-Min; Chen, Cai-Xia; Zou, Yu; Zhang, Li-Na; Deng, Song-Yun; Ai, Yu-Hang

    2018-01-01

    The CD38/cADPR pathway has been found to play roles in various inflammatory conditions. However, whether CD38 plays a protective or detrimental effect in the central nervous system (CNS) is controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of CD38/cADPR pathway in sepsis associated brain injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were undergone cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham laparotomies. NAD + , cADPR and CD38 were measured in the hippocampus of septic rats at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48h after CLP surgery. Rats were divided into the sham, CLP group, CLP+ CD38 expression lentivirus (CLP+ CD38 LV), CLP+ CD38 interference lentivirus (CLP+ CD38 Ri), CLP+ negative control lentivirus (CLP+NC) and the CLP+8-Br-cADPR groups. The Western blots of Bcl-2, Bax and iNOS, TUNEL assays, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) assays, transmission electron microscope analysis were performed in the hippocampus of rats. NAD + , cADPR and CD38 levels increased significantly in the hippocampus of septic rats as early as 12-24h after CLP surgery. CD38 knockdown or blocking cADPR with 8-Br-cADPR significantly reduced apoptosis, MDA and SOD activity, iNOS expression and ultrastructural morphology damages in the hippocampus of septic rats. In this study, we found that the CD38/cADPR pathway was activated in sepsis associated brain injury. Blocking this pathway protected the hippocampus from apoptosis, oxidative stress and ultrastructural morphology damages in septic rats. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Will the Eu Data Protection Regulation 2016/679 Inhibit Critical Care Research?

    PubMed

    Timmers, Marjolein; Van Veen, Evert-Ben; Maas, Andrew I R; Kompanje, Erwin J O

    2018-05-17

    There is an inherent tension between critical care research and data protection. Because of their condition it is not possible to ask for the patients' informed consent to be enrolled in observational research at the point of admission to the hospital. Often this is not possible at a later moment either. Yet informed consent is the baseline to be enrolled in research with personal data and exceptions must be allowed for by national legislation. This was the case under Directive 95/96/EC and will be the case under the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR, Regulation 2016/679 EU) which will replace the Directive from 25 May 2018 onwards. Though being a Regulation and therefore directly applicable in the Member States, the long debate about the research exceptions in the GDPR left many aspects of observational research including the exception to the informed consent principle, mainly to the Member States. It may be assumed that most Member States will leave their present state of the law intact in this respect as that was part of the political compromise. We compared existing national privacy legislation from the perspective of critical care research and found great variation. Although this may not impede the collection of emergency and critical care research with data without prior informed consent in countries which are more responsive to such research, it might be a challenge to exchange such data from the national nodes in European wide research collaboration. We make a case that countries which are not responsive to such research should adapt their legislation in the interests of future critical care patients.

  14. Inhibition of angiogenesis by leflunomide via targeting the soluble ephrin-A1/EphA2 system in bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Chu, Maolin; Zhang, Chunying

    2018-01-24

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in bladder cancer (BCa). The immunosuppressive drug leflunomide has attracted worldwide attention. However, the effects of leflunomide on angiogenesis in cancer remain unclear. Here, we report the increased expression of soluble ephrin-A1 (sEphrin-A1) in supernatants of BCa cell lines (RT4, T24, and TCCSUP) co-cultured with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) compared with that in immortalized uroepithelial cells (SV-HUC-1) co-cultured with HUVECs. sEphrin-A1 is released from BCa cells as a monomeric protein that is a functional form of the ligand. The co-culture supernatants containing sEphrin-A1 caused the internalization and down-regulation of EphA2 on endothelial cells and dramatic functional activation of HUVECs. This sEphrin-A1/EphA2 system is mainly functional in regulating angiogenesis in BCa tissue. We showed that leflunomide (LEF) inhibited angiogenesis in a N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine (BBN)-induced bladder carcinogenesis model and a tumor xenograft model, as well as in BCa cell and HUVEC co-culture systems, via significant inhibition of the sEphrin-A1/EphA2 system. Ephrin-A1 overexpression could partially reverse LEF-induced suppression of angiogenesis and subsequent tumor growth inhibition. Thus, LEF has a significant anti-angiogenesis effect on BCa cells and BCa tissue via its inhibition of the functional angiogenic sEphrin-A1/EphA2 system and may have potential for treating BCa beyond immunosuppressive therapy.

  15. Inhibition of HSP90α protects cultured neurons from oxygen-glucose deprivation induced necroptosis by decreasing RIP3 expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Guo, Li-Min; Wang, Yong; Zhou, Hong-Kang; Wang, Shu-Chao; Chen, Dan; Huang, Ju-Fang; Xiong, Kun

    2018-06-01

    Heat shock protein 90α (HSP90α) maintains cell stabilization and regulates cell death, respectively. Recent studies have shown that HSP90α is involved in receptor interacting protein 3 (RIP3)-mediated necroptosis in HT29 cells. It is known that oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) can induce necroptosis, which is regulated by RIP3 in neurons. However, it is still unclear whether HSP90α participates in the process of OGD-induced necroptosis in cultured neurons via the regulation of RIP3. Our study found that necroptosis occurs in primary cultured cortical neurons and PC-12 cells following exposure to OGD insult. Additionally, the expression of RIP3/p-RIP3, MLKL/p-MLKL, and the RIP1/RIP3 complex (necrosome) significantly increased following OGD, as measured through immunofluorescence (IF) staining, Western blotting (WB), and immunoprecipitation (IP) assay. Additionally, data from computer simulations and IP assays showed that HSP90α interacts with RIP3. In addition, HSP90α was overexpressed following OGD in cultured neurons, as measured through WB and IF staining. Inhibition of HSP90α in cultured neurons, using the specific inhibitor, geldanamycin (GA), and siRNA/shRNA of HSP90α, protected cultured neurons from necrosis. Our study showed that the inhibitor of HSP90α, GA, rescued cultured neurons not only by decreasing the expression of total RIP3/MLKL, but also by decreasing the expression of p-RIP3/p-MLKL and the RIP1/RIP3 necrosome. In this study, we reveal that inhibition of HSP90α protects primary cultured cortical neurons and PC-12 cells from OGD-induced necroptosis through the modulation of RIP3 expression. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Hyperforin protects against acute cerebral ischemic injury through inhibition of interleukin-17A-mediated microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Pan, Xia; Zhou, Fang; Liu, Kang; Wang, Long

    2018-01-01

    Hyperforin, a pharmacologically active component of the medicinal plant Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort), has been shown to be neuroprotective against acute ischemic stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear and need to be fully elucidated. C57BL/6 wildtype (WT) mice or interleukin (IL)-17A knock-out mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (60min) followed by reperfusion for 72h. Hyperforin (0.5μg) was injected slowly into the right ventricle of WT mice 1, 24 and 48h after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) onset. Here, we found that hyperforin treatment decreased the mRNA and protein expression of IL-17A at 72h after MCAO onset. Hyperforin reduced infarct volumes and increased neurologic scores accompanied by a decrease in microglial activation and a shift from M1 to M2 phenotypes in the peri-infarct striatum. Furthermore, we revealed that IL-17A was essential to the microglial activation in the acute phase of ischemic stroke. IL-17A knock-out (il-17a -/- ) or anti-IL-17 A monoclonal antibody treatment markedly decreased the microglial activation and induced a shift from M1 to M2 phenotypes of activated microglia. In addition, treatment with recombinant mouse IL-17A abolished the protective effects of hyperforin on acute ischemic brain injury, attenuated the inhibitory effects of hyperforin on the microglial activation, and inhibited the enhanced shift from M1 to M2 phenotypes mediated by hyperforin. In conclusion, our results clearly showed that hyperforin could protect against acute cerebral ischemic injury through inhibition of interleukin-17A-mediated microglial activation and polarization of microglia to M2 phenotype. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Protective Effect of Thymoquinone against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Hemorrhagic Cystitis through Inhibiting DNA Damage and Upregulation of Nrf2 Expression.

    PubMed

    Gore, Prashant R; Prajapati, Chaitali P; Mahajan, Umesh B; Goyal, Sameer N; Belemkar, Sateesh; Ojha, Shreesh; Patil, Chandragouda R

    2016-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CYP) induced hemorrhagic cystitis is a dose-limiting side effect involving increased oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines and suppressed activity of nuclear factor related erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2). Thymoquinone (TQ), an active constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, is reported to increase the expression of Nrf2, exert antioxidant action, and anti-inflammatory effects in the experimental animals. The present study was designed to explore the effects of TQ on CYP-induced hemorrhagic cystitis in Balb/c mice. Cystitis was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of CYP (200 mg/kg). TQ was administered intraperitoneally at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg doses twice a day, for three days before and three days after the CYP administration. The efficacy of TQ was determined in terms of the protection against the CYP-induced histological perturbations in the bladder tissue, reduction in the oxidative stress, and inhibition of the DNA fragmentation. Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine the expression of Nrf2. TQ protected against CYP-induced oxidative stress was evident from significant reduction in the lipid peroxidation, restoration of the levels of reduced glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. TQ treatment significantly reduced the DNA damage evident as reduced DNA fragmentation. A significant decrease in the cellular infiltration, edema, epithelial denudation and hemorrhage were observed in the histological observations. There was restoration and rise in the Nrf2 expression in the bladder tissues of mice treated with TQ. These results confirm that, TQ ameliorates the CYP-induced hemorrhagic cystitis in mice through reduction in the oxidative stress, inhibition of the DNA damage and through increased expression of Nrf2 in the bladder tissues.

  18. Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans protected the cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis by inhibiting high-mobility group box protein-1.

    PubMed

    Jo, Il-Joo; Bae, Gi-Sang; Park, Kyoung-Chel; Choi, Sun Bok; Jung, Won-Seok; Jung, Su-Young; Cho, Jung-Hee; Choi, Mee-Ok; Song, Ho-Joon; Park, Sung-Joo

    2013-03-14

    To evaluate the inhibitory effects of Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans (SSM) on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) in a mouse model. SSM water extract (0.1, 0.5, or 1 g/kg) was administrated intraperitoneally 1 h prior to the first injection of cerulein. Once AP developed, the stable cholecystokinin analogue, cerulein was injected hourly, over a 6 h period. Blood samples were taken 6 h later to determine serum amylase, lipase, and cytokine levels. The pancreas and lungs were rapidly removed for morphological examination, myeloperoxidase assay, and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. To specify the role of SSM in pancreatitis, the pancreatic acinar cells were isolated using collagenase method. Then the cells were pre-treated with SSM, then stimulated with cerulein. The cell viability, cytokine productions and high-mobility group box protein-1 (HMGB-1) were measured. Furthermore, the regulating mechanisms of SSM action were evaluated. The administration of SSM significantly attenuated the severity of pancreatitis and pancreatitis associated lung injury, as was shown by the reduction in pancreatic edema, neutrophil infiltration, vacuolization and necrosis. SSM treatment also reduced pancreatic weight/body weight ratio, serum amylase, lipase and cytokine levels, and mRNA expression of multiple inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β. In addition, treatment with SSM inhibited HMGB-1 expression in the pancreas during AP. In accordance with in vivo data, SSM inhibited the cerulein-induced acinar cell death, cytokine, and HMGB-1 release. SSM also inhibited the activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, p38 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB. These results suggest that SSM plays a protective role during the development of AP and pancreatitis associated lung injury via deactivating c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, p38 and NF-κB.

  19. Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans protected the cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis by inhibiting high-mobility group box protein-1

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Il-Joo; Bae, Gi-Sang; Park, Kyoung-Chel; Choi, Sun Bok; Jung, Won-Seok; Jung, Su-Young; Cho, Jung-Hee; Choi, Mee-Ok; Song, Ho-Joon; Park, Sung-Joo

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the inhibitory effects of Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans (SSM) on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) in a mouse model. METHODS: SSM water extract (0.1, 0.5, or 1 g/kg) was administrated intraperitoneally 1 h prior to the first injection of cerulein. Once AP developed, the stable cholecystokinin analogue, cerulein was injected hourly, over a 6 h period. Blood samples were taken 6 h later to determine serum amylase, lipase, and cytokine levels. The pancreas and lungs were rapidly removed for morphological examination, myeloperoxidase assay, and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. To specify the role of SSM in pancreatitis, the pancreatic acinar cells were isolated using collagenase method. Then the cells were pre-treated with SSM, then stimulated with cerulein. The cell viability, cytokine productions and high-mobility group box protein-1 (HMGB-1) were measured. Furthermore, the regulating mechanisms of SSM action were evaluated. RESULTS: The administration of SSM significantly attenuated the severity of pancreatitis and pancreatitis associated lung injury, as was shown by the reduction in pancreatic edema, neutrophil infiltration, vacuolization and necrosis. SSM treatment also reduced pancreatic weight/body weight ratio, serum amylase, lipase and cytokine levels, and mRNA expression of multiple inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β. In addition, treatment with SSM inhibited HMGB-1 expression in the pancreas during AP. In accordance with in vivo data, SSM inhibited the cerulein-induced acinar cell death, cytokine, and HMGB-1 release. SSM also inhibited the activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, p38 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that SSM plays a protective role during the development of AP and pancreatitis associated lung injury via deactivating c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, p38 and NF-κB. PMID:23539679

  20. Ghrelin protected neonatal rat cardiomyocyte against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury by inhibiting apoptosis through Akt-mTOR signal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifeng; Lu, Yingjie; Liu, Xian; Wang, Xiaoyun

    2017-04-01

    Reducing reperfusion period myocardial cell damage is efficient to reduce myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Ghrelin can increase myocardial contractility, improve heart failure caused by myocardial infarction. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of Ghrelin on myocardial hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) and to explore the mechanisms. We isolated the NRCMs, established myocardial H/R model, blocked growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) by siRNA technique, examined cell activity by MTT and LDH assay, detected apoptosis by Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry and determined the expression levels of apoptosis related proteins and signaling pathway proteins by western blot. We found that Ghrelin can significantly improve cell activity and decrease apoptosis after H/R, however this effect was abolished by GHSR-siRNA. In addition, we found that Ghrelin can significantly increase the expression of Bcl-2 but inhibit the level of Bax and caspase-3. Further mechanism study found that the phosphorylation level of signaling pathway protein Akt and mTOR in Ghrelin treated group were significantly higher than that in other groups. In conclusion, Ghrelin can reduce the H/R damage on NRCMs and inhibit the apoptosis by activating Akt-mTOR signaling pathway.

  1. [Role of autophagy in fasudil-induced Rho kinase inhibition for protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats].

    PubMed

    Ye, Hong-Wei; Fang, Ting-Ting; Gu, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Ya; Zhu, Guang-Yu; Yu, Ying; Gao, Qin

    2016-12-20

    To investigate the changes of autophagy in ischemic myocardium of rats treated with fasudil for inhibiting Rho kinase. The hearts isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 30 min of occlusion of the left anterior descending artery followed by 120 min of reperfusion with or without treatment with fasudil or fasudil+Wort. The left ventricular hemodynamics were continuously recorded, and the coronary effluent was collected during the reperfusion to determine lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. The mRNA expressions of autophagy-related genes Atg5 and Beclin1 and apoptosis-related genes bax and bcl-2 were detected by RT-PCR, and the protein expression of caspase-3 was detected by Western blotting. Compared with I/R group, fasudil significantly improved the left ventricular developed pressure, maximal rise/fall rate of left ventricular pressure and rate pressure product, reduced LDH release during reperfusion, increased Atg5 and Beclin1 mRNA expression and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, and lowered caspase 3 protein expression. The autophagy inhibitor Wort significantly attenuated the effect of fasudil in the rat hearts. Fasudil treatment for inhibiting Rho kinase promoted autophagy in ex vivo rat heart to protect against myocardial ischima-reperfusion injury possibly by reducing apoptosis of the cardiac myocytes.

  2. Emodin protects mice against radiation-induced mortality and intestinal injury via inhibition of apoptosis and modulation of p53.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yue; Zhu, Qiuzhen; Liu, Yulan; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Yuefan; Li, Tiejun

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the protective effect of emodin, a plant-derived anthraquinone, against gamma radiation-induced mortality and intestinal injury in mice, and to investigate the radioprotective molecular mechanism. C57BL/6 male mice were pre-treated with emodin for 7days via oral gavage before gamma radiation. We found that pretreatment with emodin prolonged mice survival time after 9Gy total body irradiation (TBI). Mice were sacrificed at 1 week after 7Gy TBI, we found that emodin attenuated intestinal morphological changes and increased villus height, crypt numbers, and reduced villus and crypt apoptosis as well as inhibited the expression of p53. MTT assay, flow cytometry, Hoechst 33258 staining, real-time PCR, and Western blotting indicated that emodin pretreatment can effectively increase human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) viability and attenuate cell apoptosis; it also inhibited the expression of p53, Bax, and Caspase3 in HUVECs after irradiation. In summary, these results suggest the potential of emodin as an effective radioprotectant against radiation-induced intestinal injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Preconditioning With Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid Protects Against Contrast-Induced HK-2 Cell Apoptosis by Inhibiting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Peng, Pingan; Ma, Qian; Wang, Le; Zhang, Ou; Han, Hongya; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Yujie; Zhao, Yingxin

    2015-11-01

    To investigate whether tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) could attenuate contrast media (CM)-induced renal tubular cell apoptosis by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), we exposed HK-2 cells to increasing doses of meglumine diatrizoate (20, 40, and 80 mg I/mL) for 2 to 16 hours, with/without TUDCA preconditioning for 24 hours. Cell viability test, Hoechst 33258 staining, and flow cytometry were used to detect meglumine diatrizoate-induced cell apoptosis, while real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were used to measure the expressions of ERS markers of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), and the apoptosis-related marker of caspase 12. Cell apoptosis and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of GRP78 (P = .005), ATF4 (P = .01), and caspase 12 (P = .001) were significantly higher in the CM 4 hours group than the control as well as the protein expressions. The TUDCA preconditioning reduced the mRNA expression of GRP78, ATF4, and caspase 12 in the CM 4 hours groups (P = .009, .019, and .003, respectively) as well as the protein expression. In conclusion, TUDCA could protect renal tubular cells from meglumine diatrizoate-induced apoptosis by inhibiting ERS. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. EphrinA1-EphA2 interaction-mediated apoptosis and Flt3L-induced immunotherapy inhibits tumor growth in a breast cancer mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Manish; Vemula, Sai V.; Sharma, Anurag; Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Mittal, Shalini; Bangari, Dinesh S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2 is overexpressed in several types of cancers and is currently being pursued as a target for breast cancer therapeutics. The EphA2 ligand EphrinA1 induces EphA2 phosphorylation and intracellular internalization and degradation, thus inhibiting tumor progression. The hematopoietic growth factor, FMS-like tyrosine kinase receptor ligand (Flt3L), promotes expansion and mobilization of functional dendritic cells. Methods We tested the EphrinA1-EphA2 interaction in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells focusing on the receptor-ligand-mediated apoptosis of breast cancer cells. In order to determine whether the EphrinA1-EphA2 interaction-associated apoptosis and Flt3L-mediated immunotherapy would have an additive effect in inhibiting tumor growth, we used an immunocompetent mouse model of breast cancer to evaluate intratumoral (i.t.) inoculation strategies with human adenovirus (HAd) vectors expressing either EphrinA1 (HAd-EphrinA1-Fc), Flt3L (HAd-Flt3L) or a combination of EphrinA1-Fc + Flt3L (HAd-EphrinA1-Fc + HAd-Flt3L). Results In vitro analysis demonstrated that an EphrinA1-EphA2 interaction led to apoptosis-related changes in breast cancer cells. In vivo, three i.t. inoculations of HAd-EphrinA1-Fc showed potent inhibition of tumor growth. Furthermore, increased inhibition in tumor growth was observed with the combination of HAd-EphrinA1-Fc and HAd-Flt3L accompanied by the generation of an anti-tumor adaptive immune response. Conclusions The results indicating induction of apoptosis and inhibition of mammary tumor growth show the potential therapeutic benefits of HAd-EphrinA1-Fc. In combination with HAd-Flt3L, this represents a promising strategy to effectively induce mammary tumor regression by HAd vector-based therapy. PMID:22228563

  5. [Inhibition of phospholipase A2 of peritoneal macrophages in rats by 1,2-di-O-hexadecyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine].

    PubMed

    Boucrot, P; Khettab, E N; Petit, J Y; Welin, L

    1993-01-01

    The 1-O-stearoyl-2-O-[3H] arachidonyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, introduced in the culture medium, was taken up by the peritoneal macrophages activated by the ionophore A 23187. After intracellular phospholipase A2 activity, the [3H] arachidonic acid was found in cells and in extracellular fluids. It also reached the eicosanoid synthesis. When it was introduced in the culture medium with the tritiated phospholipid, the 1, 2 di-O-hexadecyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine, which has a non hydrolysable alkylated structure in the 2 position of the glycerol, inhibited the intracellular phospholipase A2, then contributed to lower the eicosanoid synthesis.

  6. Systemic inhibition of IL-6/Stat3 signalling protects against experimental osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Latourte, Augustin; Cherifi, Chahrazad; Maillet, Jérémy; Ea, Hang-Korng; Bouaziz, Wafa; Funck-Brentano, Thomas; Cohen-Solal, Martine; Hay, Eric; Richette, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the impact of systemic inhibition of interleukin 6 (IL-6) or signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat3) in an experimental model of osteoarthritis (OA). Expression of major catabolic and anabolic factors of cartilage was determined in IL-6-treated mouse chondrocytes and cartilage explants. The anti-IL-6-receptor neutralising antibody MR16-1 was used in the destabilisation of the medial meniscus (DMM) mouse model of OA. Stat3 blockade was investigated by the small molecule Stattic ex vivo and in the DMM model. In chondrocytes and cartilage explants, IL-6 treatment reduced proteoglycan content with increased production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-3 and MMP-13) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5). IL-6 induced Stat3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 signalling but not p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase or Akt. In the DMM model, Stat3 was activated in cartilage, but neither in the synovium nor in the subchondral bone. Systemic blockade of IL-6 by MR16-1 alleviated DMM-induced OA cartilage lesions, impaired the osteophyte formation and the extent of synovitis. In the same model, Stattic had similar beneficial effects on cartilage and osteophyte formation. Stattic, but not an ERK1/2 inhibitor, significantly counteracted the catabolic effects of IL-6 on cartilage explants and suppressed the IL-6-induced chondrocytes apoptosis. IL-6 induces chondrocyte catabolism mainly via Stat3 signalling, a pathway activated in cartilage from joint subjected to DMM. Systemic blockade of IL-6 or STAT-3 can alleviate DMM-induced OA in mice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. The mitochondrial unfolded protein response activator ATFS-1 protects cells from inhibition of the mevalonate pathway

    PubMed Central

    Rauthan, Manish; Ranji, Parmida; Aguilera Pradenas, Nataly; Pitot, Christophe; Pilon, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Statins are cholesterol-lowering drugs that inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of cholesterol via the mevalonate pathway. This pathway also produces coenzyme Q (a component of the respiratory chain), dolichols (important for protein glycosylation), and isoprenoids (lipid moieties responsible for the membrane association of small GTPases). We previously showed that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is useful to study the noncholesterol effects of statins because its mevalonate pathway lacks the sterol synthesis branch but retains all other branches. Here, from a screen of 150,000 mutagenized genomes, we isolated four C. elegans mutants resistant to statins by virtue of gain-of-function mutations within the first six amino acids of the protein ATFS-1, the key regulator of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response that includes activation of the chaperones HSP-6 and HSP-60. The atfs-1 gain-of-function mutants are also resistant to ibandronate, an inhibitor of an enzyme downstream of HMG-CoA reductase, and to gliotoxin, an inhibitor acting on a subbranch of the pathway important for protein prenylation, and showed improved mitochondrial function and protein prenylation in the presence of statins. Additionally, preinduction of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response in wild-type worms using ethidium bromide or paraquat triggered statin resistance, and similar observations were made in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and in a mammalian cell line. We conclude that statin resistance through maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis is conserved across species, and that the cell-lethal effects of statins are caused primarily through impaired protein prenylation that results in mitochondria dysfunction. PMID:23530189

  8. The mitochondrial unfolded protein response activator ATFS-1 protects cells from inhibition of the mevalonate pathway.

    PubMed

    Rauthan, Manish; Ranji, Parmida; Aguilera Pradenas, Nataly; Pitot, Christophe; Pilon, Marc

    2013-04-09

    Statins are cholesterol-lowering drugs that inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of cholesterol via the mevalonate pathway. This pathway also produces coenzyme Q (a component of the respiratory chain), dolichols (important for protein glycosylation), and isoprenoids (lipid moieties responsible for the membrane association of small GTPases). We previously showed that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is useful to study the noncholesterol effects of statins because its mevalonate pathway lacks the sterol synthesis branch but retains all other branches. Here, from a screen of 150,000 mutagenized genomes, we isolated four C. elegans mutants resistant to statins by virtue of gain-of-function mutations within the first six amino acids of the protein ATFS-1, the key regulator of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response that includes activation of the chaperones HSP-6 and HSP-60. The atfs-1 gain-of-function mutants are also resistant to ibandronate, an inhibitor of an enzyme downstream of HMG-CoA reductase, and to gliotoxin, an inhibitor acting on a subbranch of the pathway important for protein prenylation, and showed improved mitochondrial function and protein prenylation in the presence of statins. Additionally, preinduction of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response in wild-type worms using ethidium bromide or paraquat triggered statin resistance, and similar observations were made in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and in a mammalian cell line. We conclude that statin resistance through maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis is conserved across species, and that the cell-lethal effects of statins are caused primarily through impaired protein prenylation that results in mitochondria dysfunction.

  9. Metalloproteinase Inhibition Protects against Reductions in Circulating Adrenomedullin during Lead-induced Acute Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Regina A; Mendes, Gabryella; Possomato-Vieira, Jose S; Gonçalves-Rizzi, Victor Hugo; Kushima, Hélio; Delella, Flavia K; Dias-Junior, Carlos A

    2015-06-01

    Intoxication with lead (Pb) results in increased blood pressure by mechanisms involving matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Recent findings have revealed that MMP type two (MMP-2) seems to cleave vasoactive peptides. This study examined whether MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels/activities increase after acute intoxication with low lead concentrations and whether these changes were associated with increases in blood pressure and circulating endothelin-1 or with reductions in circulating adrenomedullin and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Here, we expand previous findings and examine whether doxycycline (a MMPs inhibitor) affects these alterations. Wistar rats received intraperitoneally (i.p.) 1st dose 8 μg/100 g of lead (or sodium) acetate, a subsequent dose of 0.1 μg/100 g to cover daily loss and treatment with doxycycline (30 mg/kg/day) or water by gavage for 7 days. Similar whole-blood lead levels (9 μg/dL) were found in lead-exposed rats treated with either doxycycline or water. Lead-induced increases in systolic blood pressure (from 143 ± 2 to 167 ± 3 mmHg) and gelatin zymography of plasma samples showed that lead increased MMP-9 (but not MMP-2) levels. Both lead-induced increased MMP-9 activity and hypertension were blunted by doxycycline. Doxycycline also prevented lead-induced reductions in circulating adrenomedullin. No significant changes in plasma levels of endothelin-1 or CGRP were found. Lead-induced decreases in nitric oxide markers and antioxidant status were not prevented by doxycycline. In conclusion, acute lead exposure increases blood pressure and MMP-9 activity, which were blunted by doxycycline. These findings suggest that MMP-9 may contribute with lead-induced hypertension by cleaving the vasodilatory peptide adrenomedullin, thereby inhibiting adrenomedullin-dependent lowering of blood pressure. © 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  10. Exendin-4 inhibits high-altitude cerebral edema by protecting against neurobiological dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhong-Lei; Jiang, Xian-Feng; Cheng, Yuan-Chi; Liu, Ying-Fu; Yang, Kai; Zhu, Shuang-Long; Kong, Xian-Bin; Tu, Yue; Bian, Ke-Feng; Liu, Zhen-Lin; Chen, Xu-Yi

    2018-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of exendin-4 (Ex-4) have been reported previously. However, whether (Ex-4) has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE) remains poorly understood. In this study, two rat models of HACE were established by placing rats in a hypoxic environment with a simulated altitude of either 6000- or 7000-m above sea level (MASL) for 72 hours. An altitude of 7000 MASL with 72-hours of hypoxia was found to be the optimized experimental paradigm for establishing HACE models. Then, in rats where a model of HACE was established by introducing them to a 7000 MASL environment with 72-hours of hypoxia treatment, 2, 10 and, 100 μg of Ex-4 was intraperitoneally administrated. The open field test and tail suspension test were used to test animal behavior. Routine methods were used to detect change in inflammatory cells. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was performed to determine pathological changes to brain tissue. Wet/dry weight ratios were used to measure brain water content. Evans blue leakage was used to determine blood-brain barrier integrity. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to measure markers of inflammation and oxidative stress including superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and malonaldehyde values, as well as interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels in the brain tissue. Western blot analysis was performed to determine the levels of occludin, ZO-1, SOCS-3, vascular endothelial growth factor, EPAC1, nuclear factor-kappa B, and aquaporin-4. Our results demonstrate that Ex-4 preconditioning decreased brain water content, inhibited inflammation and oxidative stress, alleviated brain tissue injury, maintain blood-brain barrier integrity, and effectively improved motor function in rat models of HACE. These findings suggest that Ex-4 exhibits therapeutic potential in the treatment of HACE. PMID:29722317

  11. Protective Role of Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibition Against Vascular Complications in Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Matsui, Takanori

    2016-04-01

    Diabetic micro- and macroangiopathy are devastating vascular complications that could account for disabilities and high mortality rate in patients with diabetes. Indeed, diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy are the leading causes of end-stage renal failure and acquired blindness, respectively, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD) accounts for about 60% of death in diabetic subjects. As a result, the average life span of diabetic patients is about 10-15 years shorter than that of non-diabetic subjects. Furthermore, tight blood glucose control might have no more than a marginal impact on CVD in general and on all-cause mortality in particular in diabetes. Therefore, therapeutic strategies that target vascular complications in diabetes need to be developed. Recently, selective inhibition of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) has been proposed as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with diabetes because of low risk of hypoglycemia and no weight gain. Because 90% of glucose filtered by the glomerulus is reabsorbed by a low-affinity/high-capacity SGLT2 expressed in the S1 and S2 segments of the proximal tubule, blockade of SGLT2 promotes urinary glucose excretion and as a result improves hyperglycemia in an insulin-independent manner. Moreover, we have shown that SGLT2-mediated glucose overload to tubular cells could elicit inflammatory and pro-apoptotic reactions in this cell, being directly involved in diabetic nephropathy. In addition, several clinical studies have also shown that SGLT2 inhibitors could reduce blood pressure, body weight, and serum uric acid levels and ameliorate cardiovascular risk in patients with diabetes. This review summarizes the pathophysiological role of SGLT2 in vascular complications in diabetes and its potential therapeutic interventions.

  12. Inhibition of histone deacetylases protects septic mice from lung and splenic apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Takebe, Mariko; Oishi, Hirofumi; Taguchi, Kumiko; Aoki, Yuta; Takashina, Michinori; Tomita, Kengo; Yokoo, Hiroki; Takano, Yasuo; Yamazaki, Mitsuaki; Hattori, Yuichi

    2014-04-01

    Epigenetic programming, dynamically regulated by histone acetylation, may play a key role in the pathophysiology of sepsis. We examined whether histone deacetylase (HDAC) can contribute to sepsis-associated inflammation and apoptosis. Polymicrobial sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in BALB/c mice. An intraperitoneal injection of CG200745 (10 mg/kg), a novel broad-spectrum HDAC inhibitor, or valproic acid (500 mg/kg), a predominant inhibitor of class I HDACs, was given 3 h before surgery. HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC3 protein levels were decreased in lungs after CLP. Furthermore, CLP-induced sepsis increased both histone H3 and H4 acetylation levels in lungs. When CG200745 was given, apoptosis induction was strongly suppressed in lungs and spleens of septic mice. This antiapoptotic effect of CG200745 was not accompanied by upregulation of antiapoptotic and downregulation of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member proteins. Treatment with CG200745 failed to inhibit elevated levels of serum cytokines and prevent lung inflammation in septic mice. Valproic acid also showed antiapoptotic but not anti-inflammatory effects in septic mice. These findings imply that HDAC inhibitors are a unique agent to prevent cell apoptosis in sepsis at their doses that do not improve inflammatory features, indicating that septic inflammation and apoptosis may not necessarily be essential for one another's existence. This study also represents the first report that CLP-induced sepsis downregulates HDACs. Nevertheless, the data with HDAC inhibitors suggest that imbalance in histone acetylation may play a contributory role in expression or repression of genes involved in septic cell apoptosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Protection against murine osteoarthritis by inhibition of the 26S proteasome and lysine-48 linked ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Marta; Wilkinson, David J; Hui, Wang; Destrument, Auriane P M; Charlton, Sarah H; Barter, Matt J; Gibson, Beth; Coulombe, Josée; Gray, Douglas A; Rowan, Andrew D; Young, David A

    2015-08-01

    To determine whether the process of ubiquitination and/or activity of the 26S proteasome are involved in the induction of osteoarthritis (OA). Bovine cartilage resorption assays, chondrocyte cell-line SW1353 and primary human articular chondrocytes were used with the general proteasome inhibitor MG132 or vehicle to identify a role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in cartilage destruction and matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP13) expression. In vivo, MG132 or vehicle, were delivered subcutaneously to mice following destabilisation of the medial meniscus (DMM)-induced OA. Subsequently, DMM was induced in Lys-to-Arg (K48R and K63R) mutant ubiquitin (Ub) transgenic mice. Cytokine signalling in SW1353s was monitored by immunoblotting and novel ubiquitinated substrates identified using Tandem Ubiquitin Binding Entities purification followed by mass spectrometry. The ubiquitination of TRAFD1 was assessed via immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting and its role in cytokine signal-transduction determined using RNA interference and real-time RT-PCR for MMP13 and interleukin-6 (IL6). Supplementation with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 protected cartilage from cytokine-mediated resorption and degradation in vivo in mice following DMM-induced OA. Using transgenic animals only K48R-mutated Ub partially protected against OA compared to wild-type or wild-type Ub transgenic mice, and this was only evident on the medial femoral condyle. After confirming ubiquitination was vital for NF-κB signalling and MMP13 expression, a screen for novel ubiquitinated substrates involved in cytokine-signalling identified TRAFD1; the depletion of which reduced inflammatory mediator-induced MMP13 and IL6 expression. Our data for the first time identifies a role for ubiquitination and the proteasome in the induction of OA via regulation of inflammatory mediator-induced MMP13 expression. These data open avenues of research to determine whether the proteasome, or K48-linked ubiquitination, are

  14. [Protective effects of garlic oil on n-hexane-induced neurotoxicity in rats via inhibition of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase activity].

    PubMed

    Bi, Ye; Chen, Jing-Jing; Yan, Jie; Zeng, Tao; Fu, Qiang-Qiang; Zhong, Zhi-Xia; Xie, Ke-Qin

    2011-08-01

    To study the protective effects of garlic oil (GO) on the peripheral nerve injuries induced by n-hexane. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (10 rats in each group): the control, the n-hexane treatment (2000 mg/kg), the low dose GO, and the high dose GO groups. The rats in the low and high doses of GO groups were pretreated with GO (40 and 80 mg/kg) before exposure to n-hexane (2000 mg/ kg), while the animals of the n-hexane treatment group were given normal saline and then 2000 mg/ kg n-hexane. The rats were exposed to GO and n-hexane 6 times a week for 10 weeks. The gait scores and staying time on the rotating rod for all rats were detected every two weeks. The rats were sacrificed at the end of ten weeks, then the levels of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), maleic dialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px), total antioxidation capacity(T-AOC) and the ability of inhibition of *OH in livers were examined. The gait scores increased significantly and the time staying on the rotating rod obviously decreased in rats of n-hexane treatment group, as compared with control group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). In the hepatic tissues of n-hexane group, the levels of MDA and ADH significantly increased, the activities of GSH-Px, T-AOC and the ability of inhibition of *OH obviously decreased, as compared to control group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). In 2 GO groups, the gait scores and the staying time on the rotating rod were significantly improved, the levels of MDA and ADH significantly decreased, the activities of GSH-Px, T-AOC and the ability of inhibition of *OH obviously increased, as compared with n-hexane group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01 ). ADH could play an important role in the protective effects induced by garlic oil on the peripheral nerve injuries produced by n-hexane.

  15. Arctigenin protects focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rats through inhibiting neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Tao; Jiang, Wei Long; Zhu, Jian; Feng Zhang, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Stroke is the third leading cause of death in industrialized countries and the most important cause of acquired adult disability. Many evidences suggest that inflammation accounts for the progression of cerebral ischemic injury. Arctigenin, a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignin isolated from certain plants, has shown anti-inflammatory activity against diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we tested whether arctigenin can protect middle cerebral artery occluded (MCAO) rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with arctigenin or vehicle for 7 d before being subjected to transient occlusion of middle cerebral artery and reperfusion. Rats were evaluated at 24 h after MCAO for neurological deficit scoring. Furthermore, the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of arctigenin was investigated with a focus on inflammatory cells, proinflammatory cytokines, and transcriptional factors. Arctigenin significantly reduced cerebral infarction and improved neurological outcome. Arctigenin suppressed the activation of microglia and decreased the expression of interleukin (IL)- 1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. These results revealed that arctigenin has a promising therapeutic effect in ischemic stroke treatment through an anti-inflammatory mechanism.

  16. Protective effect of Schizandrin B against damage of UVB irradiated skin cells depend on inhibition of inflammatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chenguang; Chen, Hong; Niu, Cong; Hu, Jie; Cao, Bo

    2017-01-02

    Schizandrin B is extracted from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. This study evaluated the photoprotective effect of Schizandrin B on oxidative stress injury of the skin caused by UVB-irradiation and the molecular mechanism of the photoprotective effect of Schizandrin B, and we firstly found that Schizandrin B could block Cox-2, IL-6 and IL-18 signal pathway to protect damage of skin cells given by UVB-irradiation. In the research, we found that Schizandrin B can attenuate the UVB-induced toxicity on keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts in human body, and can outstandingly eliminated intracellular ROS produced by UVB-irradiation. These results demonstrate that Schizandrin B can regulate the function of decreasing intracellular SOD's activity and increasing the expression level of MDA in HaCaT cells result from the guidance of UVB, and it markedly reduced the production of inflammatory factors such as Cox-2, IL-6 or IL-18, decreased the expression level of MMP-1, and interdicted degradation process of collagens in UVB-radiated cells. Therefore, skin keratinocytes can be effectively protected from UVB-radiated damage by Schizandrin B, and UVB-irradiation caused inflammatory responses can be inhibited by attenuating process of ROS generating.

  17. Remifentanil Induces Cardio Protection Against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Inhibiting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Through the Maintenance of Zinc Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Mingwei; Zhang, Ge; Wang, Jiannan; Yang, Qing; Zhao, Huanhuan; Cheng, Xinxin; Xu, Zhelong

    2018-05-15

    Although it is well known that remifentanil (Rem) elicits cardiac protection against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study tested if Rem can protect the heart from I/R injury by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress through the maintenance of zinc (Zn) homeostasis. Isolated rat hearts were subjected to 30 minutes of regional ischemia followed by 2 hours of reperfusion. Rem was given by 3 consecutive 5-minute infusions, and each infusion was followed by a 5-minute drug-free perfusion before ischemia. Total Zn concentrations in cardiac tissue, cardiac function, infarct size, and apoptosis were assessed. H9c2 cells were subjected to 6 hours of hypoxia and 2 hours of reoxygenation (hypoxia/reoxygenation [H/R]), and Rem was given for 30 minutes before hypoxia. Metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF1) overexpression plasmids were transfected into H9c2 cells 48 hours before hypoxia. Intracellular Zn level, cell viability, and mitochondrial injury parameters were evaluated. A Zn chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN) or an ER stress activator thapsigargin was administrated during in vitro and ex vivo studies. The regulatory molecules related to Zn homeostasis and ER stress in cardiac tissue, and cardiomyocytes were analyzed by Western blotting. Rem caused significant reversion of Zn loss from the heart (Rem + I/R versus I/R, 9.43 ± 0.55 vs 7.53 ± 1.18; P < .05) by suppressing the expression of MTF1 and Zn transporter 1 (ZnT1). The inhibited expression of ER stress markers after Rem preconditioning was abolished by TPEN. Rem preconditioning improved the cardiac function accompanied by the reduction of infarct size (Rem + I/R versus I/R, 21% ± 4% vs 40% ± 6%; P < .05). The protective effects of Rem could be reserved by TPEN and thapsigargin. Similar effects were observed in H9c2 cells exposed to H/R. In addition, MTF1 overexpression blocked the inhibitory effects of Rem on ZnT1

  18. Withaferin A protects against spinal cord injury by inhibiting apoptosis and inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xianlei; Huang, Guangxiang; Liu, Quan; Zheng, Jiemin; Chen, Hongmou; Huang, Qidan; Chen, Jiakang; Huang, Heqing

    2017-12-01

    Withaferin A (WFA) exhibits diverse pharmaceutical applications on human diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, cancers and microbial infection. We evaluated the neuroprotective role of WFA using a mouse model of spinal cord injury (SCI). BALB/c mice were administrated 10 mg/kg of WFA. Gene expression was measured by real-time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Cell morphology and apoptosis were determined by H&E staining and TUNEL assay. Motor function was evaluated by the BBB functional scale for continuous 7 weeks. WFA significantly improved neurobehavioural function and alleviated histological alteration of spinal cord tissues in traumatized mice. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) significantly increased in WFA-treated mice. Meanwhile, the expression of Nogo-A and RhoA remarkably decreased in the presence of WFA. Furthermore, the apoptotic cell death was attenuated in mice treated with WFA (31.48 ± 2.50% vs. 50.08 ± 2.08%) accompanied by decreased bax and increased bcl-2. In addition, WFA decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators such as IL-1β (11.20 ± 1.96 ng/mL vs. 17.59 ± 1.42 ng/mL) and TNF-α (57.38 ± 3.57 pg/mL vs. 95.06 ± 9.13 pg/mL). The anti-inflammatory cytokines including TGF-β1 (14.32 ± 1.04 pg/mL vs. 9.37 ± 1.17 pg/mL) and IL-10 (116.80 ± 6.91 pg/mL vs. 72.33 ± 9.35 pg/mL) were elevated after WFA administration. This study demonstrated that WFA has a neuroprotective role by inhibition of apoptosis and inflammation after SCI in mice.

  19. Inhibition of Procarcinogen Activating Enzyme CYP1A2 Activity and Free Radical Formation by Caffeic Acid and its Amide Analogues.

    PubMed

    Narongchai, Paitoon; Niwatananun, Kanokporn; Narongchai, Siripun; Kusirisin, Winthana; Jaikang, Churdsak

    2016-01-01

    Caffeic acid (CAF) and its amide analogues, ethyl 1-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) propen amide (EDPA), phenethyl 1-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) propen amide (PEDPA), phenmethyl 1- (3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) propen amide (PMDPA) and octyl 1-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) propen amide (ODPA) were investigated for the inhibition of procarcinogen activating enzyme. CYP1A2 and scavenging activity on formation of nitric oxide, superoxide anion, DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical. It was found that they inhibited CYP1A2 enzyme by uncompetitive inhibition. Apparent Ki values of CAF, EDPA, PEDPA, PMDPA and ODPA were 0.59, 0.39, 0.45, 0.75 and 0.80 µM, respectively suggesting potent inhibitors of CYP1A2. Moreover, they potentially scavenged nitric oxide radical with IC 50 values of 0.12, 0.22, 0.28, 0.22 and 0.51 mM, respectively. The IC50 values of superoxide anion scavenging were 0.20, 0.22, 0.44, 2.18 and 2.50 mM, respectively. 1, 1- diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging ability, shown as IC50 values, were 0.41, 0.29, 0.30, 0.89 and 0.84 mM, respectively. Moreover, the hydroxyl radical scavenging in vitro model was shown as IC50 values of 23.22, 21.06, 17.10, 17.21 and 15.81 µM, respectively. From our results, caffeic acid and its amide analogues are in vitro inhibitors of human CYP1A2 catalytic activity and free radical formation. They may be useful to be developed as potential chemopreventive agents that block CYP1A2-mediated chemical carcinogenesis.

  20. Exogenous hydrogen sulfide protects human umbilical vein endothelial cells against high glucose‑induced injury by inhibiting the necroptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiaqiong; Chen, Meiji; Liu, Donghong; Guo, Ruixian; Lin, Kai; Deng, Haiou; Zhi, Ximei; Zhang, Weijie; Feng, Jianqiang; Wu, Wen

    2018-03-01

    Hyperglycemia is a key factor in the development of diabetic complications, including the processes of atherosclerosis. Receptor‑interacting protein 3 (RIP3), a mediator of necroptosis, is implicated in atherosclerosis development. Additionally, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) protects the vascular endothelium against hyperglycemia‑induced injury and attenuates atherosclerosis. On the basis of these findings, the present study aimed to confirm the hypothesis that necroptosis mediates high glucose (HG)‑induced injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and that the inhibition of necroptosis contributes to the protective effect of exogenous H2S against this injury. The results revealed that exposure of HUVECs to 40 mM HG markedly enhanced the expression level of RIP3, along with multiple injuries, including a decrease in cell viability, an increase in the number of apoptotic cells, an increase in the expression level of cleaved caspase‑3, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Treatment of the cells with sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS; a donor of H2S) prior to exposure to HG significantly attenuated the increased RIP3 expression and the aforementioned injuries by HG. Notably, treatment of cells with necrostatin‑1 (Nec‑1), an inhibitor of necroptosis, prior to exposure to HG ameliorated the HG‑induced injuries, leading to a decrease in ROS generation and a loss of MMP. However, pre‑treatment of the cells with Nec‑1 enhanced the HG‑induced increase in the expression levels of cleaved caspases‑3 and ‑9. By contrast, pre‑treatment with Z‑VAD‑FMK, a pan ‑caspase inhibitor, promoted the increased expression of RIP3 by HG. Taken together, the findings of the present study have demonstrated, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, that exogenous H2S protects HUVECs against HG‑induced injury through inhibiting necroptosis. The present study

  1. 2′,3′-cAMP, 3′-AMP, and 2′-AMP inhibit human aortic and coronary vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation via A2B receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jin; Gillespie, Delbert G.

    2011-01-01

    Rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from renal microvessels metabolize 2′,3′-cAMP to 2′-AMP and 3′-AMP, and these AMPs are converted to adenosine that inhibits microvascular VSMC proliferation via A2B receptors. The goal of this study was to test whether this mechanism also exists in VSMCs from conduit arteries and whether it is similarly expressed in human vs. rat VSMCs. Incubation of rat and human aortic VSMCs with 2′,3′-cAMP concentration-dependently increased levels of 2′-AMP and 3′-AMP in the medium, with a similar absolute increase in 2′-AMP vs. 3′-AMP. In contrast, in human coronary VSMCs, 2′,3′-cAMP increased 2′-AMP levels yet had little effect on 3′-AMP levels. In all cell types, 2′,3′-cAMP increased levels of adenosine, but not 5′-AMP, and 2′,3′-AMP inhibited cell proliferation. Antagonism of A2B receptors (MRS-1754), but not A1 (1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine), A2A (SCH-58261), or A3 (VUF-5574) receptors, attenuated the antiproliferative effects of 2′,3′-cAMP. In all cell types, 2′-AMP, 3′-AMP, and 5′-AMP increased adenosine levels, and inhibition of ecto-5′-nucleotidase blocked this effect of 5′-AMP but not that of 2′-AMP nor 3′-AMP. Also, 2′-AMP, 3′-AMP, and 5′-AMP, like 2′,3′-cAMP, exerted antiproliferative effects that were abolished by antagonism of A2B receptors with MRS-1754. In conclusion, VSMCs from conduit arteries metabolize 2′,3′-cAMP to AMPs, which are metabolized to adenosine. In rat and human aortic VSMCs, both 2′-AMP and 3′-AMP are involved in this process, whereas, in human coronary VSMCs, 2′,3′-cAMP is mainly converted to 2′-AMP. Because adenosine inhibits VSMC proliferation via A2B receptors, local vascular production of 2′,3′-cAMP may protect conduit arteries from atherosclerosis. PMID:21622827

  2. Connexin 30 expression inhibits growth of human malignant gliomas but protects them against radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Artesi, Maria; Kroonen, Jerome; Bredel, Markus; Nguyen-Khac, Minh; Deprez, Manuel; Schoysman, Laurent; Poulet, Christophe; Chakravarti, Arnab; Kim, Hyunsoo; Scholtens, Denise; Seute, Tatjana; Rogister, Bernard; Bours, Vincent; Robe, Pierre A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Glioblastomas remain ominous tumors that almost invariably escape treatment. Connexins are a family of transmembrane, gap junction-forming proteins, some members of which were reported to act as tumor suppressors and to modulate cellular metabolism in response to cytotoxic stress. Methods We analyzed the copy number and expression of the connexin (Cx)30 gene gap junction beta-6 (GJB6), as well as of its protein immunoreactivity in several public and proprietary repositories of glioblastomas, and their influence on patient survival. We evaluated the effect of the expression of this gap junction protein on the growth, DNA repair and energy metabolism, and treatment resistance of these tumors. Results The GJB6 gene was deleted in 25.8% of 751 analyzed tumors and mutated in 15.8% of 158 tumors. Cx30 immunoreactivity was absent in 28.9% of 145 tumors. Restoration of Cx30 expression in human glioblastoma cells reduced their growth in vitro and as xenografts in the striatum of immunodeficient mice. Cx30 immunoreactivity was, however, found to adversely affect survival in 2 independent retrospective cohorts of glioblastoma patients. Cx30 was found in clonogenic assays to protect glioblastoma cells against radiation-induced mortality and to decrease radiation-induced DNA damage. This radioprotection correlated with a heat shock protein 90–dependent mitochondrial translocation of Cx30 following radiation and an improved ATP production following this genotoxic stress. Conclusion These results underline the complex relationship between potential tumor suppressors and treatment resistance in glioblastomas and single out GJB6/Cx30 as a potential biomarker and target for therapeutic intervention in these tumors. PMID:25155356

  3. Melatonin Protects Cultured Tobacco Cells against Lead-Induced Cell Death via Inhibition of Cytochrome c Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Kobylińska, Agnieszka; Reiter, Russel J.; Posmyk, Malgorzata M.

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin was discovered in plants more than two decades ago and, especially in the last decade, it has captured the interests of plant biologists. Beyond its possible participation in photoperiod processes and its role as a direct free radical scavenger as well as an indirect antioxidant, melatonin is also involved in plant defense strategies/reactions. However, the mechanisms that this indoleamine activates to improve plant stress tolerance still require identification and clarification. In the present report, the ability of exogenous melatonin to protect Nicotiana tabacum L. line Bright Yellow 2 (BY-2) suspension cells against the toxic exposure to lead was examined. Studies related to cell proliferation and viability, DNA fragmentation, possible translocation of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol, cell morphology after fluorescence staining and also the in situ accumulation of superoxide radicals measured via the nitro blue tetrazolium reducing test, were conducted. This work establishes a novel finding by correcting the inhibition of release of mitochondrial ctytocrome c in to the cytoplasm with the high accumulation of superoxide radicals. The results show that pretreatment with 200 nm of melatonin protected tobacco cells from DNA damage caused by lead. Melatonin, as an efficacious antioxidant, limited superoxide radical accumulation as well as cytochrome c release thereby, it likely prevents the activation of the cascade of processes leading to cell death. Fluorescence staining with acridine orange and ethidium bromide documented that lead-stressed cells additionally treated with melatonin displayed intact nuclei. The results revealed that melatonin at proper dosage could significantly increase BY-2 cell proliferation and protected them against death. It was proved that melatonin could function as an effective priming agent to promote survival of tobacco cells under harmful lead-induced stress conditions. PMID:28959267

  4. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate protects against spinal cord ischemia by inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Taketomo; Orihashi, Kazumasa; Herlambang, Bagus; Takahashi, Shinya; Hamaishi, Makoto; Okada, Kenji; Sueda, Taijiro

    2010-12-01

    Delayed paraplegia after operation on the thoracoabdominal aorta is considered to be related to vulnerability of motor neurons to ischemia. Previous studies have demonstrated the relationship between neuronal vulnerability and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress after transient ischemia in the spinal cord. The aim of this study was to investigate whether sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA), a chemical chaperone that reduces the load of mutant or unfolded proteins retained in the ER during cellular stress, can protect against ischemic spinal cord damage. Spinal cord ischemia was induced in rabbits by direct aortic cross-clamping (below the renal artery and above the bifurcation) for 15 minutes at normothermia. Group A (n = 6) was a sham operation control group. In group B (n = 6) and group C (n = 6), vehicle or 15 mg/kg/h of sodium 4-PBA was infused intravenously, respectively, from 30 minutes before the induction of ischemia until 30 minutes after reperfusion. Neurologic function was assessed at 8 hours, and 2 and 7 days after reperfusion with a Tarlov score. Histologic changes were studied with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Immunohistochemistry analysis for ER stress-related molecules, including caspase12 and GRP78 were examined. The mean Tarlov scores were 4.0 in every group at 8 hours, but were 4.0, 2.5, and 3.9 at 2 days; and 4.0, 0.7, and 4.0 at 7 days in groups A, B, and C, respectively. The numbers of intact motor neurons at 7 days after reperfusion were 47.4, 21.5, and 44.9 in groups A, B, and C, respectively. There was no significant difference in terms of viable neurons between groups A and C. Caspase12 and GRP78 immunoreactivities were induced in motor neurons in group B, whereas they were not observed in groups A and C. Reduction in ER stress-induced spinal cord injury was achieved by the administration of 4-PBA. 4-PBA may be a strong candidate for use as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of ischemic spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2010 Society for Vascular

  5. Inhibition of HMGCoA reductase by simvastatin protects mice from injurious mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Manitsopoulos, Nikolaos; Orfanos, Stylianos E; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Nikitopoulou, Ioanna; Siempos, Ilias; Magkou, Christina; Dimopoulou, Ioanna; Zakynthinos, Spyros G; Armaganidis, Apostolos; Maniatis, Nikolaos A

    2015-02-14

    Mortality from severe acute respiratory distress syndrome exceeds 40% and there is no available pharmacologic treatment. Mechanical ventilation contributes to lung dysfunction and mortality by causing ventilator-induced lung injury. We explored the utility of simvastatin in a mouse model of severe ventilator-induced lung injury. Male C57BL6 mice (n = 7/group) were pretreated with simvastatin or saline and received protective (8 mL/kg) or injurious (25 mL/kg) ventilation for four hours. Three doses of simvastatin (20 mg/kg) or saline were injected intraperitoneally on days -2, -1 and 0 of the experiment. Lung mechanics, (respiratory system elastance, tissue damping and airway resistance), were evaluated by forced oscillation technique, while respiratory system compliance was measured with quasi-static pressure-volume curves. A pathologist blinded to treatment allocation scored hematoxylin-eosin-stained lung sections for the presence of lung injury. Pulmonary endothelial dysfunction was ascertained by bronchoalveolar lavage protein content and lung tissue expression of endothelial junctional protein Vascular Endothelial cadherin by immunoblotting. To assess the inflammatory response in the lung, we determined bronchoalveolar lavage fluid total cell content and neutrophil fraction by microscopy and staining in addition to Matrix-Metalloprotease-9 by ELISA. For the systemic response, we obtained plasma levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, Interleukin-6 and Matrix-Metalloprotease-9 by ELISA. Statistical hypothesis testing was undertaken using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc tests. Ventilation with high tidal volume (HVt) resulted in significantly increased lung elastance by 3-fold and decreased lung compliance by 45% compared to low tidal volume (LVt) but simvastatin abrogated lung mechanical alterations of HVt. Histologic lung injury score increased four-fold by HVt but not in simvastatin-pretreated mice. Lavage pleocytosis and neutrophilia were

  6. MVL-PLA2, a Snake Venom Phospholipase A2, Inhibits Angiogenesis through an Increase in Microtubule Dynamics and Disorganization of Focal Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Bazaa, Amine; Pasquier, Eddy; Defilles, Céline; Limam, Ines; Kessentini-Zouari, Raoudha; Kallech-Ziri, Olfa; Battari, Assou El; Braguer, Diane; Ayeb, Mohamed El; Marrakchi, Naziha; Luis, José

    2010-01-01

    Integrins are essential protagonists of the complex multi-step process of angiogenesis that has now become a major target for the development of anticancer therapies. We recently reported and characterized that MVL-PLA2, a novel phospholipase A2 from Macrovipera lebetina venom, exhibited anti-integrin activity. In this study, we show that MVL-PLA2 also displays potent anti-angiogenic properties. This phospholipase A2 inhibited adhesion and migration of human microvascular-endothelial cells (HMEC-1) in a dose-dependent manner without being cytotoxic. Using Matrigel™ and chick chorioallantoic membrane assays, we demonstrated that MVL-PLA2, as well as its catalytically inactivated form, significantly inhibited angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. We have also found that the actin cytoskeleton and the distribution of αvβ3 integrin, a critical regulator of angiogenesis and a major component of focal adhesions, were disturbed after MVL-PLA2 treatment. In order to further investigate the mechanism of action of this protein on endothelial cells, we analyzed the dynamic instability behavior of microtubules in living endothelial cells. Interestingly, we showed that MVL-PLA2 significantly increased microtubule dynamicity in HMEC-1 cells by 40%. We propose that the enhancement of microtubule dynamics may explain the alterations in the formation of focal adhesions, leading to inhibition of cell adhesion and migration. PMID:20405031

  7. Blocking Modification of Eukaryotic Initiation 5A2 Antagonizes Cervical Carcinoma via Inhibition of RhoA/ROCK Signal Transduction Pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojun; Chen, Dong; Liu, Jiamei; Chu, Zhangtao; Liu, Dongli

    2017-10-01

    Cervical carcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death for female worldwide. Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 belongs to the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A family and is proposed to be a key factor involved in the development of diverse cancers. In the current study, a series of in vivo and in vitro investigations were performed to characterize the role of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in oncogenesis and metastasis of cervical carcinoma. The expression status of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in 15 cervical carcinoma patients was quantified. Then, the effect of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 knockdown on in vivo tumorigenicity ability, cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, and cell mobility of HeLa cells was measured. To uncover the mechanism driving the function of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in cervical carcinoma, expression of members within RhoA/ROCK pathway was detected, and the results were further verified with an RhoA overexpression modification. The level of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in cervical carcinoma samples was significantly higher than that in paired paratumor tissues ( P < .05). And the in vivo tumorigenic ability of HeLa cells was reduced by inhibition of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2. Knockdown of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in HeLa cells decreased the cell viability compared with normal cells and induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest ( P < .05). Moreover, the cell migration ability of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 knockdown cells was dramatically inhibited. Associated with alterations in phenotypes, RhoA, ROCK I, and ROCK II were downregulated. The above-mentioned changes in eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 knockdown cells were alleviated by the overexpression of RhoA. The major findings outlined in the current study confirmed the potential of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 as a promising prognosis predictor and therapeutic target for cervical carcinoma treatment. Also, our data inferred that

  8. Inhibition of Group IIA Secretory Phospholipase A2 and its Inflammatory Reactions in Mice by Ethanolic Extract of Andrographis paniculata, a Well-known Medicinal Food

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, V.; Yarla, N. S.; Zameer, F.; Nagendra Prasad, M. N.; Santosh, M. S.; More, S. S.; Rao, D. G.; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2016-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata Nees is an important medicinal plant found in the tropical regions of the world, which has been traditionally used in Indian and Chinese medicinal systems. It is also used as medicinal food. A. paniculata is found to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities; however, its inhibitory potential on inflammatory Group IIA phospholipases A2 (PLA2) and its associated inflammatory reactions are not clearly understood. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the inhibitory/neutralizing potential of ethanolic extract of A. paniculata on the isolated inflammatory PLA2 (VRV-PL-VIIIa) from Daboii rusellii pulchella (belonging to Group IIA inflammatory secretory PLA2 [sPLA2]) and its associated edema-induced activities in Swiss albino mice. A. paniculata extract dose dependently inhibited the Group IIA sPLA2 enzymatic activity with an IC50 value of 10.3 ± 0.5 μg/ml. Further, the extract dose dependently inhibited the edema formation, when co-injected with enzyme indicating that a strong correlation exists between lipolytic and pro-inflammatory activities of the enzyme. In conclusion, results of this study shows that the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata effectively inhibits Group IIA sPLA2 and its associated inflammatory activities, which substantiate its anti-inflammatory properties. The results of the present study warranted further studies to develop bioactive compound (s) in ethanolic extract of A. paniculata as potent therapeutic agent (s) for inflammatory diseases. SUMMARY This study emphasis the anti-inflammatory effect of A. paniculata by inhibiting the inflammatory Group IIA sPLA2 and its associated inflammatory activities such as edema. It was found that there is a strong correlation between lipolytic activity and pro-inflammatory activity inhibition. Therefore, the study suggests that the extract processes potent anti-inflammatory agents, which could be developed as a potential therapeutic agent against inflammatory and related diseases

  9. The potent inhibition of vapiprost, a novel thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist, on the secondary aggregation and ATP release of human platelets.

    PubMed

    Horie, S; Yamada, M; Satoh, M; Noritake, S; Hiraishi, S; Kizaki, K; Kurusu, O; Nakahara, T; Ishii, H; Kazama, M

    1997-06-01

    The inhibitory effects of vapiprost hydrochloride (vapiprost), a novel thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist, on platelet aggregation and ATP release were studied using platelet rich plasma (PRP) of humans, guinea pigs, rabbits and rats. In in vitro experiments with human platelet, vapiprost inhibited the aggregation and ATP release stimulated with U-46619, collagen or arachidonic acid (AA) at an IC50 of less than 2.1 x 10(-8) M. Vapiprost did not inhibit the primary aggregation or ATP release of human platelets stimulated with adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), epinephrine (Epi) or platelet activating factor (PAF), but inhibited the secondary aggregation stimulated with those agonists at an IC50 of less than 1.3 x 10(-7) M. The sensitivity of platelets in various species of animals to vapiprost was in the following order: human > or = guinea pigs > rats > rabbits. In ex vivo experiments with guinea pigs which received a single oral dose of vapiprost, the agent demonstrated strong inhibition of ATP release from platelets stimulated with U-46619, collagen or AA at an ID50 of less than 25.8 micrograms/kg. These inhibitory effects were observed within 30 min and sustained for 24 h at a single dosage of 5 mg/kg of vapiprost. In AA-induced pulmonary infarction models of mice, the sudden death rates decreased significantly with the oral administration of 10 mg/kg or more of vapiprost. These results indicate that vapiprost effectively inhibits the secondary aggregation and ATP release of human platelets stimulated with various agonists, and that guinea pig and human platelets are similar in response to vapiprost. Furthermore, it was demonstrated in ex vivo experiments with guinea pigs that the inhibitory action of vapiprost appears rapidly and lasts for long periods.

  10. A 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid analog screened using a maize coleoptile system potentially inhibits indole-3-acetic acid influx in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hiromi; Matano, Naoyuki; Nishimura, Takeshi; Koshiba, Tomokazu

    2014-01-01

    Studies using inhibitors of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) transport, not only for efflux but influx carriers, provide many aspects of auxin physiology in plants. 1-Naphtoxyacetic acid (1-NOA), an analog of the synthetic auxin 1-N-naphtalene acetic acid (NAA), inhibits the IAA influx carrier AUX1. However, 1-NOA also shows auxin activity because of its structural similarity to NAA. In this study, we have identified another candidate inhibitor of the IAA influx carrier. The compound, “7-B3; ethyl 2-[(2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl)thio]acetate,” is a 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) analog. At high concentrations (> 300 µM), 7-B3 slightly reduced IAA transport and tropic curvature of maize coleoptiles, whereas lower concentrations had almost no effect. We have analyzed the effects of 7-B3 on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. 7-B3 rescued the 2,4-D-inhibited root elongation, but not the NAA-inhibited root elongation. The effect of 7-B3 was weaker than that of 1-NOA. Both 1-NOA and 7-B3 inhibited DR5::GUS expression induced by IAA and 2,4-D, but not that induced by NAA. At high concentrations, 1-NOA exhibited auxin activity, but 7-B3 did not. Furthermore, 7-B3 inhibited apical hook formation in etiolated seedlings more effectively than 1-NOA did. These results indicate that 7-B3 is a potential inhibitor of IAA influx that has almost no effect on IAA efflux or auxin signaling. PMID:24800738

  11. N-acetylcysteine protects against cadmium-induced germ cell apoptosis by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress in testes

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yan-Li; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Mei; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Xu, De-Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a reproductive toxicant that induces germ cell apoptosis in the testes. Previous studies have demonstrated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in Cd-induced germ cell apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, on Cd-induced ER stress and germ cell apoptosis in the testes. Male CD-1 mice were intraperitoneally injected with CdCl2 (2.0 mg kg−1). As expected, acute Cd exposure induced germ cell apoptosis in the testes, as determined by terminal dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL). However, the administration of NAC alleviated Cd-induced germ cell apoptosis in the testes. Further analysis showed that NAC attenuated the Cd-induced upregulation of testicular glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), an important ER molecular chaperone. Moreover, NAC inhibited the Cd-induced phosphorylation of testicular eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), a downstream target of the double-stranded RNA-activated kinase-like ER kinase (PERK) pathway. In addition, NAC blocked the Cd-induced activation of testicular X binding protein (XBP)-1, indicating that NAC attenuates the Cd-induced ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR). Interestingly, NAC almost completely prevented the Cd-induced elevation of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), two components of the ER stress-mediated apoptotic pathway. In conclusion, NAC protects against Cd-induced germ cell apoptosis by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress in the testes. PMID:23353715

  12. N-acetylcysteine protects against cadmium-induced germ cell apoptosis by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress in testes.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yan-Li; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Mei; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Xu, De-Xiang

    2013-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a reproductive toxicant that induces germ cell apoptosis in the testes. Previous studies have demonstrated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in Cd-induced germ cell apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, on Cd-induced ER stress and germ cell apoptosis in the testes. Male CD-1 mice were intraperitoneally injected with CdCl2 (2.0 mg kg(-1)). As expected, acute Cd exposure induced germ cell apoptosis in the testes, as determined by terminal dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL). However, the administration of NAC alleviated Cd-induced germ cell apoptosis in the testes. Further analysis showed that NAC attenuated the Cd-induced upregulation of testicular glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), an important ER molecular chaperone. Moreover, NAC inhibited the Cd-induced phosphorylation of testicular eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), a downstream target of the double-stranded RNA-activated kinase-like ER kinase (PERK) pathway. In addition, NAC blocked the Cd-induced activation of testicular X binding protein (XBP)-1, indicating that NAC attenuates the Cd-induced ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR). Interestingly, NAC almost completely prevented the Cd-induced elevation of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), two components of the ER stress-mediated apoptotic pathway. In conclusion, NAC protects against Cd-induced germ cell apoptosis by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress in the testes.

  13. Alda-1, an ALDH2 activator, protects against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats via inhibition of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Qiang; Ye, Fang; Huang, Chan-Yan; Chen, Wan-Mei; Huang, Wen-Qi

    2018-04-13

    Previous studies have proved that activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase two (ALDH2) can attenuate oxidative stress through clearance of cytotoxic aldehydes, and can protect against cardiac, cerebral, and lung ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries. In this study, we investigated the effects of the ALDH2 activator Alda-1 on hepatic I/R injury. Partial warm ischemia was performed in the left and middle hepatic lobes of Sprague-Dawley rats for 1 h, followed by 6 h of reperfusion. Rats received either Alda-1 or vehicle by intravenous injection 30 min before ischemia. Blood and tissue samples of the rats were collected after 6-h reperfusion. Histological injury, proinflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS), cellular apoptosis, ALDH2 expression and activity, 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. BRL-3A hepatocytes were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). Cell viability, ROS, and mitochondrial membrane potential were determined. Pretreatment with Alda-1 significantly alleviated I/R-induced elevations of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate amino transferase, and significantly blunted the pathological injury of the liver. Moreover, Alda-1 significantly inhibited ROS and proinflammatory cytokines production, 4-HNE and MDA accumulation, and apoptosis. Increased ALDH2 activity was found after Alda-1 administration. No significant changes in ALDH2 expression were observed after I/R. ROS was also higher in H/R cells than in control cells, which was aggravated upon treatment with 4-HNE, and reduced by Alda-1 treatment. Cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential were inhibited in H/R cells, which was attenuated upon Alda-1 treatment. Activation of ALDH2 by Alda-1 attenuates hepatic I/R injury via clearance of cytotoxic aldehydes.

  14. RGMb protects against acute kidney injury by inhibiting tubular cell necroptosis via an MLKL-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenjing; Chen, Binbin; Wang, Yang; Meng, Chenling; Huang, Huihui; Huang, Xiao-Ru; Qin, Jinzhong; Mulay, Shrikant R; Anders, Hans-Joachim; Qiu, Andong; Yang, Baoxue; Freeman, Gordon J; Lu, Hua Jenny; Lin, Herbert Y; Zheng, Zhi-Hua; Lan, Hui-Yao; Huang, Yu; Xia, Yin

    2018-02-13

    Tubular cell necrosis is a key histological feature of acute kidney injury (AKI). Necroptosis is a type of programed necrosis, which is executed by mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) upon its binding to the plasma membrane. Emerging evidence indicates that necroptosis plays a critical role in the development of AKI. However, it is unclear whether renal tubular cells undergo necroptosis in vivo and how the necroptotic pathway is regulated during AKI. Repulsive guidance molecule (RGM)-b is a member of the RGM family. Our previous study demonstrated that RGMb is highly expressed in kidney tubular epithelial cells, but its biological role in the kidney has not been well characterized. In the present study, we found that RGMb reduced membrane-associated MLKL levels and inhibited necroptosis in cultured cells. During ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) or oxalate nephropathy, MLKL was induced to express on the apical membrane of proximal tubular (PT) cells. Specific knockout of Rgmb in tubular cells (Rgmb cKO) increased MLKL expression at the apical membrane of PT cells and induced more tubular cell death and more severe renal dysfunction compared with wild-type mice. Treatment with the necroptosis inhibitor Necrostatin-1 or GSK'963 reduced MLKL expression on the apical membrane of PT cells and ameliorated renal function impairment after IRI in both wild-type and Rgmb cKO mice. Taken together, our results suggest that proximal tubular cell necroptosis plays an important role in AKI, and that RGMb protects against AKI by inhibiting MLKL membrane association and necroptosis in proximal tubular cells.

  15. Verapamil Protects Dopaminergic Neuron Damage through a Novel Anti-inflammatory Mechanism by Inhibition of Microglial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuxin; Lo, Yi-Ching; Qian, Li; Crews, Fulton Tim; Wilson, Belinda; Chen, Hui-Ling; Wu, Hung-Ming; Chen, Shih-Heng; Wei, Ke; Lu, Ru-Band; Ali, Syed; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2010-01-01

    Verapamil has been shown to be neuroprotective in several acute neurotoxicity models due to blockade of calcium entry into neurons. However, the potential use of verapamil to treat chronic neurodegenerative diseases has not been reported. Using rat primary mesencephalic neuron/glia cultures, we report that verapamil significantly inhibited LPS-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in both pre- and post-treatment experiments. Reconstituted culture studies revealed that the presence of microglia was essential in verapamil-elicited neuroprotection. Mechanistic studies showed that decreased production of inflammatory mediators from LPS-stimulated microglia underlay neuroprotective property of verapamil. Further studies demonstrated that microglial NADPH oxidase (PHOX), the key superoxide-producing enzyme, but not calcium channel in neurons, is the site of action for the neuroprotective effect of verapamil. This conclusion was supported by the following two observations: 1) Verapamil failed to show protective effect on LPS-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in PHOX-deficient (deficient in the catalytic subunit of gp91phox) neuron/glia cultures; 2) Ligand binding studies showed that the binding of [3H]Verapamil onto gp91phox transfected COS-7 cell membranes was higher than the non-transfected control. The calcium channel-independent neuroprotective property of verapamil was further supported by the finding that R(+)-verapamil, a less active form in blocking calcium channel, showed the same potency in neuroprotection, inhibition of pro-inflammatory factors production and binding capacity to gp91phox membranes as R(-)-verapamil, the active isomer of calcium channel blocker. In conclusion, our results demonstrate a new indication of verapamil-mediated neuroprotection through a calcium channel-independent pathway and provide a valuable avenue for the development of therapy for inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:20950631

  16. Deletion of the distal COOH-terminus of the A2B adenosine receptor switches internalization to an arrestin- and clathrin-independent pathway and inhibits recycling.

    PubMed

    Mundell, S J; Matharu, A-L; Nisar, S; Palmer, T M; Benovic, J L; Kelly, E

    2010-02-01

    We have investigated the effect of deletions of a postsynaptic density, disc large and zo-1 protein (PDZ) motif at the end of the COOH-terminus of the rat A(2B) adenosine receptor on intracellular trafficking following long-term exposure to the agonist 5'-(N-ethylcarboxamido)-adenosine. The trafficking of the wild type A(2B) adenosine receptor and deletion mutants expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells was studied using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in combination with immunofluorescence microscopy. The wild type A(2B) adenosine receptor and deletion mutants were all extensively internalized following prolonged treatment with NECA. The intracellular compartment through which the Gln(325)-stop receptor mutant, which lacks the Type II PDZ motif found in the wild type receptor initially trafficked was not the same as the wild type receptor. Expression of dominant negative mutants of arrestin-2, dynamin or Eps-15 inhibited internalization of wild type and Leu(330)-stop receptors, whereas only dominant negative mutant dynamin inhibited agonist-induced internalization of Gln(325)-stop, Ser(326)-stop and Phe(328)-stop receptors. Following internalization, the wild type A(2B) adenosine receptor recycled rapidly to the cell surface, whereas the Gln(325)-stop receptor did not recycle. Deletion of the COOH-terminus of the A(2B) adenosine receptor beyond Leu(330) switches internalization from an arrestin- and clathrin-dependent pathway to one that is dynamin dependent but arrestin and clathrin independent. The presence of a Type II PDZ motif appears to be essential for arrestin- and clathrin-dependent internalization, as well as recycling of the A(2B) adenosine receptor following prolonged agonist addition.

  17. CD98hc (SLC3A2) Loss Protects Against Ras-Driven Tumorigenesis by Modulating Integrin-Mediated Mechanotransduction

    PubMed Central

    Estrach, Soline; Lee, Sin-Ae; Boulter, Etienne; Pisano, Sabrina; Errante, Aurélia; Tissot, Floriane S.; Cailleteau, Laurence; Pons, Catherine; Ginsberg, Mark H.; Féral, Chloé C.

    2016-01-01

    CD98hc (SLC3A2) is the heavy chain component of the dimeric transmembrane glycoprotein CD98, which comprises the large neutral amino acid transporter LAT1 (SLC7A5) in cells. Overexpression of CD98hc occurs widely in cancer cells, and is associated with poor prognosis clinically, but its exact contributions to tumorigenesis are uncertain. In this study, we showed that that genetic deficiency of CD98hc protects against Ras-driven skin carcinogenesis. Deleting CD98hc after tumor induction was also sufficient to cause regression of existing tumors. Investigations into the basis for these effects defined two new functions of CD98hc that contribute to epithelial cancer beyond an intrinsic effect on CD98hc on tumor cell proliferation. First, CD98hc increased the stiffness of the tumor microenvironment. Second, CD98hc amplified the capacity of cells to respond to matrix rigidity, an essential factor in tumor development. Mechanistically, CD98hc mediated this stiffness-sensing by increasing Rho kinase (ROCK) activity, resulting in increased transcription mediated by YAP/TAZ, a nuclear relay for mechanical signals. Our results suggest that CD98hc contributes to carcinogenesis by amplifying a positive feedback loop which increases both extracellular matrix stiffness and resulting cellular responses. This work supports a rationale to explore the use of CD98hc inhibitors as cancer therapeutics, PMID:25267066

  18. Resveratrol protects the ovary against chromium-toxicity by enhancing endogenous antioxidant enzymes and inhibiting metabolic clearance of estradiol

    SciTech Connect

    Banu, Sakhila K., E-mail: skbanu@cvm.tamu.edu; Sta

    Resveratrol (RVT), a polyphenolic component in grapes and red wine, has been known for its cytoprotective actions against several diseases. However, beneficial effects of RVT against early exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have not been understood. EDCs are linked to several ovarian diseases such as premature ovarian failure, polycystic ovary syndrome, early menopause and infertility in women. Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) is a heavy metal EDC, and widely used in > 50 industries. Environmental contamination with CrVI in the US is rapidly increasing, predisposing the human to several illnesses including cancers and still birth. Our lab has been involved inmore » determining the molecular mechanism of CrVI-induced female infertility and intervention strategies to mitigate CrVI effects. Lactating mother rats were exposed to CrVI (50 ppm potassium dichromate) from postpartum days 1–21 through drinking water with or without RVT (10 mg/kg body wt., through oral gavage daily). During this time, F1 females received respective treatments through mother's milk. On postnatal day (PND) 25, blood and the ovary, kidney and liver were collected from the F1 females for analyses. CrVI increased atresia of follicles by increasing cytochrome C and cleaved caspase-3; decreasing antiapoptotic proteins; decreasing estradiol (E{sub 2}) biosynthesis and enhancing metabolic clearance of E{sub 2}, increasing oxidative stress and decreasing endogenous antioxidants. RVT mitigated the effects of CrVI by upregulating cell survival proteins and AOXs; and restored E{sub 2} levels by inhibiting hydroxylation, glucuronidation and sulphation of E{sub 2}. This is the first study to report the protective effects of RVT against any toxicant in the ovary. - Highlights: • Resveratrol (RVT) protects the ovary against CrVI-toxicity. • RVT mitigated CrVI-induced apoptosis and follicle atresia. • RVT restored estradiol level against CrVI-toxicity. • RVT inhibited metabolic clearance

  19. Inhibition of microRNA-31-5p protects human colonic epithelial cells against ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Bum; Zhang, Lu; Barron, Summer; Shay, Jerry W.

    2014-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), endogenous non-coding small RNAs, are sensitive to environmental changes, and their differential expression is important for adaptation to the environment. However, application of miRNAs as a clinical prognostic or diagnostic tool remains unproven. In this study we demonstrate a chronic/persistent change of miRNAs from the plasma of a colorectal cancer susceptible mouse model (CPC;Apc) about 250 days after exposure to a simulated solar particle event (SPE). Differentially expressed miRNAs were identified compared to unirradiated control mice, including miR-31-5p, which we investigated further. To address the cellular function of miR-31-5p, we transfected a miR-31-5p mimic (sense) or inhibitor (antisense) into immortalized human colonic epithelial cells followed by gamma-irradiation. A miR-31-5p mimic sensitized but a miR-31-5p inhibitor protected colonic epithelial cells against radiation induced killing. We found that the miR-31-5p mimic inhibited the induction of hMLH1 expression after irradiation, whereas the miR-31-5p inhibitor increased the basal level of hMLH1 expression. The miR-31-5p inhibitor failed to modulate radiosensitivity in an hMLH1-deficient HCT116 colon cancer cell line but protected HCT116 3-6 and DLD-1 (both hMLH1-positive) colon cancer cell lines. Our findings demonstrate that miR-31-5p has an important role in radiation responses through regulation of hMLH1 expression. Targeting this pathway could be a promising therapeutic strategy for future personalized anti-cancer radiotherapy.

  20. Pharmacological inhibition of PAR2 with the pepducin P2pal-18S protects mice against acute experimental biliary pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Michael, E S; Kuliopulos, A; Covic, L; Steer, M L; Perides, G

    2013-03-01

    Pancreatic acinar cells express proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) that is activated by trypsin-like serine proteases and has been shown to exert model-specific effects on the severity of experimental pancreatitis, i.e., PAR2(-/-) mice are protected from experimental acute biliary pancreatitis but develop more severe secretagogue-induced pancreatitis. P2pal-18S is a novel pepducin lipopeptide that targets and inhibits PAR2. In studies monitoring PAR2-stimulated intracellular Ca(2+) concentration changes, we show that P2pal-18S is a full PAR2 inhibitor in acinar cells. Our in vivo studies show that P2pal-18S significantly reduces the severity of experimental biliary pancreatitis induced by retrograde intraductal bile acid infusion, which mimics injury induced by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). This reduction in pancreatitis severity is observed when the pepducin is given before or 2 h after bile acid infusion but not when it is given 5 h after bile acid infusion. Conversely, P2pal-18S increases the severity of secretagogue-induced pancreatitis. In vitro studies indicate that P2pal-18S protects acinar cells against bile acid-induced injury/death, but it does not alter bile acid-induced intracellular zymogen activation. These studies are the first to report the effects of an effective PAR2 pharmacological inhibitor on pancreatic acinar cells and on the severity of experimental pancreatitis. They raise the possibility that a pepducin such as P2pal-18S might prove useful in the clinical management of patients at risk for developing severe biliary pancreatitis such as occurs following ERCP.

  1. Method for producing evaporation inhibiting coating for protection of silicon--germanium and silicon--molybdenum alloys at high temperatures in vacuum

    DOEpatents

    Chao, P.J.

    1974-01-01

    A method is given for protecting Si--Ge and Si-- Mo alloys for use in thermocouples. The alloys are coated with silicon to inhibit the evaporation of the alloys at high tempenatures in a vacuum. Specific means and methods are provided. (5 fig) (Official Gazette)

  2. PDZ1 inhibitor peptide protects neurons against ischemia via inhibiting GluK2-PSD-95-module-mediated Fas signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiao-Hui; Yan, Jing-Zhi; Yang, Guo; Chen, Li; Xu, Xiao-Feng; Hong, Xi-Ping; Wu, Shi-Liang; Hou, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, GuangYi

    2016-04-15

    Respecting the selective inhibition of peptides on protein-protein interactions, they might become potent methods in ischemic stroke therapy. In this study, we investigated the effect of PDZ1 inhibitor peptide on ischemic neuron apoptosis and the relative mechanism. Results showed that PDZ1 inhibitor peptide, which significantly disrupted GluK2-PSD-95 interaction, efficiently protected neuron from ischemia/reperfusion-induced apoptosis. Further, PDZ1 inhibited FasL expression, DISC assembly and activation of Caspase 8, Bid, Caspase 9 and Caspase 3 after global brain ischemia. Based on our previous report that GluK2-PSD-95 pathway increased FasL expression after global brain ischemia, the neuron protection effect of PDZ1 inhibitor peptide was considered to be achieved by disrupting GluK2-PSD-95 interaction and subsequently inhibiting FasL expression and Fas apoptosis pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Flavocoxid Inhibits Phospholipase A2, Peroxidase Moieties of the Cyclooxygenases (COX), and 5-Lipoxygenase, Modifies COX-2 Gene Expression, and Acts as an Antioxidant

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Bruce P.; Bitto, Alessandra; Altavilla, Domenica; Squadrito, Francesco; Levy, Robert M.; Pillai, Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    The multiple mechanisms of action for flavocoxid relating to arachidonic acid (AA) formation and metabolism were studied in vitro. Flavocoxid titrated into rat peritoneal macrophage cultures inhibited cellular phospholipase A2 (PLA2) (IC50 = 60 μg/mL). In in vitro enzyme assays, flavocoxid showed little anti-cyclooxygenase (CO) activity on COX-1/-2 enzymes, but inhibited the COX-1 (IC50 = 12.3) and COX-2 (IC50 = 11.3 μg/mL) peroxidase (PO) moieties as well as 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) (IC50 = 110 μg/mL). No detectable 5-LOX inhibition was found for multiple traditional and COX-2 selective NSAIDs. Flavocoxid also exhibited strong and varied antioxidant capacities in vitro and decreased nitrite levels (IC50 = 38 μg/mL) in rat peritoneal macrophages. Finally, in contrast to celecoxib and ibuprofen, which upregulated the cox-2 gene, flavocoxid strongly decreased expression. This work suggests that clinically favourable effects of flavocoxid for management of osteoarthritis (OA) are achieved by simultaneous modification of multiple molecular pathways relating to AA metabolism, oxidative induction of inflammation, and neutralization of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:21765617

  4. Flavocoxid inhibits phospholipase A2, peroxidase moieties of the cyclooxygenases (COX), and 5-lipoxygenase, modifies COX-2 gene expression, and acts as an antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Bruce P; Bitto, Alessandra; Altavilla, Domenica; Squadrito, Francesco; Levy, Robert M; Pillai, Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    The multiple mechanisms of action for flavocoxid relating to arachidonic acid (AA) formation and metabolism were studied in vitro. Flavocoxid titrated into rat peritoneal macrophage cultures inhibited cellular phospholipase A2 (PLA(2)) (IC(50) = 60 μg/mL). In in vitro enzyme assays, flavocoxid showed little anti-cyclooxygenase (CO) activity on COX-1/-2 enzymes, but inhibited the COX-1 (IC(50) = 12.3) and COX-2 (IC(50) = 11.3 μg/mL) peroxidase (PO) moieties as well as 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) (IC(50) = 110 μg/mL). No detectable 5-LOX inhibition was found for multiple traditional and COX-2 selective NSAIDs. Flavocoxid also exhibited strong and varied antioxidant capacities in vitro and decreased nitrite levels (IC(50) = 38 μg/mL) in rat peritoneal macrophages. Finally, in contrast to celecoxib and ibuprofen, which upregulated the cox-2 gene, flavocoxid strongly decreased expression. This work suggests that clinically favourable effects of flavocoxid for management of osteoarthritis (OA) are achieved by simultaneous modification of multiple molecular pathways relating to AA metabolism, oxidative induction of inflammation, and neutralization of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  5. Hydrogen-rich saline protects against small-scale liver ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Bai, Ge; Ge, Yansong; Zhang, Qianzhen; Kong, Xiangdong; Meng, Weijing; Wang, Hongbin

    2018-02-01

    Our research investigated the role of Hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) on the Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) pathway and the effect of HRS on tissue injury in small Bama pig model of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion combined with partial hepatectomy. Eighteen healthy Bama miniature pigs were randomly divided equally into three groups: Sham, IRI, and HRS. Laparoscopic technique was employed to establish the model of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion combined with partial hepatectomy. HRS (10mL/kg) was injected into the portal vein 10min before perfusion. Histological examinations of the liver tissues were performed after HE staining. Additionally, transmission electron microscopy was performed to detect liver cell microstructure. Real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining were performed to analyze various ERS molecules including GRP78, p-eIF2α, XBP-1s, Full-length ATF6α, p-JNK, ATF4, and CHOP. We observed that HRS visibly improved ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) by reducing various parameters of ERS stress as evidenced by down-regulation of the mRNA as well as protein levels of GRP78, p-eIF2α, XBP-1s, p-JNK, and CHOP, and reducing the cleavage of Full-length ATF6α. Our study demonstrates that HRS protects the liver from IRI by inhibiting ERS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Atorvastatin Protects Myocardium Against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Through Inhibiting miR-199a-5p.

    PubMed

    Zuo, YaBei; Wang, YuZhao; Hu, HaiJuan; Cui, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of atorvastatin against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in cardiomyocytes and its possible underlying mechanism. Direct cytotoxic effect of OGD/R on cardiomyocytes with and without atorvastatin pretreatment was evaluated. Effects of atorvastatin on expression of GSK-3β and miR-199a-5p were determined using RT-PCR and Western blot. In addition, GSK-3β expression with miR-199a-5p upregulation and downregulation was detected using RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Pretreatment with atorvastatin significantly improved the recovery of cells viability from OGD/R (p<0.05). In addition, the atorvastatin pretreatment significantly increased GSK-3β expression both in mRNA level and protein level and decreased miR-199a-5p expression in mRNA level (p<0.05). Upregulation and downregulation of miR-199a-5p respectively decreased and increased GSK-3β expression both in mRNA level and protein level. These results suggested that atorvastatin provides the cardioprotective effects against I/R injury via increasing GSK-3β through inhibition of miR-199a-5p. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Plumbagin protects liver against fulminant hepatic failure and chronic liver fibrosis via inhibiting inflammation and collagen production

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xixi; Yang, Fengrui; Zhang, Qi; Xue, Zhenyi; Li, Yan; Zhang, Lijuan; Yang, Luhong; Miao, Guolin; Li, Daiqing; Guan, Zhiyu; Da, Yurong; Yao, Zhi; Gao, Fei; Qiao, Liang; Kong, Li; Zhang, Rongxin

    2016-01-01

    Plumbagin is a quinonoid constituent extracted from Plumbago genus, and it exhibits diverse pharmacological effects. This study thoroughly investigated the effects of plumbagin on thioacetamide-induced acute and chronic liver injury. Results shown that plumbagin increased survival rate, reduced liver congestion and inflammation, and decreased macrophages and neutrophils in the fulminant hepatic failure model, and remarkably diminished liver fibrosis and inflammation in the chronic liver injury model. Furthermore, plumbagin significantly suppress the HSCs/myofibroblasts activation by reduced expression of markers α-SMA and COL-1/3, and reduced macrophage in liver. In the in vitro study, plumbagin induced apoptosis and suppressed the proliferation of LX-2 cells (human HSCs). Plumbagin treatment increased AMPK phosphorylation and attenuated NF-κB, STAT3, and Akt/mTOR signals in LX-2 cells, while SMAD2 phosphorylation was not changed. Noticeably, plumbagin promoted AMPK binding to p300 which is a cofactor of SMAD complex, this may further competitively decreases the p300/SMAD complex initiated transcription of COL-1/3 and α-SMA. Additionally, plumbagin hampered inflammation related NF-κB signal in RAW 264.7 cells. In conclusion, these findings indicate that plumbagin may be a powerful drug candidate to protect the liver from acute and chronic damage by inhibiting inflammation and collagen production. PMID:27756878

  8. Chloroquine and inhibition of Toll-like receptor 9 protect from sepsis-induced acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Hideo; Leelahavanichkul, Asada; Tsunoda, Shinichiro; Dear, James W.; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Ito, Shuichi; Hu, Xuzhen; Zhou, Hua; Doi, Kent; Childs, Richard; Klinman, Dennis M.; Yuen, Peter S.T.; Star, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Mortality from sepsis has remained high despite recent advances in supportive and targeted therapies. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) sense bacterial products and stimulate pathogenic innate immune responses. Mice deficient in the common adapter protein MyD88, downstream from most TLRs, have reduced mortality and acute kidney injury (AKI) from polymicrobial sepsis. However, the identity of the TLR(s) responsible for the host response to polymicrobial sepsis is unknown. Here, we show that chloroquine, an inhibitor of endocytic TLRs (TLR3, 7, 8, 9), improves sepsis-induced mortality and acute kidney injury in a clinically relevant polymicrobial sepsis mouse model, even when administered 6h after the septic insult. Chloroquine administration attenuated the decline in renal function, splenic apoptosis, serum markers of damage to other organs, and prototypical serum pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-10. An oligodeoxynucleotide inhibitor (H154) of TLR9 and TLR9-deficient mice mirror the actions of chloroquine in all functional parameters that we tested. In addition, chloroquine decreased TLR9 protein abundance in spleen, further suggesting that TLR9 signaling may be a major target for the protective actions of chloroquine. Our findings indicate that chloroquine improves survival by inhibiting multiple pathways leading to polymicrobial sepsis, and that chloroquine and TLR9 inhibitors represent viable broad-spectrum and targeted therapeutic strategies, respectively, that are promising candidates for further clinical development. PMID:18305095

  9. Curcumin protects neuronal cells against status-epilepticus-induced hippocampal damage through induction of autophagy and inhibition of necroptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Liu, Yuan; Li, Xiao-Hui; Zeng, Xiang-Chang; Li, Jian; Zhou, Jun; Xiao, Bo; Hu, Kai

    2017-05-01

    Status epilepticus, the most severe form of epilepsy, is characterized by progressive functional and structural damage in the hippocampus, ultimately leading to the development and clinical appearance of spontaneous, recurrent seizures. Although the pathogenesis underlying epileptogenesis processes remains unclear, a substantial body of evidence has shown that status epilepticus acts as an important initial factor in triggering epileptogenesis. Notably, besides classical cell death mechanisms such as apoptosis and necrosis, 2 novel regulators of cell fate known as necroptosis and autophagy, are demonstrated to be involved in neuronal damage in various neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. However, whether necroptosis and autophagy play a role in post-status-epilepticus rat hippocampus and other epilepsy mechanisms deserves further research effort. In addition, research is needed to determine whether compounds from traditional Chinese herbs possess antiepileptic effects through the modulation of necroptosis and autophagy. In this study, we found that curcumin, a polyphenolic phytochemical extracted from the Curcuma longa plant, protects neuronal cells against status-epilepticus-induced hippocampal neuronal damage in the lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus rat model through induction of autophagy and inhibition of necroptosis.

  10. Inhibition of mTOR enhances radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells and protects normal lung cells against radiation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hang; Wang, Miao; Wu, Jing; Wang, Zhi-Ming; Nan, Hai-Jun; Sun, He

    2016-06-01

    Radiotherapy has been used for a long time as a standard therapy for cancer; however, there have been no recent research breakthroughs. Radioresistance and various side-effects lead to the unexpected outcomes of radiation therapy. Specific and accurate targeting as well as reduction of radioresistance have been major challenges for irradiation therapy. Recent studies have shown that rapamycin shows promise for inhibiting tumorigenesis by suppressing mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). We found that the combination of rapamycin with irradiation significantly diminished cell viability and colony formation, and increased cell apoptosis, as compared with irradiation alone in lung cancer cell line A549, suggesting that rapamycin can enhance the effectiveness of radiation therapy by sensitizing cancer cells to irradiation. Importantly, we observed that the adverse effects of irradiation on a healthy lung cell line (WI-38) were also offset. No enhanced protein expression of mTOR signaling was observed in WI-38 cells, which is normally elevated in lung cancer cells. Moreover, DNA damage was significantly less with the combination therapy than with irradiation therapy alone. Our data suggest that the incorporation of rapamycin during radiation therapy could be a potent way to improve the sensitivity and effectiveness of radiation therapy as well as to protect normal cells from being damaged by irradiation.

  11. Angptl4 protects against severe proinflammatory effects of saturated fat by inhibiting fatty acid uptake into mesenteric lymph node macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Laeticia; Mattijssen, Frits; de Wit, Nicole J; Georgiadi, Anastasia; Hooiveld, Guido J; van der Meer, Roelof; He, Yin; Qi, Ling; Köster, Anja; Tamsma, Jouke T; Tan, Nguan Soon; Müller, Michael; Kersten, Sander

    2010-12-01

    Dietary saturated fat is linked to numerous chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Here we study the role of the lipoprotein lipase inhibitor Angptl4 in the response to dietary saturated fat. Strikingly, in mice lacking Angptl4, saturated fat induces a severe and lethal phenotype characterized by fibrinopurulent peritonitis, ascites, intestinal fibrosis, and cachexia. These abnormalities are preceded by a massive acute phase response induced by saturated but not unsaturated fat or medium-chain fat, originating in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs). MLNs undergo dramatic expansion and contain numerous lipid-laden macrophages. In peritoneal macrophages incubated with chyle, Angptl4 dramatically reduced foam cell formation, inflammatory gene expression, and chyle-induced activation of ER stress. Induction of macrophage Angptl4 by fatty acids is part of a mechanism that serves to reduce postprandial lipid uptake from chyle into MLN-resident macrophages by inhibiting triglyceride hydrolysis, thereby preventing macrophage activation and foam cell formation and protecting against progressive, uncontrolled saturated fat-induced inflammation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Leflunomide or A77 1726 protect from acetaminophen-induced cell injury through inhibition of JNK-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition in immortalized human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; Seah, Quee Ming; Tan, Rachel C.H.

    2006-11-15

    Leflunomide, a disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug, protects against T-cell-mediated liver injury by poorly understood mechanisms. The active metabolite of leflunomide, A77 1726 (teriflunomide) has been shown to inhibit stress-activated protein kinases (JNK pathway), which are key regulators of mitochondria-mediated cell death. Therefore, we hypothesized that leflunomide may protect from drugs that induce the mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) by blocking the JNK signaling pathway. To this end, we exposed cultured immortalized human hepatocytes (HC-04) to the standard protoxicant drug acetaminophen (APAP), which induces CsA-sensitive mPT-mediated cell death. We determined the effects of leflunomide on the extent of APAP-induced hepatocyte injury and themore » upstream JNK-mediated mitochondrial signaling pathways. We found that leflunomide or A77 1726 concentration-dependently protected hepatocytes from APAP (1 mM)-induced mitochondrial permeabilization and lethal cell injury. This was not due to proximal inhibition of CYP-catalyzed APAP bioactivation to its thiol-reactive metabolite. Instead, we demonstrate that leflunomide (20 {mu}M) inhibited the APAP-induced early (3 h) activation (phosphorylation) of JNK1/2, thus inhibiting phosphorylation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and preventing P-Bcl-2-mediated induction of the mPT. This greatly attenuated mitochondrial cytochrome c release, which we used as a marker for mitochondrial permeabilization. The specific JNK2 inhibitor SP600125 similarly protected from APAP-induced cell death. In conclusion, these findings are consistent with our hypothesis that leflunomide protects from protoxicant-induced hepatocyte injury by inhibiting JNK signaling and preventing mPT induction.« less

  13. BENZYL ALCOHOL PROTECTS AGAINST ACETAMINOPHEN HEPATOTOXICITY BY INHIBITING CYTOCHROME P450 ENZYMES BUT CAUSES MITOCHONDRIAL DYSFUNCTION AND CELL DEATH AT HIGHER DOSES

    PubMed Central

    Du, Kuo; McGill, Mitchell R.; Xie, Yuchao; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is a serious public health problem in western countries. Current treatment options for APAP poisoning are limited and novel therapeutic intervention strategies are needed. A recent publication suggested that benzyl alcohol (BA) protects against APAP hepatotoxicity and could serve as a promising antidote for APAP poisoning. To assess the protective mechanisms of BA, C56Bl/6J mice were treated with 400mg/kg APAP and/or 270mg/kg BA. APAP alone caused extensive liver injury at 6h and 24h post-APAP. This injury was attenuated by BA co-treatment. Assessment of protein adduct formation demonstrated that BA inhibits APAP metabolic activation. In support of this, in vitro experiments also showed that BA dose-dependently inhibits cytochrome P450 activities. Correlating with the hepatoprotection of BA, APAP-induced oxidant stress and mitochondrial dysfunction were reduced. Similar results were obtained in primary mouse hepatocytes. Interestingly, BA alone caused mitochondrial membrane potential loss and cell toxicity at high doses, and its protective effect could not be reproduced in primary human hepatocytes (PHH). We conclude that BA protects against APAP hepatotoxicity mainly by inhibiting cytochrome P450 enzymes in mice. Considering its toxic effect and the loss of protection in PHH, BA is not a clinically useful treatment option for APAP overdose patient. PMID:26522885

  14. Screening and characterization of a Annenix A2 binding aptamer that inhibits the proliferation of myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weihua; Zhang, Yibin; Zeng, Yayue; Peng, Minyuan; Li, Hui; Sun, Shuming; Ma, Bianying; Wang, Yanpeng; Ye, Mao; Liu, Jing

    2018-06-12

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant plasma cell disease and is considered incurable. Annexin A2 (ANXA2) is closely related to the proliferation and adhesion of MM. Using protein-SELEX, we performed a screen for aptamers that bind GST-ANXA2 from a library, and GST protein was used for negative selection. The enrichment of the ssDNA pool was monitored by filter-binding assay during selection. After nine rounds of screening and high-throughput sequencing, we obtained six candidate aptamers that bind to the ANXA2 protein. The affinities of the candidate aptamers for ANXA2 were determined by ELONA. Binding of aptamer wh6 to the ANXA2 protein and to the MM cell was verified by aptamer pulldown experiment and flow cytometry, respectively. Aptamer wh6 binds the ANXA2 protein with good stability and has a dissociation constant in the nanomolar range. The binding specificity of aptamer wh6 was confirmed in vivo in nude mouse xenografts with MM cells and with MM bone marrow aspirates. Furthermore, aptamer wh6 can block MM cell adhesion to ANXA2 and block the proliferation of MM cells induced by ANXA2. In summary, wh6 can be considered a promising candidate tool for MM diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  15. Inhibition of Intestinal Bile Acid Transporter Slc10a2 Improves Triglyceride Metabolism and Normalizes Elevated Plasma Glucose Levels in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Snaith, Michael; Lindmark, Helena; Lundberg, Johanna; Östlund-Lindqvist, Ann-Margret; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats

    2012-01-01

    Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids increases cholesterol catabolism, thereby stimulating hepatic cholesterol synthesis from acetate. We hypothesized that such treatment should lower the hepatic acetate pool which may alter triglyceride and glucose metabolism. We explored this using mice deficient of the ileal sodium-dependent BA transporter (Slc10a2) and ob/ob mice treated with a specific inhibitor of Slc10a2. Plasma TG levels were reduced in Slc10a2-deficient mice, and when challenged with a sucrose-rich diet, they displayed a reduced response in hepatic TG production as observed from the mRNA levels of several key enzymes in fatty acid synthesis. This effect was paralleled by a diminished induction of mature sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (Srebp1c). Unexpectedly, the SR-diet induced intestinal fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15 mRNA and normalized bile acid synthesis in Slc10a2−/− mice. Pharmacologic inhibition of Slc10a2 in diabetic ob/ob mice reduced serum glucose, insulin and TGs, as well as hepatic mRNA levels of Srebp1c and its target genes. These responses are contrary to those reported following treatment of mice with a bile acid binding resin. Moreover, when key metabolic signal transduction pathways in the liver were investigated, those of Mek1/2 - Erk1/2 and Akt were blunted after treatment of ob/ob mice with the Slc10a2 inhibitor. It is concluded that abrogation of Slc10a2 reduces hepatic Srebp1c activity and serum TGs, and in the diabetic ob/ob model it also reduces glucose and insulin levels. Hence, targeting of Slc10a2 may be a promising strategy to treat hypertriglyceridemia and diabetes. PMID:22662222

  16. Carbon Monoxide Protects against Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury via ROS-Dependent Akt Signaling and Inhibition of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo Jeong; Joe, Yeonsoo; Kong, Jin Sun; Jeong, Sun-Oh; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Ryter, Stefan W.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) may exert important roles in physiological and pathophysiological states through the regulation of cellular signaling pathways. CO can protect organ tissues from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by modulating intracellular redox status and by inhibiting inflammatory, apoptotic, and proliferative responses. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of CO in organ I/R injury remain incompletely understood. In this study, a murine model of hepatic warm I/R injury was employed to assess the role of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent signaling pathways in the protective effects of CO against inflammation and injury. Inhibition of GSK3 through the PI3K/Akt pathway played a crucial role in CO-mediated protection. CO treatment increased the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3-beta (GSK3β) in the liver after I/R injury. Furthermore, administration of LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K, compromised the protective effect of CO and decreased the level of phospho-GSK3β after I/R injury. These results suggest that CO protects against liver damage by maintaining GSK3β phosphorylation, which may be mediated by the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Our study provides additional support for the therapeutic potential of CO in organ injury and identifies GSK3β as a therapeutic target for CO in the amelioration of hepatic injury. PMID:24454979

  17. Carbon monoxide protects against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury via ROS-dependent Akt signaling and inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Jeong; Joe, Yeonsoo; Kong, Jin Sun; Jeong, Sun-Oh; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Ryter, Stefan W; Chung, Hun Taeg

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) may exert important roles in physiological and pathophysiological states through the regulation of cellular signaling pathways. CO can protect organ tissues from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by modulating intracellular redox status and by inhibiting inflammatory, apoptotic, and proliferative responses. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of CO in organ I/R injury remain incompletely understood. In this study, a murine model of hepatic warm I/R injury was employed to assess the role of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent signaling pathways in the protective effects of CO against inflammation and injury. Inhibition of GSK3 through the PI3K/Akt pathway played a crucial role in CO-mediated protection. CO treatment increased the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3-beta (GSK3β) in the liver after I/R injury. Furthermore, administration of LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K, compromised the protective effect of CO and decreased the level of phospho-GSK3β after I/R injury. These results suggest that CO protects against liver damage by maintaining GSK3β phosphorylation, which may be mediated by the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Our study provides additional support for the therapeutic potential of CO in organ injury and identifies GSK3β as a therapeutic target for CO in the amelioration of hepatic injury.

  18. Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides Protect Rat Corneal Epithelial Cells against Ultraviolet B-Induced Apoptosis by Attenuating the Mitochondrial Pathway and Inhibiting JNK Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Du, Shaobo; Han, Biao; Li, Kang; Zhang, Xuan; Sha, Xueli; Gao, Lan

    2017-01-01

    Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) have been shown to play a key role in protecting the eyes by reducing the apoptosis induced by certain types of damage. However, it is not known whether LBPs can protect damaged corneal cells from apoptosis. Moreover, no reports have focused on the role of LBPs in guarding against ultraviolet B- (UVB-) induced apoptosis. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect and underlying mechanism of LBPs against UVB-induced apoptosis in rat corneal epithelial (RCE) cells. The results showed that LBPs significantly prevented the loss of cell viability and inhibited cell apoptosis induced by UVB in RCE cells. LBPs also inhibited UVB-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, downregulation of Bcl-2 , and upregulation of Bax and caspase-3. Finally, LBPs attenuated the phosphorylation of c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK) triggered by UVB. In summary, LBPs protect RCE cells against UVB-induced damage and apoptosis, and the underlying mechanism involves the attenuation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway and the inhibition of JNK phosphorylation.

  19. Protection of ischaemic-reperfused rat heart by dimethylamiloride is associated with inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition.

    PubMed

    Prendes, María G Marina; Torresín, Emilia; González, Marcela; Fernández, María A; Perazzo, Juan C; Savino, Enrique A; Varela, Alicia

    2008-02-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to assess whether protection afforded by the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger blocker dimethylamiloride (DMA) is associated with inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). The effects of DMA were compared with those of cyclosporine (Cs) A, an inhibitor of MPT. 2. Rat hearts were Langendorff perfused with Krebs'-bicarbonate medium containing 10 mmol/L glucose and were subjected to 25 min no-flow global ischaemia and 30 min reperfusion in the presence or absence of 10 micromol/L DMA or 0.2 micromol/L CsA. Cell viability was measured using tetrazolium stain. The MPT was determined by loading hearts with 2-deoxy-[(3)H]-glucose (2DG), which enters mitochondria only during MPT. Total heart 2DG content as an estimation of the extent of tissue damage was also measured. To assess whether DMA has any direct effect on glycolysis, a cell-free heart extract containing all the glycolytic enzymes was used. 3. Dimethylamiloride improved functional recovery (rate-pressure product) from 24 +/- 7 to 68 +/- 11% (P < 0.01) at reperfusion end, attenuated the increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (from 29 +/- 7 to 6 +/- 3% 10 min after reperfusion onset; P < 0.01), improved cell viability (from 21.2 +/- 6.6 to 69.6 +/- 7.1% at reperfusion end; P < 0.05) and lessened lactate accumulation at the end of ischaemia (119 +/- 15 vs 163 +/- 14 micromol/g dry weight; P < 0.05). Dimethylamiloride limited MPT: 2DG mitochondrial entrapment, being 33.1 +/- 14.2 and 96.3 +/- 14.0 at reperfusion end in the treated and control hearts, respectively (P < 0.05), and concomitantly raised total 2DG content (51.3 +/- 4.4 vs 86.8 +/- 1.7 x 10(3) d.p.m./g wet weight in control and treated groups, respectively; P < 0.05). Cyclosporine A improved functional recovery and attenuated the amplitude of ventricular diastolic pressure in ischaemic-reperfused hearts. It also reduced mitochondrial entrapment (67.3 +/- 7.7%; P < 0.05 vs control) and increased total cell

  20. Inhibition of the kynurenine pathway protects against reactive microglial-associated reductions in the complexity of primary cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    O'Farrell, Katherine; Fagan, Eimear; Connor, Thomas J; Harkin, Andrew

    2017-09-05

    Brain glia possess the rate limiting enzyme indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) which catalyses the conversion of tryptophan to kynurenine. Microglia also express kynurenine monooxygenase (KMO) and kynureninase (KYNU) which lead to the production of the free radical producing metabolites, 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranillic acid respectively and subsequently production of the NMDA receptor agonist quinolinic acid. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of IFNγ-stimulated kynurenine pathway (KP) induction in microglia on neurite outgrowth and complexity, and to determine whether alterations could be abrogated using pharmacological inhibitors of the KP. BV-2 microglia were treated with IFNγ (5ng/ml) for 24h and conditioned media (CM) was placed on primary cortical neurons 3 days in vitro (DIV) for 48h. Neurons were fixed and neurite outgrowth and complexity was assessed using fluorescent immunocytochemistry followed by Sholl analysis. Results show increased mRNA expression of IDO, KMO and KYNU, and increased concentrations of tryptophan, kynurenine, and 3-hydroxykynurenine in the CM of IFNγ-stimulated BV-2 microglia. The IFNγ-stimulated BV-2 microglial CM reduced neurite outgrowth and complexity with reductions in various parameters of neurite outgrowth prevented when BV-2 microglia were pre-treated with either the IDO inhibitor, 1-methyltryptophan (1-MT) (L) (0.5mM; 30min), the KMO inhibitor, Ro 61-8048 (1μM; 30min), the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (1μM; 2h) -which suppresses IFNγ-induced IDO - and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, MK801 (0.1μM; 30min). Overall this study indicates that inhibition of the KP in microglia may be targeted to protect against reactive microglial-associated neuronal atrophy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Vagus nerve stimulation inhibits seizure activity and protects blood-brain barrier integrity in kindled rats with cortical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Mehmet; Orhan, Nurcan; Karabacak, Emrah; Bahceci, Metin Berkant; Arican, Nadir; Ahishali, Bulent; Kemikler, Gonul; Uslu, Atilla; Cevik, Aydin; Yilmaz, Canan Ugur; Kucuk, Mutlu; Gürses, Candan

    2013-03-12

    This study investigates the effects of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) on seizure severity and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity in kindled rats with cortical dysplasia (CD). Pregnant rats were exposed to 145 cGy of gamma-irradiation on day 17 of pregnancy. In offsprings, kindling was induced by giving subconvulsive doses of pentylenetetrazole. Left VNS was performed for 48 h at output currents of 0.5 or 1 mA. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used to study the BBB permeability. Immunohistochemistry for occludin and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was also performed. Kindled rats with CD exhibited seizures with mean Racine's scores of 3.57 ± 1.2 during video EEG recording. Kindled animals with CD receiving VNS at 0.5 and 1.0 mA did not exhibit either clinical or electrophysiological signs of seizure. Immunostaining for occludin, a tight junction protein, in hippocampus remained relatively intact in all groups. VNS-treated and -untreated kindled animals with CD revealed intense immunostaining for P-gp in hippocampal formation (P<0.01). Electron microscopic observations revealed frequent transport vesicles containing electron-dense HRP reaction products in the cytoplasm of brain capillary endothelial cells in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus of kindled animals with CD. Those which were exposed to 1 mA VNS were observed to have brain capillary endothelial cells largely devoid of HRP reaction products in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The results of this study suggest that VNS therapy at 1 mA inhibits seizure activity and protects BBB integrity by limiting the enhancement of transcellular pathway in kindled animals with CD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The gap junction inhibitor 2-aminoethoxy-diphenyl-borate protects against acetaminophen hepatotoxicity by inhibiting cytochrome P450 enzymes and c-jun N-terminal kinase activation

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Kuo; Williams, C. David; McGill, Mitchell R.

    2013-12-15

    Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is the leading cause of acute liver failure in the US. Although many aspects of the mechanism are known, recent publications suggest that gap junctions composed of connexin32 function as critical intercellular communication channels which transfer cytotoxic mediators into neighboring hepatocytes and aggravate liver injury. However, these studies did not consider off-target effects of reagents used in these experiments, especially the gap junction inhibitor 2-aminoethoxy-diphenyl-borate (2-APB). In order to assess the mechanisms of protection of 2-APB in vivo, male C56Bl/6 mice were treated with 400 mg/kg APAP to cause extensive liver injury. This injury was prevented whenmore » animals were co-treated with 20 mg/kg 2-APB and was attenuated when 2-APB was administered 1.5 h after APAP. However, the protection was completely lost when 2-APB was given 4–6 h after APAP. Measurement of protein adducts and c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation indicated that 2-APB reduced both protein binding and JNK activation, which correlated with hepatoprotection. Although some of the protection was due to the solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), in vitro experiments clearly demonstrated that 2-APB directly inhibits cytochrome P450 activities. In addition, JNK activation induced by phorone and tert-butylhydroperoxide in vivo was inhibited by 2-APB. The effects against APAP toxicity in vivo were reproduced in primary cultured hepatocytes without use of DMSO and in the absence of functional gap junctions. We conclude that the protective effect of 2-APB was caused by inhibition of metabolic activation of APAP and inhibition of the JNK signaling pathway and not by blocking connexin32-based gap junctions. - Highlights: • 2-APB protected against APAP-induced liver injury in mice in vivo and in vitro • 2-APB protected by inhibiting APAP metabolic activation and JNK signaling pathway • DMSO inhibited APAP metabolic activation as the solvent of 2

  3. Curcumin inhibits vasculogenic mimicry through the downregulation of erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma-A2, phosphoinositide 3-kinase and matrix metalloproteinase-2

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, YIMING; HUANG, MIN; LI, JIANWEN; SUN, XINLIN; JIANG, XIAODAN; LI, LIANGPING; KE, YIQUAN

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastomas (GBMs) are the most common and aggressive malignant primary brain tumors found in humans. In high-grade gliomas, vasculogenic mimicry (VM) is often detected. VM is the formation of de novo vascular networks by highly invasive tumor cells, instead of endothelial cells. An understanding of the mechanisms of VM formation will contribute to the targeted therapy of GBMs. In the present study, the efficacy of curcumin (CCM) on VM formation and its mechanisms were investigated. It was found that CCM inhibits the VM formation, proliferation, migration and invasion of human glioma U251 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CCM downregulated the protein and mRNA expression of erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma-A2, phosphoinositide 3-kinase and matrix metalloproteinase-2, indicating that CCM may function through these factors for the inhibition of VM formation. These data provide novel insights into the use of CCM to antagonize VM, and may contribute to the angiogenesis-targeted therapy of malignant glioma. PMID:25202424

  4. The HLA-A2 Restricted T Cell Epitope HCV Core35–44 Stabilizes HLA-E Expression and Inhibits Cytolysis Mediated by Natural Killer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nattermann, Jacob; Nischalke, Hans Dieter; Hofmeister, Valeska; Ahlenstiel, Golo; Zimmermann, Henning; Leifeld, Ludger; Weiss, Elisabeth H.; Sauerbruch, Tilman; Spengler, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    Impaired activity of natural killer cells has been proposed as a mechanism contributing to viral persistence in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Natural cytotoxicity is regulated by interactions of HLA-E with inhibitory CD94/NKG2A receptors on natural killer (NK) cells. Here, we studied whether HCV core encodes peptides that bind to HLA-E and inhibit natural cytotoxicity. We analyzed 30 HCV core-derived peptides. Peptide-induced stabilization of HLA-E expression was measured flow cytometrically after incubating HLA-E-transfected cells with peptides. NK cell function was studied with a 51chromium-release-assay. Intrahepatic HLA-E expression was analyzed by an indirect immunoperoxidase technique and flow cytometry of isolated cells using a HLA-E-specific antibody. We identified peptide aa35–44, a well-characterized HLA-A2 restricted T cell epitope, as a peptide stabilizing HLA-E expression and thereby inhibiting NK cell-mediated lysis. Blocking experiments confirmed that this inhibitory effect of peptide aa35–44 on natural cytotoxicity was mediated via interactions between CD94/NKG2A receptors and enhanced HLA-E expression. In line with these in vitro data we found enhanced intrahepatic HLA-E expression on antigen-presenting cells in HCV-infected patients. Our data indicate the existence of T cell epitopes that can be recognized by HLA-A2 and HLA-E. This dual recognition may contribute to viral persistence in hepatitis C. PMID:15681828

  5. Purification of a post-synaptic neurotoxic phospholipase A2 from Naja naja venom and its inhibition by a glycoprotein from Withania somnifera.

    PubMed

    Machiah, Deepa K; Gowda, T Veerabasappa

    2006-06-01

    A post-synaptic neurotoxic phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) has been purified from Indian cobra Naja naja venom. It was associated with a peptide in the venom. The association was disrupted using 8 M urea. It is denoted to be a basic protein by its behavior on both ion exchange chromatography and electrophoresis. It is toxic to mice, LD(50) 1.9 mg/kg body weight (ip). It is proved to be post-synaptic PLA(2) by chymographic experiment using frog nerve-muscle preparation. A glycoprotein, (WSG) was isolated from a folk medicinal plant Withania somnifera. The WSG inhibited the phospholipase A(2) activity of NN-XIa-PLA(2,) isolated from the cobra venom, completely at a mole-to-mole ratio of 1:2 (NN-XIa-PLA(2): WSG) but failed to neutralize the toxicity of the molecule. However, it reduced the toxicity as well as prolonged the death time of the experimental mice approximately 10 times when compared to venom alone. The WSG also inhibited several other PLA(2) isoforms from the venom to varying extent. The interaction of the WSG with the PLA(2) is confirmed by fluorescence quenching and gel-permeation chromatography. Chemical modification of the active histidine residue of PLA(2) using p-brophenacyl bromide resulted in the loss of both catalytic activity as well as neurotoxicity of the molecule. These findings suggest that the venom PLA(2) has multiple sites on it; perhaps some of them are overlapping. Application of the plant extract on snakebite wound confirms the medicinal value associated with the plant.

  6. Insulin Protects Hepatic Lipotoxicity by Regulating ER Stress through the PI3K/Akt/p53 Involved Pathway Independently of Autophagy Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ning, Hua; Sun, Zongxiang; Liu, Yunyun; Liu, Lei; Hao, Liuyi; Ye, Yaxin; Feng, Rennan; Li, Jie; Li, Ying; Chu, Xia; Li, Songtao; Sun, Changhao

    2016-04-19

    The detrimental role of hepatic lipotoxicity has been well-implicated in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Previously, we reported that inhibiting autophagy aggravated saturated fatty acid (SFA)-induced hepatotoxicity. Insulin, a physiological inhibitor of autophagy, is commonly increased within NAFLD mainly caused by insulin resistance. We therefore hypothesized that insulin augments the sensitivity of hepatocyte to SFA-induced lipotoxicity. The present study was conducted via employing human and mouse hepatocytes, which were exposed to SFAs, insulin, or their combination. Unexpectedly, our results indicated that insulin protected hepatocytes against SFA-induced lipotoxicity, based on the LDH, MTT, and nuclear morphological measurements, and the detection from cleaved-Parp-1 and -caspase-3 expressions. We subsequently clarified that insulin led to a rapid and short-period inhibition of autophagy, which was gradually recovered after 1 h incubation in hepatocytes, and such extent of inhibition was insufficient to aggravate SFA-induced lipotoxicity. The mechanistic study revealed that insulin-induced alleviation of ER stress contributed to its hepatoprotective role. Pre-treating hepatocytes with insulin significantly stimulated phosphorylated-Akt and reversed SFA-induced up-regulation of p53. Chemical inhibition of p53 by pifithrin-α robustly prevented palmitate-induced cell death. The PI3K/Akt pathway blockade by its special antagonist abolished the protective role of insulin against SFA-induced lipotoxicity and p53 up-regulation. Furthermore, we observed that insulin promoted intracellular TG deposits in hepatocytes in the present of palmitate. However, blocking TG accumulation via genetically silencing DGAT-2 did not prevent insulin-protected lipotoxicity. Our study demonstrated that insulin strongly protected against SFA-induced lipotoxicity in hepatocytes mechanistically through alleviating ER stress via a PI3K/Akt/p53 involved pathway but independently from autophagy.

  7. A novel estrogen receptor GPER inhibits mitochondria permeability transition pore opening and protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Bopassa, Jean Chrisostome; Eghbali, Mansoureh; Toro, Ligia; Stefani, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have recently demonstrated that G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPER) can directly bind to estrogen and mediate its action. We investigated the role and the mechanism of estrogen-induced cardioprotection after ischemia-reperfusion using a specific GPER agonist G1. Isolated hearts from male mice were perfused using Langendorff technique with oxygenated (95% O(2) and 5% CO(2)) Krebs Henseleit buffer (control), with G1 (1 microM), and G1 (1 microM) together with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) inhibitor PD-98059 (5 microM). After 20 min of perfusion, hearts were subjected to 20 min global normothermic (37 degrees C) ischemia followed by 40 min reperfusion. Cardiac function was measured, and myocardial necrosis was evaluated by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining at the end of the reperfusion. Mitochondria were isolated after 10 min of reperfusion to assess the Ca(2+) load required to induce mitochondria permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening. G1-treated hearts developed better functional recovery with higher rate pressure product (RPP, 6140 +/- 264 vs. 2,640 +/- 334 beats mmHg(-1) min(-1), P < 0.05). The infarct size decreased significantly in G1-treated hearts (21 +/- 2 vs. 46 +/- 3%, P < 0.001), and the Ca(2+) load required to induce mPTP opening increased (2.4 +/- 0.06 vs. 1.6 +/- 0.11 microM/mg mitochondrial protein, P < 0.05) compared with the controls. The protective effect of G1 was abolished in the presence of PD-98059 [RPP: 4,120 +/- 46 beats mmHg(-1) min(-1), infarct size: 53 +/- 2%, and Ca(2+) retention capacity: 1.4 +/- 0.11 microM/mg mitochondrial protein (P < 0.05)]. These results suggest that GPER activation provides a cardioprotective effect after ischemia-reperfusion by inhibiting the mPTP opening, and this effect is mediated by the Erk pathway.

  8. Peptides Derived from a Phage Display Library Inhibit Adhesion and Protect the Host against Infection by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Haroldo C.; Michaloski, Jussara S.; da Silva, Julhiany F.; Scorzoni, Liliana; de Paula e Silva, Ana C. A.; Marcos, Caroline M.; Assato, Patrícia A.; Yamazaki, Daniella S.; Fusco-Almeida, Ana M.; Giordano, Ricardo J.; Mendes-Giannini, Maria J. S.

    2016-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii are dimorphic fungi and are the etiological agents of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Adhesion is one of the most important steps in infections with Paracoccidioides and is responsible for the differences in the virulence of isolates of these fungi. Because of the importance of adhesion to the establishment of an infection, this study focused on the preliminary development of a new therapeutic strategy to inhibit adhesion by Paracoccidioides, thus inhibiting infection and preventing the disease. We used two phage display libraries to select peptides that strongly bind to the Paracoccidioides cell wall to inhibit adhesion to host cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) components (laminin, fibronectin, and type I and type IV collagen). This approach allowed us to identify four peptides that inhibited up to 64% of the adhesion of Paracoccidioides to pneumocytes in vitro and inhibited the adhesion to the ECM components by up to 57%. Encouraged by these results, we evaluated the ability of these peptides to protect Galleria mellonella from Paracoccidioides infection by treating G. mellonella larvae with the different peptides prior to infection with Paracoccidioides and observing larval survival. The results show that all of the peptides tested increased the survival of the larvae infected with P. brasiliensis by up to 64% and by up to 60% in those infected with P. lutzii. These data may open new horizons for therapeutic strategies to prevent PCM, and anti-adhesion therapy could be an important strategy. PMID:28066254

  9. Insulin-mediated inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase protects cardiomyocytes in severe burns.

    PubMed

    Lv, Gen-fa; Dong, Mao-long; Hu, Da-hai; Zhang, Wan-fu; Wang, Yun-chuan; Tang, Chao-wu; Zhu, Xiong-xiang

    2011-01-01

    Thermal injury inhibits Akt activation and upregulates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which in turn induces inflammation and increases apoptosis. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism underlying the cytoprotective role of insulin in severe burns by examining the effects of insulin on inflammation and apoptosis mediated by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in burn serum-challenged cardiomyocytes. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were exposed to burn serum for 6 hours in the presence or absence of insulin and pretreated with inhibitors to p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (SB203580) and Akt (LY294002). The authors examined expression of myocardial tumor necrosis factor-alpha, cardiac myofilament proteins caspase-3 and Bcl2, and apoptosis. Burn serum-induced upregulation of tumor necrosis factor was inhibited by both SB203580 and insulin. LY294002 reversed insulin-mediated downregulation of tumor necrosis factor. Both SB203580 and insulin inhibited apoptosis, resulting in fewer pyknotic nuclei and inhibition of caspase-3 activation and Bcl2 downregulation. LY294002 reversed insulin-mediated inhibition of apoptosis. Insulin decreases inflammatory cytokine expression and apoptosis via PI3K/Akt-mediated inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. The cytoprotective role of insulin suggests that it may have a potential role in strategies for treating thermal injuries.

  10. Carbohydrase inhibition and anti-cancerous and free radical scavenging properties along with DNA and protein protection ability of methanolic root extracts of Rumex crispus

    PubMed Central

    Shiwani, Supriya; Singh, Naresh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The study elucidated carbohydrase inhibition, anti-cancerous, free radical scavenging properties and also investigated the DNA and protein protection abilities of methanolic root extract of Rumex crispus (RERC). For this purpose, pulverized roots of Rumex crispus was extracted in methanol (80% and absolute conc.) for 3 hrs for 60℃ and filtered and evaporated with vacuum rotary evaporator. RERC showed high phenolic content (211 µg/GAE equivalent) and strong 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging (IC50 = 42.86 (absolute methanol) and 36.91 µg/mL (80% methanolic extract)) and reduced power ability. Furthermore, RERC exhibited significant protective ability in H2O2/Fe3+/ascorbic acid-induced protein or DNA damage and percentage inhibition of the HT-29 cell growth rate following 80% methanolic RERC exposure at 400 µg/mL was observed to be highest (10.2% ± 1.03). Moreover, methanolic RERC inhibited α-glucosidase and amylase effectively and significantly (P < 0.05). Conclusively, RERC could be considered as potent carbohydrase inhibitor, anti-cancerous and anti-oxidant. PMID:23198017

  11. Epigallocatechin gallate protects dopaminergic neurons against 1-methyl-4- phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting microglial cell activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Peng, Ning; Du, Fang; Li, Xu-ping; Le, Wei-dong

    2006-04-01

    To observe whether the dopaminergic neuroprotective effect of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is associated with its inhibition of microglial cell activation in vivo. The effects of EGCG at different doses on dopaminergic neuronal survival were tested in a methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium (MPP+)-induced dopaminergic neuronal injury model in the primary mesencephalic cell cultures. With unbiased stereological method, tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) cells were counted in the A8, A9 and A10 regions of the substantia nigra (SN) in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated C57BL/6 mice. The effect of EGCG on microglial activation in the SN was also investigated. Pretreatment with EGCG (1 to 100 micromol/L) significantly attenuated MPP+-induced TH-ir cell loss by 22.2% to 80.5% in the mesencephalic cell cultures. In MPTP-treated C57BL/6 mice, EGCG at a low concentration (1 mg/kg) provided significant protection against MPTP-induced TH-ir cell loss by 50.9% in the whole nigral area and by 71.7% in the A9 region. EGCG at 5 mg/kg showed more prominent protective effect than at 1 or 10 mg/kg. EGCG pretreatment significantly inhibited microglial activation and CD11b expression induced by MPTP. EGCG exerts potent dopaminergic neuroprotective activity by means of microglial inhibition, which shed light on the potential use of EGCG in treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  12. Chronic inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 protects against rotenone-induced cell death in human neuron-like cells by increasing BDNF secretion.

    PubMed

    Giménez-Cassina, Alfredo; Lim, Filip; Díaz-Nido, Javier

    2012-12-07

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a common feature of many neurodegenerative disorders. Likewise, activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) has been proposed to play an important role in neurodegeneration. This multifunctional protein kinase is involved in a number of cellular functions and we previously showed that chronic inhibition of GSK-3 protects neuronal cells against mitochondrial dysfunction-elicited cell death, through a mechanism involving increased glucose metabolism and the translocation of hexokinase II (HKII) to mitochondria. Here, we sought to gain deeper insight into the molecular basis of this neuroprotection. We found that chronic inhibition of GSK-3, either genetically or pharmacologically, elicited a marked increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) secretion, which in turn conferred resistance to mitochondrial dysfunction through subcellular re-distribution of HKII. These results define a molecular pathway through which chronic inhibition of GSK-3 may protect neuronal cells from death. Moreover, they highlight the potential benefits of enhanced neurotrophic factor secretion as a therapeutic approach to treat neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The protective effect of Hif3a RNA interference and HIF-prolyl hydroxylase inhibition on cardiomyocytes under anoxia-reoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Drevytska, T; Gonchar, E; Okhai, I; Lynnyk, O; Mankovska, I; Klionsky, D; Dosenko, V

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) signaling pathway activation in cardiomyocytes under anoxia-reoxygenation (A/R) injury. In this study, rat neonatal cardiomyocytes were pretreated with anti-Hif3A/Hif-3α siRNA or HIF-prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor prior to A/R injury. Our results showed that both HIF3A silencing and HIF-prolyl hydroxylase inhibition effectively increased the cell viability during A/R, led to changes in mRNA expression of HIF1-target genes, and reduced the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ m ). Furthermore, application of anti-Hif3a siRNA led to an increase in mRNA expression of Epo, Igf1, Slc2a1/Glut-1, and Slc2a4/Glut-4. Similar results were observed with HIF-prolyl hydroxylase inhibition, which additionally upregulated the mRNA expression of Epor, Tert, and Pdk1. Hif3a RNA-interference and application of HIF-prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor during A/R modelling led to an increase of Δψ m on 11.5 and 11.9 mV respectively, compared to the control groups. Thus, Hif3a RNA interference and HIF-prolyl hydroxylase inhibition protect cardiomyocytes against A/R injury via the HIF signaling pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway does not protect against ventilator-induced accelerated proteolysis or atrophy in the diaphragm.

    PubMed

    Smuder, Ashley J; Nelson, W Bradley; Hudson, Matthew B; Kavazis, Andreas N; Powers, Scott K

    2014-07-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving intervention in patients with acute respiratory failure. However, prolonged MV results in ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction (VIDD), a condition characterized by both diaphragm fiber atrophy and contractile dysfunction. Previous work has shown that calpain, caspase-3, and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) are all activated in the diaphragm during prolonged MV. However, although it is established that both calpain and caspase-3 are important contributors to VIDD, the role that the UPP plays in the development of VIDD remains unknown. These experiments tested the hypothesis that inhibition of the UPP will protect the diaphragm against VIDD. The authors tested this prediction in an established animal model of MV using a highly specific UPP inhibitor, epoxomicin, to prevent MV-induced activation of the proteasome in the diaphragm (n = 8 per group). The results of this study reveal that inhibition of the UPP did not prevent ventilator-induced diaphragm muscle fiber atrophy and contractile dysfunction during 12 h of MV. Also, inhibition of the UPP does not affect MV-induced increases in calpain and caspase-3 activity in the diaphragm. Finally, administration of the proteasome inhibitor did not protect against the MV-induced increases in the expression of the E3 ligases, muscle ring finger-1 (MuRF1), and atrogin-1/MaFbx. Collectively, these results indicate that proteasome activation does not play a required role in VIDD development during the first 12 h of MV.

  15. Inhibition of Neutrophil Collagenase/MMP-8 and Gelatinase B/MMP-9 and Protection against Endotoxin Shock

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Zheng; Chen, Jianghai; Xu, Hanmei; Van den Steen, Philippe E.; Opdenakker, Ghislain; Wang, Min

    2014-01-01

    Endotoxin shock is a life-threatening disorder, associated with the rapid release of neutrophil enzymes, including neutrophil collagenase/matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) and gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). After activation, these enzymes cleave extracellular matrix components and cytokines and thus may contribute to shock syndrome development. MMP inhibitors have been suggested as immunotherapy of endotoxin shock. However, little is known about the therapeutic time window of MMP inhibition. Here, a sublethal endotoxin shock mouse model was used to evaluate the effect of an MMP inhibiting peptide (P2) after intravenous or intraperitoneal injection and to study the time window between LPS and inhibitor injections. With the use of a specific ELISA the plasma P2 concentrations were monitored. Whereas we corroborated the treatment strategy of MMP targeting in endotoxin shock with a new inhibitor, we also demonstrated that the time window, within which effective MMP inhibition increased the survival rates, is rather limited. PMID:25762310

  16. The kinetics of the phospholipase A2-catalyzed hydrolysis of Egg phosphatidylcholine in unilamellar vesicles. Product inhibition and its relief by serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Kupferberg, J P; Yokoyama, S; Kézdy, F J

    1981-06-25

    Only the lecithin in the outer leaflet (representing 70% of the total) of egg lecithin unilamellar vesicles is hydrolyzed by Crotalus atrox phospholipase A2. Hydrolyzed vesicles remain intact and impermeable to ionic solutes. The fatty acids produced in the hydrolysis remain on the vesicle and are only partially ionized at neutral pH due to electrostatic repulsions. About 40% of the lysolecithin product is desorbed from the vesicle. In the presence of a large excess of bovine serum albumin, the reaction is first order with respect to both the enzyme and the substrate. At 21 degrees C, pH 7.2, I = 0.16 M, and [Ca2+] = 7 mM, the second order rate constant is kex(2) = 1.5 X 10(6) M-1 s-1. In the absence of albumin, the reaction is inhibited competitively by both the monomeric (KIm = 4.5 X 10(-8) M) and micellar (nKIa = 3.7 X 10(-7) M) forms of lysolecithin ([critical micelle concentration] = 4.3 X 10(-6) M). Bovine serum albumin complexes two molecules of lysolecithin with a dissociation constant, Kb = 5 X 10(-8) M. With substoichiometric albumin, the reaction is biphasic, and, when the albumin is saturated with lysolecithin, the kinetics become similar to those observed in the absence of albumin. The action of phospholipase A2 shows that in unilamellar vesicles there is only one major lecithin conformation in the outer leaflet, or that all conformations are rapidly interconvertible.

  17. A novel domain of amino-Nogo-A protects HT22 cells exposed to oxygen glucose deprivation by inhibiting NADPH oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fan; Wang, Huiwen; Li, Liya; Zhou, Heng; Wei, Haidong; Jin, Weilin; Wang, Qiang; Xiong, Lize

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of the M9 region (residues 290-562) of amino-Nogo-A fused to the human immunodeficiency virus trans-activator TAT in an in vitro model of ischemia-reperfusion induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in HT22 hippocampal neurons, and to investigate the role of NADPH oxidase in this protection. Transduction of TAT-M9 was analyzed by immunofluorescence staining and western blot. The biologic activity of TAT-M9 was assessed by its effects against OGD-induced HT22 cell damage, compared with a mutant M9 fusion protein or vehicle. Cellular viability and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release were assessed. Neuronal apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was determined by western blotting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and NADPH oxidase activity were also measured in the presence or absence of an inhibitor or activator of NADPH oxidase. Our results confirmed the delivery of the protein into HT22 cells by immunofluorescence and western blot. Addition of 0.4 μmol/L TAT-M9 to the culture medium effectively improved neuronal cell viability and reduced LDH release induced by OGD. The fusion protein also protected HT22 cells from apoptosis, suppressed overexpression of Bax, and inhibited the reduction in Bcl-2 expression. Furthermore, TAT-M9, as well as apocynin, decreased NADPH oxidase activity and ROS content. The protective effects of the TAT-M9 were reversed by TBCA, an agonist of NADPH oxidase. In conclusion, TAT-M9 could be successfully transduced into HT22 cells, and protected HT22 cells against OGD damage by inhibiting NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative stress. These findings suggest that the TAT-M9 protein may be an efficient therapeutic agent for neuroprotection.

  18. Berberine inhibits macrophage M1 polarization via AKT1/SOCS1/NF-κB signaling pathway to protect against DSS-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunxin; Liu, Xiang; Hua, Weiwei; Wei, Qingyan; Fang, Xianjun; Zhao, Zheng; Ge, Chun; Liu, Chao; Chen, Chen; Tao, Yifu; Zhu, Yubing

    2018-04-01

    Berberine has been reported to have protective effects in colitis treatment. However, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. Herein, we demonstrated that berberine could protect against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice by regulating macrophage polarization. In the colitis mouse model, berberine ameliorated DSS-induced colon shortening and colon tissue injury. Moreover, berberine-treated mice showed significant reduction in the disease activity index (DAI), pro-inflammatory cytokines expression and macrophages infiltration compared with the DSS-treated mice. Notably, berberine significantly reduced the percentage of M1 macrophages. In vitro analysis also confirmed the inhibitory effects of berberine on macrophages M1 polarization in RAW267.4 cells. Further investigation showed that berberine promoted AKT1 expression in mRNA and protein level. Silence of AKT1 abolished the inhibitory effect of berberine on macrophages M1 polarization. The berberine-induced AKT1 expression promoted suppressers of cytokine signaling (SOCS1) activation, which inhibited nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) phosphorylation. In addition, we also found that berberine activated AKT1/SOCS1 signaling pathway but inhibited p65 phosphorylation in macrophages in vivo. Therefore, we concluded that berberine played a regulatory role in macrophages M1 polarization in DSS-induced colitis via AKT1/SOCS1/NF-κB signaling pathway. This unexpected property of berberine may provide a potential explanation for its protective effects in colitis treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationship between haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titres and clinical protection against influenza: development and application of a bayesian random-effects model.

    PubMed

    Coudeville, Laurent; Bailleux, Fabrice; Riche, Benjamin; Megas, Françoise; Andre, Philippe; Ecochard, René

    2010-03-08

    Antibodies directed against haemagglutinin, measured by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay are essential to protective immunity against influenza infection. An HI titre of 1:40 is generally accepted to correspond to a 50% reduction in the risk of contracting influenza in a susceptible population, but limited attempts have been made to further quantify the association between HI titre and protective efficacy. We present a model, using a meta-analytical approach, that estimates the level of clinical protection against influenza at any HI titre level. Source data were derived from a systematic literature review that identified 15 studies, representing a total of 5899 adult subjects and 1304 influenza cases with interval-censored information on HI titre. The parameters of the relationship between HI titre and clinical protection were estimated using Bayesian inference with a consideration of random effects and censorship in the available information. A significant and positive relationship between HI titre and clinical protection against influenza was observed in all tested models. This relationship was found to be similar irrespective of the type of viral strain (A or B) and the vaccination status of the individuals. Although limitations in the data used should not be overlooked, the relationship derived in this analysis provides a means to predict the efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccines when only immunogenicity data are available. This relationship can also be useful for comparing the efficacy of different influenza vaccines based on their immunological profile.

  20. Relationship between haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titres and clinical protection against influenza: development and application of a bayesian random-effects model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Antibodies directed against haemagglutinin, measured by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay are essential to protective immunity against influenza infection. An HI titre of 1:40 is generally accepted to correspond to a 50% reduction in the risk of contracting influenza in a susceptible population, but limited attempts have been made to further quantify the association between HI titre and protective efficacy. Methods We present a model, using a meta-analytical approach, that estimates the level of clinical protection against influenza at any HI titre level. Source data were derived from a systematic literature review that identified 15 studies, representing a total of 5899 adult subjects and 1304 influenza cases with interval-censored information on HI titre. The parameters of the relationship between HI titre and clinical protection were estimated using Bayesian inference with a consideration of random effects and censorship in the available information. Results A significant and positive relationship between HI titre and clinical protection against influenza was observed in all tested models. This relationship was found to be similar irrespective of the type of viral strain (A or B) and the vaccination status of the individuals. Conclusion Although limitations in the data used should not be overlooked, the relationship derived in this analysis provides a means to predict the efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccines when only immunogenicity data are available. This relationship can also be useful for comparing the efficacy of different influenza vaccines based on their immunological profile. PMID:20210985

  1. Edaravone protected PC12 cells against MPP(+)-cytoxicity via inhibiting oxidative stress and up-regulating heme oxygenase-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Baohua; Guo, Yunliang; Li, Chuangang; Ji, Bingyuan; Pan, Yanyou; Chen, Jing; Bai, Bo

    2014-08-15

    Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Edaravone has been shown to have a neuroprotective effect. In the present work, we investigated the effect of edaravone on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-treated PC12 cells. Edaravone inhibited the decrease of cell viability and apoptosis induced by MPP(+) in PC12 cells. In addition, edaravone alleviated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. MPP(+) induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, which was further enhanced by edaravone. The inhibitor of HO-1 zinc protoporphyrin-IX attenuated the neuroprotection of edaravone. So edaravone protected PC12 cells against MPP(+)-cytoxicity via inhibiting oxidative stress and up-regulating HO-1 expression. The data showed that edaravone was neuroprotective and could be potentially therapeutics for PD in future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. HsfA2 Controls the Activity of Developmentally and Stress-Regulated Heat Stress Protection Mechanisms in Tomato Male Reproductive Tissues1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Simm, Stefan; Paupière, Marine Josephine; Theres, Klaus; Bovy, Arnaud; Schleiff, Enrico; Scharf, Klaus-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Male reproductive tissues are more sensitive to heat stress (HS) compared to vegetative tissues, but the basis of this phenomenon is poorly understood. Heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) regulate the transcriptional changes required for protection from HS. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), HsfA2 acts as coactivator of HsfA1a and is one of the major Hsfs accumulating in response to elevated temperatures. The contribution of HsfA2 in heat stress response (HSR) and thermotolerance was investigated in different tissues of transgenic tomato plants with suppressed HsfA2 levels (A2AS). Global transcriptome analysis and immunodetection of two major Hsps in vegetative and reproductive tissues showed that HsfA2 regulates subsets of HS-induced genes in a tissue-specific manner. Accumulation of HsfA2 by a moderate HS treatment enhances the capacity of seedlings to cope with a subsequent severe HS, suggesting an important role for HsfA2 in regulating acquired thermotolerance. In pollen, HsfA2 is an important coactivator of HsfA1a during HSR. HsfA2 suppression reduces the viability and germination rate of pollen that received the stress during the stages of meiosis and microspore formation but had no effect on more advanced stages. In general, pollen meiocytes and microspores are characterized by increased susceptibility to HS due to their lower capacity to induce a strong HSR. This sensitivity is partially mitigated by the developmentally regulated expression of HsfA2 and several HS-responsive genes mediated by HsfA1a under nonstress conditions. Thereby, HsfA2 is an important factor for the priming process that sustains pollen thermotolerance during microsporogenesis. PMID:26917685

  3. Caffeine Inhibits the Activation of Hepatic Stellate Cells Induced by Acetaldehyde via Adenosine A2A Receptor Mediated by the cAMP/PKA/SRC/ERK1/2/P38 MAPK Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wanzhi; Wang, Qi; Zhao, Han; Yang, Feng; Lv, Xiongwen; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation is an essential event during alcoholic liver fibrosis. Evidence suggests that adenosine aggravates liver fibrosis via the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR). Caffeine, which is being widely consumed during daily life, inhibits the action of adenosine. In this study, we attempted to validate the hypothesis that caffeine influences acetaldehyde-induced HSC activation by acting on A2AR. Acetaldehyde at 50, 100, 200, and 400 μM significantly increased HSC-T6 cells proliferation, and cell proliferation reached a maximum at 48 h after exposure to 200 μM acetaldehyde. Caffeine and the A2AR antagonist ZM241385 decreased the cell viability and inhibited the expression of procollagen type I and type III in acetaldehyde-induced HSC-T6 cells. In addition, the inhibitory effect of caffeine on the expression of procollagen type I was regulated by A2AR-mediated signal pathway involving cAMP, PKA, SRC, and ERK1/2. Interestingly, caffeine’s inhibitory effect on the expression of procollagen type III may depend upon the A2AR-mediated P38 MAPK-dependent pathway. Conclusions: Caffeine significantly inhibited acetaldehyde-induced HSC-T6 cells activation by distinct A2AR mediated signal pathway via inhibition of cAMP-PKA-SRC-ERK1/2 for procollagen type I and via P38 MAPK for procollagen type III. PMID:24682220

  4. Inhibition of mTOR complexes protects cancer cells from glutamine starvation induced cell death by restoring Akt stability.

    PubMed

    Khan, Md Wasim; Layden, Brian T; Chakrabarti, Partha

    2018-06-01

    Glutamine, a well-established oncometabolite, anaplerotically fuels mitochondrial energy metabolism and modulates activity of mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complexes (mTOR). Currently, mTOR inhibitors are in clinical use for certain types of cancer but with limited success. Since glutamine is essential for growth of many cancers, we reasoned that glutamine deprivation under conditions of mTOR inhibition should be more detrimental to cancer cell survival. However, our results show that when cells are deprived of glutamine concomitant with mTOR inhibition, hepatocarcinoma cells elicit an adaptive response which aids in their survival due to enhanced autophagic flux. Moreover, inhibition of mTOR promotes Akt ubiquitination and its proteasomal degradation however we show that Akt degradation is abrogated by increased autophagy following glutamine withdrawal. Under conditions of glutamine deficiency and mTOR inhibition, the enhanced stability of Akt protein may provide survival cues to cancer cells. Thus, our data uncovers a novel molecular link between glutamine metabolism, autophagy and stability of Akt with cancer cell survival. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pharmacological inhibition of Src kinase protects against acute kidney injury in a murine model of renal ischemia/reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoxu; Liu, Lirong; Masucci, Monica V.; Tang, Jinhua; Li, Xuezhu; Liu, Na; Bayliss, George; Zhao, Ting C.; Zhuang, Shougang

    2017-01-01

    Activation of Src kinase has been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute brain, liver, and lung injury. However, the role of Src in acute kidney injury (AKI) remains unestablished. To address this, we evaluated the effects of Src inhibition on renal dysfunction and pathological changes in a murine model of AKI induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). I/R injury to the kidney resulted in increased Src phosphorylation at tyrosine 416 (activation). Administration of PP1, a highly selective Src inhibitor, blocked Src phosphorylation, improved renal function and ameliorated renal pathological damage. PP1 treatment also suppressed renal expression of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and reduced apoptosis in the injured kidney. Moreover, Src inhibition prevented downregulation of several adherens and tight junction proteins, including E-cadherin, ZO-1, and claudins-1/−4 in the kidney after I/R injury as well as in cultured renal proximal tubular cells following oxidative stress. Finally, PP1 inhibited I/R–induced renal expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9, phosphorylation of extracellular signal–regulated kinases1/2, signal transducer and activator of transcription-3, and nuclear factor-κB, and the infiltration of macrophages into the kidney. These data indicate that Src is a pivotal mediator of renal epithelial injury and that its inhibition may have a therapeutic potential to treat AKI. PMID:28415724

  6. Dietary α-Mangostin Provides Protective Effects against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice via Akt/mTOR-Mediated Inhibition of Autophagy and Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiao-Tong; Sun, Yin-Shi; Ren, Shen; Zhao, Li-Chun; Liu, Wen-Cong; Chen, Chen; Wang, Zi; Li, Wei

    2018-05-01

    Acetaminophen overdose-induced hepatotoxicity is the most common cause of acute liver failure in many countries. Previously, alpha-mangostin (α-MG) has been confirmed to exert protective effects on a variety of liver injuries, but the protective effect on acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury (ALI) remains largely unknown. This work investigated the regulatory effect and underlying cellular mechanisms of α-MG action to attenuate acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. The increased serum aminotransferase levels and glutathione (GSH) content and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) demonstrated the protective effect of α-MG against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. In addition, α-MG pretreatment inhibited increases in tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) caused by exposure of mice to acetaminophen. In liver tissues, α-MG inhibited the protein expression of autophagy-related microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) and BCL2/adenovirus E1B protein-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3). Western blotting analysis of liver tissues also proved evidence that α-MG partially inhibited the activation of apoptotic signaling pathways via increasing the expression of Bcl-2 and decreasing Bax and cleaved caspase 3 proteins. In addition, α-MG could in part downregulate the increase in p62 level and upregulate the decrease in p-mTOR, p-AKT and LC3 II /LC3 I ratio in autophagy signaling pathways in the mouse liver. Taken together, our findings proved novel perspectives that detoxification effect of α-MG on acetaminophen-induced ALI might be due to the alterations in Akt/mTOR pathway in the liver.

  7. Agmatine protects Müller cells from high-concentration glucose-induced cell damage via N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor inhibition

    PubMed Central

    HAN, NING; YU, LI; SONG, ZHIDU; LUO, LIFU; WU, YAZHEN

    2015-01-01

    Neural injury is associated with the development of diabetic retinopathy. Müller cells provide structural and metabolic support for retinal neurons. High glucose concentrations are known to induce Müller cell activity. Agmatine is an endogenous polyamine, which is enzymatically formed in the mammalian brain and has exhibited neuroprotective effects in a number of experimental models. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether agmatine protects Müller cells from glucose-induced damage and to explore the mechanisms underlying this process. Lactate dehydrogenase activity and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA expression were significantly reduced in Müller cells exposed to a high glucose concentration, following agmatine treatment, compared with cells not treated with agmatine. In addition, agmatine treatment inhibited glucose-induced Müller cell apoptosis, which was associated with the regulation of Bax and Bcl-2 expression. Agmatine treatment suppressed glucose-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) protein in Müller cells. The present study demonstrated that the protective effects of agmatine on Müller cells were inhibited by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA). The results of the present study suggested that agmatine treatment protects Müller cells from high-concentration glucose-induced cell damage. The underlying mechanisms may relate to the anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects of agmatine, as well as to the inhibition of the MAPK pathway, via NMDA receptor suppression. Agmatine may be of use in the development of novel therapeutic approaches for patients with diabetic retinopathy. PMID:25816073

  8. Agmatine protects Müller cells from high-concentration glucose-induced cell damage via N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor inhibition.

    PubMed

    Han, Ning; Yu, Li; Song, Zhidu; Luo, Lifu; Wu, Yazhen

    2015-07-01

    Neural injury is associated with the development of diabetic retinopathy. Müller cells provide structural and metabolic support for retinal neurons. High glucose concentrations are known to induce Müller cell activity. Agmatine is an endogenous polyamine, which is enzymatically formed in the mammalian brain and has exhibited neuroprotective effects in a number of experimental models. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether agmatine protects Müller cells from glucose-induced damage and to explore the mechanisms underlying this process. Lactate dehydrogenase activity and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA expression were significantly reduced in Müller cells exposed to a high glucose concentration, following agmatine treatment, compared with cells not treated with agmatine. In addition, agmatine treatment inhibited glucose-induced Müller cell apoptosis, which was associated with the regulation of Bax and Bcl-2 expression. Agmatine treatment suppressed glucose-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) protein in Müller cells. The present study demonstrated that the protective effects of agmatine on Müller cells were inhibited by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA). The results of the present study suggested that agmatine treatment protects Müller cells from high-concentration glucose-induced cell damage. The underlying mechanisms may relate to the anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects of agmatine, as well as to the inhibition of the MAPK pathway, via NMDA receptor suppression. Agmatine may be of use in the development of novel therapeutic approaches for patients with diabetic retinopathy.

  9. Diphenyl diselenide protects against methylmercury-induced inhibition of thioredoxin reductase and glutathione peroxidase in human neuroblastoma cells: a comparison with ebselen.

    PubMed

    Meinerz, Daiane F; Branco, Vasco; Aschner, Michael; Carvalho, Cristina; Rocha, João Batista T

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), an important environmental toxicant, may lead to serious health risks, damaging various organs and predominantly affecting the brain function. The toxicity of MeHg can be related to the inhibition of important selenoenzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). Experimental studies have shown that selenocompounds play an important role as cellular detoxifiers and protective agents against the harmful effects of mercury. The present study investigated the mechanisms by which diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe) 2 ] and ebselen interfered with the interaction of mercury (MeHg) and selenoenzymes (TrxR and GPx) in an in vitro experimental model of cultured human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y). Our results established that (PhSe) 2 and ebselen increased the activity and expression of TrxR. In contrast, MeHg inhibited TrxR activity even at low doses (0.5 μm). Coexposure to selenocompounds and MeHg showed a protective effect of (PhSe) 2 on both the activity and expression of TrxR. When selenoenzyme GPx was evaluated, selenocompounds did not alter its activity or expression significantly, whereas MeHg inhibited the activity of GPx (from 1 μm). Among the selenocompounds only (PhSe) 2 significantly protected against the effects of MeHg on GPx activity. Taken together, these results indicate a potential use for ebselen and (PhSe) 2 against MeHg toxicity. Furthermore, for the first time, we have demonstrated that (PhSe) 2 caused a more pronounced upregulation of TrxR than ebselen in neuroblastoma cells, likely reflecting an important molecular mechanism involved in the antioxidant properties of this compound. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Modulation of post-stroke degenerative and regenerative processes and subacute protection by site-targeted inhibition of the alternative pathway of complement.

    PubMed

    Alawieh, Ali; Elvington, Andrew; Zhu, Hong; Yu, Jin; Kindy, Mark S; Atkinson, Carl; Tomlinson, Stephen

    2015-12-30

    Complement promotes neuroinflammation and injury in models of stroke. However, complement is also being increasingly implicated in repair and regeneration after central nervous system (CNS) injury, and some complement deficiencies have been shown to provide acute, but not subacute, protection after murine stroke. Here, we investigate the dual role of complement in injury and repair after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. We used complement-deficient mice and different complement inhibitors in a model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion to investigate complement-dependent cellular and molecular changes that occur through the subacute phase after stroke. C3 deficiency and site-targeted complement inhibition with either CR2-Crry (inhibits all pathways) or CR2-fH (inhibits alternative pathway) significantly reduced infarct size, reduced apoptotic cell death, and improved neurological deficit score in the acute phase after stroke. However, only in CR2-fH-treated mice was there sustained protection with no evolution of injury in the subacute phase. Whereas both inhibitors significantly reduced microglia/macrophage activation and astrogliosis in the subacute phase, only CR2-fH improved neurological deficit and locomotor function, maintained neurogenesis markers, enhanced neuronal migration, and increased VEGF expression. These findings in CR2-fH-treated mice correlated with improved performance in spatial learning and passive avoidance tasks. The complement anaphylatoxins have been implicated in repair and regenerative mechanisms after CNS injury, and in this context CR2-fH significantly reduced, but did not eliminate the generation of C5a within the brain, unlike CR2-Crry that completely blocked C5a generation. Gene expression profiling revealed that CR2-fH treatment downregulated genes associated with apoptosis, TGFβ signaling, and neutrophil activation, and decreased neutrophil infiltration was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. CR2-fH upregulated genes for

  11. Degrees of Antioxidant Protection: A 2-Year Study of the Bioactive Properties of Organic Milk in Poland.

    PubMed

    Puppel, Kamila; Sakowski, Tomasz; Kuczyńska, Beata; Grodkowski, Grzegorz; Gołębiewski, Marcin; Barszczewski, Jerzy; Wróbel, Barbara; Budziński, Arkadiusz; Kapusta, Aleksandra; Balcerak, Marek

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional value of organic milk in Poland, investigate the influence of diet on antioxidant capacity and degree of antioxidant protection (DAP), and to examine the effect of season on the bioactive properties of milk from organic farms. From 2014 to 2015, 820 milk samples were collected from 6 organic farms during indoor feeding season (IDS) and pasture feeding season (PS). Pasture feeding season + corn grain (PSCG) cows' daily ration during pasture feeding season was enriched with 4 kg a day of corn to improve dietary energy balance. Milk obtained during PS was found to have a higher fat content, slight but significantly lower protein content compared with milk from IDS. The study showed that the content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in milk fat was strongly linked to the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and, to a lesser extent, on the supply of MUFA. The IDS data (concentration of vitamin E, A, and β-carotene) showed the lowest values compared with the PS and PSCG groups. Total antioxidant status (TAS) and DAP showed an increasing trend in organic milk. PSCG was associated with highest level of DAP (9% higher than PS and 79% higher than IDS) and TAS (37% higher than PS and 79% higher than IDS). The results obtained show that supplementation of the basic ration with corn grain improved both TAS and DAP. The higher DAP and TAS value is responsible for product stability, considering the risk factor related to levels of cholesterol-oxide intake in humans. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. Inhibition of toxic actions of phospholipase A2 isolated & characterized from the Indian Banded Krait (Bungarus fasciatus) venom by synthetic herbal compounds

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Antony; Bhattacharya, Shamik; Mukherjee, Sanghamitra; Inn-ho-Tsai; Gomes, Aparna

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is one of the major constituents of krait venom associated with several pathophysiological actions like myotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity, etc. As there was no specific antiserum available against Bungarus fasciatus venom, this study was done with synthetic herbal compounds, anti PLA2 rabbit antiserum and commercial polyvalent snake venom antiserum to neutralize the PLA2 induced toxicities in experimental models. Methods: B. fasciatus venom phospholipase A2 fraction 38 (BF-38) was isolated by ion exchange chromatography, molecular weight was determined by mass spectrometry and its N terminal amino acid sequence was identified. Monospecific rabbit antiserum was raised against the PLA2 in presence of Freund complete adjuvant. The neutralization of PLA2 induced toxicities was done in in vitro and in in vivo models using synthetic herbal compounds, anti PLA2 rabbit antiserum and commercial polyvalent snake venom antiserum. Results: A toxic PLA2 (BF-38) was purified from the B. fasciatus venom by CM-cellulose and HPLC, of 13.17 kDa and a minor band of 7.3 kDa using ESI-MS. The 13.17 kDa PLA2 sequence was NLYQFKNMIQC. The 7.3 kDa toxin sequence was RKCLTKYSQDNES and was found to be <10 per cent w/w. Anti PLA2 rabbit antiserum produced faint precipitant band in immunogel diffusion and showed low titre value. The commercial polyvalent snake venom antiserum, anti PLA2 rabbit antiserum and the synthetic herbal compounds neutralized the PLA 2 induced toxicities at different intensities. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results suggested that synthetic herbal compound (BA) along with antiserum might provide effective protection against PLA2 induced toxicities of B. fasciatus venom. PMID:22885262

  13. Angiopoietin-1 protects the endothelial cells against advanced glycation end product injury by strengthening cell junctions and inhibiting cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingling; Chen, Lei; Shu, Bin; Tang, Jinming; Zhang, Lijun; Xie, Julin; Liu, Xusheng; Xu, Yingbin; Qi, Shaohai

    2015-08-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is a major characteristic of diabetic vasculopathy. Protection of the vascular endothelium is an essential aspect of preventing and treating diabetic vascular complications. Although Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) is an important endothelial-specific protective factor, whether Ang-1 protects vascular cells undergoing advanced glycation end product (AGE) injury has not been investigated. The aim of the present study was to determine the potential effects of Ang-1 on endothelial cells after exposure to AGE. We show here that Ang-1 prevented AGE-induced vascular leakage by enhancing the adherens junctions between endothelial cells, and this process was mediated by the phosphorylation and membrane localization of VE-cadherin. Furthermore, Ang-1 also protected endothelial cells from AGE-induced death by regulating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt-dependent Bad phosphorylation. Our findings suggest that the novel protective mechanisms of Ang-1 on endothelium are achieved by strengthening endothelial cell junctions and reducing endothelial cell death after AGE injury. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. SIRT1 inhibits NADPH oxidase activation and protects endothelial function in the rat aorta: implications for vascular aging.

    PubMed

    Zarzuelo, María José; López-Sepúlveda, Rocío; Sánchez, Manuel; Romero, Miguel; Gómez-Guzmán, Manuel; Ungvary, Zoltan; Pérez-Vizcaíno, Francisco; Jiménez, Rosario; Duarte, Juan

    2013-05-01

    Vascular aging is characterized by up-regulation of NADPH oxidase, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. Previous studies demonstrate that the activity of the evolutionarily conserved NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 declines with age and that pharmacological activators of SIRT1 confer significant anti-aging cardiovascular effects. To determine whether dysregulation of SIRT1 promotes NADPH oxidase-dependent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and impairs endothelial function we assessed the effects of three structurally different inhibitors of SIRT1 (nicotinamide, sirtinol, EX527) in aorta segments isolated from young Wistar rats. Inhibition of SIRT1 induced endothelial dysfunction, as shown by the significantly reduced relaxation to the endothelium-dependent vasodilators acetylcholine and the calcium ionophore A23187. Endothelial dysfunction induced by SIRT1 inhibition was prevented by treatment of the vessels with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin or superoxide dismutase. Inhibition of SIRT1 significantly increased vascular superoxide production, enhanced NADPH oxidase activity, and mRNA expression of its subunits p22(phox) and NOX4, which were prevented by resveratrol. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) activation mimicked the effects of resveratrol while PPARα inhibition prevented the effects of this SIRT1 activator. SIRT1 co-precipitated with PPARα and nicotinamide increased the acetylation of the PPARα coactivator PGC-1α, which was suppressed by resveratrol. In conclusion, impaired activity of SIRT1 induces endothelial dysfunction and up-regulates NADPH oxidase-derived ROS production in the vascular wall, mimicking the vascular aging phenotype. Moreover, a new mechanism for controlling endothelial function after SIRT1 activation involves a decreased PGC-1α acetylation and the subsequent PPARα activation, resulting in both decreased NADPH oxidase-driven ROS production and NO inactivation. Copyright © 2013

  15. Regulatory T Cells Contribute to the Inhibition of Radiation-Induced Acute Lung Inflammation via Bee Venom Phospholipase A2 in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dasom; Lee, Gihyun; Sohn, Sung-Hwa; Park, Soojin; Jung, Kyung-Hwa; Lee, Ji Min; Yang, Jieun; Cho, Jaeho; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-01-01

    Bee venom has long been used to treat various inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Previously, we reported that bee venom phospholipase A2 (bvPLA2) has an anti-inflammatory effect through the induction of regulatory T cells. Radiotherapy is a common anti-cancer method, but often causes adverse effects, such as inflammation. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of bvPLA2 in radiation-induced acute lung inflammation. Mice were focally irradiated with 75 Gy of X-rays in the lung and administered bvPLA2 six times after radiation. To evaluate the level of inflammation, the number of immune cells, mRNA level of inflammatory cytokine, and histological changes in the lung were measured. BvPLA2 treatment reduced the accumulation of immune cells, such as macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. In addition, bvPLA2 treatment decreased inflammasome-, chemokine-, cytokine- and fibrosis-related genes’ mRNA expression. The histological results also demonstrated the attenuating effect of bvPLA2 on radiation-induced lung inflammation. Furthermore, regulatory T cell depletion abolished the therapeutic effects of bvPLA2 in radiation-induced pneumonitis, implicating the anti-inflammatory effects of bvPLA2 are dependent upon regulatory T cells. These results support the therapeutic potential of bvPLA2 in radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis treatments. PMID:27144583

  16. Genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of phosphodiesterase 10A protects mice from diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Nawrocki, Andrea R; Rodriguez, Carlos G; Toolan, Dawn M; Price, Olga; Henry, Melanie; Forrest, Gail; Szeto, Daphne; Keohane, Carol Ann; Pan, Yie; Smith, Karen M; Raheem, Izzat T; Cox, Christopher D; Hwa, Joyce; Renger, John J; Smith, Sean M

    2014-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of schizophrenia. Here we report a novel role of PDE10A in the regulation of caloric intake and energy homeostasis. PDE10A-deficient mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity (DIO) and associated metabolic disturbances. Inhibition of weight gain is due to hypophagia after mice are fed a highly palatable diet rich in fats and sugar but not a standard diet. PDE10A deficiency produces a decrease in caloric intake without affecting meal frequency, daytime versus nighttime feeding behavior, or locomotor activity. We tested THPP-6, a small molecule PDE10A inhibitor, in DIO mice. THPP-6 treatment resulted in decreased food intake, body weight loss, and reduced adiposity at doses that produced antipsychotic efficacy in behavioral models. We show that PDE10A inhibition increased whole-body energy expenditure in DIO mice fed a Western-style diet, achieving weight loss and reducing adiposity beyond the extent seen with food restriction alone. Therefore, chronic THPP-6 treatment conferred improved insulin sensitivity and reversed hyperinsulinemia. These data demonstrate that PDE10A inhibition represents a novel antipsychotic target that may have additional metabolic benefits over current medications for schizophrenia by suppressing food intake, alleviating weight gain, and reducing the risk for the development of diabetes.

  17. Inhibition of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase 2 Protects Against Hepatic Steatosis Through Modulation of Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Anaplerosis and Ketogenesis.

    PubMed

    Go, Younghoon; Jeong, Ji Yun; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Jeon, Jae-Han; Park, Bo-Yoon; Kang, Hyeon-Ji; Ha, Chae-Myeong; Choi, Young-Keun; Lee, Sun Joo; Ham, Hye Jin; Kim, Byung-Gyu; Park, Keun-Gyu; Park, So Young; Lee, Chul-Ho; Choi, Cheol Soo; Park, Tae-Sik; Lee, W N Paul; Harris, Robert A; Lee, In-Kyu

    2016-10-01

    Hepatic steatosis is associated with increased insulin resistance and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux, but decreased ketogenesis and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) flux. This study examined whether hepatic PDC activation by inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 (PDK2) ameliorates these metabolic abnormalities. Wild-type mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, and increased levels of pyruvate, TCA cycle intermediates, and malonyl-CoA but reduced ketogenesis and PDC activity due to PDK2 induction. Hepatic PDC activation by PDK2 inhibition attenuated hepatic steatosis, improved hepatic insulin sensitivity, reduced hepatic glucose production, increased capacity for β-oxidation and ketogenesis, and decreased the capacity for lipogenesis. These results were attributed to altered enzymatic capacities and a reduction in TCA anaplerosis that limited the availability of oxaloacetate for the TCA cycle, which promoted ketogenesis. The current study reports that increasing hepatic PDC activity by inhibition of PDK2 ameliorates hepatic steatosis and insulin sensitivity by regulating TCA cycle anaplerosis and ketogenesis. The findings suggest PDK2 is a potential therapeutic target for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  18. Cannabidiol protects liver from binge alcohol-induced steatosis by mechanisms including inhibition of oxidative stress and increase in autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lili; Rozenfeld, Raphael; Wu, Defeng; Devi, Lakshmi A.; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Cederbaum, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol drinking induces steatosis, and effective prevention of steatosis can protect liver from progressive damage caused by alcohol. Increased oxidative stress has been reported as one mechanism underlying alcohol-induced steatosis. We evaluated whether cannabidiol, which has been reported to function as an antioxidant, can protect the liver from alcohol-generated oxidative stress-induced steatosis. Cannabidiol can prevent acute alcohol-induced liver steatosis in mice, possibly by preventing the increase in oxidative stress and the activation of the JNK MAPK pathway. Cannabidiol per se can increase autophagy both in CYP2E1-expressing HepG2 cells and in mouse liver. Importantly, cannabidiol can prevent the decrease in autophagy induced by alcohol. In conclusion, these results show that cannabidiol protects mouse liver from acute alcohol-induced steatosis through multiple mechanisms including attenuation of alcohol-mediated oxidative stress, prevention of JNK MAPK activation, and increasing autophagy. PMID:24398069

  19. Protective effects of pioglitazone on vascular endothelial cell dysfunction induced by high glucose via inhibition of IKKα/β-NFκB signaling mediated by PPARγ in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunxiang; Peng, Shaorong; Chen, Fanghui; Liu, Lili; Li, Zhouxue; Zeng, Guohua; Huang, Qiren

    2017-12-01

    PIO, a synthetic ligand for PPARγ, is used clinically to treat T2DM. However, little is known about its protective effects on endothelium and the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we sought to investigate the protective effects of PIO on endothelium and its probable mechanisms: 95% confluent wild type (WT) HUVECs and PPARγ Low -HUVECs that we first injured with HG (33 mmol·L -1 ) were first pretreated with 10 μmol·L -1 of GW9662 for 30 min, and then treated the cells with different concentrations of PIO (5, 10, or 20 μmol·L -1 ) for 24 h. Finally, we measured the levels of NO, ET1, TNFα, and IL6 in the cell culture supernatant. These cells were then used to determine cell viability, caspase3 activity, the levels of IKKα/β mRNA, IKKα/β, and NFκB-p65. Severe dysfunction and activation of IKKα/β-NFκB signaling occurred after we exposed HUVECs to HG. Conversely, treatment with PIO significantly attenuated the dysfunction and the activation of IKKα/β-NFκB signaling induced by HG in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the protective effects of PIO were completely abrogated by GW9662 or down-regulation of PPARγ. Taken together, the results indicate that PIO protects HUVECs against the HG-induced dysfunction through the inhibition of IKKα/β-NFκB signaling mediated by PPARγ.

  20. Renal Protective Role of Xiexin Decoction with Multiple Active Ingredients Involves Inhibition of Inflammation through Downregulation of the Nuclear Factor-κB Pathway in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jia-sheng; Shi, Rong; Zhong, Jie; Lu, Xiong; Ma, Bing-liang; Wang, Tian-ming; Zan, Bin; Ma, Yue-ming; Cheng, Neng-neng; Qiu, Fu-rong

    2013-01-01

    In Chinese medicine, Xiexin decoction (XXD) has been used for the clinical treatment of diabetes for at least 1700 years. The present study was conducted to investigate the effective ingredients of XXD and their molecular mechanisms of antidiabetic nephropathy in rats. Rats with diabetes induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin were treated with XXD extract for 12 weeks. XXD significantly improved the glucolipid metabolism disorder, attenuated albuminuria and renal pathological changes, reduced renal advanced glycation end-products, inhibited receptor for advanced glycation end-product and inflammation factors expression, suppressed renal nuclear factor-κB pathway activity, and downregulated renal transforming growth factor-β1. The concentrations of multiple components in plasma from XXD were determined by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis using partial least square regression revealed that 8 ingredients of XXD were responsible for renal protective effects via actions on multiple molecular targets. Our study suggests that the renal protective role of XXD with multiple effective ingredients involves inhibition of inflammation through downregulation of the nuclear factor-κB pathway, reducing renal advanced glycation end-products and receptor for advanced glycation end-product in diabetic rats. PMID:23935673

  1. Endogeous sulfur dioxide protects against oleic acid-induced acute lung injury in association with inhibition of oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Siyao; Zheng, Saijun; Liu, Zhiwei; Tang, Chaoshu; Zhao, Bin; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2015-02-01

    The role of endogenous sulfur dioxide (SO2), an efficient gasotransmitter maintaining homeostasis, in the development of acute lung injury (ALI) remains unidentified. We aimed to investigate the role of endogenous SO2 in the pathogenesis of ALI. An oleic acid (OA)-induced ALI rat model was established. Endogenous SO2 levels, lung injury, oxidative stress markers and apoptosis were examined. OA-induced ALI rats showed a markedly downregulated endogenous SO2/aspartate aminotransferase 1 (AAT1)/AAT2 pathway and severe lung injury. Chemical colorimetry assays demonstrated upregulated reactive oxygen species generation and downregulated antioxidant capacity in OA-induced ALI rats. However, SO2 increased endogenous SO2 levels, protected against oxidative stress and alleviated ALI. Moreover, compared with OA-treated cells, in human alveolar epithelial cells SO2 downregulated O2(-) and OH(-) generation. In contrast, L-aspartic acid-β-hydroxamate (HDX, Sigma-Aldrich Corporation), an inhibitor of endogenous SO2 generating enzyme, promoted free radical generation, upregulated poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase expression, activated caspase-3, as well as promoted cell apoptosis. Importantly, apoptosis could be inhibited by the free radical scavengers glutathione (GSH) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). The results suggest that SO2/AAT1/AAT2 pathway might protect against the development of OA-induced ALI by inhibiting oxidative stress.

  2. Inhibition of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) protects from secondhand smoke (SHS)-induced intrauterine growth restriction IUGR in mice.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Joshua B; Mejia, Camilo; Jordan, Clinton; Monson, Troy D; Bodine, Jared S; Dunaway, Todd M; Egbert, Kaleb M; Lewis, Adam L; Wright, Tanner J; Ogden, K Connor; Broberg, Dallin S; Hall, Parker D; Nelson, Shawn M; Hirschi, Kelsey M; Reynolds, Paul R; Arroyo, Juan A

    2017-12-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a disease affecting 10% of all pregnancies. IUGR is associated with maternal, fetal, or placental abnormalities. Studies investigating the effects of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and IUGR are limited. The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is a pro-inflammatory transmembrane receptor increased by SHS in the placenta. We tested the hypothesis that inhibition of RAGE during SHS exposure protects from smoke-induced IUGR. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to SHS or SHS + semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan ethers (SAGEs) known to inhibit RAGE signaling. Trophoblast cells were treated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) with or without SAGEs in order to address the effects of RAGE inhibition during trophoblast invasion in vitro. SHS-treated mice demonstrated a significant reduction in fetal weight (7.35-fold, P ≤ 0.0001) and placental weight (1.13-fold, P ≤ 0.0001) compared with controls. Mice co-treated with SHS and SAGEs were protected from SHS-induced fetal weights decreases. SHS treatment of C57BL/6 mice activated placental extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) (3.0-fold, P ≤ 0.05), JNK (2.4-fold, P ≤ 0.05) and p38 (2.1-fold, P ≤ 0.05) and the expression of inflammatory mediators including TNF-α (1.34-fold, P ≤ 0.05) and IL-1β (1.03-fold, P ≤ 0.05). SHS-mediated activation of these molecules was reduced to basal levels when SAGE was co-administered. Invasion of trophoblast cells decreased 92% (P < 0.002) when treated with CSE and CSE-mediated invasion was completely reversed by SAGEs. We conclude that RAGE inhibition protects against fetal weight loss during SHS-induced IUGR. These studies provide insight into tobacco-mediated IUGR development and clarify avenues that may be helpful in the alleviation of placental complications.

  3. 6-Gingerol protects intestinal barrier from ischemia/reperfusion-induced damage via inhibition of p38 MAPK to NF-κB signalling.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanli; Xu, Bin; Xu, Ming; Chen, Dapeng; Xiong, Yongjian; Lian, Mengqiao; Sun, Yuchao; Tang, Zeyao; Wang, Li; Jiang, Chunling; Lin, Yuan

    2017-05-01

    Intestinal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury caused by severe trauma, intestinal obstruction, and operation is one of the tough challenges in clinic. 6-Gingerol (6G), a main active ingredient of ginger, is found to have anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-cancer activities. The present study was designed to characterize the potential protective effects of 6G on rat intestinal I/R injury and reveal the correlated mechanisms. Rat intestinal I/R model was established with clamping the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and 6G was intragastrically administered for three consecutive days before I/R injury. Caco-2 and IEC-6 cells were incubated under hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) conditions to simulate I/R injury in vitro. The results showed that 6G significantly alleviated intestinal injury in I/R injured rats by reducing the generation of oxidative stress and inhibiting p38 MAPK signaling pathway. 6G significantly reduced MDA level and increased the levels of SOD, GSH, and GSH-Px in I/R injured intestinal tissues. 6G significantly decreased the production of proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, and inhibited the expression of inflammatory mediators iNOS/NO in I/R injured intestinal tissues. The impaired intestinal barrier function was restored by using 6G in I/R injured rats and in both Caco-2 and IEC-6 cells characterized by inhibiting p38 MAPK phosphorylation, nuclear translocation of NF-κB, and expression of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) protein. 6G also reduced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both Caco-2 and IEC-6 cells. In vitro transfection of p38 MAPK siRNA mitigated the impact of 6G on NF-κB and MLCK expression, and the results further corroborated the protective effects of 6G on intestinal I/R injury by repressing p38 MAPK signaling. In conclusion, the present study suggests that 6G exerts protective effects against I/R-induced intestinal mucosa injury by inhibiting the formation of ROS and p

  4. Flurbiprofen, a Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor, Protects Mice from Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Inhibiting GSK-3β Signaling and Mitochondrial Permeability Transition

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Hailong; Chen, Huan; Wang, Chengcai; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Fang; Guo, Meng; Wang, Quanxing; Shi, Xueyin

    2012-01-01

    Flurbiprofen acts as a nonselective inhibitor for cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2), but its impact on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains unclear. Mice were randomized into sham, I/R and flurbiprofen (Flurb) groups. The hepatic artery and portal vein to the left and median liver lobes were occluded for 90 min and unclamped for reperfusion to establish a model of segmental (70%) warm hepatic ischemia. Pretreatment of animals with flurbiprofen prior to I/R insult significantly decreased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and prevented hepatocytes from I/R-induced apoptosis/necrosis. Moreover, flurbiprofen dramatically inhibited mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore opening, and thus prevented mitochondrial-related cell death and apoptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that flurbiprofen markedly inhibited glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β activity and increased phosphorylation of GSK-3β at Ser9, which, consequently, could modulate the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT)–cyclophilin D (CyP-D) complex and the susceptibility to MPT induction. Therefore, administration of flurbiprofen prior to hepatic I/R ameliorates mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through inhibition of MPT and inactivation of GSK-3β, and provides experimental evidence for clinical use of flurbiprofen to protect liver function in surgical settings in addition to its conventional use for pain relief. PMID:22714712

  5. High doses of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor inhibit antibody responses in rectal secretions and diminish MVA/SIV vaccine protection in TRIM5α restrictive macaques

    PubMed Central

    Kannanganat, Sunil; Wyatt, Linda S; Gangadhara, Sailaja; Chamcha, Venkateswarlu; Chea, Lynette S.; Kozlowski, Pamela A; LaBranche, Celia C; Chennareddi, Lakshmi; Lawson, Benton; Reddy, Pradeep B. J.; Styles, Tiffany M.; Vanderford, Thomas H; Montefiori, David C; Moss, Bernard; Robinson, Harriet L; Amara, Rama Rao

    2016-01-01

    Here, we test in rhesus macaques the effects of a 500-fold range of an admixed recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) expressing rhesus GM-CSF (MVA/GM-CSF) on the immunogenicity and protection elicited by an MVA/simian immunodeficiency macaque 239 (SIVmac239) vaccine. High doses of the MVA/GM-CSF did not affect the levels of systemic Env-specific Ab but did decrease the expression of the gut homing receptor α4β7 on plasmacytoid dendritic cells (p<0.01) and the magnitudes of Env-specific IgA (p=0.01) and IgG (p<0.05) in rectal secretions. The protective effect of the vaccine was evaluated using 12 weekly rectal challenges in rhesus subgrouped by tripartite motif-containing protein 5α (TRIM5α) genotypes that are restrictive or permissive for infection by the challenge virus, SIVsmE660. Eight of 9 TRIM5α-restrictive animals receiving no, or the lowest dose [1×105 plaque forming units (pfu)] of MVA/GM-CSF resisted all 12 challenges. In the comparable TRIM5α-permissive group only 1 of 12 animals resisted all 12 challenges. In the TRIM5α restrictive, but not permissive animals, the number of challenges to infection directly correlated with the magnitudes of Env-specific rectal IgG (r=0.6) and IgA (r=0.6), the avidity of Env-specific serum IgG (r=0.5), and antibody dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition (r=0.6). Titers of neutralizing Ab did not correlate with protection. We conclude that (i) protection elicited by MVA/SIVmac239 is strongly dependent on the presence of the TRIM5α restriction, (ii) in TRIM5α restrictive animals, non-neutralizing Ab responses contribute to protection against SIVsmE660, and (iii) high doses of co-expressed MVA/GM-CSF inhibit mucosal Ab responses and MVA/SIV239-elicited protection. PMID:27683750

  6. Minocycline and doxycycline, but not other tetracycline-derived compounds, protect liver cells from chemical hypoxia and ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibition of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Justin; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson; Zhang, Xun

    Minocycline, a tetracycline-derived compound, mitigates damage caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here, 19 tetracycline-derived compounds were screened in comparison to minocycline for their ability to protect hepatocytes against damage from chemical hypoxia and I/R injury. Cultured rat hepatocytes were incubated with 50 μM of each tetracycline-derived compound 20 min prior to exposure to 500 μM iodoacetic acid plus 1 mM KCN (chemical hypoxia). In other experiments, hepatocytes were incubated in anoxic Krebs–Ringer–HEPES buffer at pH 6.2 for 4 h prior to reoxygenation at pH 7.4 (simulated I/R). Tetracycline-derived compounds were added 20 min prior to reperfusion. Ca{sup 2+} uptake wasmore » measured in isolated rat liver mitochondria incubated with Fluo-5N. Cell killing after 120 min of chemical hypoxia measured by propidium iodide (PI) fluorometry was 87%, which decreased to 28% and 42% with minocycline and doxycycline, respectively. After I/R, cell killing at 120 min decreased from 79% with vehicle to 43% and 49% with minocycline and doxycycline. No other tested compound decreased killing. Minocycline and doxycycline also inhibited mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uptake and suppressed the Ca{sup 2+}-induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), the penultimate cause of cell death in reperfusion injury. Ru360, a specific inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), also decreased cell killing after hypoxia and I/R and blocked mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uptake and the MPT. Other proposed mechanisms, including mitochondrial depolarization and matrix metalloprotease inhibition, could not account for cytoprotection. Taken together, these results indicate that minocycline and doxycycline are cytoprotective by way of inhibition of MCU. - Highlights: • Minocycline and doxycycline are the only cytoprotective tetracyclines of those tested • Cytoprotective tetracyclines inhibit the MPT and mitochondrial calcium and iron uptake.

  7. Inhibition of proteases and phospholipases A2 from Bothrops atrox and Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venoms by ascorbic acid, vitamin E, and B-complex vitamins.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Carlos H M; Simão, Anderson A; Trento, Marcus V C; César, Pedro H S; Marcussi, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme inhibition by natural and/ or low-cost compounds may represent a valuable adjunct to traditional serotherapy performed in cases of snakebite, mainly with a view to mitigate the local effects of envenoming. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible interactions between vitamins and enzymes that comprise Bothrops atrox and Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, in vitro. Proteolysis inhibition assays (substrates: azocasein, collagen, gelatin and fibrinogen), hemolysis, coagulation, hemagglutination were carried out using different proportions of vitamins in face of to inhibit minimum effective dose of each venom. The vitamins were responsible for reducing 100% of breaking azocasein by C.d.t. venom, thrombolysis induced by B. atrox and fibrinogenolysis induced by both venoms. It is suggested the presence of interactions between vitamin and the active site of enzymes, for example the interactions between hydrophobic regions present in the enzymes and vitamin E, as well as the inhibitions exercised by antioxidant mechanism.

  8. Resveratrol protects against early polymicrobial sepsis-induced acute kidney injury through inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress-activated NF-κB pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Nian; Mao, Li; Yang, Liu; Zou, Jiang; Liu, Ke; Liu, Meidong; Zhang, Huali; Xiao, Xianzhong; Wang, Kangkai

    2017-01-01

    Resveratrol, a polyphenol compound derived from various edible plants, protects against sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) via its anti-inflammatory activity, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, a rat model of sepsis was established by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), 30 mg/kg resveratrol was intraperitoneally administrated immediately after the CLP operation. HK-2 cells treated by 1 μg/ml lipopolysaccharide, 0.2 μM tunicamycin, 2.5 mM irestatin 9389 and 20 μM resveratrol were used for in vitro study. The results demonstrated that resveratrol significantly improved the renal function and tubular epithelial cell injury and enhanced the survival rate of CLP-induced rat model of sepsis, which was accompanied by a substantial decrease of the serum content and renal mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. In addition, resveratrol obviously relieved the endoplasmic reticulum stress, inhibited the phosphorylation of inositol-requiring enzyme 1(IRE1) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the kidney. In vitro studies showed that resveratrol enhanced the cell viability, reduced the phosphorylation of NF-κB and production of inflammatory factors in lipopolysaccharide and tunicamycin-induced HK-2 cells through inhibiting IRE1 activation. Taken together, administration of resveratrol as soon as possible after the onset of sepsis could protect against septic AKI mainly through inhibiting IRE1-NF-κB pathway-triggered inflammatory response in the kidney. Resveratrol might be a readily translatable option to improve the prognosis of sepsis. PMID:28430592

  9. Retinoic Acid Protects Cardiomyocytes from High Glucose-Induced Apoptosis via Inhibition of Sustained Activation of NF-κB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nizamutdinova, Irina T.; Guleria, Rakeshwar S.; Singh, Amar B.; Kendall, Jonathan A.; Baker, Kenneth M.; Pan, Jing

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that retinoic acid (RA) has protective effects on high glucose (HG)-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. To further elucidate the molecular mechanisms of RA effects, we determined the interaction between nuclear factor (NF)-κB and RA signaling. HG induced a sustained phosphorylation of IKK/IκBα and transcriptional activation of NF-κB in cardiomyocytes. Activated NF-κB signaling has an important role in HG-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and gene expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). All-trans RA (ATRA) and LGD1069, through activation of RAR/RXR-mediated signaling, inhibited the HG-mediated effects in cardiomyocytes. The inhibitory effect of RA on NF-κB activation was mediated through inhibition of IKK/IκBα phosphorylation. ATRA and LGD1069 treatment promoted protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity, which was significantly suppressed by HG stimulation. The RA effects on IKK and IκBα were blocked by okadaic acid or silencing the expression of PP2Ac-subunit, indicating that the inhibitory effect of RA on NF-κB is regulated through activation of PP2A and subsequent dephosphorylation of IKK/IκBα. Moreover, ATRA and LGD1069 reversed the decreased PP2A activity and inhibited the activation of IKK/IκBα and gene expression of MCP-1, IL-6 and TNF-α in the hearts of Zucker diabetic fatty rats. In summary, our findings suggest that the suppressed activation of PP2A contributed to sustained activation of NF-κB in HG-stimulated cardiomyocytes; and that the protective effect of RA on hyperglycemia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and inflammatory responses is partially regulated through activation of PP2A and suppression of NF-κB-mediated signaling and downstream targets. PMID:22718360

  10. Calcium spirulan derived from Spirulina platensis inhibits herpes simplex virus 1 attachment to human keratinocytes and protects against herpes labialis.

    PubMed

    Mader, Julia; Gallo, Antonio; Schommartz, Tim; Handke, Wiebke; Nagel, Claus-Henning; Günther, Patrick; Brune, Wolfram; Reich, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Chronic infections with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 are highly prevalent in populations worldwide and cause recurrent oral lesions in up to 40% of infected subjects. We investigated the antiviral activity of a defined Spirulina platensis microalga extract and of purified calcium spirulan (Ca-SP), a sulfated polysaccharide contained therein. The inhibitory effects of HSV-1 were assessed by using a plaque reduction assay and quantitative PCR in a susceptible mammalian epithelial cell line and confirmed in human keratinocytes. Time-of-addition and attachment experiments and fluorescence detection of the HSV-1 tegument protein VP16 were used to analyze the mechanism of HSV-1 inhibition. Effects of Ca-SP on Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpes virus 8 replication and uptake of the ORF45 tegument protein were tested in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. In an observational trial the prophylactic effects of topically applied Ca-SP were compared with those of systemic and topical nucleoside analogues in 198 volunteers with recurrent herpes labialis receiving permanent lip makeup. Ca-SP inhibited HSV-1 infection in vitro with a potency at least comparable to that of acyclovir by blocking viral attachment and penetration into host cells. Ca-SP also inhibited entry of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpes virus 8. In the clinical model of herpes exacerbation, the prophylactic effect of a Ca-SP and microalgae extract containing cream was superior to that of acyclovir cream. These data indicate a potential clinical use of Ca-SP containing Spirulina species extract for the prophylactic treatment of herpes labialis and suggest possible activity of Ca-SP against infections caused by other herpesviruses. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibiting histone deacetylase 6 partly protects cultured rat cortical neurons from oxygen‑glucose deprivation‑induced necroptosis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Liming; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Lihua; Jian, Xiaohong

    2015-08-01

    Necroptosis has an important role in ischemia-reperfusion damage. The expression of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is upregulated in neurons following ischemia-reperfusion, however, whether HDAC6 is closely involved in the necroptosis, which occurs during ischemia-reperfusion damage remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the roles of HDAC6 in the necroptosis of cultured rat cortical neurons were investigated in a oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) model. The results demonstrated that OGD induced marked necroptosis of cultured rat cortical neurons and upregulated the expression of HDAC6 in the cultured neurons, compared with the control (P<0.05). The necroptosis inhibitor, necrostatin-1 (Nec-1), decreased The expression of HDAC6 in the OGD-treated cultured neurons, accompanied by the inhibition of necroptosis. Further investigation revealed that, compared with OGD treatment alone, inhibiting the activity of HDAC6 with tubacin, a specific HDAC6 inhibitor, reduced the OGD-induced necroptosis of the cultured rat cortical neurons (P<0.05), which was similar to the change following treatment with Nec-1 (P>0.05). In addition, inhibiting the activity of HDAC6 reversed the OGD-induced increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the OGD-induced decrease of acetylated tubulin in the cultured rat cortical neurons (P<0.05), compared with the neurons treated with OGD alone). The levels of acetylated tubulin in the cultured neurons following treatment with OGD and tubacin were significantly higher than those in the control (P<0.05). These results suggested that HDAC6 was involved in the necroptosis of neurons during ischemia-reperfusion by modulating the levels of ROS and acetylated tubulin.

  12. JNK1 inhibition by Licochalcone A leads to neuronal protection against excitotoxic insults derived of kainic acid.

    PubMed

    Busquets, Oriol; Ettcheto, Miren; Verdaguer, Ester; Castro-Torres, Ruben D; Auladell, Carme; Beas-Zarate, Carlos; Folch, Jaume; Camins, Antoni

    2018-03-15

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase family (MAPK) is an important group of enzymes involved in cellular responses to diverse external stimuli. One of the members of this family is the c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). The activation of the JNK pathway has been largely associated with the pathogenesis that occurs in epilepsy and neurodegeneration. Kainic acid (KA) administration in rodents is an experimental approach that induces status epilepticus (SE) and replicates many of the phenomenological features of human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Recent studies in our group have evidenced that the absence of the JNK1 gene has neuroprotective effects against the damage induced by KA, as it occurs with the absence of JNK3. The aim of the present study was to analyse whether the pharmacological inhibition of JNK1 by Licochalcone A (Lic-A) had similar effects and if it may be considered as a new molecule for the treatment of SE. In order to achieve this objective, animals were pre-treated with Lic-A and posteriorly administered with KA as a model for TLE. In addition, a comparative study with KA was performed between wild type pre-treated with Lic-A and single knock-out transgenic mice for the Jnk1 -/- gene. Our results showed that JNK1 inhibition by Lic-A, previous to KA administration, caused a reduction in the convulsive pattern. Furthermore, it reduced phosphorylation levels of the JNK, as well as its activity. In addition, Lic-A prevented hippocampal neuronal degeneration, increased pro-survival anti-apoptotic mechanisms, reduced pro-apoptotic biomarkers, decreased cellular stress and neuroinflammatory processes. Thus, our results suggest that inhibition of the JNK1 by Lic-A has neuroprotective effects and that; it could be a new potential approach for the treatment of SE and neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Protective effects of propofol against whole cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats through the inhibition of the apoptosis-inducing factor pathway.

    PubMed

    Tao, Tao; Li, Chun-Lei; Yang, Wan-Chao; Zeng, Xian-Zhang; Song, Chun-Yu; Yue, Zi-Yong; Dong, Hong; Qian, Hua

    2016-08-01

    Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury could cause neural apoptosis that involved the signaling cascades. Cytochrome c release from the mitochondria and the followed activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3 are the important steps. Now, a new mitochondrial protein, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), has been shown to have relationship with the caspase-independent apoptotic pathway. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of propofol through inhibiting AIF-mediated apoptosis induced by whole cerebral I/R injury in rats. 120 Wistar rats that obtained the permission of the animal care committee of Harbin Medical University were randomly divided into three groups: sham group (S group), cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury group (I/R group), and propofol treatment group (P group). Propofol (1.0mg/kg/min) was administered intravenously for 1h before the induction of ischemia in P group. The apoptotic rate in three groups was detected by flow cytometry after 24h of reperfusion. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) changes were detected via microplate reader. The expressions of B-cell leukemia-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) and AIF were evaluated using Western blot after 6h, 24h and 48h of reperfusion. The results of our study showed that apoptotic level was lower in P group compared with I/R group and propofol could protect MMP. The ratio of Bcl-2/Bax was significantly higher in P group compared with I/R group. The translocation of AIF from mitochondrial to nucleus was lower in P group than that in I/R group. Our findings suggested that the protective effects of propofol on cerebral I/R injury might be associated with inhibiting translocation of AIF from mitochondrial to the nucleus in hippocampal neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Inhibition of hypoxia-associated response and kynurenine production in response to hyperbaric oxygen as mechanisms involved in protection against experimental cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Marcele F; Kayano, Ana Carolina A V; Silva-Filho, João Luiz; Dos-Santos, João Conrado K; Judice, Carla; Blanco, Yara C; Shryock, Nathaniel; Sercundes, Michelle K; Ortolan, Luana S; Francelin, Carolina; Leite, Juliana A; Oliveira, Rafaella; Elias, Rosa M; Câmara, Niels O S; Lopes, Stefanie C P; Albrecht, Letusa; Farias, Alessandro S; Vicente, Cristina P; Werneck, Claudio C; Giorgio, Selma; Verinaud, Liana; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Marinho, Claudio R F; Lalwani, Pritesh; Amino, Rogerio; Aliberti, Julio; Costa, Fabio T M

    2018-03-20

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a multifactorial syndrome involving an exacerbated proinflammatory status, endothelial cell activation, coagulopathy, hypoxia, and accumulation of leukocytes and parasites in the brain microvasculature. Despite significant improvements in malaria control, 15% of mortality is still observed in CM cases, and 25% of survivors develop neurologic sequelae for life-even after appropriate antimalarial therapy. A treatment that ameliorates CM clinical signs, resulting in complete healing, is urgently needed. Previously, we showed a hyperbaric oxygen (HBO)-protective effect against experimental CM. Here, we provide molecular evidence that HBO targets brain endothelial cells by decreasing their activation and inhibits parasite and leukocyte accumulation, thus improving cerebral microcirculatory blood flow. HBO treatment increased the expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor over hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (HIF-1α), an oxygen-sensitive cytosolic receptor, along with decreased indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 expression and kynurenine levels. Moreover, ablation of HIF-1α expression in endothelial cells in mice conferred protection against CM and improved survival. We propose that HBO should be pursued as an adjunctive therapy in CM patients to prolong survival and diminish deleterious proinflammatory reaction. Furthermore, our data support the use of HBO in therapeutic strategies to improve outcomes of non-CM disorders affecting the brain.-Bastos, M. F., Kayano, A. C. A. V., Silva-Filho, J. L., Dos-Santos, J. C. K., Judice, C., Blanco, Y. C., Shryock, N., Sercundes, M. K., Ortolan, L. S., Francelin, C., Leite, J. A., Oliveira, R., Elias, R. M., Câmara, N. O. S., Lopes, S. C. P., Albrecht, L., Farias, A. S., Vicente, C. P., Werneck, C. C., Giorgio, S., Verinaud, L., Epiphanio, S., Marinho, C. R. F., Lalwani, P., Amino, R., Aliberti, J., Costa, F. T. M. Inhibition of hypoxia-associated response and kynurenine production in response to hyperbaric oxygen

  15. N-acetyl-L-cysteine protects against cadmium-induced neuronal apoptosis by inhibiting ROS-dependent activation of Akt/mTOR pathway in mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sujuan; Ren, Qian; Zhang, Jinfei; Ye, Yangjing; Zhang, Zhen; Xu, Yijiao; Guo, Min; Ji, Haiyan; Xu, Chong; Gu, Chenjian; Gao, Wei; Huang, Shile; Chen, Long

    2014-01-01

    Aims This study explores the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) in mice exposed to cadmium (Cd). Methods NAC (150 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered to mice exposed to Cd (10-50 mg/L) in drinking water for 6 weeks. The changes of cell damage and death, reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant enzymes, as well as Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in brain neurons were assessed. To verify the role of mTOR activation in Cd-induced neurotoxicity, mice also received a subacute regimen of intraperitoneally administered Cd (1 mg/kg) with/without rapamycin (7.5 mg/kg) for 11 days. Results Chronic exposure of mice to Cd induced brain damage or neuronal cell death, due to ROS induction. Co-administration of NAC significantly reduced Cd levels in the plasma and brain of the animals. NAC prevented Cd-induced ROS and significantly attenuated Cd-induced brain damage or neuronal cell death. The protective effect of NAC was mediated, at least partially, by elevating the activities of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as the level of glutathione in the brain. Furthermore, Cd-induced activation of Akt/mTOR pathway in the brain was also inhibited by NAC. Rapamycin in vitro and in vivo protected against Cd-induced neurotoxicity. Conclusions NAC protects against Cd-induced neuronal apoptosis in mouse brain partially by inhibiting ROS-dependent activation of Akt/mTOR pathway. The findings highlight that NAC may be exploited for prevention and treatment of Cd-induced neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24299490

  16. The protective effect of baicalin against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury through inhibition of inflammation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Miao; Li, Long; Li, Liping; Pokhrel, Gaurab; Qi, Guisheng; Rong, Ruiming; Zhu, Tongyu

    2014-01-13

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) increases the rates of acute kidney failure, delayed graft function, and early mortality after kidney transplantation. The pathophysiology involved includes oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and immune-mediated injury. The anti-oxidation, anti-apoptosis, and anti-inflammation properties of baicalin, a flavonoid glycoside isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis, have been verified. This study therefore assessed the effects of baicalin against renal IRI in rats. Baicalin was intraperitoneally injected 30 min before renal ischemia. Serum and kidneys were harvested 24 h after reperfusion. Renal function and histological changes were assessed. Markers of oxidative stress, the Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 signaling pathway, mitochondrial stress, and cell apoptosis were also evaluated. Baicalin treatment decreased oxidative stress and histological injury, and improved kidney function, as well as inhibiting proinflammatory responses and tubular apoptosis. Baicalin pretreatment also reduced the expression of TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, p-NF-κB, and p-IκB proteins, as well as decreasing caspase-3 activity and increasing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Baicalin may attenuate renal ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting proinflammatory responses and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. These effects are associated with the TLR2/4 signaling pathway and mitochondrial stress.

  17. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 protects against acute myeloid leukemia by suppressing the myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingbo; Cai, Weili; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Xueying; Dong, Wenqian; Tang, Dongqi; Zhang, Yun; Ji, Chunyan; Zhang, Mingxiang

    2015-01-01

    An abnormal expression of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) has been described in many tumors. PARP-1 promotes tumorigenesis and cancer progression by acting on different molecular pathways. PARP-1 inhibitors can be used with radiotherapy or chemotherapy to enhance the susceptibility of tumor cells to the treatment. However, the specific mechanism of PARP-1 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains unknown. Our study showed that expression of PARP-1 was upregulated in AML patients. PARP-1 inhibition slowed AML cell proliferation, arrested the cell cycle, induced apoptosis in vitro and improved AML prognosis in vivo. Mechanistically, microarray assay of AML cells with loss of PARP-1 function revealed that the myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene (MPL) was significantly downregulated. In human AML samples, MPL expression was increased, and gain-of-function and loss-of-function analysis demonstrated that MPL promoted cell growth. Moreover, PARP-1 and MPL expression were positively correlated in AML samples, and their overexpression was associated with an unfavorable prognosis. Furthermore, PARP-1 and MPL consistently acted on Akt and ERK1/2 pathways, and the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic function observed with PARP-1 inhibition were reversed in part via MPL activation upon thrombopoietin stimulation or gene overexpression. These data highlight the important function of PARP-1 in the progression of AML, which suggest PARP-1 as a potential target for AML treatment. PMID:26314963

  18. The protective effect of baicalin against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury through inhibition of inflammation and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) increases the rates of acute kidney failure, delayed graft function, and early mortality after kidney transplantation. The pathophysiology involved includes oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and immune-mediated injury. The anti-oxidation, anti-apoptosis, and anti-inflammation properties of baicalin, a flavonoid glycoside isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis, have been verified. This study therefore assessed the effects of baicalin against renal IRI in rats. Methods Baicalin was intraperitoneally injected 30 min before renal ischemia. Serum and kidneys were harvested 24 h after reperfusion. Renal function and histological changes were assessed. Markers of oxidative stress, the Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 signaling pathway, mitochondrial stress, and cell apoptosis were also evaluated. Results Baicalin treatment decreased oxidative stress and histological injury, and improved kidney function, as well as inhibiting proinflammatory responses and tubular apoptosis. Baicalin pretreatment also reduced the expression of TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, p-NF-κB, and p-IκB proteins, as well as decreasing caspase-3 activity and increasing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Conclusions Baicalin may attenuate renal ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting proinflammatory responses and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. These effects are associated with the TLR2/4 signaling pathway and mitochondrial stress. PMID:24417870

  19. Ebselen protects mitochondrial function and oxidative stress while inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway after acute spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhi-Qiang; Li, San-Qiang; Qiao, Wei-Qiang; Xu, Wen-Zhong; Xing, Jian-Wu; Liu, Jian-Tao; Song, Hui; Gao, Zhong-Yang; Xing, Bing-Wen; He, Xi-Jing

    2018-05-04

    Ebselen is a fat-soluble small molecule and organic selenium compound that regulates the activity of glutathione peroxidase to alleviate mitochondrial oxidative stress and improve mitochondrial function. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of ebselen on mitochondrial oxidative stress response, mitochondrial apotosis, and motor behaviors after spinal cord injury (SCI). We found that ebselen significantly increased the BBB score in motor behavior, thus suggesting a rescue effect of ebselen on motor function after SCI in rats. Meanwhile, we revealed that ebselen can increase glutathione (GSH) content as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities after SCI-this suggests ebselen has an antioxidant effect. Furthermore, the ATP content and Na + -K + -ATPase activity in mitochondria were increased by ebselen after SCI, while the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was decreased by ebselen. The Cytochrome C and Smac release from mitochondria were reduced by ebselen after SCI, thus indicating improved membrane permeability by ebselen. Moreover, the alterations in caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 protein expression, as well as the proportion of cell apoptosis were improved by ebselen treatment, which together suggested that ebselen has an inhibitory effect on mitochondrial apotosis pathways after SCI. Taken together, our results suggest that ebselen can inhibit secondary damage caused by spinal cord injury. Indeed it plays a neuroprotective role in spinal cord injury perhaps by improving mitochondrial function and inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Apigenin-7-diglucuronide protects retinas against bright light-induced photoreceptor degeneration through the inhibition of retinal oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Bian, Minjuan; Zhang, Yong; Du, Xiaoye; Xu, Jing; Cui, Jingang; Gu, Jiangping; Zhu, Weiliang; Zhang, Teng; Chen, Yu

    2017-05-15

    Vision impairment in retinal degenerative diseases such as age-related macular degeneration is primarily associated with photoreceptor degeneration, in which oxidative stress and inflammatory responses are mechanistically involved as central players. Therapies with photoreceptor protective properties remain to be developed. Apigenin-7-diglucuronide (A7DG), a flavonoid glycoside, is present in an assortment of medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory or ant-oxidant activities. However, the pharmacological significance of A7DG remains unknown in vivo. The current study isolated A7DG from Glechoma longituba (Nakai) Kuprian and investigated the retinal protective effect A7DG in mice characterized by bright light-induced photoreceptor degeneration. The results showed that A7DG treatment led to remarkable photoreceptor protection in bright light-exposed BALB/c mice. Moreover, A7DG treatment alleviated photoreceptor apoptosis, mitigated oxidative stress, suppressed reactive gliosis and microglial activation and attenuated the expression of proinflammatory genes in bright light-exposed retinas. The results demonstrated for the first time remarkable photoreceptor protective activities of A7DG in vivo. Inhibition of bright light-induced retinal oxidative stress and retinal inflammatory responses was associated with the retinal protection conferred by A7DG. The work here warrants further evaluation of A7DG as a pharmacological candidate for the treatment of vision-threatening retinal degenerative disorders. Moreover, given the general implication of oxidative stress and inflammation in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration, A7DG could be further tested for the treatment of other neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Protective immunity against influenza in HLA-A2 transgenic mice by modified vaccinia virus Ankara vectored vaccines containing internal influenza proteins.

    PubMed

    Di Mario, Giuseppina; Sciaraffia, Ester; Facchini, Marzia; Gubinelli, Francesco; Soprana, Elisa; Panigada, Maddalena; Bernasconi, Valentina; Garulli, Bruno; Siccardi, Antonio; Donatelli, Isabella; Castrucci, Maria R

    2017-03-01

    The emergence of novel strains of influenza A viruses with hemagglutinins (HAs) that are antigenically distinct from those circulating in humans, and thus have pandemic potential, pose concerns and call for the development of more broadly protective influenza vaccines. In the present study, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) encoding internal influenza antigens were evaluated for their immunogenicity and ability to protect HLA-A2.1 transgenic (AAD) mice from infection with influenza viruses. MVAs expressing NP (MVA-NP), M1 (MVA-M1) or polymerase PB1 (MVA-PB1) of A/California/4/09 (CA/09) virus were generated and used to immunize AAD mice. Antibodies and CD8+T cell responses were assessed by ELISA and ELISPOT, respectively, and challenge experiments were performed by infecting vaccinated mice with CA/09 virus. CD8+T cells specific to immunodominant and subdominant epitopes on the internal influenza proteins were elicited by MVA-based vectors in AAD mice, whereas influenza-specific antibodies were detected only in MVA-NP-immunized mice. Both M1- and NP-based MVA vaccines, regardless of whether they were applied individually or in combination, conferred protection against lethal influenza virus challenge. Our data further emphasize the promising potential of MVA vector expressing internal antigens toward the development of a universal influenza vaccine.

  2. A COMPARISON OF THE METABOLISM OF METHOXYRESORUFIN, ACETANILIDE AND CAFFIENE IN RAT AND HUMAN CYP1A2 SUPERSOMES AND THEIR INHIBITION BY 2, 3, 7, 8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A COMPARISON OF THE METABOLISM OF METHOXYRESORUFIN, ACETANILIDE AND CAFFIENE IN RAT AND HUMAN CYP1A2 SUPERSOMES AND THEIR INHIBITION BY 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD). DF Staskal1, DG Ross2, LS Birnbaum2 and MJ DeVito2 1Curriculum In Toxicology, UNC-CH, Chapel Hill ...

  3. Type I IFN Inhibits Alternative Macrophage Activation during Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection and Leads to Enhanced Protection in the Absence of IFN-γ Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Jeremy; McNab, Finlay W.; Torrado, Egídio; Cardoso, Filipa; Machado, Henrique; Castro, Flávia; Cardoso, Vânia; Gaifem, Joana; Wu, Xuemei; Appelberg, Rui; Castro, António Gil; O’Garra, Anne; Saraiva, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis causes ∼1.5 million deaths every year, thus remaining a leading cause of death from infectious diseases in the world. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that type I IFN plays a detrimental role in tuberculosis pathogenesis, likely by interfering with IFN-γ–dependent immunity. In this article, we reveal a novel mechanism by which type I IFN may confer protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in the absence of IFN-γ signaling. We show that production of type I IFN by M. tuberculosis–infected macrophages induced NO synthase 2 and inhibited arginase 1 gene expression. In vivo, absence of both type I and type II IFN receptors led to strikingly increased levels of arginase 1 gene expression and protein activity in infected lungs, characteristic of alternatively activated macrophages. This correlated with increased lung bacterial burden and pathology and decreased survival compared with mice deficient in either receptor. Increased expression of other genes associated with alternatively activated macrophages, as well as increased expression of Th2-associated cytokines and decreased TNF expression, were also observed. Thus, in the absence of IFN-γ signaling, type I IFN suppressed the switching of macrophages from a more protective classically activated phenotype to a more permissive alternatively activated phenotype. Together, our data support a model in which suppression of alternative macrophage activation by type I IFN during M. tuberculosis infection, in the absence of IFN-γ signaling, contributes to host protection. PMID:27849167

  4. Inhibition of RhoA GTPase and the subsequent activation of PTP1B protects cultured hippocampal neurons against amyloid β toxicity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Amyloid beta (Aβ) is the main agent responsible for the advent and progression of Alzheimer's disease. This peptide can at least partially antagonize nerve growth factor (NGF) signalling in neurons, which may be responsible for some of the effects produced by Aβ. Accordingly, better understanding the NGF signalling pathway may provide clues as to how to protect neurons from the toxic effects of Aβ. Results We show here that Aβ activates the RhoA GTPase by binding to p75NTR, thereby preventing the NGF-induced activation of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) that is required for neuron survival. We also show that the inactivation of RhoA GTPase and the activation of PTP1B protect cultured hippocampal neurons against the noxious effects of Aβ. Indeed, either pharmacological inhibition of RhoA with C3 ADP ribosyl transferase or the transfection of cultured neurons with a dominant negative form of RhoA protects cultured hippocampal neurons from the effects of Aβ. In addition, over-expression of PTP1B also prevents the deleterious effects of Aβ on cultured hippocampal neurons. Conclusion Our findings indicate that potentiating the activity of NGF at the level of RhoA inactivation and PTP1B activation may represent a new means to combat the noxious effects of Aβ in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:21294893

  5. Environmental Enrichment Increases Glucocorticoid Receptors and Decreases GluA2 and Protein Kinase M Zeta (PKMζ) Trafficking During Chronic Stress: A Protective Mechanism?

    PubMed Central

    Zanca, Roseanna M.; Braren, Stephen H.; Maloney, Brigid; Schrott, Lisa M.; Luine, Victoria N.; Serrano, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) housing paradigms have long been shown beneficial for brain function involving neural growth and activity, learning and memory capacity, and for developing stress resiliency. The expression of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit GluA2, which is important for synaptic plasticity and memory, is increased with corticosterone (CORT), undermining synaptic plasticity and memory. Thus, we determined the effect of EE and stress on modulating GluA2 expression in Sprague-Dawley male rats. Several markers were evaluated which include: plasma CORT, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), GluA2, and the atypical protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ). For 1 week standard-(ST) or EE-housed animals were treated with one of the following four conditions: (1) no stress; (2) acute stress (forced swim test, FST; on day 7); (3) chronic restraint stress (6 h/day for 7 days); and (4) chronic + acute stress (restraint stress 6 h/day for 7 days + FST on day 7). Hippocampi were collected on day 7. Our results show that EE animals had reduced time immobile on the FST across all conditions. After chronic + acute stress EE animals showed increased GR levels with no change in synaptic GluA2/PKMζ. ST-housed animals showed the reverse pattern with decreased GR levels and a significant increase in synaptic GluA2/PKMζ. These results suggest that EE produces an adaptive response to chronic stress allowing for increased GR levels, which lowers neuronal excitability reducing GluA2/PKMζ trafficking. We discuss this EE adaptive response to stress as a potential underlying mechanism that is protective for retaining synaptic plasticity and memory function. PMID:26617502

  6. Interferon β protects against avascular osteonecrosis through interleukin 6 inhibition and silent information regulator transcript-1 upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Wagle, Sajeev; Moon, Young Jae; Wang, Sung Il; Park, Byung-Hyun; Jang, Kyu Yun; Kim, Jung Ryul

    2018-01-01

    Synovitis of the affected joint is a common in avascular osteonecrosis (AVN). Increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) have been reported in AVN, but the mechanism of this increase remains unclear. Silent information regulator transcript-1 (SIRT1), an NAD-dependent deacetylase, inhibits the release of inflammatory cytokines. Interferon β (IFN-β) has clear anti-inflammatory properties. We sought to investigate the effects of IFN-β treatment on AVN and to evaluate the specific signal pathway relating to IL-6 and SIRT1 affected during AVN. Using a dissection microscope, AVN was surgically induced in the distal femurs of mice. Exogenous IFN-β was administered to the model mice. The effects of exogenous IFN-β on AVN model mice were assessed using hematoxylin eosin and safranin-O staining, and bone resorption activity was measured using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and CD68 staining. Western blots, real-time RT-PCR, and immunohistochemical staining were performed to evaluate the production of SIRT1 and IL-6 in tissues. The RAW 264.7 cell line and bone marrow derived osteoclasts treated with exogenous IFN-β. Histological findings indicated well preserved trabecular bone and decreased osteoclast bone resorption activity in IFN-β treated mice compared with mice in the AVN group. Treatment with IFN-β increased SIRT1 expression and inhibited secretion of IL-6 in this AVN mouse model. IFN-β decreased IL-6 secretion by activating SIRT1 in the RAW 264.7 cell and bone marrow derived osteoclasts. Our work suggests that IFN-β could be used to treat AVN and that both SIRT1 and IL-6 are useful targets for treating patients with AVN. PMID:29423066

  7. Interferon β protects against avascular osteonecrosis through interleukin 6 inhibition and silent information regulator transcript-1 upregulation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Wagle, Sajeev; Moon, Young Jae; Wang, Sung Il; Park, Byung-Hyun; Jang, Kyu Yun; Kim, Jung Ryul

    2018-01-09

    Synovitis of the affected joint is a common in avascular osteonecrosis (AVN). Increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) have been reported in AVN, but the mechanism of this increase remains unclear. Silent information regulator transcript-1 (SIRT1), an NAD-dependent deacetylase, inhibits the release of inflammatory cytokines. Interferon β (IFN-β) has clear anti-inflammatory properties. We sought to investigate the effects of IFN-β treatment on AVN and to evaluate the specific signal pathway relating to IL-6 and SIRT1 affected during AVN. Using a dissection microscope, AVN was surgically induced in the distal femurs of mice. Exogenous IFN-β was administered to the model mice. The effects of exogenous IFN-β on AVN model mice were assessed using hematoxylin eosin and safranin-O staining, and bone resorption activity was measured using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and CD68 staining. Western blots, real-time RT-PCR, and immunohistochemical staining were performed to evaluate the production of SIRT1 and IL-6 in tissues. The RAW 264.7 cell line and bone marrow derived osteoclasts treated with exogenous IFN-β. Histological findings indicated well preserved trabecular bone and decreased osteoclast bone resorption activity in IFN-β treated mice compared with mice in the AVN group. Treatment with IFN-β increased SIRT1 expression and inhibited secretion of IL-6 in this AVN mouse model. IFN-β decreased IL-6 secretion by activating SIRT1 in the RAW 264.7 cell and bone marrow derived osteoclasts. Our work suggests that IFN-β could be used to treat AVN and that both SIRT1 and IL-6 are useful targets for treating patients with AVN.

  8. Saikosaponin d protects against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity by inhibiting NF-κB and STAT3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Aiming; Tanaka, Naoki; Sun, Lu; Guo, Bin; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Krausz, Kristopher W; Fang, Zhongze; Jiang, Changtao; Yang, Julin; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2014-11-05

    Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) can cause acute liver injury that is sometimes fatal, requiring efficient pharmacological intervention. The traditional Chinese herb Bupleurum falcatum has been widely used for the treatment of several liver diseases in eastern Asian countries, and saikosaponin d (SSd) is one of its major pharmacologically-active components. However, the efficacy of Bupleurum falcatum or SSd on APAP toxicity remains unclear. C57/BL6 mice were administered SSd intraperitoneally once daily for 5days, followed by APAP challenge. Biochemical and pathological analysis revealed that mice treated with SSd were protected against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. SSd markedly suppressed phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and reversed the APAP-induced increases in the target genes of NF-κB, such as pro-inflammatory cytokine Il6 and Ccl2, and those of STAT3, such as Socs3, Fga, Fgb and Fgg. SSd also enhanced the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine Il10 mRNA. Collectively, these results demonstrate that SSd protects mice from APAP-induced hepatotoxicity mainly through down-regulating NF-κB- and STAT3-mediated inflammatory signaling. This study unveils one of the possible mechanisms of hepatoprotection caused by Bupleurum falcatum and/or SSd. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The protective role of Bax Inhibitor-1 against chronic mild stress through the inhibition of monoamine oxidase A

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Lee, Geum-Hwa; Marahatta, Anu; Lin, Shun-Mei; Lee, Mi-Rin; Jang, Kyu Yun; Kim, Kyung Min; Lee, Hee Jae; Lee, Jae-Won; Bagalkot, Tarique Rajasaheb; Chung, Young-Chul; Lee, Yong-Chul; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han-Jung

    2013-01-01

    The anti-apoptotic protein Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) is a regulator of apoptosis linked to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. It has been hypothesized that BI-1 protects against neuron degenerative diseases. In this study, BI-1−/− mice showed increased vulnerability to chronic mild stress accompanied by alterations in the size and morphology of the hippocampi, enhanced ROS accumulation and an ER stress response compared with BI-1+/+ mice. BI-1−/− mice exposed to chronic mild stress showed significant activation of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), but not MAO-B, compared with BI-1+/+ mice. To examine the involvement of BI-1 in the Ca2+-sensitive MAO activity, thapsigargin-induced Ca2+ release and MAO activity were analyzed in neuronal cells overexpressing BI-1. The in vitro study showed that BI-1 regulates Ca2+ release and related MAO-A activity. This study indicates an endogenous protective role of BI-1 under conditions of chronic mild stress that is primarily mediated through Ca2+-associated MAO-A regulation. PMID:24292328

  10. Resveratrol protects against arsenic trioxide-induced oxidative damage through maintenance of glutathione homeostasis and inhibition of apoptotic progression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chengzhi; Jiang, Xuejun; Lai, Yanhao; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Zunzhen

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is commonly used to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia and solid tumors. However, the clinical application of the agent is limited by its cyto- and genotoxic effects on normal cells. Thus, relief of As2O3 toxicity in normal cells is essentially necessary for improvement of As2O3-mediated chemotherapy. In this study, we have identified a series of protective effects of resveratrol against As2O3-induced oxidative damage in normal human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. We showed that treatment of HBE cells with resveratrol significantly reduced cellular levels of DNA damage, chromosomal breakage and apoptosis induced by As2O3. The effect of resveratrol against DNA damage was associated with a decreased level of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation in cells treated by As2O3, suggesting that resveratrol protects against As2O3 toxicity via a cellular anti-oxidative stress pathway. Further analysis of the roles of resveratrol demonstrated that it modulated biosynthesis, recycling and consumption of glutathione (GSH), thereby promoting GSH homeostasis in HBE cells treated by As2O3. This was further supported by results showing that resveratrol prevented an increase in the activities and levels of caspases, Fas, Fas-L and cytochrome c proteins induced by As2O3. Our study indicates that resveratrol relieves As2O3-induced oxidative damage in normal human lung cells via maintenance of GSH homeostasis and suppression of apoptosis. PMID:25339131

  11. Baicalin Protects the Cardiomyocytes from ER Stress-Induced Apoptosis: Inhibition of CHOP through Induction of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Guo, Xiaowang; Zeng, Chao; Xu, Yong; Shen, Liangliang; Cheng, Ke; Xia, Yuesheng; Li, Xiumin; Wang, Haichang; Fan, Li; Wang, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Baicalin, the main active ingredient of the Scutellaria root, exerts anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic effects in cardiovascular diseases. However, the therapeutic mechanism of baicalin remains unknown. Cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were pre-treated with baicalin (0–50 µM) for 24 h, and subsequently treated with tunicamycin (100 ng/ml). Cell viability was detected by MTT assay, and cell damage was determined by LDH release and TUNEL assay. The expression of CHOP, JNK, caspase-3, eNOS was analyzed by western blot. NO was measured by DAF-FM staining. As a result, treatment with baicalin significantly reduced apoptosis induced by ER stress inducer tunicamycin in cardiomyocytes. Molecularly, baicalin ameliorated tunicamycin-induced ER stress by downregulation of CHOP. In addition, baicalin inverted tunicamycin-induced decreases of eNOS mRNA and protein levels, phospho eNOS and NO production through CHOP pathway. However, the protective effects of baicalin were significantly decreased in cardiomyocytes treated with L-NAME, which suppressed activation of nitric oxide synthase. In conclusion, our results implicate that baicalin could protect cardiomyocytes from ER stress-induced apoptosis via CHOP/eNOS/NO pathway, and suggest the therapeutic values of baicalin against ER stress-associated cardiomyocyte apoptosis. PMID:24520378

  12. Shikonin protects dopaminergic cell line PC12 against 6-hydroxydopamine-mediated neurotoxicity via both glutathione-dependent and independent pathways and by inhibiting apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Esmaeilzadeh, Emran; Gardaneh, Mossa; Gharib, Ehsan; Sabouni, Farzaneh

    2013-08-01

    We have investigated the mechanism of shikonin function on protection of dopaminergic neurons against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity. Treatment of rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC12 by serial dilutions of shikonin determined 10 μM of the compound as its optimum concentration for protection saving nearly 70 % of the cells against toxicity. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis of shikonin-treated cells showed threefold increase in mRNA levels of glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX-1) as a representative component of the intracellular anti-oxidant defense system. To elucidate shikonin-GPX1 relationships and maximize protection, we transduced PC12 cells using recombinant lentivirus vectors that harbored GPX-1 coding sequence. This change upregulated GPX-1 expression, increased peroxidase activity and made neuronal cells resistant to 6-OHDA-mediated toxicity. More importantly, addition of shikonin to GPX1-overexpressing PC12 cells augmented GPX-1 protein content by eightfold leading to fivefold increase of enzymatic activity, 91 % cell survival against neurotoxicity and concomitant increases in intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels. Depletion of intracellular GSH rendered all cell groups highly susceptible to toxicity; however, shikonin was capable of partially saving them. Subsequently, GSH-independent superoxide dismutase mRNA was found upregulated by shikonin. As signs of apoptosis inhibition, the compound upregulated Bcl-2, downregulated Bax, and prevented cell nuclei from undergoing morphological changes typical of apoptosis. Also, a co-staining method demonstrated GPX-1 overexpression significantly increases the percent of live cells that is maximized by shikonin treatment. Our data indicate that shikonin as an antioxidant compound protects dopaminergic neurons against 6-OHDA toxicity and enhances their survival via both glutathione-dependent and direct anti-apoptotic pathways.

  13. EGCG protects endothelial cells against PCB 126-induced inflammation through inhibition of AhR and induction of Nrf2-regulated genes

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Sung Gu; Department of Animal and Food Sciences, College of Agriculture, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536; Han, Seong-Su

    Tea flavonoids such as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) protect against vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis via their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. Persistent and widespread environmental pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), can induce oxidative stress and inflammation in vascular endothelial cells. Even though PCBs are no longer produced, they are still detected in human blood and tissues and thus considered a risk for vascular dysfunction. We hypothesized that EGCG can protect endothelial cells against PCB-induced cell damage via its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. To test this hypothesis, primary vascular endothelial cells were pretreated with EGCG, followed by exposure to the coplanar PCBmore » 126. Exposure to PCB 126 significantly increased cytochrome P450 1A1 (Cyp1A1) mRNA and protein expression and superoxide production, events which were significantly attenuated following pretreatment with EGCG. Similarly, EGCG also reduced DNA binding of NF-κB and downstream expression of inflammatory markers such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and vascular cell adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1) after PCB exposure. Furthermore, EGCG decreased endogenous or base-line levels of Cyp1A1, MCP-1 and VCAM-1 in endothelial cells. Most of all, treatment of EGCG upregulated expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-controlled antioxidant genes, including glutathione S transferase (GST) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, silencing of Nrf2 increased Cyp1A1, MCP-1 and VCAM-1 and decreased GST and NQO1 expression, respectively. These data suggest that EGCG can inhibit AhR regulated genes and induce Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzymes, thus providing protection against PCB-induced inflammatory responses in endothelial cells. -- Highlights: ► PCBs cause endothelial inflammation and subsequent atherosclerosis. ► Nutrition can modulate toxicity by environmental pollutants.

  14. Stimulation or Inhibition Conflicting evidence for (±)-catechin’s role as a chemical facilitator and disease protecting agent

    PubMed Central

    Venkatachalam, L; Biedrzycki, Meredith L

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of plant hormesis is a poorly understood phenomenon, wherein low doses of phytotoxins unusually promote growth responses in higher plants. In contrast, negative plant-plant interactions mediated through secreted small molecular weight compounds initiate growth inhibitory responses. Studies related to (±)-catechin mediated allelopathy have transpired both novel information and generated significant controversy. Specifically, studies related to the phytotoxicity responses mediated by (±)-catechins have been seriously debated. The pronged opinion that (±)-catechin is phytotoxic versus non-phytotoxic relies more on the target plant systems and the conditions used to test phytotoxic responses. It is reported that lower than MIC dosage supplementation of (±)-catechin could promote growth responses in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Furthermore, it was shown that sub-MIC levels of (±)-catechin supplementation leads to elicitation of disease resistance against Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 (hereafter DC3000). Intrigued by the unique hormesis response observed, we tested whether (±)-catechin indeed promotes growth responses in A. thaliana. In our hands, we observed no growth promotion responses of (±)-catechin against A. thaliana under in vitro or in soil conditions. We also evaluated the previously reported disease protecting properties of (±)-catechin in A. thaliana against DC3000. The systematic observations to evaluate disease protecting properties entailing colony counts, disease incidences and loss of chlorophyll studies showed no disease protecting properties of (±)-catechin. The transcriptional response for a marker pathogenesis related PR1 defense gene showed no induction post (±)-catechin supplementation. The cell death genes (AC D2 and CA D1) associated with programmed cell death revealed unchanged expression levels in plants treated with sub-MIC levels of (±)-catechin. Further, we report supplementation of sub-MIC levels of (

  15. Resveratrol induces dynamic changes to the microglia transcriptome, inhibiting inflammatory pathways and protecting against microglia-mediated photoreceptor apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, Johanna; Rashid, Khalid; Langmann, Thomas

    2018-06-18

    Microglia activation is central to the pathophysiology of retinal degenerative disorders. Resveratrol, a naturally occurring non-flavonoid phenolic compound present in red wine has potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. However, molecular mechanisms by which resveratrol influences microglial inflammatory pathways and housekeeping functions remain unclear. Here, we first studied the immuno-modulatory effects of resveratrol on BV-2 microglial cells at the transcriptome level using DNA-microarrays and selected qRT-PCR analyses. We then analyzed resveratrol effects on microglia morphology, phagocytosis and migration and estimated their neurotoxicity on 661 W photoreceptors by quantification of caspase 3/7 levels. We found that resveratrol effectively blocked gene expression of a broad spectrum of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory molecules, including cytokines and complement proteins. These transcriptomic changes were accompanied by potent inhibition of LPS-induced nitric oxide secretion and reduced microglia-mediated apoptosis of 661 W photoreceptor cultures. Our findings highlight novel targets involved in the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective action of resveratrol against neuroinflammatory responses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Corrosion behaviour of tinplate cans in contact with tomato purée and protective (inhibiting) substances.

    PubMed

    Nincević Grassino, A; Grabarić, Z; Pezzani, A; Squitieri, G; Fasanaro, G; Impembo, M

    2009-11-01

    The dissolution of iron and tin from tinplate cans filled with tomato purée (pH 4.34) and dioctyl sebacate oil (DOS), essential onion oil (EOO) or potassium nitrate was studied using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), while nitrate was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The maximum values found in cans were up to 284 mg kg(-1) for tin and 513 mg kg(-1) for iron at elevated storage temperature. Results indicated that the addition of EOO to tomato purée prevents the corrosion process in the case of tin, where concentrations were lowered from 223 to 28 mg kg(-1) for cans with DOS oil and EOO at 20 degrees C, respectively (inhibition rate of 87%). On the other hand, the presence of EOO enhanced the corrosion process for iron increasing the concentration from 15 to 46 mg kg(-1) during 7 months of storage, although this value did not exceed maximum permitted value (50 mg kg(-1)). In cans with tomato purée and potassium nitrate, dissolution of tin started after 30 (36 degrees C) and 60 (20 degrees C) days of storage as a consequence of nitrate action, which act as a corrosion accelerator. Since the addition of EOO improves the taste of canned tomato purée, its potential use as a corrosion inhibitor would be of interest.

  17. Arctigenin protects against ultraviolet-A-induced damage to stemness through inhibition of the NF-κB/MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Park, See-Hyoung; Cho, Jae Youl; Oh, Sae Woong; Kang, Mingyeong; Lee, Seung Eun; Yoo, Ju Ah; Jung, Kwangseon; Lee, Jienny; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Jongsung

    2018-02-25

    The stemness of stem cells is negatively affected by ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation. This study was performed to examine the effects of arctigenin on UVA-irradiation-induced damage to the stemness of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) derived from adipose tissue. The mechanisms of action of arctigenin were also investigated. A BrdU-incorporation assay demonstrated that arctigenin attenuated the UVA-induced reduction of the cellular proliferative potential. Arctigenin also increased the UVA-induced reduction in stemness of hMSCs by upregulating stemness-related genes such as SOX2, OCT4, and NANOG. In addition, the UVA-induced reduction in the mRNA expression level of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α was significantly recovered by arctigenin. The antagonizing effect of arctigenin on UVA irradiation was mediated by reduced PGE 2 production through the inhibition of MAPKs (p42/44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, and JNK) and NF-κB. Overall, these findings suggest that arctigenin can ameliorate the reduced stemness of hMSCs induced by UVA irradiation. The effects of arctigenin are mediated by PGE 2 -cAMP signaling-dependent upregulation of HIF-1α. Therefore, arctigenin could be used as an antagonist to attenuate the effects of UVA irradiation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Antiurolithiatic Potential of Neeri against Calcium-Oxalate Stones by Crystallization Inhibition, Free Radicals Scavenging, and NRK-52E Cell Protection from Oxalate Injury.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Parveen Kumar; Verma, Santosh Kumar; Sharma, Anil Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Neeri is a well-established polyherbal formulation prescribed for renal stones by the physicians but has not been experimentally evaluated for its antiurolithiatic potential using cell-lines. This study is aimed to scientifically substantiate the antiurolithiatic effect of Neeri extract (NRE) through calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization inhibition, scavenging of free radicals, and protection of renal tubular epithelial NRK-52E cells from oxalate-induced injury. The crystallization inhibition was studied by turbidimetric assay while the free radical scavenging potential was determined for superoxide and nitric oxide (NO) radicals. The cytoprotective effect against oxalate-induced injury was assessed by estimating lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and determining cell viability using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. NRE significantly inhibited the CaOx crystallization in a concentration-dependent manner and also scavenged superoxide (IC 50 302.88 μg/ml) and NO (IC 50 300.45 μg/ml) free radicals. It did not show any significant cytotoxicity for NRK-52E cells till the highest dose (500 μg/ml) and found to be safe. When NRK-52E cells, injured by exposing to oxalate crystals for 24 h, were treated with NRE, it appreciably prevented the cell injury in a dose-dependent manner. It significantly decreased the elevated LDH leakage toward normal range and improved renal cell viability (82.37% ± 0.87%), hence, prevented growth and retention of crystals. The experimental findings concluded that Neeri is a potent antiurolithiatic formulation that inhibited CaOx crystallization and prevented tubular retention of crystals by protecting the renal cells against oxalate-induced injury as well as reducing the oxidative stress by scavenging free radicals. Neeri extract significantly ( P < 0.001) inhibited the in vitro crystallization (88.11% ± 7.70%) of calcium oxalateIt reduced oxidative stress by scavenging superoxide and nitric oxide free

  19. Deletion or Inhibition of the Oxygen Sensor PHD1 Protects against Ischemic Stroke via Reprogramming of Neuronal Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Quaegebeur, Annelies; Segura, Inmaculada; Schmieder, Roberta; Verdegem, Dries; Decimo, Ilaria; Bifari, Francesco; Dresselaers, Tom; Eelen, Guy; Ghosh, Debapriva; Davidson, Shawn M; Schoors, Sandra; Broekaert, Dorien; Cruys, Bert; Govaerts, Kristof; De Legher, Carla; Bouché, Ann; Schoonjans, Luc; Ramer, Matt S; Hung, Gene; Bossaert, Goele; Cleveland, Don W; Himmelreich, Uwe; Voets, Thomas; Lemmens, Robin; Bennett, C Frank; Robberecht, Wim; De Bock, Katrien; Dewerchin, Mieke; Ghesquière, Bart; Fendt, Sarah-Maria; Carmeliet, Peter

    2016-02-09

    The oxygen-sensing prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins (PHDs) regulate cellular metabolism, but their role in neuronal metabolism during stroke is unknown. Here we report that PHD1 deficiency provides neuroprotection in a murine model of permanent brain ischemia. This was not due to an increased collateral vessel network. Instead, PHD1(-/-) neurons were protected against oxygen-nutrient deprivation by reprogramming glucose metabolism. Indeed, PHD1(-/-) neurons enhanced glucose flux through the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway by diverting glucose away from glycolysis. As a result, PHD1(-/-) neurons increased their redox buffering capacity to scavenge oxygen radicals in ischemia. Intracerebroventricular injection of PHD1-antisense oligonucleotides reduced the cerebral infarct size and neurological deficits following stroke. These data identify PHD1 as a regulator of neuronal metabolism and a potential therapeutic target in ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. DELETION OR INHIBITION OF THE OXYGEN SENSOR PHD1 PROTECTS AGAINST ISCHEMIC STROKE VIA REPROGRAMMING OF NEURONAL METABOLISM

    PubMed Central

    Quaegebeur, Annelies; Segura, Inmaculada; Schmieder, Roberta; Verdegem, Dries; Decimo, Ilaria; Bifari, Francesco; Dresselaers, Tom; Eelen, Guy; Ghosh, Debapriva; Schoors, Sandra; Janaki Raman, Sudha Rani; Cruys, Bert; Govaerts, Kristof; De Legher, Carla; Bouché, Ann; Schoonjans, Luc; Ramer, Matt S.; Hung, Gene; Bossaert, Goele; Cleveland, Don W.; Himmelreich, Uwe; Voets, Thomas; Lemmens, Robin; Bennett, C. Frank; Robberecht, Wim; De Bock, Katrien; Dewerchin, Mieke; Fendt, Sarah-Maria; Ghesquière, Bart; Carmeliet, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Summary The oxygen-sensing prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins (PHDs) regulate cellular metabolism, but their role in neuronal metabolism during stroke is unknown. Here we report that PHD1 deficiency provides neuroprotection in a murine model of permanent brain ischemia. This was not due to an increased collateral vessel network, nor to enhanced neurotrophin expression. Instead, PHD1−/− neurons were protected against oxygen-nutrient deprivation by reprogramming glucose metabolism. Indeed, PHD1−/− neurons enhanced glucose flux through the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway by diverting glucose from glycolysis. As a result, PHD1−/− neurons increased their redox buffering capacity to scavenge oxygen radicals in ischemia. Intracerebroventricular injection of PHD1-antisense oligonucleotides reduced the cerebral infarct size and neurological deficits following stroke. These data identify PHD1 as a novel regulator of neuronal metabolism and a potential therapeutic target in ischemic stroke. PMID:26774962

  1. L-Ascorbate Protects Against Methamphetamine-Induced Neurotoxicity of Cortical Cells via Inhibiting Oxidative Stress, Autophagy, and Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Ni; Yang, Ling-Yu; Wang, Jing-Ya; Lai, Chien-Cheng; Chiu, Chien-Tsai; Wang, Jia-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH)-induced cell death contributes to the pathogenesis of neurotoxicity; however, the relative roles of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and autophagy remain unclear. L-Ascorbate, also called vitamin (Vit.) C, confers partial protection against METH neurotoxicity via induction of heme oxygenase-1. We further investigated the role of Vit. C in METH-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis, and autophagy in cortical cells. Exposure to lower concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1 mM) of METH had insignificant effects on ROS production, whereas cells exposed to 5 mM METH exhibited ROS production in a time-dependent manner. We confirmed METH-induced apoptosis (by nuclear morphology revealed by Hoechst 33258 staining and Western blot showing the protein levels of pro-caspase 3 and cleaved caspase 3) and autophagy (by Western blot showing the protein levels of Belin-1 and conversion of microtubule-associated light chain (LC)3-I to LC3-II and autophagosome staining by monodansylcadaverine). The apoptosis as revealed by cleaved caspase-3 expression marked an increase at 18 h after METH exposure while both autophagic markers, Beclin 1 and LC3-II, marked an increase in cells exposed to METH for 6 and 24 h, respectively. Treating cells with Vit. C 30 min before METH exposure time-dependently attenuated the production of ROS. Vitamin C also attenuated METH-induced Beclin 1 and LC3-II expression and METH toxicity. Treatment of cells with Vit. C before METH exposure attenuated the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and reduced the number of METH-induced apoptotic cells. We suggest that the protective effect of Vit. C against METH toxicity might be through attenuation of ROS production, autophagy, and apoptosis.

  2. Xue-fu-Zhu-Yu decoction protects rats against retinal ischemia by downregulation of HIF-1α and VEGF via inhibition of RBP2 and PKM2.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shu-Qiu; Geng, Xue; Liu, Jorn-Hon; Pan, Wynn Hwai-Tzong; Wang, Li-Xiang; Liu, Hui-Kang; Hu, Lei; Chao, Hsiao-Ming

    2017-07-14

    Retinal ischemia-related eye diseases result in visual dysfunction. This study investigates the protective effects and mechanisms of Xue-Fu-Zhu-Yu decoction (XFZYD) with respect to retinal ischemia. Retinal ischemia (I) was induced in Wistar rats by a high intraocular pressure (HIOP) of 120 mmHg for 1 h, which was followed by reperfusion of the ischemic eye; the fellow untreated eye acted as a control. Electroretinogram (ERG), biochemistry and histopathology investigations were performed. Significant ischemic changes occurred after ischemia including decreased ERG b-wave ratios, less numerous retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), reduced inner retinal thickness, fewer choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) labeled amacrine cell bodies, increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity and increased vimentin Müller immunolabeling. These were accompanied by significant increases in the mRNA/protein concentrations of vascular endothelium growth factor, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, pyruvate kinase M2 and retinoblastoma-binding protein 2. The ischemic changes were concentration-dependently and significantly altered when XFZYD was given for seven consecutive days before or after retina ischemia, compared to vehicle. These alterations included enhanced ERG b-wave amplitudes, more numerous RGCs, enhanced inner retinal thickness, a greater number of ChAT immunolabeled amacrine cell bodies and decreased GFAP/vimentin immunoreactivity. Furthermore, decreased mRNA levels of VEGF, HIF-1α, PKM2, and RBP2 were also found. Reduced protein concentrations of VEGF, HIF-1α, PKM2, and RBP2 were also demonstrated. Furthermore, there was an inhibition of the ischemia-associated increased ratios (target protein/β-actin) in the protein levels of VEGF, HIF-1α, PKM2, and RBP2, which were induced by Shikonin, JIB-04 or Avastin. XFZYD would seem to protect against well-known retinal ischemic changes via a synergistic inhibition of RBP2 and PKM2, as well as down-regulation of HIF-1

  3. Volatile anesthetic post-treatment induces protection via inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β in human neuron-like cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, D; Li, G; Zuo, Z

    2011-04-14

    Application of the volatile anesthetic isoflurane during the early phase of reperfusion reduces ischemic heart and brain injury (anesthetic post-conditioning). We hypothesize that inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), a protein whose activation can lead to cell death, participates in anesthetic post-conditioning-induced neuroprotection. SH-SY5Y cells, a human neuroblastoma cell line, were induced by retinoic acid to differentiate into terminal neuron-like cells. The cells were then subjected to a 1-h oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), a condition to simulate ischemia in vitro, and a 20-h simulated reperfusion. Isoflurane, sevoflurane or desflurane, three commonly used volatile anesthetics, were applied for 1 h during the early phase of simulated reperfusion. Cell injury was quantified by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Phospho-GSK3β at Ser9 and total GSK3β were quantified at 1 or 3 h after the OGD. OGD increased LDH release, suggesting that OGD induced cell injury. Post-treatment with isoflurane, sevoflurane or desflurane reduced this cell injury. This protection was apparent when 2% isoflurane was applied within 1 h after the onset of reperfusion. Isoflurane post-treatment also significantly increased the phosphorylation of GSK3β at Ser9 at 1 h after the OGD. GSK3β inhibitors reduced OGD and simulated reperfusion-induced LDH release. The combination of GSK3β inhibitors and isoflurane post-conditioning did not cause a greater protection than isoflurane post-conditioning alone. These results suggest that volatile anesthetic post-conditioning reduces OGD and simulated reperfusion-induced cell injury. Since phospho-GSK3β at Ser9 decreases GSK3β activity, our results suggest that volatile anesthetic post-conditioning in human neuron-like cells may be mediated by GSK3β inhibition. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Protective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 against lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine-induced acute liver injury in mice through inhibiting toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ning, Chenqing; Gao, Xiaoguang; Wang, Changyuan; Huo, Xiaokui; Liu, Zhihao; Sun, Huijun; Yang, Xiaobo; Sun, Pengyuan; Ma, Xiaodong; Meng, Qiang; Liu, Kexin

    2018-06-11

    Acute liver injury (ALI) is a dramatic liver disease characterized by large areas of inflammation in the liver. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), a biologically active component in Panax ginseng, on lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN)-induced ALI in mice, and meanwhile explore the molecular mechanism in vivo and in vitro. Mice were pretreated with Rg1 for three days prior to LPS (40 μg/kg)/D-GalN (700 mg/kg) administration. The results showed that Rg1 improved the survival rate and reduced the liver to body weight ratios in mice. Rg1 also reduced the production of oxidative markers such as MDA and MPO induced by LPS/D-GalN. In addition, Rg1 significantly decreased the production of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, Mip-2, Mcp-1, iNOS, and increased the activity of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Moreover, Rg1 inhibited the protein expression of TLR4 and its downstream genes including NF-κB and MAPKs, which are involved in inflammatory response. Rg1 dramatically reduced oxidative stress by regulating the expression of efflux transporters Mrp2 and various enzymes including GCLC, GCLM, HO-1 and NQO1. However, the changes in these genes and protein induced by Rg1 were abrogated by TLR4 antagonist TAK-242 in vitro. In conclusion, Rg1 had hepatoprotective effect on LPS/D-GalN-induced ALI in mice. The protection may be associated with the inhibition of TLR4. These findings suggest that Rg1 may be a promising agent for prevention against ALI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Intake of hot water-extracted apple protects against myocardial injury by inhibiting apoptosis in an ischemia/reperfusion rat model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Young; Lim, Sun Ha; Lee, Jongwon

    2014-11-01

    Intakes of apple and its products are shown to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease by delaying occlusion of coronary arteries. In our previous study, we showed that apple pectin protected against myocardial injury by prohibiting apoptotic cascades in a rat model of ischemia/reperfusion. Thus, we hypothesized that water-extracted apple, into which apple pectin was released from the cell wall, might exhibit the same efficacy as apple pectin. To test this hypothesis, we fed rats either cold water- (400 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) or hot water-extracted apples (HWEA; 40, 100, and 400 mg kg(-1) d(-1)). Three days later, the rats were subjected to myocardial injuries by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery (30 minutes), and subsequently, the heart (3 hours) reperfused by releasing the ligation. Only the rats that were supplemented with HWEA (400 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) showed significant reductions in infarct size, which was 28.5% smaller than that of the control group. This infarct size reduction could be partly attributed to the prevention of steps leading to apoptosis. These steps are manifested by a higher Bcl-2/Bax ratio, lower procaspase-3 conversion to caspase-3, and inhibition of DNA nick generation, which reflects the extent of apoptosis. The findings indicate that HWEA supplementation reduces myocardial injury by inhibiting apoptosis under ischemia/reperfusion conditions. In conclusion, this study suggests that apple intake, specifically boiled apple, might reduce the risk of coronary heart disease by inhibiting postocclusion steps, such as myocardial injury after artery occlusion, as well as preocclusion steps, such as atherosclerotic plaque formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. AP-1 Inhibition by SR 11302 Protects Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells from Bile Acid-Induced Cytotoxicity by Restoring the NOS-3 Expression

    PubMed Central

    González-Rubio, Sandra; Linares, Clara I.; Aguilar-Melero, Patricia; Rodríguez-Perálvarez, Manuel; Montero-Álvarez, José L.

    2016-01-01

    The harmful effects of bile acid accumulation occurring during cholestatic liver diseases have been associated with oxidative stress increase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS-3) expression decrease in liver cells. We have previously reported that glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA) down-regulates gene expression by increasing SP1 binding to the NOS-3 promoter in an oxidative stress dependent manner. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of transcription factor (TF) AP-1 on the NOS-3 deregulation during GCDCA-induced cholestasis. The cytotoxic response to GCDCA was characterized by 1) the increased expression and activation of TFs cJun and c-Fos; 2) a higher binding capability of these at position -666 of the NOS-3 promoter; 3) a decrease of the transcriptional activity of the promoter and the expression and activity of NOS-3; and 4) the expression increase of cyclin D1. Specific inhibition of AP-1 by the retinoid SR 11302 counteracted the cytotoxic effects induced by GCDCA while promoting NOS-3 expression recovery and cyclin D1 reduction. NOS activity inhibition by L-NAME inhibited the protective effect of SR 11302. Inducible NOS isoform was no detected in this experimental model of cholestasis. Our data provide direct evidence for the involvement of AP-1 in the NOS-3 expression regulation during cholestasis and define a critical role for NOS-3 in regulating the expression of cyclin D1 during the cell damage induced by bile acids. AP-1 appears as a potential therapeutic target in cholestatic liver diseases given its role as a transcriptional repressor of NOS-3. PMID:27490694

  7. Zurampic Protects Pancreatic β-Cells from High Uric Acid Induced-Damage by Inhibiting URAT1 and Inactivating the ROS/AMPK/ERK Pathways.

    PubMed

    Xin, Ying; Wang, Kun; Jia, Zhaotong; Xu, Tao; Xu, Qiang; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Jia; Chen, Rui; Du, Zhongcai; Sun, Jianjing

    2018-05-25

    Zurampic is a US FDA approved drug for treatment of gout. However, the influence of Zurampic on pancreatic β-cells remains unclear. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of Zurampic on high uric acid-induced damage of pancreatic β-cells and the possible underlying mechanisms. INS-1 cells and primary rat islets were stimulated with Zurampic and the mRNA expression of urate transporter 1 (URAT1) was assessed by qRT-PCR. Cells were stimulated with uric acid or uric acid plus Zurampic, and cell viability, apoptosis and ROS release were measured by MTT and flow cytometry assays. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expressions of active Caspase-3 and phosphorylation of AMPK and ERK. Finally, cells were stimulated with uric acid or uric acid plus Zurampic at low/high level of glucose (2.8/16.7 mM glucose), and the insulin release was assessed by ELISA. mRNA expression of URAT1 was decreased by Zurampic in a dose-dependent manner. Uric acid decreased cell viability, promoted cell apoptosis and induced ROS release. Uric acid-induced alterations could be reversed by Zurampic. Activation of Caspase-3 and phosphorylation of AMPK and ERK were enhanced by uric acid, and the enhancements were reversed by Zurampic. Decreased phosphorylation of AMPK and ERK, induced by Zurampic, was further reduced by adding inhibitor of AMPK or ERK. Besides, uric acid inhibited high glucose-induced insulin secretion and the inhibition was rescued by Zurampic. Zurampic has a protective effect on pancreatic β-cells against uric acid induced-damage by inhibiting URAT1 and inactivating the ROS/AMPK/ERK pathway. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Quercetin protects rat dorsal root ganglion neurons against high glucose-induced injury in vitro through Nrf-2/HO-1 activation and NF-κB inhibition.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yue; Liang, Xiao-chun; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Qun-li; Qu, Ling; Sun, Qing

    2013-09-01

    To examine the effects of quercetin, a natural antioxidant, on high glucose (HG)-induced apoptosis of cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of rats. DRG neurons exposed to HG (45 mmol/L) for 24 h were employed as an in vitro model of diabetic neuropathy. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and apoptosis were determined. The expression of NF-кB, IкBα, phosphorylated IкBα and Nrf2 was examined using RT PCR and Western blot assay. The expression of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), IL-6, TNF-α, iNOS, COX-2, and caspase-3 were also examined. HG treatment markedly increased DRG neuron apoptosis via increasing intracellular ROS level and activating the NF-κB signaling pathway. Co-treatment with quercetin (2.5, 5, and 10 mmol/L) dose-dependently decreased HG-induced caspase-3 activation and apoptosis. Quercetin could directly scavenge ROS and significantly increased the expression of Nrf-2 and HO-1 in DRG neurons. Quercetin also dose-dependently inhibited the NF-κB signaling pathway and suppressed the expression of iNOS, COX-2, and proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α. Quercetin protects rat DRG neurons against HG-induced injury in vitro through Nrf-2/HO-1 activation and NF-κB inhibition, thus may be beneficial for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy.

  9. Inhibition of Peripheral TNF-α and Downregulation of Microglial Activation by Alpha-Lipoic Acid and Etanercept Protect Rat Brain Against Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Hsiu; Huang, Chao-Ching; Chio, Chung-Ching; Tsai, Kuen-Jer; Chang, Ching-Ping; Lin, Nan-Kai; Lin, Mao-Tsun

    2016-09-01

    Ischemic stroke, caused by obstruction of blood flow to the brain, would initiate microglia activation which contributes to neuronal damage. Therefore, inhibition of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation could be a therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke. This study was aimed to elucidate the anti-inflammatory effects of alpha-lipoic acid and etanercept given either singly or in combination in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion. Both α-lipoic acid and etanercept markedly reduced cerebral infarct, blood-brain barrier disruption, and neurological motor deficits with the former drug being more effective with the dosage used. Furthermore, when used in combination, the reduction was more substantial. Remarkably, a greater diminution in the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha as well as the brain levels of microglial activation (e.g., microgliosis, amoeboid microglia, and microglial overexpression of tumor necrosis factor-α) was observed with the combined drug treatment as compared to the drugs given separately. We conclude that inhibition of peripheral tumor necrosis factor-alpha as well as downregulation of brain microglial activation by alpha-lipoic acid or etanercept protect rat brain against ischemic stroke. Moreover, when both drugs were used in combination, the stroke recovery was promoted more extensively.

  10. Photo-protective mechanisms in reed canary grass to alleviate photo-inhibition of PSII on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Da-Wei; Sun, Yan-Ni; Arfan, Muhammad; Li, Da-Xu; Yan, Jia-Jun; You, Ming-Hong; Bai, Shi-Qie; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2017-08-01

    Due to its characteristic of high biomass yield potential, there is considerable interest in cultivating Phalaris arundinacea L. cv. 'chuancaoyin No.3' (reed canary grass) on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where there is an abundance of alpine steppe meadow and a potential large market for animal husbandry. In this study, we 1) investigate whether reed canary grass exhibits superior productive capacity to Elymus nutans 'Aba' (E. nutans), ordinary common pasture, during the long warm days of summer at high-altitude; and 2) compare the cold tolerance between reed canary grass and E. nutans, including photosynthesis, photo-inhibition, and photo-protection. The results suggest that reed canary grass exhibits higher photosynthetic capacity compared to E. nutans at latitudes of the cool temperate zone. Meanwhile, cold-induced photo-inhibition and photo-damage at high altitudes in reed canary grass were due to both stomatal and non-stomatal limitation, and the enhancement in photo-respiration, thermal dissipation, and Mehler reaction are important processes to minimize the negative effects of high elevation and a cold environment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  11. Bone marrow derived M2 macrophages protected against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury through inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation by modulating neutrophils and T lymphocytes responses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Fu, Xiazhen; Wu, Xinwan; Zhang, Jianhai; Zhu, Jiali; Zou, Yun; Li, Jinbao

    2018-06-05

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by aggravated inflammatory responses and the subsequent alveolar-capillary injury for which there are no specific therapies available currently. The present study was designed to investigate the protective roles of bone marrow derived M 2 macrophages (M 2 BMDMs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced ALI. M 2 BMDMs were obtained from bone marrow cells stimulated with M-CSF and IL-4. Mice received M 2 BMDMs intratracheally 3 h after LPS administration. Histology and wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio, activated immune cells and total protein were detected. Cytokines production were measured in vivo and vitro study. The effects of PD-L1 blockade on M 2 BMDMs were calculated. The results showed that M 2 BMDMs administration reduced the infiltration of neutrophils, inhibited the oxidative stress, while increased the counts of CD3 + T lymphocytes as well as CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T lymphocytes. Further, M 2 BMDMs suppressed the TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 production, while increased the IL-10 production. Blockade of PD-L1/PD-1 pathway reversed cytokines production of M 2 BMDMs in the BALF. These findings indicated that M 2 BMDMs might be a promising therapeutic strategy for LPS-induced ALI through inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation by modulating neutrophils and T lymphocytes responses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Lycopene protects human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced death via inhibition of oxidative stress and mitochondria-associated apoptotic pathways

    PubMed Central

    FENG, CHUNSHENG; LUO, TIANFEI; ZHANG, SHUYAN; LIU, KAI; ZHANG, YANHONG; LUO, YINAN; GE, PENGFEI

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress, which is characterized by excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), is a common pathway that results in neuronal injury or death due to various types of pathological stress. Although lycopene has been identified as a potent antioxidant, its effect on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced neuronal damage remains unclear. In the present study, pretreatment with lycopene was observed to protect SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells against H2O2-induced death via inhibition of apoptosis resulting from activation of caspase-3 and translocation of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) to the nucleus. Furthermore, the over-produced ROS, as well as the reduced activities of anti-oxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, were demonstrated to be alleviated by lycopene. Additionally, lycopene counteracted H2O2-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, which was evidenced by suppression of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, attenuation of the decline of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and inhibition of the increase of Bax and decrease of Bcl-2 levels within the mitochondria. The release of cytochrome c and AIF from the mitochondria was also reduced. These results indicate that lycopene is a potent neuroprotectant against apoptosis, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, and could be administered to prevent neuronal injury or death. PMID:27035331

  13. hnRNP A2/B1 interacts with influenza A viral protein NS1 and inhibits virus replication potentially through suppressing NS1 RNA/protein levels and NS1 mRNA nuclear export

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yimeng; Zhou, Jianhong; Du, Yuchun, E-mail: ydu@uark.edu

    The NS1 protein of influenza viruses is a major virulence factor and exerts its function through interacting with viral/cellular RNAs and proteins. In this study, we identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 (hnRNP A2/B1) as an interacting partner of NS1 proteins by a proteomic method. Knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in higher levels of NS vRNA, NS1 mRNA, and NS1 protein in the virus-infected cells. In addition, we demonstrated that hnRNP A2/B1 proteins are associated with NS1 and NS2 mRNAs and that knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 promotes transport of NS1 mRNA from the nucleus to themore » cytoplasm in the infected cells. Lastly, we showed that knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 leads to enhanced virus replication. Our results suggest that hnRNP A2/B1 plays an inhibitory role in the replication of influenza A virus in host cells potentially through suppressing NS1 RNA/protein levels and NS1 mRNA nucleocytoplasmic translocation. - Highlights: • Cellular protein hnRNP A2/B1 interacts with influenza viral protein NS1. • hnRNP A2/B1 suppresses the levels of NS1 protein, vRNA and mRNA in infected cells. • hnRNP A2/B1 protein is associated with NS1 and NS2 mRNAs. • hnRNP A2/B1 inhibits the nuclear export of NS1 mRNAs. • hnRNP A2/B1 inhibits influenza virus replication.« less

  14. Allergy-Protective Arabinogalactan Modulates Human Dendritic Cells via C-Type Lectins and Inhibition of NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Peters, Marcus; Guidato, Patrick M; Peters, Karin; Megger, Dominik A; Sitek, Barbara; Classen, Birgit; Heise, Esther M; Bufe, Albrecht

    2016-02-15

    Arabinogalactan (AG) isolated from dust of a traditional farm prevents disease in murine models of allergy. However, it is unclear whether this polysaccharide has immune regulatory properties in humans. The aim of this study was to test the influence of AG on the immune-stimulating properties of human dendritic cells (DCs). Moreover, we sought to identify the receptor to which AG binds. AG was produced from plant callus tissue under sterile conditions to avoid the influence of pathogen-associated molecular patterns in subsequent experiments. The influence of AG on the human immune system was investigated by analyzing its impact on monocyte-derived DCs. To analyze whether the T cell stimulatory capacity of AG-stimulated DCs is altered, an MLR with naive Th cells was performed. We revealed that AG reduced T cell proliferation in a human MLR. In the search for a molecular mechanism, we found that AG binds to the immune modulatory receptors DC-specific ICAM-3 -: grabbing non integrin (DC-SIGN) and macrophage mannose receptor 1 (MMR-1). Stimulation of these receptors with AG simultaneously with TLR4 stimulation with LPS increased the expression of the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase tripartite motif -: containing protein 21 and decreased the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 in DCs. This led to a reduced activation profile with reduced costimulatory molecules and proinflammatory cytokine production. Blocking of MMR-1 or DC-SIGN with neutralizing Abs partially inhibits this effect. We conclude that AG dampens the activation of human DCs by LPS via binding to DC-SIGN and MMR-1, leading to attenuated TLR signaling. This results in a reduced T cell activation capacity of DCs. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  15. Resveratrol protects against spinal cord injury by activating autophagy and inhibiting apoptosis mediated by the SIRT1/AMPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haosen; Chen, Shurui; Gao, Kai; Zhou, Zipeng; Wang, Chen; Shen, Zhaoliang; Guo, Yue; Li, Zhuo; Wan, Zhanghui; Liu, Chang; Mei, Xifan

    2017-04-21

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition with few effective treatments. Resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound, has exhibited neuroprotective effects in many neurodegenerative diseases. However, the explicit effect and mechanism of resveratrol on SCI is still unclear. Adenosine 5' monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), the downstream protein, play key roles in metabolizing of energy, resisting of resistance, and cellular protein homeostasis. In this study, we determined the effects of resveratrol on SCI and their potential relationship with SIRT1/AMPK signaling pathway, autophagy and apoptosis. To determine the effect of resveratrol on SCI recovery, a spinal cord contusion model was employed. Rats received treatment with resveratrol or DMSO immediately following contusion. We determined that Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scores were significantly higher for injured rats treated with resveratrol. Nissl and HE staining revealed that resveratrol treatment significantly reduced the loss of motor neurons and lesion size in the spinal cord of injured rats when compared to vehicle-treated animals. Spinal cord tissue was assessed by Western blot, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical analyses 7days after injury for changes in expression of SIRT1/AMPK signaling pathway, autophagy and apoptosis proteins. Expression of SIRT1, p-AMPK, Beclin-1, LC3-B, and Bcl-2 was elevated in resveratrol-treated animals, whereas expression of p62, Cleaved Caspase-3, Caspase-9, and Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) was inhibited. Immunofluorescence analysis of primary neurons treated with resveratrol alone or in combination with Compound C (AMPK inhibitor) or EX527 (SIRT1 inhibitor) revealed that treatment with the inhibitors blocks the increased LC3-B expression in cells and increases the portion of TUNEL-positive cells. Taken together, these results suggest that resveratrol exerts neuroprotective effects

  16. Bee venom phospholipase A2 induces a primary type 2 response that is dependent on the receptor ST2 and confers protective immunity

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Noah W.; Rosenstein, Rachel K.; Yu, Shuang; Schenten, Dominik; Florsheim, Esther; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Venoms consist of toxic components that are delivered to their victims via bites or stings. Venoms also represent a major class of allergens in humans. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is a conserved component of venoms from multiple species and is the major allergen in bee venom. Here we examined how bee venom PLA2 is sensed by the innate immune system and induces a type 2 immune response in mice. We found that bee venom PLA2 induced a T helper type 2 (Th2) cell-type response and group 2 innate lymphoid cell activation via the enzymatic cleavage of membrane phospholipids and release of interleukin-33. Furthermore, we showed that the IgE response to PLA2 could protect mice from future challenge with a near-lethal dose of PLA2. These data suggest that the innate immune system can detect the activity of a conserved component of venoms and induce a protective immune response against a venom toxin. PMID:24210353

  17. Down-regulation of Homer1b/c protects against chemically induced seizures through inhibition of mTOR signaling.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lei; Tian, Ye; Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Ge-Juan; Lei, Hui; Di, Zheng-Li

    2015-01-01

    Homer is a family of post synaptic density proteins functionally and physically attached to target proteins at proline-rich sequences. Reducing Homer1b/c expression has been shown in previous studies to be protective against excitotoxic insults, implicating Homer1b/c in the physiological regulation of aberrant neuronal excitability. To test the efficacy of a Homer1b/c reducing therapy for disorders with a detrimental hyperexcitability profile in mice, we used small interfere RNA (siRNA) to decrease endogenous Homer1b/c expression in mouse hippocampus. The baseline motor and cognitive behavior was measured by sensorimotor tests, Morris water maze and elevated plus maze tasks. The anti-epileptic effects of Homer1b/c knockdown were determined in two chemically induced seizure models induced by Picrotoxin (PTX) or pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) administration. The results of sensorimotor tests, Morris water maze and elevated plus maze tasks showed that Homer1b/c reduction had no effect on baseline motor or cognitive behavior. In two chemically induced seizure models, mice with reduced Homerb/c protein had less severe seizures than control mice. Total Homer1b/c protein levels and seizure severity were highly correlated, such that those mice with the most severe seizures also had the highest levels of Homer1b/c. In addition, the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its target protein S6 was significantly inhibited in Homer1b/c down-regulated mice. Homer1b/c knockdown-induced inhibition of mTOR pathway was partially ablated by the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) agonist CHPG. Our results demonstrate that endogenous Homer1b/c is integral for regulating neuronal hyperexcitability in adult animals and suggest that reduction of Homer1b/c could protect against chemically induced seizures through inhibition mTOR pathway. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. 6-Shogaol Protects against Oxidized LDL-Induced Endothelial Injruries by Inhibiting Oxidized LDL-Evoked LOX-1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun kai; Hong, Ya Jun; Yao, Yong hua; Huang, Xiao Min; Liu, Xue Bo; Zhang, Chun Yu; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Xiaoliang Leon

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and oxLDL are believed to be early and critical events in atherogenesis. 6-Shogaol is the major bioactive compound present in Zingiber officinale and possesses the anti-atherosclerotic effect. However, the mechanisms remain poorly understood. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of 6-shogaol on oxLDL-induced Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) injuries and its possible molecular mechanisms. Hence, we studied the effects of 6-shogaol on cell apoptosis, cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), NF-κB activation, Bcl-2 expression, and caspase -3, -8, -9 activities. In addition, E-selectin, MCP-1, and ICAM-1 were determined by ELISA. Our study show that oxLDL increased LOX-1 expression, ROS levels, NF-κB, caspases-9 and -3 activation and decreased Bcl-2 expression in HUVECs. These alterations were attenuated by 6-shogaol. Cotreatment with 6-shogaol and siRNA of LOX-1 synergistically reduced oxLDL-induced caspases -9, -3 activities and cell apoptosis. Overexpression of LOX-1 attenuated the protection by 6-shogaol and suppressed the effects of 6-shogaol on oxLDL-induced oxidative stress. In addition, oxLDL enhanced the activation of NF-κB and expression of adhesion molecules. Pretreatment with 6-shogaol, however, exerted significant cytoprotective effects in all events. Our data indicate that 6-shogaol might be a potential natural antiapoptotic agent for the treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:23533490

  19. 6-Shogaol Protects against Oxidized LDL-Induced Endothelial Injruries by Inhibiting Oxidized LDL-Evoked LOX-1 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun Kai; Hong, Ya Jun; Yao, Yong Hua; Huang, Xiao Min; Liu, Xue Bo; Zhang, Chun Yu; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Xiaoliang Leon

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and oxLDL are believed to be early and critical events in atherogenesis. 6-Shogaol is the major bioactive compound present in Zingiber officinale and possesses the anti-atherosclerotic effect. However, the mechanisms remain poorly understood. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of 6-shogaol on oxLDL-induced Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) injuries and its possible molecular mechanisms. Hence, we studied the effects of 6-shogaol on cell apoptosis, cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), NF- κ B activation, Bcl-2 expression, and caspase -3, -8, -9 activities. In addition, E-selectin, MCP-1, and ICAM-1 were determined by ELISA. Our study show that oxLDL increased LOX-1 expression, ROS levels, NF- κ B, caspases-9 and -3 activation and decreased Bcl-2 expression in HUVECs. These alterations were attenuated by 6-shogaol. Cotreatment with 6-shogaol and siRNA of LOX-1 synergistically reduced oxLDL-induced caspases -9, -3 activities and cell apoptosis. Overexpression of LOX-1 attenuated the protection by 6-shogaol and suppressed the effects of 6-shogaol on oxLDL-induced oxidative stress. In addition, oxLDL enhanced the activation of NF- κ B and expression of adhesion molecules. Pretreatment with 6-shogaol, however, exerted significant cytoprotective effects in all events. Our data indicate that 6-shogaol might be a potential natural antiapoptotic agent for the treatment of atherosclerosis.

  20. n-Butanol extract from Folium isatidis inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages and protects mice against lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lili; Lu, Yili; Jin, Jiahui; Dong, Lili; Xu, Fengli; Chen, Shuangshuang; Wang, Zhanyue; Liang, Guang; Shan, Xiaoou

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis, which is caused by severe infection, is an important cause of mortality, but effective clinical treatment against sepsis is extremely limited. As the main component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays a major role in inflammatory responses. Studies have shown beneficial pharmacological effects for Folium isatidis. The present study further illuminated the effects of n-butanol extract from Folium isatidis in LPS-induced septic shock and identified the main active chemical components. Our study showed that pretreatment with n-butanol extract from Folium isatidis not only significantly inhibited LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 production but also markedly and dose dependently enhanced the recruitment of MyD88, the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and the degradation of IκB-α. Additionally, the extract exhibited dramatic protective effects against lung injury and death in mice with septic shock. Eight main active compounds were identified, including organic acids, glycoside, indolinones, and flavonoids. These findings provide a perspective on the respiratory protection offered by n-butanol extract from Folium isatidis in LPS-induced sepsis and outline a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of sepsis. PMID:26491261

  1. Dexmedetomidine inhibits activation of the MAPK pathway and protects PC12 and NG108-15 cells from lidocaine-induced cytotoxicity at its maximum safe dose.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Tan, Yonghong; Zhang, Na; Xu, Yingyi; Wei, Wei; She, Yingjun; Bi, Xiaobao; Zhao, Baisong; Ruan, Xiangcai

    2017-07-01

    The developing brains of pediatric patients are highly vulnerable to anesthetic regimen (e.g., lidocaine), potentially causing neurological impairment. Recently, dexmedetomidine (DEX) has been used as an adjunct for sedation, and was shown to exert dose-dependent neuroprotective effects during brain injury. However, the maximum safe dose of DEX is unclear, and its protective effects against lidocaine-related neurotoxicity need to be confirmed. In this study, PC12 and NG108-15 cells were used to estimate safe, non-cytotoxic doses of DEX. We found that 100 and 60μM are the maximum safe dose of DEX for PC12 and NG108-15 cells, respectively, with no significant cytotoxicity. Lidocaine was found to remarkably inhibit cell vitality, but could be reversed by different doses of DEX, especially its maximum safe dose. Furthermore, the apoptosis induced by lidocaine was also assessed, and 100 and 60μM DEX showed optimal protective effects in PC12 and NG108-15 cells, respectively. Mechanistically, DEX activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, impaired caspase-3 expression, and enhanced anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 to resist lidocaine-induced apoptosis, indicating that the optimal dose of DEX alleviates lidocaine-induced cytotoxicity and should be considered in clinical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. NDUFA4L2 protects against ischaemia/reperfusion-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction by inhibiting complex I.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianhua; Bai, Caiyan; Guo, Junxia; Liang, Wanqian; Long, Jingning

    2017-07-01

    Myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury may cause the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes as well as mitochondrial dysfunction. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether NADH dehydrogenase 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 4-like 2 (NDUFA4L2) on myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and the underlying molecular mechanism. The hypoxia-reperfusion (H/R) model was established in vitro using H9c2 cells to simulate I/R injury. NDUFA4L2 and complex I expression levels were detected using RT-PCR and western blot. The apoptosis of H9c2 cells was evaluated by flow cytometry and the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 was detected by western blot. The mitochondrial function was assessed by ATP concentration, mPTP opening and cytochrome c (cyto C) expression. Our data indicated that NDUFA4L2 expression was significantly down-regulated in myocardial H/R injury. Overexpression of NDUFA4L2 led to a dramatic prevention of H/R-induced apoptosis accompanied by a decrease in the expression of Bax and an increase in the expression of Bcl-2. Meanwhile, augmentation of NDUFA4L2 dramatically prevented mitochondrial dysfunction caused by H/R as reflecting in the increased ATP concentration, delayed mPTP opening, as well as down-regulated cyto C expression. Moreover, complex I activation was heightened and negatively regulated by NDUFA4L2. Silencing complex I conspicuously attenuated cell apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that NDUFA4L2 protects against H/R injury by preventing myocardium apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction via the complex I, and may be a potential therapeutic approach for attenuating myocardial I/R injury. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Interleukin-18 gene deletion protects against sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction by inhibiting PP2A activity.

    PubMed

    Okuhara, Yoshitaka; Yokoe, Shunichi; Iwasaku, Toshihiro; Eguchi, Akiyo; Nishimura, Koichi; Li, Wen; Oboshi, Makiko; Naito, Yoshiro; Mano, Toshiaki; Asahi, Michio; Okamura, Haruki; Masuyama, Tohru; Hirotani, Shinichi

    2017-09-15

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) neutralization protects against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced injuries, including myocardial dysfunction. However, the mechanism is yet to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to determine whether IL-18 gene deletion prevents sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction and to elucidate the potential mechanisms underlying IL-18-mediated cardiotoxicity by LPS. Ten-week-old male wild-type (WT) and IL-18 knockout (IL-18 KO) mice were intraperitoneally administered LPS. Serial echocardiography showed better systolic pump function and less left ventricular (LV) dilatation in LPS-treated IL-18 KO mice compared with those in LPS-treated WT mice. LPS treatment significantly decreased the levels of phospholamban (PLN) and Akt phosphorylation in WT mice compared with those in saline-treated WT mice, while the LPS-induced decrease in the phosphorylation levels was attenuated in IL-18 KO mice compared with that in WT mice. IL-18 gene deletion also attenuated an LPS-induced increase of type 2 protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity, a molecule that dephosphorylates PLN and Akt. There was no difference in type 1 protein phosphatase (PP1) activity. To address whether IL-18 affects PLN and Akt phosphorylation via PP2A activation in cardiomyocytes, rat neonatal cardiac myocytes were cultured and stimulated using 100ng/ml of recombinant rat IL-18. Exogenous IL-18 decreased the level of PLN and Akt phosphorylation in cardiomyocytes. PP2A activity but not PP1 activity was increased by IL-18 stimulation in cardiomyocytes. IL-18 plays a pivotal role in advancing sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction, and the mechanisms underlying IL-18-mediated cardiotoxicity potentially involve the regulation of PLN and Akt phosphorylation through PP2A activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of calcineurin protects against carbachol-induced pathological zymogen activation and acinar cell injury.

    PubMed

    Muili, Kamaldeen A; Ahmad, Mahwish; Orabi, Abrahim I; Mahmood, Syeda M; Shah, Ahsan U; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Husain, Sohail Z

    2012-04-15

    Acute pancreatitis is a major health burden for which there are currently no targeted therapies. Premature activation of digestive proenzymes, or zymogens, within the pancreatic acinar cell is an early and critical event in this disease. A high-amplitude, sustained rise in acinar cell Ca(2+) is required for zymogen activation. We previously showed in a cholecystokinin-induced pancreatitis model that a potential target of this aberrant Ca(2+) signaling is the Ca(2+)-activated phosphatase calcineurin (Cn). However, in this study, we examined the role of Cn on both zymogen activation and injury, in the clinically relevant condition of neurogenic stimulation (by giving the acetylcholine analog carbachol) using three different Cn inhibitors or Cn-deficient acinar cells. In freshly isolated mouse acinar cells, pretreatment with FK506, calcineurin inhibitory peptide (CiP), or cyclosporine (CsA) blocked intra-acinar zymogen activation (n = 3; P < 0.05). The Cn inhibitors also reduced leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) by 79%, 62%, and 63%, respectively (n = 3; P < 0.05). Of the various Cn isoforms, the β-isoform of the catalytic A subunit (CnAβ) was strongly expressed in mouse acinar cells. For this reason, we obtained acinar cells from CnAβ-deficient mice (CnAβ-/-) and observed an 84% and 50% reduction in trypsin and chymotrypsin activation, respectively, compared with wild-type controls (n = 3; P < 0.05). LDH release in the CnAβ-deficient cells was reduced by 50% (n = 2; P < 0.05). The CnAβ-deficient cells were also protected against zymogen activation and cell injury induced by the cholecystokinin analog caerulein. Importantly, amylase secretion was generally not affected by either the Cn inhibitors or Cn deficiency. These data provide both pharmacological and genetic evidence that implicates Cn in intra-acinar zymogen activation and cell injury during pancreatitis.

  5. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of calcineurin protects against carbachol-induced pathological zymogen activation and acinar cell injury

    PubMed Central

    Muili, Kamaldeen A.; Ahmad, Mahwish; Orabi, Abrahim I.; Mahmood, Syeda M.; Shah, Ahsan U.; Molkentin, Jeffery D.

    2012-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a major health burden for which there are currently no targeted therapies. Premature activation of digestive proenzymes, or zymogens, within the pancreatic acinar cell is an early and critical event in this disease. A high-amplitude, sustained rise in acinar cell Ca2+ is required for zymogen activation. We previously showed in a cholecystokinin-induced pancreatitis model that a potential target of this aberrant Ca2+ signaling is the Ca2+-activated phosphatase calcineurin (Cn). However, in this study, we examined the role of Cn on both zymogen activation and injury, in the clinically relevant condition of neurogenic stimulation (by giving the acetylcholine analog carbachol) using three different Cn inhibitors or Cn-deficient acinar cells. In freshly isolated mouse acinar cells, pretreatment with FK506, calcineurin inhibitory peptide (CiP), or cyclosporine (CsA) blocked intra-acinar zymogen activation (n = 3; P < 0.05). The Cn inhibitors also reduced leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) by 79%, 62%, and 63%, respectively (n = 3; P < 0.05). Of the various Cn isoforms, the β-isoform of the catalytic A subunit (CnAβ) was strongly expressed in mouse acinar cells. For this reason, we obtained acinar cells from CnAβ-deficient mice (CnAβ−/−) and observed an 84% and 50% reduction in trypsin and chymotrypsin activation, respectively, compared with wild-type controls (n = 3; P < 0.05). LDH release in the CnAβ-deficient cells was reduced by 50% (n = 2; P < 0.05). The CnAβ-deficient cells were also protected against zymogen activation and cell injury induced by the cholecystokinin analog caerulein. Importantly, amylase secretion was generally not affected by either the Cn inhibitors or Cn deficiency. These data provide both pharmacological and genetic evidence that implicates Cn in intra-acinar zymogen activation and cell injury during pancreatitis. PMID:22323127

  6. Methyl Salicylate Lactoside Protects Neurons Ameliorating Cognitive Disorder Through Inhibiting Amyloid Beta-Induced Neuroinflammatory Response in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinze; Ma, Xiaowei; Wang, Yu; Chen, Chengjuan; Hu, Min; Wang, Linlin; Fu, Junmin; Shi, Gaona; Zhang, Dongming; Zhang, Tiantai

    2018-01-01

    Neuroinflammatory reactions mediated by microglia and astrocytes have been shown to play a key role in early progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Increased evidences have demonstrated that neurons exacerbate local inflammatory reactions by producing inflammatory mediators and act as an important participant in the pathogenesis of AD. Methyl salicylate lactoside (MSL) is an isolated natural product that is part of a class of novel non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). In our previous studies, we demonstrated that MSL exhibited therapeutic effects on arthritis-induced mice and suppressed the activation of glial cells. In the current study, we investigated the effects of MSL on cognitive function and neuronal protection induced by amyloid-beta peptides (Aβ) and explored potential underlying mechanisms involved. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PS1) double transgenic mice were used to evaluate the effects of MSL through behavioral testing and neuronal degenerative changes. In addition, copper-injured APP Swedish mutation overexpressing SH-SY5Y cells were used to determine the transduction of cyclooxygenase (COX) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Our results indicated that at an early stage, MSL treatment ameliorated cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration in APP/PS1 mice. Moreover, in an in vitro AD model, MSL treatment protected injured cells by increasing cell viability, improving mitochondrial dysfunction, and decreasing oxidative damage. In addition, MSL inhibited the phosphorylated level of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK, and suppressed the expression of COX-1/2. As a novel NSAIDs and used for the treatment in early stage of AD, MSL clearly demonstrated cognitive preservation by protecting neurons via a pleiotropic anti-inflammatory effect in the context of AD-associated deficits. Therefore, early treatment of anti-inflammatory therapy may be an effective strategy for treating AD. PMID:29636677

  7. S100A11 protects against neuronal cell apoptosis induced by cerebral ischemia via inhibiting the nuclear translocation of annexin A1.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qian; Li, Xing; Zhou, Huijuan; Zheng, Lu; Shi, Jing

    2018-05-29

    The subcellular location of annexin A1 (ANXA1) determines the ultimate fate of neurons after ischemic stroke. ANXA1 nuclear translocation is involved in neuronal apoptosis after cerebral ischemia, and extracellular ANXA1 is also associated with regulation of inflammatory responses. As the factors and mechanism that influence ANXA1 subcellular translocation remain unclear, studies aiming to determine and clarify the role of ANXA1 as a cell fate 'regulator' within cells are critically needed. In this study, we found that intracerebroventricular injection of the recombinant adenovirus vector Ad-S100A11 (carrying S100A11) strongly improved cognitive function and induced robust neuroprotective effects after ischemic stroke in vivo. Furthermore, upregulation of S100A11 protected against neuronal apoptosis induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) in vitro. Surprisingly, S100A11 overexpression markedly decreased ANXA1 nuclear translocation and subsequently alleviated OGD/R-induced neuronal apoptosis. Notably, S100A11 exerted its neuroprotective effect by directly binding ANXA1. Importantly, S100A11 directly interacted with ANXA1 through the nuclear translocation signal (NTS) of ANXA1, which is essential for ANXA1 to import into the nucleus. Consistent with our previous studies, ANXA1 nuclear translocation after OGD/R promoted p53 transcriptional activity, induced mRNA expression of the pro-apoptotic Bid gene, and activated the caspase-3 apoptotic pathway, which was almost completely reversed by S100A11 overexpression. Thus, S100A11 protects against cell apoptosis by inhibiting OGD/R-induced ANXA1 nuclear translocation. This study provides a novel mechanism whereby S100A11 protects against neuronal cells apoptosis, suggesting the potential for a previously unidentified treatment strategy in minimizing apoptosis after ischemic stroke.

  8. An exogenous hydrogen sulphide donor, NaHS, inhibits the apoptosis signaling pathway to exert cardio-protective effects in a rat hemorrhagic shock model.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanjie; Dai, Xiongwei; Zhu, Danxia; Xu, Xiaoli; Gao, Cao; Wu, Changping

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been reported to be interwined in multiple systems, specifically in the cardiovascular system. However, the mechanisms underlying remain controversial. In the present study, we assessed the cardio-protective effects of H2S in the rat hemorrhagic shock model. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by drawing blood from the femoral artery to maintain the mean arterial pressure at 35-40 mmHg for 1.5 h. The rats were assigned to four groups and the H2S donor, NaHS (28 μmol/kg, i.p.), was injected before the resuscitation in certain groups. After resuscitation the animals were observed and then killed to harvest the hearts. The morphological investigation and ultrastructural analyses were done and apoptotic cells were detected. The levels of relevant proteins were examined using Western blotting and immunohistochemical analyses. Resuscitated hemorrhagic shock induced heart injury and significantly increased the levels of serum myocardial enzymes, creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. Furthermore, it caused marked increase of apoptotic cells in heart tissue. Moreover, the expression of death receptor Fas and Fas-ligand, as well as the expression of apoptosis-relevant proteins active-caspase 3 and active-caspase 8 were markedly increased. Administration of NaHS significantly ameliorated hemorrhagic shock caused hemodynamic deterioration, decreased myocardial enzymes elevation, protected myocardial ultrastructure, and inhibited the expression of apoptosis-relevant proteins. It suggested that H2S might exert its cardio-protective roles via both the extrinsic Fas/FasL/caspase-8/caspase-3 pathway and the intrinsic mitochondria-involved pathways.

  9. Extraction and Inhibition of Enzymatic Activity of Botulinum Neurotoxins/A1, /A2, and /A3 by a Panel of Monoclonal Anti-BoNT/A Antibodies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    triplicate and results were averaged. MS Detection A master mix was created consisting of 9 parts matrix solution (alpha-cyano-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid ...thus, do not inhibit the catalytic activity. Another feature of BoNT/A is that it exhibits genetic and amino acid variance within the toxin type, or...less amino acid variance [23] and this variance has been reported to affect binding of the toxin to anti-BoNT/A mAbs [24]. For these reasons, it is

  10. miR-302b inhibits tumorigenesis by targeting EphA2 via Wnt/ β-catenin/EMT signaling cascade in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; He, Yijing; Mcleod, Howard L; Xie, Yanchun; Xiao, Desheng; Hu, Huabin; Chen, Pan; Shen, Liangfang; Zeng, Shan; Yin, Xianli; Ge, Jie; Li, Li; Tang, Lanhua; Ma, Jian; Chen, Zihua

    2017-12-22

    EphA2 is a crucial oncogene in gastric cancer (GC) development and metastasis, this study aims to identify microRNAs that target it and serve as key regulators of gastric carcinogenesis. We identified several potential microRNAs targeting EphA2 by bioinformatics websites and then analyzed the role of miR-302b in modulating EphA2 in vitro and in vivo of GC, and it's mechanism. Our analysis identified miR-302b, a novel regulator of EphA2, as one of the most significantly downregulated microRNA (miRNA) in GC tissues. Overexpression of miR-302b impaired GC cell migratory and invasive properties robustly and suppressed cell proliferation by arresting cells at G0-G1 phase in vitro. miR-302b exhibited anti-tumor activity by reversing EphA2 regulation, which relayed a signaling transduction cascade that attenuated the functions of N-cadherin, β-catenin, and Snail (markers of Wnt/β-catenin and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, EMT). This modulation of EphA2 also had distinct effects on cell proliferation and migration in GC in vivo. miR-302b serves as a critical suppressor of GC cell tumorigenesis and metastasis by targeting the EphA2/Wnt/β-catenin/EMT pathway.

  11. Melatonin partially protects 661W cells from H2O2-induced death by inhibiting Fas/FasL-caspase-3.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Bretaño, Aída; Baba, Kenkichi; Janjua, Uzair; Piano, Ilaria; Gargini, Claudia; Tosini, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that melatonin (MEL) signaling is involved in the modulation of photoreceptor viability during aging. Recent work by our laboratory suggested that MEL may protect cones by modulating the Fas/FasL-caspase-3 pathway. In this study, we first investigated the presence of MEL receptors (MT 1 and MT 2 ) in 661W cells, then whether MEL can prevent H 2 O 2 -induced cell death, and last, through which pathway MEL confers protection. The mRNA and proteins of the MEL receptors were detected with quantitative PCR (q-PCR) and immunocytochemistry, respectively. To test the protective effect of MEL, 661W cells were treated with H 2 O 2 for 2 h in the presence or absence of MEL, a MEL agonist, and an antagonist. To study the pathways involved in H 2 O 2 -mediated cell death, a Fas/FasL antagonist was used before the exposure to H 2 O 2 . Finally, Fas/FasL and caspase-3 mRNA was analyzed with q-PCR and immunocytochemistry in cells treated with H 2 O 2 and/or MEL. Cell viability was analyzed by using Trypan Blue. Both MEL receptors (MT 1 and MT 2 ) were detected at the mRNA and protein levels in 661W cells. MEL partially prevented H 2 O 2 -mediated cell death (20-25%). This effect was replicated with IIK7 (a melatonin receptor agonist) when used at a concentration of 1 µM. Preincubation with luzindole (a melatonin receptor antagonist) blocked MEL protection. Kp7-6, an antagonist of Fas/FasL, blocked cell death caused by H 2 O 2 similarly to what was observed for MEL. Fas, FasL, and caspase-3 expression was increased in cells treated with H 2 O 2 , and this effect was prevented by MEL. Finally, MEL treatment partially prevented the activation of caspase-3 caused by H 2 O 2 . The results demonstrate that MEL receptors are present and functional in 661W cells. MEL can prevent photoreceptor cell death induced by H 2 O 2 via the inhibition of the proapoptotic pathway Fas/FasL-caspase-3.

  12. Protection of rats spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibition of MiR-497 on inflammation and apoptosis: Possible role in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng; Wang, Hai-Feng; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Zhuang, Hui-Wen

    2016-07-01

    MicroRNAs are extensively included in the pathogenesis and progression of many diseases by inhibiting target gene expression. Recently, studies have demonstrated that microRNA-497 (miR-497) may be implicated in human breast cancer that miR-497 predicts the prognosis of breast cancer patients from the posttranscriptional level. However, the specific function of miR-497 in spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is far from clear nowadays. The present study was designed to determine the role of miR-497 in spinal cord IR injury and investigate the underlying spinal cord protective mechanism. The rat spinal cord IR injury model was performed by occluding the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min, which is then followed by 12h reperfusion. As predicted, miR-497 over-expression markedly decreased the expression of IL-1 receptor associated kinase (IRAK1) and Cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB). Moreover, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and Caspase-3, as miR-497 potential targets were significantly suppressed after miR-497 transfection, then preventing inflammatory cytokines and factors regulating apoptosis. We also found that tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) activity, pro-apoptotic related genes, such as extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK), Bcl-2 Associated X Protein (Bax), Bcl-2, Bcl-xL levels were all decreased associated with the down-regulation of IRAK1 and CREB. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that miR-497 could inhibit inflammation and apoptosis of spinal cord IR through its targets, IRAK1 of TLR4 and CREB signaling pathway. Thus, miR-497 may constitute a new therapeutic target for the prevention of spinal cord IR injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. The vascular barrier-protecting hawthorn extract WS® 1442 raises endothelial calcium levels by inhibition of SERCA and activation of the IP3 pathway.

    PubMed

    Willer, Elisabeth A; Malli, Roland; Bondarenko, Alexander I; Zahler, Stefan; Vollmar, Angelika M; Graier, Wolfgang F; Fürst, Robert

    2012-10-01

    WS® 1442 has been proven as an effective and safe therapeutical to treat mild forms of congestive heart failure. Beyond this action, we have recently shown that WS® 1442 protects against thrombin-induced vascular barrier dysfunction and the subsequent edema formation by affecting endothelial calcium signaling. The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of WS® 1442 on intracellular calcium concentrations [Ca(2+)](i) in the human endothelium and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Using ratiometric calcium measurements and a FRET sensor, we found that WS® 1442 concentration-dependently increased basal [Ca(2+)](i) by depletion of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and inhibited a subsequent histamine-triggered rise of [Ca(2+)](i). Interestingly, the augmented [Ca(2+)](i) did neither trigger an activation of the contractile machinery nor led to a barrier breakdown (macromolecular permeability). It also did not impair endothelial cell viability. As assessed by patch clamp recordings, WS® 1442 did only slightly affect endothelial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, but increased [Ca(2+)](i) by inhibiting the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) and by activating the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) pathway. Most importantly, WS® 1442 did not induce store-operated calcium entry (SOCE), but even irreversibly prevented histamine-induced SOCE. Taken together, WS® 1442 prevented the deleterious hyperpermeability-associated rise of [Ca(2+)](i) by a preceding, non-toxic release of Ca(2+) from the ER. WS® 1442 interfered with SERCA and the IP(3) pathway without inducing SOCE. The elucidation of this intriguing mechanism helps to understand the complex pharmacology of the cardiovascular drug WS® 1442. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Irisin protects against neuronal injury induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation in part depends on the inhibition of ROS-NLRP3 inflammatory signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Peng, Juan; Deng, Xian; Huang, Wei; Yu, Ji-Hua; Wang, Jian-Xiong; Wang, Jie-Ping; Yang, Shi-Bin; Liu, Xi; Wang, Li; Zhang, Yun; Zhou, Xiang-Yu; Yang, Hui; He, Yan-Zheng; Xu, Fang-Yuan

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies found that irisin, a newly discovered skeletal muscle-derived myokine during exercise, is also synthesized in various tissues of different species and protects against neuronal injury in cerebral ischemia. The NOD-like receptor pyrin 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome play an important role in detecting cellular damage and mediating inflammatory responses to aseptic tissue injury during ischemic stroke. However, it is unclear whether irisin is involved in the regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation during ischemic stroke. In the present study, PC12 neuronal cells were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), exogenous irisin (12.5, 25, 50nmol/L) or NLRP3 inhibitor glyburide (50, 100, 200μmol/L) were used as an intervention reagent, NLRP3 was over-expressed or suppressed by transfection with a NLRP3 expressing vector or NLRP3-specifc siRNA, respectively. Our data showed that both irisin and its precursor protein fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) expression were significantly down-regulated (p<0.05); but oxidative stress and ROS-NLRP3 inflammasome signaling were activated by OGD (p<0.05); treatment with irisin or inhibition of NLRP3 reversed OGD-induced oxidative stress and inflammation (p<0.05). However, these irisin-mediated effects were blunted by over-expression NLRP3 (p<0.05). Taken together, our results firstly revealed that irisin mitigated OGD-induced neuronal injury in part via inhibiting ROS-NLRP3 inflammatory signaling pathway, suggesting a likely mechanism for irisin-induced therapeutic effect in ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Binding of galectin-1 to breast cancer cells MCF7 induces apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in vitro in a 2D- and 3D- cell culture model.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Pamina; Mayer, Barbara; Wiest, Irmi; Schulze, Sandra; Jeschke, Udo; Weissenbacher, Tobias

    2016-11-08

    Galectin-1 (gal-1) belongs to the family of β-galactoside-binding proteins which primarily recognizes the Galβ1-4GlcNAc sequences of oligosaccharides associated with several cell surface glycoconjugates. The lectin recognizes correspondent glycoepitopes on human breast cancer cells. Galectin-1 is expressed both in normal and malignant tissues. Lymphatic organs naturally possessing high rates of apoptotic cells, express high levels of Galectin-1. Furthermore galectin-1 can initiate T cell apoptosis. Binding of galectin-1 to trophoblast tumor cells presenting the oncofetal Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) carbohydrate antigen inhibits tumor cell proliferation. In this study we examined the impact galectin-1 has in vitro on cell proliferation, apoptotic potential and metabolic activity of MCF-7 and T-47D breast cancer cells in dependence to their expression of the Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) tumor antigen. For proliferation and apoptosis assays cells were grown in presence of 10, 30 and 60 μg gal-1/ml medium. Cell proliferation was determined by a BrdU uptake ELISA. Detection of apoptotic cells was done by M30 cyto death staining, in situ nick translation and by a nucleosome ELISA method. Furthermore we studied the impact galectin-1 has on the metabolic activity of MCF-7 and T-47D cells in a homotypic three-dimensional spheroid cell culture model mimicking a micro tumour environment. Gal-1 inhibited proliferation of MCF-7 cells (strong expression of the TF epitope) but did not significantly change proliferation of T-47D cells (weak expression of the TF epitope). The incubation of MCF-7 cells with gal-1 raised number of apoptotic cells significantly. Treating the spheroids with 30 μg/ml galectin-1 in addition to standard chemotherapeutic regimes (FEC, TAC) resulted in further suppression of the metabolic activity in MCF-7 cells whereas T-47D cells were not affected. Our results demonstrate that galectin-1 can inhibit proliferation und metabolic cell activity and induce

  16. MicroRNA-449a Inhibition Protects H9C2 Cells Against Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Injury by Targeting the Notch-1 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing; Wu, Qianfu; Lv, Rong; Huang, Li; Xu, Banglong; Wang, Xianbao; Chen, Aihua; He, Fei

    2018-05-07

    The present study aimed to detect the expression of miR-449a and investigate the effect of miR-449a on cell injury in cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia/ reoxygenation (H/R) and its underlying mechanisms. The expression of miR-449a was determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in both neonatal rat ventricular myocytes and H9C2 cells. For gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies, H9C2 cells were transfected with either miR-449a mimics or miR-449a inhibitor. The target gene of miR-449a was confirmed by a dual-luciferase reporter assay. Apoptosis was analyzed by both flow cytometry using Annexin V and propidium iodide and transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL). Necrosis was confirmed by the detection of lactate dehydrogenase release. The cell viability was measured using the methylthiotetrazole method. The protein levels of Notch-1, Notch-1 intracellular domain, hairy and enhancer of split-1 (Hes-1), and apoptosis-related genes were measured by Western blot analysis. MiR-449a was significantly upregulated in both neonatal rat ventricular myocytes and H9C2 cells subjected to H/R. However, H/R-induced cell apoptosis and necrosis were markedly reduced by miR-449a inhibition. By targeting Notch-1, miR-449a regulated the Notch-1/ Hes-1 signaling pathway. The blockade of the Notch signaling pathway partly abolished the protective effect of miR-449a suppression against H/R injury, whereas the overexpression of Notch-1 intracellular domain partly reversed the effect of miR-449a overexpression on H/R-induced cell injury. The present study suggested that miR-449a inhibition protected H9C2 cells against H/R-induced cell injury by targeting the Notch-1 signaling pathway, providing a novel insight into the molecular basis of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and a potential therapeutic target. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. P120-Catenin Protects Endplate Chondrocytes From Intermittent Cyclic Mechanical Tension Induced Degeneration by Inhibiting the Expression of RhoA/ROCK-1 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Guang; Ma, Ming-Ming; Zheng, Quan; Shen, Xiang; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Shu-Feng; Xu, Jia-Jia; Wang, Chuan-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-Ling

    2016-08-15

    signaling pathway, but over-expression of E-cadherin cannot do it. P120-catenin protects endplate chondrocytes from ICMT Induced degeneration by inhibiting the expression of RhoA/ROCK-1 signaling pathway. N/A.

  18. Tempol, an intracellular antioxidant, inhibits tissue factor expression, attenuates dendritic cell function, and is partially protective in a murine model of cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Francischetti, Ivo M B; Gordon, Emile; Bizzarro, Bruna; Gera, Nidhi; Andrade, Bruno B; Oliveira, Fabiano; Ma, Dongying; Assumpção, Teresa C F; Ribeiro, José M C; Pena, Mirna; Qi, Chen-Feng; Diouf, Ababacar; Moretz, Samuel E; Long, Carole A; Ackerman, Hans C; Pierce, Susan K; Sá-Nunes, Anderson; Waisberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The role of intracellular radical oxygen species (ROS) in pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM) remains incompletely understood. We undertook testing Tempol--a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic and pleiotropic intracellular antioxidant--in cells relevant to malaria pathogenesis in the context of coagulation and inflammation. Tempol was also tested in a murine model of CM induced by Plasmodium berghei Anka infection. Tempol was found to prevent transcription and functional expression of procoagulant tissue factor in endothelial cells (ECs) stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This effect was accompanied by inhibition of IL-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) production. Tempol also attenuated platelet aggregation and human promyelocytic leukemia HL60 cells oxidative burst. In dendritic cells, Tempol inhibited LPS-induced production of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12p70, downregulated expression of co-stimulatory molecules, and prevented antigen-dependent lymphocyte proliferation. Notably, Tempol (20 mg/kg) partially increased the survival of mice with CM. Mechanistically, treated mice had lowered plasma levels of MCP-1, suggesting that Tempol downmodulates EC function and vascular inflammation. Tempol also diminished blood brain barrier permeability associated with CM when started at day 4 post infection but not at day 1, suggesting that ROS production is tightly regulated. Other antioxidants-such as α-phenyl N-tertiary-butyl nitrone (PBN; a spin trap), MnTe-2-PyP and MnTBAP (Mn-phorphyrin), Mitoquinone (MitoQ) and Mitotempo (mitochondrial antioxidants), M30 (an iron chelator), and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG; polyphenol from green tea) did not improve survival. By contrast, these compounds (except PBN) inhibited Plasmodium falciparum growth in culture with different IC50s. Knockout mice for SOD1 or phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (gp91(phox-/-)) or mice treated with inhibitors of SOD (diethyldithiocarbamate

  19. Cytisine inhibits the protective activity of various classical and novel antiepileptic drugs against 6 Hz-induced psychomotor seizures in mice.

    PubMed

    Tutka, Piotr; Kondrat-Wróbel, Maria W; Zaluska, Katarzyna; Żółkowska, Dorota; Florek-Łuszczki, Magdalena; Łuszczki, Jarogniew J

    2017-01-01

    Cytisine (CYT) is a partial agonist of brain α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors widely used in Central/Eastern Europe for smoking cessation. This study evaluated the effect of CYT on the ability of classical and novel antiepileptic drugs to prevent seizures evoked by the 6-Hz test, a model of psychomotor seizures in mice thought as a model of drug-resistant seizures. CYT administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) in a dose of 2 mg kg -1 significantly inhibited the anticonvulsant activity of lacosamide, levetiracetam, and pregabalin, increasing their median effective doses 50 (ED 50 ) values from 6.88 to 10.52 mg kg -1 (P < 0.05) for lacosamide, from 22.08 to 38.26 mg kg -1 (P < 0.05) for levetiracetam, and from 40.48 to 64.61 mg kg -1 (P < 0.01) for pregabalin, respectively. There were no significant changes in total brain concentrations of lacosamide, levetiracetam, and pregabalin following CYT i.p. administration. CYT administered in a dose of 2 mg kg -1 failed to change the protective action of clobazam, clonazepam, phenobarbital, tiagabine, and valproate in the 6-Hz test. Neither CYT (2 mg kg -1 ) alone nor its combination with the anticonvulsant drugs (at their ED 50 values from the 6-Hz test) affected motor coordination; skeletal muscular strength and long-term memory, as determined in the chimney; and grip strength and passive avoidance tests, respectively. CYT-evoked alterations in the protection provided by some antiepileptic drugs against seizures can be of serious concern for epileptic smokers, who might demonstrate therapeutic failure to lacosamide, levetiracetam, and pregabalin, resulting in possible breakthrough seizure attacks.

  20. Protective effect of tanshinone IIA against cardiac hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats through inhibiting the Cys-C/Wnt signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jun; Chen, Hua-Wen; Pi, Li-Juan; Wang, Jin; Zhan, Da-Qian

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the protective effect of tanshinone IIA against cardiac hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) through the Cys-C/Wnt signaling pathway. Thirty SHRs were randomly divided into cardiac hypertrophy, low- and high-dose tanshinone IIA groups. Ten Wistar-Kyoto rats were selected as control group. The systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart weight (HW), left ventricular weight (LVW) and body weight (BW) of all rats were recorded. HE staining and qRT-PCR were applied to observe the morphology of myocardial tissue and mRNA expressions of COL1A1 and COL3A1. ELISA and Western blotting were used to measure the serum asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), nitric oxide (NO) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels, and the expressions of the Cys-C/Wnt signaling pathway-related proteins, eNOS and Nox4. Compared with the cardiac hypertrophy group, the SBP, HW/BW, LVW/BW, swelling degree of myocardial cells, COL1A1 and COL3A1 mRNA expressions, serum cTnI and ADMA levels, and the Cys-C/Wnt signaling pathway-related proteins and Nox4 expressions in the low- and high-dose tanshinone IIA groups were decreased, but the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), phosphorylated eNOS (Ser1177) and NO expressions were increased. No significant difference was found between the low- and high-dose tanshinone IIA groups. Our study indicated a protective effect of tanshinone IIA against cardiac hypertrophy in SHRs through inhibiting the Cys-C/Wnt signaling pathway. PMID:28053285

  1. Upregulation of microRNA-320 decreases the risk of developing steroid-induced avascular necrosis of femoral head by inhibiting CYP1A2 both in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ji-Hua; Luo, Qun-Qiang; Tang, Yu-Jin; Chen, Ji-Xia; Huang, Chun-Lan; Lu, Ding-Gui; Tang, Qian-Li

    2018-06-20

    Steroid-induced avascular necrosis of femoral head (SANFH) occurs frequently in patients receiving high-dose steroid treatment for these underlying diseases. The target of this study is to investigate the effect of microRNA-320 (miR-320) on SANFH by targeting CYP1A2. CYP1A2 expression was detected using immunohistochemistry. Specimens were collected from patients with SANFH and femoral neck fracture. Seventy rats were assigned into seven groups. The targeting relationship between miR-320 and CYP1A2 was verified by bioinformatics website and dual luciferase reporter gene assay. RT-qPCR and Western blot analysis were used to detect miR-320 and CYP1A2 expressions. The enzymatic activity of CYP1A2 was detected by fluorescence spectrophotometry. Hemorheology and microcirculation were measured in rats. MiR-320 expression decreased and CYP1A2 expression and enzymatic activity increased in SANFH patients compared to those with femoral neck fracture. CYP1A2 was the target gene of miR-320. Hemorheology and microcirculation results showed that up-regulated expression of CYP1A2 promoted the development of SANFH while increased expression of miR-320 inhibited the development of SANFH. Compared with the SANFH group, the SANFH + miR-320 mimic group showed increased miRNA-320 expression, and decreased CYP1A2 expression and enzymatic activity. Opposite results were found in the SANFH + miR-320 inhibitor group. The SANFH + miR-320 inhibitor + pCR-CYP1A2_KO group showed decreased miRNA-320 expression and the SANFH + pCR-CYP1A2_KO group showed decreased CYP1A2 expression and enzymatic activity. Our findings provide evidences that miR-320 might inhibit the development of SANFH by targeting CYP1A2. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Apigenin protects blood-brain barrier and ameliorates early brain injury by inhibiting TLR4-mediated inflammatory pathway in subarachnoid hemorrhage rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Su, Jingyuan; Guo, Bingyu; Wang, Kaiwen; Li, Xiaoming; Liang, Guobiao

    2015-09-01

    Early brain injury (EBI) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Inflammation has been considered as the major contributor to brain damage after SAH. SAH induces a systemic increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB) facilitates the influx of inflammatory cells. It has been reported that the activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/NF-κB signaling pathway plays a vital role in the central nervous system diseases. Apigenin, a common plant flavonoid, possesses anti-inflammation effect. In this study, we focused on the effects of apigenin on EBI following SAH and its anti-inflammation mechanism. Our results showed that apigenin (20mg/kg) administration significantly attenuated EBI (including brain edema, BBB disruption, neurological deficient, severity of SAH, and cell apoptosis) after SAH in rats by suppressing the expression of TLR4, NF-κB and their downstream pro-inflammatory cytokines in the cortex and by up-regulating the expression of tight junction proteins of BBB. Double immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that TLR4 was activated following SAH in neurons, microglia cells, and endothelial cells but not in astrocytes. Apigenin could suppress the activation of TLR4 induced by SAH and inhibit apoptosis of cells in the cortex. These results suggested that apigenin could attenuate EBI after SAH in rats by suppressing TLR4-mediated inflammation and protecting against BBB disruption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Acetaminophen and aspirin inhibit superoxide anion generation and lipid peroxidation, and protect against 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, D S; Saravanan, K S; Maharaj, H; Mohanakumar, K P; Daya, S

    2004-04-01

    We assessed the antioxidant activity of non-narcotic analgesics, acetaminophen and aspirin in rat brain homogenates and neuroprotective effects in vivo in rats intranigrally treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium (MPP+). Both drugs inhibited cyanide-induced superoxide anion generation, as well as lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates, the combination of the agents resulting in a potentiation of this effect. Acetaminophen or aspirin when administered alone or in combination, did not alter dopamine (DA) levels in the forebrain or in the striatum. Intranigral infusion of MPP+ in rats caused severe depletion of striatal DA levels in the ipsilateral striatum in rats by the third day. Systemic post-treatment of acetaminophen afforded partial protection, whereas similar treatment of aspirin resulted in complete blockade of MPP+-induced striatal DA depletion. While these findings suggest usefulness of non-narcotic analgesics in neuroprotective therapy in neurodegenerative diseases, aspirin appears to be a potential candidate in prophylactic as well as in adjuvant therapy in Parkinson's disease.

  4. Plant Natural Product Formononetin Protects Rat Cardiomyocyte H9c2 Cells against Oxygen Glucose Deprivation and Reoxygenation via Inhibiting ROS Formation and Promoting GSK-3β Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Xia, Zhengyuan; Han, Yifan; Rong, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    The opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is a major cause of cell death in ischemia reperfusion injury. Based on our pilot experiments, plant natural product formononetin enhanced the survival of rat cardiomyocyte H9c2 cells during oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) and reoxygenation. For mechanistic studies, we focused on two major cellular factors, namely, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), in the regulation of mPTP opening. We found that formononetin suppressed the formation of ROS and superoxide in a concentration-dependent manner. Formononetin also rescued OGD/reoxygenation-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane integrity. Further studies suggested that formononetin induced Akt activation and GSK-3β (Ser9) phosphorylation, thereby reducing GSK-3β activity towards mPTP opening. PI3K and PKC inhibitors abolished the effects of formononetin on mPTP opening and GSK-3β phosphorylation. Immunoprecipitation experiments further revealed that formononetin increased the binding of phosphor-GSK-3β to adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) while it disrupted the complex of ANT with cyclophilin D. Moreover, immunofluorescence revealed that phospho-GSK-3β (Ser9) was mainly deposited in the space between mitochondria and cell nucleus. Collectively, these results indicated that formononetin protected cardiomyocytes from OGD/reoxygenation injury via inhibiting ROS formation and promoting GSK-3β phosphorylation.

  5. Overexpression of the long noncoding RNA TUG1 protects against cold-induced injury of mouse livers by inhibiting apoptosis and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Su, Song; Liu, Jiang; He, Kai; Zhang, Mengyu; Feng, Chunhong; Peng, Fangyi; Li, Bo; Xia, Xianming

    2016-04-01

    Hepatic injury provoked by cold storage is a major problem affecting liver transplantation, as exposure to cold induces apoptosis in hepatic tissues. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are increasingly understood to regulate apoptosis, but the contribution of lncRNAs to cold-induced liver injury remains unknown. Using RNA-seq, we determined the differential lncRNA expression profile in mouse livers after cold storage and found that expression of the lncRNA TUG1 was significantly down-regulated. Overexpression of TUG1 attenuated cold-induced apoptosis in mouse hepatocytes and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells LSECs, in part by blocking mitochondrial apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways. Moreover, TUG1 attenuated apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress in vivo in livers subjected to cold storage. Overexpression of TUG1 also improved hepatocyte function and prolonged hepatic graft survival rates in mice. These results suggest that the lncRNA TUG1 exerts a protective effect against cold-induced liver damage by inhibiting apoptosis in mice, and suggests a potential role for TUG1 as a target for the prevention of cold-induced liver damage in liver transplantation. RNA-seq data are available from GEO using accession number GSE76609. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  6. Inhibition of glutamate-induced intensification of free radical reactions by gangliosides: possible role in their protective effect in rat cerebellar granule cells and brain synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Avrova, N F; Victorov, I V; Tyurin, V A; Zakharova, I O; Sokolova, T V; Andreeva, N A; Stelmaschuk, E V; Tyurina, Y Y; Gonchar, V S

    1998-07-01

    The neurotoxic effect of exposure of rat cerebellar granule cells to glutamate (100 microM) is to a large extent prevented by incubation of neurons not only with micromolar, but even with nanomolar concentrations of gangliosides GM1, GD1b, and GT1b. GM1 was also shown to decrease significantly the per cent of dead neurons in culture after induction of lipid peroxidation. Exposure to glutamate was found to cause a significant decrease of the activity of Na+, K+-ATP-ase in rat brain cortex synaptosomes, but superoxide dismutase, alpha-tocopherol, or 10-100 nM GM1 practically prevented its action. Other data showing the ability of gangliosides to inhibit the intensification of free radical reactions by glutamate (based on the estimation of methemoglobin formation, SH group content, etc.) have been obtained. The results suggest that gangliosides are able to decrease the glutamate-induced activation of free radical reactions in nerve cells. This effect appears to contribute to their protective action against glutamate neurotoxicity.

  7. Plant Natural Product Formononetin Protects Rat Cardiomyocyte H9c2 Cells against Oxygen Glucose Deprivation and Reoxygenation via Inhibiting ROS Formation and Promoting GSK-3β Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Xia, Zhengyuan; Han, Yifan; Rong, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    The opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is a major cause of cell death in ischemia reperfusion injury. Based on our pilot experiments, plant natural product formononetin enhanced the survival of rat cardiomyocyte H9c2 cells during oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) and reoxygenation. For mechanistic studies, we focused on two major cellular factors, namely, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), in the regulation of mPTP opening. We found that formononetin suppressed the formation of ROS and superoxide in a concentration-dependent manner. Formononetin also rescued OGD/reoxygenation-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane integrity. Further studies suggested that formononetin induced Akt activation and GSK-3β (Ser9) phosphorylation, thereby reducing GSK-3β activity towards mPTP opening. PI3K and PKC inhibitors abolished the effects of formononetin on mPTP opening and GSK-3β phosphorylation. Immunoprecipitation experiments further revealed that formononetin increased the binding of phosphor-GSK-3β to adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) while it disrupted the complex of ANT with cyclophilin D. Moreover, immunofluorescence revealed that phospho-GSK-3β (Ser9) was mainly deposited in the space between mitochondria and cell nucleus. Collectively, these results indicated that formononetin protected cardiomyocytes from OGD/reoxygenation injury via inhibiting ROS formation and promoting GSK-3β phosphorylation. PMID:27034732

  8. Pomegranate protects liver against cecal ligation and puncture-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in rats through TLR4/NF-κB pathway inhibition.

    PubMed

    Makled, Mirhan N; El-Awady, Mohammed S; Abdelaziz, Rania R; Atwan, Nadia; Guns, Emma T; Gameil, Nariman M; Shehab El-Din, Ahmed B; Ammar, Elsayed M

    2016-04-01

    Acute liver injury secondary to sepsis is a major challenge in intensive care unit. This study was designed to investigate potential protective effects of pomegranate against sepsis-induced acute liver injury in rats and possible underlying mechanisms. Pomegranate was orally given (800mg/kg/day) for two weeks before sepsis induction by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Pomegranate improved survival and attenuated liver inflammatory response, likely related to downregulation of mRNA expression of toll like recptor-4, reduced nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB subunit p65, decreased mRNA and protein expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and reduction in myeloperoxidase activity and mRNA expression. Pomegranate also decreased CLP-induced oxidative stress as reflected by decreased malondialdehyde content, and increased reduced glutathione level and superoxide dismutase activity. These results confirm the antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects of pomegranate in CLP-induced acute liver injury mediated through inhibiting TLR4/NF-κB pathway, lipid peroxidation and neutrophil infiltration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Prodigiosin inhibits gp91{sup phox} and iNOS expression to protect mice against the oxidative/nitrosative brain injury induced by hypoxia-ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chia-Che; Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; Agricultural Biotechnology Center, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan

    2011-11-15

    This study aimed to explore the mechanisms by which prodigiosin protects against hypoxia-induced oxidative/nitrosative brain injury induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAo/r) injury in mice. Hypoxia in vitro was modeled using oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by reoxygenation of BV-2 microglial cells. Our results showed that treatment of mice that have undergone MCAo/r injury with prodigiosin (10 and 100 {mu}g/kg, i.v.) at 1 h after hypoxia ameliorated MCAo/r-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress, brain infarction, and neurological deficits in the mice, and enhanced their survival rate. MCAo/r induced a remarkable production in the mouse brains of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a significantmore » increase in protein nitrosylation; this primarily resulted from enhanced expression of NADPH oxidase 2 (gp91{sup phox}), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and the infiltration of CD11b leukocytes due to breakdown of blood-brain barrier (BBB) by activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B). All these changes were significantly diminished by prodigiosin. In BV-2 cells, OGD induced ROS and nitric oxide production by up-regulating gp91{sup phox} and iNOS via activation of the NF-{kappa}B pathway, and these changes were suppressed by prodigiosin. In conclusion, our results indicate that prodigiosin reduces gp91{sup phox} and iNOS expression possibly by impairing NF-{kappa}B activation. This compromises the activation of microglial and/or inflammatory cells, which then, in turn, mediates prodigiosin's protective effect in the MCAo/r mice. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prodigiosin ameliorated brain infarction and deficits. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prodigiosin protected against hypoxia/reperfusion-induced brain injury. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prodigiosin diminished oxidative/nitrosativestress and leukocytes infiltration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prodigiosin reduced BBB breakdown. Black

  10. Protective effect of Sesbania grandiflora on acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis in mice by inhibition of TNF-α and IL-6.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rohit A; Motiwala, Meha N; Mahajan, Ujawala N; Sabre, Sapna G

    2018-06-12

    presence of quercetin in concentration of 81.7 µg/mg of HASG. HASG (200 mg/kg) and Prednisolone (2 mg/kg) significantly reduced DAI and macroscopic scores. The haematological changes in experimental animals were restored upon treatment with HASG and Prednisolone. HASG showed potent antioxidant activity (In-vivo) by restoring the levels of SOD, GSH, MPO, MDA and NO. HASG was found to inhibit FFA levels, which may indicate inhibition of TLR4 receptor mediated inflammation. The levels of serological biomarkers like TNF-α and IL-6 were found to be suppressed. Histopathological investigation reveals decrease signs of ulceration, necrosis, cellular infiltration, hyperaemia in HASG treated animals. The results of HASG (200 mg/kg) were found to be comparable with Prednisolone (2 mg/kg) significantly. The protective action of HASG against acetic acid induced UC is attributed to the antioxidant like action (In-vitro and In-vivo) of highly polymerized polyphenols and flavonoids especially quercetin. Also HASG was found to reduce the levels of TNF-α and IL-6, thereby suppressing their inflammatory response in UC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Protective mechanisms of CA074-me (other than cathepsin-B inhibition) against programmed necrosis induced by global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Wang, Jingye; Song, Xinghui; Wei, Ruili; He, Fangping; Peng, Guoping; Luo, Benyan

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the key role of lysosomes in ischemic cell death in the brain and have led to the "lysosomocentric" hypothesis. In this hypothesis, the release of cathepsin-B due to a change of lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) or rupture is critical, and this can be prevented by its inhibitors CA074 and CA074-me. However, the role of CA074-me in neuronal death and its effect on the change of lysosomal membrane integrity after global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is not clear, so we investigated this here. Rat hippocampal CA1 neuronal death was evaluated after 20-min global cerebral I/R injury. CA074-me (1 μg, 10 μg) were given intracerebroventricularly 1h before ischemia or 1h post reperfusion. The changes of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), cathepsin-B, lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1), receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3), and the change of lysosomal pH were evaluated respectively. Hippocampal CA1 neuronal programmed necrosis induced by global cerebral I/R injury was prevented by CA074-me both pre-treatment and post-treatment. Diffuse cytoplasmic cathepsin-B and LAMP-1 immunostaining synchronized with the pyknotic nuclear changes 2 days post reperfusion, and a rise of lysosomal pH with the leakage of DND-153, a dye of lysosomes, after oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) was detected. Both of these changes demonstrated the rupture of lysosomal membrane and the leakage of cathepsin-B, and this was strongly inhibited by CA074-me pre-treatment. The overexpression and nuclear translocation of RIP3 and the reduction of NAD(+) level after I/R injury were also inhibited, while the upregulation of Hsp70 was strengthened by CA074-me pre-treatment. Delayed fulminant leakage of cathepsin-B due to lysosomal rupture is a critical harmful factor in neuronal programmed necrosis induced by 20-min global I/R injury. In addition to being an inhibitor of cathepsin-B, CA074-me may have an indirect neuroprotective effect by

  12. Evaluation of TcpF-A2-CTB Chimera and Evidence of Additive Protective Efficacy of Immunizing with TcpF and CTB in the Suckling Mouse Model of Cholera

    PubMed Central

    Price, Gregory A.; Holmes, Randall K.

    2012-01-01

    The secreted colonization factor, TcpF, which is produced by Vibrio cholerae 01 and 0139, has generated interest as a potential protective antigen in the development of a subunit vaccine against cholera. This study evaluated immunogenicity/protective efficacy of a TcpF holotoxin-like chimera (TcpF-A2-CTB) following intraperitoneal immunization compared to TcpF alone, a TcpF+CTB mixture, or CTB alone. Immunization with the TcpF-A2-CTB chimera elicited significantly greater amounts of anti-TcpF IgG than immunization with the other antigens (P<0.05). Protective efficacy was measured using 6-day-old pups reared from immunized dams and orogastrically challenged with a lethal dose of El Tor V. cholerae 01 Inaba strain N16961. Protection from death, and weight loss analysis at 24 and 48 hours post-infection demonstrated that immunization with TcpF alone was poorly protective. However, immunization with TcpF+CTB was highly protective and showed a trend toward greater protection than immunization with CTB alone (82% vs 64% survival). Immunization with the TcpF-A2-CTB chimera demonstrated less protection (50% survival) than immunization with the TcpF+CTB mixture. The TcpF-A2-CTB chimera used for this study contained the heterologous classical CTB variant whereas the El Tor CTB variant (expressed by the challenge strain) was used in the other immunization groups. For all immunization groups that received CTB, quantitative ELISA data demonstrated that the amounts of serum IgG directed against the homologous immunizing CTB antigen was statistically greater than the amount to the heterologous CTB antigen (P≤0.003). This finding provides a likely explanation for the poorer protection observed following immunization with the TcpF-A2-CTB chimera and the relatively high level of protection seen after immunization with homologous CTB alone. Though immunization with TcpF alone provided no protection, the additive protective effect when TcpF was combined with CTB demonstrates its

  13. Oxygen glucose deprivation post-conditioning protects cortical neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation injury: role of HSP70 and inhibition of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-hua; Meng, Xian-li; Zhang, Jian; Li, Yong-li; Li, Yue-juan; Fan, Zhe-ming

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) post-conditioning (PostC) on neural cell apoptosis in OGD-PostC model and the protective effect on primary cortical neurons against OGD injury in vitro. Four-h OGD was induced by OGD by using a specialized and humidified chamber. To initiate OGD, culture medium was replaced with de-oxygenated and glucose-free extracellular solution-Locke's medium. After OGD treatment for 4 h, cells were then allowed to recover for 6 h or 20 h. Then lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay, Western blotting and flow cytometry were used to detect cell death, protein levels and apoptotic cells, respectively. For the PostC treatment, three cycles of 15-min OGD, followed by 15 min normal cultivation, were applied immediately after injurious 4-h OGD. Cells were then allowed to recover for 6 h or 20 h, and cell death was assessed by LDH release assay. Apoptotic cells were flow cytometrically evaluated after 4-h OGD, followed by re-oxygenation for 20 h (O4/R20). In addition, Western blotting was used to examine the expression of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70), Bcl-2 and Bax. The ratio of Bcl-2 expression was (0.44±0.08)% and (0.76±0.10)%, and that of Bax expression was (0.51±0.05)% and (0.39±0.04)%, and that of HSP70 was (0.42±0.031)% and (0.72±0.045)% respectively in OGD group and PostC group. After O4/R6, the rate of neuron death in PostC group and OGD groups was (28.96±3.03)% and (37.02±4.47)%, respectively. Therefore, the PostC treatment could up-regulate the expression of HSP70 and Bcl-2, but down-regulate Bax expression. As compared with OGD group, OGD-induced neuron death and apoptosis were significantly decreased in PostC group (P<0.05). These findings suggest that PostC inhibited OGD-induced neuron death. This neuro-protective effect is likely achieved by anti-apoptotic mechanisms and is associated with over-expression of HSP70.

  14. [Protective effect of pretreatment of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. f. alba plasma against oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced injury of cultured rat hippocampal neurons by inhibiting apoptosis].

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Yi; Zhang, Yan-Bo; Zuo, Huan; Liu, Li-Li; Niu, Jing-Zhong

    2012-02-25

    The present study was to investigate the effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. f. alba (SMA) pharmacological pretreatment on apoptosis of cultured hippocampal neurons from neonate rats under oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Cultured hippocampal neurons were randomly divided into five groups (n = 6): normal plasma group, low dose SMA plasma (2.5%) group, middle dose SMA plasma (5%) group, high dose SMA plasma (10%) group and control group. The hippocampal neurons were cultured and treated with plasma from adult Wistar rats intragastrically administered with saline or aqueous extract of SMA. The apoptosis of neurons was induced by glucose-free Earle's solution containing 1 mmol/L Na2S2O4 and labeled by MTT and Annexin V/PI double staining. Moreover, protein expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax were detected by immunofluorescence. The results showed that few apoptotic cells were observed in control group, whereas the number of apoptotic cells was greatly increased in normal plasma group and low dose SMA plasma group. Both middle and high dose SMA plasma could protect cultured hippocampal neurons from apoptosis induced by OGD (P < 0.05). The protective effect of high dose SMA plasma was stronger than that of middle one (P < 0.05). Compared to control, normal plasma and low dose SMA plasma groups, middle and high dose SMA plasma groups both showed significantly higher levels of Bcl-2 (P < 0.05 or 0.01), whereas expressions of Bax was opposite. There were no significant differences of Bcl-2 and Bax expressions between middle and high dose SMA plasma groups. Number of Bcl-2- and Bax-positive cells had similar tendency. Bcl-2/Bax (number of positive cells) ratio was higher in high dose SMA plasma group than those of all the other groups (P < 0.05 or 0.01). These results suggest that pharmacological pretreatment of blood plasma containing middle and high dose SMA could raise viability and inhibit apoptosis of OGD-injured hippocampal neurons by up-regulating the expression of Bcl-2

  15. Protective effects of geniposide and ginsenoside Rg1 combination treatment on rats following cerebral ischemia are mediated via microglial microRNA‑155‑5p inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Li, Dan; Hou, Jincai; Lei, Hongtao

    2018-02-01

    protected against focal cerebral ischemia in rats through inhibition of microglial miR‑155‑5p following ischemic injury, which may serve as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of strokes.

  16. Propofol protects hippocampal neurons from apoptosis in ischemic brain injury by increasing GLT-1 expression and inhibiting the activation of NMDAR via the JNK/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hong-Yan; Zheng, Fang; Zhang, Chao; Chen, Xi-Yan; Liu, Jing-Jing; Yue, Xiu-Qin

    2016-09-01

    Ischemic brain injury (IBI) can cause nerve injury and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The neuroprotective effects of propofol against IBI have been previously demonstrated. However, the neuroprotective effects of propofol on hippocampal neurons are not yet entirely clear. In the present study, models of IBI were established in hypoxia-exposed hippocampal neuronal cells. Cell viability assay and apoptosis assay were performed to examine the neuroprotective effects of propofol on hippocampal neurons in IBI. A significant decrease in cell viability and a significant increase in cell apoptosis were observed in the IBI group compared with the control group, accompanied by a decrease in glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT‑1) expression as determined by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis. The effects of IBI were reversed by propofol treatment. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of GLT‑1 in the hypoxia-exposed hippocampal neuronal cells led to an increase in cell apoptosis, Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation and N-methyl-D‑aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NR1 and NR2B) activation, as well as to a decrease in cell viability and a decrease in Akt activation. The effects of RNA interference-mediated GLT‑1 gene silencing on cell viability, JNK activation, NMDAR activation, cell apoptosis and Akt activation in the hippocampal neuronal cells were slightly reversed by propofol treatment. The JNK agonist, anisomycin, and the Akt inhibitor, LY294002, both significantly blocked the effects of propofol on hippocampal neuronal cell viability and apoptosis in IBI. The decrease in JNK activation and the increase in Akt activation caused by GLT‑1 overexpression were reversed by NMDA. Collectively, our findings suggest that propofol treatment protects hippocampal neurons against IBI by enhancing GLT‑1 expression and inhibiting the activation of NMDAR via the JNK/Akt signaling pathway.

  17. Sestrin2 Induced by Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 alpha protects the Blood-Brain Barrier via Inhibiting VEGF after Severe Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury in Neonatal Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xudan; Doycheva, Desislava Met; Xu, Liang; Tang, Jiping; Yan, Min; Zhang, John H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hypoxic ischemic (HI) encephalopathy remains the leading cause of perinatal brain injury resulting in long term disabilities. Stabilization of blood brain barrier (BBB) after HI is an important target, therefore, in this study we aim to determine the role of sestrin2, a stress inducible protein which is elevated after various insults, on BBB stabilization after moderate and severe HI injury. Methods Rat pups underwent common carotid artery ligation followed by either 150 min (severe model) or 100 min (moderate model) of hypoxia. 1h post HI, rats were intranasally administered with recombinant human sestrin2 (rh-sestrin2) and sacrificed for infarct area, brain water content, righting reflex and geotaxis reflex. Sestrin2 was silenced using siRNA and an activator/inhibitor of hypoxia inducible factor1α (HIF1α) were used to examine their roles on BBB permeability. Results Rats subjected to severe HI exhibited larger infarct area and higher sestrin2 expression compared to rats in the moderate HI group. rh-sestrin2 attenuated brain infarct and edema, while silencing sestrin2 reversed these protective effects after severe HI. HIF1α induced sestrin2 activation in severe HI but not in moderate HI groups. A HIF1a agonist was shown to increase permeability of the BBB via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) after moderate HI. However, after severe HI, HIF1α activated both VEGF and sestrin2. But HIF1α dependent sestrin2 activation was the predominant pathway after severe HI which inhibited VEGF and attenuated BBB permeability. Conclusions rh-sestrin2 attenuated BBB permeability via upregulation of endogenous sestrin2 which was induced by HIF1α after severe HI. However, HIF1α’s effects as a prodeath or prosurvival signal were influenced by the severity of HI injury. PMID:27425892

  18. Inhibition of P2X Receptors Protects Human Monocytes against Damage by Leukotoxin from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and α-Hemolysin from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Skals, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    α-Hemolysin (HlyA) from Escherichia coli and leukotoxin A (LtxA) from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans are important virulence factors in ascending urinary tract infections and aggressive periodontitis, respectively. The extracellular signaling molecule ATP is released immediately after insertion of the toxins into plasma membranes and, via P2X receptors, is essential for the erythrocyte damage inflicted by these toxins. Moreover, ATP signaling is required for the ensuing recognition and phagocytosis of damaged erythrocytes by the monocytic cell line THP-1. Here, we investigate how these toxins affect THP-1 monocyte function. We demonstrate that both toxins trigger early ATP release and a following increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in THP-1 monocytes. The HlyA- and LtxA-induced [Ca2+]i response is diminished by the P2 receptor antagonist in a pattern that fits the functional P2 receptor expression in these cells. Both toxins are capable of lysing THP-1 cells, with LtxA being more aggressive. Either desensitization or blockage of P2X1, P2X4, or P2X7 receptors markedly reduces toxin-induced cytolysis. This pattern is paralleled in freshly isolated human monocytes from healthy volunteers. Interestingly, only a minor fraction of the toxin-damaged THP-1 monocytes eventually lyse. P2X7 receptor inhibition generally prevents cell damage, except from a distinct cell shrinkage that prevails in response to the toxins. Moreover, we find that preexposure to HlyA preserves the capacity of THP-1 monocytes to phagocytose damaged erythrocytes and may induce readiness to discriminate between damaged and healthy erythrocytes. These findings suggest a new pharmacological target for protecting monocytes during exposure to pore-forming cytolysins during infection or injury. PMID:27528275

  19. Hypertension exacerbates predisposition to neurodegeneration and memory impairment in the presence of a neuroinflammatory stimulus: Protection by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ruby; Bhat, Shahnawaz Ali; Rajasekar, N; Hanif, Kashif; Nath, Chandishwar; Shukla, Rakesh

    2015-06-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor for cognitive impairment. Furthermore, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration are intricately associated with memory impairment. Therefore, the present study aimed to explore the involvement of hypertension and angiotensin system in neurodegeneration and memory dysfunction in the presence of neuroinflammatory stimulus. Memory impairment was induced by chronic neuroinflammation that was developed by repeated intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the 1st, 4th, 7th, and 10th day. Memory functions were evaluated by the Morris water maze (MWM) test on days 13-15, followed by biochemical and molecular studies in the cortex and hippocampus regions of rat brain. LPS at the dose of 25μg ICV caused memory impairment in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) but not in normotensive Wistar rats (NWRs). Memory deficit was obtained with 50μg of LPS (ICV) in NWRs. Control SHRs already exhibited increased angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity and expression, neuroinflammation (increased TNF-α, GFAP, COX-2 and NF-kB), oxidative stress (increased iNOS, ROS and nitrite levels), TLR-4 expression and TUNEL positive cells as compared to control NWRs. Further, LPS (25μg ICV) exaggerated inflammatory response, oxidative stress and apoptosis in SHRs but similar effects were witnessed at 50μg of LPS (ICV) in NWRs. Oral administration of perindopril (ACE inhibitor), at non-antihypertensive dose (0.1mg/kg), for 15days attenuated LPS induced deleterious changes in both NWRs and SHRs. Our data suggest that susceptibility of the brain for neurodegeneration and memory impairment induced by neuroinflammation is enhanced in hypertension, and that can be protected by ACE inhibition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Protective Effect of Brown-, Gray-, and Blue-Tinted Lenses against Blue LED Light-Induced Cell Death in A2E-Laden Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Il; Jang, Young Pyo

    2017-01-01

    A2E-laden ARPE-19 cells were exposed to a blue light to induce cytotoxicity, in order to investigate the protective effects of various tinted ophthalmic lenses against photo-induced cytotoxicity in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells laden with A2E, known to be among the etiologies of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Different-colored tinted lenses with varying levels of tint and different filtering characteristics, such as polarized, blue-cut, and photochromatic lenses, were placed over the cells, and the protective efficacies thereof were evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase assay. When tinted lenses were placed over ARPE-19 cells, there were different reductions in cytotoxicity according to the colors and tint levels. The level of protection afforded by brown-tinted lenses was 6.9, 36.1, and 49% with a tint level of 15, 50, and 80%, respectively. For gray-tinted lenses, the protective effect was 16.3, 35, and 43.4% for the corresponding degree of tint, respectively. In the case of blue-tinted lenses, a protective effect of 20% was observed with 80% tinted lenses, but 15 and 50% tinted lenses provided no significant protection. In addition, photochromic lenses showed a protective effect but blue-cut lenses and polarized lenses provided no significant protection. Tinted lenses sign