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Sample records for a2 inhibitor 4-bromophenacyl

  1. Modeling of substrate and inhibitor binding to phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Sessions, R B; Dauber-Osguthorpe, P; Campbell, M M; Osguthorpe, D J

    1992-09-01

    Molecular graphics and molecular mechanics techniques have been used to study the mode of ligand binding and mechanism of action of the enzyme phospholipase A2. A substrate-enzyme complex was constructed based on the crystal structure of the apoenzyme. The complex was minimized to relieve initial strain, and the structural and energetic features of the resultant complex analyzed in detail, at the molecular and residue level. The minimized complex was then used as a basis for examining the action of the enzyme on modified substrates, binding of inhibitors to the enzyme, and possible reaction intermediate complexes. The model is compatible with the suggested mechanism of hydrolysis and with experimental data about stereoselectivity, efficiency of hydrolysis of modified substrates, and inhibitor potency. In conclusion, the model can be used as a tool in evaluating new ligands as possible substrates and in the rational design of inhibitors, for the therapeutic treatment of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, and asthma.

  2. Class specific peptide inhibitors for secretory phospholipases A2.

    PubMed

    Mahalka, Ajay K; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

    2013-06-28

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) catalyze the hydrolytic cleavage of free fatty acids from the sn-2 OH-moiety of glycerophospholipids. These enzymes have a number of functions, from digestion to signaling and toxicity of several venoms. They have also been implicated in inflammation and are connected to diverse diseases, such as cancer, ischemia, atherosclerosis, and schizophrenia. Accordingly, there is a keen interest to develop selective inhibitors for therapeutic use. We recently proposed a novel mechanism for the control of PLA2 activity with highly active protofibrils of PLA2 existing transiently before conversion to inactive amyloid fibrils [19]. In keeping with the above mechanism several algorithms identified (85)KMYFNLI(91) and (17)AALSYGFYG(25) in bee venom (bv) and human lacrimal fluid (Lf) PLA2, respectively, as a regions potentially forming amyloid type aggregates. Interestingly, in keeping with the proposed role of these sequences in the control of the activity of these enzymes, preincubation of 2nM bvPLA2 with (85)KMYFNLI(91) caused complete inhibition of PLA2 activity while the scrambled control peptide YNFLIMK had no effect. Approximately 36% attenuation of the hydrolytic activity of LfPLA2 present in human lacrimal fluid was observed in the presence of 80nM (17)AALSYGFYG(25). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Discovery of Ecopladib, an indole inhibitor of cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha.

    PubMed

    Lee, Katherine L; Foley, Megan A; Chen, Lihren; Behnke, Mark L; Lovering, Frank E; Kirincich, Steven J; Wang, Weiheng; Shim, Jaechul; Tam, Steve; Shen, Marina W H; Khor, Soopeang; Xu, Xin; Goodwin, Debra G; Ramarao, Manjunath K; Nickerson-Nutter, Cheryl; Donahue, Frances; Ku, M Sherry; Clark, James D; McKew, John C

    2007-03-22

    The synthesis and structure-activity relationship of a series of indole inhibitors of cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha (cPLA2alpha, type IVA phospholipase) are described. Inhibitors of cPLA2alpha are predicted to be efficacious in treating asthma as well as the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and pain. The introduction of a benzyl sulfonamide substituent at C2 was found to impart improved potency of these inhibitors, and the SAR of these sulfonamide analogues is disclosed. Compound 123 (Ecopladib) is a sub-micromolar inhibitor of cPLA2alpha in the GLU micelle and rat whole blood assays. Compound 123 displayed oral efficacy in the rat carrageenan air pouch and rat carrageenan-induced paw edema models.

  4. 2-Oxoamide inhibitors of cytosolic group IVA phospholipase A2 with reduced lipophilicity.

    PubMed

    Antonopoulou, Georgia; Magrioti, Victoria; Kokotou, Maroula G; Nikolaou, Aikaterini; Barbayianni, Efrosini; Mouchlis, Varnavas D; Dennis, Edward A; Kokotos, George

    2016-10-01

    Cytosolic GIVA phospholipase A2 (GIVA cPLA2) initiates the eicosanoid pathway of inflammation and thus inhibitors of this enzyme constitute novel potential agents for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Traditionally, GIVA cPLA2 inhibitors have suffered systemically from high lipophilicity. We have developed a variety of long chain 2-oxoamides as inhibitors of GIVA PLA2. Among them, AX048 was found to produce a potent analgesic effect. We have now reduced the lipophilicity of AX048 by replacing the long aliphatic chain with a chain containing an ether linked aromatic ring with in vitro inhibitory activities similar to AX048. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Small molecule inhibitors of the annexin A2 heterotetramer prevent human papillomavirus type 16 infection.

    PubMed

    Woodham, Andrew W; Taylor, Julia R; Jimenez, Andrew I; Skeate, Joseph G; Schmidt, Thomas; Brand, Heike E; Da Silva, Diane M; Kast, W Martin

    2015-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection leads to the development of several human cancers that cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. HPV type 16 (HPV16) is the most common of the cancer-causing genotypes and gains entry to the basal cells of the epithelium through a non-canonical endocytic pathway that involves the annexin A2/S100A10 heterotetramer (A2t). A2t is composed of two annexin A2 monomers bound to an S100A10 dimer and this interaction is a potential target to block HPV16 infection. Here, recently identified small molecule inhibitors of A2t (A2ti) were investigated for their ability to prevent HPV16 infection in vitro. A2ti were added to HeLa cells in increasing concentrations prior to the addition of HPV16. Cytotoxicity was evaluated via trypan blue exclusion. HPV16 pseudovirion infection and fluorescently labelled HPV16 capsid internalization was measured with flow cytometry. A2ti blocked HPV16 infection by 100% without substantial cellular toxicity or reduction in cell growth. Furthermore, A2ti blocked HPV16 entry into epithelial cells by 65%, indicating that the observed inhibition of HPV16 infection is in part due to a block in entry and that non-infectious entry may occur in the absence of A2t binding. These results demonstrate that targeting A2t may be an effective strategy to prevent HPV16 infection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Synthetic and natural inhibitors of phospholipases A2: their importance for understanding and treatment of neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Ong, Wei-Yi; Farooqui, Tahira; Kokotos, George; Farooqui, Akhlaq A

    2015-06-17

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) are a diverse group of enzymes that hydrolyze membrane phospholipids into arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids. Arachidonic acid is metabolized to eicosanoids (prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes), and lysophospholipids are converted to platelet-activating factors. These lipid mediators play critical roles in the initiation, maintenance, and modulation of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. Neurological disorders including excitotoxicity; traumatic nerve and brain injury; cerebral ischemia; Alzheimer's disease; Parkinson's disease; multiple sclerosis; experimental allergic encephalitis; pain; depression; bipolar disorder; schizophrenia; and autism are characterized by oxidative stress, inflammatory reactions, alterations in phospholipid metabolism, accumulation of lipid peroxides, and increased activities of brain phospholipase A2 isoforms. Several old and new synthetic inhibitors of PLA2, including fatty acid trifluoromethyl ketones; methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate; bromoenol lactone; indole-based inhibitors; pyrrolidine-based inhibitors; amide inhibitors, 2-oxoamides; 1,3-disubstituted propan-2-ones and polyfluoroalkyl ketones as well as phytochemical based PLA2 inhibitors including curcumin, Ginkgo biloba and Centella asiatica extracts have been discovered and used for the treatment of neurological disorders in cell culture and animal model systems. The purpose of this review is to summarize information on selective and potent synthetic inhibitors of PLA2 as well as several PLA2 inhibitors from plants, for treatment of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation associated with the pathogenesis of neurological disorders.

  7. Annexin A2 antibodies but not inhibitors of the annexin A2 heterotetramer impair productive HIV-1 infection of macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Woodham, Andrew W; Sanna, Adriana M; Taylor, Julia R; Skeate, Joseph G; Da Silva, Diane M; Dekker, Lodewijk V; Kast, W Martin

    2016-11-18

    During sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), macrophages are initial targets for HIV infection. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) has been shown to protect against HIV infection of macrophages through interactions with annexin A2 (A2), which is found on the macrophage cell surface as a heterotetramer (A2t) consisting of A2 and S100A10. Therefore, we investigated potential protein-protein interactions between A2 and HIV-1 gp120 through a series of co-immunoprecipitation assays and a single molecule pulldown (SiMPull) technique. Additionally, inhibitors of A2t (A2ti) that target the interaction between A2 and S100A10 were tested for their ability to impair productive HIV-1 infection of macrophages. Our data suggest that interactions between HIV-1 gp120 and A2 exist, though this interaction may be indirect. Furthermore, an anti-A2 antibody impaired HIV-1 particle production in macrophages in vitro, whereas A2ti did not indicating that annexin A2 may promote HIV-1 infection of macrophages in its monomeric rather than tetrameric form.

  8. Synthesis and Evaluation of Phenylxanthine Derivatives as Potential Dual A2AR Antagonists/MAO-B Inhibitors for Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuebao; Han, Chao; Xu, Yong; Wu, Kaiqi; Chen, Shuangya; Hu, Mangsha; Wang, Luyao; Ye, Yun; Ye, Faqing

    2017-06-17

    The aim of this research was to prove the speculation that phenylxanthine (PX) derivatives possess adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-blocking properties and to screening and evaluate these PX derivatives as dual A2AR antagonists/MAO-B inhibitors for Parkinson's disease. To explore this hypothesis, two series of PX derivatives were prepared and their antagonism against A2AR and inhibition against MAO-B were determined in vitro. In order to evaluate further the antiparkinsonian properties, pharmacokinetic and haloperidol-induced catalepsy experiments were carried out in vivo. The PX-D and PX-E analogues acted as potent A2AR antagonists with Ki values ranging from 0.27 to 10 μM, and these analogues displayed relatively mild MAO-B inhibition potencies, with inhibitor dissociation constants (Ki values) ranging from 0.25 to 10 μM. Further, the compounds PX-D-P6 and PX-E-P8 displayed efficacious antiparkinsonian properties in haloperidol-induced catalepsy experiments, verifying that these two compounds were potent A2AR antagonists and MAO-B inhibitors. We conclude that PX-D and PX-E analogues are a promising candidate class of dual-acting compounds for treating Parkinson's disease.

  9. Isolation and biochemical characterization of a γ-type phospholipase A2 inhibitor from Crotalus durissus collilineatus snake serum.

    PubMed

    Gimenes, Sarah Natalie Cirilo; Ferreira, Francis Barbosa; Silveira, Ana Carolina Portella; Rodrigues, Renata Santos; Yoneyama, Kelly Aparecida Geraldo; Izabel Dos Santos, Juliana; Fontes, Marcos Roberto de Mattos; de Campos Brites, Vera Lúcia; Santos, André Luiz Quagliatto; Borges, Márcia Helena; Lopes, Daiana Silva; Rodrigues, Veridiana M

    2014-04-01

    In the present work, we describe the isolation and partial structural and biochemical characterization of the first phospholipase A2 inhibitor (γPLI) from Crotalus durissus collilineatus (Cdc) snake serum. Initially, the Cdc serum was subjected to a Q-Sepharose ion exchange column, producing six peaks at 280 nm absorbance (Q1-Q6). Subsequently, Q4 fraction was submitted to affinity chromatography with immobilized PLA2 BnSP-7, a step that resulted in two fractions (NHS-1 and NHS-2). The latter contained the inhibitor, denominated γCdcPLI. The molecular mass of γCdcPLI, determined by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF), was 22,340 Da. Partial sequences obtained by Edman degradation and by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF), showed similarity, as expected, to other related inhibitors. Circular dichroism (CD) analysis showed the presence of approximately 22% alpha helices and 29% beta sheets in the protein secondary structure. Additionally, CD studies also indicated no significant changes in the secondary structure of γCdcPLI when it is complexed to BpPLA2-TXI. On the other hand, dynamic light scattering (DLS) assays showed a temperature-dependent oligomerization behavior for this inhibitor. Biochemical analyses showed γCdcPLI was able to inhibit the enzymatic, cytotoxic and myotoxic activities of PLA2s. Structural and functional studies performed on this inhibitor may elucidate the action mechanisms of PLA2 inhibitors. In addition, we hope this study may contribute to investigating the potential use of these inhibitors for the treatment of snakebite or inflammatory diseases in which PLA2s may be involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular cloning and structural modelling of gamma-phospholipase A2 inhibitors from Bothrops atrox and Micrurus lemniscatus snakes.

    PubMed

    Picelli, Carina G; Borges, Rafael J; Fernandes, Carlos A H; Matioli, Fabio M; Fernandes, Carla F C; Sobrinho, Juliana C; Holanda, Rudson J; Ozaki, Luiz S; Kayano, Anderson M; Calderon, Leonardo A; Fontes, Marcos R M; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Soares, Andreimar M

    2017-10-01

    Phospholipases A 2 inhibitors (PLIs) produced by venomous and non-venomous snakes play essential role in this resistance. These endogenous inhibitors may be classified by their fold in PLIα, PLIβ and PLIγ. Phospholipases A 2 (PLA 2 s) develop myonecrosis in snake envenomation, a consequence that is not efficiently neutralized by antivenom treatment. This work aimed to identify and characterize two PLIs from Amazonian snake species, Bothrops atrox and Micrurus lemniscatus. Liver tissues RNA of specimens from each species were isolated and amplified by RT-PCR using PCR primers based on known PLIγ gene sequences, followed by cloning and sequencing of amplified fragments. Sequence similarity studies showed elevated identity with inhibitor PLIγ gene sequences from other snake species. Molecular models of translated inhibitors' gene sequences resemble canonical three finger fold from PLIγ and support the hypothesis that the decapeptide (residues 107-116) may be responsible for PLA 2 inhibition. Structural studies and action mechanism of these PLIs may provide necessary information to evaluate their potential as antivenom or as complement of the current ophidian accident treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Structure-Guided Discovery of Novel, Potent, and Orally Bioavailable Inhibitors of Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiufeng; Huang, Fubao; Yuan, Xiaojing; Wang, Kai; Zou, Yi; Shen, Jianhua; Xu, Yechun

    2017-12-28

    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a promising therapeutic target for atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and diabetic macular edema. Here we report the identification of novel sulfonamide scaffold Lp-PLA2 inhibitors derived from a relatively weak fragment. Similarity searching on this fragment followed by molecular docking leads to the discovery of a micromolar inhibitor with a 300-fold potency improvement. Subsequently, by the application of a structure-guided design strategy, a successful hit-to-lead optimization was achieved and a number of Lp-PLA2 inhibitors with single-digit nanomolar potency were obtained. After preliminary evaluation of the properties of drug-likeness in vitro and in vivo, compound 37 stands out from this congeneric series of inhibitors for good inhibitory activity and favorable oral bioavailability in male Sprague-Dawley rats, providing a quality candidate for further development. The present study thus clearly demonstrates the power and advantage of integrally employing fragment screening, crystal structures determination, virtual screening, and medicinal chemistry in an efficient lead discovery project, providing a good example for structure-based drug design.

  12. Naringin is a major and selective clinical inhibitor of organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2) in grapefruit juice.

    PubMed

    Bailey, D G; Dresser, G K; Leake, B F; Kim, R B

    2007-04-01

    We showed previously that grapefruit and orange juices inhibited human enteric organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)1A2 in vitro and lowered oral fexofenadine bioavailability clinically. Inhibition of OATP1A2 transport by flavonoids in grapefruit (naringin) and orange (hesperidin) was conducted in vitro. Two randomized, crossover, pharmacokinetic studies were performed clinically. In one study, 120 mg of fexofenadine was ingested with 300 ml grapefruit juice, an aqueous solution of naringin at the same juice concentration (1,200 microM), or water. In the other study, fexofenadine was administered with grapefruit juice, with or 2 h before aqueous suspension of the particulate fraction of juice containing known clinical inhibitors of enteric CYP3A4, but relatively low naringin concentration (34 microM), or with water. Naringin and hesperidin's half-maximal inhibitions were 3.6 and 2.7 microM, respectively. Fexofenadine area under the plasma drug concentration-time curves (AUCs) with grapefruit juice and naringin solution were 55% (P<0.001) and 75% (P<0.05) of that with water, respectively. Fexofenadine AUCs with grapefruit juice and particulate fractions were 57% (P<0.001), 96% (not significant (NS)), and 97% (NS) of that with water, respectively. Individuals tested in both studies (n=9 of 12) had highly reproducible fexofenadine AUC with water (r(2)=0.85, P<0.001) and extent of reduction of it with grapefruit juice (r(2)=0.72, P<0.01). Naringin most probably directly inhibited enteric OATP1A2 to decrease oral fexofenadine bioavailability. Inactivation of enteric CYP3A4 was probably not involved. Naringin appears to have sufficient safety, specificity, and sensitivity to be a clinical OATP1A2 inhibitor probe. Inherent OATP1A2 activity may be influenced by genetic factors. This appears to be the first report of a single dietary constituent clinically modulating drug transport.

  13. HSP90 inhibitor 17-DMAG enhances EphA2+ tumor cell recognition by specific CD8+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Kawabe, Mayumi; Mandic, Maja; Taylor, Jennifer L.; Vasquez, Cecilia A.; Wesa, Amy K.; Neckers, Leonard M.; Storkus, Walter J.

    2009-01-01

    EphA2, a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family, is commonly expressed by a broad range of cancer types, where its level of (over)expression correlates with poor clinical outcome. Since tumor cell expressed EphA2 is a non-mutated “self” protein, specific CD8+ T cells are subject to self-tolerance mechanisms and typically exhibit only moderate-to-low functional avidity, rendering them marginally competent to recognize EphA2+ tumor cells in vitro or in vivo. We have recently reported that the ability of specific CD8+ T cells to recognize EphA2+ tumor cells can be augmented after the cancer cells are pretreated with EphA2 agonists that promote proteasomal degradation and upregulated expression of EphA2/class I complexes on the tumor cell membrane (Wesa et al., J. Immunol. 2008;181:7721-7). In the current study we show that treatment of EphA2+ tumor cells with the irreversible HSP90 inhibitor, 17-DMAG, similarly enhances their recognition by EphA2-specific CD8+ T cell lines and clones in vitro via a mechanism that is dependent on proteasome and TAP function, as well as, the retrotranslocation of EphA2 into the tumor cytoplasm. When 17-DMAG and agonist anti-EphA2 mAb are co-applied, T cell recognition of tumor cells is further increased over that observed for either agent alone. These studies suggest that EphA2 represents a novel HSP90 client protein and that the treatment of cancer patients with 17-DMAG-based “pulse” therapy may improve the anti-tumor efficacy of CD8+ T effector cells reactive against EphA2-derived epitopes. PMID:19690146

  14. A new inhibitor of synovial phospholipase A2 from fermentations of Penicillium sp. 62-92.

    PubMed

    Witter, L; Anke, T; Sterner, O

    1998-01-01

    Penidiamide, a new tripetide containing dehydrotryptamine, glycine and anthranilic acid linked together by two amide bonds, and oxindole were isolated from submerged cultures of Penicillium sp. 62-92. Both compounds preferentially inhibited human synovial phospholipase A2, penidiamide with an IC50 of 30 microM and oxindole of 380 microM. With the exception of U 937 cells (leukemia, human), no cytotoxic activities were detected against HL-60- (leukemia, human), HeLa S3- (epitheloid carcinoma, human), BHK 21- (kidney fibroblasts, hamster), and L1210-cells (leukemia, mouse). No antimicrobial activity was detected for oxindole, and only weak antibacterial activity for penidiamide. The structure of penidiamide was elucidated by spectroscopic methods.

  15. Phytochrome-mediated synthesis of novel growth inhibitors, A-2α and β, and dwarfism in peas.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, H; Hashimoto, T

    1990-05-01

    Variations in the content of A-2α and β, novel endogenous growth inhibitors, andcis,trans- andtrans, trans-xanthoxins were determined in 6- or 7-d-old, dark-grown seedlings of peas (Pisum sativum L. cvs. Progress No. 9, dwarf, and Alaska, tall) under various treatments with red light (R), and compared with R-induced growth inhibition. After transfer of the plants to continuous R the contents of the A-2s in cv. Progress increased after a 20-min lag, and reached plateaus after 12 h, whereas they remained almost unchanged in darkness. Both the rates of increase of the A-2s and the plateau levels were proportional to the logarithm of the irradiance applied. After a 10-min R pulse, the contents of both A-2α and β increased with the same rapidity to reach peaks after 6 h, and then gradually decreased to the initial levels after about 24 h. The effect of R was shown to be phytochrome-dependent, being nullified by far-red light. The level of neithercis,trans- nortrans,trans-xanthoxin showed such a close correlation with growth inhibition, although both xanthoxins increased as a result of phytochrome action. It is highly suggestive that the A-2s, rather than the xanthoxins, are responsible for phytochrome-dependent growth inhibition in cv. Progress. In cv. Alaska, in contrast, R-induced increase of the A-2s was rapid but slight, and could not explain the transient growth inhibition, which was found to be as large as that in cv. Progress shortly after the onset of R. The large content of the A-2s in cv. Progress in the steady state under continuous R, compared with that in cv. Alaska, may explain the dwarfism of cv. Progress.

  16. Phospholipase A2 Inhibitor from Crotalus durissus terrificus rattlesnake: Effects on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and human neutrophils cells.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Caroline V; da S Setúbal, Sulamita; Lacouth-Silva, Fabianne; Pontes, Adriana S; Nery, Neriane M; de Castro, Onassis Boeri; Fernandes, Carla F C; Soares, Andreimar M; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo L; Zuliani, Juliana P

    2017-12-01

    Crotalus Neutralizing Factor (CNF) is an inhibitor of phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ), present in the blood plasma of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake. This inhibitor neutralizes the lethal and enzymatic activity of crotoxin, the main neurotoxin from this venom. In this study, we investigated the effects of CNF on the functionality of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and human neutrophils. The following parameters were evaluated: viability and proliferation, chemotaxis, cytokines and LTB 4 production, cytosolic PLA 2 s activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and superoxide anion (O 2 - ) production. CNF showed no toxicity on PBMCs or neutrophils, and acts by stimulating the release of TNF-α and LTB 4 , but neither stimulates IL-10 and IL-2 nor affects PBMCs proliferation and O 2 - release. In neutrophils, CNF induces chemotaxis but does not induce the release of both MPO and O 2 - . However, it induces LTB 4 and IL-8 production. These data show the influence of CNF on PBMCs' function by inducing TNF-α and LTB 4 production, and on neutrophils, by stimulating chemotaxis and LTB 4 production, via cytosolic PLA 2 activity, and IL-8 release. The inflammatory profile produced by CNF is shown for the first time. Our present results suggest that CNF has a role in activation of leukocytes and exert proinflammatory effects on these cell. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel phospholipase A2 inhibitors from python serum are potent peptide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Samy, Ramar Perumal; Thwin, Maung Maung; Stiles, Brad G; Satyanarayana-Jois, Seetharama; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Zayed, M E; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Siveen, Kodappully Sivaraman; Sikka, Sakshi; Kumar, Alan Prem; Sethi, Gautam; Lim, Lina Hsiu Kim

    2015-04-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play a vital role in defense against resistant bacteria. In this study, eight different AMPs synthesized from Python reticulatus serum protein were tested for bactericidal activity against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia pseudomallei (KHW and TES strains), and Proteus vulgaris) using a disc-diffusion method (20 μg/disc). Among the tested peptides, phospholipase A2 inhibitory peptide (PIP)-18[59-76], β-Asp65-PIP[59-67], D-Ala66-PNT.II, and D60,65E-PIP[59-67] displayed the most potent bactericidal activity against all tested pathogens in a dose-dependent manner (100-6.8 μg/ml), with a remarkable activity noted against S. aureus at 6.8 μg/ml dose within 6 h of incubation. Determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) by a micro-broth dilution method at 100-3.125 μg/ml revealed that PIP-18[59-76], β-Asp65-PIP[59-67] and D-Ala66-PNT.II peptides exerted a potent inhibitory effect against S. aureus and B. pseudomallei (KHW) (MICs 3.125 μg/ml), while a much less inhibitory potency (MICs 12.5 μg/ml) was noted for β-Asp65-PIP[59-67] and D-Ala66-PNT.II peptides against B. pseudomallei (TES). Higher doses of peptides had no effect on the other two strains (i.e., Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus pneumoniae). Overall, PIP-18[59-76] possessed higher antimicrobial activity than that of chloramphenicol (CHL), ceftazidime (CF) and streptomycin (ST) (30 μg/disc). When the two most active peptides, PIP-18[59-76] and β-Asp65-PIP[59-67], were applied topically at a 150 mg/kg dose for testing wound healing activity in a mouse model of S. aureus infection, the former accelerates faster wound healing than the latter peptide at 14 days post-treatment. The western blot data suggest that the topical application of peptides (PIP-18[59-67] and β-Asp65-PIP[59-67]) modulates NF-kB mediated wound repair in mice with relatively little haemolytic (100-1.56 μg/ml) and cytotoxic (1000

  18. Differential expression levels of collagen 1A2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 4, and cathepsin B in intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Babu, R Arun; Paul, Pradip; Purushottam, Meera; Srinivas, Dwarakanath; Somanna, Sampath; Jain, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) express a variety of differentially expressed genes when compared to the normal artery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression level of a few genes in the aneurysm wall and to correlate them with various clinicoradiological factors. The mRNA level of collagen 1A2 (COL1A2), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 4 (TIMP4), and cathepsin B (CTSB) genes were studied in 23 aneurysmal walls and 19 superficial temporal arteries harvested from 23 patients undergoing clipping of IAs, by real-time polymerase chain reaction method. The mean fold change of COL1A2 gene between the aneurysm sample and the superficial temporal artery (STA) sample was 2.46 ± 0.12, that of TIMP4 gene was 0.31 ± 0, and that of CTSB gene was 31.47 ± 39.01. There was a positive correlation of TIMP4 expression level with maximum diameter of aneurysm (P = 0.008) and fundus of aneurysm (P = 0.012). The mean fold change of CTSB of patients who had preoperative hydrocephalus in the computed tomogram (CT) scan of the head at admission was 56.16 and that of the patients who did not have hydrocephalus was 13.51 (P = 0.008). The mean fold change of CTSB of patients who developed fresh postoperative deficits or worsening of the preexisting deficits was 23.64 and that of the patients who did not develop was 42.22 (P = 0.039). COL1A2 gene and CTSB genes were overexpressed, and TIMP4 gene was underexpressed in the aneurysmal sac compared to STA and their expression levels were associated with a few clinicoradiological factors.

  19. Effect of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 inhibitor on insulin resistance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Hua; Jin, Jun; Sun, Li-Zhou

    2018-06-21

    This paper aims to investigate the influence of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) inhibitor, darapladib, on insulin resistance (IR) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic pregnant rats. The rat models were divided into Control (normal pregnancy), STZ + saline (STZ-induced diabetic pregnant rats), STZ + Low-dose and STZ + High-dose darapladib (STZ-induced diabetic pregnant rats treated with low-/high-dose darapladib) groups. Pathological changes were observed by Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Immunohistochemistry staining. Lp-PLA2 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). An automatic biochemical analyzer was used to measure the serum levels of biochemical indicators, and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were calculated. Western blot was applied to determine levels of inflammatory cytokines. Compared with Control group, rats in the STZ + saline group were significantly decreased in body weight, the number of embryo implantation, the number of insulin positive cells and pancreatic islet size as well as the islet endocrine cells, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) level, but substantially increased in Lp-PLA2, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), fatty acids (FFA), serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) levels. Moreover, the increased fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HOMA-IR and inflammatory cytokines but decreased fasting insulin (FINS) and ISI were also found in diabetic pregnant rats. On the contrary, rats in the darapladib-treated groups were just opposite to the STZ + saline group, and STZ + High-dose group improved better than STZ + Low-dose group. Thus, darapladib can improve lipid metabolism, and enhance insulin sensitivity of diabetic pregnant rats by regulating inflammatory cytokines.

  20. Secreted phospholipase A2 inhibitor modulates fatty acid composition and reduces obesity-induced inflammation in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Bourgeois, H; Vandermeulen, E; Vlaeminck, B; Meyer, E; Demeyere, K; Hesta, M

    2015-05-01

    Secreted phospholipase A2 inhibitor (sPLA2i) has been reported to have an anti-inflammatory function by blocking the production of inflammatory mediators. Obesity is characterized by low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of sPLA2i on inflammation, oxidative stress and serum fatty acid profile in dogs. Seven obese and seven lean Beagle dogs were used in a 28-day double blind cross-over design. Dogs were fed a control diet without supplemental sPLA2i or an sPLA2i supplemented diet. The sPLA2i diet decreased plasma fibrinogen levels and increased the protein:fibrinogen ratio in obese dogs to levels similar to those of lean dogs fed the same diet. Obese dogs had a higher plasma concentration of the lipophilic vitamin A with potential antioxidative capacity and a lower ratio of retinol binding protein 4:vitamin A compared to lean dogs, independent of the diets. A higher proportion of myristic acid (C14:0) and a lower proportion of linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) were observed in the dogs fed with the sPLA2i diet compared to dogs fed with the control diet. Furthermore, a higher ratio of n-6 to n-3, a lower proportion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and lower omega-3 index were observed in obese compared to lean dogs. The results indicate that obese dogs are characterized by a more 'proinflammatory' serum fatty acid profile and that diet inclusion of sPLA2i may reduce inflammation and alter fatty acid profile. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of a potent 2-oxoamide inhibitor of secreted phospholipase A2 guided by molecular docking calculations and molecular dynamics simulations

    PubMed Central

    Vasilakaki, Sofia; Barbayianni, Efrosini; Leonis, Georgios; Papadopoulos, Manthos G.; Mavromoustakos, Thomas; Gelb, Michael H.; Kokotos, George

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of group IIA secreted phospholipase A2 (GIIA sPLA2) has been an important objective for medicinal chemists. We have previously shown that inhibitors incorporating the 2-oxoamide functionality may inhibit human and mouse GIIA sPLA2s. Herein, the development of new potent inhibitors by molecular docking calculations using the structure of the known inhibitor 7 as scaffold, are described. Synthesis and biological evaluation of the new compounds revealed that the long chain 2-oxoamide based on (S)-valine GK241 led to improved activity (IC50 = 143 nM and 68 nM against human and mouse GIIA sPLA2, respectively). In addition, molecular dynamics simulations were employed to shed light on GK241 potent and selective inhibitory activity. PMID:26970660

  2. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel xanthine oxidase inhibitors bearing a 2-arylbenzo[b]furan scaffold.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hong-Jin; Li, Wei; Zhou, Mei; Peng, Li-Ying; Wang, Jin-Xin; Li, Jia-Huang; Chen, Jun

    2018-05-10

    Xanthine oxidase, which catalyzes the oxidative reaction of hypoxanthine and xanthine into uric acid, is a key enzyme to the pathogenesis of hyperuricemia and gout. In this study, for the purpose of discovering novel xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors, a series of 2-arylbenzo[b]furan derivatives (3a-3d, 4a-4o and 6a-6d) were designed and synthesized. All these compounds were evaluated their xanthine oxidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities by using in vitro enzymatic assay and cellular model. The results showed that a majority of the designed compounds exhibited potent xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects and antioxidant activities, and compound 4a emerged as the most potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor (IC 50  = 4.45 μM). Steady-state kinetic measurements of the inhibitor 4a with the bovine milk xanthine oxidase indicated a mixed type inhibition with 3.52 μM K i and 13.14 μM K is , respectively. The structure-activity relationship analyses have also been presented. Compound 4a exhibited the potent hypouricemic effect in the potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice model. A molecular docking study of compound 4a was performed to gain an insight into its binding mode with xanthine oxidase. These results highlight the identification of a new class of xanthine oxidase inhibitors that have potential to be more efficacious in treatment of gout. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibition of untransformed prostaglandin H(2) production and stretch-induced contraction of rabbit pulmonary arteries by indoxam, a selective secretory phospholipase A(2) inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Maki; Morikawa, Yuki; Kamataki, Akihisa; Sawai, Takashi; Hirose, Masamichi; Nakayama, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    Involvement of secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) in the stretch-induced production of untransformed prostaglandin H(2) (PGH(2)) in the endothelium of rabbit pulmonary arteries was investigated. The stretch-induced contraction was significantly inhibited by indoxam, a selective inhibitor for sPLA(2), and NS-398, a selective inhibitor for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Indoxam inhibited the RGD-sensitive-integrin-independent production of untransformed PGH(2), but did not affect the RGD-sensitive-integrin-dependent production of thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)). These results suggest that the stretch-induced contraction and untransformed PGH(2) production was mediated by sPLA(2)-COX-2 pathway, making it a new possible target for pharmacological intervention of pulmonary artery contractility.

  4. Discovery of AZD2716: A Novel Secreted Phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) Inhibitor for the Treatment of Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Expedited structure-based optimization of the initial fragment hit 1 led to the design of (R)-7 (AZD2716) a novel, potent secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) inhibitor with excellent preclinical pharmacokinetic properties across species, clear in vivo efficacy, and minimized safety risk. Based on accumulated profiling data, (R)-7 was selected as a clinical candidate for the treatment of coronary artery disease. PMID:27774123

  5. Role of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitors in attenuating apoptosis of the corneal epithelial cells and mitigation of Acanthamoeba keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Trivendra; Abdi, Mahshid; Alizadeh, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if the mannose-induced protein (MIP-133) from Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites induces apoptosis of corneal epithelial cells through a cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α)-mediated pathway. The efficacy of cPLA2α inhibitors to provide protection against Acanthamoeba keratitis was examined in vivo. Chinese hamster corneal epithelial (HCORN) cells were incubated with or without MIP-133. MIP-133 induces significant increase in cPLA2α and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2/CXCL2) levels from corneal cells. Moreover, cPLA2α inhibitors, MAFP (Methyl-arachidonyl fluorophosphonate) and AACOCF3 (Arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone), significantly reduce cPLA2α and CXCL2 from these cells (P< 0.05). Additionally, cPLA2α inhibitors significantly inhibit MIP-133-induced apoptosis in HCORN cells (P< 0.05). Subconjunctival injection of purified MIP-133 in Chinese hamster eyes induced cytopathic effects resulting in corneal ulceration. Animals infected with A. castellanii-laden contact lenses and treated with AACOCF3 and CAY10650, showed significantly less severe keratitis as compared with control animals. Collectively, the results indicate that cPLA2α is involved in MIP-133 induced apoptosis of corneal epithelial cells, polymorphonuclear neutrophil infiltration, and production of CXCL2. Moreover, cPLA2α inhibitors can be used as a therapeutic target in Acanthamoeba keratitis. PMID:23792108

  6. Effect of perzinfotel and a proprietary phospholipase A(2) inhibitor on kinetic gait and subjective lameness scores in dogs with sodium urate-induced synovitis.

    PubMed

    Budsberg, Steven C; Torres, Bryan T; Zwijnenberg, Raphael J; Eppler, C Mark; Clark, James D; Cathcart, Curtis J; Reynolds, Lisa R; Al-Nadaf, Sami

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the ability of perzinfotel (an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist) and a proprietary phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) inhibitor to attenuate lameness in dogs with sodium urate (SU)-induced synovitis. 8 adult dogs. A blinded 4-way crossover study was performed. Dogs received perzinfotel (10 mg/kg), a proprietary PLA(2) inhibitor (10 mg/kg), carprofen (4.4 mg/kg; positive control treatment), or no treatment (negative control treatment). On the fourth day after initiation of treatment, synovitis was induced via intra-articular injection of SU 1 hour before administration of the last treatment dose. Ground reaction forces were measured and clinical lameness evaluations were performed before (baseline [time 0]) and 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 25 hours after SU injection. There was a 21-day washout period between subsequent treatments. Data were analyzed via repeated-measures ANOVAs. Peak vertical force (PVF) and vertical impulse (VI) values for negative control and perzinfotel treatments were significantly lower at 2 and 4 hours, compared with baseline values. Values for PVF and VI for the PLA(2) inhibitor and positive control treatments did not differ from baseline values at any time points. Between-treatment comparisons revealed significantly higher PVF and VI values for the positive control treatment than for the negative control and perzinfotel treatments at 2 and 4 hours. Values for VI were higher for PLA(2) inhibitor treatment than for negative control treatment at 2 hours. Perzinfotel did not significantly alter SU-induced lameness. The proprietary PLA(2) inhibitor attenuated lameness but not as completely as did carprofen.

  7. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 1-(2-Aminophenyl)-3-arylurea Derivatives as Potential EphA2 and HDAC Dual Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong; Ran, Ting; Chen, Xin; Niu, Jiaqi; Zhao, Shuang; Lu, Tao; Tang, Weifang

    2016-01-01

    A series of 1-(2-aminophenyl)-3-arylurea novel derivatives were synthesized and evaluated against Ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EphA2) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) kinase. Most of the compounds exhibited inhibitory activity against EphA2 and HDAC. The antiproliferative activities were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) (thiazolyl blue, tetrazolium blue) against the human cancer cell lines HCT116, K562 and MCF7. Compounds 5a and b showed the most potent inhibitory activity against EphA2 and HDAC. However, compound 5b exhibited higher potency against HCT116 (IC50=5.29 µM) and MCF7 (IC50=7.42 µM). 1-(2-Aminophenyl)-3-arylurea analogues may serve as new EphA2-HDAC dual inhibitors.

  8. Molecular docking and in vitro studies of soap nut trypsin inhibitor (SNTI) against phospholipase A2 isoforms in therapeutic intervention of inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Sirisha, Gandreddi V D; Vijaya Rachel, K; Zaveri, Kunal; Yarla, Nagendra Sastry; Kiranmayi, P; Ganash, Magdah; Alkreathy, Huda Mohammad; Rajeh, Nisreen; Ashraf, Ghulam Md

    2018-07-15

    Therapeutic value of allelochemicals in inflammatory disorders and the potential drug targets need to be elucidated to alleviate tissue and vascular injury. Natural anti-inflammatory agents are known to cause minimal adverse effects. Presence of different secondary metabolites (allelochemicals), protease inhibitors like soap nut trypsin inhibitor (SNTI) from Sapindus trifoliatus and allied compounds from natural sources cannot be blithely ignored as natural therapeutics. In the present study, SNTI, a prospective protease inhibitor isolated from the seeds of Sapindus trifoliatus were subjected to docking against three isoforms of Phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) molecules of the inflammatory pathways which are localized in the membrane, cytosol and pancreas. Eleven ligand molecules were selected from Sapindus trifoliatus and docked against membrane, cytosolic and pancreatic PLA 2 . Cytosolic PLA 2 showed a strong inhibition by Kampferol, a secondary metabolite from seed endosperm of Sapindus trifoliatus. SNTI showed best interaction with membrane PLA 2 in both in silico as well as in in vitro studies. SNTI showed IC 50 value of 29.02 μM in in vitro assay. Docking interaction profiles and in vitro studies validate selected molecules from Sapindus trifoliatus as immunomodulators and can mollify inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Varespladib (LY315920) Appears to Be a Potent, Broad-Spectrum, Inhibitor of Snake Venom Phospholipase A2 and a Possible Pre-Referral Treatment for Envenomation

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, Matthew; Samuel, Stephen; Merkel, Janie; Bickler, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Snakebite remains a neglected medical problem of the developing world with up to 125,000 deaths each year despite more than a century of calls to improve snakebite prevention and care. An estimated 75% of fatalities from snakebite occur outside the hospital setting. Because phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity is an important component of venom toxicity, we sought candidate PLA2 inhibitors by directly testing drugs. Surprisingly, varespladib and its orally bioavailable prodrug, methyl-varespladib showed high-level secretory PLA2 (sPLA2) inhibition at nanomolar and picomolar concentrations against 28 medically important snake venoms from six continents. In vivo proof-of-concept studies with varespladib had striking survival benefit against lethal doses of Micrurus fulvius and Vipera berus venom, and suppressed venom-induced sPLA2 activity in rats challenged with 100% lethal doses of M. fulvius venom. Rapid development and deployment of a broad-spectrum PLA2 inhibitor alone or in combination with other small molecule inhibitors of snake toxins (e.g., metalloproteases) could fill the critical therapeutic gap spanning pre-referral and hospital setting. Lower barriers for clinical testing of safety tested, repurposed small molecule therapeutics are a potentially economical and effective path forward to fill the pre-referral gap in the setting of snakebite. PMID:27571102

  10. The Sam-Sam interaction between Ship2 and the EphA2 receptor: design and analysis of peptide inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Flavia Anna; Di Natale, Concetta; Pirone, Luciano; Iannitti, Roberta; Marasco, Daniela; Pedone, Emilia Maria; Palumbo, Rosanna; Leone, Marilisa

    2017-12-12

    The lipid phosphatase Ship2 represents a drug discovery target for the treatment of different diseases, including cancer. Its C-terminal sterile alpha motif domain (Ship2-Sam) associates with the Sam domain from the EphA2 receptor (EphA2-Sam). This interaction is expected to mainly induce pro-oncogenic effects in cells therefore, inhibition of the Ship2-Sam/EphA2-Sam complex may represent an innovative route to discover anti-cancer therapeutics. In the present work, we designed and analyzed several peptide sequences encompassing the interaction interface of EphA2-Sam for Ship2-Sam. Peptide conformational analyses and interaction assays with Ship2-Sam conducted through diverse techniques (CD, NMR, SPR and MST), identified a positively charged penta-amino acid native motif in EphA2-Sam, that once repeated three times in tandem, binds Ship2-Sam. NMR experiments show that the peptide targets the negatively charged binding site of Ship2-Sam for EphA2-Sam. Preliminary in vitro cell-based assays indicate that -at 50 µM concentration- it induces necrosis of PC-3 prostate cancer cells with more cytotoxic effect on cancer cells than on normal dermal fibroblasts. This work represents a pioneering study that opens further opportunities for the development of inhibitors of the Ship2-Sam/EphA2-Sam complex for therapeutic applications.

  11. Design of specific peptide inhibitors of phospholipase A2: structure of a complex formed between Russell's viper phospholipase A2 and a designed peptide Leu-Ala-Ile-Tyr-Ser (LAIYS).

    PubMed

    Chandra, Vikas; Jasti, Jayasankar; Kaur, Punit; Dey, Sharmistha; Srinivasan, A; Betzel, Ch; Singh, T P

    2002-10-01

    Phospholipase A(2) (EC 3.1.1.4) is a key enzyme of the cascade mechanism involved in the production of proinflammatory compounds known as eicosanoids. The binding of phospholipase A(2) to membrane surfaces and the hydrolysis of phospholipids are thought to involve the formation of a hydrophobic channel into which a single substrate molecule diffuses before cleavage. In order to regulate the production of proinflammatory compounds, a specific peptide inhibitor of PLA(2), Leu-Ala-Ile-Tyr-Ser, has been designed. Phospholipase A(2) from Daboia russelli pulchella (DPLA(2)) and peptide Leu-Ala-Ile-Tyr-Ser (LAIYS) have been co-crystallized. The structure of the complex has been determined and refined to 2.0 A resolution. The structure contains two crystallographically independent molecules of DPLA(2), with one molecule of peptide specifically bound to one of them. The overall conformations of the two molecules are essentially similar except in three regions; namely, the calcium-binding loop including Trp31 (residues 25-34), the beta-wing consisting of two antiparallel beta-strands (residues 74-85) and the C-terminal region (residues 119-133). Of these, the most striking difference pertains to the orientation of Trp31 in the two molecules. The conformation of Trp31 in molecule A was suitable to allow the binding of peptide LAIYS, while that in molecule B prevented the entry of the ligand into the hydrophobic channel. The structure of the complex clearly showed that the OH group of Tyr of the inhibitor formed hydrogen bonds with both His48 N(delta1) and Asp49 O(delta1), while O(gamma)H of Ser was involved in a hydrogen bond with Trp31. Other peptide backbone atoms interact with protein through water molecules, while Leu, Ala and Ile form strong hydrophobic interactions with the residues of the hydrophobic channel.

  12. [Modalities of use of ceritinib (Zykadia™), a 2nd generation ALK inhibitor, in advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Giroux Leprieur, Etienne; Fallet, Vincent; Wislez, Marie

    2015-12-01

    Around 4% of advanced non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) harbor a ALK rearrangement, with high sensitivity to ALK inhibitor as crizotinib. However, the vast majority of these tumors end with a tumor progression after several months of treatment with crizotinib. Ceritinib is a 2nd generation ALK inhibitor, which showed high efficiency in NSCLC with ALK rearrangement. Results from phase I trial showed a response rate at 58% in these tumors, with a similar rate for previously crizotinib-treated patients or crizotinib-naïve patients. Moreover, cerebral responses were observed with ceritinib. Preliminary date from a phase 2 trial confirmed these results. These promising results allowed a European marketing authorization (autorisation de mise sur le marché [AMM]) since May 2015 for the treatment of advanced NSCLC with ALK rearrangement and resistance or intolerance to crizotinib. Copyright © 2015 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Triterpene derivatives as inhibitors of protein involved in the inflammatory process: molecules interfering with phospholipase A2, cycloxygenase, and lipoxygenase.

    PubMed

    Braca, Alessandra; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Marzocco, Stefania; Autore, Giuseppina; Vassallo, Antonio; De Tommasi, Nunziatina

    2011-03-01

    Over the past years, there was an explosion in the knowledge of the protein target and molecular mechanism associated with various disease types and in the new research of drugs of natural origin. The key idea is to evaluate bioactive natural products interacting with protein domains of different genetic origin but structurally preserved to develop libraries of compounds biologically validated and selected from an evolutionistic point of view. Compared with synthetic compounds, natural products have a major number of unused scaffolds and not comparable to the libraries of synthetic compounds, and could represent a promising starting points for the discovery of new bioactive compounds. Many natural products are reported to interact with proteins involved in serious diseases, such as inflammation and cancer. Recently various chemical classes of plant secondary metabolites have emerged as potential therapeutic compounds in several inflammatory diseases. Owing to the findings that triterpenoids, a common class of plant secondary metabolites, have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects on humans, the interest in their potential application in human health and disease is increasing. The present review describes anti-inflammatory triterpenes derivatives from plant and fungi reported during the last two decades in order to provide an account of this field of investigation, sorting compounds according to their targets, phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), cycloxygenase (COX), and lipoxygenase (LOX). The attempt is also being made to enumerate the possible leads for further synthetic and drug discovery program development.

  14. Rosmarinic acid, a new snake venom phospholipase A2 inhibitor from Cordia verbenacea (Boraginaceae): antiserum action potentiation and molecular interaction.

    PubMed

    Ticli, Fábio K; Hage, Lorane I S; Cambraia, Rafael S; Pereira, Paulo S; Magro, Angelo J; Fontes, Marcos R M; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Giglio, José R; França, Suzelei C; Soares, Andreimar M; Sampaio, Suely V

    2005-09-01

    Many plants are used in traditional medicine as active agents against various effects induced by snakebite. The methanolic extract from Cordia verbenacea (Cv) significantly inhibited paw edema induced by Bothrops jararacussu snake venom and by its main basic phospholipase A2 homologs, namely bothropstoxins I and II (BthTXs). The active component was isolated by chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and by RP-HPLC on a C18 column and identified as rosmarinic acid (Cv-RA). Rosmarinic acid is an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid [2-O-cafeoil-3-(3,4-di-hydroxy-phenyl)-R-lactic acid]. This is the first report of RA in the species C. verbenacea ('baleeira', 'whaler') and of its anti-inflammatory and antimyotoxic properties against snake venoms and isolated toxins. RA inhibited the edema and myotoxic activity induced by the basic PLA2s BthTX-I and BthTX-II. It was, however, less efficient to inhibit the PLA2 activity of BthTX-II and, still less, the PLA2 and edema-inducing activities of the acidic isoform BthA-I-PLA2 from the same venom, showing therefore a higher inhibitory activity upon basic PLA2s. RA also inhibited most of the myotoxic and partially the edema-inducing effects of both basic PLA2s, thus reinforcing the idea of dissociation between the catalytic and pharmacological domains. The pure compound potentiated the ability of the commercial equine polyvalent antivenom in neutralizing lethal and myotoxic effects of the crude venom and of isolated PLA2s in experimental models. CD data presented here suggest that, after binding, no significant conformation changes occur either in the Cv-RA or in the target PLA2. A possible model for the interaction of rosmarinic acid with Lys49-PLA2 BthTX-I is proposed.

  15. THAP5 is a human cardiac-specific inhibitor of cell cycle that is cleaved by the proapoptotic Omi/HtrA2 protease during cell death.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Meenakshi P; Cilenti, Lucia; Mashak, Zineb; Popat, Paiyal; Alnemri, Emad S; Zervos, Antonis S

    2009-08-01

    Omi/HtrA2 is a mitochondrial serine protease that has a dual function: while confined in the mitochondria, it promotes cell survival, but when released into the cytoplasm, it participates in caspase-dependent as well as caspase-independent cell death. To investigate the mechanism of Omi/HtrA2's function, we set out to isolate and characterize novel substrates for this protease. We have identified Thanatos-associated protein 5 (THAP5) as a specific interactor and substrate of Omi/HtrA2 in cells undergoing apoptosis. This protein is an uncharacterized member of the THAP family of proteins. THAP5 has a unique pattern of expression and is found predominantly in the human heart, although a very low expression is also seen in the human brain and muscle. THAP5 protein is localized in the nucleus and, when ectopically expressed, induces cell cycle arrest. During apoptosis, THAP5 protein is degraded, and this process can be blocked using a specific Omi/HtrA2 inhibitor, leading to reduced cell death. In patients with coronary artery disease, THAP5 protein levels substantially decrease in the myocardial infarction area, suggesting a potential role of this protein in human heart disease. This work identifies human THAP5 as a cardiac-specific nuclear protein that controls cell cycle progression. Furthermore, during apoptosis, THAP5 is cleaved and removed by the proapoptotic Omi/HtrA2 protease. Taken together, we provide evidence to support that THAP5 and its regulation by Omi/HtrA2 provide a new link between cell cycle control and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes.

  16. The effects of two phospholipase A2 inhibitors on the neuromuscular blocking activities of homologous phospholipases A2 from the venom of Pseudechis australis, the Australian king brown snake.

    PubMed

    Fatehi, M; Rowan, E G; Harvey, A L

    1995-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that homologous phospholipases A2 (PLA2) (Pa-3, Pa-9C, Pa-10F and Pa-11) from the venom of the Australian king brown snake, Pseudechis australis, significantly reduce the resting membrane potentials and quantal contents of endplate potentials recorded from endplate regions of mouse triangularis sterni nerve-muscle preparations. It is not clear whether PLA2 activity is essential for their neuromuscular activities. Therefore, pharmacological studies were carried out to determine whether neuromuscular activity of the toxins changed after treatment with the phospholipase A2 inhibitors 7,7-dimethyl-eicosadienoic acid (DEDA) and manoalide. After incubation of the toxins with manoalide (120 nM), or DEDA (50 microM), no PLA2 activity against 1-stearoyl 2-[3H]arachidonoylglycerophosphocholine was detected. After incubation with manoalide and/or DEDA, the toxins did not depolarize muscle fibre membranes up to 60 min after administration. However, manoalide and DEDA had different influences on the inhibitory effect of these toxic enzymes on acetylcholine release from nerve terminals. Manoalide abolished the inhibitory effect of the toxins on evoked release of acetylcholine. In contrast, DEDA was not able to prevent the reduction of quantal content of endplate potentials induced by the toxins. This study provides evidence that the depolarizing action and the inhibitory effect on release of acetylcholine exerted by these toxic PLA2 from king brown snake are independent phenomena. The evidence for this conclusion was that inhibition of enzymatic activity with an arachidonic acid analogue (DEDA) abolished the depolarizing effect of the toxins but not the effects on the quantal release of acetylcholine from mouse motor nerve terminals. The data suggest that the depolarizing effect of these toxins is probably due to the enzymatic activity. Since manoalide interacts with lysine residues of PLA2 polypeptides, and, as shown here, manoalide prevented

  17. Investigation of the Brain Biodistribution of the Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) Inhibitor [18F]GSK2647544 in Healthy Male Subjects.

    PubMed

    Huiban, Mickael; Coello, Christopher; Wu, Kai; Xu, Yanmei; Lewis, Yvonne; Brown, Andrew P; Buraglio, Mauro; Guan, Chenbing; Shabbir, Shaila; Fong, Regan; Passchier, Jan; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Lockhart, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    GSK2647544 is a potent and specific inhibitor of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 (Lp-PLA 2 ), which was in development as a potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to refine therapeutic dose predictions and confirm brain penetration, a radiolabelled form of the inhibitor, [ 18 F]GSK2647544, was manufactured for use in a positron emission tomography (PET) biodistribution study. [ 18 F]GSK2647544 was produced using a novel, copper iodide (Cu(I)) mediated, [ 18 F]trifluoromethylation methodology. Healthy male subjects (n = 4, age range 34-42) received an oral dose of unlabelled GSK2647544 (100 mg) and after 2 h an intravenous (iv) injection of [ 18 F]GSK2647544 (average injected activity and mass were 106 ± 47 MBq and 179 ± 55 μg, respectively) followed by dynamic PET scans for 120 min. Defined regions of interest (ROI) throughout the brain were used to obtain regional time-activity curves (TACs) and compartmental modelling analysis used to estimate the primary outcome measure, whole brain volume of distribution (V T ). Secondary PK and safety endpoints were also recorded. PET dynamic data were successfully obtained from all four subjects and there were no clinically significant variations of the safety endpoints. Inspection of the TACs indicated a relatively homogenous uptake of [ 18 F]GSK2647544 across all the ROIs examined. The mean whole brain V T was 0.56 (95 % CI, 0.41-0.72). Secondary PK parameters, C max (geometric mean) and T max (median), were 354 ng/ml and 1.4 h, respectively. Metabolism of GSK2647544 was relatively consistent across subjects, with 20-40 % of the parent compound [ 18 F]GSK2647544 present after 120 min. The study provides evidence that GSK2647544 is able to cross the blood brain barrier in healthy male subjects leading to a measurable brain exposure. The administered doses of GSK2647544 were well tolerated. Exploratory modelling suggested that a twice-daily dose of 102 mg, at steady state

  18. Discovery of a 2,4-Diamino-7-aminoalkoxy-quinazoline as a Potent and Selective Inhibitor of Histone Lysine Methyltransferase G9a†

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Chen, Xin; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Quinn, Amy M.; Wasney, Gregory A.; Dong, Aiping; Barsyte, Dalia; Kozieradzki, Ivona; Senisterra, Guillermo; Chau, Irene; Siarheyeva, Alena; Kireev, Dmitri B.; Jadhav, Ajit; Herold, J. Martin; Frye, Stephen V.; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Brown, Peter J.; Simeonov, Anton; Vedadi, Masoud; Jin, Jian

    2010-01-01

    SAR exploration of the 2,4-diamino-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline template led to the discovery of 8 (UNC0224) as a potent and selective G9a inhibitor. A high resolution X-ray crystal structure of the G9a-8 complex, the first co-crystal structure of G9a with a small molecule inhibitor, was obtained. The co-crystal structure validated our binding hypothesis and will enable structure-based design of novel inhibitors. 8 is a useful tool for investigating the biology of G9a and its roles in chromatin remodeling. PMID:19891491

  19. A novel protein from the serum of Python sebae, structurally homologous with type-γ phospholipase A(2) inhibitor, displays antitumour activity.

    PubMed

    Donnini, Sandra; Finetti, Federica; Francese, Simona; Boscaro, Francesca; Dani, Francesca R; Maset, Fabio; Frasson, Roberta; Palmieri, Michele; Pazzagli, Mario; De Filippis, Vincenzo; Garaci, Enrico; Ziche, Marina

    2011-12-01

    Cytotoxic and antitumour factors have been documented in the venom of snakes, although little information is available on the identification of cytotoxic products in snake serum. In the present study, we purified and characterized a new cytotoxic factor from serum of the non-venomous African rock python (Python sebae), endowed with antitumour activity. PSS (P. sebae serum) exerted a cytotoxic activity and reduced dose-dependently the viability of several different tumour cell lines. In a model of human squamous cell carcinoma xenograft (A431), subcutaneous injection of PSS in proximity of the tumour mass reduced the tumour volume by 20%. Fractionation of PSS by ion-exchange chromatography yielded an active protein fraction, F5, which significantly reduced tumour cell viability in vitro and, strikingly, tumour growth in vivo. F5 is composed of P1 (peak 1) and P2 subunits interacting in a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio to form a heterotetramer in equilibrium with a hexameric form, which retained biological activity only when assembled. The two peptides share sequence similarity with PIP {PLI-γ [type-γ PLA(2) (phospholipase A(2)) inhibitor] from Python reticulatus}, existing as a homohexamer. More importantly, although PIP inhibits the hydrolytic activity of PLA(2), the anti-PLA(2) function of F5 is negligible. Using high-resolution MS, we covered 87 and 97% of the sequences of P1 and P2 respectively. In conclusion, in the present study we have identified and thoroughly characterized a novel protein displaying high sequence similarity to PLI-γ and possessing remarkable cytotoxic and antitumour effects that can be exploited for potential pharmacological applications.

  20. Protective effects of TES trioleate, an inhibitor of phospholipase A2, on reactive oxygen species and UVA-induced cell damage.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo Nam; Kim, Moon Jin; Ha, Ji Hoon; Lee, Nan Hee; Park, Jino; Lee, Jiwon; Kim, Dukha; Yoon, Chulsoo

    2016-11-01

    2-[Tris(oleoyloxymethyl)methylamino]-1-ethane sulfonic acid (TES trioleate) is an inhibitor of phospholipase A 2 (PLA2), which hydrolyzes cell membrane phospholipids to produce arachidonic acid (AA) and lysophospholipids (LysoPLs). Here, we investigated the protective effects of TES trioleate on cell damage caused by ultraviolet A (UVA) light and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Pre-incubation with 250-1000μM TES trioleate resulted in concentration-dependent protection from UVA-induced damage in HaCaT cells. Additionally, 25-1000μM TES trioleate provided protection against H 2 O 2 in a concentration-dependent manner. In human erythrocytes treated with 1 O 2 , 10-100μM TES trioleate showed concentration-dependent protective effects, similar to but stronger than the controls, 4-BPB and lipophilic antioxidant (+)-α-tocopherol at 100μM. TES trioleate did not have detectable radical scavenging activity. Moreover, compared with (+)-α-tocopherol and rutin, TES trioleate showed low ROS scavenging activity. Thus, although TES trioleate showed cell protective effects against UVA, H 2 O 2 , and 1 O 2 -induced damages, these effects were not caused by the scavenging ability of the radical or ROS. Finally, pretreatment of HaCaT cells and human erythrocytes with l-α-lysophosphatidylcholine produced by PLA2 promoted increased cell damage at low concentrations. Thus, the protective effects of TES trioleate on cellular damage by UVA and ROS may be associated with inhibition of PLA2-dependent cell damage rather than ROS scavenging. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Identification of T. gondii Myosin Light Chain-1 as a Direct Target of TachypleginA-2, a Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Parasite Motility and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Jacqueline M.; Tran, Fanny; Pathak, Ravindra B.; Poupart, Séverine; Heaslip, Aoife T.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Westwood, Nicholas J.; Ward, Gary E.

    2014-01-01

    Motility of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii plays an important role in the parasite’s life cycle and virulence within animal and human hosts. Motility is driven by a myosin motor complex that is highly conserved across the Phylum Apicomplexa. Two key components of this complex are the class XIV unconventional myosin, TgMyoA, and its associated light chain, TgMLC1. We previously showed that treatment of parasites with a small-molecule inhibitor of T. gondii invasion and motility, tachypleginA, induces an electrophoretic mobility shift of TgMLC1 that is associated with decreased myosin motor activity. However, the direct target(s) of tachypleginA and the molecular basis of the compound-induced TgMLC1 modification were unknown. We show here by “click” chemistry labelling that TgMLC1 is a direct and covalent target of an alkyne-derivatized analogue of tachypleginA. We also show that this analogue can covalently bind to model thiol substrates. The electrophoretic mobility shift induced by another structural analogue, tachypleginA-2, was associated with the formation of a 225.118 Da adduct on S57 and/or C58, and treatment with deuterated tachypleginA-2 confirmed that the adduct was derived from the compound itself. Recombinant TgMLC1 containing a C58S mutation (but not S57A) was refractory to click labelling and no longer exhibited a mobility shift in response to compound treatment, identifying C58 as the site of compound binding on TgMLC1. Finally, a knock-in parasite line expressing the C58S mutation showed decreased sensitivity to compound treatment in a quantitative 3D motility assay. These data strongly support a model in which tachypleginA and its analogues inhibit the motility of T. gondii by binding directly and covalently to C58 of TgMLC1, thereby causing a decrease in the activity of the parasite’s myosin motor. PMID:24892871

  2. A 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-2'-C-methyl uridine cyclopentyl carbocyclic analog and its phosphoramidate prodrug as inhibitors of HCV NS5B polymerase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Du, Jinfa; Wang, Peiyuan; Nagarathnam, Dhanapalan; Espiritu, Christine L; Bao, Haiying; Murakami, Eisuke; Furman, Phillip A; Sofia, Michael J

    2012-04-01

    The 2 '-deoxy-2 '-fluoro-2 '-C-methyluridine nucleotide prodrug, PSI-7851 and its single diastereomer PSI-7977 have displayed potent antiviral activity against hepatitis C virus in clinical trials, and PSI-7977 is currently in Phase III studies. As part of our SAR study of the 2 '-deoxy-2 '-fluoro-2 '- C-methyl class of nucleosides, we prepared the cyclopentyl carbocyclic uridine analog 11 and its phosphoramidate prodrug 15. Both 11 and 15 were shown not to inhibit HCV replication. This lack of activity might be attributed to the inability of the monophosphate to be converted to the corresponding diphosphate or triphosphate or the inactivity of triphosphate of 11 as an inhibitor of the polymerase.

  3. SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 are associated with treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia with the combination of 5α-reductase inhibitors and α-adrenergic receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xin; Na, Rong; Huang, Tao; Wang, Li; Tao, Sha; Tian, Lu; Chen, Zhuo; Jiao, Yang; Kang, Jian; Zheng, Siqun; Xu, Jianfeng; Sun, Jielin; Qi, Jun

    2013-08-01

    Common treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia include 5α-reductase inhibitors and α-adrenergic receptor antagonists. However, these treatments can only partially decrease the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia progression. SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 are 5α-reductase inhibitor targets. We investigated the association between drug efficacy and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 genes in a Chinese population. We genotyped 11 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 genes in a total of 426 benign prostatic hyperplasia cases and 1,008 controls from Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Cases were treated with type II 5α-reductase inhibitors and α-adrenergic receptor antagonists. We tested the association of tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms with benign prostatic hyperplasia risk/progression, clinical characteristics at baseline, including the I-PSS (International Prostate Symptom Score) and total prostate volume, and changes in clinical characteristics after treatment. The 11 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms were not significantly associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia risk or progression (each p >0.05). In the SRD5A1 gene rs6884552 and rs3797177 were significantly associated with baseline I-PSS (p = 0.04 and 0.003, respectively). In the SRD5A2 gene rs523349 (V89L) and rs9332975 were significantly associated with baseline total prostate volume (p = 0.01 and 0.001, respectively). In SRD5A1 rs166050 was significantly associated with the posttreatment change in total prostate volume (p = 0.04). In SRD5A2 rs523349 and rs612224 were significantly associated with the posttreatment I-PSS change (p = 0.03 and 0.009, respectively). SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 single nucleotide polymorphisms are significantly associated with the clinical characteristics of benign prostatic hyperplasia and the efficacy of benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of BmooPLA2-I, a platelet-aggregation inhibitor and hypotensive phospholipase A2 from Bothrops moojeni venom

    PubMed Central

    Salvador, Guilherme H. M.; Marchi-Salvador, Daniela P.; Silveira, Lucas B.; Soares, Andreimar M.; Fontes, Marcos R. M.

    2011-01-01

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are enzymes that cause the liberation of fatty acids and lysophospholipids by the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids. In addition to their catalytic action, a wide variety of pharmacological activities have been described for snake-venom PLA2s. BmooPLA2-I is an acidic, nontoxic and catalytic PLA2 isolated from Bothrops moojeni snake venom which exhibits an inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation, an immediate decrease in blood pressure, inducing oedema at a low concentration, and an effective bactericidal effect. BmooPLA2-I has been crystallized and X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 1.6 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystals belonged to space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 39.7, b = 53.2, c = 89.2 Å. The molecular-replacement solution of BmooPLA2-I indicated a monomeric conformation, which is in agreement with nondenaturing electrophoresis and dynamic light-scattering experiments. A comparative study of this enzyme with the acidic PLA2 from B. jararacussu (BthA-I) and other toxic and nontoxic PLA2s may provide important insights into the functional aspects of this class of proteins. PMID:21821890

  5. Computational and in vitro insights on snake venom phospholipase A2 inhibitor of phytocompound ikshusterol3-O-glucoside of Clematis gouriana Roxb. ex DC.

    PubMed

    Muthusamy, Karthikeyan; Chinnasamy, Sathishkumar; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Sivaraman, Thirunavukkarasu

    2017-12-14

    Ikshusterol3-O-glucoside was isolated from Clematis gouriana Roxb. ex DC. root. A structure of the isolated compound was determined on the basis of various spectroscopic interpretations (UV, NMR, FTIR, and GC-MS-EI). This structure was submitted in the PubChem compound database (SID 249494133). SID 249494133 was carried out by density functional theory calculation to observe the chemical stability and electrostatic potential of this compound. The absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion property of this compound was predicted to evaluate the drug likeness and toxicity. In addition, molecular docking, quantum polarized ligand docking, prime MMGBSA calculation, and induced fit docking were performed to predict the binding status of SID 249494133 with the active site of phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) (PDB ID: 1A3D). The stability of the compound in the active site of PLA 2 was carried out using molecular dynamics simulation. Further, the anti-venom activity of the compound was assessed using the PLA 2 assay against Naja naja (Indian cobra) crude venom. The results strongly show that Ikshusterol3-O-glucoside has a potent snake-venom neutralizing capacity and it might be a potential molecule for the therapeutic treatment for snakebites.

  6. Human soluble phospholipase A2 receptor is an inhibitor of the integrin-mediated cell migratory response to collagen-I.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazunori; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Yosuke; Fujioka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Takamitsu; Nakamura, Kazuto; Obata, Jun-Ei; Kugiyama, Kiyotaka

    2018-05-23

    Murine membrane-bound phospholipase A 2 receptor 1 (PLA 2 R) is shed and released into plasma in a soluble form that retains all of the extracellular domains. Relatively little is known about human PLA 2 R. This study examined whether human soluble PLA 2 R may have biological functions and whether soluble PLA 2 R may exist in human plasma. Here, we showed that human recombinant soluble PLA 2 R (rsPLA 2 R) bound to collagen-I and inhibited interaction of collagen-I with the extracellular domain of integrin β1 on the cell surface of HEK293 cells. As a result, rsPLA 2 R suppressed integrin β1-mediated migratory responses of HEK293 cells to collagen-I in Boyden chamber experiments. Inhibition of phosphorylation of FAK Tyr397 was also observed. Similar results were obtained with experiments using soluble PLA 2 R released from HEK293 cells transfected with a construct encoding human soluble PLA 2 R. rsPLA 2 R lacking the fibronectin-like type II (FNII) domain had no inhibitory effects on cell responses to collagen-I, suggesting an important role of the FNII domain in the interaction of rsPLA 2 R with collagen-I. In addition, rsPLA 2 R suppressed the migratory response to collagen-IV and binding of collagen-IV to the cell surface of human podocytes that endogenously express membrane-bound full-length PLA 2 R. Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting showed the existence of immuno-reactive PLA 2 R in human plasma. In conclusion, human recombinant soluble PLA 2 R inhibits integrin β1-mediated cell responses to collagens. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether immuno-reactive PLA 2 R in human plasma has the same properties as rsPLA 2 R.

  7. Crystal structure of a complex formed between a snake venom phospholipase A(2) and a potent peptide inhibitor Phe-Leu-Ser-Tyr-Lys at 1.8 A resolution.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Vikas; Jasti, Jayasankar; Kaur, Punit; Dey, Sharmistha; Perbandt, M; Srinivasan, A; Betzel, Ch; Singh, T P

    2002-10-25

    Phospholipase A(2) is an important enzyme involved in the production of prostaglandins and their related compounds causing inflammatory disorders. Among the several peptides tested, the peptide Phe-Leu-Ser-Tyr-Lys (FLSYK) showed the highest inhibition. The dissociation constant (K(d)) for this peptide was calculated to be 3.57 +/- 0.05 x 10(-9) m. In order to further improve the degree of inhibition of phospholipase A(2), a complex between Russells viper snake venom phospholipase A(2) and a peptide inhibitor FLSYK was crystallized, and its structure was determined by crystallographic methods and refined to an R-factor of 0.205 at 1.8 A resolution. The structure contains two crystallographically independent molecules of phospholipase A(2) (molecules A and B) and a peptide molecule specifically bound to molecule A only. The two molecules formed an asymmetric dimer. The dimerization caused a modification in the binding site of molecule A. The overall conformations of molecules A and B were found to be generally similar except three regions i.e. the Trp-31-containing loop (residues 25-34), the beta-wing consisting of two antiparallel beta-strands (residues 74-85) and the C-terminal region (residues 119-133). Out of the above three, the most striking difference pertains to the conformation of Trp-31 in the two molecules. The orientation of Trp-31 in molecule A was suitable for the binding of FLSYK, while it disallowed the binding of peptide to molecule B. The structure of the complex clearly shows that the peptide is so placed in the binding site of molecule A that the side chain of its lysine residue interacted extensively with the enzyme and formed several hydrogen bonds in addition to a strong electrostatic interaction with critical Asp-49. The C-terminal carboxylic group of the peptide interacted with the catalytic residue His-48.

  8. The VMAT-2 inhibitor tetrabenazine alters effort-related decision making as measured by the T-maze barrier choice task: reversal with the adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 and the catecholamine uptake blocker bupropion.

    PubMed

    Yohn, Samantha E; Thompson, Christian; Randall, Patrick A; Lee, Christie A; Müller, Christa E; Baqi, Younis; Correa, Mercè; Salamone, John D

    2015-04-01

    Depressed people show effort-related motivational symptoms, such as anergia, retardation, lassitude, and fatigue. Animal tests can model these motivational symptoms, and the present studies characterized the effort-related effects of the vesicular monoamine transport (VMAT-2) inhibitor tetrabenazine. Tetrabenazine produces depressive symptoms in humans and, at low doses, preferentially depletes dopamine. The current studies investigated the effects of tetrabenazine on effort-based decision making using the T-maze barrier task. Rats were tested in a T-maze in which the choice arms of the maze contain different reinforcement densities, and under some conditions, a vertical barrier was placed in the high-density arm to provide an effort-related challenge. The first experiment assessed the effects of tetrabenazine under different maze conditions: a barrier in the arm with 4 food pellets and 2 pellets in the no barrier arm (4-2 barrier), 4 pellets in one arm and 2 pellets in the other with no barrier in either arm (no barrier), and 4 pellets in the barrier arm with no pellets in the other (4-0 barrier). Tetrabenazine (0.25-0.75 mg/kg IP) decreased selection of the high cost/high reward arm when the barrier was present, but had no effect on choice under the no barrier and 4-0 barrier conditions. The effects of tetrabenazine on barrier climbing in the 4-2 condition were reversed by the adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 and the catecholamine uptake inhibitor and antidepressant bupropion. These studies have implications for the development of animal models of the motivational symptoms of depression and other disorders.

  9. A Novel EphA2 Inhibitor Exerts Beneficial Effects in PI-IBS in Vivo and in Vitro Models via Nrf2 and NF-κB Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Li; Li, Kaixue; Wei, Hong; Hu, Jingjing; Jiao, Lu; Yu, Shaoyong; Xiong, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Though the detailed pathological mechanism of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) remains unclear, accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress and inflammation are implicated in the process of PI-IBS. Oxidative stress and inflammation are regulated by Nrf2 and NF-κB signaling pathways, respectively. EphA2, a member of Eph receptor family, promotes oxidative stress and inflammatory responses via regulation of Nrf2 and NF-κB signaling pathways in various types of human diseases. Understanding the mechanisms by which EphA2 regulate oxidative stress and inflammation in PI-IBS is important for the development of new strategies to treat PI-IBS. However, the effects of ALW-II-41-27, a novel EphA2 inhibitor on PI-IBS and the underlying molecular mechanisms have never been studied. In the present study, we showed that ALW-II-41-27 decreased gastrointestinal motility and abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) scores, markedly reduced the levels of oxidative stress markers [4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), protein carbonyl, and 8-hydroxy-2-de-axyguanine (8-OHdG)] and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17, and ICAM-1), and remarkably increased the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) in serum and colon of Trichinella spiralis -infected mice. Moreover, ALW-II-41-27 was effective in suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation in LPS-treated NCM460 colonic cells. Treatment of ALW-II-41-27 reversed the activation of NF-κB and inactivation of Nrf2 in LPS-treated NCM460 cells. Importantly, these protective effects of ALW-II-41-27 were partially inhibited by EphA2 KO and abolished by EphA2 overexpression. In conclusion, EphA2 may represent a promising therapeutic target for patients with PI-IBS and ALW-II-41-27 might function as a novel therapeutic agent for PI-IBS.

  10. Carboxylesterase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hatfield, M. Jason; Potter, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Carboxylesterases play major roles in the hydrolysis of numerous therapeutically active compounds. This is, in part, due to the prevalence of the ester moiety in these small molecules. However, the impact these enzymes may play on drug stability and pharmacokinetics is rarely considered prior to molecule development. Therefore, the application of selective inhibitors of this class of proteins may have utility in modulating the metabolism, distribution and toxicity of agents that are subjected to enzyme hydrolysis. Areas covered This review details the development of all such compounds dating back to 1986, but principally focuses on the very recent identification of selective human carboxylesterases inhibitors. Expert opinion The implementation of carboxylesterase inhibitors may significantly revolutionize drug discovery. Such molecules may allow for improved efficacy of compounds inactivated by this class of enzymes and/or reduce the toxicity of agents that are activated by these proteins. Furthermore, since lack of carboxylesterase activity appears to have no obvious biological consequence, these compounds could be applied in combination with virtually any esterified drug. Therefore, inhibitors of these proteins may have utility in altering drug hydrolysis and distribution in vivo. The characteristics, chemical and biological properties, and potential uses of such agents, are discussed here. PMID:21609191

  11. [Syk inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yukihiro; Chihara, Kazuyasu; Takeuchi, Kenji; Sada, Kiyonao

    2013-07-01

    Non-receptor type of protein-tyrosine kinase Syk (spleen tyrosine kinase) was isolated in the University of Fukui in 1991. Syk is known to be essential for the various physiological functions, especially in hematopoietic lineage cells. Moreover, ectopic expression of Syk by epigenetic changes is reported to cause retinoblastoma. Recently, novel Syk inhibitors were developed and its usefulness has been evaluated in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. In this review, we will summarize the history, structure, and function of Syk, and then describe the novel Syk inhibitors and their current status. Furthermore, we will introduce our findings of the adaptor protein 3BP2 (c-Abl SH3 domain-binding protein-2), as a novel target of Syk.

  12. Syk inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Kazuyasu; Kimura, Yukihiro; Honjo, Chisato; Takeuchi, Kenji; Sada, Kiyonao

    2013-01-01

    Non-receptor type of protein-tyrosine kinase Syk (spleen tyrosine kinase) was isolated in University of Fukui in 1991. Syk is most highly expressed by haemopoietic cells and known to play crucial roles in the signal transduction through various immunoreceptors of the adaptive immune response. However, recent reports demonstrate that Syk also mediates other biological functions, such as innate immune response, osteoclast maturation, platelet activation and cellular adhesion. Moreover, ectopic expression of Syk by epigenetic changes is reported to cause retinoblastoma. Because of its critical roles on the cellular functions, the development of Syk inhibitors for clinical use has been desired. Although many candidate compounds were produced, none of them had progressed to clinical trials. However, novel Syk inhibitors were finally developed and its usefulness has been evaluated in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, rheumatoid arthritis and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. In this review, we will summarize the history, structure and function of Syk, and then the novel Syk inhibitors and their current status. In addition, we will introduce our research focused on the functions of Syk on Dectin-1-mediated mast cell activation.

  13. Arachidonic acid, but not its metabolites, is essential for FcγR-stimulated intracellular killing of Staphylococcus aureus by human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, L; Zomerdijk, T P L; Van Den Barselaar, M T; Geertsma, M F; Van Furth, R; Nibbering, P H

    1999-01-01

    Since arachidonic acid (AA) production by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is essential for the Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-mediated respiratory burst and phagocytosis of opsonized erythrocytes by monocytes and macrophages, we focused in this study on the role of AA and its metabolites in the FcγR-stimulated intracellular killing of Staphylococcus aureus by human monocytes. The results revealed that the PLA2 inhibitors, but not inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase, markedly suppressed the FcγR-mediated killing process. The production of O−2 by monocytes upon FcγR cross-linking was inhibited by 4-bromophenacyl bromide in a dose-dependent fashion, indicating that inhibition of PLA2 activity impairs the oxygen-dependent bactericidal mechanisms of monocytes, which could be partially restored by addition of exogenous AA and docosahexaenoic acid, but not myristic acid. These polyunsaturated fatty acids, but not myristic acid, stimulated the intracellular killing of S. aureus by monocytes, although not as effectively as FcγR cross-linking. Furthermore, FcγR cross-linking stimulated the release of AA from monocytes. Studies with selective inhibitors revealed that the FcγR-mediated activation of PLA2 is dependent on Ca2+ and tyrosine kinase activity. Together these results indicate a key role for PLA2/AA, but not its major metabolites, in mediating the FcγR-stimulated intracellular killing of S. aureus by monocytes. PMID:10233682

  14. SGLT2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dardi, I; Kouvatsos, T; Jabbour, S A

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a serious health issue and an economic burden, rising in epidemic proportions over the last few decades worldwide. Although several treatment options are available, only half of the global diabetic population achieves the recommended or individualized glycemic targets. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of antidiabetic agents with a novel insulin-independent action. SGLT2 is a transporter found in the proximal renal tubules, responsible for the reabsorption of most of the glucose filtered by the kidney. Inhibition of SGLT2 lowers the blood glucose level by promoting the urinary excretion of excess glucose. Due to their insulin-independent action, SGLT2 inhibitors can be used with any degree of beta-cell dysfunction or insulin resistance, related to a very low risk of hypoglycemia. In addition to improving glycemic control, SGLT2 inhibitors have been associated with a reduction in weight and blood pressure when used as monotherapy or in combination with other antidiabetic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors is usually well tolerated; however, they have been associated with an increased incidence of urinary tract and genital infections, although these infections are usually mild and easy to treat. SGLT2 inhibitors are a promising new option in the armamentarium of drugs for patients with T2DM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cholinesterase inhibitors from botanicals

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Faiyaz; Ghalib, Raza Murad; Sasikala, P.; Ahmed, K. K. Mueen

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, wherein a progressive loss of cholinergic synapses occurs in hippocampus and neocortex. Decreased concentration of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (ACh), appears to be critical element in the development of dementia, and the most appropriate therapeutic approach to treat AD and other form of dementia is to restore acetylcholine levels by inhibiting both major form of cholinesterase: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Consequently, researches have focused their attention towards finding cholinesterase inhibitors from natural products. A large number of such inhibitors have been isolated from medicinal plants. This review presents a comprehensive account of the advances in field of cholinesterase inhibitor phytoconstituents. The structures of some important phytoconstituents (collected through www.Chemspider.com) are also presented and the scope for future research is discussed. PMID:24347920

  16. JAK inhibitors in autoinflammation.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Hal M; Broderick, Lori

    2018-06-11

    Interferonopathies are a subset of autoinflammatory disorders with a prominent type I IFN gene signature. Treatment of these patients has been challenging, given the lack of response to common autoinflammatory therapeutics including IL-1 and TNF blockade. JAK inhibitors (Jakinibs) are a family of small-molecule inhibitors that target the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and have shown clinical efficacy, with FDA and European Medicines Agency (EMA) approval for arthritic and myeloproliferative syndromes. Sanchez and colleagues repurposed baricitinib to establish a significant role for JAK inhibition as a novel therapy for patients with interferonopathies, demonstrating the power of translational rare disease research with lifesaving effects.

  17. Phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zebda, Rema; Paller, Amy S

    2018-03-01

    Historically, drugs available for treating atopic dermatitis (AD) have been limited to topical corticosteroids and topical calcineurin inhibitors, with systemic immunosuppressants and phototherapy reserved for severe AD. Despite their efficacy and infrequent adverse events, phobia about the use of topical steroids and calcineurin inhibitors has limited their use. More targeted options with fewer systemic and cutaneous side effects are needed for treating AD. Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) is involved in the regulation of proinflammatory cytokines via the degradation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate. PDE4 activity is increased in the inflammatory cells of patients with AD, leading to increased production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Targeting PDE4 reduces the production of these proinflammatory mediators in AD. Both topical and oral PDE4 inhibitors have a favorable safety profile. Crisaborole 2% ointment, a topical PDE4, is now US Food and Drug Administration-approved for children older than 2 years and adults in the treatment of AD. Crisaborole 2% ointment shows early and sustained improvement in disease severity and pruritus and other AD symptoms, with burning and/or stinging upon application as the only related adverse event. Other PDE4 inhibitors are currently in trials with promising efficacy and safety. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Benzoylurea Chitin Synthesis Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ranfeng; Liu, Chunjuan; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Qingmin

    2015-08-12

    Benzoylurea chitin synthesis inhibitors are widely used in integrated pest management (IPM) and insecticide resistance management (IRM) programs due to their low toxicity to mammals and predatory insects. In the past decades, a large number of benzoylurea derivatives have been synthesized, and 15 benzoylurea chitin synthesis inhibitors have been commercialized. This review focuses on the history of commercial benzolyphenylureas (BPUs), synthetic methods, structure-activity relationships (SAR), action mechanism research, environmental behaviors, and ecotoxicology. Furthermore, their disadvantages of high risk to aquatic invertebrates and crustaceans are pointed out. Finally, we propose that the para-substituents at anilide of benzoylphenylureas should be the functional groups, and bipartite model BPU analogues are discussed in an attempt to provide new insight for future development of BPUs.

  19. Development of scale inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.S.

    1996-12-01

    During the last fifty years, scale inhibition has gone from an art to a science. Scale inhibition has changed from simple pH adjustment to the use of optimized dose of designer polymers from multiple monomers. The water-treatment industry faces many challenges due to the need to conserve water, availability of only low quality water, increasing environmental regulations of the water discharge, and concern for human safety when using acid. Natural materials such as starch, lignin, tannin, etc., have been replaced with hydrolytically stable organic phosphates and synthetic polymers. Most progress in scale inhibition has come from the use of synergisticmore » mixtures and copolymerizing different functionalities to achieve specific goals. Development of scale inhibitors requires an understanding of the mechanism of crystal growth and its inhibition. This paper discusses the historic perspective of scale inhibition and the development of new inhibitors based on the understanding of the mechanism of crystal growth and the use of powerful tools like molecular modeling to visualize crystal-inhibitor interactions.« less

  20. Inhibitors in Hemophilia B.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Cristina; Quintavalle, Gabriele; Castaman, Giancarlo; Baldacci, Erminia; Ferretti, Antonietta; Riccardi, Federica; Tagliaferri, Annarita

    2018-06-20

    Hemophilia B (HB) is an X-linked bleeding disorder caused by deficiency of factor IX (FIX). Patients with the severe form (FIX <1%) account approximately for 30 to 45% of persons with HB and usually suffer from recurrent joint, soft-tissue, and muscle bleeds. The availability of safe plasma-derived and recombinant products has virtually abolished the risk of viral infections and the adoption of prophylactic regimens has attenuated the impact of hemophilic arthropathy. Therefore, the development of an inhibitor against FIX is currently the most serious complication that can still occur in the new generations of HB patients. The development of an inhibitor in HB is a rare event (1.5-3% of all patients) but is associated with a significant morbidity, related not only to the bleeding risk but also to the frequent occurrence of allergic/anaphylactic reactions and nephrotic syndrome. Due to the relative rarity of this event, few data exist about risk factors, pathophysiology, and clinical aspects of inhibitors in HB. The induction of immune tolerance is often unsuccessful and can be otherwise affected by many complications in patients with history of allergy or anaphylaxis. Therefore, alternative therapeutic strategies and new approaches are developing. The aim of this narrative review is to discuss current knowledge about risk factors, pathophysiology, and clinical aspects of this rare but serious complication. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Indole cytosolic phospholipase A2 alpha inhibitors: discovery and in vitro and in vivo characterization of 4-{3-[5-chloro-2-(2-{[(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)sulfonyl]amino}ethyl)-1-(diphenylmethyl)-1H-indol-3-yl]propyl}benzoic acid, efipladib.

    PubMed

    McKew, John C; Lee, Katherine L; Shen, Marina W H; Thakker, Paresh; Foley, Megan A; Behnke, Mark L; Hu, Baihua; Sum, Fuk-Wah; Tam, Steve; Hu, Yonghan; Chen, Lihren; Kirincich, Steven J; Michalak, Ronald; Thomason, Jennifer; Ipek, Manus; Wu, Kun; Wooder, Lane; Ramarao, Manjunath K; Murphy, Elizabeth A; Goodwin, Debra G; Albert, Leo; Xu, Xin; Donahue, Frances; Ku, M Sherry; Keith, James; Nickerson-Nutter, Cheryl L; Abraham, William M; Williams, Cara; Hegen, Martin; Clark, James D

    2008-06-26

    The optimization of a class of indole cPLA 2 alpha inhibitors is described herein. The importance of the substituent at C3 and the substitution pattern of the phenylmethane sulfonamide region are highlighted. Optimization of these regions led to the discovery of 111 (efipladib) and 121 (WAY-196025), which are shown to be potent, selective inhibitors of cPLA 2 alpha in a variety of isolated enzyme assays, cell based assays, and rat and human whole blood assays. The binding of these compounds has been further examined using isothermal titration calorimetry. Finally, these compounds have shown efficacy when dosed orally in multiple acute and chronic prostaglandin and leukotriene dependent in vivo models.

  2. DGAT inhibitors for obesity.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Daisuke; Tomoda, Hiroshi

    2007-10-01

    Obesity is characterized by the accumulation of triacylglycerol in adipocytes. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the final reaction of triacylgycerol synthesis. Two isozymes of DGAT, DGAT1 and DGAT2, have been reported. Increased DGAT2 activity has a role in steatosis, while DGAT1 plays a role in very (V)LDL synthesis; increased plasma VLDL concentrations may promote obesity and thus DGAT1 is considered a potential therapeutic target of inhibition for obesity control. Several DGAT inhibitors of natural and synthetic origin have been reported, and their future prospect as anti-obesity drugs is discussed in this review.

  3. Inhibitors of Proton Pumping

    PubMed Central

    Bisson, Mary A.

    1986-01-01

    Reported inhibitors of the Characean plasmalemma proton pump were tested for their ability to inhibit the passive H+ conductance which develops in Chara corallina Klein ex Willd. at high pH. Diethylstilbestrol inhibits the proton pump and the passive H+ conductance with about the same time course, at concentrations that have no effect on cytoplasmic streaming. N-Ethylmaleimide, a sulfhydryl reagent which is small and relatively nonpolar, also inhibits both pumping and passive conductance of H+. However, it also inhibits cytoplasmic streaming with about the same time course, and therefore could not be considered a specific ATPase inhibitor. p-Chloromercuribenzene sulfonate (PCMBS), a sulfhydryl reagent which is large and charged and hence less able to penetrate the membrane, does not inhibit pumping or conductance at low concentration. At high concentration, PCMBS sometimes inhibits pumping without affecting H+ conductance, but since streaming is also inhibited, the effect on the pump cannot be said to be specific. 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide, a water soluble carbodiimide, weakly inhibits both pump and conductance, apparently specifically. PMID:16664807

  4. Synthesis of Lysine Methyltransferase Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Tao; Hui, Chunngai

    2015-07-01

    Lysine methyltransferase which catalyze methylation of histone and nonhistone proteins, play a crucial role in diverse biological processes and has emerged as a promising target for the development of various human diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and psychiatric disorders. However, inhibiting Lysine methyltransferases selectively has presented many challenges to medicinal chemists. During the past decade, lysine methyltransferase inhibitors covering many different structural classes have been designed and developed. In this review, we describe the development of selective, small-molecule inhibitors of lysine methyltransferases with an emphasis on their discovery and chemical synthesis. We highlight the current state of lysine methyltransferase inhibitors and discuss future directions and opportunities for lysine methyltransferase inhibitor discovery.

  5. Biological abatement of cellulase inhibitors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bio-abatement uses a fungus to metabolize and remove fermentation inhibitors. To determine whether bio-abatement could alleviate enzyme inhibitor effects observed in biomass liquors after pretreatment, corn stover at 10% (w/v) solids was pretreated with either dilute acid or liquid hot water. The ...

  6. Peptidase inhibitors in tick physiology.

    PubMed

    Parizi, L F; Ali, A; Tirloni, L; Oldiges, D P; Sabadin, G A; Coutinho, M L; Seixas, A; Logullo, C; Termignoni, C; DA Silva Vaz, I

    2018-06-01

    Peptidase inhibitors regulate a wide range of physiological processes involved in the interaction between hematophagous parasites and their hosts, including tissue remodeling, the immune response and blood coagulation. In tick physiology, peptidase inhibitors have a crucial role in adaptation to improve parasitism mechanisms, facilitating blood feeding by interfering with defense-related host peptidases. Recently, a larger number of studies on this topic led to the description of several new tick inhibitors displaying interesting novel features, for example a role in pathogen transmission to the host. A comprehensive review discussing these emerging concepts can therefore shed light on peptidase inhibitor functions, their relevance to tick physiology and their potential applications. Here, we summarize and examine the general characteristics, functional diversity and action of tick peptidase inhibitors with known physiological roles in the tick-host-pathogen interaction. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  7. Inside HDAC with HDAC inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Philippe

    2010-06-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors are a large group of diverse molecules intrinsically able to inhibit cell proliferation in various cancer cell lines. Their apoptotic effects have been linked to the modulation in the expression of several regulatory tumor suppressor genes caused by the modified status of histone acetylation, a key event in chromatin remodelling. As the initial histone deacetylase activity of HDAC has been extended to other proteins, the possible other biological mechanisms modified by HDAC inhibitor treatments are still to be clarified. The need for HDAC isoform selective inhibitors is an important issue to serve this goal. This review discusses the approaches proposed by several research groups working on the synthesis of HDAC inhibitors, based on modelling studies and the way these findings were used to obtain new HDAC inhibitors with possible isoform selectivity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Antagonism of immunostimulatory CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides by quinacrine, chloroquine, and structurally related compounds.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, D E; Manzel, L

    1998-02-01

    Phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG (CpG-ODN) activate immune responses. We report that quinacrine, chloroquine, and structurally related compounds completely inhibit the antiapoptotic effect of CpG-ODN on WEHI 231 murine B lymphoma cells and inhibit CpG-ODN-induced secretion of IL-6 by WEHI 231. They also inhibit IL-6 synthesis and thymidine uptake by human unfractionated PBMC induced by CpG-ODN. The compounds did not inhibit LPS-induced responses. Half-maximal inhibition required 10 nM quinacrine or 100 nM chloroquine. Inhibition was noncompetitive with respect to CpG-ODN. Quinine, quinidine, and primaquine were much less powerful. Quinacrine was effective even when added after the CpG-ODN. Near-toxic concentrations of ammonia plus bafilomycin A1 (used to inhibit vesicular acidification) did not reduce the efficacy of the quinacrine, but the effects of both quinacrine and chloroquine were enhanced by inhibition of the multidrug resistance efflux pump by verapamil. Agents that bind to DNA, including propidium iodide, Hoechst dye 33258, and coralyne chloride did not inhibit CpG-ODN effect, nor did 4-bromophenacyl bromide, an inhibitor of phospholipase A2. Examination of the structure-activity relationship of seventy 4-aminoquinoline and 9-aminoacridine analogues reveals that increased activity was conferred by bulky hydrophobic substituents on positions 2 and 6 of the quinoline nucleus. No correlation was found between published antimalarial activity and ability to block CpG-ODN-induced effects. These results are discussed in the light of the ability of quinacrine and chloroquine to induce remission of rheumatoid arthritis and lupus erythematosus.

  9. FMRFamide produces biphasic modulation of the LFS motor neurons in the neural circuit of the siphon withdrawal reflex of Aplysia by activating Na+ and K+ currents.

    PubMed

    Belkin, K J; Abrams, T W

    1993-12-01

    The molluscan neuropeptide FMRFamide has an inhibitory effect on transmitter release from the presynaptic sensory neurons in the neural circuit for the siphon withdrawal reflex. We have explored whether FMRFamide also acts postsynaptically in motor neurons in this circuit, focusing on the LFS motor neurons. FMRFamide typically produces a biphasic response in LFS neurons: a fast excitatory response followed by a prolonged inhibitory response. We have analyzed these postsynaptic actions and compared them with the mechanism of FMRFamide's inhibition of the presynaptic sensory neurons. The transient excitatory effect of FMRFamide, which desensitizes rapidly, is due to activation of a TTX-insensitive, Na(+)-dependent inward current. The late hyperpolarizing phase of the FMRFamide response results from activation of at least two K+ currents. One component of the hyperpolarizing response is active at rest and at more hyperpolarized membrane potentials, and is blocked by 5 mM 4-aminopyridine, suggesting that it differs from the previously described FMRFamide-modulated K+ currents in the presynaptic sensory neurons. In addition, FMRFamide increases a 4-aminopyridine-insensitive K+ current. Presynaptically, FMRFamide increases K+ conductance, acting via release of arachidonic acid. In the LFS motor neurons, application of arachidonic acid mimicked the prolonged, hyperpolarizing phase of the FMRFamide response; 4-bromophenacyl bromide, an inhibitor of phospholipase A2, selectively blocked this component of the FMRFamide response. Thus, FMRFamide may act in parallel pre- and post-synaptically to inhibit the output of the siphon withdrawal reflex circuit, producing this inhibitory effect via the same second messenger in the sensory neurons and motor neurons, though a number of the K+ currents modulated in these two types of neurons are different.

  10. Dietary histone deacetylase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Dashwood, Roderick H.; Ho, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli and broccoli sprouts. This anticarcinogen was first identified as a potent inducer of Phase 2 detoxification enzymes, but evidence is mounting that SFN also acts through epigenetic mechanisms. SFN has been shown to inhibit histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity in human colon and prostate cancer lines, with an increase in global and local histone acetylation status, such as on the promoter regions of P21 and bax genes. SFN also inhibited the growth of prostate cancer xenografts and spontaneous intestinal polyps in mouse models, with evidence for altered histone acetylation and HDAC activities in vivo. In human subjects, a single ingestion of 68 g broccoli sprouts inhibited HDAC activity in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells 3-6 h after consumption, with concomitant induction of histone H3 and H4 acetylation. These findings provide evidence that one mechanism of cancer chemoprevention by SFN is via epigenetic changes associated with inhibition of HDAC activity. Other dietary agents such as butyrate, biotin, lipoic acid, garlic organosulfur compounds, and metabolites of vitamin E have structural features compatible with HDAC inhibition. The ability of dietary compounds to de-repress epigenetically silenced genes in cancer cells, and to activate these genes in normal cells, has important implications for cancer prevention and therapy. In a broader context, there is growing interest in dietary HDAC inhibitors and their impact on epigenetic mechanisms affecting other chronic conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegeneration and aging. PMID:17555985

  11. Targeting cancer with kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Stefan; Rahal, Rami; Stransky, Nicolas; Lengauer, Christoph; Hoeflich, Klaus P.

    2015-01-01

    Kinase inhibitors have played an increasingly prominent role in the treatment of cancer and other diseases. Currently, more than 25 oncology drugs that target kinases have been approved, and numerous additional therapeutics are in various stages of clinical evaluation. In this Review, we provide an in-depth analysis of activation mechanisms for kinases in cancer, highlight recent successes in drug discovery, and demonstrate the clinical impact of selective kinase inhibitors. We also describe the substantial progress that has been made in designing next-generation inhibitors to circumvent on-target resistance mechanisms, as well as ongoing strategies for combining kinase inhibitors in the clinic. Last, there are numerous prospects for the discovery of novel kinase targets, and we explore cancer immunotherapy as a new and promising research area for studying kinase biology. PMID:25932675

  12. [ACE inhibitors and the kidney].

    PubMed

    Hörl, W H

    1996-01-01

    Treatment with ACE inhibitors results in kidney protection due to reduction of systemic blood pressure, intraglomerular pressure, an antiproliferative effect, reduction of proteinuria and a lipid-lowering effect in proteinuric patients (secondary due to reduction of protein excretion). Elderly patients with diabetes melitus, coronary heart disease or peripheral vascular occlusion are at risk for deterioration of kidney function due to a high frequency of renal artery stenosis in these patients. In patients with renal insufficiency dose reduction of ACE inhibitors is necessary (exception: fosinopril) but more important is the risk for development of hyperkalemia. Patients at risk for renal artery stenosis and patients pretreated with diuretics should receive a low ACE inhibitor dosage initially ("start low - go slow"). For compliance reasons once daily ACE inhibitor dosage is recommended.

  13. Notch Inhibitors for Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Ingrid; Miele, Lucio

    2013-01-01

    Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved cell signaling pathway involved in cell fate during development, stem cell renewal and differentiation in postnatal tissues. Roles for Notch in carcinogenesis, in the biology of cancer stem cells and tumor angiogenesis have been reported. These features identify Notch as a potential therapeutic target in oncology. Based on the molecular structure of Notch receptor, Notch ligands and Notch activators, a set of Notch pathway inhibitors have been developed. Most of these inhibitors had shown anti-tumor effects in preclinical studies. At the same time, the combinatorial effect of these inhibitors with current chemotherapeutical drugs still under study in different clinical trials. In this review, we describe the basics of Notch signaling and the role of Notch in normal and cancer stem cells as a logic way to develop different Notch inhibitors and their current stage of progress for cancer patient’s treatment. PMID:23458608

  14. Newer treatments of psoriasis regarding IL-23 inhibitors, phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors, and Janus kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wcisło-Dziadecka, Dominika; Zbiciak-Nylec, Martyna; Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia; Bebenek, Katarzyna; Kaźmierczak, Agata

    2017-11-01

    The rapid progress of genetic engineering furthermore opens up new prospects in the therapy of this difficult-to-treat disease. IL-23 inhibitors, phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors, and Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors are currently encouraging further research. Two drugs which are IL-23 inhibitors are now in phase III of clinical trials. The aim of the action of both drugs is selective IL-23 inhibition by targeting the p19 subunit. Guselkumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody. Tildrakizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody, which also belongs to IgG class and is targeted to subunit p19 of interleukin 23 (IL-23). Phosphodiesterase inhibitors exert an anti-inflammatory action and their most common group is the PDE4 family. PDE4 inhibits cAMP, which reduces the inflammatory response of the pathway of Th helper lymphocytes, Th17, and type 1 interferon which modulates the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 interleukins. The Janus kinase (JAK) signaling pathway plays an important role in the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis. Tofacitinib suppresses the expression of IL-23, IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22 receptors during the stimulation of lymphocytes. Ruxolitinib is a selective inhibitor of JAK1 and JAK2 kinases and the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. This article is a review of the aforementioned drugs as described in the latest available literature. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Amprenavir, new protease inhibitor, approved.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1999-05-07

    A new protease inhibitor, amprenavir (Agenerase), has received FDA marketing approval. The approval was based on two 24-week controlled trials and safety data in more than 1,400 patients under FDA accelerated-approval rules. Amprenavir is approved for patients 4 years of age and older. The drug is taken twice daily, with or without food. Side effects include gastrointestinal disturbances, rashes, and oral paresthesia. Severe or life-threatening rashes have occurred in 1 percent of all patients. Pregnant women should not use the drug unless necessary. The drug was developed by Vertex Pharmaceuticals Inc. and is being marketed by Glaxo Wellcome. Some studies suggest that amprenavir is less likely than other protease inhibitors to be associated with lipid metabolism problems. It may have a resistance profile different from that of other protease inhibitors, and therefore may cause different cross resistance problems. Amprenavir appears to be synergistic with abacavir (Ziagen) in laboratory tests.

  16. Electrochemical studies of corrosion inhibitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of single salts, as well as multicomponent mixtures, on corrosion inhibition was studied for type 1010 steel; for 5052, 1100, and 2219-T87 aluminum alloys; and for copper. Molybdate-containing inhibitors exhibit an immediate, positive effect for steel corrosion, but an incubation period may be required for aluminum before the effect of a given inhibitor can be determined. The absence of oxygen was found to provide a positive effect (smaller corrosion rate) for steel and copper, but a negative effect for aluminum. This is attributed to the two possible mechanisms by which aluminum can oxidize. Corrosion inhibition is generally similar for oxygen-rich and oxygen-free environments. The results show that the electrochemical method is an effective means of screening inhibitors for the corrosion of single metals, with caution to be exercised in the case of aluminum.

  17. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.

    This invention involves a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline andmore » L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography.« less

  18. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.

    1987-05-22

    This invention involved a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide in activators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography. 2 figs.

  19. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.

    This invention involved a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide in activators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgylinemore » and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography. 2 figs.« less

  20. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, Joanna S.; MacGregor, Robert R.; Wolf, Alfred P.; Langstrom, Bengt

    1990-01-01

    This invention involves a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography.

  1. Heterocyclic HIV-protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Calugi, C; Guarna, A; Trabocchi, A

    2013-01-01

    In the panorama of HIV protease inhibitors (HIV PIs), many efforts have been devoted to the development of new compounds with reduced peptidic nature in order to improve pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics features. The introduction of cyclic scaffolds in the design of new chemical entities reduces flexibility and affords more rigid inhibitors. Specifically, common dipeptide isosteres are replaced by a central cyclic scaffold designed to address the key interactions with catalytic aspartic acids and residues belonging to the flap region of the active site. The current interest in cyclic chemotypes addressing key interactions of HIV protease is motivated by the different nature of interactions formed with the enzyme, although maintaining key structural resemblance to a peptide substrate, hopefully giving rise to novel HIV-1 PIs displaying an improved profile towards multidrug resistant strains. This approach has been demonstrated for Tipranavir, which is a potent FDA approved HIV-1 PI representing the most famous example of heterocyclic aspartic protease inhibitors.

  2. STAT inhibitors for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) proteins are a family of cytoplasmic transcription factors consisting of 7 members, STAT1 to STAT6, including STAT5a and STAT5b. STAT proteins are thought to be ideal targets for anti-cancer therapy since cancer cells are more dependent on the STAT activity than their normal counterparts. Inhibitors targeting STAT3 and STAT5 have been developed. These included peptidomimetics, small molecule inhibitors and oligonucleotides. This review summarized advances in preclinical and clinical development of these compounds. PMID:24308725

  3. Neprilysin Inhibitors in Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Kang, Guson; Banerjee, Dipanjan

    2017-02-01

    Mortality from heart failure remains high despite advances in medical therapy over the last three decades. Angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) combinations are the latest addition to the heart failure medical armamentarium, which is built on the cornerstone regimen of beta blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, and aldosterone antagonists. Recent trial data have shown a significant mortality benefit from ARNIs, which, as of May 2016, have now received a class I recommendation for use in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction from the major American and European cardiology societies.

  4. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: Pharmacology and Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Čolović, Mirjana B; Krstić, Danijela Z; Lazarević-Pašti, Tamara D; Bondžić, Aleksandra M; Vasić, Vesna M

    2013-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase is involved in the termination of impulse transmission by rapid hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in numerous cholinergic pathways in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The enzyme inactivation, induced by various inhibitors, leads to acetylcholine accumulation, hyperstimulation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, and disrupted neurotransmission. Hence, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, interacting with the enzyme as their primary target, are applied as relevant drugs and toxins. This review presents an overview of toxicology and pharmacology of reversible and irreversible acetylcholinesterase inactivating compounds. In the case of reversible inhibitors being commonly applied in neurodegenerative disorders treatment, special attention is paid to currently approved drugs (donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine) in the pharmacotherapy of Alzheimer’s disease, and toxic carbamates used as pesticides. Subsequently, mechanism of irreversible acetylcholinesterase inhibition induced by organophosphorus compounds (insecticides and nerve agents), and their specific and nonspecific toxic effects are described, as well as irreversible inhibitors having pharmacological implementation. In addition, the pharmacological treatment of intoxication caused by organophosphates is presented, with emphasis on oxime reactivators of the inhibited enzyme activity administering as causal drugs after the poisoning. Besides, organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides can be detoxified in mammals through enzymatic hydrolysis before they reach targets in the nervous system. Carboxylesterases most effectively decompose carbamates, whereas the most successful route of organophosphates detoxification is their degradation by corresponding phosphotriesterases. PMID:24179466

  5. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors in clinical urology.

    PubMed

    Ückert, Stefan; Kuczyk, Markus A; Oelke, Matthias

    2013-05-01

    To date, benign diseases of the male and female lower urinary and genital tract, such as erectile dysfunction, bladder overactivity, lower urinary tract symptomatology secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia and symptoms of female sexual dysfunction (including arousal and orgasmic disorders), can be therapeutically approached by influencing the function of the smooth musculature of the respective tissues. The use of isoenzyme-selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors is considered a great opportunity to treat various diseases of the human urogenital tract. PDE inhibitors, in particular the PDE5 (cyclic GMP PDE) inhibitors avanafil, lodenafil, sildenafil, tadalafil, udenafil and vardenafil, are regarded as efficacious, having a fast onset of drug action and an improved effect-to-adverse event ratio, combining a high response rate with the advantage of an on-demand intake. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent as well as potential future indications, namely, erectile dysfunction, Peyronie's disease, overactive bladder, urinary stone disease, lower urinary tract symptomatology secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia and premature ejaculation, for the use of PDE inhibitors in clinical urology.

  6. p21-activated kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Joachim; Crawford, James J; Hoeflich, Klaus P; Chernoff, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are Ser/Thr kinases in the STE20 kinase family with important roles in regulating cytoskeletal organization, cell migration, and signaling. The PAK enzyme family comprises six members subdivided into two groups: Group I, represented by PAK1, 2, and 3, and Group II, represented by PAK 4, 5, and 6, based on sequence and structural homology. Individual PAK isoforms were found to be overexpressed and amplified in a variety of human cancers, and in vitro and in vivo studies using genetically engineered systems as well as small-molecule tool compounds have suggested therapeutic utility of PAKs as oncology targets. The identification of potent and kinome-selective ATP-competitive PAK inhibitors has proven challenging, likely caused by the openness and unique plasticity of the ATP-binding site of PAK enzymes. Progress in achieving increased kinase selectivity has been achieved with certain inhibitors but at the expense of increased molecular weight. Allosteric inhibitors, such as IPA-3, leverage the unique Group I PAK autoregulatory domain for selective inhibition, and this approach might provide an outlet to evade the kinase selectivity challenges observed with ATP-competitive PAK inhibitors. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Biological abatement of cellulase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cao, Guangli; Ximenes, Eduardo; Nichols, Nancy N; Zhang, Leyu; Ladisch, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Removal of enzyme inhibitors released during lignocellulose pretreatment is essential for economically feasible biofuel production. We tested bio-abatement to mitigate enzyme inhibitor effects observed in corn stover liquors after pretreatment with either dilute acid or liquid hot water at 10% (w/v) solids. Bio-abatement of liquors was followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. To distinguish between inhibitor effects on enzymes and recalcitrance of the substrate, pretreated corn stover solids were removed and replaced with 1% (w/v) Solka Floc. Cellulose conversion in the presence of bio-abated liquors from dilute acid pretreatment was 8.6% (0.1x enzyme) and 16% (1x enzyme) higher than control (non-abated) samples. In the presence of bio-abated liquor from liquid hot water pretreated corn stover, 10% (0.1x enzyme) and 13% (1x enzyme) higher cellulose conversion was obtained compared to control. Bio-abatement yielded improved enzyme hydrolysis in the same range as that obtained using a chemical (overliming) method for mitigating inhibitors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biocatalysts with enhanced inhibitor tolerance

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Shihui; Linger, Jeffrey; Franden, Mary Ann; Pienkos, Philip T.; Zhang, Min

    2015-12-08

    Disclosed herein are biocatalysts for the production of biofuels, including microorganisms that contain genetic modifications conferring tolerance to growth and fermentation inhibitors found in many cellulosic feedstocks. Methods of converting cellulose-containing materials to fuels and chemicals, as well as methods of fermenting sugars to fuels and chemicals, using these biocatalysts are also disclosed.

  9. Less-toxic corrosion inhibitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.

    1981-01-01

    Combinations of borates, nitrates, phosphates, silicates, and sodium MBT protect aluminum from corrosion in fresh water. Most effective combinations contained sodium phosphate and were alkaline. These inhibitors replace toxic chromates which are subject to governmental restrictions, but must be used in larger quantities. Experimental exposure times varied from 1 to 14 months depending upon nature of submersion solution.

  10. Salicylanilide Inhibitors of Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Fomovska, Alina; Wood, Richard D.; Mui, Ernest; Dubey, Jitenter P.; Ferriera, Leandra R.; Hickman, Mark R.; Lee, Patricia J.; Leed, Susan E.; Auschwitz, Jennifer M.; Welsh, William J.; Sommerville, Caroline; Woods, Stuart; Roberts, Craig; McLeod, Rima

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii(T. gondii) is an apicomplexan parasite that can cause eye disease, brain disease, and death, especially in congenitally infected and immune-compromised people. Novel medicines effective against both active and latent forms of the parasite are greatly needed. The current study focused on the discovery of such medicines by exploring a family of potential inhibitors whose anti-apicomplexan activity has not been previously reported. Initial screening efforts revealed that niclosamide, a drug approved for anthelmintic use, possessed promising activity in vitro against T. gondii. This observation inspired the evaluation of the activity of a series of salicylanilides and derivatives. Several inhibitors with activities in the nanomolar range with no appreciable in vitro toxicity to human cells were identified. An initial structure-activity relationship was explored. Four compounds were selected for evaluation in an in vivo model of infection, and two derivatives with potentially enhanced pharmacological parameters demonstrated the best activity profiles. PMID:22970937

  11. Pharmacogenomics and histone deacetylase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Goey, Andrew KL; Sissung, Tristan M; Peer, Cody J; Figg, William D

    2016-01-01

    The histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) has been used for many decades in neurology and psychiatry. The more recent introduction of the histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) belinostat, romidepsin and vorinostat for treatment of hematological malignancies indicates the increasing popularity of these agents. Belinostat, romidepsin and vorinostat are metabolized or transported by polymorphic enzymes or drug transporters. Thus, genotype-directed dosing could improve pharmacotherapy by reducing the risk of toxicities or preventing suboptimal treatment. This review provides an overview of clinical studies on the effects of polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics, efficacy or toxicities of HDIs including belinostat, romidepsin, vorinostat, panobinostat, VPA and a number of novel compounds currently being tested in Phase I and II trials. Although pharmacogenomic studies for HDIs are scarce, available data indicate that therapy with belinostat (UGT1A1), romidepsin (ABCB1), vorinostat (UGT2B17) or VPA (UGT1A6) could be optimized by upfront genotyping. PMID:27767376

  12. Crystal structures of HIV-1 nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: N-benzyl-4-methyl-benzimidazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziółkowska, Natasza E.; Michejda, Christopher J.; Bujacz, Grzegorz D.

    2009-07-01

    HIV-1 nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors are potentially specific and effective drugs in AIDS therapy. The presence of two aromatic systems with an angled orientation in the molecule of the inhibitor is crucial for interactions with HIV-1 RT. The inhibitor drives like a wedge into the cluster of aromatic residues of RT HIV-1 and restrains the enzyme in a conformation that blocks the chemical step of nucleotide incorporation. Structural studies provide useful information for designing new, more active inhibitors. The crystal structures of four NNRTIs are presented here. The investigated compounds are derivatives of N-benzyl-4-methyl-benzimidazole with various aliphatic and aromatic substituents at carbon 2 positions and a 2,6-dihalogeno-substituted N-benzyl moiety. Structural data reported here show that the conformation of the investigated compounds is relatively rigid. Such feature is important for the nonnucleoside inhibitor binding to HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

  13. Thioredoxin Reductase and its Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Saccoccia, Fulvio; Angelucci, Francesco; Boumis, Giovanna; Carotti, Daniela; Desiato, Gianni; Miele, Adriana E; Bellelli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Thioredoxin plays a crucial role in a wide number of physiological processes, which span from reduction of nucleotides to deoxyriboucleotides to the detoxification from xenobiotics, oxidants and radicals. The redox function of Thioredoxin is critically dependent on the enzyme Thioredoxin NADPH Reductase (TrxR). In view of its indirect involvement in the above mentioned physio/pathological processes, inhibition of TrxR is an important clinical goal. As a general rule, the affinities and mechanisms of binding of TrxR inhibitors to the target enzyme are known with scarce precision and conflicting results abound in the literature. A relevant analysis of published results as well as the experimental procedures is therefore needed, also in view of the critical interest of TrxR inhibitors. We review the inhibitors of TrxR and related flavoreductases and the classical treatment of reversible, competitive, non competitive and uncompetitive inhibition with respect to TrxR, and in some cases we are able to reconcile contradictory results generated by oversimplified data analysis. PMID:24875642

  14. Effect of phosphodiesterase inhibitors in the bladder.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Bilal; Ali, Aizaz; Dunphy, Claire; Kaplan, Steven A

    2015-01-01

    Many aging men will experience lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors have shown promise in treating LUTS in these patients. PDE5 inhibitors mediate their effects through several pathways including cAMP, NO/cGMP, K-channel modulated pathways, and the l -cysteine/H 2 S pathway. PDE5 inhibitors exert their effect in muscle cells, nerve fibers, and interstitial cells (ICs). The use of PDE5 inhibitors led to improvement in LUTS. This included urodynamic parameters. PDE5 inhibitors may play a significant role in LUTS due to their effect on the bladder rather than the prostate.

  15. Inhibitors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guh S, Grosse SD, McAlister S, Kessler CM, Soucie JM. Health care expenditures for males with haemophilia and employer-sponsored insurance ... Guh S, Grosse SD, McAlister S, Kessler CM, Soucie JM. Health care expenditures for Medicaid-covered males with haemophilia in the ...

  16. Purification of a novel pepsin inhibitor from Coriolus versicolor and its biochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Qiu-Ping; Sun, Ying; Tian, Ya-Ping; Zhou, Nan-Di

    2012-03-01

    A novel pepsin inhibitor was isolated from Coriolus versicolor. The purification was carried out by a 2-step ultrafiltration followed by DEAE-52 and Mono Q ion-exchange chromatography. SDS-PAGE and gel filtration chromatography analysis showed that the isolated inhibitor was a 22.3 kDa protein with a single subunit. Heat stability of this inhibitor was estimated and only 7% of its inhibitory activity lost after treatment at 98 °C. The inhibitor was more specific against pepsin than several other proteases. The dissociation constant (K(i)) and concentration required for 50% pepsin inhibition (IC50) were 5.84 × 10(-5) M and 26.26 μg/mL, respectively. Apparent decrease of α-helix and increase of random coil were observed in the circular dichroism spectra of pepsin when an equimolar amount of the inhibitor was added. The inhibition mechanism of this inhibitor differs from the reported aspartic protease inhibitors, according to the secondary structure and the kinetic studies of this inhibitor. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Emicizumab Prophylaxis in Hemophilia A with Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, Johannes; Mahlangu, Johnny N; Kim, Benjamin; Schmitt, Christophe; Callaghan, Michael U; Young, Guy; Santagostino, Elena; Kruse-Jarres, Rebecca; Negrier, Claude; Kessler, Craig; Valente, Nancy; Asikanius, Elina; Levy, Gallia G; Windyga, Jerzy; Shima, Midori

    2017-08-31

    Emicizumab (ACE910) bridges activated factor IX and factor X to restore the function of activated factor VIII, which is deficient in persons with hemophilia A. This phase 3, multicenter trial assessed once-weekly subcutaneous emicizumab prophylaxis in persons with hemophilia A with factor VIII inhibitors. We enrolled participants who were 12 years of age or older. Those who had previously received episodic treatment with bypassing agents were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to emicizumab prophylaxis (group A) or no prophylaxis (group B). The primary end point was the difference in bleeding rates between group A and group B. Participants who had previously received prophylactic treatment with bypassing agents received emicizumab prophylaxis in group C. A total of 109 male participants with hemophilia A with inhibitors were enrolled. The annualized bleeding rate was 2.9 events (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7 to 5.0) among participants who were randomly assigned to emicizumab prophylaxis (group A, 35 participants) versus 23.3 events (95% CI, 12.3 to 43.9) among those assigned to no prophylaxis (group B, 18 participants), representing a significant difference of 87% in favor of emicizumab prophylaxis (P<0.001). A total of 22 participants in group A (63%) had zero bleeding events, as compared with 1 participant (6%) in group B. Among 24 participants in group C who had participated in a noninterventional study, emicizumab prophylaxis resulted in a bleeding rate that was significantly lower by 79% than the rate with previous bypassing-agent prophylaxis (P<0.001). Overall, 198 adverse events were reported in 103 participants receiving emicizumab prophylaxis; the most frequent events were injection-site reactions (in 15% of participants). Thrombotic microangiopathy and thrombosis were reported in 2 participants each (in the primary analysis) who had received multiple infusions of activated prothrombin complex concentrate for breakthrough bleeding. No antidrug antibodies

  18. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs): multitargeted anticancer agents

    PubMed Central

    Ververis, Katherine; Hiong, Alison; Karagiannis, Tom C; Licciardi, Paul V

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are an emerging class of therapeutics with potential as anticancer drugs. The rationale for developing HDAC inhibitors (and other chromatin-modifying agents) as anticancer therapies arose from the understanding that in addition to genetic mutations, epigenetic changes such as dysregulation of HDAC enzymes can alter phenotype and gene expression, disturb homeostasis, and contribute to neoplastic growth. The family of HDAC inhibitors is large and diverse. It includes a range of naturally occurring and synthetic compounds that differ in terms of structure, function, and specificity. HDAC inhibitors have multiple cell type-specific effects in vitro and in vivo, such as growth arrest, cell differentiation, and apoptosis in malignant cells. HDAC inhibitors have the potential to be used as monotherapies or in combination with other anticancer therapies. Currently, there are two HDAC inhibitors that have received approval from the US FDA for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, Zolinza) and depsipeptide (romidepsin, Istodax). More recently, depsipeptide has also gained FDA approval for the treatment of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Many more clinical trials assessing the effects of various HDAC inhibitors on hematological and solid malignancies are currently being conducted. Despite the proven anticancer effects of particular HDAC inhibitors against certain cancers, many aspects of HDAC enzymes and HDAC inhibitors are still not fully understood. Increasing our understanding of the effects of HDAC inhibitors, their targets and mechanisms of action will be critical for the advancement of these drugs, especially to facilitate the rational design of HDAC inhibitors that are effective as antineoplastic agents. This review will discuss the use of HDAC inhibitors as multitargeted therapies for malignancy. Further, we outline the pharmacology and mechanisms of action of HDAC inhibitors while

  19. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs): multitargeted anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Ververis, Katherine; Hiong, Alison; Karagiannis, Tom C; Licciardi, Paul V

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are an emerging class of therapeutics with potential as anticancer drugs. The rationale for developing HDAC inhibitors (and other chromatin-modifying agents) as anticancer therapies arose from the understanding that in addition to genetic mutations, epigenetic changes such as dysregulation of HDAC enzymes can alter phenotype and gene expression, disturb homeostasis, and contribute to neoplastic growth. The family of HDAC inhibitors is large and diverse. It includes a range of naturally occurring and synthetic compounds that differ in terms of structure, function, and specificity. HDAC inhibitors have multiple cell type-specific effects in vitro and in vivo, such as growth arrest, cell differentiation, and apoptosis in malignant cells. HDAC inhibitors have the potential to be used as monotherapies or in combination with other anticancer therapies. Currently, there are two HDAC inhibitors that have received approval from the US FDA for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, Zolinza) and depsipeptide (romidepsin, Istodax). More recently, depsipeptide has also gained FDA approval for the treatment of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Many more clinical trials assessing the effects of various HDAC inhibitors on hematological and solid malignancies are currently being conducted. Despite the proven anticancer effects of particular HDAC inhibitors against certain cancers, many aspects of HDAC enzymes and HDAC inhibitors are still not fully understood. Increasing our understanding of the effects of HDAC inhibitors, their targets and mechanisms of action will be critical for the advancement of these drugs, especially to facilitate the rational design of HDAC inhibitors that are effective as antineoplastic agents. This review will discuss the use of HDAC inhibitors as multitargeted therapies for malignancy. Further, we outline the pharmacology and mechanisms of action of HDAC inhibitors while

  20. Calcineurin-inhibitor pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Prommer, Eric

    2012-07-01

    There has been increased recognition of calcineurin, a phosphoprotein serine/threonine phosphatase enzyme, in the regulation of many physiologic systems. Calcineurin mediates activation of lymphocytes, which play a role in immune response. Widely distributed in the central nervous system, calcinuerin also plays an important role in sensory neural function, via its role in the regulation of newly discovered 2-pore potassium channels, which greatly influence neuronal resting membrane potentials. Calcinuerin inhibition is the mechanism of action of immunomodulatory drugs such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus, which are widely used in transplantation medicine to prevent rejection. While important for immunosuppression, the use of calcineurin inhibitors has been associated with the development of a new pain syndrome called the calcineurin pain syndrome, which appears to be an untoward complication of the interruption of the physiologic function of calcineurin. This is a narrative review focusing on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, characterization of a newly recognized pain syndrome associated with the use of calcineurin inhibitors. The use of immunosuppressants however is associated with several well-known toxicities to which the calcineurin pain syndrome can be added. The development of this syndrome most likely involves altered nociceptive processing due to the effect of calcineurin inhibition on neuronal firing, as well as effects of calcineurin on vascular tone. The most striking aspect of the treatment of this syndrome is the response to calcium channel blockers, which suggest that the effects of calcineurin inhibition on vascular tone play an important role in the development of the calcineurin pain syndrome. The calcineurin syndrome is a newly recognized complication associated with the use of calcineurin inhibitors. There is no standard therapy at this time but anecdotal reports suggest the effectiveness of calcium channel blockers.

  1. Cholinesterase inhibitors: a patent review (2007 - 2011).

    PubMed

    de los Ríos, Cristóbal

    2012-08-01

    Cholinesterase inhibitors participate in the maintenance of the levels of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine by inhibiting the enzymes implicated in its degradation, namely, butyrylcholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase. This pharmacological action has an important role in several diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. This article reviews recent advances in the development of cholinesterase enzyme inhibitors, covering the development of new chemical entities, new pharmaceutical formulations with known inhibitors or treatments in combination with other drug families. The development of cholinesterase inhibitors has to face several issues, including the fact that the principal indication for these drugs, Alzheimer's disease, is not currently believed to derivate from a cholinergic deficiency, although most of the drugs clinically used for these disease are cholinesterase inhibitors. Moreover, the adverse effects found when administering cholinesterase inhibitors limit their use in other diseases, such as gastrointestinal diseases, glaucoma, or analgesia.

  2. Network pharmacology of JAK inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Moodley, Devapregasan; Yoshida, Hideyuki; Mostafavi, Sara; Asinovski, Natasha; Ortiz-Lopez, Adriana; Symanowicz, Peter; Telliez, Jean-Baptiste; Hegen, Martin; Clark, James D.; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Small-molecule inhibitors of the Janus kinase family (JAKis) are clinically efficacious in multiple autoimmune diseases, albeit with increased risk of certain infections. Their precise mechanism of action is unclear, with JAKs being signaling hubs for several cytokines. We assessed the in vivo impact of pan- and isoform-specific JAKi in mice by immunologic and genomic profiling. Effects were broad across the immunogenomic network, with overlap between inhibitors. Natural killer (NK) cell and macrophage homeostasis were most immediately perturbed, with network-level analysis revealing a rewiring of coregulated modules of NK cell transcripts. The repression of IFN signature genes after repeated JAKi treatment continued even after drug clearance, with persistent changes in chromatin accessibility and phospho-STAT responsiveness to IFN. Thus, clinical use and future development of JAKi might need to balance effects on immunological networks, rather than expect that JAKis affect a particular cytokine response and be cued to long-lasting epigenomic modifications rather than by short-term pharmacokinetics. PMID:27516546

  3. Aromatase Inhibitors and Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    PEREZ, EDITH A.; M., Serene; Durling, Frances C.; WEILBAECHER, KATHERINE

    2009-01-01

    The aromatase inhibitors (AIs) anastrozole (Arimidex), letrozole (Femara), and exemestane (Aromasin) are significantly more effective than the selective estrogen-receptor modulator (SERM) tamoxifen in preventing recurrence in estrogen receptor–positive early breast cancer. Aromatase inhibitors are likely to replace SERMs as first-line adjuvant therapy for many patients. However, AIs are associated with significantly more osteoporotic fractures and greater bone mineral loss. As antiresorptive agents, oral and intravenous bisphosphonates such as alendronate (Fosamax), risedronate (Actonel), ibandronate (Boniva), pamidronate (Aredia), and zoledronic acid (Zometa) have efficacy in preventing postmenopausal osteoporosis, cancer treatment–related bone loss, or skeletal complications of metastatic disease. Clinical practice guidelines recommend baseline and annual follow-up bone density monitoring for all patients initiating AI therapy. Bisphosphonate therapy should be prescribed for patients with osteoporosis (T score < −2.5) and considered on an individual basis for those with osteopenia (T score < −1). Modifiable lifestyle behaviors including adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, weight-bearing exercise, and smoking cessation should be addressed. Adverse events associated with bisphosphonates include gastrointestinal toxicity, renal toxicity, and osteonecrosis of the jaw. These safety concerns should be balanced with the potential of bisphosphonates to minimize or prevent the debilitating effects of AI-associated bone loss in patients with early, hormone receptor–positive breast cancer. PMID:16986348

  4. Fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suneel B V S; Narasu, Lakshmi; Gundla, Rambabu; Dayam, Raveendra; J A R P, Sarma

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) play an important role in embryonic development, angiogenesis, wound healing, cell proliferation and differentiation. The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) isoforms have been under intense scrutiny for effective anticancer drug candidates. The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and its receptor (FGFR) provide another pathway that seems critical to monitoring angiogenesis. Recent findings suggest that FGFR mediates signaling, regulates the PKM2 activity, and plays a crucial role in cancer metabolism. The current review also covers the recent findings on the role of FGFR1 in cancer metabolism. This paper reviews the progress, mechanism, and binding modes of recently known kinase inhibitors such as PD173074, SU series and other inhibitors still under clinical development. Some of the structural classes that will be highlighted in this review include Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines, Indolin- 2-one, Pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazine, Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7(8H)-one, and 1,6- Naphthyridin-2(1H)-ones.

  5. Plant Biofilm Inhibitors to Discover Biofilm Genes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-08

    REPORT Final Report for Plant Biofilm Inhibitors to Discover Biofilm Genes 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: To control biofilms , we have...synthesized the natural biofilm inhibitor (5Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene) -3-butyl-2(5H)-furanone from the red alga Delisea pulchra and determined that...Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS biofilms , biofilm inhibitors Thomas K. Wood Texas Engineering

  6. [Fish ovarian fluid contains protease inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Minin, A A; Ozerova, S G

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the conditions under which fish egg is activated spontaneously without the sperm showed that the egg retains the ability for fertilization in the ovarian (coelomic) fluid, which surrounds it in the gonad cavity after ovulation. Earlier, we showed that, in artificial media, the spontaneous activation is suppressed by protease inhibitors. In this study, we investigated the presence of natural protease inhibitors in the ovarian fluid and showed that the ovarian fluid of zebrafish and loach contains protease inhibitors, in particular, type I serpin a, a protein inhibitor of trypsin proteases.

  7. Advances toward multifunctional cholinesterase and β-amyloid aggregation inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Panek, Dawid; Wichur, Tomasz; Godyń, Justyna; Pasieka, Anna; Malawska, Barbara

    2017-10-01

    The emergence of a multitarget design approach in the development of new potential anti-Alzheimer's disease agents has resulted in the discovery of many multifunctional compounds focusing on various targets. Among them the largest group comprises inhibitors of both cholinesterases, with additional anti-β-amyloid aggregation activity. This review describes recent advances in this research area and presents the most interesting compounds reported over a 2-year span (2015-2016). The majority of hybrids possess heterodimeric structures obtained by linking structurally active fragments interacting with different targets. Multipotent cholinesterase inhibitors with β-amyloid antiaggregating activity may additionally possess antioxidative, neuroprotective or metal-chelating properties or less common features such as anti-β-secretase or τ-antiaggregation activity.

  8. Glycine Transporters and Their Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilfillan, Robert; Kerr, Jennifer; Walker, Glenn; Wishart, Grant

    Glycine plays a ubiquitous role in many biological processes. In the central nervous system it serves as an important neurotransmitter acting as an agonist at strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors and as an essential co-agonist with glutamate at the NMDA receptor complex. Control of glycine concentrations in the vicinity of these receptors is mediated by the specific glycine transporters, GlyT1 and GlyT2. Inhibition of these transporters has been postulated to be of potential benefit in several therapeutic indications including schizophrenia and pain. In this review we discuss our current knowledge of glycine transporters and focus on recent advances in the medicinal chemistry of GlyT1 and GlyT2 inhibitors.

  9. Natural Products as Aromatase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Balunas, Marcy J.; Su, Bin; Brueggemeier, Robert W.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    With the clinical success of several synthetic aromatase inhibitors (AIs) in the treatment of postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, researchers have also been investigating also the potential of natural products as AIs. Natural products from terrestrial and marine organisms provide a chemically diverse array of compounds not always available through current synthetic chemistry techniques. Natural products that have been used traditionally for nutritional or medicinal purposes (e.g., botanical dietary supplements) may also afford AIs with reduced side effects. A thorough review of the literature regarding natural product extracts and secondary metabolites of plant, microbial, and marine origin that have been shown to exhibit aromatase inhibitory activity is presented herein. PMID:18690828

  10. Quinolone-based HDAC inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Gopalan; Kilambi, Narasimhan; Rathinasamy, Suresh; Rajendran, Praveen; Narayanan, Shridhar; Rajagopal, Sridharan

    2014-08-01

    HDAC inhibitors emerged as promising drug candidates in combating wide variety of cancers. At present, two of the compounds SAHA and Romidepsin were approved by FDA for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and many are in various clinical phases. A new quinolone cap structure was explored with hydroxamic acid as zinc-binding group (ZBG). The pan HDAC inhibitory and antiproliferative activities against three human cancer cell lines HCT-116 (colon), NCI-H460 (lung) and U251 (glioblastoma) of the compounds (4a-4w) were evaluated. Introduction of heterocyclic amines in CAP region increased the enzyme inhibitory and antiproliferative activities and few of the compounds tested are metabolically stable in both MLM and HLM.

  11. Advances in Inhibitors of FXa.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liwei; Ma, Shutao

    2015-01-01

    Thromboembolic diseases such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic strokes are mainly responsible for people's morbidity and mortality and have severely affected the people's quality of life all over the world. According to WHO statistics, an average of 17 million people are killed by the thromboembolic diseases each year globally. Therefore, the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic diseases have received widespread attention in recent years. Based on thrombotic mechanism, anti-thrombotic drugs are mainly divided into anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents and direct thrombolytic drugs. In particular, anticoagulants such as vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), unfractionated heparin (UFH), and low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) have become the main therapies for pre-treatment of thromboembolic disorders. However, the limitations of traditional anticoagulants such as slow onset of action, dose-adjusted requirement, drug-drug and drug-food interactions have restricted their improvement in the clinical treatment. The mechanism of the thromboembolic disorders has indicated that coagulation factor Xa (fXa) plays a pivotal role in the blood coagulation cascade. Thus, selective inhibition of fXa by diminishing the amplified generation of thrombin without affecting the pre-existing thrombin levels can provide better antithrombotic effect, thereby causing less impairment of primary hemostasis. In this paper, we mainly introduce the recent advances of fXa inhibitors, with focus on their biological activity and structure-activity relationship (SAR) information. In particular, the inspirations from the structures of the fXa inhibitors and their future direction are highlighted.

  12. Anticoagulation by factor Xa inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Orfeo, T; Butenas, S; Brummel-Ziedins, K E; Gissel, M; Mann, K G

    2010-08-01

    Therapeutic agents that regulate blood coagulation are critical to the management of thrombotic disorders, with the selective targeting of factor (F) Xa emerging as a promising approach. To assess anticoagulant strategies targeting FXa. A deterministic computational model of tissue factor (Tf)-initiated thrombin generation and two empirical experimental systems (a synthetic coagulation proteome reconstruction using purified proteins and a whole blood model) were used to evaluate clinically relevant examples of the two available types of FXa-directed anticoagulants [an antithrombin (AT)-dependent agent, fondaparinux, and an AT-independent inhibitor, Rivaroxaban] in experimental regimens relevant to long-term (suppression of new Tf-initiated events) and acute (suppression of ongoing coagulation processes) clinical applications. Computational representations of each anticoagulant's efficacy in suppressing thrombin generation over a range of anticoagulant concentrations in both anticoagulation regimens were validated by results from corresponding empirical reconstructions and were consistent with those recommended for long-term and acute clinical applications, respectively. All three model systems suggested that Rivaroxaban would prove more effective in the suppression of an ongoing coagulation process than fondaparinux, reflecting its much higher reactivity toward the prothrombinase complex. The success of fondaparinux in acute settings in vivo is not explained solely by its properties as an FXa inhibitor. We have reported that FIXa contributes to the long-term capacity of clot-associated catalysts to restart a coagulation process, suggesting that the enhanced anti-FIXa activity of fondaparinux-AT may be critical to its success in acute settings in vivo. © 2010 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  13. PARP Inhibitors in Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mittica, Gloria; Ghisoni, Eleonora; Giannone, Gaia; Genta, Sofia; Aglietta, Massimo; Sapino, Anna; Valabrega, Giorgio

    2018-03-05

    Treatment of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC), historically based on surgery and platinum doublet chemotherapy, is associated with high risk of relapse and poor prognosis for recurrent disease. In this landscape, the innovative treatment with PARP inhibitors (PARPis) demonstrated an outstanding activity in EOC, and is currently changing clinical practice in BRCA mutant patients. To highlight the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, clinical activity, indications and current strategies of development of Olaparib, Niraparib, Rucaparib, Talazoparib and Veliparib, the 5 most relevant PARPis. We performed a review on Pubmed using 'ovarian cancer' and the name of each PARPi (PARP inhibitor) discussed in the review as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords. The same search was performed on "clinicaltrial.gov" to identify ongoing clinical trials and on "google.com/patents" and "uspto.gov" for recent patents exploring PARPIs in ovarian cancer. Olaparib, Niraparib and Rucaparib are already approved for treatment of recurrent EOC and their indications are partially overlapping. Talazoparib and Veliparib are promising PARPis, but currently under investigation in early phase trials. Several studies are evaluating PARPis in monotherapy or in associations, in a wide range of settings (i.e. first line, neoadjuvant, platinum-sensitive and resistant disease). PARPis are valuable options in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer with promising activity in different stages of this disease. Further studies are required to better define optimal clinical settings, predictors of response beyond BRCA mutations and strategies to overcome secondary resistance of PARPis therapy in EOC. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Discovery of Novel New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamases-1 Inhibitors by Multistep Virtual Screening

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuequan; Lu, Meiling; Shi, Yang; Ou, Yu; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of NDM-1 containing multi-antibiotic resistant "Superbugs" necessitates the needs of developing of novel NDM-1inhibitors. In this study, we report the discovery of novel NDM-1 inhibitors by multi-step virtual screening. From a 2,800,000 virtual drug-like compound library selected from the ZINC database, we generated a focused NDM-1 inhibitor library containing 298 compounds of which 44 chemical compounds were purchased and evaluated experimentally for their ability to inhibit NDM-1 in vitro. Three novel NDM-1 inhibitors with micromolar IC50 values were validated. The most potent inhibitor, VNI-41, inhibited NDM-1 with an IC50 of 29.6 ± 1.3 μM. Molecular dynamic simulation revealed that VNI-41 interacted extensively with the active site. In particular, the sulfonamide group of VNI-41 interacts directly with the metal ion Zn1 that is critical for the catalysis. These results demonstrate the feasibility of applying virtual screening methodologies in identifying novel inhibitors for NDM-1, a metallo-β-lactamase with a malleable active site and provide a mechanism base for rational design of NDM-1 inhibitors using sulfonamide as a functional scaffold. PMID:25734558

  15. Rhodanine derivatives as inhibitors of JSP-1.

    PubMed

    Cutshall, Neil S; O'Day, Christine; Prezhdo, Marina

    2005-07-15

    Dual-specificity phosphatases (DSPs) are a subclass within the protein tyrosine phosphatase family (PTPs). A series of rhodanine-based inhibitors was synthesized and shown to be novel, potent, and selective inhibitors against the DSP family member JNK-stimulating phosphatase-1 (JSP-1). Compounds of this class may be useful for the treatment of inflammatory and proliferative disorders.

  16. Natural product-based amyloid inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Velander, Paul; Wu, Ling; Henderson, Frances; Zhang, Shijun; Bevan, David R; Xu, Bin

    2017-09-01

    Many chronic human diseases, including multiple neurodegenerative diseases, are associated with deleterious protein aggregates, also called protein amyloids. One common therapeutic strategy is to develop protein aggregation inhibitors that can slow down, prevent, or remodel toxic amyloids. Natural products are a major class of amyloid inhibitors, and several dozens of natural product-based amyloid inhibitors have been identified and characterized in recent years. These plant- or microorganism-extracted compounds have shown significant therapeutic potential from in vitro studies as well as in vivo animal tests. Despite the technical challenges of intrinsic disordered or partially unfolded amyloid proteins that are less amenable to characterizations by structural biology, a significant amount of research has been performed, yielding biochemical and pharmacological insights into how inhibitors function. This review aims to summarize recent progress in natural product-based amyloid inhibitors and to analyze their mechanisms of inhibition in vitro. Major classes of natural product inhibitors and how they were identified are described. Our analyses comprehensively address the molecular interactions between the inhibitors and relevant amyloidogenic proteins. These interactions are delineated at molecular and atomic levels, which include covalent, non-covalent, and metal-mediated mechanisms. In vivo animal studies and clinical trials have been summarized as an extension. To enhance natural product bioavailability in vivo, emerging work using nanocarriers for delivery has also been described. Finally, issues and challenges as well as future development of such inhibitors are envisioned. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Natural product-based amyloid inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Velander, Paul; Wu, Ling; Henderson, Frances; Zhang, Shijun; Bevan, David R.; Xu, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Many chronic human diseases, including multiple neurodegenerative diseases, are associated with deleterious protein aggregates, also called protein amyloids. One common therapeutic strategy is to develop protein aggregation inhibitors that can slow down, prevent, or remodel toxic amyloids. Natural products are a major class of amyloid inhibitors, and several dozens of natural product-based amyloid inhibitors have been identified and characterized in recent years. These plant- or microorganism-extracted compounds have shown significant therapeutic potential from in vitro studies as well as in vivo animal tests. Despite the technical challenges of intrinsic disordered or partially unfolded amyloid proteins that are less amenable to characterizations by structural biology, a significant amount of research has been performed, yielding biochemical and pharmacological insights into how inhibitors function. This review aims to summarize recent progress in natural product-based amyloid inhibitors and to analyze their mechanisms of inhibition in vitro. Major classes of natural product inhibitors and how they were identified are described. Our analyses comprehensively address the molecular interactions between the inhibitors and relevant amyloidogenic proteins. These interactions are delineated at molecular and atomic levels, which include covalent, non-covalent, and metal-mediated mechanisms. In vivo animal studies and clinical trials have been summarized as an extension. To enhance natural product bioavailability in vivo, emerging work using nanocarriers for delivery has also been described. Finally, issues and challenges as well as future development of such inhibitors are envisioned. PMID:28390938

  18. Intellectual property issues of immune checkpoint inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Storz, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors are drugs that interfere with tumor escape responses. Some members of this class are already approved, and expected to be blockbusters in the future. Many companies have developed patent activities in this field. This article focuses on the patent landscape, and discusses key players and cases related to immune checkpoint inhibitors. PMID:26466763

  19. Designing Inhibitors of Anthrax Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Nestorovich, Ekaterina M.; Bezrukov, Sergey M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Present-day rational drug design approaches are based on exploiting unique features of the target biomolecules, small- or macromolecule drug candidates, and physical forces that govern their interactions. The 2013 Nobel Prize in chemistry awarded “for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems” once again demonstrated the importance of the tailored drug discovery that reduces the role of the trial and error approach to a minimum. The “rational drug design” term is rather comprehensive as it includes all contemporary methods of drug discovery where serendipity and screening are substituted by the information-guided search for new and existing compounds. Successful implementation of these innovative drug discovery approaches is inevitably preceded by learning the physics, chemistry, and physiology of functioning of biological structures under normal and pathological conditions. Areas covered This article provides an overview of the recent rational drug design approaches to discover inhibitors of anthrax toxin. Some of the examples include small-molecule and peptide-based post-exposure therapeutic agents as well as several polyvalent compounds. The review also directs the reader to the vast literature on the recognized advances and future possibilities in the field. Expert opinion Existing options to combat anthrax toxin lethality are limited. With the only anthrax toxin inhibiting therapy (PA-targeting with a monoclonal antibody, raxibacumab) approved to treat inhalational anthrax, in our view, the situation is still insecure. The FDA’s animal rule for drug approval, which clears compounds without validated efficacy studies on humans, creates a high level of uncertainty, especially when a well-characterized animal model does not exist. Besides, unlike PA, which is known to be unstable, LF remains active in cells and in animal tissues for days. Therefore, the effectiveness of the post-exposure treatment of the individuals

  20. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors as Anticancer Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Eckschlager, Tomas; Plch, Johana; Stiborova, Marie; Hrabeta, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Carcinogenesis cannot be explained only by genetic alterations, but also involves epigenetic processes. Modification of histones by acetylation plays a key role in epigenetic regulation of gene expression and is controlled by the balance between histone deacetylases (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferases (HAT). HDAC inhibitors induce cancer cell cycle arrest, differentiation and cell death, reduce angiogenesis and modulate immune response. Mechanisms of anticancer effects of HDAC inhibitors are not uniform; they may be different and depend on the cancer type, HDAC inhibitors, doses, etc. HDAC inhibitors seem to be promising anti-cancer drugs particularly in the combination with other anti-cancer drugs and/or radiotherapy. HDAC inhibitors vorinostat, romidepsin and belinostat have been approved for some T-cell lymphoma and panobinostat for multiple myeloma. Other HDAC inhibitors are in clinical trials for the treatment of hematological and solid malignancies. The results of such studies are promising but further larger studies are needed. Because of the reversibility of epigenetic changes during cancer development, the potency of epigenetic therapies seems to be of great importance. Here, we summarize the data on different classes of HDAC inhibitors, mechanisms of their actions and discuss novel results of preclinical and clinical studies, including the combination with other therapeutic modalities. PMID:28671573

  1. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors as Anticancer Drugs.

    PubMed

    Eckschlager, Tomas; Plch, Johana; Stiborova, Marie; Hrabeta, Jan

    2017-07-01

    Carcinogenesis cannot be explained only by genetic alterations, but also involves epigenetic processes. Modification of histones by acetylation plays a key role in epigenetic regulation of gene expression and is controlled by the balance between histone deacetylases (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferases (HAT). HDAC inhibitors induce cancer cell cycle arrest, differentiation and cell death, reduce angiogenesis and modulate immune response. Mechanisms of anticancer effects of HDAC inhibitors are not uniform; they may be different and depend on the cancer type, HDAC inhibitors, doses, etc. HDAC inhibitors seem to be promising anti-cancer drugs particularly in the combination with other anti-cancer drugs and/or radiotherapy. HDAC inhibitors vorinostat, romidepsin and belinostat have been approved for some T-cell lymphoma and panobinostat for multiple myeloma. Other HDAC inhibitors are in clinical trials for the treatment of hematological and solid malignancies. The results of such studies are promising but further larger studies are needed. Because of the reversibility of epigenetic changes during cancer development, the potency of epigenetic therapies seems to be of great importance. Here, we summarize the data on different classes of HDAC inhibitors, mechanisms of their actions and discuss novel results of preclinical and clinical studies, including the combination with other therapeutic modalities.

  2. Thiopurine Drugs Repositioned as Tyrosinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joonhyeok; Lee, You-Mie; Jee, Jun-Goo

    2017-01-01

    Drug repositioning is the application of the existing drugs to new uses and has the potential to reduce the time and cost required for the typical drug discovery process. In this study, we repositioned thiopurine drugs used for the treatment of acute leukaemia as new tyrosinase inhibitors. Tyrosinase catalyses two successive oxidations in melanin biosynthesis: the conversions of tyrosine to dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and DOPA to dopaquinone. Continuous efforts are underway to discover small molecule inhibitors of tyrosinase for therapeutic and cosmetic purposes. Structure-based virtual screening predicted inhibitor candidates from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs. Enzyme assays confirmed the thiopurine leukaemia drug, thioguanine, as a tyrosinase inhibitor with the inhibitory constant of 52 μM. Two other thiopurine drugs, mercaptopurine and azathioprine, were also evaluated for their tyrosinase inhibition; mercaptopurine caused stronger inhibition than thioguanine did, whereas azathioprine was a poor inhibitor. The inhibitory constant of mercaptopurine (16 μM) was comparable to that of the well-known inhibitor kojic acid (13 μM). The cell-based assay using B16F10 melanoma cells confirmed that the compounds inhibit mammalian tyrosinase. Particularly, 50 μM thioguanine reduced the melanin content by 57%, without apparent cytotoxicity. Cheminformatics showed that the thiopurine drugs shared little chemical similarity with the known tyrosinase inhibitors. PMID:29283382

  3. Reverse transcriptase inhibitors as microbicides.

    PubMed

    Lewi, Paul; Heeres, Jan; Ariën, Kevin; Venkatraj, Muthusamy; Joossens, Jurgen; Van der Veken, Pieter; Augustyns, Koen; Vanham, Guido

    2012-01-01

    The CAPRISA 004 study in South Africa has accelerated the development of vaginal and rectal microbicides containing antiretrovirals that target specific enzymes in the reproduction cycle of HIV, especially reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTI). In this review we discuss the potential relevance of HIV-1 RTIs as microbicides, focusing in the nucleotide RTI tenofovir and six classes of nonnucleoside RTIs (including dapivirine, UC781, urea and thiourea PETTs, DABOs and a pyrimidinedione). Although tenofovir and dapivirine appear to be most advanced in clinical trials as potential microbicides, several issues remain unresolved, e.g., the importance of nonhuman primates as a "gatekeeper" for clinical trials, the emergence and spread of drug-resistant mutants, the combination of microbicides that target different phases of viral reproduction and the accessibility to microbicides in low-income countries. Thus, here we discuss the latest research on RTI as microbicides in the light of the continuing spread of the HIV pandemic from the point of view of medicinal chemistry, virological, and pharmaceutical studies.

  4. SGLT2 Inhibitors May Predispose to Ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Simeon I; Blau, Jenny E; Rother, Kristina I

    2015-08-01

    Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are antidiabetic drugs that increase urinary excretion of glucose, thereby improving glycemic control and promoting weight loss. Since approval of the first-in-class drug in 2013, data have emerged suggesting that these drugs increase the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis. In May 2015, the Food and Drug Administration issued a warning that SGLT2 inhibitors may lead to ketoacidosis. Using PubMed and Google, we conducted Boolean searches including terms related to ketone bodies or ketoacidosis with terms for SGLT2 inhibitors or phlorizin. Priority was assigned to publications that shed light on molecular mechanisms whereby SGLT2 inhibitors could affect ketone body metabolism. SGLT2 inhibitors trigger multiple mechanisms that could predispose to diabetic ketoacidosis. When SGLT2 inhibitors are combined with insulin, it is often necessary to decrease the insulin dose to avoid hypoglycemia. The lower dose of insulin may be insufficient to suppress lipolysis and ketogenesis. Furthermore, SGLT2 is expressed in pancreatic α-cells, and SGLT2 inhibitors promote glucagon secretion. Finally, phlorizin, a nonselective inhibitor of SGLT family transporters decreases urinary excretion of ketone bodies. A decrease in the renal clearance of ketone bodies could also increase the plasma ketone body levels. Based on the physiology of SGLT2 and the pharmacology of SGLT2 inhibitors, there are several biologically plausible mechanisms whereby this class of drugs has the potential to increase the risk of developing diabetic ketoacidosis. Future research should be directed toward identifying which patients are at greatest risk for this side effect and also to optimizing pharmacotherapy to minimize the risk to patients.

  5. An Updated Review of Tyrosinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Te-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Tyrosinase is a multifunctional, glycosylated, and copper-containing oxidase, which catalyzes the first two steps in mammalian melanogenesis and is responsible for enzymatic browning reactions in damaged fruits during post-harvest handling and processing. Neither hyperpigmentation in human skin nor enzymatic browning in fruits are desirable. These phenomena have encouraged researchers to seek new potent tyrosinase inhibitors for use in foods and cosmetics. This article surveys tyrosinase inhibitors newly discovered from natural and synthetic sources. The inhibitory strength is compared with that of a standard inhibitor, kojic acid, and their inhibitory mechanisms are discussed. PMID:19582213

  6. MMP Inhibitors: Past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Cathcart, Jillian M; Cao, Jian

    2015-06-01

      Development of inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been fraught with challenges. Early compounds largely failed due to poor selectivity and bioavailability. Dose-limiting side effects, off-target interactions, and improperly designed clinical trials significantly impeded clinical success. As information becomes available and technology evolves, tools to combat these obstacles have been developed. Improved methods for high throughput screening and drug design have led to identification of compounds exhibiting high potency, binding affinity, and favorable pharmacokinetic profiles. Current research into MMP inhibitors employs innovative approaches for drug delivery methods and allosteric inhibitors. Such innovation is key for development of clinically successful compounds.

  7. Evaluation of Corrosion Inhibitors as Lubricity Improvers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    IF AFWAL-TR-88-2036 I. ov EVALUATION OF CORROSION , INHIBITORS AS LUBRICITY IMPROVERS 0 T.B. Biddle W. H. Edwards United Technologies Corporation...TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. NO. ITL (include Security C.aulf.cal.on) 6220 F .--- 3048-_ 05 51 valuation of Corrosion Inhibitors as Lubricity...numkr) o GROUP SUB. GR. Bal12nQ ylinder Lubricity)Eva ator, BOCLE, Corrosion Inhibitor , Fuel 01 03 Lubricity, MIL!AI5017, QPL-2 17 Reverse Phase) High

  8. Proteasome inhibitor associated thrombotic microangiopathy.

    PubMed

    Yui, Jennifer C; Van Keer, Jan; Weiss, Brendan M; Waxman, Adam J; Palmer, Matthew B; D'Agati, Vivette D; Kastritis, Efstathios; Dimopoulos, Meletios A; Vij, Ravi; Bansal, Dhruv; Dingli, David; Nasr, Samih H; Leung, Nelson

    2016-09-01

    A variety of medications have been implicated in the causation of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Recently, a few case reports have emerged of TMA attributed to the proteasome inhibitors (PI) bortezomib and carfilzomib in patients with multiple myeloma. The aim of this case series was to better characterize the role of PI in the etiology of drug-induced TMA. We describe eleven patients from six medical centers from around the world who developed TMA while being treated with PI. The median time between medication initiation and diagnosis of TMA was 21 days (range 5 days to 17 months). Median laboratory values at diagnosis included hemoglobin-7.5 g dL(-1) , platelet count-20 × 10(9) /L, LDH-698 U L(-1) , creatinine-3.12 mg dL(-1) . No patient had any other cause of TMA, including ADAMTS13 inhibition, other malignancy or use of any other medication previously associated with TMA. Nine patients had resolution of TMA without evidence of hemolysis after withdrawal of PI. Two patients had stabilization of laboratory values but persistent evidence of hemolysis despite medication withdrawal. One patient had recurrence of TMA with rechallenge of PI. There is a strong level of evidence that PI can cause DITMA. In evaluating patients with suspected TMA, PI use should be recognized as a potential etiology, and these medications should be discontinued promptly if thought to be the cause of TMA. Am. J. Hematol. 91:E348-E352, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Characterization of Covalent-Reversible EGFR Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Within the spectrum of kinase inhibitors, covalent-reversible inhibitors (CRIs) provide a valuable alternative approach to classical covalent inhibitors. This special class of inhibitors can be optimized for an extended drug-target residence time. For CRIs, it was shown that the fast addition of thiols to electron-deficient olefins leads to a covalent bond that can break reversibly under proteolytic conditions. Research groups are just beginning to include CRIs in their arsenal of compound classes, and, with that, the understanding of this interesting set of chemical warheads is growing. However, systems to assess both characteristics of the covalent-reversible bond in a simple experimental setting are sparse. Here, we have developed an efficient methodology to characterize the covalent and reversible properties of CRIs and to investigate their potential in targeting clinically relevant variants of the receptor tyrosine kinase EGFR.

  10. Novel diamide-based inhibitors of IMPDH.

    PubMed

    Gu, Henry H; Iwanowicz, Edwin J; Guo, Junqing; Watterson, Scott H; Shen, Zhongqi; Pitts, William J; Dhar, T G Murali; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine; Sherbina, N Z; Witmer, Mark; Tredup, Jeffrey; Hollenbaugh, Diane

    2002-05-06

    A series of novel amide-based small molecule inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase is described. The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SARs) derived from in vitro studies are presented.

  11. Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Urea Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Esteva-Font, Cristina; Cil, Onur; Anderson, Marc O.; Li, Fei; Li, Min; Lei, Tianluo; Ren, Huiwen; Yang, Baoxue

    2015-01-01

    Urea transporter (UT) proteins, which include isoforms of UT-A in kidney tubule epithelia and UT-B in vasa recta endothelia and erythrocytes, facilitate urinary concentrating function. Inhibitors of urea transporter function have potential clinical applications as sodium-sparing diuretics, or ‘urearetics,’ in edema from different etiologies, such as congestive heart failure and cirrhosis, as well as in syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). High-throughput screening of drug-like small molecules has identified UT-A and UT-B inhibitors with nanomolar potency. Inhibitors have been identified with different UT-A versus UT-B selectivity profiles and putative binding sites on UT proteins. Studies in rodent models support the utility of UT inhibitors in reducing urinary concentration, though testing in clinically relevant animal models of edema has not yet been done. PMID:25298345

  12. Multimodal HDAC Inhibitors with Improved Anticancer Activity.

    PubMed

    Schobert, Rainer; Biersack, Bernhard

    2018-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a significant role in the proliferation and dissemination of cancer and represent promising epigenetic drug targets. The HDAC inhibitor vorinostat featuring a zinc-binding hydroxamate fragment was already clinically approved. However, HDAC inhibitors containing hydroxamic acids are often hampered by acquired or intrinsic drug resistance and may lead to enhanced tumor aggressiveness. In order to overcome these drawbacks of hydroxamate HDAC inhibitors, a series of multimodal derivatives of this compound class, including such with different zinc-binding groups, was recently developed and showed promising anticancer activity. This review provides an overview of the chemistry and pleiotropic anticancer modes of action of these conceptually new HDAC inhibitors. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Inhibitors of Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Meet Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Pohanka, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are widely used for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias. More recent use is for myasthenia gravis. Many of these inhibitors interact with the second known cholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Further, evidence shows that acetylcholine plays a role in suppression of cytokine release through a “cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway” which raises questions about the role of these inhibitors in the immune system. This review covers research and discussion of the role of the inhibitors in modulating the immune response using as examples the commonly available drugs, donepezil, galantamine, huperzine, neostigmine and pyridostigmine. Major attention is given to the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, a well-described link between the central nervous system and terminal effector cells in the immune system. PMID:24893223

  14. Monoamine Oxidase B Inhibitors in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Dezsi, Livia; Vecsei, Laszlo

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with a prevalence increasing with age. Oxidative stress and glutamate toxicity are involved in its pathomechanism. There are still many unmet needs of PD patients, including the alleviation of motor fluctuations and dyskinesias, and the development of therapies with neuroprotective potential. To give an overview of the pharmacological properties, the efficacy and safety of the monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitors in the treatment of PD, with special focus on the results of randomized clinical trials. A literature search was conducted in PubMed for 'PD treatment', 'MAO-B inhibitors', 'selegiline', 'rasagiline', 'safinamide' and 'clinical trials' with 'MAO-B inhibitors' in 'Parkinson' disease'. MAO-B inhibitors have a favorable pharmacokinetic profile, improve the dopamine deficient state and may have neuroprotective properties. Safinamide exhibits an anti-glutamatergic effect as well. When applied as monotherapy, MAO-B inhibitors provide a modest, but significant improvement of motor function and delay the need for levodopa. Rasagiline and safinamide were proven safe and effective when added to a dopamine agonist in early PD. As add-on to levodopa, MAO-B inhibitors significantly reduced off-time and were comparable in efficacy to COMT inhibitors. Improvements were achieved as regards certain non-motor symptoms as well. Due to the efficacy shown in clinical trials and their favorable side-effect profile, MAO-B inhibitors are valuable drugs in the treatment of PD. They are recommended as monotherapy in the early stages of the disease and as add-on therapy to levodopa in advanced PD. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Mechanism of Cyclic Dye Regeneration During Eosin-Sensitized Photoinitiation in the Presence of Polymerization Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Avens, Heather J.; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2009-01-01

    A visible light photoinitiator, eosin, in combination with a tertiary amine coinitiator is found to initiate polymerization despite the presence of at least 1000-fold excess dissolved oxygen which functions as an inhibitor of radical polymerizations. Additionally, 0.4 µM eosin is able to overcome 100-fold excess (40 µM) 2,2,6,6-Tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) inhibitor, initiating polymerization after only a 2 minute inhibition period. In contrast, 40 µM Irgacure-2959, a standard cleavage-type initiator, is unable to overcome even an equivalent amount of inhibitor (40 µM TEMPO). Through additional comparisons of these two initiation systems, a reaction mechanism is developed which is consistent with the kinetic data and provides an explanation for eosin’s relative insensitivity to oxygen, TEMPO and other inhibitors. A cyclic mechanism is proposed in which semi-reduced eosin radicals react by disproportionation with radical inhibitors and radical intermediates in the inhibition process to regenerate eosin and effectively consume inhibitor. In behavior similar to that of eosin, rose bengal, fluorescein, and riboflavin are also found to initiate polymerization despite the presence of excess TEMPO, indicating that cyclic regeneration likely enhances the photoinitiation kinetics of many dye photosensitizers. Selection of such dye initiation systems constitutes a valuable strategy for alleviating inhibitory effects in radical polymerizations. PMID:20098667

  16. Structural investigation of inhibitor designs targeting 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase from the shikimate pathway of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Dias, Marcio V.B.; Snee, William C.; Bromfield, Karen M.

    The shikimate pathway is essential in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its absence from humans makes the enzymes of this pathway potential drug targets. In the present paper, we provide structural insights into ligand and inhibitor binding to 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase (dehydroquinase) from M. tuberculosis (MtDHQase), the third enzyme of the shikimate pathway. The enzyme has been crystallized in complex with its reaction product, 3-dehydroshikimate, and with six different competitive inhibitors. The inhibitor 2,3-anhydroquinate mimics the flattened enol/enolate reaction intermediate and serves as an anchor molecule for four of the inhibitors investigated. MtDHQase also forms a complex with citrazinic acid, a planar analoguemore » of the reaction product. The structure of MtDHQase in complex with a 2,3-anhydroquinate moiety attached to a biaryl group shows that this group extends to an active-site subpocket inducing significant structural rearrangement. The flexible extensions of inhibitors designed to form {pi}-stacking interactions with the catalytic Tyr{sup 24} have been investigated. The high-resolution crystal structures of the MtDHQase complexes provide structural evidence for the role of the loop residues 19-24 in MtDHQase ligand binding and catalytic mechanism and provide a rationale for the design and efficacy of inhibitors.« less

  17. Isoprenoid Biosynthesis Inhibitors Targeting Bacterial Cell Growth.

    PubMed

    Desai, Janish; Wang, Yang; Wang, Ke; Malwal, Satish R; Oldfield, Eric

    2016-10-06

    We synthesized potential inhibitors of farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS), undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase (UPPS), or undecaprenyl diphosphate phosphatase (UPPP), and tested them in bacterial cell growth and enzyme inhibition assays. The most active compounds were found to be bisphosphonates with electron-withdrawing aryl-alkyl side chains which inhibited the growth of Gram-negative bacteria (Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) at ∼1-4 μg mL -1 levels. They were found to be potent inhibitors of FPPS; cell growth was partially "rescued" by the addition of farnesol or overexpression of FPPS, and there was synergistic activity with known isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway inhibitors. Lipophilic hydroxyalkyl phosphonic acids inhibited UPPS and UPPP at micromolar levels; they were active (∼2-6 μg mL -1 ) against Gram-positive but not Gram-negative organisms, and again exhibited synergistic activity with cell wall biosynthesis inhibitors, but only indifferent effects with other inhibitors. The results are of interest because they describe novel inhibitors of FPPS, UPPS, and UPPP with cell growth inhibitory activities as low as ∼1-2 μg mL -1 . © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The existence of imidazoline corrosion inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.A.; Valone, F.W.

    1985-05-01

    Spectroscopic methods, i.e., Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), carbon-13 nuclear magnetic reasonance (/sup 13/C NMR), and ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, were used to investigate the actual chemical composition of oilfield corrosion inhibitors. Inhibitor formulations consisting of an amide or imidazoline reacted with a dimer-trimer acid, along with an ethoxylated surfactant and an aromatic solvent, were used for these studies. /sup 13/C NMR and FT-IR spectra of these inhibitors, as well as spectra of pure imidazolines, showed that the imidazoline functional group was fairly rapidly hydrolyzed to the amide form. For instance, in FT-IR studies, the imine functional group decreased in intensity asmore » a function of time. Coincident with this was an increase in the intensities of the vibrational resonances attributed to the amide functionality. The relative molar ratio of imidazoline to amide in a corrosion inhibitor could be calculated via UV spectroscopy. Within a 20 day interval after inhibitor synthesis, this ratio decreased by a factor greater than 20. These results, as well as a discussion of their economic impact on oilfield corrosion inhibitor formulation, are presented in this paper.« less

  19. Recent development of small molecule glutaminase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Song, Minsoo; Kim, Soong-Hyun; Im, Chun Young; Hwang, Hee-Jong

    2018-05-24

    Glutaminase (GLS) which is responsible for the conversion of glutamine to glutamate plays vital role in up-regulating cell metabolism for tumor cell growth, and is considered as a valuable therapeutic target for cancer treatment. Based on this important function of glutaminase in cancer, several GLS inhibitors have been developed from both academia and industries. Most importantly, Calithera Biosciences Inc. is actively developing glutaminase inhibitor CB-839 for the treatment of various cancers in phase 1 and 2 clinical trials at present. In this review, it is discussed about recent efforts to develop small molecule glutaminase inhibitors targeting glutamine metabolism both in the preclinical and clinical studies. In particular, more emphasis is placed on CB-839 since it is the only small molecule GLS inhibitor being studied in clinical setting. Inhibition mechanism is discussed based on x-ray structure study of thiadiazole derivatives as well. Finally, recent medicinal chemistry efforts to develop a new class of GLS inhibitors are given herein in the hope of providing useful information for GLS inhibitors of the next generation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Inhibitors of Ethylene Biosynthesis and Signaling.

    PubMed

    Schaller, G Eric; Binder, Brad M

    2017-01-01

    Ethylene is a gas biosynthesized by plants which has many physiological and developmental effects on their growth. Ethylene affects agriculturally and horticulturally important traits such as fruit ripening, post-harvest physiology, senescence, and abscission, and so ethylene action is often inhibited to improve the shelf life of fruits, vegetables, and cut flowers. Chemical inhibitors of ethylene action are also useful for research to characterize the mechanisms of ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction, and the role that ethylene plays in various physiological processes. Here, we describe the use of three inhibitors commonly used for the study of ethylene action in plants: 2-aminoethoxyvinyl glycine (AVG), silver ions (Ag), and the gaseous compound 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). AVG is an inhibitor of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase, a key enzyme involved in ethylene biosynthesis. Silver and 1-MCP are both inhibitors of the ethylene receptors. Inhibitor use as well as off-target effects are described with a focus on ethylene responses in dark-grown Arabidopsis seedlings. Methods for the use of these inhibitors can be applied to other plant growth assays.

  1. Small Molecule Inhibitors of Protein Arginine Methyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hao; Qian, Kun; Ho, Meng-Chiao; Zheng, Y. George

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Arginine methylation is an abundant posttranslational modification occurring in mammalian cells and catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). Misregulation and aberrant expression of PRMTs are associated with various disease states, notably cancer. PRMTs are prominent therapeutic targets in drug discovery. Areas covered The authors provide an updated review of the research on the development of chemical modulators for PRMTs. Great efforts are seen in screening and designing potent and selective PRMT inhibitors, and a number of micromolar and submicromolar inhibitors have been obtained for key PRMT enzymes such as PRMT1, CARM1, and PRMT5. The authors provide a focus on their chemical structures, mechanism of action, and pharmacological activities. Pros and cons of each type of inhibitors are also discussed. Expert opinion Several key challenging issues exist in PRMT inhibitor discovery. Structural mechanisms of many PRMT inhibitors remain unclear. There lacks consistency in potency data due to divergence of assay methods and conditions. Physiologically relevant cellular assays are warranted. Substantial engagements are needed to investigate pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the new PRMT inhibitors in pertinent disease models. Discovery and evaluation of potent, isoform-selective, cell-permeable and in vivo-active PRMT modulators will continue to be an active arena of research in years ahead. PMID:26789238

  2. Discovery of natural mouse serum derived HIV-1 entry inhibitor(s).

    PubMed

    Wei, M; Chen, Y; Xi, J; Ru, S; Ji, M; Zhang, D; Fang, Q; Tang, B

    Among rationally designed human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) inhibitors, diverse natural factors have showed as potent anti-HIV activity in human blood. We have discovered that the boiled supernatant of healthy mouse serum could suppress HIV-1 entry, and exhibited reduced inhibitory activity after trypsin digestion. Further analysis demonstrated that only the fraction containing 10-25 K proteins could inhibit HIV-1 mediated cell-cell fusion. These results suggest that the 10-25 K protein(s) is novel natural HIV-1 entry inhibitor(s). Our findings provide important information about novel natural HIV entry inhibitors in mouse serum.

  3. Discovering Anti-platelet Drug Combinations with an Integrated Model of Activator-Inhibitor Relationships, Activator-Activator Synergies and Inhibitor-Inhibitor Synergies

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Federica; Golla, Kalyan; Fitzpatrick, Darren J.; Casey, Fergal P.; Moran, Niamh; Shields, Denis C.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying effective therapeutic drug combinations that modulate complex signaling pathways in platelets is central to the advancement of effective anti-thrombotic therapies. However, there is no systems model of the platelet that predicts responses to different inhibitor combinations. We developed an approach which goes beyond current inhibitor-inhibitor combination screening to efficiently consider other signaling aspects that may give insights into the behaviour of the platelet as a system. We investigated combinations of platelet inhibitors and activators. We evaluated three distinct strands of information, namely: activator-inhibitor combination screens (testing a panel of inhibitors against a panel of activators); inhibitor-inhibitor synergy screens; and activator-activator synergy screens. We demonstrated how these analyses may be efficiently performed, both experimentally and computationally, to identify particular combinations of most interest. Robust tests of activator-activator synergy and of inhibitor-inhibitor synergy required combinations to show significant excesses over the double doses of each component. Modeling identified multiple effects of an inhibitor of the P2Y12 ADP receptor, and complementarity between inhibitor-inhibitor synergy effects and activator-inhibitor combination effects. This approach accelerates the mapping of combination effects of compounds to develop combinations that may be therapeutically beneficial. We integrated the three information sources into a unified model that predicted the benefits of a triple drug combination targeting ADP, thromboxane and thrombin signaling. PMID:25875950

  4. Contribution of murine innate serum inhibitors toward interference within influenza virus immune assays

    PubMed Central

    Cwach, Kevin T.; Sandbulte, Heather R.; Klonoski, Joshua M.; Huber, Victor C.

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Cwach et al. (2011) Contribution of murine innate serum inhibitors toward interference within influenza virus immune assays. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/j.1750‐2659.2011.00283.x. Background  Prior to detection of an antibody response toward influenza viruses using the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HAI), sera are routinely treated to inactivate innate inhibitors using both heat inactivation (56°C) and recombinant neuraminidase [receptor‐destroying enzyme (RDE)]. Objectives  We revisited the contributions of innate serum inhibitors toward interference with influenza viruses in immune assays, using murine sera, with emphasis on the interactions with influenza A viruses of the H3N2 subtype. Methods  We used individual serum treatments: 56°C alone, RDE alone, or RDE + 56°C, to treat sera prior to evaluation within HAI, microneutralization, and macrophage uptake assays. Results  Our data demonstrate that inhibitors present within untreated murine sera interfere with the HAI assay in a manner that is different from that seen for the microneutralization assay. Specifically, the γ class inhibitor α2‐Macroglobulin (A2‐M) can inhibit H3N2 viruses within the HAI assay, but not in the microneutralization assay. Based on these findings, we used a macrophage uptake assay to demonstrate that these inhibitors can increase uptake by macrophages when the influenza viruses express an HA from a 1968 H3N2 virus isolate, but not a 1997 H3N2 isolate. Conclusions  The practice of treating sera to inactivate innate inhibitors of influenza viruses prior to evaluation within immune assays has allowed us to effectively detect influenza virus‐specific antibodies for decades. However, this practice has yielded an under‐appreciation for the contribution of innate serum inhibitors toward host immune responses against these viruses, including contributions toward neutralization and macrophage uptake. PMID

  5. Interspecific differences between D. pulex and D. magna in tolerance to cyanobacteria with protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kuster, Christian J; Von Elert, Eric

    2013-01-01

    It is known that cyanobacteria negatively affect herbivores due to their production of toxins such as protease inhibitors. In the present study we investigated potential interspecific differences between two major herbivores, Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulex, in terms of their tolerance to cyanobacteria with protease inhibitors. Seven clones each of D. magna and of D. pulex were isolated from different habitats in Europe and North America. To test for interspecific differences in the daphnids' tolerance to cyanobacteria, their somatic and population growth rates were determined for each D. magna and D. pulex clone after exposure to varying concentrations of two Microcystis aeruginosa strains. The M. aeruginosa strains NIVA and PCC(-) contained either chymotrypsin or trypsin inhibitors, but no microcystins. Mean somatic and population growth rates on a diet with 20% NIVA were significantly more reduced in D. pulex than in D. magna. On a diet with 10% PCC(-), the population growth of D. pulex was significantly more reduced than that of D. magna. This indicates that D. magna is more tolerant to cyanobacteria with protease inhibitors than D. pulex. The reduction of growth rates was possibly caused by an interference of cyanobacterial inhibitors with proteases in the gut of Daphnia, as many other conceivable factors, which might have been able to explain the reduced growth, could be excluded as causal factors. Protease assays revealed that the sensitivities of chymotrypsins and trypsins to cyanobacterial protease inhibitors did not differ between D. magna and D. pulex. However, D. magna exhibited a 2.3-fold higher specific chymotrypsin activity than D. pulex, which explains the observed higher tolerance to cyanobacterial protease inhibitors of D. magna. The present study suggests that D. magna may control the development of cyanobacterial blooms more efficiently than D. pulex due to differences in their tolerance to cyanobacteria with protease inhibitors.

  6. Absolute configuration of acremoxanthone C, a potent calmodulin inhibitor from Purpureocillium lilacinum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of an extract prepared from the culture medium and mycelium of Purpureocillium lilacinum allowed the isolation of two calmodulin (CaM) inhibitors, namely, acremoxanthone C (1) and acremonidin A (2). The absolute configuration of 1 was established as 2R, 3R, 1'S, 11'S, ...

  7. Corrosion inhibitors for solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.

    1978-01-01

    Inhibitors which appeared promising in previous tests and additional inhibitors including several proprietary products were evaluated. Evaluation of the inhibitors was based on corrosion protection afforded an aluminum-mild steel-copper-stainless steel assembly in a hot corrosive water. Of the inhibitors tested two were found to be effective and show promise for protecting multimetallic solar heating systems.

  8. Combined effects of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and vATPase inhibitors in NSCLC cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Hyeon-Ok; Hong, Sung-Eun; Kim, Chang Soon

    2015-08-15

    Despite excellent initial clinical responses of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), many patients eventually develop resistance. According to a recent report, vacuolar H + ATPase (vATPase) is overexpressed and is associated with chemotherapy drug resistance in NSCLC. We investigated the combined effects of EGFR TKIs and vATPase inhibitors and their underlying mechanisms in the regulation of NSCLC cell death. We found that combined treatment with EGFR TKIs (erlotinib, gefitinib, or lapatinib) and vATPase inhibitors (bafilomycin A1 or concanamycin A) enhanced synergistic cell death compared to treatments with each drugmore » alone. Treatment with bafilomycin A1 or concanamycin A led to the induction of Bnip3 expression in an Hif-1α dependent manner. Knock-down of Hif-1α or Bnip3 by siRNA further enhanced cell death induced by bafilomycin A1, suggesting that Hif-1α/Bnip3 induction promoted resistance to cell death induced by the vATPase inhibitors. EGFR TKIs suppressed Hif-1α and Bnip3 expression induced by the vATPase inhibitors, suggesting that they enhanced the sensitivity of the cells to these inhibitors by decreasing Hif-1α/Bnip3 expression. Taken together, we conclude that EGFR TKIs enhance the sensitivity of NSCLC cells to vATPase inhibitors by decreasing Hif-1α/Bnip3 expression. We suggest that combined treatment with EGFR TKIs and vATPase inhibitors is potentially effective for the treatment of NSCLC. - Highlights: • Co-treatment with EGFR TKIs and vATPase inhibitors induces synergistic cell death • EGFR TKIs enhance cell sensitivity to vATPase inhibitors via Hif-1α downregulation • Co-treatment of these inhibitors is potentially effective for the treatment of NSCLC.« less

  9. SGLT2 Inhibitors and the Diabetic Kidney.

    PubMed

    Fioretto, Paola; Zambon, Alberto; Rossato, Marco; Busetto, Luca; Vettor, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Blood glucose and blood pressure control reduce the risk of developing this complication; however, once DN is established, it is only possible to slow progression. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, the most recent glucose-lowering oral agents, may have the potential to exert nephroprotection not only through improving glycemic control but also through glucose-independent effects, such as blood pressure-lowering and direct renal effects. It is important to consider, however, that in patients with impaired renal function, given their mode of action, SGLT2 inhibitors are less effective in lowering blood glucose. In patients with high cardiovascular risk, the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin lowered the rate of cardiovascular events, especially cardiovascular death, and substantially reduced important renal outcomes. Such benefits on DN could derive from effects beyond glycemia. Glomerular hyperfiltration is a potential risk factor for DN. In addition to the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, renal tubular factors, including SGLT2, contribute to glomerular hyperfiltration in diabetes. SGLT2 inhibitors reduce sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubule, causing, through tubuloglomerular feedback, afferent arteriole vasoconstriction and reduction in hyperfiltration. Experimental studies showed that SGLT2 inhibitors reduced hyperfiltration and decreased inflammatory and fibrotic responses of proximal tubular cells. SGLT2 inhibitors reduced glomerular hyperfiltration in patients with type 1 diabetes, and in patients with type 2 diabetes, they caused transient acute reductions in glomerular filtration rate, followed by a progressive recovery and stabilization of renal function. Interestingly, recent studies consistently demonstrated a reduction in albuminuria. Although these data are promising, only dedicated renal outcome trials will clarify whether

  10. Reversal of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor Toxicity In Vivo by Inhibitors of Choline Transport.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-31

    the increased interaction of acetylcholine with the receptor resulting from the inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. . Acetylcholinesterase...competitive inhibitors of acetylcholine at the enzyme receptor. The second category, "reversible" cholinesterase inhibitors, form covalent bonds with the...method of Ellman et al. (46) was used to determine the acetyicholinesterase activity in mouse brain homogenates. Briefly, the enzyme activity was

  11. Polyphenol oxidase inhibitor(s) from German cockroach (Blattella germanica) extract

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An extract from German cockroach appears effective in inhibiting browning on apples and potatoes. Successful identification of inhibitor(s) of PPO from German cockroach would be useful to the fruit and vegetable segments of the food industry, due to the losses they incur from enzymatic browning. Ide...

  12. A crystalline protein-proteinase inhibitor from pinto bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Wang, D

    1975-06-26

    A crystalline protein-proteinase inhibitor has been isolated from seeds of Pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cultvar. Pinto). It has an average molecular weight of 19 000 as estimated by gel filtration. This crystalline inhibitor is highly active against both bovine pancreatic trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin. Complexes of both trypsin-inhibitor and alpha-chymotrypsin-inhibitor have been isolated. The inhibitor which was derived from the dissociated trypsin-inhibitor complex was only 62% as effective as the original compound against either enzyme. In contrast, the inhibitor obtained from alpha-chymotrypsin-inhibitor complex retained its full original inhibitory activity for trypsin, but only 25% of its original activity against alpha-chymotrypsin. The dissociated inhibitor from alpha-chymotrypsin-inhibitor compex, despite its full inhibitory activity, had been modified to such an extent that it could no longer form any precipitable complex with trypsin. The crystalline protein-proteinase inhibitor is not homogeneous and has been resolved into two distinct inhibitors in terms of their physical and chemical properties. These two inhibitors are designated as Pinto bean proteinase inhibitor I and II and their respective minimum molecular weights are 9100 and 10 000. They differ most strikingly in their amino acid composition in that inhibitor II is void of both valine and methionine.

  13. Aromatase inhibitors and breast cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Litton, Jennifer Keating; Arun, Banu K; Brown, Powel H; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N

    2012-02-01

    Endocrine therapy with selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) has been the mainstay of breast cancer prevention trials to date. The aromatase inhibitors, which inhibit the final chemical conversion of androgens to estrogens, have shown increased disease-free survival benefit over tamoxifen in patients with primary hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, as well as reducing the risk of developing contralateral breast cancers. The aromatase inhibitors are being actively evaluated as prevention agents for women with a history of ductal carcinoma in situ as well as for women who are considered to be at high risk for developing primary invasive breast cancer. This review evaluates the available prevention data, as evidenced by the decrease in contralateral breast cancers, when aromatase inhibitors are used in the adjuvant setting, as well as the emerging data of the aromatase inhibitors specifically tested in the prevention setting for women at high risk. Exemestane is a viable option for breast cancer prevention. We continue to await further follow-up on exemestane as well as other aromatase inhibitors in the prevention setting for women at high risk of developing breast cancer or with a history of ductal carcinoma in situ.

  14. Janus kinase 2 inhibitors in myeloproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Lucia, Eugenio; Recchia, Anna Grazia; Gentile, Massimo; Bossio, Sabrina; Vigna, Ernesto; Mazzone, Carla; Madeo, Antonio; Morabito, Lucio; Gigliotti, Vincenzo; De Stefano, Laura; Caruso, Nadia; Servillo, Pasquale; Franzese, Stefania; Bisconte, Maria Grazia; Gentile, Carlo; Morabito, Fortunato

    2011-01-01

    JAK2 is an obligatory kinase for the proliferation and differentiation of erythroid cells and megakaryocytes thus representing a relevant therapeutic target for agents that specifically inhibit its activity particularly in myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) harboring JAK2(V617F) mutations. We discuss the physiopathology of the JAK2 signaling pathway and review clinical trials of JAK2 inhibitors for the treatment of MPD using papers and meeting abstracts published up to September 2010. This review helps in understanding the potential role of JAK2 inhibitors in MPD clinical trials and provides a comprehensive review regarding their efficacy and safety in these disorders. JAK2 inhibitors may prove to be useful only for suppressing disease manifestations. However, unlike drugs such as IFN which are capable of eliminating the malignant clone, JAK2 inhibitors are unable to eradicate the disease. In fact, results to date indicate that although these inhibitors reduce splenomegaly and alleviate constitutional symptoms irrespective of JAK2 mutational status, most have only a modest impact on the JAK2(V617F) allele burden. Considering the relevant risk of serious complications in patients undergoing splenectomy, these drugs could find a suitable indication in patients with myelofibrosis awaiting bone marrow transplantation.

  15. Molecular design of new aggrecanases-2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shan, Zhi Jie; Zhai, Hong Lin; Huang, Xiao Yan; Li, Li Na; Zhang, Xiao Yun

    2013-10-01

    Aggrecanases-2 is a very important potential drug target for the treatment of osteoarthritis. In this study, a series of known aggrecanases-2 inhibitors was analyzed by the technologies of three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships (3D-QSAR) and molecular docking. Two 3D-QSAR models, which based on comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity analysis (CoMSIA) methods, were established. Molecular docking was employed to explore the details of the interaction between inhibitors and aggrecanases-2 protein. According to the analyses for these models, several new potential inhibitors with higher activity predicted were designed, and were supported by the simulation of molecular docking. This work propose the fast and effective approach to design and prediction for new potential inhibitors, and the study of the interaction mechanism provide a better understanding for the inhibitors binding into the target protein, which will be useful for the structure-based drug design and modifications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. SGLT2 inhibitors: are they safe?

    PubMed

    Filippas-Ntekouan, Sebastian; Filippatos, Theodosios D; Elisaf, Moses S

    2018-01-01

    Sodium-glucose linked transporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a relatively new class of antidiabetic drugs with positive cardiovascular and kidney effects. The aim of this review is to present the safety issues associated with SGLT2 inhibitors. Urogenital infections are the most frequently encountered adverse events, although tend to be mild to moderate and are easily manageable with standard treatment. Although no increased acute kidney injury risk was evident in the major trials, the mechanism of action of these drugs requires caution when they are administered in patients with extracellular volume depletion or with drugs affecting renal hemodynamics. Canagliflozin raised the risk of amputations and the rate of fractures in the CANVAS trial, although more data are necessary before drawing definite conclusions. The risk of euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis seems to be minimal when the drugs are prescribed properly. Regarding other adverse events, SGLT2 inhibitors do not increase the risk of hypoglycemia even when co-administered with insulin, but a decrease in the dose of sulphonylureas may be needed. The available data do not point to a causative role of SGLT2 inhibitors on malignancy risk, however, these drugs should be used with caution in patients with known hematuria or history of bladder cancer. SGLT2 inhibitors seem to be safe and effective in the treatment of diabetes but more studies are required to assess their long-term safety.

  17. NADPH oxidase inhibitors: a patent review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Ae; Neupane, Ganesh Prasad; Lee, Eung Seok; Jeong, Byeong-Seon; Park, Byung Chul; Thapa, Pritam

    2011-08-01

    NADPH oxidases, a family of multi-subunit enzyme complexes, catalyze the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may contribute to the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases. In addition to the first NADPH oxidase found in phagocytes, four non-phagocytic NADPH oxidase isoforms have been identified, which all differ in their catalytic subunit (Nox1-5) and tissue distribution. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the patent literature on NADPH oxidase inhibitors, small molecule Nox inhibitors, peptides and siRNAs. Since each member of the NADPH oxidase family has great potential as a therapeutic target, several different compounds have been registered as NADPH oxidase inhibitors in the patent literature. As yet, none have gone through clinical trials, and some have not completed preclinical trials, including safety and specificity evaluation. Recently, small molecule pyrazolopyridine and triazolopyrimidine derivatives have been submitted as potent NADPH oxidase inhibitors and reported as first-in-class inhibitors for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and acute stroke, respectively. Further clinical efficacy and safety data are warranted to prove their actual clinical utility.

  18. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor-Induced Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Megha; Thareja, Nidhi; Benjamin, Melody; Akhondi, Andre; Mitchell, George D

    2018-06-21

    The purpose of this paper is to identify commonly used tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that are associated with hypertension, primarily, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway (VSP) inhibitors. We review the incidence, mechanism, and strategies for management of TKI-induced HTN. We hope to provide clinicians with guidance on how to manage similar clinical scenarios. Many of the newer VSP inhibitors are reviewed here, including cediranib, axitinib, pazopanib, and ponatinib. Trials utilizing prophylactic treatment with angiotensin system inhibitors (ASIs) are discussed as well as recent data showing an improvement in overall survival and progression-free survival in patients on ASIs and TKI-induced hypertension. The incidence of TKI-induced HTN among the VEGF inhibitors ranges from 5 to 80% and is dose dependent. Newer generation small-molecule TKIs has a lower incidence. The mechanism of action involves VSP inhibition, leading to decreased nitric oxide and increased endothelin production, which causes vasoconstriction, capillary rarefaction, and hypertension. ASIs and calcium channel blockers are first-line therapy for treatment and are associated with improved overall survival. Nitrates and beta-blockers are associated with in vitro cancer regression; however, there is a paucity of trials regarding their use as an anti-hypertensive agent in the TKI-induced HTN patient population.

  19. Resistance to AHAS inhibitor herbicides: current understanding.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qin; Powles, Stephen B

    2014-09-01

    Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) inhibitor herbicides currently comprise the largest site-of-action group (with 54 active ingredients across five chemical groups) and have been widely used in world agriculture since they were first introduced in 1982. Resistance evolution in weeds to AHAS inhibitors has been rapid and identified in populations of many weed species. Often, evolved resistance is associated with point mutations in the target AHAS gene; however non-target-site enhanced herbicide metabolism occurs as well. Many AHAS gene resistance mutations can occur and be rapidly enriched owing to a high initial resistance gene frequency, simple and dominant genetic inheritance and lack of major fitness cost of the resistance alleles. Major advances in the elucidation of the crystal structure of the AHAS (Arabidopsis thaliana) catalytic subunit in complex with various AHAS inhibitor herbicides have greatly improved current understanding of the detailed molecular interactions between AHAS, cofactors and herbicides. Compared with target-site resistance, non-target-site resistance to AHAS inhibitor herbicides is less studied and hence less understood. In a few well-studied cases, non-target-site resistance is due to enhanced rates of herbicide metabolism (metabolic resistance), mimicking that occurring in tolerant crop species and often involving cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. However, the specific herbicide-metabolising, resistance-endowing genes are yet to be identified in resistant weed species. The current state of mechanistic understanding of AHAS inhibitor herbicide resistance is reviewed, and outstanding research issues are outlined. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Inhibitors Selective for Mycobacterial Versus Human Proteasomes

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, G.; Li, D; Sorio de Carvalho, L

    Many anti-infectives inhibit the synthesis of bacterial proteins, but none selectively inhibits their degradation. Most anti-infectives kill replicating pathogens, but few preferentially kill pathogens that have been forced into a non-replicating state by conditions in the host. To explore these alternative approaches we sought selective inhibitors of the proteasome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Given that the proteasome structure is extensively conserved, it is not surprising that inhibitors of all chemical classes tested have blocked both eukaryotic and prokaryotic proteasomes, and no inhibitor has proved substantially more potent on proteasomes of pathogens than of their hosts. Here we show that certain oxathiazol-2-onemore » compounds kill non-replicating M.?tuberculosis and act as selective suicide-substrate inhibitors of the M.?tuberculosis proteasome by cyclocarbonylating its active site threonine. Major conformational changes protect the inhibitor-enzyme intermediate from hydrolysis, allowing formation of an oxazolidin-2-one and preventing regeneration of active protease. Residues outside the active site whose hydrogen bonds stabilize the critical loop before and after it moves are extensively non-conserved. This may account for the ability of oxathiazol-2-one compounds to inhibit the mycobacterial proteasome potently and irreversibly while largely sparing the human homologue.« less

  1. Monoamine Reuptake Inhibitors in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Huot, Philippe; Fox, Susan H.; Brotchie, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    The motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD) are secondary to a dopamine deficiency in the striatum. However, the degenerative process in PD is not limited to the dopaminergic system and also affects serotonergic and noradrenergic neurons. Because they can increase monoamine levels throughout the brain, monoamine reuptake inhibitors (MAUIs) represent potential therapeutic agents in PD. However, they are seldom used in clinical practice other than as antidepressants and wake-promoting agents. This review article summarises all of the available literature on use of 50 MAUIs in PD. The compounds are divided according to their relative potency for each of the monoamine transporters. Despite wide discrepancy in the methodology of the studies reviewed, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) selective serotonin transporter (SERT), selective noradrenaline transporter (NET), and dual SERT/NET inhibitors are effective against PD depression; (2) selective dopamine transporter (DAT) and dual DAT/NET inhibitors exert an anti-Parkinsonian effect when administered as monotherapy but do not enhance the anti-Parkinsonian actions of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA); (3) dual DAT/SERT inhibitors might enhance the anti-Parkinsonian actions of L-DOPA without worsening dyskinesia; (4) triple DAT/NET/SERT inhibitors might exert an anti-Parkinsonian action as monotherapy and might enhance the anti-Parkinsonian effects of L-DOPA, though at the expense of worsening dyskinesia. PMID:25810948

  2. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor use associated with increased risk of ACE inhibitor-associated angioedema.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nancy J; Byiers, Stuart; Carr, David; Maldonado, Mario; Warner, Barbara Ann

    2009-09-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors decrease degradation of the incretins. DPP-IV inhibitors also decrease degradation of peptides, such as substance P, that may be involved in the pathogenesis of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor-associated angioedema. This study tested the hypothesis that DPP-IV inhibition affects risk of clinical angioedema, by comparing the incidence of angioedema in patients treated with the DPP-IV inhibitor vildagliptin versus those treated with comparator in Phase III randomized clinical trials. Prospectively defined angioedema-related events were adjudicated in a blinded fashion by an internal medicine adjudication committee and expert reviewer. Concurrent ACE inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker exposure was ascertained from case report forms. Study drug exposure was ascertained from unblinded data from phase III studies. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals comparing angioedema risk in vildagliptin-treated and comparator-treated patients were calculated for the overall population and for patients taking ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, using both an analysis of pooled data and a meta-analysis (Peto method). Overall, there was no association between vildagliptin use and angioedema. Among individuals taking an ACE inhibitor, however, vildagliptin use was associated with an increased risk of angioedema (14 confirmed cases among 2754 vildagliptin users versus 1 case among 1819 comparator users: odds ratio 4.57 [95% confidence interval 1.57 to 13.28]) in the meta-analysis. Vildagliptin use may be associated with increased risk of angioedema among patients taking ACE inhibitors, although absolute risk is small. Physicians confronted with angioedema in a patient taking an ACE inhibitor and DPP-IV inhibitor should consider this possible drug-drug interaction.

  3. Specific inhibitors of mammalian DNA polymerase species.

    PubMed

    Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2009-06-01

    In screening of selective inhibitors of eukaryotic DNA polymerases (pols) for 15 years, more than 100 inhibitors have been discovered from natural and chemical sources. Some compounds selectively inhibit the activities of mammalian pols, and in particular, dehydroaltenusin and curcumin derivatives, such as monoacetyl-curcumin, were found to be specific inhibitors of pol alpha and pol lambda, respectively. Dehydroaltenusin was isolated from a fungus (Alternaria tennuis), and this compound inhibited cell proliferation of human cancer cell lines by arresting the cells at the S-phase, and was effective in suppressing the growth on nude mice of solid tumors of human cervical cancer cell line HeLa. Curcumin derivatives had anti-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammatory activity with the same tendency as pol lambda inhibitory activity. These compounds might be useful not only as "molecular probes" for pol research, but also as biomedical and chemotherapeutic drugs for anti-cancer or anti-inflammation.

  4. LDL Cholesterol, Statins And PCSK 9 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sanjiv

    2015-01-01

    Reduction of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) is of vital importance for the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Statin is the most effective therapy today to lower LDLc by inhibiting HMG-CoA-reductase. However despite intensive statin therapy, there remains a residual risk of recurrent myocardial infarction in about 20–30% cases. Moreover a few patients develop statin intolerance. For severe hypercholesterolemia, statins alone or in combination of ezetimibe, niacin and fenofibrate have been advocated. For homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HOFH), a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein MTP inhibitor (Lopitamide) and antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) (Mipomersen) have recently been approved by FDA, USA through ‘Risk evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS)’. Possible future therapies include PCSK-9 inhibitors which have excellent lipid lowering properties. Three monoclonal antibodies (PCSK 9 Inhibitors) alirocumab, evolocumab and Bococizumab are under advanced clinical stage IV trials and awaiting approval by FDA and European Medicines Agency. PMID:26432726

  5. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors: promise or peril?

    PubMed Central

    Mengle-Gaw, Laurel J; Schwartz, Benjamin D

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of two isoforms of the cyclooxygenase enzyme, COX-1 and COX-2, and the development of COX-2-specific inhibitors as anti-inflammatories and analgesics have offered great promise that the therapeutic benefits of NSAIDs could be optimized through inhibition of COX-2, while minimizing their adverse side effect profile associated with inhibition of COX-1. While COX-2 specific inhibitors have proven to be efficacious in a variety of inflammatory conditions, exposure of large numbers of patients to these drugs in postmarketing studies have uncovered potential safety concerns that raise questions about the benefit/risk ratio of COX-2-specific NSAIDs compared to conventional NSAIDs. This article reviews the efficacy and safety profiles of COX-2-specific inhibitors, comparing them with conventional NSDAIDs. PMID:12467519

  6. Computational inhibitor design against malaria plasmepsins.

    PubMed

    Bjelic, S; Nervall, M; Gutiérrez-de-Terán, H; Ersmark, K; Hallberg, A; Aqvist, J

    2007-09-01

    Plasmepsins are aspartic proteases involved in the degradation of the host cell hemoglobin that is used as a food source by the malaria parasite. Plasmepsins are highly promising as drug targets, especially when combined with the inhibition of falcipains that are also involved in hemoglobin catabolism. In this review, we discuss the mechanism of plasmepsins I-IV in view of the interest in transition state mimetics as potential compounds for lead development. Inhibitor development against plasmepsin II as well as relevant crystal structures are summarized in order to give an overview of the field. Application of computational techniques, especially binding affinity prediction by the linear interaction energy method, in the development of malarial plasmepsin inhibitors has been highly successful and is discussed in detail. Homology modeling and molecular docking have been useful in the current inhibitor design project, and the combination of such methods with binding free energy calculations is analyzed.

  7. COX-1 Inhibitors: Beyond Structure Toward Therapy.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Paola; Panella, Andrea; Scilimati, Antonio; Perrone, Maria Grazia

    2016-07-01

    Biosynthesis of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid (AA) is catalyzed by cyclooxygenase (COX), which exists as COX-1 and COX-2. AA is in turn released from the cell membrane upon neopathological stimuli. COX inhibitors interfere in this catalytic and disease onset process. The recent prominent discovery involvements of COX-1 are mainly in cancer and inflammation. Five classes of COX-1 inhibitors are known up to now and this classification is based on chemical features of both synthetic compounds and substances from natural sources. Physicochemical interactions identification between such molecules and COX-1 active site was achieved through X-ray, mutagenesis experiments, specific assays and docking investigations, as well as through a pharmacometric predictive model building. All these insights allowed the design of new highly selective COX-1 inhibitors to be tested into those disease models in which COX-1 is involved. Particularly, COX-1 is expressed at high levels in the early to advanced stages of human epithelial ovarian cancer, and it also seems to play a pivotal role in cancer progression. The refinement of COX-1 selective inhibitor structure has progressed to the stage that some of the inhibitors described in this review could be considered as promising active principle ingredients of drugs and hence part of specific therapeutic protocols. This review aims to outline achievements, in the last 5 years, dealing with the identification of highly selective synthetic and from plant extracts COX-1 inhibitors and their theranostic use in neuroinflammation and ovarian cancer. Their gastrotoxic effect is also discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Therapeutic potential of monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mulvihill, Melinda M; Nomura, Daniel K

    2013-03-19

    Marijuana and aspirin have been used for millennia to treat a wide range of maladies including pain and inflammation. Both cannabinoids, like marijuana, that exert anti-inflammatory action through stimulating cannabinoid receptors, and cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, like aspirin, that suppress pro-inflammatory eicosanoid production have shown beneficial outcomes in mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Both cannabinoids and COX inhibitors, however, have untoward effects that discourage their chronic usage, including cognitive deficits and gastrointestinal toxicity, respectively. Recent studies have uncovered that the serine hydrolase monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) links the endocannabinoid and eicosanoid systems together through hydrolysis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) to provide the major arachidonic acid (AA) precursor pools for pro-inflammatory eicosanoid synthesis in specific tissues. Studies in recent years have shown that MAGL inhibitors elicit anti-nociceptive, anxiolytic, and anti-emetic responses and attenuate precipitated withdrawal symptoms in addiction paradigms through enhancing endocannabinoid signaling. MAGL inhibitors have also been shown to exert anti-inflammatory action in the brain and protect against neurodegeneration through lowering eicosanoid production. In cancer, MAGL inhibitors have been shown to have anti-cancer properties not only through modulating the endocannabinoid-eicosanoid network, but also by controlling fatty acid release for the synthesis of protumorigenic signaling lipids. Thus, MAGL serves as a critical node in simultaneously coordinating multiple lipid signaling pathways in both physiological and disease contexts. This review will discuss the diverse (patho)physiological roles of MAGL and the therapeutic potential of MAGL inhibitors in treating a vast array of complex human diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 2-Aminobenzimidazoles as potent Aurora kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Min; Bui, Minna; Shen, Wang; Baskaran, Subramanian; Allen, Darin A; Elling, Robert A; Flanagan, W Michael; Fung, Amy D; Hanan, Emily J; Harris, Shannon O; Heumann, Stacey A; Hoch, Ute; Ivy, Sheryl N; Jacobs, Jeffrey W; Lam, Stuart; Lee, Heman; McDowell, Robert S; Oslob, Johan D; Purkey, Hans E; Romanowski, Michael J; Silverman, Jeffrey A; Tangonan, Bradley T; Taverna, Pietro; Yang, Wenjin; Yoburn, Josh C; Yu, Chul H; Zimmerman, Kristin M; O'Brien, Tom; Lew, Willard

    2009-09-01

    This Letter describes the discovery and key structure-activity relationship (SAR) of a series of 2-aminobenzimidazoles as potent Aurora kinase inhibitors. 2-Aminobenzimidazole serves as a bioisostere of the biaryl urea residue of SNS-314 (1c), which is a potent Aurora kinase inhibitor and entered clinical testing in patients with solid tumors. Compared to SNS-314, this series of compounds offers better aqueous solubility while retaining comparable in vitro potency in biochemical and cell-based assays; in particular, 6m has also demonstrated a comparable mouse iv PK profile to SNS-314.

  10. New halogenated phenylcoumarins as tyrosinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Matos, Maria João; Santana, Lourdes; Uriarte, Eugenio; Delogu, Giovanna; Corda, Marcella; Fadda, Maria Benedetta; Era, Benedetta; Fais, Antonella

    2011-06-01

    With the aim to find out structural features for the tyrosinase inhibitory activity, in the present communication we report the synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of a new series of phenylcoumarin derivatives with different number of hydroxyl or ether groups and bromo substituent in the scaffold. The synthesized compounds 5-12 were evaluated as mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors showing, two of them, lower IC(50) than the umbelliferone. Compound 12 (IC(50)=215 μM) is the best tyrosinase inhibitor of this series. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Diphenylpyrazoles as Replication Protein A inhibitors

    DOE PAGES

    Waterson, Alex G.; Kennedy, J. Phillip; Patrone, James D.; ...

    2014-11-11

    Replication Protein A is the primary eukaryotic ssDNA binding protein that has a central role in initiating the cellular response to DNA damage. RPA recruits multiple proteins to sites of DNA damage via the N-terminal domain of the 70 kDa subunit (RPA70N). Here we describe the optimization of a diphenylpyrazole carboxylic acid series of inhibitors of these RPA–protein interactions. Lastly, we evaluated substituents on the aromatic rings as well as the type and geometry of the linkers used to combine fragments, ultimately leading to submicromolar inhibitors of RPA70N protein–protein interactions.

  12. Contribution of murine innate serum inhibitors toward interference within influenza virus immune assays.

    PubMed

    Cwach, Kevin T; Sandbulte, Heather R; Klonoski, Joshua M; Huber, Victor C

    2012-03-01

    Prior to detection of an antibody response toward influenza viruses using the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HAI), sera are routinely treated to inactivate innate inhibitors using both heat inactivation (56°C) and recombinant neuraminidase [receptor-destroying enzyme (RDE)]. We revisited the contributions of innate serum inhibitors toward interference with influenza viruses in immune assays, using murine sera, with emphasis on the interactions with influenza A viruses of the H3N2 subtype. We used individual serum treatments: 56°C alone, RDE alone, or RDE + 56°C, to treat sera prior to evaluation within HAI, microneutralization, and macrophage uptake assays. Our data demonstrate that inhibitors present within untreated murine sera interfere with the HAI assay in a manner that is different from that seen for the microneutralization assay. Specifically, the γ class inhibitor α(2) -Macroglobulin (A2-M) can inhibit H3N2 viruses within the HAI assay, but not in the microneutralization assay. Based on these findings, we used a macrophage uptake assay to demonstrate that these inhibitors can increase uptake by macrophages when the influenza viruses express an HA from a 1968 H3N2 virus isolate, but not a 1997 H3N2 isolate. The practice of treating sera to inactivate innate inhibitors of influenza viruses prior to evaluation within immune assays has allowed us to effectively detect influenza virus-specific antibodies for decades. However, this practice has yielded an under-appreciation for the contribution of innate serum inhibitors toward host immune responses against these viruses, including contributions toward neutralization and macrophage uptake. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Immune checkpoint inhibitors for metastatic bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Massari, Francesco; Di Nunno, Vincenzo; Cubelli, Marta; Santoni, Matteo; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Montironi, Rodolfo; Cheng, Liang; Lopez-Beltran, Anto; Battelli, Nicola; Ardizzoni, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    Chemotherapy has represented the standard therapy for unresectable or metastatic urothelial carcinoma for more than 20 years. The growing knowledge of the interaction between tumour and immune system has led to the advent of new classes of drugs, the immune-checkpoints inhibitors, which are intended to change the current scenario. To date, immunotherapy is able to improve the overall responses and survival. Moreover, thanks to its safety profile immune-checkpoint inhibitors could be proposed also to patients unfit for standard chemotherapy. No doubts that these agents have started a revolution expected for years, but despite this encouraging results it appears clear that not all subjects respond to these agents and requiring the development of reliable predictive response factors able to isolate patients who can more benefit from these treatments as well as new strategies aimed to improve immunotherapy clinical outcome. In this review we describe the active or ongoing clinical trials involving Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1), Programmed Death receptor 1 (PD-1) and Cytotoxic-T Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA 4) inhibitors in urothelial carcinoma focusing our attention on the developing new immune-agents and combination strategies with immune-checkpoint inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Mechanisms and efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Shiba, Teruo

    2015-03-01

    SGLT2 is a low affinity, high capacity glucose co-transporter, almost exclusively expressed in the kidney cortex. Inhibition of SGLT2 has been shown to increase the daily 50g or more urinary glucose excretion, as compared to placebo, leading to a reduction in blood glucose levels and indicated only for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In Japan 6 species of SGLT2 inhibitors have already been sold and reported to results in a decrease of FPG by 14.4 to 45.8 (mg/dL), in a reduction of HbA1c by 0.35 to 1.24% and in loss of body weight by 1.29 to 2.50(kg). There is less effect of the SGLT2 inhibitor in diabetic subjects with renal impairment and the reduction in HbA1c and FPG will be approximately half of the average in those with 30 ≤ eGFR ≤ 59. The position of SGLT2 inhibitors would be considered as the drug administered in combination or add-on therapy when the young obese type 2 diabetics without renal impairment has not yet reached to the glycemic target with other drugs although in AACE consensus statement of 2013, it has been shelved for inexperienced use with respect to the positioning of the SGLT2 inhibitors.

  15. Curcumin derivatives as HIV-1 protease inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Sui, Z.; Li, J.; Craik, C.S.

    1993-12-31

    Curcumin, a non-toxic natural compound from Curcuma longa, has been found to be an HIV-1 protease inhibitor. Some of its derivatives were synthesized and their inhibitory activity against the HIV-1 protease was tested. Curcumin analogues containing boron enhanced the inhibitory activity. At least of the the synthesized compounds irreversibly inhibits the HIV-1 protease.

  16. Curbing indoor mold growth with mold inhibitors

    Treesearch

    Carol A. Clausen; Vina W. Yang

    2004-01-01

    Environmentally acceptable mold inhibitors are needed to curb the growth of mold fungi in woodframe housing when moisture management measures fail. Excess indoor moisture can lead to rapid mold establishment which, in turn, can have deleterious affects on indoor air quality. Compounds with known mold inhibitory properties and low mammalian toxicity, such as food...

  17. Checkpoint Inhibitors Hold Promise for Rare Melanoma

    Cancer.gov

    Patients with a rare form of melanoma, called desmoplastic melanoma, may be particularly likely to benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitors, a new study shows. As this Cancer Currents post explains, an NCI-sponsored clinical trial is already testing one such drug, pembrolizumab (Keytruda) in patients with this cancer.

  18. Cost of care of haemophilia with inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Di Minno, M N D; Di Minno, G; Di Capua, M; Cerbone, A M; Coppola, A

    2010-01-01

    In Western countries, the treatment of patients with inhibitors is presently the most challenging and serious issue in haemophilia management, direct costs of clotting factor concentrates accounting for >98% of the highest economic burden absorbed for the healthcare of patients in this setting. Being designed to address questions of resource allocation and effectiveness, decision models are the golden standard to reliably assess the overall economic implications of haemophilia with inhibitors in terms of mortality, bleeding-related morbidity, and severity of arthropathy. However, presently, most data analyses stem from retrospective short-term evaluations, that only allow for the analysis of direct health costs. In the setting of chronic diseases, the cost-utility analysis, that takes into account the beneficial effects of a given treatment/healthcare intervention in terms of health-related quality of life, is likely to be the most appropriate approach. To calculate net benefits, the quality adjusted life year, that significantly reflects such health gain, has to be compared with specific economic impacts. Differences in data sources, in medical practice and/or in healthcare systems and costs, imply that most current pharmacoeconomic analyses are confined to a narrow healthcare payer perspective. Long-term/lifetime prospective or observational studies, devoted to a careful definition of when to start a treatment; of regimens (dose and type of product) to employ, and of inhibitor population (children/adults, low-responding/high responding inhibitors) to study, are thus urgently needed to allow for newer insights, based on reliable data sources into resource allocation, effectiveness and cost-utility analysis in the treatment of haemophiliacs with inhibitors.

  19. Dry eye syndrome in aromatase inhibitor users.

    PubMed

    Turaka, Kiran; Nottage, Jennifer M; Hammersmith, Kristin M; Nagra, Parveen K; Rapuano, Christopher J

    2013-04-01

    Aromatase inhibitors are frequently used as an adjuvant therapy in the treatment of breast cancer. We observed that several patients taking aromatase inhibitors presented with severe dry eye symptoms, and we investigated whether there is a relationship between aromatase inhibitors and dry eyes in these patients. Retrospective chart review. Forty-one women. A computerized search of health records was performed to identify patients using anastrazole, letrozole and exemestane seen by the Cornea Service from August 2008 to March 2011. The results were compared with age-matched controls. Ocular surface changes among aromatase inhibitors users. Of the 41 women, 39 were Caucasians. Thirty-nine patients had breast cancer (95%), one patient had ovarian cancer (2.5%) and one had an unknown primary cancer. Mean age was 68 ± 11.3 years (range 47-95). Most common presenting symptoms were blurred vision in 28 (68%) patients, irritation/foreign body sensation in 12 (29%) patients, redness in 9 (22%) patients, tearing in 6 (22%) patients and photosensitivity in 2 (5%) patients. Mean Schirmer's test measurement was 11 ± 5.8 mm (range 0.5-20 mm). Blepharitis was noted in 68 of 82 eyes (73%), decreased or poor tear function in 24 eyes (29%), conjunctival injection in 18 eyes (22%) and superficial punctate keratitis in 12 eyes (29%). Among an age-matched population (45-95 years), dry eye syndrome was found in only 9.5% of patients. Because the prevalence of ocular surface disease signs and symptoms appears to be higher in study group than control patients, aromatase inhibitors might be a contributing factor to the dry eye symptoms. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2012 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  20. Novel factor Xa inhibitors: a patent review.

    PubMed

    de Candia, Modesto; Lopopolo, Gianfranco; Altomare, Cosimo

    2009-11-01

    New oral anticoagulants with favorable safety profiles and fixed doses are required for the management of thromboembolism and stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation. Among them, fXa inhibitors (the so-called xabans) are attractive options that can overcome limitations (e.g., bleeding) of the current oral antithrombotic therapy. The rational design of small-molecule direct fXa inhibitors, whose importance is testified by the growing number of publications and patents recently registered, has been fully supported by the X-ray crystallography of enzyme-ligand complexes. Pubmed, SciFinder Scholar, ISI web of knowledge(SM), http://ep.espacenet.com/ and Google websites were used as the main sources for literature retrieving, and > 100 patents filed between 2006 and April 2009, reviewed and discussed herein, highlight the variety among the P1 and P4 moieties on suitable scaffolds. The replacement of the benzamidine P1 moiety, which characterizes the first generation, with less basic bioisosteric or nonpolar neutral P1 groups led to the disclosure of numerous fXa inhibitors with high potency, selectivity and oral bioavailability. Novel selective fXa inhibitors with stable pharmacokinetics, better therapeutic windows and ease-of-use than the existing anticoagulants are currently under advanced stage clinical trials. Available data from Phase II and Phase III studies reflect the drive towards fXa inhibitors as potentially more effective and safer antithrombotic drugs. Their development is expected to address two major needs for anticoagulation, namely safety and ease-of-use, and to significantly affect the anticoagulant market.

  1. Clinical pharmacokinetics and efficacy of renin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Rongen, G A; Lenders, J W; Smits, P; Thien, T

    1995-07-01

    The successful introduction of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in the treatment of patients with essential hypertension or heart failure has increased interest in the (patho)physiological role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). ACE is not only involved in the formation of angiotensin II from angiotensin I, but also inactivates vasoactive substances such as bradykinin and substance P. Accumulation of these substances during treatment with ACE inhibitors may contribute to both their therapeutic action and certain adverse effects associated with their use, such as cough and angioneurotic oedema. Renin inhibitors offer an alternative approach to inhibit the RAS. The major advantage of these, still experimental, drugs is their high specificity for the RAS since angiotensinogen is the only known substrate of renin. The currently available renin inhibitors are pseudopeptides that are rapidly taken up by the liver and excreted in the bile. Consequently, these drugs are subjected to a considerable first pass effect which limits their oral bioavailability. Additionally, plasma elimination half-life times are short and the duration of action is limited. Despite these shortcomings, single oral or intravenous administration results in a 80 to 90% inhibition of plasma renin activity and a slight reduction in blood pressure in patients with hypertension. The extent of blood pressure reduction is dependent on the patient's salt balance. After 1 week of oral treatment with the renin inhibitor remikiren, the antihypertensive effect was reduced in salt-repleted hypertensive patients. Subsequent intravenous administration of the drug did not further affect blood pressure, indicating that it was not the first pass effect that was limiting the efficacy of remikiren.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Rasagiline – a novel MAO B inhibitor in Parkinson’s disease therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lecht, Shimon; Haroutiunian, Simon; Hoffman, Amnon; Lazarovici, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative, dopamine deficiency disorder. The main therapeutic strategies for PD treatment relies on dopamine precursors (levodopa), inhibition of dopamine metabolism (monoamine oxidase [MAO] B and catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitors), and dopamine receptor agonists. Recently, a novel selective and irreversible MAO B propargylamine inhibitor rasagiline (N-propargyl-1-R-aminoindan, Azilect®) was approved for PD therapy. In contrast to selegiline, the prototype of MAO B inhibitors, rasagiline is not metabolized to potentially toxic amphetamine metabolites. The oral bioavailability of rasagiline is 35%, it reaches Tmax after 0.5–1 hours and its half-life is 1.5–3.5 hours. Rasagiline undergoes extensive hepatic metabolism primarily by cytochrome P450 type 1A2 (CYP1A2). Rasagiline is initiated at 1 mg once-daily dosage as monotherapy in early PD patients and at 0.5–1 mg once-daily as adjunctive to levodopa in advanced PD patients. Rasagiline treatment was not associated with “cheese effect” and up to 20 mg per day was well tolerated. In PD patients with hepatic impairment, rasagiline dosage should be carefully adjusted. Rasagiline should not be administered with other MAO inhibitors and co-administration with certain antidepressants and opioids should be avoided. Although further clinical evidence is needed on the neuroprotective effects of rasagiline in PD patients, this drug provides an additional tool for PD therapy. PMID:18488080

  3. Novel small molecule epithelial sodium channel inhibitors as potential therapeutics in cystic fibrosis - a patent evaluation.

    PubMed

    Schoenberger, Matthias; Althaus, Mike

    2013-10-01

    Novel molecular platforms for epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) modulators are claimed in the following six patents: WO2012035158(A1); WO2009074575(A2); WO2011028740(A1); WO2009150137(A2); WO2011079087(A1); WO2008135557(A1). These ENaC inhibitors may be used in blocking transepithelial sodium and consequently water absorption across airway epithelia. This may result in airway rehydration and enhanced mucociliary clearance in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. All inhibitors resemble the classical ENaC blocker amiloride but follow different strategies to increase structural diversity in a sterically tolerant region. These substitutions can be modified to i) enhance potency of ENaC inhibition; ii) reduce epithelial permeability; and iii) broaden applicability in order to be used as potential drugs for CF therapy. Most of the claims and patent data are supported by the currently available literature. The patents deliver a solid chemical basis for a variety of chemical modifications of the ENaC inhibitor amiloride. These modifications may result in the development of a novel, applicable ENaC inhibitors which may have lasting effects on diseased airways and may achieve airway rehydration and enhanced mucociliary clearance in CF lung disease.

  4. ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-L-cysteine antagonizes the activity of proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Halasi, Marianna; Wang, Ming; Chavan, Tanmay S; Gaponenko, Vadim; Hay, Nissim; Gartel, Andrei L

    2013-09-01

    NAC (N-acetyl-L-cysteine) is commonly used to identify and test ROS (reactive oxygen species) inducers, and to inhibit ROS. In the present study, we identified inhibition of proteasome inhibitors as a novel activity of NAC. Both NAC and catalase, another known scavenger of ROS, similarly inhibited ROS levels and apoptosis associated with H₂O₂. However, only NAC, and not catalase or another ROS scavenger Trolox, was able to prevent effects linked to proteasome inhibition, such as protein stabilization, apoptosis and accumulation of ubiquitin conjugates. These observations suggest that NAC has a dual activity as an inhibitor of ROS and proteasome inhibitors. Recently, NAC was used as a ROS inhibitor to functionally characterize a novel anticancer compound, piperlongumine, leading to its description as a ROS inducer. In contrast, our own experiments showed that this compound depicts features of proteasome inhibitors including suppression of FOXM1 (Forkhead box protein M1), stabilization of cellular proteins, induction of ROS-independent apoptosis and enhanced accumulation of ubiquitin conjugates. In addition, NAC, but not catalase or Trolox, interfered with the activity of piperlongumine, further supporting that piperlongumine is a proteasome inhibitor. Most importantly, we showed that NAC, but not other ROS scavengers, directly binds to proteasome inhibitors. To our knowledge, NAC is the first known compound that directly interacts with and antagonizes the activity of proteasome inhibitors. Taken together, the findings of the present study suggest that, as a result of the dual nature of NAC, data interpretation might not be straightforward when NAC is utilized as an antioxidant to demonstrate ROS involvement in drug-induced apoptosis.

  5. SGLT2 inhibitors: molecular design and potential differences in effect.

    PubMed

    Isaji, Masayuki

    2011-03-01

    The physiological and pathological handling of glucose via sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) in the kidneys has been evolving, and SGLT2 inhibitors have been focused upon as a novel drug for treating diabetes. SGLT2 inhibitors enhance renal glucose excretion by inhibiting renal glucose reabsorption. Consequently, SGLT2 inhibitors reduce plasma glucose insulin independently and improve insulin resistance in diabetes. To date, various SGLT2 inhibitors have been developed and evaluated in clinical studies. The potency and positioning of SGLT2 inhibitors as an antidiabetic drug are dependent on their characteristic profile, which induces selectivity, efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and safety. This profile decides which SGLT2 inhibitors can be expected for application of the theoretical concept of reducing renal glucose reabsorption for the treatment of diabetes. I review the structure and advancing profile of various SGLT2 inhibitors, comparing their similarities and differences, and discuss the expected SGLT2 inhibitors for an emerging category of antidiabetic drugs.

  6. Quinoxalinylurea derivatives as a novel class of JSP-1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Qiu, Beiying; Xiong, Bing; Li, Xin; Li, Jingya; Wang, Xin; Li, Jia; Shen, Jingkang

    2007-04-15

    A series of quinoxalinylurea-based inhibitors are synthesized and shown to be the novel and potent inhibitors against Jnk Stimulatory Phosphatase-1 (JSP-1), which is a special member of dual-specificity protein phosphatase (DSP) family. Biological assay and computational modeling studies showed the compounds were reversible and noncompetitive inhibitors of JSP-1. JSP-1 inhibitors may be useful for the treatment of inflammatory, vascular, neurodegenerative, metabolic, and oncological diseases in humans associated with dysfunctional Jnk signaling.

  7. Screening for Inhibitors of Essential Leishmania Glucose Transporters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    TITLE: Screening for Inhibitors of Essential Leishmania Glucose Transporters PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Scott M. Landfear, Ph.D...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Screening for Inhibitors of Essential Leishmania Glucose Transporters 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...selective inhibitors of the essential glucose transporters of the parasite Leishmania mexicana. Toward this end, a cell growth assay has been

  8. Rho kinase inhibitors: a patent review (2012 - 2013).

    PubMed

    Feng, Yangbo; LoGrasso, Philip V

    2014-03-01

    The Rho kinase/ROCK is critical in vital signal transduction pathways central to many essential cellular activities. Since ROCK possess multiple substrates, modulation of ROCK activity is useful for treatment of many diseases. Significant progress has been made in the development of ROCK inhibitors over the past two years (Jan 2012 to Aug 2013). Patent search in this review was based on FPO IP Research and Communities and Espacenet Patent Search. In this review, patent applications will be classified into four groups for discussions. The grouping is mainly based on structures or scaffolds (groups 1 and 2) and biological functions of ROCK inhibitors (groups 3 and 4). These four groups are i) ROCK inhibitors based on classical structural elements for ROCK inhibition; ii) ROCK inhibitors based on new scaffolds; iii) bis-functional ROCK inhibitors; and iv) novel applications of ROCK inhibitors. Although currently only one ROCK inhibitor (fasudil) is used as a drug, more drugs based on ROCK inhibition are expected to be advanced into market in the near future. Several directions should be considered for future development of ROCK inhibitors, such as soft ROCK inhibitors, bis-functional ROCK inhibitors, ROCK2 isoform-selective inhibitors, and ROCK inhibitors as antiproliferation agents.

  9. Inhibitor analysis for a solar heating and cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabony, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    A study of potential corrosion inhibitors for the NASA solar heating and cooling system which uses aluminum solar panels is provided. Research consisted of testing using a dynamic corrosion system, along with an economic analysis of proposed corrosion inhibitors. Very good progress was made in finding a suitable inhibitor for the system.

  10. Removal of inhibitor(s) of the polymerase chain reaction from formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    An, S F; Fleming, K A

    1991-11-01

    A problem associated with use of the polymerase chain reaction to amplify specific DNA fragments from formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissues is the not infrequent failure of amplification. One possible reason for this could be the presence of inhibitor(s), which interfere with the activity of the reaction. It has been shown that such inhibitor(s) exist when amplifying the human beta globin gene (which exists in human genomic DNA as a single copy gene) from routine clinical samples. A variety of methods to remove such inhibitor(s) were investigated. The results indicate that inhibitor(s) are removed by proteinase K digestion, followed by purification with phenol/chloroform, and centrifugation through a Centricon-30 membrane (30,000 molecular weight cut off). Other factors, including the length and concentration of the DNA sequence to be amplified, can also affect amplification.

  11. Probing plasmodesmata function with biochemical inhibitors.

    PubMed

    White, Rosemary G

    2015-01-01

    To investigate plasmodesmata (PD) function, a useful technique is to monitor the effect on cell-to-cell transport of applying an inhibitor of a physiological process, protein, or other cell component of interest. Changes in PD transport can then be monitored in one of several ways, most commonly by measuring the cell-to-cell movement of fluorescent tracer dyes or of free fluorescent proteins. Effects on PD structure can be detected in thin sections of embedded tissue observed using an electron microscope, most commonly a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). This chapter outlines commonly used inhibitors, methods for treating different tissues, how to detect altered cell-to-cell transport and PD structure, and important caveats.

  12. Secreted and Transmembrane Wnt Inhibitors and Activators

    PubMed Central

    Cruciat, Cristina-Maria; Niehrs, Christof

    2013-01-01

    Signaling by the Wnt family of secreted glycoproteins plays important roles in embryonic development and adult homeostasis. Wnt signaling is modulated by a number of evolutionarily conserved inhibitors and activators. Wnt inhibitors belong to small protein families, including sFRP, Dkk, WIF, Wise/SOST, Cerberus, IGFBP, Shisa, Waif1, APCDD1, and Tiki1. Their common feature is to antagonize Wnt signaling by preventing ligand–receptor interactions or Wnt receptor maturation. Conversely, the Wnt activators, R-spondin and Norrin, promote Wnt signaling by binding to Wnt receptors or releasing a Wnt-inhibitory step. With few exceptions, these antagonists and agonists are not pure Wnt modulators, but also affect additional signaling pathways, such as TGF-β and FGF signaling. Here we discuss their interactions with Wnt ligands and Wnt receptors, their role in developmental processes, as well as their implication in disease. PMID:23085770

  13. SGLT2 Inhibitors: Benefit/Risk Balance.

    PubMed

    Scheen, André J

    2016-10-01

    Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) reduce hyperglycemia by increasing urinary glucose excretion. They have been evaluated in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with diet/exercise, metformin, dual oral therapy or insulin. Three agents are available in Europe and the USA (canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin) and others are commercialized in Japan or in clinical development. SGLT2 inhibitors reduce glycated hemoglobin, with a minimal risk of hypoglycemia. They exert favorable effects beyond glucose control with consistent body weight, blood pressure, and serum uric acid reductions. Empagliflozin showed remarkable reductions in cardiovascular/all-cause mortality and in hospitalization for heart failure in patients with previous cardiovascular disease. Positive renal outcomes were also shown with empagliflozin. Mostly reported adverse events are genital mycotic infections, while urinary tract infections and events linked to volume depletion are rather rare. Concern about a risk of ketoacidosis and bone fractures has been recently raised, which deserves caution and further evaluation.

  14. Inhibitors of Protein Methyltransferases and Demethylases

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Post-translational modifications of histones by protein methyltransferases (PMTs) and histone demethylases (KDMs) play an important role in the regulation of gene expression and transcription and are implicated in cancer and many other diseases. Many of these enzymes also target various nonhistone proteins impacting numerous crucial biological pathways. Given their key biological functions and implications in human diseases, there has been a growing interest in assessing these enzymes as potential therapeutic targets. Consequently, discovering and developing inhibitors of these enzymes has become a very active and fast-growing research area over the past decade. In this review, we cover the discovery, characterization, and biological application of inhibitors of PMTs and KDMs with emphasis on key advancements in the field. We also discuss challenges, opportunities, and future directions in this emerging, exciting research field. PMID:28338320

  15. Potent peptidic fusion inhibitors of influenza virus

    SciTech Connect

    Kadam, Rameshwar U.; Juraszek, Jarek; Brandenburg, Boerries

    Influenza therapeutics with new targets and mechanisms of action are urgently needed to combat potential pandemics, emerging viruses, and constantly mutating strains in circulation. We report here on the design and structural characterization of potent peptidic inhibitors of influenza hemagglutinin. The peptide design was based on complementarity-determining region loops of human broadly neutralizing antibodies against the hemagglutinin (FI6v3 and CR9114). The optimized peptides exhibit nanomolar affinity and neutralization against influenza A group 1 viruses, including the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and avian H5N1 strains. The peptide inhibitors bind to the highly conserved stem epitope and block the low pH–induced conformational rearrangementsmore » associated with membrane fusion. These peptidic compounds and their advantageous biological properties should accelerate the development of new small molecule– and peptide-based therapeutics against influenza virus.« less

  16. Mechanisms of Heparanase Inhibitors in Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Heyman, Benjamin; Yang, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    Heparanase is an endo-β-D-glucuronidase capable of cleaving heparan sulfate (HS) side chains contributing to break down of the extracellular matrix. Increased expression of heparanase has been found in numerous malignancies, and is associated with a poor prognosis. It has generated significant interest as a potential anti-neoplastic target because of the multiple roles it plays in tumor growth and metastasis. The pro-tumorigenic effects of heparanase are enhanced by the release of HS side chains, with subsequent increase in bioactive fragments and increased cytokine levels; both promoting tumor invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. Preclinical experiments have shown heparanase inhibitors to substantially reduce tumor growth and metastasis leading to clinical trials with heparan sulfate mimetics. In this review we will examine heparanase’s role in tumor biology, its interaction with heparan surface proteoglycans, specifically syndecan-1; as well as the mechanism of action for heparanase inhibitors developed as anti-neoplastic therapeutics. PMID:27576132

  17. Serine protease inhibitors of parasitic helminths.

    PubMed

    Molehin, Adebayo J; Gobert, Geoffrey N; McManus, Donald P

    2012-05-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (serpins) are a superfamily of structurally conserved proteins that inhibit serine proteases and play key physiological roles in numerous biological systems such as blood coagulation, complement activation and inflammation. A number of serpins have now been identified in parasitic helminths with putative involvement in immune regulation and in parasite survival through interference with the host immune response. This review describes the serpins and smapins (small serine protease inhibitors) that have been identified in Ascaris spp., Brugia malayi, Ancylostoma caninum Onchocerca volvulus, Haemonchus contortus, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus vitrinus, Anisakis simplex, Trichuris suis, Schistosoma spp., Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani and Echinococcus spp. and discusses their possible biological functions, including roles in host-parasite interplay and their evolutionary relationships.

  18. Small molecule inhibitors of anthrax edema factor.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Guan-Sheng; Kim, Seongjin; Moayeri, Mahtab; Thai, April; Cregar-Hernandez, Lynne; McKasson, Linda; O'Malley, Sean; Leppla, Stephen H; Johnson, Alan T

    2018-01-15

    Anthrax is a highly lethal disease caused by the Gram-(+) bacteria Bacillus anthracis. Edema toxin (ET) is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of disease in humans exposed to B. anthracis. ET is a bipartite toxin composed of two proteins secreted by the vegetative bacteria, edema factor (EF) and protective antigen (PA). Our work towards identifying a small molecule inhibitor of anthrax edema factor is the subject of this letter. First we demonstrate that the small molecule probe 5'-Fluorosulfonylbenzoyl 5'-adenosine (FSBA) reacts irreversibly with EF and blocks enzymatic activity. We then show that the adenosine portion of FSBA can be replaced to provide more drug-like molecules which are up to 1000-fold more potent against EF relative to FSBA, display low cross reactivity when tested against a panel of kinases, and are nanomolar inhibitors of EF in a cell-based assay of cAMP production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors from Gentiana lutea.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Yasumasa; Kabbash, Amal; Fujioka, Toshihiro; Ishizu, Takashi; Yagi, Akira

    2004-08-01

    Three monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors were isolated from Gentiana lutea. Their structures were elucidated to be 3-3''linked-(2'-hydroxy-4-O-isoprenylchalcone)-(2'''-hydroxy-4''-O-isoprenyldihydrochalcone) (1), 2-methoxy-3-(1,1'-dimethylallyl)-6a,10a-dihydrobenzo(1,2-c)chroman-6-one and 5-hydroxyflavanone. These compounds, and the hydrolysis product of 1, displayed competitive inhibitory properties against MAO-B which was more effective than MAO-A.

  20. Trial Watch: Proteasomal inhibitors for anticancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Obrist, Florine; Manic, Gwenola; Kroemer, Guido; Vitale, Ilio; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The so-called "ubiquitin-proteasome system" (UPS) is a multicomponent molecular apparatus that catalyzes the covalent attachment of several copies of the small protein ubiquitin to other proteins that are generally (but not always) destined to proteasomal degradation. This enzymatic cascade is crucial for the maintenance of intracellular protein homeostasis (both in physiological conditions and in the course of adaptive stress responses), and regulates a wide array of signaling pathways. In line with this notion, defects in the UPS have been associated with aging as well as with several pathological conditions including cardiac, neurodegenerative, and neoplastic disorders. As transformed cells often experience a constant state of stress (as a result of the hyperactivation of oncogenic signaling pathways and/or adverse microenvironmental conditions), their survival and proliferation are highly dependent on the integrity of the UPS. This rationale has driven an intense wave of preclinical and clinical investigation culminating in 2003 with the approval of the proteasomal inhibitor bortezomib by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in multiple myeloma patients. Another proteasomal inhibitor, carfilzomib, is now licensed by international regulatory agencies for use in multiple myeloma patients, and the approved indications for bortezomib have been extended to mantle cell lymphoma. This said, the clinical activity of bortezomib and carfilzomib is often limited by off-target effects, innate/acquired resistance, and the absence of validated predictive biomarkers. Moreover, the antineoplastic activity of proteasome inhibitors against solid tumors is poor. In this Trial Watch we discuss the contribution of the UPS to oncogenesis and tumor progression and summarize the design and/or results of recent clinical studies evaluating the therapeutic profile of proteasome inhibitors in cancer patients.

  1. Trial Watch: Proteasomal inhibitors for anticancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Obrist, Florine; Manic, Gwenola; Kroemer, Guido; Vitale, Ilio; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The so-called “ubiquitin-proteasome system” (UPS) is a multicomponent molecular apparatus that catalyzes the covalent attachment of several copies of the small protein ubiquitin to other proteins that are generally (but not always) destined to proteasomal degradation. This enzymatic cascade is crucial for the maintenance of intracellular protein homeostasis (both in physiological conditions and in the course of adaptive stress responses), and regulates a wide array of signaling pathways. In line with this notion, defects in the UPS have been associated with aging as well as with several pathological conditions including cardiac, neurodegenerative, and neoplastic disorders. As transformed cells often experience a constant state of stress (as a result of the hyperactivation of oncogenic signaling pathways and/or adverse microenvironmental conditions), their survival and proliferation are highly dependent on the integrity of the UPS. This rationale has driven an intense wave of preclinical and clinical investigation culminating in 2003 with the approval of the proteasomal inhibitor bortezomib by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in multiple myeloma patients. Another proteasomal inhibitor, carfilzomib, is now licensed by international regulatory agencies for use in multiple myeloma patients, and the approved indications for bortezomib have been extended to mantle cell lymphoma. This said, the clinical activity of bortezomib and carfilzomib is often limited by off-target effects, innate/acquired resistance, and the absence of validated predictive biomarkers. Moreover, the antineoplastic activity of proteasome inhibitors against solid tumors is poor. In this Trial Watch we discuss the contribution of the UPS to oncogenesis and tumor progression and summarize the design and/or results of recent clinical studies evaluating the therapeutic profile of proteasome inhibitors in cancer patients. PMID:27308423

  2. Corrosion protection with eco-friendly inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    Corrosion occurs as a result of the interaction of a metal with its environment. The extent of corrosion depends on the type of metal, the existing conditions in the environment and the type of aggressive ions present in the medium. For example, CO3-2 and NO-3 produce an insoluble deposit on the surface of iron, resulting in the isolation of metal and consequent decrease of corrosion. On the other hand, halide ions are adsorbed selectively on the metal surface and prevent formation of the oxide phase on the metal surface, resulting in continuous corrosion. Iron, aluminum and their alloys are widely used, both domestically and industrially. Linear alkylbenzene and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate are commonly used as detergents. They have also been found together in waste water. It is claimed that these chemicals act as inhibitors for stainless steel and aluminum. Release of toxic gases as a result of corrosion in pipelines may lead in certain cases to air pollution and possible health hazards. Therefore, there are two ways to look at the relationship between corrosion and pollution: (i) corrosion of metals and alloys due to environmental pollution and (ii) environmental pollution as a result of corrosion protection. This paper encompasses the two scenarios and possible remedies for various cases, using 'green' inhibitors obtained either from plant extracts or from pharmaceutical compounds. In the present study, the effect of piperacillin sodium as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel was investigated using a weight-loss method as well as a three-electrode dc electrochemical technique. It was found that the corrosion rate decreased as the concentration of the inhibitor increased up to 9×10-4 M 93% efficiency was exhibited at this concentration.

  3. First Approved Kinase Inhibitor for AML.

    PubMed

    Rasko, John E J; Hughes, Timothy P

    2017-11-16

    Activating mutations of FLT3 occur in about 30% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases and are associated with relapse and poor prognosis. Midostaurin is the first drug approved for AML since 2000, and the first multi-kinase inhibitor approved for the FLT3-mutant subtype. To view this Bench to Bedside, open or download the PDF. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Breast Cancer Suppression by IDO Inhibitors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    shown). The latest in vivo results on brassinin and a related bioactive compound 5-bromo-brassinin are presently in preparation for submission...through NF-κB) appear to act synergistically to induce expres- sion of IRF-1 through a novel composite binding element for both STAT1α and NF-κB in the...1MT and MTH- Trp, both of which are bioactive and orally bioavailable. These inhibitors may offer tools for clinical validation of the novel combination

  5. Hit identification of IKKβ natural product inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Leung, Chung-Hang; Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin; Li, Ying-Wei; Fong, Wang-Fun; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2013-01-07

    The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) proteins are a small group of heterodimeric transcription factors that play an important role in regulating the inflammatory, immune, and apoptotic responses. NF-κB activity is suppressed by association with the inhibitor IκB. Aberrant NF-κB signaling activity has been associated with the development of cancer, chronic inflammatory diseases and auto-immune diseases. The IKK protein complex is comprised of IKKα, IKKβ and NEMO subunits, with IKKβ thought to play the dominant role in modulating NF-κB activity. Therefore, the discovery of new IKKβ inhibitors may offer new therapeutic options for the treatment of cancer and inflammatory diseases. A structure-based molecular docking approach has been employed to discover novel IKKβ inhibitors from a natural product library of over 90,000 compounds. Preliminary screening of the 12 highest-scoring compounds using a luciferase reporter assay identified 4 promising candidates for further biological study. Among these, the benzoic acid derivative (1) showed the most promising activity at inhibiting IKKβ phosphorylation and TNF-α-induced NF-κB signaling in vitro. In this study, we have successfully identified a benzoic acid derivative (1) as a novel IKKβ inhibitor via high-throughput molecular docking. Compound 1 was able to inhibit IKKβ phosphorylation activity in vitro, and block IκBα protein degradation and subsequent NF-κB activation in human cells. Further in silico optimization of the compound is currently being conducted in order to generate more potent analogues for biological tests.

  6. Rust Inhibitor And Fungicide For Cooling Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James F.; Greer, D. Clay

    1988-01-01

    Mixture of benzotriazole, benzoic acid, and fungicide prevents growth of rust and fungus. Water-based cooling mixture made from readily available materials prevents formation of metallic oxides and growth of fungi in metallic pipes. Coolant remains clear and does not develop thick sludge tending to collect in low points in cooling systems with many commercial rust inhibitors. Coolant compatible with iron, copper, aluminum, and stainless steel. Cannot be used with cadmium or cadmium-plated pipes.

  7. Immune checkpoint inhibitor-related myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Tajiri, Kazuko; Aonuma, Kazutaka; Sekine, Ikuo

    2018-01-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors have demonstrated significant clinical benefit in many cancers. The clinical benefit afforded by these treatments can be accompanied by a unique and distinct spectrum of adverse events. Recently, several fatal cases of immune checkpoint inhibitor-related myocarditis were reported. Although its frequency is comparatively lower than that of other immune-related adverse events, myocarditis can lead to circulatory collapse and lethal ventricular arrhythmia. Immune checkpoints, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), play important roles in establishing peripheral tolerance to the heart. Evidence from studies using genetically engineered mouse models suggests that CTLA-4 signaling terminates proliferation and promotes anergy during the primary response to cardiac self-peptide recognition. PD-1 signaling restrains autoreactive T cells that enter the peripheral tissues and recognize cardiac-peptide, maintaining them in an anergic state. Patients affected by immune checkpoint inhibitor-related myocarditis often experience rapid onset of profound hemodynamic compromise progressing to cardiogenic shock. Early diagnosis is mandatory to address specific therapy and correct the timing of circulatory support. However, the diagnosis of myocarditis is challenging due to the heterogeneity of clinical presentations. Owing to its early onset, nonspecific symptomatology and fulminant progression, especially when these drugs are used in combination, oncologists should be vigilant for immune checkpoint inhibitor-related myocarditis. With many questions yet to be answered, from basic immune biology to clinical management, future research should aim to optimize the use of these drugs by identifying predictive biomarkers of either a response to therapy or the risks of myocarditis development. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Inhibitors for Androgen Receptor Activation Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Inhibitor of Coregulator Binding to the Thyroid Hormone Receptor.. Molecular Endocrinology, 2007 Sep 6; [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 17823305 (related...Kiplin Guy†, Paul Webb‡, and Robert J. Fletterick* *Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, §Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, and...are also small but significant shifts in secondary structural elements; residues 720–730 (H3) and 825–847 (H9) exhibit rmsd of 0.33 and 0.44

  9. Functional Stability of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1

    PubMed Central

    Kuru, Pinar; Toksoy Oner, Ebru; Agirbasli, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the main inhibitor of plasminogen activators, such as tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA), and a major regulator of the fibrinolytic system. PAI-1 plays a pivotal role in acute thrombotic events such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and myocardial infarction (MI). The biological effects of PAI-1 extend far beyond thrombosis including its critical role in fibrotic disorders, atherosclerosis, renal and pulmonary fibrosis, type-2 diabetes, and cancer. The conversion of PAI-1 from the active to the latent conformation appears to be unique among serpins in that it occurs spontaneously at a relatively rapid rate. Latency transition is believed to represent a regulatory mechanism, reducing the risk of thrombosis from a prolonged antifibrinolytic action of PAI-1. Thus, relying solely on plasma concentrations of PAI-1 without assessing its function may be misleading in interpreting the role of PAI-1 in many complex diseases. Environmental conditions, interaction with other proteins, mutations, and glycosylation are the main factors that have a significant impact on the stability of the PAI-1 structure. This review provides an overview on the current knowledge on PAI-1 especially importance of PAI-1 level and stability and highlights the potential use of PAI-1 inhibitors for treating cardiovascular disease. PMID:25386620

  10. Signal Transduction Inhibitor Therapy for Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Witzig, Thomas E.; Gupta, Mamta

    2013-01-01

    Current research in lymphoma is focused on two areas of lymphoma biology—the signal transduction pathways used to maintain the growth of malignant lymphocytes and the role of the tumor microenvironment in lymphoma growth and survival. This review focuses on three signaling pathways: the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/mTOR) pathway, the B-cell receptor/spleen tyrosine kinase (BCR/Syk) pathway, and the protein kinase C-beta (PKC-β) pathway, known to be important to lymphoma cells. The mTOR inhibitors temsirolimus and everolimus have demonstrated antitumor activity in all types of lymphoma, the Syk inhibitor fostamatinib has activity in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and the PKC-β inhibitor enzastaurin is being used as consolidation therapy after remission in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. This review discusses the biology behind the development of each new agent and the results of initial clinical trials. The goal is to provide the hematologist/oncologist background information on these new agents and understand their current and potential role in the management of patients. PMID:21239804

  11. Recent advances in botulinum neurotoxin inhibitor development.

    PubMed

    Kiris, Erkan; Burnett, James C; Kane, Christopher D; Bavari, Sina

    2014-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are endopeptidases that target motor neurons and block acetylcholine neurotransmitter release. This action results in the muscle paralysis that defines the disease botulism. To date, there are no FDA-approved therapeutics to treat BoNT-mediated paralysis after intoxication of the motor neuron. Importantly, the rationale for pursuing treatments to counter these toxins is driven by their potential misuse. Current drug discovery efforts have mainly focused on small molecules, peptides, and peptidomimetics that can directly and competitively inhibit BoNT light chain proteolytic activity. Although this is a rational approach, direct inhibition of the Zn(2+) metalloprotease activity has been elusive as demonstrated by the dearth of candidates undergoing clinical evaluation. Therefore, broadening the scope of viable targets beyond that of active site protease inhibitors represents an additional strategy that could move the field closer to the clinic. Here we review the rationale, and discuss the outcomes of earlier approaches and highlight potential new targets for BoNT inhibition. These include BoNT uptake and processing inhibitors, enzymatic inhibitors, and modulators of neuronal processes associated with toxin clearance, neurotransmitter potentiation, and other pathways geared towards neuronal recovery and repair.

  12. Inhibitory spectrum of alpha 2-plasmin inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Saito, H; Goldsmith, G H; Moroi, M; Aoki, N

    1979-01-01

    alpha 2-Plasmin inhibitor (alpha 2PI) has been recently characterized as a fast-reacting inhibitor of plasmin in human plasma and appears to play an important role in the regulation of fibrinolysis in vivo. We have studied the effect of purified alpha 2PI upon various proteases participating in human blood coagulation and kinin generation. At physiological concentration (50 microgram/ml), alpha 2PI inhibited the clot-promoting and prekallikrein-activating activity of Hageman factor fragments, the amidolytic, kininogenase, and clot-promoting activities of plasma kallikrein, and the clot-promoting properties of activated plasma thromboplastin antecedent (PTA, Factor XIa) and thrombin. alpha 2PI had minimal inhibitory effect on surface-bound activated PTA and activated Stuart factor (Factor Xa). alpha 2PI did not inhibit the activity of activated Christmas factor (Factor IXa) or urinary kallikrein. Heparin (1.5-2.0 units/ml) did not enhance the inhibitory function of alpha 2PI. These results suggest that, like other plasma protease inhibitors, alpha 2PI possesses a broad in vitro spectrum of inhibitory properties. PMID:156364

  13. Inhibitors of polyamine metabolism: review article.

    PubMed

    Wallace, H M; Fraser, A V

    2004-07-01

    The identification of increased polyamine concentrations in a variety of diseases from cancer and psoriasis to parasitic infections has led to the hypothesis that manipulation of polyamine metabolism is a realistic target for therapeutic or preventative intervention in the treatment of certain diseases. The early development of polyamine biosynthetic single enzyme inhibitors such as alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) showed some interesting early promise as anticancer drugs, but ultimately failed in vivo. Despite this, DFMO is currently in use as an effective anti-parasitic agent and has recently also been shown to have further potential as a chemopreventative agent in colorectal cancer. The initial promise in vitro led to the development and testing of other potential inhibitors of the pathway namely the polyamine analogues. The analogues have met with greater success than the single enzyme inhibitors possibly due to their multiple targets. These include down regulation of polyamine biosynthesis through inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase and decreased polyamine uptake. This coupled with increased activity of the catabolic enzymes, polyamine oxidase and spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase, and increased polyamine export has made the analogues more effective in depleting polyamine pools. Recently, the identification of a new oxidase (PAO-h1/SMO) in polyamine catabolism and evidence of induction of both PAO and PAO-h1/SMO in response to polyamine analogue treatment, suggests the analogues may become an important part of future chemotherapeutic and/or chemopreventative regimens.

  14. Evaluation of six proton pump inhibitors as inhibitors of various human cytochromes P450: focus on cytochrome P450 2C19.

    PubMed

    Zvyaga, Tatyana; Chang, Shu-Ying; Chen, Cliff; Yang, Zheng; Vuppugalla, Ragini; Hurley, Jeremy; Thorndike, Denise; Wagner, Andrew; Chimalakonda, Anjaneya; Rodrigues, A David

    2012-09-01

    Six proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), omeprazole, lansoprazole, esomeprazole, dexlansoprazole, pantoprazole, and rabeprazole, were shown to be weak inhibitors of cytochromes P450 (CYP3A4, -2B6, -2D6, -2C9, -2C8, and -1A2) in human liver microsomes. In most cases, IC₅₀ values were greater than 40 μM, except for dexlansoprazole and lansoprazole with CYP1A2 (IC₅₀ = ∼8 μM) and esomeprazole with CYP2C8 (IC₅₀ = 31 μM). With the exception of CYP2C19 inhibition by omeprazole and esomeprazole (IC₅₀ ratio, 2.5 to 5.9), there was no evidence for a marked time-dependent shift in IC₅₀ (IC₅₀ ratio, ≤ 2) after a 30-min preincubation with NADPH. In the absence of preincubation, lansoprazole (IC₅₀ = 0.73 μM) and esomeprazole (IC₅₀ = 3.7 μM) were the most potent CYP2C19 inhibitors, followed by dexlansoprazole and omeprazole (IC₅₀ = ∼7.0 μM). Rabeprazole and pantoprazole (IC₅₀ = ≥ 25 μM) were the weakest. A similar ranking was obtained with recombinant CYP2C19. Despite the IC₅₀ ranking, after consideration of plasma levels (static and dynamic), protein binding, and metabolism-dependent inhibition, it is concluded that omeprazole and esomeprazole are the most potent CYP2C19 inhibitors. This was confirmed after the incubation of the individual PPIs with human primary hepatocytes (in the presence of human serum) and by monitoring their impact on diazepam N-demethylase activity at a low concentration of diazepam (2 μM). Data described herein are consistent with reports that PPIs are mostly weak inhibitors of cytochromes P450 in vivo. However, two members of the PPI class (esomeprazole and omeprazole) are more likely to serve as clinically relevant inhibitors of CYP2C19.

  15. ELISA analysis of soybean trypsin inhibitors in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Brandon, D L; Bates, A H; Friedman, M

    1991-01-01

    Soybean proteins are widely used in human foods in a variety of forms, including infant formulas, flour, protein concentrates, protein isolates, soy sauces, textured soy fibers, and tofu. The presence of inhibitors of digestive enzymes in soy proteins impairs the nutritional quality and possibly the safety of soybeans and other legumes. Processing, based on the use of heat or fractionation of protein isolates, does not completely inactivate or remove these inhibitors, so that residual amounts of inhibitors are consumed by animals and humans. New monoclonal antibody-based immunoassays can measure low levels of the soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI) and the Bowman-Birk trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor (BBI) and the Bowman-Birk foods. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the inhibitor content of soy concentrates, isolates, and flours, both heated and unheated; a commercial soy infant formula; KTI and BBI with rearranged disulfide bonds; browning products derived from heat-treatment of KTI with glucose and starch; and KTI exposed to high pH. The results indicate that even low inhibitor isolates contain significant amounts of specific inhibitors. Thus, infants on soy formula consume about 10 mg of KTI plus BBI per day. The immunoassays complement the established enzymatic assays of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors, and have advantages in (a) measuring low levels of inhibitors in processed foods; and (b) differentiating between the Kunitz and Bowman-Birk inhibitors. The significance of our findings for food safety are discussed.

  16. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors as Anticancer Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Law, Mary E; Corsino, Patrick E; Narayan, Satya; Law, Brian K

    2015-11-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) have been considered promising drug targets for a number of years, but most CDK inhibitors have failed rigorous clinical testing. Recent studies demonstrating clear anticancer efficacy and reduced toxicity of CDK4/6 inhibitors such as palbociclib and multi-CDK inhibitors such as dinaciclib have rejuvenated the field. Favorable results with palbociclib and its recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval demonstrate that CDK inhibitors with narrow selectivity profiles can have clinical utility for therapy based on individual tumor genetics. A brief overview of results obtained with ATP-competitive inhibitors such as palbociclib and dinaciclib is presented, followed by a compilation of new avenues that have been pursued toward the development of novel, non-ATP-competitive CDK inhibitors. These creative ways to develop CDK inhibitors are presented along with crystal structures of these agents complexed with CDK2 to highlight differences in their binding sites and mechanisms of action. The recent successes of CDK inhibitors in the clinic, combined with the potential for structure-based routes to the development of non-ATP-competitive CDK inhibitors, and evidence that CDK inhibitors may have use in suppressing chromosomal instability and in synthetic lethal drug combinations inspire optimism that CDK inhibitors will become important weapons in the fight against cancer. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  17. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors as Anticancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Corsino, Patrick E.; Narayan, Satya

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) have been considered promising drug targets for a number of years, but most CDK inhibitors have failed rigorous clinical testing. Recent studies demonstrating clear anticancer efficacy and reduced toxicity of CDK4/6 inhibitors such as palbociclib and multi-CDK inhibitors such as dinaciclib have rejuvenated the field. Favorable results with palbociclib and its recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval demonstrate that CDK inhibitors with narrow selectivity profiles can have clinical utility for therapy based on individual tumor genetics. A brief overview of results obtained with ATP-competitive inhibitors such as palbociclib and dinaciclib is presented, followed by a compilation of new avenues that have been pursued toward the development of novel, non–ATP-competitive CDK inhibitors. These creative ways to develop CDK inhibitors are presented along with crystal structures of these agents complexed with CDK2 to highlight differences in their binding sites and mechanisms of action. The recent successes of CDK inhibitors in the clinic, combined with the potential for structure-based routes to the development of non–ATP-competitive CDK inhibitors, and evidence that CDK inhibitors may have use in suppressing chromosomal instability and in synthetic lethal drug combinations inspire optimism that CDK inhibitors will become important weapons in the fight against cancer. PMID:26018905

  18. Molecular mechanism of respiratory syncytial virus fusion inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Battles, Michael B; Langedijk, Johannes P; Furmanova-Hollenstein, Polina; Chaiwatpongsakorn, Supranee; Costello, Heather M; Kwanten, Leen; Vranckx, Luc; Vink, Paul; Jaensch, Steffen; Jonckers, Tim H M; Koul, Anil; Arnoult, Eric; Peeples, Mark E; Roymans, Dirk; McLellan, Jason S

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of pneumonia and bronchiolitis in young children and the elderly. Therapeutic small molecules have been developed that bind the RSV F glycoprotein and inhibit membrane fusion, yet their binding sites and molecular mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. Here we show that these inhibitors bind to a three-fold-symmetric pocket within the central cavity of the metastable prefusion conformation of RSV F. Inhibitor binding stabilizes this conformation by tethering two regions that must undergo a structural rearrangement to facilitate membrane fusion. Inhibitor-escape mutations occur in residues that directly contact the inhibitors or are involved in the conformational rearrangements required to accommodate inhibitor binding. Resistant viruses do not propagate as well as wild-type RSV in vitro, indicating a fitness cost for inhibitor escape. Collectively, these findings provide new insight into class I viral fusion proteins and should facilitate development of optimal RSV fusion inhibitors. PMID:26641933

  19. Pathophysiological significance and therapeutic applications of snake venom protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Rupamoni; Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2017-06-01

    Protease inhibitors are important constituents of snake venom and play important roles in the pathophysiology of snakebite. Recently, research on snake venom protease inhibitors has provided valuable information to decipher the molecular details of various biological processes and offer insight for the development of some therapeutically important molecules from snake venom. The process of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, in addition to affecting platelet function, are well known as the major targets of several snake venom protease inhibitors. This review summarizes the structure-functional aspects of snake venom protease inhibitors that have been described to date. Because diverse biological functions have been demonstrated by protease inhibitors, a comparative overview of their pharmacological and pathophysiological properties is also highlighted. In addition, since most snake venom protease inhibitors are non-toxic on their own, this review evaluates the different roles of individual protease inhibitors that could lead to the identification of drug candidates and diagnostic molecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of Encapsulated Inhibitor for Autonomous Corrosion Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnsey, M. N.; Li, W.; Buhrow, J. W.; Calle, L. M.; Pearman, B. P.; Zhang, X.

    2015-01-01

    This work concerns the development of smart coating technologies based on microencapsulation for the autonomous control of corrosion. Microencapsulation allows the incorporation of corrosion inhibitors into coating which provides protection through corrosion-controlled release of these inhibitors.One critical aspect of a corrosion protective smart coating is the selection of corrosion inhibitor for encapsulation and comparison of the inhibitor function before and after encapsulation. For this purpose, a systematic approach is being used to evaluate free and encapsulated corrosion inhibitors by salt immersion. Visual, optical microscope, and Scanning Electron Microscope (with low-angle backscatter electron detector) are used to evaluate these inhibitors. It has been found that the combination of different characterization tools provide an effective method for evaluation of early stage localized corrosion and the effectiveness of corrosion inhibitors.

  1. Combining Src inhibitors and aromatase inhibitors: a novel strategy for overcoming endocrine resistance and bone loss.

    PubMed

    Hiscox, Stephen; Barrett-Lee, Peter; Borley, Annabel C; Nicholson, Robert I

    2010-08-01

    Aromatase inhibitors have largely replaced tamoxifen as the first-line treatment for postmenopausal women with metastatic, hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer. However, many patients develop clinical resistance with prolonged treatment, and oestrogen deprivation following aromatase inhibition can result in loss of bone mineral density. Furthermore, most patients with metastatic breast cancer develop bone metastases, and the resulting adverse skeletal-related events are a significant cause of patient morbidity. Src, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, is a component of signalling pathways that regulate breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis as well as osteoclast-mediated bone turnover. Preclinical evidence also suggests a role for Src in acquired endocrine resistance. As such, Src inhibition represents a logical strategy for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. In vitro, combination therapy with Src inhibitors and endocrine agents, including aromatase inhibitors, has been shown to inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of both endocrine-responsive and endocrine-resistant breast cancer cell lines more effectively than either of the therapy alone. Src inhibition has also been shown to suppress osteoclast formation and activity. Combination therapy with aromatase inhibitors and Src inhibitors therefore represents a novel approach through which the development of both acquired resistance and bone pathology could be delayed. Data from clinical trials utilising such combinations will reveal if this strategy has the potential to improve patient outcomes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Footprinting of Inhibitor Interactions of In Silico Identified Inhibitors of Trypanothione Reductase of Leishmania Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Santhosh K.; Dubey, Vikash Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Structure-based virtual screening of NCI Diversity set II compounds was performed to indentify novel inhibitor scaffolds of trypanothione reductase (TR) from Leishmania infantum. The top 50 ranked hits were clustered using the AuPoSOM tool. Majority of the top-ranked compounds were Tricyclic. Clustering of hits yielded four major clusters each comprising varying number of subclusters differing in their mode of binding and orientation in the active site. Moreover, for the first time, we report selected alkaloids and dibenzothiazepines as inhibitors of Leishmania infantum TR. The mode of binding observed among the clusters also potentiates the probable in vitro inhibition kinetics and aids in defining key interaction which might contribute to the inhibition of enzymatic reduction of T[S] 2. The method provides scope for automation and integration into the virtual screening process employing docking softwares, for clustering the small molecule inhibitors based upon protein-ligand interactions. PMID:22550471

  3. The "SWOT" of BRAF inhibition in melanoma: RAF inhibitors, MEK inhibitors or both?

    PubMed

    Nissan, Moriah H; Solit, David B

    2011-12-01

    Activating mutations in the BRAF gene are among the most prevalent kinase mutations in human cancer. BRAF mutations are most frequent in patients with melanoma where they occur in approximately 50% of patients with advanced disease. Remarkable clinical activity has recently been reported with highly selective RAF inhibitors in melanoma patients whose tumors harbor V600E BRAF mutations. The response rates of RAF inhibitors in patients with BRAF-mutant melanomas far exceed the activity level of any prior therapy studied in this disease. The results suggest that we have entered an era of personalized therapy for patients with metastatic melanoma in which treatment selection will be guided by BRAF mutational status. This review will discuss the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats ("SWOT") of developing RAF and MEK selective inhibitors as anti-cancer therapies, recent insights into the mechanisms of intrinsic and acquired resistance to these agents, and current efforts to develop mechanism-based combination therapies.

  4. Characterization of the Annonaceous acetogenin, annonacinone, a natural product inhibitor of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pautus, Stéphane; Alami, Mouad; Adam, Fréderic; Bernadat, Guillaume; Lawrence, Daniel A.; de Carvalho, Allan; Ferry, Gilles; Rupin, Alain; Hamze, Abdallah; Champy, Pierre; Bonneau, Natacha; Gloanec, Philippe; Peglion, Jean-Louis; Brion, Jean-Daniel; Bianchini, Elsa P.; Borgel, Delphine

    2016-11-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the main inhibitor of the tissue type and urokinase type plasminogen activators. High levels of PAI-1 are correlated with an increased risk of thrombotic events and several other pathologies. Despite several compounds with in vitro activity being developed, none of them are currently in clinical use. In this study, we evaluated a novel PAI-1 inhibitor, annonacinone, a natural product from the Annonaceous acetogenins group. Annonacinone was identified in a chromogenic screening assay and was more potent than tiplaxtinin. Annonacinone showed high potency ex vivo on thromboelastography and was able to potentiate the thrombolytic effect of tPA in vivo in a murine model. SDS-PAGE showed that annonacinone inhibited formation of PAI-1/tPA complex via enhancement of the substrate pathway. Mutagenesis and molecular dynamics allowed us to identify annonacinone binding site close to helix D and E and β-sheets 2A.

  5. F8 haplotype and inhibitor risk: results from the Hemophilia Inhibitor Genetics Study (HIGS) Combined Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, John; Astermark, Jan; Menius, Erika D.; Carrington, Mary; Donfield, Sharyne M.; Gomperts, Edward D.; Nelson, George W.; Oldenburg, Johannes; Pavlova, Anna; Shapiro, Amy D.; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Berntorp, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Background Ancestral background, specifically African descent, confers higher risk for development of inhibitory antibodies to factor VIII (FVIII) in hemophilia A. It has been suggested that differences in the distribution of factor VIII gene (F8) haplotypes, and mismatch between endogenous F8 haplotypes and those comprising products used for treatment could contribute to risk. Design and Methods Data from the HIGS Combined Cohort were used to determine the association between F8 haplotype 3 (H3) vs. haplotypes 1 and 2 (H1+H2) and inhibitor risk among individuals of genetically-determined African descent. Other variables known to affect inhibitor risk including type of F8 mutation and HLA were included in the analysis. A second research question regarding risk related to mismatch in endogenous F8 haplotype and recombinant FVIII products used for treatment was addressed. Results H3 was associated with higher inhibitor risk among those genetically-identified (N=49) as of African ancestry, but the association did not remain significant after adjustment for F8 mutation type and the HLA variables. Among subjects of all racial ancestries enrolled in HIGS who reported early use of recombinant products (N=223), mismatch in endogenous haplotype and the FVIII proteins constituting the products used did not confer greater risk for inhibitor development. Conclusion H3 was not an independent predictor of inhibitor risk. Further, our findings did not support a higher risk of inhibitors in the presence of a haplotype mismatch between the FVIII molecule infused and that of the individual. PMID:22958194

  6. Effect of ketoconazole and diltiazem on the pharmacokinetics of apixaban, an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Charles E; Byon, Wonkyung; Song, Yan; Wang, Jessie; Schuster, Alan E; Boyd, Rebecca A; Zhang, Donglu; Yu, Zhigang; Dias, Clapton; Shenker, Andrew; LaCreta, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Aim Apixaban is an orally active inhibitor of coagulation factor Xa and is eliminated by multiple pathways, including renal and non-renal elimination. Non-renal elimination pathways consist of metabolism by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, primarily CYP3A4, as well as direct intestinal excretion. Two single sequence studies evaluated the effect of ketoconazole (a strong dual inhibitor of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein [P-gp]) and diltiazem (a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor and a P-gp inhibitor) on apixaban pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects. Method In the ketoconazole study, 18 subjects received apixaban 10 mg on days 1 and 7, and ketoconazole 400 mg once daily on days 4–9. In the diltiazem study, 18 subjects received apixaban 10 mg on days 1 and 11 and diltiazem 360 mg once daily on days 4–13. Results Apixaban maximum plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration–time curve extrapolated to infinity increased by 62% (90% confidence interval [CI], 47, 78%) and 99% (90% CI, 81, 118%), respectively, with co-administration of ketoconazole, and by 31% (90% CI, 16, 49%) and 40% (90% CI, 23, 59%), respectively, with diltiazem. Conclusion A 2-fold and 1.4-fold increase in apixaban exposure was observed with co-administration of ketoconazole and diltiazem, respectively. PMID:25377242

  7. HIV-1 protease inhibitor mutations affect the development of HIV-1 resistance to the maturation inhibitor bevirimat.

    PubMed

    Fun, Axel; van Maarseveen, Noortje M; Pokorná, Jana; Maas, Renée Em; Schipper, Pauline J; Konvalinka, Jan; Nijhuis, Monique

    2011-08-24

    Maturation inhibitors are an experimental class of antiretrovirals that inhibit Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) particle maturation, the structural rearrangement required to form infectious virus particles. This rearrangement is triggered by the ordered cleavage of the precursor Gag polyproteins into their functional counterparts by the viral enzyme protease. In contrast to protease inhibitors, maturation inhibitors impede particle maturation by targeting the substrate of protease (Gag) instead of the protease enzyme itself. Direct cross-resistance between protease and maturation inhibitors may seem unlikely, but the co-evolution of protease and its substrate, Gag, during protease inhibitor therapy, could potentially affect future maturation inhibitor therapy. Previous studies showed that there might also be an effect of protease inhibitor resistance mutations on the development of maturation inhibitor resistance, but the exact mechanism remains unclear. We used wild-type and protease inhibitor resistant viruses to determine the impact of protease inhibitor resistance mutations on the development of maturation inhibitor resistance. Our resistance selection studies demonstrated that the resistance profiles for the maturation inhibitor bevirimat are more diverse for viruses with a mutated protease compared to viruses with a wild-type protease. Viral replication did not appear to be a major factor during emergence of bevirimat resistance. In all in vitro selections, one of four mutations was selected: Gag V362I, A364V, S368N or V370A. The impact of these mutations on maturation inhibitor resistance and viral replication was analyzed in different protease backgrounds. The data suggest that the protease background affects development of HIV-1 resistance to bevirimat and the replication profiles of bevirimat-selected HIV-1. The protease-dependent bevirimat resistance and replication levels can be explained by differences in CA/p2 cleavage processing by the different

  8. Structure-based design of a novel series of azetidine inhibitors of the hepatitis C virus NS3/4A serine protease.

    PubMed

    Parsy, Christophe; Alexandre, François-René; Brandt, Guillaume; Caillet, Catherine; Cappelle, Sylvie; Chaves, Dominique; Convard, Thierry; Derock, Michel; Gloux, Damien; Griffon, Yann; Lallos, Lisa; Leroy, Frédéric; Liuzzi, Michel; Loi, Anna-Giulia; Moulat, Laure; Musiu, Chiara; Rahali, Houcine; Roques, Virginie; Seifer, Maria; Standring, David; Surleraux, Dominique

    2014-09-15

    Structural homology between thrombin inhibitors and the early tetrapeptide HCV protease inhibitor led to the bioisosteric replacement of the P2 proline by a 2,4-disubstituted azetidine within the macrocyclic β-strand mimic. Molecular modeling guided the design of the series. This approach was validated by the excellent activity and selectivity in biochemical and cell based assays of this novel series and confirmed by the co-crystal structure of the inhibitor with the NS3/4A protein (PDB code: 4TYD). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibitor development in non-severe haemophilia across Europe.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Kathelijn; Iorio, Alfonso; Lassila, Riitta; Peyvandi, Flora; Calizzani, Gabriele; Gatt, Alex; Lambert, Thierry; Windyga, Jerzy; Gilman, Estelle A; Hollingsworth, R; Makris, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Evidence about inhibitor formation in non-severe haemophilia and the potential role for clotting factor concentrate type is scant. It was the aim of this study to report inhibitor development in non-severe haemophilia patients enrolled in the European Haemophilia Safety Surveillance (EUHASS) study. Inhibitors are reported quarterly and total treated patients annually. Incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated according to diagnosis and concentrate used. Between 1-10-2008 and 31-12-2012, 68 centres reported on 7,969 patients with non-severe haemophilia A and 1,863 patients with non-severe haemophilia B. For haemophilia A, 37 inhibitors occurred in 8,622 treatment years, resulting in an inhibitor rate of 0.43/100 treatment years (95% CI 0.30-0.59). Inhibitors occurred at a median age of 35 years, after a median of 38 exposure days (EDs; P25-P75: 20-80); with 72% occurring within the first 50 EDs. In haemophilia B, one inhibitor was detected in 2,149 treatment years, resulting in an inhibitor rate of 0.05/100 years (95% CI 0.001-0.26). This inhibitor developed at the age of six years, after six EDs. The rate of inhibitors appeared similar across recombinant and plasma derived factor VIII (FVIII) concentrates. Rates for individual concentrates could not be calculated at this stage due to low number of events. In conclusion, inhibitors in non-severe haemophilia occur three times more frequently than in previously treated patients with severe haemophilia at a rate of 0.43/100 patient years (haemophilia A) and 0.05/100 years (haemophilia B). Although the majority of inhibitors developed in the first 50 EDs, inhibitor development continued with increasing exposure to FVIII.

  10. MAO-inhibitors in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Laux, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO-I) belong to the earliest drugs tried in Parkinson's disease (PD). They have been used with or without levodopa (L-DOPA). Non-selective MAO-I due to their side-effect/adverse reaction profile, like tranylcypromine have limited use in the treatment of depression in PD, while selective, reversible MAO-A inhibitors are recommended due to their easier clinical handling. For the treatment of akinesia and motor fluctuations selective irreversible MAO-B inhibitors selegiline and rasagiline are recommended. They are safe and well tolerated at the recommended daily doses. Their main differences are related to (1) metabolism, (2) interaction with CYP-enzymes and (3) quantitative properties at the molecular biological/genetic level. Rasagiline is more potent in clinical practise and has a hypothesis driven more favourable side effect/adverse reaction profile due to its metabolism to aminoindan. Both selegiline and rasagiline have a neuroprotective and neurorestaurative potential. A head-to head clinical trial would be of utmost interest from both the clinical outcome and a hypothesis-driven point of view. Selegiline is available as tablet and melting tablet for PD and as transdermal selegiline for depression, while rasagiline is marketed as tablet for PD. In general, the clinical use of MAO-I nowadays is underestimated. There should be more efforts to evaluate their clinical potency as antidepressants and antidementive drugs in addition to the final proof of their disease-modifying potential. In line with this are recent innovative developments of MAO-I plus inhibition of acetylcholine esterase for Alzheimer's disease as well as combined MAO-I and iron chelation for PD. PMID:22110357

  11. Translating HDAC inhibitors in Friedrich's ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Soragni, Elisabetta; Gottesfeld, Joel M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease caused by expansion of a GAA·TTC triplet in the first intron of the FXN gene, encoding the essential mitochondrial protein frataxin. Repeat expansion results in transcriptional silencing through an epigenetic mechanism, resulting in significant decreases in frataxin protein in affected individuals. Since the FXN protein coding sequence is unchanged in FRDA, an attractive therapeutic approach for this disease would be to increase transcription of pathogenic alleles with small molecules that target the silencing mechanism. Areas covered We review the evidence that histone postsynthetic modifications and heterochromatin formation are responsible for FXN gene silencing in FRDA, along with efforts to reverse silencing with drugs that target histone modifying enzymes. Chemical and pharmacological properties of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, which reverse silencing, together with enzyme target profiles and kinetics of inhibition, are discussed. Two HDAC inhibitors have been studied in human clinical trials and the properties of these compounds are compared and contrasted. Efforts to improve on bioavailability, metabolic stability, and target activity are reviewed. Expert opinion 2-aminobenzamide class I HDAC inhibitors are attractive therapeutic small molecules for FRDA. These molecules increase FXN gene expression in human neuronal cells derived from patient induced pluripotent stem cells, and in two mouse models for the disease, as well as in circulating lymphocytes in patients treated in a phase Ib clinical trial. Medicinal chemistry efforts have identified compounds with improved brain penetration, metabolic stability and efficacy in the human neuronal cell model. A clinical candidate will soon be identified for further human testing. PMID:28392990

  12. Tetomilast: new promise for phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors?

    PubMed

    Bickston, Stephen J; Snider, Kenneth R; Kappus, Matthew R

    2012-12-01

    Tetomilast is a novel thiazole phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE-4) inhibitor, which may prove useful in both the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Here, the authors review the pharmacology of the drug, and offer critical review of the available data for use of tetomilast in the treatment of IBD. Peer-reviewed publications, including Phase I and II clinical trials, all other formats included. Tetomilast may be beneficial in IBD. Small differences in molecules and in recombinant proteins can translate into substantial differences in clinical effects and toxicity in IBD. This is a reasonable approach when exploring new options like tetomilast.

  13. Modified 5-fluorouracil: Uridine phosphorylase inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashkov, A. A.; Shchekotikhin, A. A.; Shtil, A. A.; Sotnichenko, S. E.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a medication widely used in chemotherapy to treat various types of cancer. Being a substrate for the reverse reaction catalyzed by uridine phosphorylase (UPase), 5-FU serves as a promising prototype molecule (molecular scaffold) for the design of a selective UPase inhibitor that enhances the antitumor activity of 5-FU and exhibits intrinsic cytostatic effects on cancer cells. The chemical formula of the new compound, which binds to the uracil-binding site and, in the presence of a phosphate anion, to the phosphate-binding site of UPase, is proposed and investigated by molecular simulation methods.

  14. Potential mechanisms of resistance to microtubule inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kavallaris, Maria; Annereau, Jean-Philippe; Barret, Jean-Marc

    2008-06-01

    Antimitotic drugs targeting the microtubules, such as the taxanes and vinca alkaloids, are widely used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. Development of drug resistance over time, however, limits the efficacy of these agents and poses a clinical challenge to long-term improvement of patient outcomes. Understanding the mechanism(s) of drug resistance becomes paramount to allowing for alternative, if not improved, therapeutic options that might circumvent this challenge. Vinflunine, a novel microtubule inhibitor, has shown superior preclinical antitumor activity, and displays a different pattern of resistance, compared with other agents in the vinca alkaloid class.

  15. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Konstantinopoulos, Panagiotis A; Karamouzis, Michalis V; Papatsoris, Athanasios G; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G

    2008-01-01

    The important role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the process of carcinogenesis is well established. However, despite very promising activity in a plethora of preclinical models, MMP inhibitors (MMPIs) failed to demonstrate a statistically significant survival advantage in advanced stage clinical trials in most human malignancies. Herein, we review the implication of MMPs in carcinogenesis, outline the pharmacology and current status of various MMPIs as anticancer agents and discuss the etiologies for the discrepancy between their preclinical and clinical evaluation. Finally, strategies for effective incorporation of MMPIs in current anticancer therapies are proposed.

  16. Zinc binding groups for histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Qixiao; Zhang, Li; Song, Weiguo

    2018-12-01

    Zinc binding groups (ZBGs) play a crucial role in targeting histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) to the active site of histone deacetylases (HDACs), thus determining the potency of HDACIs. Due to the high affinity to the zinc ion, hydroxamic acid is the most commonly used ZBG in the structure of HDACs. An alternative ZBG is benzamide group, which features excellent inhibitory selectivity for class I HDACs. Various ZBGs have been designed and tested to improve the activity and selectivity of HDACIs, and to overcome the pharmacokinetic limitations of current HDACIs. Herein, different kinds of ZBGs are reviewed and their features have been discussed for further design of HDACIs.

  17. A cyclodextrin-capped histone deacetylase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Amin, Jahangir; Puglisi, Antonino; Clarke, James; Milton, John; Wang, Minghua; Paranal, Ronald M; Bradner, James E; Spencer, John

    2013-06-01

    We have synthesized a β-cyclodextrin (βCD)-capped histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor 3 containing an alkyl linker and a zinc-binding hydroxamic acid motif. Biological evaluation (HDAC inhibition studies) of 3 enabled us to establish the effect of replacing an aryl cap (in SAHA (vorinostat,)) 1 by a large saccharidic scaffold "cap". HDAC inhibition was observed for 3, to a lesser extent than SAHA, and rationalized by molecular docking into the active site of HDAC8. However, compound 3 displayed no cellular activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibitors of glycogen synthase 3 kinase

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter; Ring, David B.; Harrison, Stephen D.; Bray, Andrew M.

    2000-01-01

    Compounds of formula 1: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, aralkyl, heteroaryl, or heteroaralkyl, substituted with 0-3 substituents selected from lower alkyl, halo, hydroxy, lower alkoxy, amino, lower alkyl-amino, and nitro; R.sub.2 is hydroxy, amino, or lower alkoxy; R.sub.3 is H, lower alkyl, lower acyl, lower alkoxy-acyl, or amnino-acyl; R.sub.4 is H or lower alkyl; and pharmaceutically acceptable salts and esters thereof; are effective inhibitors of GSK3.

  19. Inhibitors of glycogen synthase 3 kinase

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter; Ring, David B.; Harrison, Stephen D.; Bray, Andrew M.

    2006-05-30

    Compounds of formula 1: ##STR00001## wherein R.sub.1 is alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, aralkyl, heteroaryl, or heteroaralkyl, substituted with 0 3 substituents selected from lower alkyl, halo, hydroxy, lower alkoxy, amino, lower alkyl-amino, and nitro; R.sub.2 is hydroxy, amino, or lower alkoxy; R.sub.3 is H, lower alkyl, lower acyl, lower alkoxy-acyl, or amino-acyl; R.sub.4 is H or lower alkyl; and pharmaceutically acceptable salts and esters thereof; are effective inhibitors of GSK3.

  20. Identification of cysteine protease inhibitors that belong to cystatin family 1 in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    El-Halawany, Medhat S; Ohkouchi, Susumu; Shibata, Hideki; Hitomi, Kiyotaka; Maki, Masatoshi

    2004-06-01

    Family 1 cystatins are cytosolic inhibitors of cysteine proteases, and they are conserved in higher eukaryotes. We characterized two newly identified family 1 cystatins of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, cystatin A1 and A2. Their recombinant proteins showed specific inhibitory activity against papain and cathepsin B, respectively. Using specific polyclonal antibodies, we found that cystatin A1 is stably expressed throughout the life cycle of Dictyostelium, whereas cystatin A2 expression is up-regulated during the course of development.

  1. KIDFamMap: a database of kinase-inhibitor-disease family maps for kinase inhibitor selectivity and binding mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Yi-Yuan; Lin, Chih-Ta; Huang, Jhang-Wei; Hsu, Kai-Cheng; Tseng, Jen-Hu; You, Syuan-Ren; Yang, Jinn-Moon

    2013-01-01

    Kinases play central roles in signaling pathways and are promising therapeutic targets for many diseases. Designing selective kinase inhibitors is an emergent and challenging task, because kinases share an evolutionary conserved ATP-binding site. KIDFamMap (http://gemdock.life.nctu.edu.tw/KIDFamMap/) is the first database to explore kinase-inhibitor families (KIFs) and kinase-inhibitor-disease (KID) relationships for kinase inhibitor selectivity and mechanisms. This database includes 1208 KIFs, 962 KIDs, 55 603 kinase-inhibitor interactions (KIIs), 35 788 kinase inhibitors, 399 human protein kinases, 339 diseases and 638 disease allelic variants. Here, a KIF can be defined as follows: (i) the kinases in the KIF with significant sequence similarity, (ii) the inhibitors in the KIF with significant topology similarity and (iii) the KIIs in the KIF with significant interaction similarity. The KIIs within a KIF are often conserved on some consensus KIDFamMap anchors, which represent conserved interactions between the kinase subsites and consensus moieties of their inhibitors. Our experimental results reveal that the members of a KIF often possess similar inhibition profiles. The KIDFamMap anchors can reflect kinase conformations types, kinase functions and kinase inhibitor selectivity. We believe that KIDFamMap provides biological insights into kinase inhibitor selectivity and binding mechanisms. PMID:23193279

  2. Calcium-independent phospholipase A2 participates in KCl-induced calcium sensitization of vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Ratz, Paul H; Miner, Amy S; Barbour, Suzanne E

    2009-07-01

    In vascular smooth muscle, KCl not only elevates intracellular free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)), myosin light chain kinase activity and tension (T), but also can inhibit myosin light chain phosphatase activity by activation of rhoA kinase (ROCK), resulting in Ca(2+) sensitization (increased T/[Ca(2+)](i) ratio). Precisely how KCl causes ROCK-dependent Ca(2+) sensitization remains to be determined. Using Fura-2-loaded isometric rings of rabbit artery, we found that the Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)) inhibitor, bromoenol lactone (BEL), reduced the KCl-induced tonic but not early phasic phase of T and potentiated [Ca(2+)](i), reducing Ca(2+) sensitization. The PKC inhibitor, GF-109203X (> or =3 microM) and the pseudo-substrate inhibitor of PKCzeta produced a response similar to BEL. BEL reduced basal and KCl-stimulated myosin phosphatase phosphorylation. Whereas BEL and H-1152 produced strong inhibition of KCl-induced tonic T (approximately 50%), H-1152 did not induce additional inhibition of tissues already inhibited by BEL, suggesting that iPLA(2) links KCl stimulation with ROCK activation. The cPLA(2) inhibitor, pyrrolidine-1, inhibited KCl-induced tonic increases in [Ca(2+)](i) but not T, whereas the inhibitor of 20-HETE production, HET0016, acted like the ROCK inhibitor H-1152 by causing Ca(2+) desensitization. These data support a model in which iPLA(2) activity regulates Ca(2+) sensitivity.

  3. Inhibitors of alprazolam metabolism in vitro: effect of serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor antidepressants, ketoconazole and quinidine.

    PubMed Central

    von Moltke, L L; Greenblatt, D J; Cotreau-Bibbo, M M; Harmatz, J S; Shader, R I

    1994-01-01

    1. The biotransformation of the triazolobenzodiazepine alprazolam (ALP) to its hydroxylated metabolites (4-OH-ALP and alpha-OH-ALP) was evaluated in human, monkey, rat, and mouse liver microsomes. 2. In all species 4-OH-ALP was the principal metabolite, accounting for 84% of clearance in human microsomes compared with 16% for alpha-OH-ALP. 3. Among the serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors fluoxetine (FLU) and sertraline (SERT), and their respective demethylated metabolites norfluoxetine (NOR) and desmethylsertraline (DES), NOR was the most potent inhibitor (mean Ki for 4-OH-ALP formation in humans: 11 microM), FLU the weakest (Ki = 83 microM), with SERT and DES falling in between (Ki = 24 and 20 microM). 4. The in vitro data predict 29% inhibition of ALP clearance at mean FLU and NOR plasma concentrations of 77 ng ml-1 and 72 ng ml-1, respectively, after correction for liver:water partition ratios in the range of 12-14. The observed mean degree of inhibition in a previous in vivo study was 21%. 5. Ketoconazole was a potent inhibitor of ALP metabolism in vitro (Ki = 0.046 microM), suggesting that ALP hydroxylation is mediated by the cytochrome P450-3A sub-family. Quinidine was a weak inhibitor (Ki = 626 microM). PMID:7946933

  4. HIV-1 IN Inhibitors: 2010 Update and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Marchand, Christophe; Maddali, Kasthuraiah; Metifiot, Mathieu; Pommier, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Integrase (IN) is the newest validated target against AIDS and retroviral infections. The remarkable activity of raltegravir (Isentress®) led to its rapid approval by the FDA in 2007 as the first IN inhibitor. Several other IN strand transfer inhibitors (STIs) are in development with the primary goal to overcome resistance due to the rapid occurrence of IN mutations in raltegravir-treated patients. Thus, many scientists and drug companies are actively pursuing clinically useful IN inhibitors. The objective of this review is to provide an update on the IN inhibitors reported in the last two years, including second generation strand transfer inhibitors (STI), recently developed hydroxylated aromatics, natural products, peptide, antibody and oligonucleotide inhibitors. Additionally, the targeting of IN cofactors such as LEDGF and Vpr will be discussed as novel strategies for the treatment of AIDS. PMID:19747122

  5. Application of response surface methodology method in designing corrosion inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmara, Y. P.; Athirah; Siregar, J. P.; Kurniawan, T.; Bachtiar, D.

    2017-10-01

    In oil and gas pipelines and offshore structure, inhibitors have been considered to be the first choice to reduce corrosion rate. There are many corrosion inhibitor compositions available in the market. To produce the best corrosion inhibitor requires many experimental data which is not efficient. These experiments used response surface methodology (RSM) to select corrosion inhibitor compositions. The experiments investigated effects of corrosion inhibition on corrosion rate of low carbon steel in 3% NaCl solution with different concentrations of selected main inhibitor compositions which are ethyl acetate (EA), ethylene glycol (EG) and sodium benzoate (SB). Corrosion rate were calculated using linear polarization resistance (LPR). All of the experiments were set in natural conditions at pH 7. MINITAB® version 15 was used for data analysis. It is shown that a quadratic model is a representative model can predict best corrosion inhibitor composition comprehensibly.

  6. Functional single nucleotide polymorphisms within the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A/2B region affect pancreatic cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Campa, Daniele; Pastore, Manuela; Gentiluomo, Manuel; Talar-Wojnarowska, Renata; Kupcinskas, Juozas; Malecka-Panas, Ewa; Neoptolemos, John P.; Niesen, Willem; Vodicka, Pavel; Fave, Gianfranco Delle; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Gazouli, Maria; Pacetti, Paola; Di Leo, Milena; Ito, Hidemi; Klüter, Harald; Soucek, Pavel; Corbo, Vincenzo; Yamao, Kenji; Hosono, Satoyo; Kaaks, Rudolf; Vashist, Yogesh; Gioffreda, Domenica; Strobel, Oliver; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Dijk, Frederike; Andriulli, Angelo; Ivanauskas, Audrius; Bugert, Peter; Tavano, Francesca; Vodickova, Ludmila; Zambon, Carlo Federico; Lovecek, Martin; Landi, Stefano; Key, Timothy J.; Boggi, Ugo; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Jamroziak, Krzysztof; Mohelnikova-Duchonova, Beatrice; Mambrini, Andrea; Bambi, Franco; Busch, Olivier; Pazienza, Valerio; Valente, Roberto; Theodoropoulos, George E.; Hackert, Thilo; Capurso, Gabriele; Cavestro, Giulia Martina; Pasquali, Claudio; Basso, Daniela; Sperti, Cosimo; Matsuo, Keitaro; Büchler, Markus; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Izbicki, Jakob; Costello, Eithne; Katzke, Verena; Michalski, Christoph; Stepien, Anna; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Canzian, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The CDKN2A (p16) gene plays a key role in pancreatic cancer etiology. It is one of the most commonly somatically mutated genes in pancreatic cancer, rare germline mutations have been found to be associated with increased risk of developing familiar pancreatic cancer and CDKN2A promoter hyper-methylation has been suggested to play a critical role both in pancreatic cancer onset and prognosis. In addition several unrelated SNPs in the 9p21.3 region, that includes the CDNK2A, CDNK2B and the CDNK2B-AS1 genes, are associated with the development of cancer in various organs. However, association between the common genetic variability in this region and pancreatic cancer risk is not clearly understood. We sought to fill this gap in a case-control study genotyping 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2,857 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients and 6,111 controls in the context of the Pancreatic Disease Research (PANDoRA) consortium. We found that the A allele of the rs3217992 SNP was associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risk (ORhet=1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.27, p=0.026, ORhom=1.30, 95% CI 1.12-1.51, p=0.00049). This pleiotropic variant is reported to be a mir-SNP that, by changing the binding site of one or more miRNAs, could influence the normal cell cycle progression and in turn increase PDAC risk. In conclusion, we observed a novel association in a pleiotropic region that has been found to be of key relevance in the susceptibility to various types of cancer and diabetes suggesting that the CDKN2A/B locus could represent a genetic link between diabetes and pancreatic cancer risk. PMID:27486979

  7. Functional single nucleotide polymorphisms within the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A/2B region affect pancreatic cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Campa, Daniele; Pastore, Manuela; Gentiluomo, Manuel; Talar-Wojnarowska, Renata; Kupcinskas, Juozas; Malecka-Panas, Ewa; Neoptolemos, John P; Niesen, Willem; Vodicka, Pavel; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Gazouli, Maria; Pacetti, Paola; Di Leo, Milena; Ito, Hidemi; Klüter, Harald; Soucek, Pavel; Corbo, Vincenzo; Yamao, Kenji; Hosono, Satoyo; Kaaks, Rudolf; Vashist, Yogesh; Gioffreda, Domenica; Strobel, Oliver; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Dijk, Frederike; Andriulli, Angelo; Ivanauskas, Audrius; Bugert, Peter; Tavano, Francesca; Vodickova, Ludmila; Zambon, Carlo Federico; Lovecek, Martin; Landi, Stefano; Key, Timothy J; Boggi, Ugo; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Jamroziak, Krzysztof; Mohelnikova-Duchonova, Beatrice; Mambrini, Andrea; Bambi, Franco; Busch, Olivier; Pazienza, Valerio; Valente, Roberto; Theodoropoulos, George E; Hackert, Thilo; Capurso, Gabriele; Cavestro, Giulia Martina; Pasquali, Claudio; Basso, Daniela; Sperti, Cosimo; Matsuo, Keitaro; Büchler, Markus; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Izbicki, Jakob; Costello, Eithne; Katzke, Verena; Michalski, Christoph; Stepien, Anna; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Canzian, Federico

    2016-08-30

    The CDKN2A (p16) gene plays a key role in pancreatic cancer etiology. It is one of the most commonly somatically mutated genes in pancreatic cancer, rare germline mutations have been found to be associated with increased risk of developing familiar pancreatic cancer and CDKN2A promoter hyper-methylation has been suggested to play a critical role both in pancreatic cancer onset and prognosis. In addition several unrelated SNPs in the 9p21.3 region, that includes the CDNK2A, CDNK2B and the CDNK2B-AS1 genes, are associated with the development of cancer in various organs. However, association between the common genetic variability in this region and pancreatic cancer risk is not clearly understood. We sought to fill this gap in a case-control study genotyping 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2,857 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients and 6,111 controls in the context of the Pancreatic Disease Research (PANDoRA) consortium. We found that the A allele of the rs3217992 SNP was associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risk (ORhet=1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.27, p=0.026, ORhom=1.30, 95% CI 1.12-1.51, p=0.00049). This pleiotropic variant is reported to be a mir-SNP that, by changing the binding site of one or more miRNAs, could influence the normal cell cycle progression and in turn increase PDAC risk. In conclusion, we observed a novel association in a pleiotropic region that has been found to be of key relevance in the susceptibility to various types of cancer and diabetes suggesting that the CDKN2A/B locus could represent a genetic link between diabetes and pancreatic cancer risk.

  8. CRM1 Inhibitors for Antiviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Cynthia; Ghildyal, Reena

    2017-01-01

    Infectious diseases are a major global concern and despite major advancements in medical research, still cause significant morbidity and mortality. Progress in antiviral therapy is particularly hindered by appearance of mutants capable of overcoming the effects of drugs targeting viral components. Alternatively, development of drugs targeting host proteins essential for completion of viral lifecycle holds potential as a viable strategy for antiviral therapy. Nucleocytoplasmic trafficking pathways in particular are involved in several pathological conditions including cancer and viral infections, where hijacking or alteration of function of key transporter proteins, such as Chromosome Region Maintenance1 (CRM1) is observed. Overexpression of CRM1-mediated nuclear export is evident in several solid and hematological malignancies. Interestingly, CRM1-mediated nuclear export of viral components is crucial in various stages of the viral lifecycle and assembly. This review summarizes the role of CRM1 in cancer and selected viruses. Leptomycin B (LMB) is the prototypical inhibitor of CRM1 potent against various cancer cell lines overexpressing CRM1 and in limiting viral infections at nanomolar concentrations in vitro. However, the irreversible shutdown of nuclear export results in high cytotoxicity and limited efficacy in vivo. This has prompted search for synthetic and natural CRM1 inhibitors that can potentially be developed as broadly active antivirals, some of which are summarized in this review. PMID:28702009

  9. TNF-alpha inhibitors in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Cordoro, K M; Feldman, S R

    2007-09-01

    To date, the US FDA has approved three tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a inhibitors for use in dermatology. Etanercept (Enbrel, Amgen-Wyeth), a fully human fusion protein of TNF receptor II bound to the Fc component of human IgG1, is approved for use in psoriasis (2004) and psoriatic arthritis (2002). Infliximab (Remicade, Centocor) is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that is approved for use in psoriasis (2006) and psoriatic arthritis (2005), and adalimumab (Humira, Abbott Laboratories), a fully human monoclonal antibody, is approved for use in psoriatic arthritis (2005). While data regarding the efficacy and safety of these therapies is abundant, it proves nearly impossible to objectively compare and contrast agents as there are no head-to-head trials. Clinical experience and post-marketing reporting has allowed dermatologists to identify the relative strengths and limitations of each agent. The well-founded enthusiasm for these agents, because of their excellent initial efficacy and safety profile, is reasonably tempered by concerns about declining efficacy over time, the risk of infection, lymphoma and demyelinating disorders, and cost. The distinct and targeted mechanism of action of the TNF inhibitors allows dermatologists to customize therapy to match the individual needs and characteristics of patients who are candidates for systemic or phototherapy.

  10. Matrix Metalloproteinase Responsive Delivery of Myostatin Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Braun, Alexandra C; Gutmann, Marcus; Ebert, Regina; Jakob, Franz; Gieseler, Henning; Lühmann, Tessa; Meinel, Lorenz

    2017-01-01

    The inhibition of myostatin - a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF-β) family - drives regeneration of functional skeletal muscle tissue. We developed a bioresponsive drug delivery system (DDS) linking release of a myostatin inhibitor (MI) to inflammatory flares of myositis to provide self-regulated MI concentration gradients within tissues of need. A protease cleavable linker (PCL) - responding to MMP upregulation - is attached to the MI and site-specifically immobilized on microparticle surfaces. The PCL disintegrated in a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 1, 8, and particularly MMP-9 concentration dependent manner, with MMP-9 being an effective surrogate biomarker correlating with the activity of myositis. The bioactivity of particle-surface bound as well as released MI was confirmed by luciferase suppression in stably transfected HEK293 cells responding to myostatin induced SMAD phosphorylation. We developed a MMP-responsive DDS for MI delivery responding to inflammatory flare of a diseased muscle matching the kinetics of MMP-9 upregulation, with MMP-9 kinetics matching (patho-) physiological myostatin levels. ᅟ: Graphical Abstract Schematic illustration of the matrix metalloproteinase responsive delivery system responding to inflammatory flares of muscle disease. The protease cleavable linker readily disintegrates upon entry into the diseased tissue, therby releasing the mystatin inhibitor.

  11. CYP17 inhibitors for prostate cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Vasaitis, Tadas S.; Bruno, Robert D.; Njar, Vincent C. O.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is now the second most prevalent cause of death in men in the USA and Europe. At present, the major treatment options include surgical or medical castration. These strategies cause ablation of the production of testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and related androgens by the testes. However, because these procedures do not affect adrenal, prostate and other tissues androgen production, they are often combined with androgen receptor antagonists to block their action. Indeed, recent studies have unequivocally established that in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) many androgen-regulated genes become re-expressed and tissue androgen levels increase despite low serum levels. Clearly, inhibition of the key enzyme which catalyzes the biosynthesis of androgens from pregnane precursors, 17α-hydroxy/17,20-lyase (hereafter referred to as CYP17) could prevent androgen production from all sources. Thus, total ablation of androgen production by potent CYP17 inhibitors may provide effective treatment of prostate cancer patients. This review highlights the role of androgen biosynthesis in the progression of prostate cancer and the impact of CYP17 inhibitors, such as ketoconazole, abiraterone acetate, VN/124-1 (TOK-001) and TAK-700 in the clinic and in clinical development. PMID:21092758

  12. [Dermatologic toxicities of immune checkpoint inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Sibaud, V; Boulinguez, S; Pagès, C; Riffaud, L; Lamant, L; Chira, C; Boyrie, S; Vigarios, E; Tournier, E; Meyer, N

    2018-05-01

    The development of immune checkpoint inhibitors (monoclonal antibodies targeting PD-1/PD-L1 or CTLA-4) represents a significant advance in the treatment of multiple cancers. Given their particular mechanism of action, which involves triggering CD4+/CD8+ T-cell activation and proliferation, they are associated with a specific safety profile. Their adverse events are primarily immune-related, and can affect practically all organs. In this context, dermatological toxicity is the most common, though it mostly remains mild to moderate and does not require discontinuation of treatment. More than a third of patients are faced with cutaneous adverse events, usually in the form of a maculopapular rash, pruritus or vitiligo (only in patients treated for melanoma). Much more specific dermatologic disorders, however, may occur such as lichenoid reactions, induced psoriasis, sarcoidosis, auto-immune diseases (bullous pemphigoid, dermatomyositis, alopecia areata), acne-like rash, xerostomia, etc. Rigorous dermatological evaluation is thus mandatory in the case of atypical, persistent/recurrent or severe lesions. In this article, we review the incidence and spectrum of dermatologic adverse events reported with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Finally, a management algorithm is proposed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Structure-based inhibitors of tau aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidler, P. M.; Boyer, D. R.; Rodriguez, J. A.; Sawaya, M. R.; Cascio, D.; Murray, K.; Gonen, T.; Eisenberg, D. S.

    2018-02-01

    Aggregated tau protein is associated with over 20 neurological disorders, which include Alzheimer's disease. Previous work has shown that tau's sequence segments VQIINK and VQIVYK drive its aggregation, but inhibitors based on the structure of the VQIVYK segment only partially inhibit full-length tau aggregation and are ineffective at inhibiting seeding by full-length fibrils. Here we show that the VQIINK segment is the more powerful driver of tau aggregation. Two structures of this segment determined by the cryo-electron microscopy method micro-electron diffraction explain its dominant influence on tau aggregation. Of practical significance, the structures lead to the design of inhibitors that not only inhibit tau aggregation but also inhibit the ability of exogenous full-length tau fibrils to seed intracellular tau in HEK293 biosensor cells into amyloid. We also raise the possibility that the two VQIINK structures represent amyloid polymorphs of tau that may account for a subset of prion-like strains of tau.

  14. Proton Pump Inhibitors and Risk of Rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Scott J; Howden, Colin W

    2017-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been associated with a variety of adverse events, although the level of evidence for many of these is weak at best. Recently, one national regulatory authority has mandated a change to the labeling of one PPI based on reports of possible associated rhabdomyolysis. Thus, in this review we summarize the available evidence linking PPI use with rhabdomyolysis. The level of evidence is insufficient to establish a causal relationship and is largely based on sporadic case reports. In general, patients with suspected PPI-associated rhabdomyolysis have not been re-challenged with a PPI after recovery. The mechanism whereby PPIs might have been associated with rhabdomyolysis is unclear but possibly related to interaction with concomitantly administered drugs such as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins). For patients with rhabdomyolysis, a careful search must be made for possible etiological factors. In patients who recover from an episode of possible PPI-related rhabdomyolysis but do not have a genuine requirement for PPI treatment, the PPI should not be re-introduced. For those with a definite indication for ongoing PPI treatment, the PPI can be re-introduced but should preferably not be administered with a statin.

  15. Intestinal P-glycoprotein inhibitors, benzoxanthone analogues.

    PubMed

    Chae, Song Wha; Lee, Jaeok; Park, Jung Hyun; Kwon, Youngjoo; Na, Younghwa; Lee, Hwa Jeong

    2018-02-01

    The inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which limits an access of exogenous compounds in the luminal membrane of the intestine have been studied to enhance the intestinal P-gp-mediated absorption of anticancer drugs. Inhibition of the efflux pump by synthesized benzoxanthone derivatives was investigated in vitro and in vivo. MCF-7/ADR cell line was used for cytotoxicity assay and [ 3 H]-daunomycin (DNM) accumulation/efflux study. Eight benzoxanthone analogues were tested for their effects on DNM cytotoxicity. Among them, three analogues were selected for the accumulation/efflux and P-gp ATPase studies. Paclitaxel (PTX), a P-gp substrate anticancer drug, was orally administered to rats with/without compound 1 (8,10-bis(thiiran-2-ylmethoxy)-7H-benzo[c]xanthen-7-one). The pharmacokinetic parameters of PTX in the presence/absence of compound 1 were evaluated from the plasma concentration-time profiles. Compound 1 increased the DNA accumulation to 6.5-fold and decreased the DNM efflux to approximately 1/2 in the overexpressing P-gp cell line. Relative bioavailability (RB) of PTX in rats was significantly increased up to 3.2-fold by compound 1 (0.5 or 2 mg/kg). Benzoxanthone analogue, compound 1 is strongly suggested to be a promising inhibitor of P-gp to improve an oral absorption of compounds for cancer therapy. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Benjamin A.; Whitlow, Eugene P.

    1998-09-22

    A method of inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425.degree. F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25.degree. C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425.degree. F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer.

  17. Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, B.A.; Whitlow, E.P.

    1998-09-22

    A method is described for inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425 F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25 C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425 F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer. 5 figs.

  18. Polyphenol Compound as a Transcription Factor Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Park, Seyeon

    2015-10-30

    A target-based approach has been used to develop novel drugs in many therapeutic fields. In the final stage of intracellular signaling, transcription factor-DNA interactions are central to most biological processes and therefore represent a large and important class of targets for human therapeutics. Thus, we focused on the idea that the disruption of protein dimers and cognate DNA complexes could impair the transcriptional activation and cell transformation regulated by these proteins. Historically, natural products have been regarded as providing the primary leading compounds capable of modulating protein-protein or protein-DNA interactions. Although their mechanism of action is not fully defined, polyphenols including flavonoids were found to act mostly as site-directed small molecule inhibitors on signaling. There are many reports in the literature of screening initiatives suggesting improved drugs that can modulate the transcription factor interactions responsible for disease. In this review, we focus on polyphenol compound inhibitors against dimeric forms of transcription factor components of intracellular signaling pathways (for instance, c-jun/c-fos (Activator Protein-1; AP-1), c-myc/max, Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and β-catenin/T cell factor (Tcf)).

  19. Proton Pump Inhibitors: Risk for Myopathy?

    PubMed

    Colmenares, Evan W; Pappas, Ashley L

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the relationship between proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and symptoms of myopathy based on case reports. A literature search was conducted in PubMed (1946 to June 2016) using MeSH terms proton pump inhibitors, omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole, dexlansoprazole, rabeprazole, pantoprazole, and muscular diseases. Additionally, a search was conducted in ToxNet and EMBASE using similar search criteria. The resulting articles were scanned to assess relevance to the review. Bibliographies of all relevant articles were evaluated for additional sources; 26 articles resulted from the search of PubMed, ToxNet, and EMBASE; articles that involved medications typically considered to have myalgia-like side effects (eg, statins), or included patients who presented with a confounding disease state (eg, Guillain-Barré) were excluded. In total, 11 case reports as well as a review of an adverse event reporting database that included 292 cases were evaluated. Association of PPI use and myopathy symptoms does not have a clear etiology. Overall, the available published data do not show a high risk of myopathy with PPI use but should be considered if a patient presents with myopathy symptoms and concurrent PPI use. A limited body of published data suggests that PPI use has been associated with myopathy-like symptoms without long-term effects following discontinuation. Although myopathy is a rare adverse effect observed with PPIs, it can be a serious side effect to be considered when starting a patient on acid suppression therapy.

  20. Natural cholinesterase inhibitors from Myristica cinnamomea King.

    PubMed

    Abdul Wahab, Siti Mariam; Sivasothy, Yasodha; Liew, Sook Yee; Litaudon, Marc; Mohamad, Jamaludin; Awang, Khalijah

    2016-08-01

    A new acylphenol, malabaricone E (1) together with the known malabaricones A-C (2-4), maingayones A and B (5 and 6) and maingayic acid B (7) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the fruits of Myristica cinnamomea King. Their structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR techniques and LCMS-IT-TOF analysis. Compounds 3 (1.84±0.19 and 1.76±0.21μM, respectively) and 4 (1.94±0.27 and 2.80±0.49μM, respectively) were identified as dual inhibitors, with almost equal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes inhibiting potentials. The Lineweaver-Burk plots of compounds 3 and 4 indicated that they were mixed-mode inhibitors. Based on the molecular docking studies, compounds 3 and 4 interacted with the peripheral anionic site (PAS), the catalytic triad and the oxyanion hole of the AChE. As for the BChE, while compound 3 interacted with the PAS, the catalytic triad and the oxyanion hole, compound 4 only interacted with the catalytic triad and the oxyanion hole. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Action of inhibitors on hydrogenase in Azotobacter

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.B.; Wilson, P.W.

    1943-01-01

    The inhibitors usually associated with the activity of the cytochrome oxidase system - cyanide and carbon monoxide - are also effective in reducing the oxidation of H/sub 2/ by intact cells of Azotobacter vinclandii. The hydrogenase system is more sensitive to CO than is the respiratory system. Oxidation of a carbon source and of hydrogen by Azotobacter cells is inhibited in a quantitatively different manner by the following compounds: sodium azide, hydroxylamine, sodium iodoacetate, and sodium fluoride. In every case, a concentration range which is definitely inhibitory for respiration has little or no effect on the hydrogenase activity. The differentialmore » inhibition by hydroxylamine explains certain observations in the literature which have been erroneously interpreted as demonstrating a specific inhibition by NH/sub 2/OH of biological nitrogen fixation. This supposed demonstration has been offered as support for the hypothesis that NH/sub 2/OH is an intermediate in the fixation reaction. The differential inhibitors can be used for detection of hydrogenase in cultures possessing a high endogenous respiration. The method is illustrated by an experiment with root nodule bacteria from pea and cowpea nodules. No hydrogenase was found in either. 8 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.« less

  2. Entry inhibitors: New advances in HCV treatment

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xi-Jing; Zhu, Yong-Zhe; Zhao, Ping; Qi, Zhong-Tian

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects approximately 3% of the world's population and causes chronic liver diseases, including liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although current antiviral therapy comprising direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) can achieve a quite satisfying sustained virological response (SVR) rate, it is still limited by viral resistance, long treatment duration, combined adverse reactions, and high costs. Moreover, the currently marketed antivirals fail to prevent graft reinfections in HCV patients who receive liver transplantations, probably due to the cell-to-cell transmission of the virus, which is also one of the main reasons behind treatment failure. HCV entry is a highly orchestrated process involving initial attachment and binding, post-binding interactions with host cell factors, internalization, and fusion between the virion and the host cell membrane. Together, these processes provide multiple novel and promising targets for antiviral therapy. Most entry inhibitors target host cell components with high genetic barriers and eliminate viral infection from the very beginning of the viral life cycle. In future, the addition of entry inhibitors to a combination of treatment regimens might optimize and widen the prevention and treatment of HCV infection. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms and prospects of the current preclinical and clinical development of antiviral agents targeting HCV entry. PMID:26733381

  3. Phytochemicals as Inhibitors of Candida Biofilm.

    PubMed

    Raut, Jayant Shankar; Karuppayil, Sankunny Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Candida biofilm and associated infections is a serious threat to the large population of immunocompromised patients. Biofilm growth on prosthetic devices or host tissue shows reduced sensitivity to antifungal agents and persists as a reservoir of infective cells. Options for successful treatment of biofilm associated Candida infections are restricted because most of the available antifungal drugs fail to eradicate biofilms. Various plant actives are known to possess interesting antifungal properties. To explore and review the potential of phytochemicals as a novel strategy against Candida biofilms is the intent of present article. Thorough literature search is performed to identify Candida biofilm inhibitors of plant origin. An account of efficacy of selected phytochemicals is presented taking into consideration their biofilm inhibitory concentrations. This review discusses biofilm formation by Candida species, their involvement in human infections, and associated drug resistance. It gives insight into the biofilm inhibitory potential of various phytochemicals. Based on the available reports including the work done in our laboratory, several plant extracts, essential oils and phytomolecules have been identified as excellent inhibitors of biofilms of C. albicans and non-albicans Candida species (NACS). Selected phytochemicals which exhibit activities at low concentrations without displaying toxicity to host are potential therapeutic agents against biofilm associated Candida infections. In vivo testing in animal models and clinical trials in humans are required to be taken up seriously to propose few of the phytochemicals as candidate drug molecules.

  4. Characterization of a Novel Class of Polyphenolic Inhibitors of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1*

    PubMed Central

    Cale, Jacqueline M.; Li, Shih-Hon; Warnock, Mark; Su, Enming J.; North, Paul R.; Sanders, Karen L.; Puscau, Maria M.; Emal, Cory D.; Lawrence, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, (PAI-1) the primary inhibitor of the tissue-type (tPA) and urokinase-type (uPA) plasminogen activators, has been implicated in a wide range of pathological processes, making it an attractive target for pharmacologic inhibition. Currently available small-molecule inhibitors of PAI-1 bind with relatively low affinity and do not inactivate PAI-1 in the presence of its cofactor, vitronectin. To search for novel PAI-1 inhibitors with improved potencies and new mechanisms of action, we screened a library selected to provide a range of biological activities and structural diversity. Five potential PAI-1 inhibitors were identified, and all were polyphenolic compounds including two related, naturally occurring plant polyphenols that were structurally similar to compounds previously shown to provide cardiovascular benefit in vivo. Unique second generation compounds were synthesized and characterized, and several showed IC50 values for PAI-1 between 10 and 200 nm. This represents an enhanced potency of 10–1000-fold over previously reported PAI-1 inactivators. Inhibition of PAI-1 by these compounds was reversible, and their primary mechanism of action was to block the initial association of PAI-1 with a protease. Consistent with this mechanism and in contrast to previously described PAI-1 inactivators, these compounds inactivate PAI-1 in the presence of vitronectin. Two of the compounds showed efficacy in ex vivo plasma and one blocked PAI-1 activity in vivo in mice. These data describe a novel family of high affinity PAI-1-inactivating compounds with improved characteristics and in vivo efficacy, and suggest that the known cardiovascular benefits of dietary polyphenols may derive in part from their inactivation of PAI-1. PMID:20061381

  5. Invertase proteinaceous inhibitor of Cyphomandra betacea Sendt fruits.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, R M; Isla, M I; Vattuone, M A; Sampietro, A R

    2000-01-01

    This work describes a new invertase proteinaceous inhibitor from Cyphomandra betacea Sendt. (tomate de arbol) fruits. The proteinaceous inhibitor was isolated and purified from a cell wall preparation. The pH stability, kinetics of the inhibition of the C. betacea invertase, inhibition of several higher plant invertases and lectin nature of the inhibitor were studied. The inhibitor structure involves a single polypeptide (Mr = 19000), as shown by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE determinations. N-terminal aminoacid sequence was determined. The properties and some structural features of the inhibitor are compared with the proteinaceous inhibitors from several plant species (Beta vulgaris L., Ipomoea batatas L. and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). All these inhibitors share lectinic properties, some common epitopes, some aminoacid sequences and a certain lack of specificity towards invertases of different species, genera and even plant family. In consequence, the inhibitors appear to belong to the same lectin family. It is now known that some lectins are part of the defence mechanism of higher plants against fungi and bacteria and this is a probable role of the proteinaceous inhibitors.

  6. Inhibitory Effects of Respiration Inhibitors on Aflatoxin Production

    PubMed Central

    Sakuda, Shohei; Prabowo, Diyan Febri; Takagi, Keiko; Shiomi, Kazuro; Mori, Mihoko; Ōmura, Satoshi; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin production inhibitors, which do not inhibit the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi, may be used to control aflatoxin without incurring a rapid spread of resistant strains. A respiration inhibitor that inhibits aflatoxin production was identified during a screening process for natural, aflatoxin-production inhibitors. This prompted us to evaluate respiration inhibitors as potential aflatoxin control agents. The inhibitory activities of four natural inhibitors, seven synthetic miticides, and nine synthetic fungicides were evaluated on aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus. All of the natural inhibitors (rotenone, siccanin, aptenin A5, and antimycin A) inhibited fungal aflatoxin production with IC50 values around 10 µM. Among the synthetic miticides, pyridaben, fluacrypyrim, and tolfenpyrad exhibited strong inhibitory activities with IC50 values less than 0.2 µM, whereas cyflumetofen did not show significant inhibitory activity. Of the synthetic fungicides, boscalid, pyribencarb, azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, and kresoxim-methyl demonstrated strong inhibitory activities, with IC50 values less than 0.5 µM. Fungal growth was not significantly affected by any of the inhibitors tested at concentrations used. There was no correlation observed between the targets of respiration inhibitors (complexes I, II, and III) and their IC50 values for aflatoxin-production inhibitory activity. This study suggests that respiration inhibitors, including commonly used pesticides, are useful for aflatoxin control. PMID:24674936

  7. Molecular basis underlying resistance to Mps1/TTK inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Koch, A; Maia, A; Janssen, A; Medema, R H

    2016-01-01

    Mps1/TTK is a dual-specificity kinase, with an essential role in mitotic checkpoint signaling, which has emerged as a potential target in cancer therapy. Several Mps1/TTK small-molecule inhibitors have been described that exhibit promising activity in cell culture and xenograft models. Here, we investigated whether cancer cells can develop resistance to these drugs. To this end, we treated various cancer cell lines with sublethal concentrations of a potent Mps1/TTK inhibitor in order to isolate inhibitor-resistant monoclonal cell lines. We identified four point mutations in the catalytic domain of Mps1/TTK that gave rise to inhibitor resistance but retained wild-type catalytic activity. Interestingly, cross-resistance of the identified mutations to other Mps1/TTK inhibitors is limited. Our studies predict that Mps1/TTK inhibitor-resistant tumor cells can arise through the acquisition of mutations in the adenosine triphosphate-binding pocket of the kinase that prevent stable binding of the inhibitors. In addition, our results suggest that combinations of inhibitors could be used to prevent acquisition of drug resistance. Interestingly, cross-resistance seems nonspecific for inhibitor scaffolds, a notion that can be exploited in future drug design to evict possible resistance mutations during clinical treatment. PMID:26364596

  8. Molecular basis underlying resistance to Mps1/TTK inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Koch, A; Maia, A; Janssen, A; Medema, R H

    2016-05-12

    Mps1/TTK is a dual-specificity kinase, with an essential role in mitotic checkpoint signaling, which has emerged as a potential target in cancer therapy. Several Mps1/TTK small-molecule inhibitors have been described that exhibit promising activity in cell culture and xenograft models. Here, we investigated whether cancer cells can develop resistance to these drugs. To this end, we treated various cancer cell lines with sublethal concentrations of a potent Mps1/TTK inhibitor in order to isolate inhibitor-resistant monoclonal cell lines. We identified four point mutations in the catalytic domain of Mps1/TTK that gave rise to inhibitor resistance but retained wild-type catalytic activity. Interestingly, cross-resistance of the identified mutations to other Mps1/TTK inhibitors is limited. Our studies predict that Mps1/TTK inhibitor-resistant tumor cells can arise through the acquisition of mutations in the adenosine triphosphate-binding pocket of the kinase that prevent stable binding of the inhibitors. In addition, our results suggest that combinations of inhibitors could be used to prevent acquisition of drug resistance. Interestingly, cross-resistance seems nonspecific for inhibitor scaffolds, a notion that can be exploited in future drug design to evict possible resistance mutations during clinical treatment.

  9. Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitor Therapies for Atopic Dermatitis: Progress and Outlook.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, Jusleen; Udkoff, Jeremy; Waldman, Andrea; Borok, Jenna; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2017-09-01

    Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) is a cyclic AMP degrading enzyme in leukocytes. Several decades ago, increased PDE activity was demonstrated in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). Currently, several PDE4 inhibitors in both topical and oral formulation have been developed to target the inflammatory cascade of AD. This review shows the pathogenic rationale behind these inhibitors, and discusses multiple PDE4 inhibitors that are under evaluation or in the market. PDE4 inhibitors may be considered as favorable agents in the repertoire of current interventions for AD.

  10. Achievements, challenges and unmet needs for haemophilia patients with inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    DARGAUD, Y.; PAVLOVA, A.; LACROIX-DESMAZES, S.; FISCHER, K.; SOUCIE, M.; CLAEYSSENS, S.; SCOTT, D.W.; d’OIRON, R.; LAVIGNE-LISSALDE, G.; KENET, G.; ETTINGSHAUSEN, C. ESCURIOLA; BOREL-DERLON, A.; LAMBERT, T.; PASTA, G.; NÉGRIER, C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Over the past 20 years, there have been many advances in haemophilia treatment that have allowed patients to take greater control of their disease. However, the development of factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitors is the greatest complication of the disease and a challenge in the treatment of haemophilia making management of bleeding episodes difficult and surgical procedures very challenging. A meeting to discuss the unmet needs of haemophilia patients with inhibitors was held in Paris on 20 November 2014. Topics discussed were genetic and non-genetic risk factors for the development of inhibitors, immunological aspects of inhibitor development, FVIII products and inhibitor development, generation and functional properties of engineered antigen-specific T regulatory cells, suppression of immune responses to FVIII, prophylaxis in haemophilia patients with inhibitors, epitope mapping of FVIII inhibitors, current controversies in immune tolerance induction therapy, surgery in haemophilia patients with inhibitors and future perspectives for the treatment of haemophilia patients with inhibitors. A summary of the key points discussed is presented in this paper. PMID:26728503

  11. Predicting DPP-IV inhibitors with machine learning approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jie; Li, Chanjuan; Liu, Zhihong; Du, Jiewen; Ye, Jiming; Gu, Qiong; Xu, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is a promising Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) drug target. DPP-IV inhibitors prolong the action of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), improve glucose homeostasis without weight gain, edema, and hypoglycemia. However, the marketed DPP-IV inhibitors have adverse effects such as nasopharyngitis, headache, nausea, hypersensitivity, skin reactions and pancreatitis. Therefore, it is still expected for novel DPP-IV inhibitors with minimal adverse effects. The scaffolds of existing DPP-IV inhibitors are structurally diversified. This makes it difficult to build virtual screening models based upon the known DPP-IV inhibitor libraries using conventional QSAR approaches. In this paper, we report a new strategy to predict DPP-IV inhibitors with machine learning approaches involving naïve Bayesian (NB) and recursive partitioning (RP) methods. We built 247 machine learning models based on 1307 known DPP-IV inhibitors with optimized molecular properties and topological fingerprints as descriptors. The overall predictive accuracies of the optimized models were greater than 80%. An external test set, composed of 65 recently reported compounds, was employed to validate the optimized models. The results demonstrated that both NB and RP models have a good predictive ability based on different combinations of descriptors. Twenty "good" and twenty "bad" structural fragments for DPP-IV inhibitors can also be derived from these models for inspiring the new DPP-IV inhibitor scaffold design.

  12. Inga laurina trypsin inhibitor (ILTI) obstructs Spodoptera frugiperda trypsins expressed during adaptive mechanisms against plant protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Machado, Suzy Wider; de Oliveira, Caio Fernando Ramalho; Zério, Neide Graciano; Parra, José Roberto Postali; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2017-08-01

    Plant protease inhibitors (PIs) are elements of a common plant defense mechanism induced in response to herbivores. The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, a highly polyphagous lepidopteran pest, responds to various PIs in its diet by expressing genes encoding trypsins. This raises the question of whether the PI-induced trypsins are also inhibited by other PIs, which we posed as the hypothesis that Inga laurina trypsin inhibitor (ILTI) inhibits PI-induced trypsins in S. frugiperda. In the process of testing our hypothesis, we compared its properties with those of selected PIs, soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (SKTI), Inga vera trypsin inhibitor (IVTI), Adenanthera pavonina trypsin inhibitor (ApTI), and Entada acaciifolia trypsin inhibitor (EATI). We report that ILTI is more effective in inhibiting the induced S. frugiperda trypsins than SKTI and the other PIs, which supports our hypothesis. ILTI may be more appropriate than SKTI for studies regarding adaptive mechanisms to dietary PIs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. CHZ868, a Type II JAK2 Inhibitor, Reverses Type I JAK Inhibitor Persistence and Demonstrates Efficacy in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Sara C.; Keller, Matthew D.; Chiu, Sophia; Koppikar, Priya; Guryanova, Olga A.; Rapaport, Franck; Xu, Ke; Manova, Katia; Pankov, Dmitry; O’Reilly, Richard J.; Kleppe, Maria; McKenney, Anna Sophia; Shih, Alan H.; Shank, Kaitlyn; Ahn, Jihae; Papalexi, Eftymia; Spitzer, Barbara; Socci, Nick; Viale, Agnes; Mandon, Emeline; Ebel, Nicolas; Andraos, Rita; Rubert, Joëlle; Dammassa, Ernesta; Romanet, Vincent; Dölemeyer, Arno; Zender, Michael; Heinlein, Melanie; Rampal, Rajit; Weinberg, Rona Singer; Hoffman, Ron; Sellers, William R.; Hofmann, Francesco; Murakami, Masato; Baffert, Fabienne; Gaul, Christoph; Radimerski, Thomas; Levine, Ross L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Although clinically tested JAK inhibitors reduce splenomegaly and systemic symptoms, molecular responses are not observed in most myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) patients. We previously demonstrated that MPN cells become persistent to type I JAK inhibitors that bind the active conformation of JAK2. We investigated if CHZ868, a type II JAK inhibitor, would demonstrate activity in JAK inhibitor persistent cells, murine MPN models, and MPN patient samples. JAK2- and MPL-mutant cell lines were sensitive to CHZ868, including type I JAK inhibitor persistent cells. CHZ868 showed significant activity in murine MPN models and induced reductions in mutant allele burden not observed with type I JAK inhibitors. These data demonstrate that type II JAK inhibition is a viable therapeutic approach for MPN patients. PMID:26175413

  14. Structural and functional analysis of cyclin D1 reveals p27 and substrate inhibitor binding requirements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu; Bolger, Joshua K; Kirkland, Lindsay O; Premnath, Padmavathy N; McInnes, Campbell

    2010-12-17

    An alternative strategy for inhibition of the cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) in antitumor drug discovery is afforded through the substrate recruitment site on the cyclin positive regulatory subunit. Critical CDK substrates such as the Rb and E2F families must undergo cyclin groove binding before phosphorylation, and hence inhibitors of this interaction also block substrate specific kinase activity. This approach offers the potential to generate highly selective and cell cycle specific CDK inhibitors and to reduce the inhibition of transcription mediated through CDK7 and 9, commonly observed with ATP competitive compounds. While highly potent peptide and small molecule inhibitors of CDK2/cyclin A, E substrate recruitment have been reported, little information has been generated on the determinants of inhibitor binding to the cyclin groove of the CDK4/cyclin D1 complex. CDK4/cyclin D is a validated anticancer drug target and continues to be widely pursued in the development of new therapeutics based on cell cycle blockade. We have therefore investigated the structural basis for peptide binding to its cyclin groove and have examined the features contributing to potency and selectivity of inhibitors. Peptidic inhibitors of CDK4/cyclin D of pRb phosphorylation have been synthesized, and their complexes with CDK4/cyclin D1 crystal structures have been generated. Based on available structural information, comparisons of the cyclin grooves of cyclin A2 and D1 are presented and provide insights into the determinants for peptide binding and the basis for differential binding and inhibition. In addition, a complex structure has been generated in order to model the interactions of the CDKI, p27(KIP)¹, with cyclin D1. This information has been used to shed light onto the endogenous inhibition of CDK4 and also to identify unique aspects of cyclin D1 that can be exploited in the design of cyclin groove based CDK inhibitors. Peptidic and nonpeptidic compounds have been

  15. Identification of fermentation inhibitors in wood hydrolyzates and removal of inhibitors by ion exchange and liquid-liquid extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Caidian

    1998-12-01

    Common methods employed in the ethanol production from biomass consist of chemical or enzymatic degradation of biomass into sugars and then fermentation of sugars into ethanol or other chemicals. However, some degradation products severely inhibit the fermentation processes and substantially reduce the efficiency of ethanol production. How to remove inhibitors from the reaction product mixture and increase the production efficiency are critical in the commercialization of any processes of energy from biomass. The present study has investigated anion exchange and liquid-liquid extraction as potential methods for inhibitor removal. An analytical method has been developed to identify the fermentation inhibitors in a hydrolyzate. The majority of inhibitors present in hybrid poplar hydrolyzate have positively been identified. Ion exchange with weak basic Dowex-MWA-1 resin has been proved to be an effective mean to remove fermentation inhibitors from hybrid poplar hydrolyzate and significantly increase the fermentation productivity. Extraction with n-butanol might be a preferred way to remove inhibitors from wood hydrolyzates and improve the fermentability of sugars in the hydrolyzates. n-Butanol also removes some glucose, mannose and xylose from the hydrolyzate. Inhibitor identification reveals that lignin and sugar degradation compounds including both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes and carboxylic acids formed in hydrolysis, plus fatty acids and other components from wood extractives are major fermentation inhibitors in Sacchromyces cerevisiae fermentation. There are 35 components identified as fermentation inhibitors. Among them, 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid, syringic acid, syringaldehyde, and ferulic acid are among the most abundant aromatic inhibitors in hybrid poplar hydrolyzate. The conversion of aldehyde groups into carboxylic acid groups in the nitric acid catalyzed hydrolysis reduces the toxicity of the hydrolyzate. A wide spectrum of

  16. Specific inhibition of Xenorhabdus hominickii, an entomopathogenic bacterium, against different types of host insect phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Sadekuzzaman, Md; Kim, Yonggyun

    2017-10-01

    Phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) hydrolyzes ester bond of phospholipids at the sn-2 position to release free fatty acid and lysophospholipids. Some PLA 2 s preferentially release arachidonic acid which is subsequently oxygenated into eicosanoids to mediate immune responses in insects. Xenorhabdus hominickii is an entomopathogenic bacterium that can suppress insect immunity by inhibiting PLA 2 activity. However, little is known about target PLA 2 types inhibited by X. hominickii. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine PLA 2 types in the host insect, Spodoptera exigua using specific inhibitors. All developmental stages of S. exigua possessed significant PLA 2 activities, with late larval stages showing relatively higher PLA 2 activities. In different larval tissues, hemocytes had higher PLA 2 activities than fat body, gut, or epidermis. Various developmental and tissue extracts exhibited differential susceptibilities to three different PLA 2 inhibitors. Late larva-to-adult stages were highly susceptible to all three different types of PLA 2 inhibitors. In contrast, extracts from egg and young larval stages were not susceptible to secretory PLA 2 (sPLA 2 ) or calcium-independent cellular PLA 2 (iPLA 2 ) inhibitors, although they were susceptible to a calcium-dependent cellular PLA 2 (cPLA 2 ) inhibitor in a dose-dependent manner. Different tissues of fifth instars exhibited variation in susceptibility to inhibitors, with epidermal tissue being sensitive to cPLA 2 inhibitor only while other tissues were sensitive to all three types of inhibitors. Bacterial challenge with heat-killed X. hominickii significantly increased PLA 2 activity. However, live bacteria suppressed the induction of PLA 2 activity. An organic extract of X. hominickii-culture broth inhibited the susceptibility of S. exigua to sPLA 2 - and iPLA 2 - specific inhibitors, but not to cPLA 2 -specific inhibitor. Oxindole, a component of the organic extract, exhibited an inhibitory pattern

  17. Ionizing radiation induces EphA2 S897 phosphorylation in a MEK/ERK/RSK-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Graves, Paul R; Din, Shaun U; Ashamalla, Mark; Ashamalla, Hani; Gilbert, Thomas S K; Graves, Lee M

    2017-09-01

    The EphA2 tyrosine kinase is frequently overexpressed in human tumors that are also treated with radiation. However, few studies have examined the effect of radiation on the EphA2 receptor itself. The purpose of this project was to investigate the impact of radiation on EphA2 to better understand mechanisms of radioresistance. Cell lines were exposed to X-rays and assayed for changes in EphA2 protein levels and phosphorylation over time by Western blotting. HEK293 cells stably expressing wild-type EphA2 or the S897A mutant were analyzed for cell survival from X-rays. Treatment of different cancer cell lines with 2 Gy of X-rays induced the phosphorylation of EphA2 on S897 but no changes were found in EphA2 total levels or its tyrosine phosphorylation. Radiation-induced S897 phosphorylation was unaffected by an AKT inhibitor but blocked by a MEK or RSK inhibitor. HEK293 cells expressing the EphA2 S897A mutant had a nearly 2-fold lower level of cell survival from X-rays than cells expressing wild-type EphA2. These findings show that radiation induces S897 EphA2 phosphorylation, an event associated with increased cell survival. Therefore, targeting pathways that mediate EphA2 S897 phosphorylation may be a beneficial strategy to reduce radioresistance.

  18. Rasagiline (TVP-1012): a new selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Guay, David R P

    2006-12-01

    This article reviews the chemistry, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, tolerability, drug-interaction potential, indications, dosing, and potential role of rasagiline mesylate, a new selective monoamine oxidase (MAO) type B (MAO-B) inhibitor, in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. A MEDLINE/PUBMED search (1986 through September 2006) was conducted to identify studies involving rasagiline written in English. Additional references were obtained from the bibliographies of these studies. All studies evaluating any aspect of rasagiline, including in vitro, in vivo (animal), and human studies, were reviewed. Rasagiline mesylate was developed with the goal of producing a selective MAO-B inhibitor that is not metabolized to (presumed) toxic metabolites (eg, amphetamine and methamphetamine, which are byproducts of the metabolism of selegiline, another selective MAO-B inhibitor). In vitro and in vivo data have confirmed the drug's selectivity for MAO-B. Rasagiline is almost completely eliminated by oxidative metabolism (catalyzed by cytochrome P-450 [CYP] isozyme 1A2) followed by renal excretion of conjugated parent compound and metabolites. Drug clearance is sufficiently slow to allow once-daily dosing. Several studies have documented its efficacy as monotherapy for early-stage disease and as adjunctive therapy in L-dopa recipients with motor fluctuations. As monotherapy, rasagiline is well tolerated with an adverse-effect profile similar to that of placebo. As adjunctive therapy, it exhibits the expected adverse effects of dopamine excess, which can be ameliorated by reducing the L-dopa dosage. CYP1A2 inhibitors slow the elimination of rasagiline and mandate dosage reduction. Hepatic impairment has an analogous effect. The recommended dosage regimens for monotherapy and adjunctive therapy are 1 and 0.5 mg PO QD, respectively. Despite the well-documented selectivity of rasagiline, the manufacturer recommends virtually all of the dietary (vis

  19. The effects of residual platelets in plasma on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-related assays.

    PubMed

    Pieters, Marlien; Barnard, Sunelle A; Loots, Du Toit; Rijken, Dingeman C

    2017-01-01

    Due to controversial evidence in the literature pertaining to the activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in platelets, we examined the effects of residual platelets present in plasma (a potential pre-analytical variable) on various plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-related assays. Blood samples were collected from 151 individuals and centrifuged at 352 and 1500 g to obtain plasma with varying numbers of platelet. In a follow-up study, blood samples were collected from an additional 23 individuals, from whom platelet-poor (2000 g), platelet-containing (352 g) and platelet-rich plasma (200 g) were prepared and analysed as fresh-frozen and after five defrost-refreeze cycles (to determine the contribution of in vitro platelet degradation). Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen, tissue plasminogen activator/plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 complex, plasma clot lysis time, β-thromboglobulin and plasma platelet count were analysed. Platelet α-granule release (plasma β-thromboglobulin) showed a significant association with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels but weak associations with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and a functional marker of fibrinolysis, clot lysis time. Upon dividing the study population into quartiles based on β-thromboglobulin levels, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen increased significantly across the quartiles while plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and clot lysis time tended to increase in the 4th quartile only. In the follow-up study, plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen was also significantly influenced by platelet count in a concentration-dependent manner. Plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels increased further after complete platelet degradation. Residual platelets in plasma significantly influence plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels mainly through release of

  20. HIV protease inhibitor-related lipodystrophy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carr, A

    2000-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor (PI) therapy is frequently associated with a syndrome increasingly referred to as lipodystrophy syndrome, which is characterized by peripheral lipoatrophy, fat accumulation within the abdomen, in the breasts of women, and over the cervical vertebrae ("buffalo hump"), hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance. In the largest study to date, peripheral lipoatrophy (an estimated 0.35-kg fat loss per month overall from the face, limbs, and upper trunk) was observed in association with all licensed PIs after a median 10 months of PI therapy. Diabetes mellitus type II appears to be a related, but less common, adverse effect. The lipodystrophy syndrome may be a result of the inhibition of 2 proteins involved in lipid metabolism that have significant homology to the catalytic site of HIV protease-namely, cytoplasmic retinoic acid binding protein type 1 and low density lipoprotein-receptor-related protein.

  1. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors through Click Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Woodward, Robert; Kedenburg, James Patrick; Liu, Xianwei; Chen, Min; Fang, Lanyan; Sun, Duxin; Wang, Peng George

    2012-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are a relatively new class of chemotherapy agents. Herein, we report a click-chemistry based approach to the synthesis of HDACi. Fourteen agents were synthesized from the combination of two alkyne and seven azido precursors. The inhibition of HDAC1 and HDAC8 was then determined by in vitro enzymatic assays, after which the cytotoxicity was evaluated in the NCI human cancer cell line screen. A lead compound 5g (NSC746457) was discovered that inhibited HDAC1 at an IC50 value of 104 ± 30 nM and proved quite potent in the cancer cell line screen with GI50 values ranging from 3.92 μM to 10 nM. Thus, this click HDACi design has provided a new chemical scaffold that has not only revealed a lead compound, but one which is easily amendable to further structural modifications given the modular nature of this approach. PMID:19007204

  2. Hepatotoxicity of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Montessori, Valentina; Harris, Marianne; Montaner, Julio S G

    2003-05-01

    Hepatotoxicity is an adverse effect of all available classes of antiretrovirals, including nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI). A syndrome of hepatic steatosis and lactic acidosis has been recognized as a rare, potentially fatal complication since the advent of NRTI monotherapy in the early 1990s. Today, NRTI remain the backbone of antiretroviral combination regimens, and, with the success of current treatment strategies, exposure to two or more of these agents may occur over a number of years. Hepatic steatosis and lactic acidosis are accordingly being observed more frequently, along with a more recently recognized syndrome of chronic hyperlactatemia. These as well as other adverse effects of NRTI are mediated by inhibition of human DNA polymerase gamma, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction in the liver and other tissues. Early recognition and intervention are essential to avert serious outcomes.

  3. BRAF inhibitors: the current and the future.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weijiang

    2015-08-01

    The introduction of BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi), vemurafenib and dabrafenib, revolutionized BRAFV600-mutated metastatic melanoma treatment with improved response rate and overall survival compared to standard chemotherapy. However, the mechanism related cutaneous toxicity remains a concern. In addition, intrinsic and acquired resistance remain the key challenges in BRAFi therapy. Extensive efforts to elucidate the mechanisms have led to an improved understanding of disease biology and resulted in exploration of multiple new therapeutic options. While the future looks bright with multiple new therapeutic strategies in exploration and possible new generations of BRAFi, there are questions remaining to be answered to enable more efficient use of BRAFi in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural investigation of protein kinase C inhibitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barak, D.; Shibata, M.; Rein, R.

    1991-01-01

    The phospholipid and Ca2+ dependent protein kinase (PKC) plays an essential role in a variety of cellular events. Inhibition of PKC was shown to arrest growth in tumor cell cultures making it a target for possible antitumor therapy. Calphostins are potent inhibitors of PKC with high affinity for the enzyme regulatory site. Structural characteristics of calphostins, which confer the inhibitory activity, are investigated by comparing their optimized structures with the existing models for PKC activation. The resulting model of inhibitory activity assumes interaction with two out of the three electrostatic interaction sites postulated for activators. The model shows two sites of hydrophobic interaction and enables the inhibitory activity of gossypol to be accounted for.

  5. Mechanisms, biology and inhibitors of deubiquitinating enzymes.

    PubMed

    Love, Kerry Routenberg; Catic, André; Schlieker, Christian; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2007-11-01

    The addition of ubiquitin (Ub) and ubiquitin-like (Ubl) modifiers to proteins serves to modulate function and is a key step in protein degradation, epigenetic modification and intracellular localization. Deubiquitinating enzymes and Ubl-specific proteases, the proteins responsible for the removal of Ub and Ubls, act as an additional level of control over the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Their conservation and widespread occurrence in eukaryotes, prokaryotes and viruses shows that these proteases constitute an essential class of enzymes. Here, we discuss how chemical tools, including activity-based probes and suicide inhibitors, have enabled (i) discovery of deubiquitinating enzymes, (ii) their functional profiling, crystallographic characterization and mechanistic classification and (iii) development of molecules for therapeutic purposes.

  6. Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors, Sport and Doping.

    PubMed

    Di Luigi, Luigi; Sansone, Massimiliano; Sansone, Andrea; Ceci, Roberta; Duranti, Guglielmo; Borrione, Paolo; Crescioli, Clara; Sgrò, Paolo; Sabatini, Stefania

    Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) (e.g., sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil, and avanafil) are drugs commonly used to treat erectile dysfunction, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and benign prostatic hyperplasia. PDE5i are not prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) but are alleged to be frequently misused by healthy athletes to improve sporting performance. In vitro and in vivo studies have reported various effects of PDE5i on cardiovascular, muscular, metabolic, and neuroendocrine systems and the potential, therefore, to enhance performance of healthy athletes during training and competition. This suggests well-controlled research studies to examine the ergogenic effects of PDE5i on performance during activities that simulate real sporting situations are warranted to determine if PDE5i should be included on the prohibited WADA list. In the meantime, there is concern that some otherwise healthy athletes will continue to misuse PDE5i to gain an unfair competitive advantage over their competitors.

  7. Hyperforin acts as an angiogenesis inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Schempp, Christoph M; Kiss, Judit; Kirkin, Vladimir; Averbeck, Marco; Simon-Haarhaus, Birgit; Kremer, Bernhard; Termeer, Christian C; Sleeman, Jonathan; Simon, Jan C

    2005-11-01

    Hyperforin is a plant compound from Hypericum perforatum that inhibits tumor cell proliferation in vitro by induction of apoptosis. Here, we report that hyperforin also acts as an angiogenesis inhibitor in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, hyperforin blocked microvessel formation of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC) on a complex extracellular matrix. Furthermore, hyperforin reduced proliferation of HDMEC in a dose-dependent manner, without displaying toxic effects or inducing apoptosis of the cells. To evaluate the antiangiogenic activity of hyperforin in vivo, Wistar rats were subcutaneously injected with MT-450 mammary carcinoma cells and were treated with peritumoral injections of hyperforin or solvent. Hyperforin significantly inhibited tumor growth, induced apoptosis of tumor cells and reduced tumor vascularization, as shown by in situ staining of CD31-positive microvessels in the tumor stroma. These data suggest that, in addition to the induction of tumor cell apoptosis, hyperforin can also suppress angiogenesis by a direct, non-toxic effect on endothelial cells.

  8. Insect response to plant defensive protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Zeng, Rensen

    2015-01-07

    Plant protease inhibitors (PIs) are natural plant defense proteins that inhibit proteases of invading insect herbivores. However, their anti-insect efficacy is determined not only by their potency toward a vulnerable insect system but also by the response of the insect to such a challenge. Through the long history of coevolution with their host plants, insects have developed sophisticated mechanisms to circumvent antinutritional effects of dietary challenges. Their response takes the form of changes in gene expression and the protein repertoire in cells lining the alimentary tract, the first line of defense. Research in insect digestive proteases has revealed the crucial roles they play in insect adaptation to plant PIs and has brought about a new appreciation of how phytophagous insects employ this group of molecules in both protein digestion and counterdefense. This review provides researchers in related fields an up-to-date summary of recent advances.

  9. Antithrombin, an Important Inhibitor in Blood Clots.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Cong, Qing-Wei; Liu, Yue; Wan, Chun-Ling; Yu, Tao; He, Guang; He, Lin; Cai, Lei; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Blood coagulation is healthy and lifesaving because it can stop bleeding. It can, however, be a troublemaker as well, causing serious medical problems including heart attack and stroke. Body has complex blood coagulation cascade to modulate the blood clots. In the environment of plasma, the blood coagulation cascade is regulated by antithrombin, which is deemed one of the most important serine protease inhibitors. It inhibits thrombin; it can inhibit factors IXa and Xa as well. Interestingly, its inhibitory ability will be significantly increased with the existence of heparin. In this minireview paper, we are to summarize the structural features of antithrombin, as well as its heparin binding modes and anti-coagulation mechanisms, in hopes that the discussion and analysis presented in this paper can stimulate new strategies to find more effective approaches or compounds to modulate the antithrombin.

  10. Proton pump inhibitors and symptomatic hypomagnesemic hypoparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Fatuzzo, P; Portale, G; Scollo, V; Zanoli, L; Granata, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Hypomagnesemia is a common but often overlooked problem in hospitalized patients. Unrecognized hypomagnesemia can cause serious complications. The association of hypokalemia and hypocalcemia is strongly evocative of a magnesium deficiency. Research into the causes of hypomagnesemia is imperative, as it will definitely change the approach, treatment and prognosis. We report the case of a 65-year-old man with chronic hypocalcemia and hypokalemia associated with cerebellar syndrome, a solitary seizure and cerebellar hyperintensities on magnetic resonance imaging. After the detection and treatment of hypomagnesemia with oral supplements of magnesium and the replacement of pantoprazole with ranitidine, we observed immediate relief of the symptoms. In conclusion, in clinical practice, magnesium depletion should be investigated in elderly patients with hypocalcemia treated with proton pump inhibitors for many years, in particular in the presence of neurological disorders.

  11. Coumarins as cholinesterase inhibitors: A review.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Luana G; Rennã, Magdalena N; Figueroa-Villar, Jose D

    2016-07-25

    The first report in literature of the isolation of coumarin was in the year 1820. After this report, other papers were published demonstrating the isolation and synthesis of coumarin and analogues. These compounds have been studying along the years for several different pathologies. One of these pathologies was Alzheimer's disease (AD), being the main cause of dementia in the contemporary world. There are two hypotheses to explain the pathogenesis mechanism and disease symptoms, then having the "amyloid hypothesis" and the "cholinergic hypothesis". Some drugs for AD are based on the theory of "cholinergic hypothesis", which objective is to increase the concentration of ACh in the synaptic cleft by the inhibition of cholinesterases. Over the last twenty years, many studies with coumarins compounds were reported as cholinesterases inhibitors. The aim of the present review is to discuss the studies and development of new compounds for AD treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Neuromuscular complications of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Noah A; Trevino, Christopher R; Waheed, Waqar; Sobhani, Fatemeh; Landry, Kara K; Thomas, Alissa A; Hehir, Mike

    2018-01-17

    Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICPI) therapy unleashes the body's natural immune system to fight cancer. ICPIs improve overall cancer survival, however, the unbridling of the immune system may induce a variety of immune-related adverse events. Neuromuscular immune complications are rare but they can be severe. Myasthenia gravis and inflammatory neuropathy are the most common neuromuscular adverse events but a variety of others including inflammatory myopathy are reported. The pathophysiologic mechanism of these autoimmune disorders may differ from that of non-ICPI-related immune diseases. Accordingly, while the optimal treatment for ICPI-related neuromuscular disorders generally follows a traditional paradigm, there are important novel considerations in selecting appropriate immunosuppressive therapy. This review presents 2 new cases, a summary of neuromuscular ICPI complications, and an approach to the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders. Muscle Nerve, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Immune checkpoint inhibitors: basics and challenges.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Chan, Ho Lam; Chen, Pingping

    2017-08-04

    Cancer is one of the most deadly diseases in modern world. The last decade has witnessed dramatic advances in the cancer treatment through immunotherapy. One extremely promising means to achieve anti-caner immunity is to block the immune checkpoint pathways, which mechanism was adopted by cancer cells to disguise themselves as regular components of human body. While checkpoint blockade is universally effective against a broad spectrum of cancer types and mostly unrestricted by certain gene mutation status, only a minority of patients achieved a complete response to such treatment. In this review we summarize the basic principles of immune checkpoint inhibitors and discuss potential mechanisms of resistance. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Towards rational therapy with monoamine oxidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tyrer, P

    1976-04-01

    A rational approach to the use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) is outlined. Patients suitable for treatment cannot be classified adequately using conventional diagnostic labels. They include those with primary symptoms of hypochondriasis, agoraphobia and social phobias, irritability, somatic anxiety and anergia; those with primary depressed mood, guilt, ideas of reference and personality disorders seldom respond. There is great variation in the interval between the first administration of these drugs and clinical response, and this may account for the inconsistencies in published trials. The type of drug and its dose may affect rate of response, as may biochemical factors, including acetylator and monoamine oxidase status. To obtain maximum benefit, a course of therapy with MAOIs should last for several months.

  15. Development of Inhibitors of Salicylic Acid Signaling.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kai; Kurimoto, Tetsuya; Seo, Eun-kyung; Miyazaki, Sho; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Nakamura, Hidemitsu; Asami, Tadao

    2015-08-19

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays important roles in the induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in plants. Determining the mechanism of SAR will extend our understanding of plant defenses against pathogens. We recently reported that PAMD is an inhibitor of SA signaling, which suppresses the expression of the pathogenesis-related PR genes and is expected to facilitate the understanding of SA signaling. However, PAMD strongly inhibits plant growth. To minimize the side effects of PAMD, we synthesized a number of PAMD derivatives, and identified compound 4 that strongly suppresses the expression of the PR genes with fewer adverse effects on plant growth than PAMD. We further showed that the adverse effects on plant growth were partially caused the stabilization of DELLA, which is also related to the pathogen responses. These results indicate that compound 4 would facilitate our understanding of SA signaling and its cross talk with other plant hormones.

  16. Multivalent small molecule pan-RAS inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Welsch, Matthew E.; Kaplan, Anna; Chambers, Jennifer M.; Stokes, Michael E.; Bos, Pieter H.; Zask, Arie; Zhang, Yan; Sanchez-Martin, Marta; Badgley, Michael A.; Huang, Christine S.; Tran, Timothy H.; Akkiraju, Hemanth; Brown, Lewis M.; Nandakumar, Renu; Cremers, Serge; Yang, Wan S.; Tong, Liang; Olive, Kenneth P.; Ferrando, Adolfo; Stockwell, Brent R.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Design of small molecules that disrupt protein-protein interactions, including the interaction of RAS proteins and their effectors, have potential use as chemical probes and therapeutic agents. We describe here the synthesis and testing of potential small molecule pan-RAS ligands, which were designed to interact with adjacent sites on the surface of oncogenic KRAS. One compound, termed 3144, was found to bind to RAS proteins using microscale thermophoresis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry, and to exhibit lethality in cells partially dependent on expression of RAS proteins. This compound was metabolically stable in liver microsomes and displayed anti-tumor activity in xenograft mouse cancer models. These findings suggest that pan-RAS inhibition may be an effective therapeutic strategy for some cancers, and that structure-based design of small molecules targeting multiple adjacent sites to create multivalent inhibitors may be effective for some proteins. PMID:28235199

  17. Therapeutic potential of target of rapamycin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Easton, John B; Houghton, Peter J

    2004-12-01

    Target of rapamycin (TOR) functions within the cell as a transducer of information from various sources, including growth factors, energy sensors, and hypoxia sensors, as well as components of the cell regulating growth and division. Blocking TOR function mimics amino acid, and to some extent, growth factor deprivation and has a cytostatic effect on proliferating cells in vivo. Inhibition of TOR in vivo, utilising its namesake rapamycin, leads to immunosuppression. This property has been exploited successfully with the use of rapamycin and its derivatives as a therapeutic agent in the prevention of organ rejection after transplantation with relatively mild side effects when compared to other immunosuppressive agents. The cytostatic effect of TOR on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation has also recently been exploited in the therapeutic application of rapamycin to drug eluting stents for angioplasty. These stents significantly reduce the amount of arterial reblockage that results from proliferating vascular smooth muscle cells. In cancer, the effect of blocking TOR function on tumour growth and disease progression is currently of major interest and is the basis for a number of ongoing clinical trials. However, different cell types and tumours respond differently to TOR inhibition, and TOR is clearly not cytostatic for all types of cancer cells in vitro or in vivo. As the molecular details of how TOR functions and the targets of TOR activity are further elucidated, tumour and tissue specific functions are being identified that implicate TOR in angiogenesis, apoptosis, and the reversal of some forms of cellular transformation. This review will describe our current understanding of TOR function, describe the current strategies for employing TOR inhibitors in clinical and preclinical development, and outline future strategies for appropriate targets of TOR inhibitors in the treatment of disease.

  18. Crystal Structure of Human AKT1 with an Allosteric Inhibitor Reveals a New Mode of Kinase Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wen-I; Voegtli, Walter C.; Sturgis, Hillary L.; Dizon, Faith P.; Vigers, Guy P. A.; Brandhuber, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    AKT1 (NP_005154.2) is a member of the serine/threonine AGC protein kinase family involved in cellular metabolism, growth, proliferation and survival. The three human AKT isozymes are highly homologous multi-domain proteins with both overlapping and distinct cellular functions. Dysregulation of the AKT pathway has been identified in multiple human cancers. Several clinical trials are in progress to test the efficacy of AKT pathway inhibitors in treating cancer. Recently, a series of AKT isozyme-selective allosteric inhibitors have been reported. They require the presence of both the pleckstrin-homology (PH) and kinase domains of AKT, but their binding mode has not yet been elucidated. We present here a 2.7 Å resolution co-crystal structure of human AKT1 containing both the PH and kinase domains with a selective allosteric inhibitor bound in the interface. The structure reveals the interactions between the PH and kinase domains, as well as the critical amino residues that mediate binding of the inhibitor to AKT1. Our work also reveals an intricate balance in the enzymatic regulation of AKT, where the PH domain appears to lock the kinase in an inactive conformation and the kinase domain disrupts the phospholipid binding site of the PH domain. This information advances our knowledge in AKT1 structure and regulation, thereby providing a structural foundation for interpreting the effects of different classes of AKT inhibitors and designing selective ones. PMID:20886116

  19. [Proton pump inhibitor - side effects and complications of long-term proton pump inhibitor administration].

    PubMed

    Ueberschaer, Hendrik; Allescher, Hans-Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Proton Pump Inhibitors are among the most common drugs taken. The indication is for treatment of heartburn, reflux disease, prophylaxis and treatment of peptic ulcers, in combination with NSAIDs and steroids as well as H. pylori-eradication. PPI's are widely used, even with non-specific symptoms. This certainly has to do with good tolerability and a previously considered low side effect profile. At the moment, there is growing evidence that the long-term intake of PPI's may not be as safe as assumed. In addition to interactions with some drugs, including platelet aggregation inhibitors, recent studies have shown an increased risk of myocardial infarction, interstitial nephritis, chronic renal injury, infections, vitamin deficiencies and electrolyte shifts as well developing dementia. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Molecular Dynamics simulations of Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins and identification of potential small molecule inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Jayanthi; Anishetty, Sharmila

    2014-05-01

    Chemotherapeutic resistance due to over expression of Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs) XIAP, survivin and livin has been observed in various cancers. In the current study, Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out for all three IAPs and a common ligand binding scaffold was identified. Further, a novel sequence based motif specific to these IAPs was designed. SMAC is an endogenous inhibitor of IAPs. Screening of ChemBank for compounds similar to lead SMAC-non-peptidomimetics yielded a cemadotin related compound NCIMech_000654. Cemadotin is a derivative of natural anti-tumor peptide dolastatin-15; hence these compounds were docked against all three IAPs. Based on our analysis, we propose that NCIMech_000654/dolastatin-15/cemadotin derivatives may be investigated for their potential in inhibiting XIAP, survivin and livin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Metarrestin, a perinucleolar compartment inhibitor, effectively suppresses metastasis.

    PubMed

    Frankowski, Kevin J; Wang, Chen; Patnaik, Samarjit; Schoenen, Frank J; Southall, Noel; Li, Dandan; Teper, Yaroslav; Sun, Wei; Kandela, Irawati; Hu, Deqing; Dextras, Christopher; Knotts, Zachary; Bian, Yansong; Norton, John; Titus, Steve; Lewandowska, Marzena A; Wen, Yiping; Farley, Katherine I; Griner, Lesley Mathews; Sultan, Jamey; Meng, Zhaojing; Zhou, Ming; Vilimas, Tomas; Powers, Astin S; Kozlov, Serguei; Nagashima, Kunio; Quadri, Humair S; Fang, Min; Long, Charles; Khanolkar, Ojus; Chen, Warren; Kang, Jinsol; Huang, Helen; Chow, Eric; Goldberg, Esthermanya; Feldman, Coral; Xi, Romi; Kim, Hye Rim; Sahagian, Gary; Baserga, Susan J; Mazar, Andrew; Ferrer, Marc; Zheng, Wei; Shilatifard, Ali; Aubé, Jeffrey; Rudloff, Udo; Marugan, Juan Jose; Huang, Sui

    2018-05-16

    Metastasis remains a leading cause of cancer mortality due to the lack of specific inhibitors against this complex process. To identify compounds selectively targeting the metastatic state, we used the perinucleolar compartment (PNC), a complex nuclear structure associated with metastatic behaviors of cancer cells, as a phenotypic marker for a high-content screen of over 140,000 structurally diverse compounds. Metarrestin, obtained through optimization of a screening hit, disassembles PNCs in multiple cancer cell lines, inhibits invasion in vitro, suppresses metastatic development in three mouse models of human cancer, and extends survival of mice in a metastatic pancreatic cancer xenograft model with no organ toxicity or discernable adverse effects. Metarrestin disrupts the nucleolar structure and inhibits RNA polymerase (Pol) I transcription, at least in part by interacting with the translation elongation factor eEF1A2. Thus, metarrestin represents a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of metastatic cancer. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  2. A new series of potent benzodiazepine gamma-secretase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Churcher, Ian; Ashton, Kate; Butcher, John W; Clarke, Earl E; Harrison, Timothy; Lewis, Huw D; Owens, Andrew P; Teall, Martin R; Williams, Susie; Wrigley, Jonathan D J

    2003-01-20

    A new series of benzodiazepine-containing gamma-secretase inhibitors with potential use in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease is disclosed. Structure-activity relationships of the pendant hydrocinnamate side-chain which led to the preparation of highly potent inhibitors are described.

  3. Novel guanidine-based inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Iwanowicz, Edwin J; Watterson, Scott H; Liu, Chunjian; Gu, Henry H; Mitt, Toomas; Leftheris, Katerina; Barrish, Joel C; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine; Sherbina, N Z; Hollenbaugh, Diane L

    2002-10-21

    A series of novel guanidine-based small molecule inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) was explored. IMPDH catalyzes the rate determining step in guanine nucleotide biosynthesis and is a target for anticancer, immunosuppressive and antiviral therapy. The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SARs), derived from in vitro studies, for this new series of inhibitors is given.

  4. Synthesis of Barbiturate-Based Methionine Aminopeptidase-1 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Manas K.; Scott, Michael D.; Sule, Nitesh; Srivastava, D. K.; Mallik, Sanku

    2008-01-01

    The syntheses of a new class of barbiturate-based inhibitors for human and E. Coli Methionine Aminopeptidase -1 (MetAP-1) are described. Some of the synthesized inhibitors show selective inhibition of the human enzyme with high potency. PMID:18343108

  5. Bioabatement with xylanase supplementation to reduce enzymatic hydrolysis inhibitors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bioabatement, using the fungus Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616 can effectively eliminate enzyme inhibitors from pretreated biomass hydrolysis. However, our recent research suggested that bioabatement had no beneficial effect on removing xylo-oligomers which were identified as strong inhibitors to ce...

  6. Screening for Inhibitors of Essential Leishmania Glucose Transporters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Leishmania Glucose Transporters PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Scott M. Landfear, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Oregon Health & Science...3. DATES COVERED 1 JUL 2011 - 30 JUN 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Screening for Inhibitors of Essential Leishmania Glucose Transporters...function as selective inhibitors of the essential glucose transporters of the parasite Leishmania mexicana. To identify such compounds, a cell growth

  7. Discovery – Targeted Treatments and mTOR Inhibitors

    Cancer.gov

    Thanks to discovering the anticancer effects of mTOR inhibitors, cancer treatment for pNet, a rare type of pancreatic cancer, were revolutionized. Through clinical trials, NCI continues to investigate the life-saving potential of mTOR inhibitors.

  8. Corrosion inhibitors for solar-heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.

    1979-01-01

    Report describes results of tests conducted to evaluate abilities of 12 candidate corrosion inhibitors to protect aluminum, steel, copper, or stainless steel at typical conditions encountered in solar heating and cooling systems. Inhibitors are based on sodium salts including nitrates, borates, silicates, and phosphates.

  9. Selective JAK inhibitors in development for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Norman, Peter

    2014-08-01

    The JAK kinases are a family of four tyrosine receptor kinases that play a pivotal role in cytokine receptor signalling pathways via their interaction with signal transducers and activators of transcription proteins. Selective inhibitors of JAK kinases are viewed as of considerable potential as disease-modifying anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This article provides a review of the clinical development and available clinical results for those JAK inhibitors currently under investigation. Phase II data for four JAK inhibitors (baricitinib, decernotinib, filgotinib and INCB-039110) are contrasted with that reported for the recently approved JAK inhibitor tofacitinib. The preclinical data on these, in addition to peficitinib, ABT-494, INCB-047986 and AC-410 are also discussed, as are some of the inhibitors in preclinical development. JAK inhibitors are effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis as evidenced by several inhibitors enabling the majority of treated patients to achieve ACR20 responses, with baricitinib and INCB-039110 both effective when administered once daily. JAK inhibitors differ in isoform specificity profiles, with good efficacy achievable by selective inhibition of either JAK1 (filgotinib or INCB-039110) or JAK3 (decernotinib). It remains to be seen what selectivity provides the optimal side-effect profile and to what extent inhibition of JAK2 should be avoided.

  10. Detecting and treating breast cancer resistance to EGFR inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Moonlee, Sun-Young; Bissell, Mina J.; Furuta, Saori; Meier, Roland; Kenny, Paraic A.

    2016-04-05

    The application describes therapeutic compositions and methods for treating cancer. For example, therapeutic compositions and methods related to inhibition of FAM83A (family with sequence similarity 83) are provided. The application also describes methods for diagnosing cancer resistance to EGFR inhibitors. For example, a method of diagnosing cancer resistance to EGFR inhibitors by detecting increased FAM83A levels is described.

  11. Indanones as high-potency reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Mostert, Samantha; Petzer, Anél; Petzer, Jacobus P

    2015-05-01

    Recent reports document that α-tetralone (3,4-dihydro-2H-naphthalen-1-one) is an appropriate scaffold for the design of high-potency monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Based on the structural similarity between α-tetralone and 1-indanone, the present study involved synthesis of 34 1-indanone and related indane derivatives as potential inhibitors of recombinant human MAO-A and MAO-B. The results show that C6-substituted indanones are particularly potent and selective MAO-B inhibitors, with IC50 values ranging from 0.001 to 0.030 μM. C5-Substituted indanone and indane derivatives are comparatively weaker MAO-B inhibitors. Although the 1-indanone and indane derivatives are selective inhibitors of the MAO-B isoform, a number of homologues are also potent MAO-A inhibitors, with three homologues possessing IC50 values <0.1 μM. Dialysis of enzyme-inhibitor mixtures further established a selected 1-indanone as a reversible MAO inhibitor with a competitive mode of inhibition. It may be concluded that 1-indanones are promising leads for the design of therapies for neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders such as Parkinson's disease and depression. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Aminopiperidine-Fused Imidazoles as Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Edmondson, S.; Mastracchio, A; Cox, J

    2009-01-01

    A new series of DPP-4 inhibitors derived from piperidine-fused benzimidazoles and imidazopyridines is described. Optimization of this class of DPP-4 inhibitors led to the discovery of imidazopyridine 34. The potency, selectivity, cross-species DMPK profiles, and in vivo efficacy of 34 is reported.

  13. Classification of Breast Cancer Resistant Protein (BCRP) Inhibitors and Non-Inhibitors Using Machine Learning Approaches.

    PubMed

    Belekar, Vilas; Lingineni, Karthik; Garg, Prabha

    2015-01-01

    The breast cancer resistant protein (BCRP) is an important transporter and its inhibitors play an important role in cancer treatment by improving the oral bioavailability as well as blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability of anticancer drugs. In this work, a computational model was developed to predict the compounds as BCRP inhibitors or non-inhibitors. Various machine learning approaches like, support vector machine (SVM), k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) and artificial neural network (ANN) were used to develop the models. The Matthews correlation coefficients (MCC) of developed models using ANN, k-NN and SVM are 0.67, 0.71 and 0.77, and prediction accuracies are 85.2%, 88.3% and 90.8% respectively. The developed models were tested with a test set of 99 compounds and further validated with external set of 98 compounds. Distribution plot analysis and various machine learning models were also developed based on druglikeness descriptors. Applicability domain is used to check the prediction reliability of the new molecules.

  14. The cardiovascular safety trials of DPP-4 inhibitors, GLP-1 agonists, and SGLT2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Secrest, Matthew H; Udell, Jacob A; Filion, Kristian B

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we review the results of large, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trials mandated by the US Food and Drug Administration to examine the cardiovascular safety of newly-approved antihyperglycemic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes. The cardiovascular effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors remain controversial: while these drugs did not reduce or increase the risk of primary, pre-specified composite cardiovascular outcomes, one DPP-4 inhibitor (saxagliptin) increased the risk of hospitalization for heart failure in the overall population; another (alogliptin) demonstrated inconsistent effects on heart failure hospitalization across subgroups of patients, and a third (sitagliptin) demonstrated no effect on heart failure. Evidence for cardiovascular benefits of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists has been similarly heterogeneous, with liraglutide and semaglutide reducing the risk of composite cardiovascular outcomes, but lixisenatide having no reduction or increase in cardiovascular risk. The effect of GLP-1 agonists on retinopathy remains a potential concern. In the only completed trial to date to assess a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, empagliflozin reduced the risk of composite cardiovascular endpoints, predominantly through its impact on cardiovascular mortality and heart failure hospitalization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhibition of Monometalated Methionine Aminopeptidase: Inhibitor Discovery and Crystallographic Analysis†

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Min; Xie, Sheng-Xue; Ma, Ze-Qiang; Huang, Qing-Qing; Nan, Fa-Jun; Ye, Qi-Zhuang

    2008-01-01

    Two divalent metal ions are commonly seen in the active site cavity of methionine aminopeptidase, and at least one of the metal ions is directly involved in catalysis. Although ample structural and functional information is available for dimetalated enzyme, methionine aminopeptidase likely functions as a monometalated enzyme under physiological conditions. Information on structure, as well as catalysis and inhibition, of the monometalated enzyme is lacking. By improving conditions of high throughput screening, we identified a unique inhibitor with specificity toward the monometalated enzyme. Kinetic characterization indicates a mutual exclusivity in binding between the inhibitor and the second metal ion at the active site. This is confirmed by X-ray structure, and this inhibitor coordinates with the first metal ion and occupies the space normally occupied by the second metal ion. Kinetic and structural analyses of the inhibition by this and other inhibitors provide insight in designing effective inhibitors of methionine aminopeptidase. PMID:17948983

  16. Characterization of Encapsulated Corrosion Inhibitors for Environmentally Friendly Smart Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearman, Benjamin Pieter; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry; Zhang, Xuejun; Surma, Jan; Fitzpatrick, Lilly; Montgomery, Eliza; Calle, Luz Marina

    2014-01-01

    Research efforts are under way to replace current corrosion inhibitors with more environmentally friendly alternatives. However, problems with corrosion inhibition efficiency, coating compatibility and solubility have hindered the use of many of these materials as simple pigment additives.This paper will present technical details on how the Corrosion Technology Lab at NASAs Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has addressed these issues by encapsulating environmentally friendly inhibitors into organic and inorganic microparticles and microcapsules. The synthetic process for polymer particles was characterized and post-synthesis analysis was performed to determine the interactions between the inhibitors and the encapsulation material. The pH-controlled release of inhibitors from various particle formulations in aqueous base was monitored and compared to both electrochemical and salt immersion accelerated corrosion experiment. Furthermore, synergistic corrosion inhibition effects observed during the corrosion testing of several inhibitor combinations will be presented.

  17. Aggregation of trypsin and trypsin inhibitor by Al cation.

    PubMed

    Chanphai, P; Kreplak, L; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2017-04-01

    Al cation may trigger protein structural changes such as aggregation and fibrillation, causing neurodegenerative diseases. We report the effect of Al cation on the solution structures of trypsin (try) and trypsin inhibitor (tryi), using thermodynamic analysis, UV-Visible, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic methods and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Thermodynamic parameters showed Al-protein bindings occur via H-bonding and van der Waals contacts for trypsin and trypsin inhibitor. AFM showed that Al cations are able to force trypsin into larger or more robust aggregates than trypsin inhibitor, with trypsin 5±1 SE (n=52) proteins per aggregate and for trypsin inhibitor 8.3±0.7 SE (n=118). Thioflavin T test showed no major protein fibrillation in the presence of Al cation. Al complexation induced more alterations of trypsin inhibitor conformation than trypsin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Skin problems and EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Kozuki, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition is a good target for the treatment of lung, colon, pancreatic and head and neck cancers. Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor was first approved for the treatment of advanced lung cancer in 2002. Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor plays an essential role in the treatment of cancer, especially for patients harbouring epidermal growth factor receptor activating mutation. Hence, skin toxicity is the most concerning issue for the epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. Skin toxicity is bothersome and sometimes affects the quality of life and treatment compliance. Thus, it is important for physicians to understand the background and how to manage epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor-associated skin toxicity. Here, the author reviewed the mechanism and upfront preventive and reactive treatments for epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor-associated skin toxicities. PMID:26826719

  19. Potent Inhibitors against Newcastle Disease Virus Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase.

    PubMed

    Rota, Paola; La Rocca, Paolo; Piccoli, Marco; Montefiori, Marco; Cirillo, Federica; Olsen, Lars; Orioli, Marica; Allevi, Pietro; Anastasia, Luigi

    2018-02-06

    Neuraminidase activity is essential for the infection and propagation of paramyxoviruses, including human parainfluenza viruses (hPIVs) and the Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Thus, many inhibitors have been developed based on the 2-deoxy-2,3-didehydro-d-N-acetylneuraminic acid inhibitor (DANA) backbone. Along this line, herein we report a series of neuraminidase inhibitors, having C4 (p-toluenesulfonamido and azido substituents) and C5 (N-perfluorinated chains) modifications to the DANA backbone, resulting in compounds with 5- to 15-fold greater potency than the currently most active compound, the N-trifluoroacetyl derivative of DANA (FANA), toward the NDV hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (NDV-HN). Remarkably, these inhibitors were found to be essentially inactive against the human sialidase NEU3, which is present on the outer layer of the cell membrane and is highly affected by the current NDV inhibitor FANA. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Progressive renal insufficiency related to ALK inhibitor, alectinib.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Kojiro; Ono, Hiroyuki; Matsuura, Motokazu; Hann, Michael; Ueda, Sayo; Yoshimoto, Sakiya; Tamaki, Masanori; Murakami, Taichi; Abe, Hideharu; Ishikura, Hisashi; Doi, Toshio

    2018-04-01

    Alectinib is a second generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine kinase inhibitor and is generally effective and tolerated in patients who have demonstrated disease progression or adverse effects while on the first generation inhibitor, crizotinib. ALK inhibitors can cause a reversible chronic increase of serum creatinine concentration; however, they rarely induce progressive renal insufficiency. We herein report a case of a 68-year-old woman diagnosed with ALK-positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer and who received ALK inhibitors. Due to dysgeusia and transaminitis, her medication was switched from crizotinib to alectinib. Rapid progressive glomerulonephritis developed 1 year after the initiation of alectinib treatment. A renal biopsy revealed unique kidney lesions in both tubules and glomeruli. Glucocorticoid therapy partially reversed kidney impairment. However, re-administration of alectinib caused kidney dysfunction, which was improved by the cessation of alectinib. Our case suggests that much attention should be paid to kidney function when using ALK inhibitors.

  1. Casein Kinase 2 Is a Novel Regulator of the Human Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2) Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ting; Cheung, Florence Shin Gee; Zheng, Jian; Lu, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Ling; Grewal, Thomas; Murray, Michael; Zhou, Fanfan

    2016-01-04

    Human organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) mediate the influx of many important drugs into cells. Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a critical protein kinase that phosphorylates >300 protein substrates and is dysregulated in a number of disease states. Among the CK2 substrates are several transporters, although whether this includes human OATPs has not been evaluated. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the regulation of human OATP1A2 by CK2. HEK-239T cells in which OATP1A2 was overexpressed were treated with CK2 specific inhibitors or transfected with CK2 specific siRNA, and the activity, expression, and subcellular trafficking of OATP1A2 was evaluated. CK2 inhibition decreased the uptake of the prototypic OATP1A2 substrate estrone-3-sulfate (E3S). Kinetic studies revealed that this was due to a decrease in the maximum velocity (Vmax) of E3S uptake, while the Michaelis constant was unchanged. The cell surface expression, but not the total cellular expression of OATP1A2, was impaired by CK2 inhibition and knockdown of the catalytic α-subunits of CK2. CK2 inhibition decreased the internalization of OATP1A2 via a clathrin-dependent pathway, decreased OATP1A2 recycling, and likely impaired OATP1A2 targeting to the cell surface. Consistent with these findings, CK2 inhibition also disrupted the colocalization of OATP1A2 and Rab GTPase (Rab)4-, Rab8-, and Rab9-positive endosomal and secretory vesicles. Taken together, CK2 has emerged as a novel regulator of the subcellular trafficking and stability of OATP1A2. Because OATP1A2 transports many molecules of physiological and pharmacological importance, the present data may inform drug selection in patients with diseases in which CK2 and OATP1A2 are dysregulated.

  2. Nephrotoxicity of Epigenetic Inhibitors Used for the Treatment of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Scholpa, N.E.; Kolli, R.T.; Moore, M.; Arnold, R.D.; Glenn, T.C.; Cummings, B.S.

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the anti-neoplastic activity and nephrotoxicity of epigenetic inhibitors in vitro. The therapeutic efficacy of epigenetic inhibitors was determined in human prostate cancer cells (PC-3 and LNCaP) using the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azacytidine (5-Aza) and the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA). Cells were also treated with carbamazepine (CBZ), an anti-convulsant with histone deacetylase inhibitor-like properties. 5-Aza, TSA or CBZ alone did not decrease MTT staining in PC-3 or LNCaP cells after 48 hr. In contrast, docetaxel, a frontline chemotherapeutic induced concentration-dependent decreases in MTT staining. Pretreatment with 5-Aza or TSA increased docetaxel-induced cytotoxicity in LNCaP cells, but not PC-3 cells. TSA pretreatment also increased cisplatin-induced toxicity in LNCaP cells. Carfilzomib (CFZ), a protease inhibitor approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma had minimal effect on LNCaP cell viability, but reduced MTT staining 50% in PC-3 cells compared to control, and pretreatment with 5-Aza further enhanced toxicity. Treatment of normal rat kidney (NRK) and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells with the same concentrations of epigenetic inhibitors used in prostate cancer cells significantly decreased MTT staining in all cell lines after 48 hr. Interestingly, we found that the toxicity of epigenetic inhibitors to kidney cells was dependent on both the compound and the stage of cell growth. The effect of 5-Aza and TSA on DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase activity, respectively, was confirmed by assessing the methylation and acetylation of the CDK inhibitor p21. Collectively, these data show that combinatorial treatment with epigenetic inhibitors alters the efficacy of chemotherapeutics in cancer cells in a compound- and cell-specific manner; however, this treatment also has the potential to induce nephrotoxic cell injury. PMID:27543423

  3. Potential non-oncological applications of histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ververis, Katherine; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors have emerged as a new class of anticancer therapeutic drugs. Their clinical utility in oncology stems from their intrinsic cytotoxic properties and combinatorial effects with other conventional cancer therapies. To date, the histone deacetylase inhibitors suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (Vorinostat, Zolinza®) and depsipeptide (Romidepsin, Istodax®) have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Further, there are currently over 100 clinical trials involving the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors in a wide range of solid and hematological malignancies. The therapeutic potential of histone deacetylase inhibitors has also been investigated for numerous other diseases. For example, the cytotoxic properties of histone deacetylase inhibitors are currently being harnessed as a potential treatment for malaria, whereas the efficacy of these compounds for HIV relies on de-silencing latent virus. The anti-inflammatory properties of histone deacetylase inhibitors are the predominant mechanisms for other diseases, such as hepatitis, systemic lupus erythematosus and a wide range of neurodegenerative conditions. Additionally, histone deacetylase inhibitors have been shown to be efficacious in animal models of cardiac hypertrophy and asthma. Broad-spectrum histone deacetylase inhibitors are clinically available and have been used almost exclusively in preclinical systems to date. However, it is emerging that class- or isoform-specific compounds, which are becoming more readily available, may be more efficacious particularly for non-oncological applications. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the effects and clinical potential of histone deacetylase inhibitors in various diseases. Apart from applications in oncology, the discussion is focused on the potential efficacy of histone deacetylase inhibitors for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, cardiac

  4. Potential non-oncological applications of histone deacetylase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ververis, Katherine; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors have emerged as a new class of anticancer therapeutic drugs. Their clinical utility in oncology stems from their intrinsic cytotoxic properties and combinatorial effects with other conventional cancer therapies. To date, the histone deacetylase inhibitors suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (Vorinostat, Zolinza®) and depsipeptide (Romidepsin, Istodax®) have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Further, there are currently over 100 clinical trials involving the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors in a wide range of solid and hematological malignancies. The therapeutic potential of histone deacetylase inhibitors has also been investigated for numerous other diseases. For example, the cytotoxic properties of histone deacetylase inhibitors are currently being harnessed as a potential treatment for malaria, whereas the efficacy of these compounds for HIV relies on de-silencing latent virus. The anti-inflammatory properties of histone deacetylase inhibitors are the predominant mechanisms for other diseases, such as hepatitis, systemic lupus erythematosus and a wide range of neurodegenerative conditions. Additionally, histone deacetylase inhibitors have been shown to be efficacious in animal models of cardiac hypertrophy and asthma. Broad-spectrum histone deacetylase inhibitors are clinically available and have been used almost exclusively in preclinical systems to date. However, it is emerging that class- or isoform-specific compounds, which are becoming more readily available, may be more efficacious particularly for non-oncological applications. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the effects and clinical potential of histone deacetylase inhibitors in various diseases. Apart from applications in oncology, the discussion is focused on the potential efficacy of histone deacetylase inhibitors for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, cardiac

  5. Emerging strategies for EphA2 receptor targeting for cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Manish; Vemula, Sai Vikram; Mittal, Suresh K

    2011-01-01

    High mortality rates with cancers warrant further development of earlier diagnostics and better treatment strategies. Membrane-bound erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular receptor tyrosine kinase class A2 (EphA2) is overexpressed in breast, prostate, urinary bladder, skin, lung, ovary and brain cancers. EphA2 overexpression in cancers, its signaling mechanisms and strategies to target its deregulation. High EphA2 expression in cancer cells is correlated with a poor prognosis associated with recurrence due to enhanced metastasis. Interaction of the EphA2 receptor with its ligand (e.g., ephrinA1) triggers events that are deregulated and implicated in carcinogenesis. EphrinA1-independent oncogenic activity and ephrinA1-dependent tumor suppressor roles for EphA2 are described. Molecular interactions of EphA2 with signaling proteins are associated with the modulation of cytoskeleton dynamics, cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and metastasis. The deregulated signaling by EphA2 and its involvement in oncogenesis provide multiple avenues for the rational design of intervention approaches. EphA2 has been tested as a drug target using multiple approaches such as agonist antibodies, RNA interference, immunotherapy, virus vector-mediated gene transfer, small-molecule inhibitors and nanoparticles. With over a decade of research, encouraging results with targeting of EphA2 expression in various pre-clinical cancer models necessitate further studies.

  6. Development of Heat Shock Protein (Hsp90) Inhibitors To Combat Resistance to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors through Hsp90-Kinase Interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meining; Shen, Aijun; Zhang, Chi; Song, Zilan; Ai, Jing; Liu, Hongchun; Sun, Liping; Ding, Jian; Geng, Meiyu; Zhang, Ao

    2016-06-23

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a ubiquitous chaperone of all of the oncogenic tyrosine kinases. Many Hsp90 inhibitors, alone or in combination, have shown significant antitumor efficacy against the kinase-positive naïve and mutant models. However, clinical trials of these inhibitors are unsuccessful due to insufficient clinical benefits and nonoptimal safety profiles. Recently, much progress has been reported on the Hsp90-cochaperone-client complex, which will undoubtedly assist in the understanding of the interactions between Hsp90 and its clients. Meanwhile, Hsp90 inhibitors have shown promise against patients' resistance caused by early generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), and at least 13 Hsp90 inhibitors are being reevaluated in the clinic. In this regard, the objectives of the current perspective are to summarize the structure and function of the Hsp90-cochaperone-client complex, to analyze the structural and functional insights into the Hsp90-client interactions to address several existing unresolved problems with Hsp90 inhibitors, and to highlight the preclinical and clinical studies of Hsp90 inhibitors as an effective treatment against resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

  7. Retro-binding thrombin active site inhibitors: identification of an orally active inhibitor of thrombin catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Iwanowicz, Edwin J; Kimball, S David; Lin, James; Lau, Wan; Han, W-C; Wang, Tammy C; Roberts, Daniel G M; Schumacher, W A; Ogletree, Martin L; Seiler, Steven M

    2002-11-04

    A series of retro-binding inhibitors of human alpha-thrombin was prepared to elucidate structure-activity relationships (SAR) and optimize in vivo performance. Compounds 9 and 11, orally active inhibitors of thrombin catalytic activity, were identified to be efficacious in a thrombin-induced lethality model in mice.

  8. Quantitative structure activity relationship studies of mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Chao-Bin; Luo, Wan-Chun; Ding, Qi; Liu, Shou-Zhu; Gao, Xing-Xiang

    2008-05-01

    Here, we report our results from quantitative structure-activity relationship studies on tyrosinase inhibitors. Interactions between benzoic acid derivatives and tyrosinase active sites were also studied using a molecular docking method. These studies indicated that one possible mechanism for the interaction between benzoic acid derivatives and the tyrosinase active site is the formation of a hydrogen-bond between the hydroxyl (aOH) and carbonyl oxygen atoms of Tyr98, which stabilized the position of Tyr98 and prevented Tyr98 from participating in the interaction between tyrosinase and ORF378. Tyrosinase, also known as phenoloxidase, is a key enzyme in animals, plants and insects that is responsible for catalyzing the hydroxylation of tyrosine into o-diphenols and the oxidation of o-diphenols into o-quinones. In the present study, the bioactivities of 48 derivatives of benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, and cinnamic acid compounds were used to construct three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models using comparative molecular field (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices (CoMSIA) analyses. After superimposition using common substructure-based alignments, robust and predictive 3D-QSAR models were obtained from CoMFA ( q 2 = 0.855, r 2 = 0.978) and CoMSIA ( q 2 = 0.841, r 2 = 0.946), with 6 optimum components. Chemical descriptors, including electronic (Hammett σ), hydrophobic (π), and steric (MR) parameters, hydrogen bond acceptor (H-acc), and indicator variable ( I), were used to construct a 2D-QSAR model. The results of this QSAR indicated that π, MR, and H-acc account for 34.9, 31.6, and 26.7% of the calculated biological variance, respectively. The molecular interactions between ligand and target were studied using a flexible docking method (FlexX). The best scored candidates were docked flexibly, and the interaction between the benzoic acid derivatives and the tyrosinase active site was elucidated in detail. We believe

  9. 42 CFR 5a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability. 5a.2 Section 5a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN... Public Health Service Act. ...

  10. 42 CFR 5a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability. 5a.2 Section 5a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN... Public Health Service Act. ...

  11. 42 CFR 5a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability. 5a.2 Section 5a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN... Public Health Service Act. ...

  12. 42 CFR 5a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability. 5a.2 Section 5a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN... Public Health Service Act. ...

  13. 42 CFR 5a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability. 5a.2 Section 5a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN... Public Health Service Act. ...

  14. Diarylsulfonamides and their bioisosteres as dual inhibitors of alkaline phosphatase and carbonic anhydrase: Structure activity relationship and molecular modelling studies.

    PubMed

    Al-Rashida, Mariya; Ejaz, Syeda Abida; Ali, Sharafat; Shaukat, Aisha; Hamayoun, Mehwish; Ahmed, Maqsood; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2015-05-15

    The effect of bioisosteric replacement of carboxamide linking group with sulfonamide linking group, on alkaline phosphatase (AP) and carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibition activity of aromatic benzenesulfonamides was investigated. A series of carboxamide linked aromatic benzenesulfonamides 1a-1c, 2a-2d and their sulfonamide linked bioisosteres 3a-3d, 4a-4d was synthesized and evaluated for inhibitory activity against bovine tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and bCA II. A significant increase in CA inhibition activity was observed upon bioisosteric replacement of carboxamide linking group with a sulfonamide group. Some of these compounds were identified as highly potent and selective AP inhibitors. Compounds 1b, 2b, 3d, 4d 5b and 5c were found to be selective bTNAP inhibitors, whereas compounds 1a, 1c, 2a, 2c, 2d, 3a, 3c, 4a, 4b, 4c, 5a were found to be selective bIAP inhibitors. For most active AP inhibitor 3b, detailed kinetic studies indicated a competitive mode of inhibition against tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and non-competitive mode of inhibition against intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP). Molecular docking studies were carried out to rationalize important binding site interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 42 CFR 136a.2 - Administrative instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative instructions. 136a.2 Section 136a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Purpose § 136a.2 Administrative instructions. The...

  16. 42 CFR 65a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 65a.2 Section 65a.2 Public Health... § 65a.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the Comprehensive Environmental Response..., or (ii) is an institution whose credits are accepted, on transfer, by not less than three...

  17. 42 CFR 65a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 65a.2 Section 65a.2 Public Health... § 65a.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the Comprehensive Environmental Response..., or (ii) is an institution whose credits are accepted, on transfer, by not less than three...

  18. 42 CFR 65a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 65a.2 Section 65a.2 Public Health... § 65a.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the Comprehensive Environmental Response..., or (ii) is an institution whose credits are accepted, on transfer, by not less than three...

  19. 32 CFR 168a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability. 168a.2 Section 168a.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.2 Applicability. This part applies to the Office of...

  20. 32 CFR 168a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability. 168a.2 Section 168a.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.2 Applicability. This part applies to the Office of...

  1. 32 CFR 168a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability. 168a.2 Section 168a.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.2 Applicability. This part applies to the Office of...

  2. 32 CFR 352a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 352a.2 Section 352a.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTERS DEFENSE FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING SERVICE (DFAS) § 352a.2 Applicability. This part applies to the...

  3. 42 CFR 51a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 51a.2 Section 51a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS PROJECT GRANTS FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH § 51a.2 Definitions. Act means the Social Security Act, as amended. Genetic diseases means...

  4. 42 CFR 51a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 51a.2 Section 51a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS PROJECT GRANTS FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH § 51a.2 Definitions. Act means the Social Security Act, as amended. Genetic diseases means...

  5. 42 CFR 51a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 51a.2 Section 51a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS PROJECT GRANTS FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH § 51a.2 Definitions. Act means the Social Security Act, as amended. Genetic diseases means...

  6. 42 CFR 51a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 51a.2 Section 51a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS PROJECT GRANTS FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH § 51a.2 Definitions. Act means the Social Security Act, as amended. Genetic diseases means...

  7. 18 CFR 3a.2 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority. 3a.2 Section 3a.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.2 Authority. Official information or...

  8. 18 CFR 3a.2 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Authority. 3a.2 Section 3a.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.2 Authority. Official information or...

  9. 18 CFR 3a.2 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Authority. 3a.2 Section 3a.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.2 Authority. Official information or...

  10. 18 CFR 3a.2 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Authority. 3a.2 Section 3a.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.2 Authority. Official information or...

  11. 42 CFR 65a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 65a.2 Section 65a.2 Public Health... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES BASIC RESEARCH AND TRAINING GRANTS § 65a.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

  12. 42 CFR 59a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 59a.2 Section 59a.2 Public Health... Grants for Establishing, Expanding, and Improving Basic Resources § 59a.2 Definitions. Undefined terms... relating to the health sciences. Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services and any other...

  13. 42 CFR 63a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 63a.2 Section 63a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH TRAINING GRANTS § 63a.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the...

  14. 42 CFR 63a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 63a.2 Section 63a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH TRAINING GRANTS § 63a.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the...

  15. 42 CFR 63a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 63a.2 Section 63a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH TRAINING GRANTS § 63a.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the...

  16. 32 CFR 237a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 237a.2 Section 237a.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PUBLIC AFFAIRS LIAISON WITH INDUSTRY § 237a.2 Applicability. The provisions of this part apply to all...

  17. EphA2 is a key effector of the MEK/ERK/RSK pathway regulating glioblastoma cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Hamaoka, Yuho; Negishi, Manabu; Katoh, Hironori

    2016-08-01

    EphA2, a member of the Eph receptor tyrosine kinases, is frequently overexpressed in a variety of malignancies, including glioblastoma, and its expression is correlated with poor prognosis. EphA2 acts as a tumor promoter through a ligand ephrin-independent mechanism, which requires phosphorylation of EphA2 on serine 897 (S897), leading to increased cell migration and invasion. In this study, we show that ligand-independent EphA2 signaling occurs downstream of the MEK/ERK/RSK pathway and mediates epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced cell proliferation in glioblastoma cells. Suppression of EphA2 expression by long-term exposure to ligand ephrinA1 or EphA2-targeted shRNA inhibited EGF-induced cell proliferation. Stimulation of the cells with EGF induced EphA2 S897 phosphorylation, which was suppressed by MEK and RSK inhibitors, but not by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt inhibitors. The RSK inhibitor or RSK2-targeted shRNA also suppressed EGF-induced cell proliferation. Furthermore, overexpression of wild-type EphA2 promoted cell proliferation without EGF stimulation, whereas overexpression of EphA2-S897A mutant suppressed EGF- or RSK2-induced proliferation. Taken together, these results suggest that EphA2 is a key downstream target of the MEK/ERK/RSK signaling pathway in the regulation of glioblastoma cell proliferation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. VEGF increases paracellular permeability in brain endothelial cells via upregulation of EphA2.

    PubMed

    Miao, Ziwei; Dong, Yanbin; Fang, Wengang; Shang, Deshu; Liu, Dongxin; Zhang, Ke; Li, Bo; Chen, Yu-Hua

    2014-05-01

    Neurological disorders are associated with an increase in the permeability of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). Our previous findings have indicated that EphA2 could increase the permeability of HBMEC. Recent evidence has linked EphA2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to abnormalities in the vascular response. However, it is unclear whether EphA2 is involved in the VEGF-induced changes in the permeability of HBMEC. Here, changes in permeability were determined by measuring transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and the flux of FITC-dextran. We found that knockdown of EphA2 in HBMEC abolished the VEGF-induced reduction in TEER and increase in flux of fluorescent dextran. Moreover, VEGF-induced redistribution of ZO-1 and the recruitment of detergent-soluble occludin and claudin-5 were also prevented. Further results showed that VEGF increased EphA2 expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which was inhibited by a neutralizing antibody against VEGFR2 or SU1498. VEGF-induced EphA2 expression was suppressed in the brain endothelium following treatments with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, Akt inhibitor or transfection with the dominant-negative PI3K mutants (Δp110). Similar results were obtained when ERK1/2 activation was inhibited by PD98059 or ERK1/2 siRNA transfection. Our data suggest that VEGF upregulates the expression of EphA2 in HBMEC through binding to VEGFR2 and subsequently activating the intracellular PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways, which contribute to an increase in paracellular permeability. These data reveal a novel role for VEGF as a regulator of EphA2 expression in the brain endothelial cells and provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of VEGF-mediated changes in paracellular permeability. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Combination Kinase Inhibitor Treatment Suppresses Rift Valley Fever Virus Replication.

    PubMed

    Bell, Todd M; Espina, Virginia; Lundberg, Lindsay; Pinkham, Chelsea; Brahms, Ashwini; Carey, Brian D; Lin, Shih-Chao; Dahal, Bibha; Woodson, Caitlin; de la Fuente, Cynthia; Liotta, Lance A; Bailey, Charles L; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

    2018-04-13

    Viruses must parasitize host cell translational machinery in order to make proteins for viral progeny. In this study, we sought to use this signal transduction conduit against them by inhibiting multiple kinases that influence translation. Previous work indicated that several kinases involved in translation, including p70 S6K, p90RSK, ERK, and p38 MAPK, are phosphorylated following Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infection. Furthermore, inhibiting p70 S6K through treatment with the FDA approved drug rapamycin prevents RVFV pathogenesis in a mouse model of infection. We hypothesized that inhibiting either p70 S6K, p90RSK, or p90RSK’s upstream kinases, ERK and p38 MAPK, would decrease translation and subsequent viral replication. Treatment with the p70 S6K inhibitor PF-4708671 resulted in decreased phosphorylation of translational proteins and reduced RVFV titers. In contrast, treatment with the p90RSK inhibitor BI-D1870, p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580, or the ERK inhibitor PD0325901 alone had minimal influence on RVFV titers. The combination of PF-4708671 and BI-D1870 treatment resulted in robust inhibition of RVFV replication. Likewise, a synergistic inhibition of RVFV replication was observed with p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580 or the ERK inhibitor PD0325901 combined with rapamycin treatment. These findings serve as a proof of concept regarding combination kinase inhibitor treatment for RVFV infection.

  20. Combination Kinase Inhibitor Treatment Suppresses Rift Valley Fever Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Todd M.; Espina, Virginia; Lundberg, Lindsay; Pinkham, Chelsea; Brahms, Ashwini; Dahal, Bibha; Woodson, Caitlin; de la Fuente, Cynthia; Liotta, Lance A.; Bailey, Charles L.

    2018-01-01

    Viruses must parasitize host cell translational machinery in order to make proteins for viral progeny. In this study, we sought to use this signal transduction conduit against them by inhibiting multiple kinases that influence translation. Previous work indicated that several kinases involved in translation, including p70 S6K, p90RSK, ERK, and p38 MAPK, are phosphorylated following Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infection. Furthermore, inhibiting p70 S6K through treatment with the FDA approved drug rapamycin prevents RVFV pathogenesis in a mouse model of infection. We hypothesized that inhibiting either p70 S6K, p90RSK, or p90RSK’s upstream kinases, ERK and p38 MAPK, would decrease translation and subsequent viral replication. Treatment with the p70 S6K inhibitor PF-4708671 resulted in decreased phosphorylation of translational proteins and reduced RVFV titers. In contrast, treatment with the p90RSK inhibitor BI-D1870, p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580, or the ERK inhibitor PD0325901 alone had minimal influence on RVFV titers. The combination of PF-4708671 and BI-D1870 treatment resulted in robust inhibition of RVFV replication. Likewise, a synergistic inhibition of RVFV replication was observed with p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580 or the ERK inhibitor PD0325901 combined with rapamycin treatment. These findings serve as a proof of concept regarding combination kinase inhibitor treatment for RVFV infection. PMID:29652799

  1. Diabetes therapies in hemodialysis patients: Dipeptidase-4 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yuya; Hasegawa, Hitomi; Tsuji, Mayumi; Udaka, Yuko; Mihara, Masatomo; Shimizu, Tatsuo; Inoue, Michiyasu; Goto, Yoshikazu; Gotoh, Hiromichi; Inagaki, Masahiro; Oguchi, Katsuji

    2015-01-01

    Although several previous studies have been published on the effects of dipeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors in diabetic hemodialysis (HD) patients, the findings have yet to be reviewed comprehensively. Eyesight failure caused by diabetic retinopathy and aging-related dementia make multiple daily insulin injections difficult for HD patients. Therefore, we reviewed the effects of DPP-4 inhibitors with a focus on oral antidiabetic drugs as a new treatment strategy in HD patients with diabetes. The following 7 DPP-4 inhibitors are available worldwide: sitagliptin, vildagliptin, alogliptin, linagliptin, teneligliptin, anagliptin, and saxagliptin. All of these are administered once daily with dose adjustments in HD patients. Four types of oral antidiabetic drugs can be administered for combination oral therapy with DPP-4 inhibitors, including sulfonylureas, meglitinide, thiazolidinediones, and alpha-glucosidase inhibitor. Nine studies examined the antidiabetic effects in HD patients. Treatments decreased hemoglobin A1c and glycated albumin levels by 0.3% to 1.3% and 1.7% to 4.9%, respectively. The efficacy of DPP-4 inhibitor treatment is high among HD patients, and no patients exhibited significant severe adverse effects such as hypoglycemia and liver dysfunction. DPP-4 inhibitors are key drugs in new treatment strategies for HD patients with diabetes and with limited choices for diabetes treatment. PMID:26131325

  2. Glycation, carbonyl stress and AGEs inhibitors: a patent review.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Humera; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    The glycation process, comprising a series of reactions, results in the formation of heterogeneous adducts, known as advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs are involved in several pathologies, including diabetes-associated late complications, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and inflammatory arthritis. Several inhibitors of AGEs and/or reactive carbonyl species have been identified from various sources, including natural products and synthetic molecules, and have been investigated for their mechanism of action. This review covers the literature on AGEs inhibitors published as patents between 2001 and 2014. Initially, the earlier reported molecules with AGEs inhibitory properties, their mechanism of actions and reported adverse effects are discussed. The main focus has been on the chemical structures, methods for evaluation of the activity, modes of action, pharmacokinetics and therapeutic outcomes. The potential of these AGEs inhibitors in the treatment and management of a number of diseases are also discussed in this review. The reactive carbonyl species and AGEs have recently emerged as novel therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of several diseases. Currently, the major concerns with the use of AGEs inhibitors as therapeutic agents are low effectiveness, poor pharmacokinetics and undesirable side effects. Many of the AGEs inhibitors reviewed here possess potent antiglycation activity and are devoid of undesirable side effects. These small molecules inhibitors can, therefore, serve as scaffolds for the development and designing of new AGEs inhibitors as clinical agents.

  3. DNA synthesis inhibitors for the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Hiroshi; Tsurita, Giichiro; Imai, Kohzoh

    2014-11-01

    Intensive laboratory, preclinical and clinical studies have identified and validated molecular targets in cancers, leading to a shift toward the development of novel, rationally designed and specific therapeutic agents. However, gastrointestinal cancers continue to have a poor prognosis, largely due to drug resistance. Here, we discuss the current understanding of DNA synthesis inhibitors and their mechanisms of action for the treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies. Conventional agents, including DNA synthesis inhibitors such as fluoropyrimidines and platinum analogs, remain the most effective therapeutics and are the standards against which new drugs are compared. Novel DNA synthesis inhibitors for the treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies include a combination of the antimetabolite TAS-102, which consists of trifluorothymidine with a thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor, and a novel micellar formulation of cisplatin NC-6004 that uses a nanotechnology-based drug delivery system. The challenges of translational cancer research using DNA synthesis inhibitors include the identification of drugs that are specific to tumor cells to reduce toxicity and increase antitumor efficacy, biomarkers to predict pharmacological responses to chemotherapeutic drugs, identification of ways to overcome drug resistance and development of novel combination therapies with DNA synthesis inhibitors and other cancer therapies, such as targeted molecular therapeutics. Here, we discuss the current understanding of DNA synthesis inhibitors and their mechanisms of action for the treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies.

  4. Evaluating Fmoc-amino acids as selective inhibitors of butyrylcholinesterase

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Jeannette; Ramirez, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Cholinesterases are involved in neuronal signal transduction, and perturbation of function has been implicated in diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s disease. For the two major classes of cholinesterases, such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), previous studies reported BChE activity is elevated in patients with Alzheimer’s disease, while AChE levels remain the same or decrease. Thus, the development of potent and specific inhibitors of BChE have received much attention as a potential therapeutic in the alleviation of neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we evaluated amino acid analogs as selective inhibitors of BChE. Amino acid analogs bearing a 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (Fmoc) group were tested, as the Fmoc group has structural resemblance to previously described inhibitors. We identified leucine, lysine, and tryptophan analogs bearing the Fmoc group as selective inhibitors of BChE. The Fmoc group contributed to inhibition, as analogs bearing a carboxybenzyl group showed ~tenfold higher values for the inhibition constant (KI value). Inclusion of a t-butoxycarbonyl on the side chain of Fmoc tryptophan led to an eightfold lower KI value compared to Fmoc tryptophan alone suggesting that modifications of the amino acid side chains may be designed to create inhibitors with higher affinity. Our results identify Fmoc-amino acids as a scaffold upon which to design BChE-specific inhibitors and provide the foundation for further experimental and computational studies to dissect the interactions that contribute to inhibitor binding. PMID:27522651

  5. Evaluating Fmoc-amino acids as selective inhibitors of butyrylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Jeannette; Ramirez, Jennifer; Schwans, Jason P

    2016-12-01

    Cholinesterases are involved in neuronal signal transduction, and perturbation of function has been implicated in diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease. For the two major classes of cholinesterases, such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), previous studies reported BChE activity is elevated in patients with Alzheimer's disease, while AChE levels remain the same or decrease. Thus, the development of potent and specific inhibitors of BChE have received much attention as a potential therapeutic in the alleviation of neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we evaluated amino acid analogs as selective inhibitors of BChE. Amino acid analogs bearing a 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (Fmoc) group were tested, as the Fmoc group has structural resemblance to previously described inhibitors. We identified leucine, lysine, and tryptophan analogs bearing the Fmoc group as selective inhibitors of BChE. The Fmoc group contributed to inhibition, as analogs bearing a carboxybenzyl group showed ~tenfold higher values for the inhibition constant (K I value). Inclusion of a t-butoxycarbonyl on the side chain of Fmoc tryptophan led to an eightfold lower K I value compared to Fmoc tryptophan alone suggesting that modifications of the amino acid side chains may be designed to create inhibitors with higher affinity. Our results identify Fmoc-amino acids as a scaffold upon which to design BChE-specific inhibitors and provide the foundation for further experimental and computational studies to dissect the interactions that contribute to inhibitor binding.

  6. Bisubstrate inhibitors of protein kinases: from principle to practical applications.

    PubMed

    Lavogina, Darja; Enkvist, Erki; Uri, Asko

    2010-01-01

    Bisubstrate inhibitors consist of two conjugated fragments, each targeted to a different binding site of a bisubstrate enzyme. The design of bisubstrate inhibitors presupposes the formation of the ternary complex in the course of the catalyzed reaction. The principle advantage of bisubstrate inhibitors is their ability to generate more interactions with the target enzyme that could result in improved affinity and selectivity of the conjugates, when compared with single-site inhibitors. Among phosphotransferases, the approach was first successfully used for adenylate kinase in 1973. Since then, several types of bisubstrate inhibitors have been developed for protein kinases, including conjugates of peptides with nucleotides, adenosine derivatives and potent ATP-competitive inhibitors. Earlier bisubstrate inhibitors had pharmacokinetic qualities that were unsuitable for cellular experiments and hence were mostly used for in vitro studies. The recently constructed conjugates of adenosine derivatives and D-arginine-rich peptides (ARCs) possess high kinase affinity, high biological and chemical stability and good cell plasma membrane penetrative properties that enable their application in the regulation of cellular protein phosphorylation balances in cell and tissue experiments.

  7. Polyphenol oxidase inhibitor from blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) extract.

    PubMed

    Schulbach, Kurt F; Johnson, Jodie V; Simonne, Amarat H; Kim, Jeong-Mok; Jeong, Yoonhwa; Yagiz, Yavuz; Marshall, Maurice R

    2013-03-01

    Enzymatic browning remains a problem for the fruit and vegetable industry, especially new emerging markets like pre-cuts. A crude inhibitor from blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) showed broad inhibition for apple (58%), mushroom (32%), and potato (44%) polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and was further characterized. Inhibition increased as the concentration of inhibitor increased in the reaction mixture eventually leveling off at a maximum inhibition of 92% for apple PPO. The inhibitor was capable of bleaching the brown color formed in the reaction mixture with apple PPO. Identification of the inhibitor by mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography revealed it to be hypotaurine (C2 H7 NO2 S). Hypotaurine and other sulfinic acid analogs (methane and benzene sulfinic acids) showed very good inhibition for apple PPO at various concentrations with the highest inhibition occurring at 500 μM for hypotaurine (89%), methane sulfinic acid (100%), and benzene sulfinic acid (100%). An inhibitor found in the expressed liquid from blue mussel shows very good inhibition on enzymatic browning. Since this enzyme is responsible for losses to the fruit and vegetable industry, natural inhibitors that prevent browning would be valuable. Finding alternative chemistries that inhibit browning and understanding their mode of action would be beneficial to the fruit and vegetable industries and their segments such as pre-cuts, juices, and so on. Inhibitors from products ingested by consumers are more acceptable as natural ingredients. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Enzymes and Inhibitors in Neonicotinoid Insecticide Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xueyan; Dick, Ryan A.; Ford, Kevin A.; Casida, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticide metabolism involves considerable substrate specificity and regioselectivity of the relevant CYP450, aldehyde oxidase, and phase II enzymes. Human CYP450 recombinant enzymes carry out the following conversions: CYP3A4, 2C19 and 2B6 for thiamethoxam (TMX) to clothianidin (CLO); 3A4, 2C19 and 2A6 for CLO to desmethyl-CLO; 2C19 for TMX to desmethyl-TMX. Human liver aldehyde oxidase reduces the nitro substituent of CLO to nitroso much more rapidly than that of TMX. Imidacloprid (IMI), CLO and several of their metabolites do not give detectable N-glucuronides but 5-hydroxy-IMI, 4,5-diol-IMI and 4-hydroxy-thiacloprid are converted to O-glucuronides in vitro with mouse liver microsomes and UDP-glucuronic acid or in vivo in mice. Mouse liver cytosol with S-adenosylmethionine converts desmethyl-CLO to CLO but not desmethyl-TMX to TMX. Two organophosphorus CYP450 inhibitors partially block IMI, thiacloprid and CLO metabolism in vivo in mice, elevating the brain and liver levels of the parent compounds while reducing amounts of the hydroxylated metabolites. PMID:19391582

  9. The Chemically Elegant Proton Pump Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Victoria F.

    2006-01-01

    Medicinal chemistry instruction at Creighton University is designed to provide an in-depth scientifically grounded and clinically relevant learning experience for pharmacy students. Each topic covered in the 2-semester required course sequence is selected based on the general utility of the compounds in question and/or the therapeutic importance of the drugs in treating life-threatening diseases. All lessons provided to campus- and Web-based students by the author are in the form of a descriptive and conversational narrative and course requirements are in place to assure that students read the lesson prior to the class period in which it is discussed. Learning tools and aids are provided to help students more readily discern the most critical aspects of each lesson, to practice required critical thinking and structure analysis skills, and to self-assess competency in meeting specific learning objectives. This manuscript illustrates this approach by sharing a lesson on the chemistry and clinically relevant structure-activity relationships of proton pump inhibitors. PMID:17149430

  10. Clinically Applicable Inhibitors Impacting Genome Stability.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Anu; Garcia-Moreno, Juan F; Brown, James A L; Bourke, Emer

    2018-05-13

    Advances in technology have facilitated the molecular profiling (genomic and transcriptomic) of tumours, and has led to improved stratification of patients and the individualisation of treatment regimes. To fully realize the potential of truly personalised treatment options, we need targeted therapies that precisely disrupt the compensatory pathways identified by profiling which allow tumours to survive or gain resistance to treatments. Here, we discuss recent advances in novel therapies that impact the genome (chromosomes and chromatin), pathways targeted and the stage of the pathways targeted. The current state of research will be discussed, with a focus on compounds that have advanced into trials (clinical and pre-clinical). We will discuss inhibitors of specific DNA damage responses and other genome stability pathways, including those in development, which are likely to synergistically combine with current therapeutic options. Tumour profiling data, combined with the knowledge of new treatments that affect the regulation of essential tumour signalling pathways, is revealing fundamental insights into cancer progression and resistance mechanisms. This is the forefront of the next evolution of advanced oncology medicine that will ultimately lead to improved survival and may, one day, result in many cancers becoming chronic conditions, rather than fatal diseases.

  11. Protein kinase inhibitors against malignant lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    D’Cruz, Osmond J; Uckun, Fatih M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Tyrosine kinases (TKs) are intimately involved in multiple signal transduction pathways regulating survival, activation, proliferation and differentiation of lymphoid cells. Deregulation or overexpression of specific oncogenic TKs is implicated in maintaining the malignant phenotype in B-lineage lymphoid malignancies. Several novel targeted TK inhibitors (TKIs) have recently emerged as active in the treatment of relapsed or refractory B-cell lymphomas that inhibit critical signaling pathways, promote apoptotic mechanisms or modulate the tumor microenvironment. Areas covered In this review, the authors summarize the clinical outcomes of newer TKIs in various B-cell lymphomas from published and ongoing clinical studies and abstracts from major cancer and hematology conferences. Expert opinion Multiple clinical trials have demonstrated that robust antitumor activity can be obtained with TKIs directed toward specific oncogenic TKs that are genetically deregulated in various subtypes of B-cell lymphomas. Clinical success of targeting TKIs is dependent upon on identifying reliable molecular and clinical markers associated with select cohorts of patients. Further understanding of the signaling pathways should stimulate the identification of novel molecular targets and expand the development of new therapeutic options and individualized therapies. PMID:23496343

  12. Aptamers as inhibitors of target proteins.

    PubMed

    Missailidis, S; Hardy, A

    2009-08-01

    Aptamers as inhibitors of proteins in therapeutic applications offer great advantages over their antibody counterparts and the promise to be developed into the next generation therapeutic agents. However, the control of aptamer intellectual property (IP) by two major players has made aptamers an area difficult to operate and often off-putting for academic and commercial organisations. Yet, their great potential is keeping aptamers at the research forefront, with one aptamer in the clinic and various at different stages of clinical trials. To provide a comprehensive review of the aptamer IP landscape and the issues associated with aptamer therapeutics against protein targets. Extensive review of the scientific and patent literature. Following our experience in developing, patenting and commercialising our aptamers against MUC1 and an extensive review of the literature, we have identified a variety of issues pertaining to the development of aptamers against protein targets for therapeutic applications, their patenting and granting of patents, the original IP holders and their policy, as well as the current market and traits. Despite a slow start, aptamers have been developed against various therapeutic proteins and offer the promise of providing a novel generation of therapeutic entities with a variety of applications.

  13. Efflux inhibitor suppresses Streptococcus mutans virulence properties.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huihui; Liu, Jia; Ling, Junqi

    2017-04-01

    It is well established that efflux pumps play important roles in bacterial pathogenicity and efflux inhibitors (EIs) have been proved to be effective in suppressing bacterial virulence properties. However, little is known regarding the EI of Streptococcus mutans, a well-known caries-inducing bacterium. In this study, we identified the EI of S. mutans through ethidium bromide efflux assay and investigated how EI affected S. mutans virulence regarding the cariogenicity and stress response. Results indicated that reserpine, the identified EI, suppressed acid tolerance, mutacin production and transformation efficiency of S. mutans, and modified biofilm architecture and extracellular polysaccharide distribution. Suppressed glycosyltransferase activity was also noted after reserpine exposure. The data from quantitative real-time-PCR demonstrated that reserpine significantly altered the expression profile of quorum-sensing and virulence-associated genes. These findings suggest that reserpine represents a promising adjunct anticariogenic agent in that it suppresses virulence properties of S. mutans. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Ceruloplasmin Is an Endogenous Inhibitor of Myeloperoxidase*

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Anna L. P.; Mocatta, Tessa J.; Shiva, Sruti; Seidel, Antonia; Chen, Brian; Khalilova, Irada; Paumann-Page, Martina E.; Jameson, Guy N. L.; Winterbourn, Christine C.; Kettle, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase is a neutrophil enzyme that promotes oxidative stress in numerous inflammatory pathologies. It uses hydrogen peroxide to catalyze the production of strong oxidants including chlorine bleach and free radicals. A physiological defense against the inappropriate action of this enzyme has yet to be identified. We found that myeloperoxidase oxidized 75% of the ascorbate in plasma from ceruloplasmin knock-out mice, but there was no significant loss in plasma from wild type animals. When myeloperoxidase was added to human plasma it became bound to other proteins and was reversibly inhibited. Ceruloplasmin was the predominant protein associated with myeloperoxidase. When the purified proteins were mixed, they became strongly but reversibly associated. Ceruloplasmin was a potent inhibitor of purified myeloperoxidase, inhibiting production of hypochlorous acid by 50% at 25 nm. Ceruloplasmin rapidly reduced Compound I, the FeV redox intermediate of myeloperoxidase, to Compound II, which has FeIV in its heme prosthetic groups. It also prevented the fast reduction of Compound II by tyrosine. In the presence of chloride and hydrogen peroxide, ceruloplasmin converted myeloperoxidase to Compound II and slowed its conversion back to the ferric enzyme. Collectively, our results indicate that ceruloplasmin inhibits myeloperoxidase by reducing Compound I and then trapping the enzyme as inactive Compound II. We propose that ceruloplasmin should provide a protective shield against inadvertent oxidant production by myeloperoxidase during inflammation. PMID:23306200

  15. In silico development of new acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pascoini, A L; Federico, L B; Arêas, A L F; Verde, B A; Freitas, P G; Camps, I

    2018-04-19

    In this work, we made use of fragment-based drug design (FBDD) and de novo design to obtain more powerful acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. AChE is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). It was found that the cholinergic pathways in the cerebral cortex are compromised in AD and the accompanying cholinergic deficiency contributes to the cognitive deterioration of AD patients. In the FBDD approach, fragments are docked into the active site of the protein. As fragments are molecular groups with a low number of atoms, it is possible to study their interaction with localized amino acids. Once the interactions are measured, the fragments are organized by affinity and then linked together to form new molecules with a high degree of interaction with the active site. In the other approach, we used the de novo design technique starting from reference drugs used in the AD treatment. These drugs were broken into fragments (seeds). In the growing strategy, fragments were added to each seed, growing new molecules. In the linking strategy, two or more separated seeds were linked with different fragments. Both strategies combined produced a library of more than 2 million compounds. This library was filtered using absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion properties. The resulting library with around six thousand compounds was filtered again. In this case, structures with Tanimoto coefficients >.85 were discarded. The final library with 1500 compounds was submitted to docking studies. As a result, 10 compounds with better interaction energy than the reference drugs were obtained.

  16. SGLT2 Inhibitors in Diabetes Mellitus Treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Guzman, Juan; Rosas-Saucedo, Juan; Romero-Garcia, Alma R J

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic illness with high prevalence in Mexico, Latin- America, and the world and is associated to high morbidity, disability, and mortality rate, especially in developing countries. T2DM physiopathology is very complex; insulin resistance in the muscle, liver, and adipose tissue, a reduction in the production of incretins (mainly GLP-1) in the intestine, increased glucagon synthesis, an insufficient response of insulin generation, and increased glucose reabsorption in the kidney lead all together to an hyperglycemic state, which has been closely associated with the development of micro and macrovascular complications. Sodium Glucose Linked Transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are the most recent therapeutic class available for treating T2DM. SGLT2i central effect is a glycosuric action, and they can reverse the deleterious effect of tubular reabsorption of glucose in the diabetic patient resulting in greater hyperglycemia. Because their mechanism of action is completely different to current drugs, they can be considered as monotherapy or in combination with any other oral or parenteral medication, including different types of insulin or its analogues. This therapeutic synergy accomplishes a greater percentage of patients achieving glycemic control goals. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Biosynthesis of the trehalase inhibitor trehazolin.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Yasumasa; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Suzuki, Akinori; Sakuda, Shohei

    2002-03-01

    Trehazolin (1) is a trehalase inhibitor produced by Micromonospora coriacea. Biosynthesis of 1 was studied by feeding experiments with a variety of labeled precursors. Feeding experiments with [1-13C]- and [6-13C]-D-glucose revealed that the carbon skeletons of both a glucose residue and a cyclopentane ring moiety in 1 were each derived from glucose, and that C-C bond formation between C-1 and C-5 of glucose occurred during the cyclopentane ring formation. Furthermore, an experiment with [guanidino-13C, 15N2]-L-arginine revealed that two nitrogen atoms and a quaternary carbon atom involved in the aminooxazoline moiety of 1 originated from an amidino group of arginine. Further feeding experiments with [1-2H]-, [2-2H]-, [4-2H]-, [6,6-2H2]- and [1,2,3,4,5,6,6-2H7]-D-glucose as well as [1-13C]-D-fructose showed that deuteriums on C-1, C-3, C-4 and C-6 of glucose were retained during the formation of the cyclopentane ring moiety of 1.

  18. Potential Expanded Indications for Neprilysin Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Riddell, Elizabeth; Vader, Justin M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review The goal of this article is to review potential expanded indications for neprilysin inhibitors. This article reviews the rationale and design for ongoing and future trials of sacubitril/valsartan in cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular disease. Recent findings Randomized trial data are lacking for use of sacubitril/valsartan in acute heart failure and advanced heart failure. Mechanistic data from animal studies suggest a role for neprilysin inhibition in the treatment of post-myocardial infarction systolic dysfunction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Beyond the cardiovascular system, renal and neurological function may be impacted by neprilysin inhibition. Forthcoming randomized trials will address the clinical impact of sacubitril/valsartan on these conditions. Summary Neprolysin inhibition with sacubitril/valsartan offers a new therapeutic strategy with a broad range of potential therapeutic actions. In PARADIGM-HF, the combination of neprolysin and RAAS inhibition was proven to be superior to enalapril for patients with stable NYHA class II–III heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Preliminary data suggests it may also have a role in other cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular disease. Several ongoing and planned studies will determine the extent of its benefit for these other indications. PMID:28281174

  19. The dawn of hedgehog inhibitors: Vismodegib

    PubMed Central

    Sandhiya, Selvarajan; Melvin, George; Kumar, Srinivasamurthy Suresh; Dkhar, Steven Aibor

    2013-01-01

    Cancer, one of the leading causes of death worldwide is estimated to increase to approximately 13.1 million by 2030. This has amplified the research in oncology towards the exploration of novel targets. Recently there has been lots of interest regarding the hedgehog (Hh) pathway, which plays a significant role in the development of organs and tissues during embryonic and postnatal periods. In a normal person, the Hh signaling pathway is under inhibition and gets activated upon the binding of Hh ligand to a transmembrane receptor called Patched (PTCH1) thus allowing the transmembrane protein, smoothened (SMO) to transfer signals through various proteins. One of the newer drugs namely vismodegib involves the inhibition of Hh pathway and has shown promising results in the treatment of advanced basal-cell carcinoma as well as medulloblastoma. It has been granted approval by US Food and Drug Administration's (US FDA) priority review program on January 30, 2012 for the treatment of advanced basal-cell carcinoma. The drug is also being evaluated in malignancies like medulloblastoma, pancreatic cancer, multiple myeloma, chondrosarcoma and prostate cancer. Moreover various Hh inhibitors namely LDE 225, saridegib, BMS 833923, LEQ 506, PF- 04449913 and TAK-441 are also undergoing phase I and II trials for different neoplasms. Hence this review will describe briefly the Hh pathway and the novel drug vismodegib. PMID:23662017

  20. Inhibitors of Ras-SOS Interactions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shaoyong; Jang, Hyunbum; Zhang, Jian; Nussinov, Ruth

    2016-04-19

    Activating Ras mutations are found in about 30 % of human cancers. Ras activation is regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors, such as the son of sevenless (SOS), which form protein-protein interactions (PPIs) with Ras and catalyze the exchange of GDP by GTP. This is the rate-limiting step in Ras activation. However, Ras surfaces lack any evident suitable pockets where a molecule might bind tightly, rendering Ras proteins still 'undruggable' for over 30 years. Among the alternative approaches is the design of inhibitors that target the Ras-SOS PPI interface, a strategy that is gaining increasing recognition for treating Ras mutant cancers. Herein we focus on data that has accumulated over the past few years pertaining to the design of small-molecule modulators or peptide mimetics aimed at the interface of the Ras-SOS PPI. We emphasize, however, that even if such Ras-SOS therapeutics are potent, drug resistance may emerge. To counteract this development, we propose "pathway drug cocktails", that is, drug combinations aimed at parallel (or compensatory) pathways. A repertoire of classified cancer, cell/tissue, and pathway/protein combinations would be beneficial toward this goal. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Antiplatelet drug interactions with proton pump inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Stuart A; Obeng, Aniwaa Owusu; Hulot, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Non-aspirin antiplatelet agents (e.g., clopidogrel, prasugrel, ticagrelor) are commonly prescribed for the prevention of recurrent cardiovascular events among patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and/or those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In addition, combination therapy with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is often recommended to attenuate gastrointestinal bleeding risk, particularly during dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with clopidogrel and aspirin. Importantly, a pharmacological interaction between clopidogrel and some PPIs has been proposed based on mutual CYP450-dependent metabolism, but available evidence is inconsistent. Areas covered This article provides an overview of the currently approved antiplatelet agents and PPIs, including their metabolic pathways. Additionally, the CYP450 isoenzyme at the center of the drug interaction, CYP2C19, is described in detail, and the available evidence on both the potential pharmacological interaction and influence on clinical outcomes are summarized and evaluated. Expert opinion Although concomitant DAPT and PPI use reduces clopidogrel active metabolite levels and ex vivo-measured platelet inhibition, the influence of the drug interaction on clinical outcomes has been conflicting and largely reported from non-randomized observational studies. Despite this inconsistency, a clinically important interaction cannot be definitively excluded, particularly among patient subgroups with higher overall cardiovascular risk and potentially among CYP2C19 loss-of-function allele carriers. PMID:24205916

  2. Reverse transcriptase inhibitors as potential colorectal microbicides.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Carolina; Cranage, Martin; McGowan, Ian; Anton, Peter; Shattock, Robin J

    2009-05-01

    We investigated whether reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (RTI) can be combined to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of colorectal tissue ex vivo as part of a strategy to develop an effective rectal microbicide. The nucleotide RTI (NRTI) PMPA (tenofovir) and two nonnucleoside RTI (NNRTI), UC-781 and TMC120 (dapivirine), were evaluated. Each compound inhibited the replication of the HIV isolates tested in TZM-bl cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and colorectal explants. Dual combinations of the three compounds, either NRTI-NNRTI or NNRTI-NNRTI combinations, were more active than any of the individual compounds in both cellular and tissue models. Combinations were key to inhibiting infection by NRTI- and NNRTI-resistant isolates in all models tested. Moreover, we found that the replication capacities of HIV-1 isolates in colorectal explants were affected by single point mutations in RT that confer resistance to RTI. These data demonstrate that colorectal explants can be used to screen compounds for potential efficacy as part of a combination microbicide and to determine the mucosal fitness of RTI-resistant isolates. These findings may have important implications for the rational design of effective rectal microbicides.

  3. Mipomersen, an antisense apolipoprotein B synthesis inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Bell, Damon A; Hooper, Amanda J; Burnett, John R

    2011-02-01

    mipomersen is a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) targeted to human apolipoprotein (apo) B-100, a large protein synthesized by the liver that plays a fundamental role in human lipoprotein metabolism. Mipomersen predominantly distributes to the liver and decreases the production of apoB-100, the primary structural protein of the atherogenic lipoproteins including low density lipoprotein (LDL), thereby reducing plasma LDL-cholesterol and apoB-100 concentrations. the mode of action, preclinical development and clinical trials of mipomersen, an antisense apoB synthesis inhibitor. The paper provides an understanding of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of mipomersen and insight into its clinical efficacy and safety. In clinical trials, mipomersen produced dose-dependent and prolonged reductions in LDL-cholesterol and other apoB-containing lipoproteins, including lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] in healthy volunteers and in patients with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. Mipomersen has been shown to decrease apoB, LDL-cholesterol and Lp(a) in patients with heterozygous and homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia on maximally tolerated lipid-lowering therapy. mipomersen shows promise as an adjunctive agent by reducing apoB-containing lipoproteins in patients at high risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease who are not at target or are intolerant of statins. Although the short-term efficacy and safety of mipomersen has been established, concern exists regarding the long-term potential for hepatic steatosis with this ASO.

  4. Clinical implications of hedgehog signaling pathway inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hailan; Gu, Dongsheng; Xie, Jingwu

    2011-01-01

    Hedgehog was first described in Drosophila melanogaster by the Nobel laureates Eric Wieschaus and Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard. The hedgehog (Hh) pathway is a major regulator of cell differentiation, proliferation, tissue polarity, stem cell maintenance, and Carcinogenesis. The first link of Hh signaling to cancer was established through studies of a rare familial disease, Gorlin syndrome, in 1996. Follow-up studies revealed activation of this pathway in basal cell carcinoma, medulloblastoma and, leukemia as well as in gastrointestinal, lung, ovarian, breast, and prostate cancer. Targeted inhibition of Hh signaling is now believed to be effective in the treatment and prevention of human cancer. The discovery and synthesis of specific inhibitors for this pathway are even more exciting. In this review, we summarize major advances in the understanding of Hh signaling pathway activation in human cancer, mouse models for studying Hh-mediated Carcinogenesis, the roles of Hh signaling in tumor development and metastasis, antagonists for Hh signaling and their clinical implications. PMID:21192841

  5. Aromatase inhibitors in human lung cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Olga K; Marquez-Garban, Diana C; Fishbein, Michael C; Goodglick, Lee; Garban, Hermes J; Dubinett, Steven M; Pietras, Richard J

    2005-12-15

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world. It is a highly lethal disease in women and men, and new treatments are urgently needed. Previous studies implicated a role of estrogens and estrogen receptors in lung cancer progression, and this steroidal growth-stimulatory pathway may be promoted by tumor expression and activity of aromatase, an estrogen synthase. We found expression of aromatase transcripts and protein in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells using reverse transcription-PCR and Western immunoblots, respectively. Aromatase staining by immunohistochemistry was detected in 86% of archival NSCLC tumor specimens from the clinic. Further, biological activity of aromatase was determined in NSCLC tumors using radiolabeled substrate assays as well as measure of estradiol product using ELISA. Significant activity of aromatase occurred in human NSCLC tumors, with enhanced levels in tumor cells compared with that in nearby normal cells. Lung tumor aromatase activity was inhibited by anastrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, and treatment of tumor cells in vitro with anastrozole led to significant suppression of tumor cell growth. Similarly, among ovariectomized nude mice with A549 lung tumor xenografts, administration of anastrozole by p.o. gavage for 21 days elicited pronounced inhibition of tumor growth in vivo. These findings show that aromatase is present and biologically active in human NSCLCs and that tumor growth can be down-regulated by specific inhibition of aromatase. This work may lead to development of new treatment options for patients afflicted with NSCLC.

  6. Immunomodulatory effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Licciardi, P V; Ververis, K; Tang, M L; El-Osta, A; Karagiannis, T C

    2013-05-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have emerged as a new generation of anticancer therapeutics. The classical broad-spectrum HDACi typically alter the cell cycle distribution and induce cell death, apoptosis and differentiation in malignant and transformed cells. This provides the basis for the clinical potential of HDACi in cancer therapy. Currently two compounds, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, Vorinostat, Zolinza™) and depsipeptide (Romidepsin, Istodax™) have been approved for by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Apart from clinical application in oncology, HDACi have also been investigated as potential therapeutics for various pathologies including those of the central nervous system (such as Huntington's disease and multiple sclerosis), cardiac conditions (particularly hypertrophy), arthritis and malaria. Further, evidence is accumulating for potent immunomodulatory effects of classical HDACi which is the focus of this review. We review the antiinflammatory effects of HDACi and in particular findings implicating regulation of the innate and adaptive immune systems by HDAC enzymes. The recent findings highlighting the immunomodulatory function of HDAC11 which relates to balancing immune activation versus tolerance are also discussed.

  7. Inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases as cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Steven R; Mallinger, Aurélie; Workman, Paul; Clarke, Paul A

    2017-05-01

    Over the past two decades there has been a great deal of interest in the development of inhibitors of the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). This attention initially stemmed from observations that different CDK isoforms have key roles in cancer cell proliferation through loss of regulation of the cell cycle, a hallmark feature of cancer. CDKs have now been shown to regulate other processes, particularly various aspects of transcription. The early non-selective CDK inhibitors exhibited considerable toxicity and proved to be insufficiently active in most cancers. The lack of patient selection biomarkers and an absence of understanding of the inhibitory profile required for efficacy hampered the development of these inhibitors. However, the advent of potent isoform-selective inhibitors with accompanying biomarkers has re-ignited interest. Palbociclib, a selective CDK4/6 inhibitor, is now approved for the treatment of ER+/HER2- advanced breast cancer. Current developments in the field include the identification of potent and selective inhibitors of the transcriptional CDKs; these include tool compounds that have allowed exploration of individual CDKs as cancer targets and the determination of their potential therapeutic windows. Biomarkers that allow the selection of patients likely to respond are now being discovered. Drug resistance has emerged as a major hurdle in the clinic for most protein kinase inhibitors and resistance mechanism are beginning to be identified for CDK inhibitors. This suggests that the selective inhibitors may be best used combined with standard of care or other molecularly targeted agents now in development rather than in isolation as monotherapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibitor development and mortality in non-severe hemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, C L; Loomans, J I; van Velzen, A S; Peters, M; Mauser-Bunschoten, E P; Schwaab, R; Mazzucconi, M G; Tagliaferri, A; Siegmund, B; Reitter-Pfoertner, S E; van der Bom, J G; Fijnvandraat, K

    2015-07-01

    The life expectancy of non-severe hemophilia A (HA) patients equals the life expectancy of the non-hemophilic population. However, data on the effect of inhibitor development on mortality and on hemophilia-related causes of death are scarce. The development of neutralizing factor VIII antibodies in non-severe HA patients may dramatically change their clinical outcome due to severe bleeding complications. We assessed the association between the occurrence of inhibitors and mortality in patients with non-severe HA. In this retrospective cohort study, clinical data and vital status were collected for 2709 non-severe HA patients (107 with inhibitors) who were treated between 1980 and 2011 in 34 European and Australian centers. Mortality rates for patients with and without inhibitors were compared. During 64,200 patient-years of follow-up, 148 patients died (mortality rate, 2.30 per 1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.96-2.70) at a median age of 64 years (interquartile range [IQR], 49-76). In 62 patients (42%) the cause of death was hemophilia related. Sixteen inhibitor patients died at a median age of 71 years (IQR, 60-81). In ten patients the inhibitor was present at time of death; seven of them died of severe bleeding complications. The all-cause mortality rate in inhibitor patients was > 5 times increased compared with that for those without inhibitors (age-adjusted mortality rate ratio, 5.6). Inhibitor development in non-severe hemophilia is associated with increased mortality. High rates of hemophilia-related mortality in this study indicate that non-severe hemophilia is not mild at all and stress the importance of close follow-up for these patients. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  9. New synthetic thrombin inhibitors: molecular design and experimental verification.

    PubMed

    Sinauridze, Elena I; Romanov, Alexey N; Gribkova, Irina V; Kondakova, Olga A; Surov, Stepan S; Gorbatenko, Aleksander S; Butylin, Andrey A; Monakov, Mikhail Yu; Bogolyubov, Alexey A; Kuznetsov, Yuryi V; Sulimov, Vladimir B; Ataullakhanov, Fazoyl I

    2011-01-01

    The development of new anticoagulants is an important goal for the improvement of thromboses treatments. The design, synthesis and experimental testing of new safe and effective small molecule direct thrombin inhibitors for intravenous administration. Computer-aided molecular design of new thrombin inhibitors was performed using our original docking program SOL, which is based on the genetic algorithm of global energy minimization in the framework of a Merck Molecular Force Field. This program takes into account the effects of solvent. The designed molecules with the best scoring functions (calculated binding energies) were synthesized and their thrombin inhibitory activity evaluated experimentally in vitro using a chromogenic substrate in a buffer system and using a thrombin generation test in isolated plasma and in vivo using the newly developed model of hemodilution-induced hypercoagulation in rats. The acute toxicities of the most promising new thrombin inhibitors were evaluated in mice, and their stabilities in aqueous solutions were measured. New compounds that are both effective direct thrombin inhibitors (the best K(I) was <1 nM) and strong anticoagulants in plasma (an IC(50) in the thrombin generation assay of approximately 100 nM) were discovered. These compounds contain one of the following new residues as the basic fragment: isothiuronium, 4-aminopyridinium, or 2-aminothiazolinium. LD(50) values for the best new inhibitors ranged from 166.7 to >1111.1 mg/kg. A plasma-substituting solution supplemented with one of the new inhibitors prevented hypercoagulation in the rat model of hemodilution-induced hypercoagulation. Activities of the best new inhibitors in physiological saline (1 µM solutions) were stable after sterilization by autoclaving, and the inhibitors remained stable at long-term storage over more than 1.5 years at room temperature and at 4°C. The high efficacy, stability and low acute toxicity reveal that the inhibitors that were developed

  10. DNA Methyl Transferase 1 Reduces Expression of SRD5A2 in the Aging Adult Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Rongbin; Wang, Zongwei; Bechis, Seth K.; Otsetov, Alexander G.; Hua, Shengyu; Wu, Shulin; Wu, Chin-Lee; Tabatabaei, Shahin; Olumi, Aria F.

    2016-01-01

    5-α Reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) is a critical enzyme for prostatic development and growth. Inhibition of SRD5A2 by finasteride is used commonly for the management of urinary obstruction caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia. Contrary to common belief, we have found that expression of SRD5A2 is variable and absent in one third of benign adult prostates. In human samples, absent SRD5A2 expression is associated with hypermethylation of the SRD5A2 promoter, and in vitro SRD5A2 promoter activity is suppressed by methylation. We show that methylation of SRD5A2 is regulated by DNA methyltransferase 1, and inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor α, NF-κB, and IL-6 regulate DNA methyltransferase 1 expression and thereby affect SRD5A2 promoter methylation and gene expression. Furthermore, we show that increasing age in mice and humans is associated with increased methylation of the SRD5A2 promoter and concomitantly decreased protein expression. Artificial induction of inflammation in prostate primary epithelial cells leads to hypermethylation of the SRD5A2 promoter and silencing of SRD5A2, whereas inhibition with tumor necrosis factor α inhibitor reactivates SRD5A2 expression. Therefore, expression of SRD5A2 is not static and ubiquitous in benign adult prostate tissues. Methylation and expression of SRD5A2 may be used as a gene signature to tailor therapies for more effective treatment of prostatic diseases. PMID:25700986

  11. Proton Pump Inhibitors Inhibit Metformin Uptake by Organic Cation Transporters (OCTs)

    PubMed Central

    Nies, Anne T.; Hofmann, Ute; Resch, Claudia; Schaeffeler, Elke; Rius, Maria; Schwab, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Metformin, an oral insulin-sensitizing drug, is actively transported into cells by organic cation transporters (OCT) 1, 2, and 3 (encoded by SLC22A1, SLC22A2, or SLC22A3), which are tissue specifically expressed at significant levels in various organs such as liver, muscle, and kidney. Because metformin does not undergo hepatic metabolism, drug-drug interaction by inhibition of OCT transporters may be important. So far, comprehensive data on the interaction of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) with OCTs are missing although PPIs are frequently used in metformin-treated patients. Using in silico modeling and computational analyses, we derived pharmacophore models indicating that PPIs (i.e. omeprazole, pantoprazole, lansoprazole, rabeprazole, and tenatoprazole) are potent OCT inhibitors. We then established stably transfected cell lines expressing the human uptake transporters OCT1, OCT2, or OCT3 and tested whether these PPIs inhibit OCT-mediated metformin uptake in vitro. All tested PPIs significantly inhibited metformin uptake by OCT1, OCT2, and OCT3 in a concentration-dependent manner. Half-maximal inhibitory concentration values (IC50) were in the low micromolar range (3–36 µM) and thereby in the range of IC50 values of other potent OCT drug inhibitors. Finally, we tested whether the PPIs are also transported by OCTs, but did not identify PPIs as OCT substrates. In conclusion, PPIs are potent inhibitors of the OCT-mediated metformin transport in vitro. Further studies are needed to elucidate the clinical relevance of this drug-drug interaction with potential consequences on metformin disposition and/or efficacy. PMID:21779389

  12. Synthesis and in vitro Evaluation of 2-heteroarylidene-1-tetralone Derivatives as Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Amakali, Klaudia T; Legoabe, Lesetja J; Petzer, Anél; Petzer, Jacobus P

    2018-05-14

    The present study investigates the human monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition properties of a series of twelve 2-heteroarylidene-1-tetralone derivatives. Also included are related cyclohexylmethylidene, cyclopentylmethylidene and benzylidene substituted 1-tetralones. These compounds are related to the 2-benzylidene-1-indanone class of compounds which has previously been shown to inhibit the MAOs, with specificity for the MAO-B isoform. The target compounds were synthesised by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation between 7-methoxy-1-tetralone or 1-tetralone, and various aldehydes, under acid (hydrochloric acid) or base (potassium hydroxide) catalysis. The results of the MAO inhibition studies showed that the 2-heteroarylidene-1-tetralone and related derivatives are in most instances more selective inhibitors of the MAO-B isoform compared to MAO-A. (2E)-2-Benzylidene-7-methoxy-3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1(2 H)-one (IC 50 =0.707 μM) was found to be the most potent MAO-B inhibitor, while the most potent MAO-A inhibitor was (2E)-2-[(2-chloropyridin-3-yl)methylidene]-7-methoxy-3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1(2 H)-one (IC 50 =1.37 μM). The effect of the heteroaromatic substituent on MAO-B inhibition activity, in decreasing order was found to be: cyclohexyl, phenyl>thiophene>pyridine, furane, pyrrole, cyclopentyl. This study concludes that, although some 2-heteroarylidene-1-tetralone derivatives are good potency MAO inhibitors, in general their inhibition potencies, particularly for MAO-B, are lower than structurally related chalcones and 1-indanone derivatives that were previously studied. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. ERK pathway inhibitors: how low should we go?

    PubMed

    Nissan, Moriah H; Rosen, Neal; Solit, David B

    2013-07-01

    Resistance to RAF inhibitors is generally accompanied by reactivation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. SCH772984, a selective, ATP-competitive inhibitor of ERK1 and ERK2, is effective in BRAF-mutant models in which resistance is the result of ERK reactivation. SCH772984 may also have a role in the treatment of tumors in which ERK is dysregulated by mutant RAS, NF1, or activated receptor tyrosine kinases, settings in which current RAF inhibitors are ineffective. ©2013 AACR.

  14. Acalabrutinib (ACP-196): a selective second-generation BTK inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingjing; Zhang, Mingzhi; Liu, Delong

    2016-03-09

    More and more targeted agents become available for B cell malignancies with increasing precision and potency. The first-in-class Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor, ibrutinib, has been in clinical use for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, mantle cell lymphoma, and Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. More selective BTK inhibitors (ACP-196, ONO/GS-4059, BGB-3111, CC-292) are being explored. Acalabrutinib (ACP-196) is a novel irreversible second-generation BTK inhibitor that was shown to be more potent and selective than ibrutinib. This review summarized the preclinical research and clinical data of acalabrutinib.

  15. Rhomboid protease inhibitors: Emerging tools and future therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Strisovsky, Kvido

    2016-12-01

    Rhomboid-family intramembrane serine proteases are evolutionarily widespread. Their functions in different organisms are gradually being uncovered and already suggest medical relevance for infectious diseases and cancer. In contrast to these advances, selective inhibitors that could serve as efficient tools for investigation of physiological functions of rhomboids, validation of their disease relevance or as templates for drug development are lacking. In this review I extract what is known about rhomboid protease mechanism and specificity, examine the currently used inhibitors, their mechanism of action and limitations, and conclude by proposing routes for future development of rhomboid protease inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. The 'retro-design' concept for novel kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Müller, Gerhard; Sennhenn, Peter C; Woodcock, Timothy; Neumann, Lars

    2010-07-01

    Protein kinases are among the most attractive therapeutic targets for a broad range of diseases. This feature review highlights and classifies the main design principles employed to generate active and selective kinase inhibitors. In particular, emphasis is focused on a fragment-based lead-generation approach, which constitutes a novel design method for developing type II kinase inhibitors with distinct binding kinetic attributes. This 'retro-design' strategy relies on a customized fragment library, and contrasts the traditional approach used in the design of type II inhibitors.

  17. Alkyl piperidine and piperazine hydroxamic acids as HDAC inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Cristina; Porcelloni, Marina; D'Andrea, Piero; Fincham, Christopher I; Ettorre, Alessandro; Mauro, Sandro; Squarcia, Antonella; Bigioni, Mario; Parlani, Massimo; Nardelli, Federica; Binaschi, Monica; Maggi, Carlo A; Fattori, Daniela

    2011-04-15

    We report here the strategy used in our research group to find a new class of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. A series of N-substituted 4-alkylpiperazine and 4-alkylpiperidine hydroxamic acids, corresponding to the basic structure of HDAC inhibitors (zinc binding moiety-linker-capping group) has been designed, prepared, and tested for HDAC inhibition. Linker length and aromatic capping group connection were systematically varied to find the optimal geometric parameters. A new series of submicromolar inhibitors was thus identified, which showed antiproliferative activity on HCT-116 colon carcinoma cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Structure based design of 11β-HSD1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suresh; Tice, Colin

    2010-11-01

    Controlling elevated tissue-specific levels of cortisol may provide a novel therapeutic approach for treating metabolic syndrome. This concept has spurred large scale medicinal chemistry efforts in the pharmaceutical industry for the design of 11β-HSD1 inhibitors. High resolution X-ray crystal structures of inhibitors in complex with the enzyme have facilitated the structure-based design of diverse classes of molecules. A summary of binding modes, trends in structure-activity relationships, and the pharmacodynamic data of inhibitors from each class is presented.

  19. HIV protease drug resistance and its impact on inhibitor design.

    PubMed

    Ala, P J; Rodgers, J D; Chang, C H

    1999-07-01

    The primary cause of resistance to the currently available HIV protease inhibitors is the accumulation of multiple mutations in the viral protease. So far more than 20 substitutions have been observed in the active site, dimer interface, surface loops and flaps of the homodimer. While many mutations reduce the protease's affinity for inhibitors, others appear to enhance its catalytic efficiency. This high degree of genetic flexibility has made the protease an elusive drug target. The design of the next generation of HIV protease inhibitors will be discussed in light of the current structural information.

  20. Correlation between sex and efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (PD-1 and CTLA-4 inhibitors).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingcheng; Ju, Qianqian; Jia, Keren; Yu, Jingyan; Shi, Hui; Wu, Huiqun; Jiang, Maorong

    2018-07-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) exert the antitumor efficacy depending on immune response, which is affected by sex difference, where both biological and sociological factors are involved. The role of sex in ICI trials has been overlooked. How sex correlates with ICI efficacy is incompletely understood. Clinical trials evaluating ICI versus other therapies in male and female patients were included. The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were used. Six thousand and ninety-six patients from 11 trials were included. More improvement of OS was observed in males (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.53-0.71; p < 0.001) treated with ICI versus controls than females (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.65-0.84; p < 0.001). ICIs improved PFS more in males (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.43-0.71; p < 0.001) than females (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52-0.91; p < 0.001). The sex difference had more effect on the overall survival in melanoma patients versus NSCLC patients. Overall survival of patients treated with CTLA-4 inhibitor was more influenced by sex variable compared with PD-1 inhibitors. A significant sex-related efficacy difference was observed between female and male melanoma patients. Although male patients had longer OS and PFS than females when treated with ICIs versus controls, the difference was not significant. Sex difference should be more considered in future clinical trials, guidelines and clinical practice. © 2018 UICC.

  1. Oral direct thrombin inhibitors or oral factor Xa inhibitors for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Lindsay; Kesteven, Patrick; McCaslin, James E

    2015-06-30

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a condition in which a clot forms in the deep veins, most commonly of the leg. It occurs in approximately 1 in 1,000 people. If left untreated, the clot can travel up to the lungs and cause a potentially life-threatening pulmonary embolism (PE). Previously, a DVT was treated with the anticoagulants heparin and vitamin K antagonists. However, two forms of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have been developed: oral direct thrombin inhibitors (DTI) and oral factor Xa inhibitors. The new drugs have characteristics that may be favourable over conventional treatment, including oral administration, a predictable effect, lack of frequent monitoring or re-dosing and few known drug interactions. To date, no Cochrane review has measured the effectiveness and safety of these drugs in the treatment of DVT. To assess the effectiveness of oral DTIs and oral factor Xa inhibitors for the treatment of DVT. The Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Specialised Register (last searched January 2015) and the Cochrane Register of Studies (last searched January 2015). We searched clinical trials databases for details of ongoing or unpublished studies and the reference lists of relevant articles retrieved by electronic searches for additional citations. We included randomised controlled trials in which people with a DVT confirmed by standard imaging techniques, were allocated to receive an oral DTI or an oral factor Xa inhibitor for the treatment of DVT. Two review authors (LR, JM) independently extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias in the trials. Any disagreements were resolved by discussion with the third review author (PK). We performed meta-analyses when we considered heterogeneity low. The two primary outcomes were recurrent VTE and PE. Other outcomes included all-cause mortality and major bleeding. We calculated all outcomes using an odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). We included

  2. The Aminopeptidase Inhibitor CHR-2863 Is an Orally Bioavailable Inhibitor of Murine Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Skinner-Adams, Tina S.; Peatey, Christopher L.; Anderson, Karen; Trenholme, Katharine R.; Krige, David; Brown, Christopher L.; Stack, Colin; Nsangou, Desire M. M.; Mathews, Rency T.; Thivierge, Karine; Dalton, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Malaria remains a significant risk in many areas of the world, with resistance to the current antimalarial pharmacopeia an ever-increasing problem. The M1 alanine aminopeptidase (PfM1AAP) and M17 leucine aminopeptidase (PfM17LAP) are believed to play a role in the terminal stages of digestion of host hemoglobin and thereby generate a pool of free amino acids that are essential for parasite growth and development. Here, we show that an orally bioavailable aminopeptidase inhibitor, CHR-2863, is efficacious against murine malaria. PMID:22450967

  3. Template-based de novo design for type II kinase inhibitors and its extented application to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Su, Bo-Han; Huang, Yi-Syuan; Chang, Chia-Yun; Tu, Yi-Shu; Tseng, Yufeng J

    2013-10-31

    There is a compelling need to discover type II inhibitors targeting the unique DFG-out inactive kinase conformation since they are likely to possess greater potency and selectivity relative to traditional type I inhibitors. Using a known inhibitor, such as a currently available and approved drug or inhibitor, as a template to design new drugs via computational de novo design is helpful when working with known ligand-receptor interactions. This study proposes a new template-based de novo design protocol to discover new inhibitors that preserve and also optimize the binding interactions of the type II kinase template. First, sorafenib (Nexavar) and nilotinib (Tasigna), two type II inhibitors with different ligand-receptor interactions, were selected as the template compounds. The five-step protocol can reassemble each drug from a large fragment library. Our procedure demonstrates that the selected template compounds can be successfully reassembled while the key ligand-receptor interactions are preserved. Furthermore, to demonstrate that the algorithm is able to construct more potent compounds, we considered kinase inhibitors and other protein dataset, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. The de novo optimization was initiated using a template compound possessing a less than optimal activity from a series of aminoisoquinoline and TAK-285 inhibiting type II kinases, and E2020 derivatives inhibiting AChE respectively. Three compounds with greater potency than the template compound were discovered that were also included in the original congeneric series. This template-based lead optimization protocol with the fragment library can help to design compounds with preferred binding interactions of known inhibitors automatically and further optimize the compounds in the binding pockets.

  4. Multi-Inhibitory Effects of A2A Adenosine Receptor Signaling on Neutrophil Adhesion Under Flow.

    PubMed

    Yago, Tadayuki; Tsukamoto, Hiroki; Liu, Zhenghui; Wang, Ying; Thompson, Linda F; McEver, Rodger P

    2015-10-15

    A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR) signaling negatively regulates inflammatory responses in many disease models, but the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. We used the selective A2AAR agonist, ATL313, to examine how A2AAR signaling affects human and murine neutrophil adhesion under flow. Treating neutrophils with ATL313 inhibited selectin-induced, β2 integrin-dependent slow rolling and chemokine-induced, β2 integrin-dependent arrest on ICAM-1. ATL313 inhibited selectin-induced β2 integrin extension, which supports slow rolling, and chemokine-induced hybrid domain "swing-out," which supports arrest. Furthermore, ATL313 inhibited integrin outside-in signaling as revealed by reduced neutrophil superoxide production and spreading on immobilized anti-β2 integrin Ab. ATL313 suppressed selectin-triggered activation of Src family kinases (SFKs) and p38 MAPK, chemokine-triggered activation of Ras-related protein 1, and β2 integrin-triggered activation of SFKs and Vav cytoskeletal regulatory proteins. ATL313 activated protein kinase A and its substrate C-terminal Src kinase, an inhibitor of SFKs. Treating neutrophils with a protein kinase A inhibitor blocked the actions of ATL313. In vivo, ATL313-treated neutrophils rolled faster and arrested much less frequently in postcapillary venules of the murine cremaster muscle after TNF-α challenge. Furthermore, ATL313 markedly suppressed neutrophil migration into the peritoneum challenged with thioglycollate. ATL313 did not affect A2AAR-deficient neutrophils, confirming its specificity. Our findings provide new insights into the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of A2AAR signaling and the potential utility of A2AAR agonists in inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  5. Multi-inhibitory effects of A2A adenosine receptor signaling on neutrophil adhesion under flow**

    PubMed Central

    Yago, Tadayuki; Tsukamoto, Hiroki; Liu, Zhenghui; Wang, Ying; Thompson, Linda F.; McEver, Rodger P.

    2015-01-01

    A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR) signaling negatively regulates inflammatory responses in many disease models, but the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. We used the selective A2AAR agonist, ATL313, to examine how A2AAR signaling affects human and murine neutrophil adhesion under flow. Treating neutrophils with ATL313 inhibited selectin-induced, β2 integrin-dependent slow rolling and chemokine-induced, β2 integrin-dependent arrest on ICAM-1. ATL313 inhibited selectin-induced β2 integrin extension, which supports slow rolling, and chemokine-induced hybrid domain “swing-out”, which supports arrest. Furthermore, ATL313 inhibited integrin outside-in signaling as revealed by reduced neutrophil superoxide production and spreading on immobilized anti-β2 integrin antibody. ATL313 suppressed selectin-triggered activation of Src family kinases (SFKs) and p38 MAPK, chemokine-triggered activation of Ras-related protein 1 (Rap1), and β2 integrin-triggered activation of SFKs and Vav cytoskeletal regulatory proteins. ATL313 activated protein kinase A (PKA) and its substrate C-terminal Src kinase (Csk), an inhibitor of SFKs. Treating neutrophils with a PKA inhibitor blocked the actions of ATL313. In vivo, ATL313-treated neutrophils rolled faster and arrested much less frequently in postcapillary venules of the murine cremaster muscle after TNF-α challenge. Furthermore, ATL313 markedly suppressed neutrophil migration into the peritoneum challenged with thioglycollate. ATL313 did not affect A2AAR-deficient neutrophils, confirming its specificity. Our findings provide new insights into the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of A2AAR signaling and the potential utility of A2AAR agonists in inflammatory diseases. PMID:26355151

  6. Effect of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) and ticlopidine on CYP1A2 activity and caffeine metabolism: an in vitro comparative study with human cDNA-expressed CYP1A2 and liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Kot, Marta; Daniel, Władysława A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the effect of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), which is regarded as a cytochrome P450 (CYP) CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 inhibitor, and ticlopidine, an efficient CYP2B6, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 inhibitor, on the activity of human CYP1A2 and the metabolism of caffeine (1-N-, 3-N- and 7-N-demethylation, and C-8-hydroxylation). The experiment was carried out in vitro using human cDNA-expressed CYP1A2 (Supersomes) and human pooled liver microsomes. The effects of DDC and ticlopidine were compared to those of furafylline (a strong CYP1A2 inhibitor). A comparative in vitro study provides clear evidence that ticlopidine and DDC, applied at concentrations that inhibit the above-mentioned CYP isoforms, potently (as compared to furafylline) inhibit human CYP1A2 and caffeine metabolism, in particular 1-N- and 3-N-demethylation.

  7. Annexin A2 in Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    cells , leading to formation of an epiretinal membrane, retinal detachment, and loss of vision. At present, there are no reliable means of...type versus annexin A2- deficient mice, [2] define the role of A2 in the function of activated macrophages and RPE cells in PVR, and [3] examine the...expression is needed in both macrophages and RPE cells , and that A2 is extensively expressed within cells of epiretinal membranes in human PVR. Our

  8. Proton pump inhibitors for functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Sanchez, Maria Ines; Yuan, Yuhong; Bercik, Premysl; Moayyedi, Paul

    2017-03-08

    Functional dyspepsia (FD or non-ulcer dyspepsia) is defined as continuous or frequently recurring epigastric pain or discomfort for which no organic cause can be found. Acid suppressive therapy, including proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), has been proposed as a therapeutic option in FD, but its efficacy remains controversial. While PPIs are generally considered safe and well tolerated, they have been associated with adverse events, especially in the long term. For this reason, decisions on whether to initiate or continue PPI therapy should be made based on an appropriate clinical indication. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate whether PPI therapy provides symptomatic relief in FD. To determine the efficacy of proton pump inhibitors in the improvement of global symptoms of dyspepsia and quality of life compared to placebo, H2 receptor antagonists or prokinetics, in people with functional dyspepsia. We searched in the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Library (to January 2016), MEDLINE (OvidSP; to February 2016), Embase (OvidSP; to February 2016), and SIGLE grey literature (up to February 2016) and clinical trial registries; we handsearched abstracts from conferences up to February 2016. We screened non-systematic reviews, systematic reviews and guidelines to identify any additional trials. We contacted trialists to obtain missing information. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing any PPI with placebo, H2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) or prokinetics for the treatment of FD. Participants were adults (aged 16 years or greater) with an adequate diagnosis of FD (any validated criteria such as Rome I, II, III or Lancet Working Group). Two review authors independently assessed eligibility, trial quality and extracted data. We collected data on dyspeptic symptoms, quality of life and number of overall adverse events. Specific adverse events were beyond the scope of this review. We identified 23 RCTs from 22 papers (with 8759

  9. Review: aromatase inhibitors for ovulation induction.

    PubMed

    Casper, Robert F; Mitwally, Mohamed F M

    2006-03-01

    For the last 40 yr, the first line of treatment for anovulation in infertile women has been clomiphene citrate (CC). CC is a safe, effective oral agent but is known to have relatively common antiestrogenic endometrial and cervical mucous side effects that could prevent pregnancy in the face of successful ovulation. In addition, there is a significant risk of multiple pregnancy with CC, compared with natural cycles. Because of these problems, we proposed the concept of aromatase inhibition as a new method of ovulation induction that could avoid many of the adverse effects of CC. The objective of this review was to describe the different physiological mechanisms of action for CC and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) and compare studies of efficacy for both agents for ovulation induction. We conducted a systematic review of all the published studies, both controlled and noncontrolled, comparing CC and AI treatment, either alone or in combination with gonadotropins, for ovulation induction or augmentation, identified through the Entrez-PubMed search engine. Because of the recent acceptance of the concept of using AIs for ovulation induction, few controlled studies were identified, and the rest of the studies were pilot or preliminary comparisons. Based on these studies, it appears that AIs are as effective as CC in inducing ovulation, are devoid of any antiestrogenic side effects, result in lower serum estrogen concentrations, and are associated with good pregnancy rates with a lower incidence of multiple pregnancy than CC. When combined with gonadotropins for assisted reproductive technologies, AIs reduce the dose of FSH required for optimal follicle recruitment and improve the response to FSH in poor responders. Preliminary evidence suggests that AIs may replace CC in the future because of similar efficacy with a reduced side effect profile. Although worldwide experience with AIs for ovulation induction is increasing, at present, definitive studies in the form of randomized

  10. Histone deacetylase inhibitors: Potential in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Marks, P A; Xu, W-S

    2009-07-01

    The role of histone deacetylases (HDAC) and the potential of these enzymes as therapeutic targets for cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and a number of other disorders is an area of rapidly expanding investigation. There are 18 HDACs in humans. These enzymes are not redundant in function. Eleven of the HDACs are zinc dependent, classified on the basis of homology to yeast HDACs: Class I includes HDACs 1, 2, 3, and 8; Class IIA includes HDACs 4, 5, 7, and 9; Class IIB, HDACs 6 and 10; and Class IV, HDAC 11. Class III HDACs, sirtuins 1-7, have an absolute requirement for NAD(+), are not zinc dependent and generally not inhibited by compounds that inhibit zinc dependent deacetylases. In addition to histones, HDACs have many nonhistone protein substrates which have a role in regulation of gene expression, cell proliferation, cell migration, cell death, and angiogenesis. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) have been discovered of different chemical structure. HDACi cause accumulation of acetylated forms of proteins which can alter their structure and function. HDACi can induce different phenotypes in various transformed cells, including growth arrest, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species facilitated cell death and mitotic cell death. Normal cells are relatively resistant to HDACi induced cell death. Several HDACi are in various stages of development, including clinical trials as monotherapy and in combination with other anti-cancer drugs and radiation. The first HDACi approved by the FDA for cancer therapy is suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, vorinostat, Zolinza), approved for treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. WNK1 is an unexpected autophagy inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Gallolu Kankanamalage, Sachith; Lee, A-Young; Wichaidit, Chonlarat; Lorente-Rodriguez, Andres; Shah, Akansha M; Stippec, Steve; Whitehurst, Angelique W; Cobb, Melanie H

    2017-05-04

    Autophagy is a cellular degradation pathway that is essential to maintain cellular physiology, and deregulation of autophagy leads to multiple diseases in humans. In a recent study, we discovered that the protein kinase WNK1 (WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 1) is an inhibitor of autophagy. The loss of WNK1 increases both basal and starvation-induced autophagy. In addition, the depletion of WNK1 increases the activation of the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K) complex, which is required to induce autophagy. Moreover, the loss of WNK1 increases the expression of ULK1 (unc-51 like kinase 1), which is upstream of the PtdIns3K complex. It also increases the pro-autophagic phosphorylation of ULK1 at Ser555 and the activation of AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase), which is responsible for that phosphorylation. The inhibition of AMPK by compound C decreases the magnitude of autophagy induction following WNK1 loss; however, it does not prevent autophagy induction. We found that the UVRAG (UV radiation resistance associated gene), which is a component of the PtdIns3K, binds to the N-terminal region of WNK1. Moreover, WNK1 partially colocalizes with UVRAG and this colocalization decreases when autophagy is stimulated in cells. The loss of WNK1 also alters the cellular distribution of UVRAG. The depletion of the downstream target of WNK1, OXSR1/OSR1 (oxidative-stress responsive 1) has no effect on autophagy, whereas the depletion of its relative STK39/SPAK (serine/threonine kinase 39) induces autophagy under nutrient-rich and starved conditions.

  12. Proton pump inhibitors affect the gut microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Imhann, Floris; Bonder, Marc Jan; Vich Vila, Arnau; Fu, Jingyuan; Mujagic, Zlatan; Vork, Lisa; Tigchelaar, Ettje F; Jankipersadsing, Soesma A; Cenit, Maria Carmen; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Dijkstra, Gerard; Franke, Lude; Xavier, Ramnik J; Jonkers, Daisy; Wijmenga, Cisca; Weersma, Rinse K; Zhernakova, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the top 10 most widely used drugs in the world. PPI use has been associated with an increased risk of enteric infections, most notably Clostridium difficile. The gut microbiome plays an important role in enteric infections, by resisting or promoting colonisation by pathogens. In this study, we investigated the influence of PPI use on the gut microbiome. Methods The gut microbiome composition of 1815 individuals, spanning three cohorts, was assessed by tag sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The difference in microbiota composition in PPI users versus non-users was analysed separately in each cohort, followed by a meta-analysis. Results 211 of the participants were using PPIs at the moment of stool sampling. PPI use is associated with a significant decrease in Shannon's diversity and with changes in 20% of the bacterial taxa (false discovery rate <0.05). Multiple oral bacteria were over-represented in the faecal microbiome of PPI-users, including the genus Rothia (p=9.8×10−38). In PPI users we observed a significant increase in bacteria: genera Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and the potentially pathogenic species Escherichia coli. Conclusions The differences between PPI users and non-users observed in this study are consistently associated with changes towards a less healthy gut microbiome. These differences are in line with known changes that predispose to C. difficile infections and can potentially explain the increased risk of enteric infections in PPI users. On a population level, the effects of PPI are more prominent than the effects of antibiotics or other commonly used drugs. PMID:26657899

  13. Proton pump inhibitors affect the gut microbiome.

    PubMed

    Imhann, Floris; Bonder, Marc Jan; Vich Vila, Arnau; Fu, Jingyuan; Mujagic, Zlatan; Vork, Lisa; Tigchelaar, Ettje F; Jankipersadsing, Soesma A; Cenit, Maria Carmen; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Dijkstra, Gerard; Franke, Lude; Xavier, Ramnik J; Jonkers, Daisy; Wijmenga, Cisca; Weersma, Rinse K; Zhernakova, Alexandra

    2016-05-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the top 10 most widely used drugs in the world. PPI use has been associated with an increased risk of enteric infections, most notably Clostridium difficile. The gut microbiome plays an important role in enteric infections, by resisting or promoting colonisation by pathogens. In this study, we investigated the influence of PPI use on the gut microbiome. The gut microbiome composition of 1815 individuals, spanning three cohorts, was assessed by tag sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The difference in microbiota composition in PPI users versus non-users was analysed separately in each cohort, followed by a meta-analysis. 211 of the participants were using PPIs at the moment of stool sampling. PPI use is associated with a significant decrease in Shannon's diversity and with changes in 20% of the bacterial taxa (false discovery rate <0.05). Multiple oral bacteria were over-represented in the faecal microbiome of PPI-users, including the genus Rothia (p=9.8×10(-38)). In PPI users we observed a significant increase in bacteria: genera Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and the potentially pathogenic species Escherichia coli. The differences between PPI users and non-users observed in this study are consistently associated with changes towards a less healthy gut microbiome. These differences are in line with known changes that predispose to C. difficile infections and can potentially explain the increased risk of enteric infections in PPI users. On a population level, the effects of PPI are more prominent than the effects of antibiotics or other commonly used drugs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Pantoprazole: a new proton pump inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Jungnickel, P W

    2000-11-01

    This paper reviews the pharmacology, clinical efficacy, and tolerability of pantoprazole in comparison with those of other available proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Relevant English-language research and review articles were identified by database searches of MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and UnCover, and by examining the reference lists of the articles so identified. In selecting data for inclusion, the author gave preference to full-length articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Like other PPIs, pantoprazole exerts its pharmacodynamic actions by binding to the proton pump (H+,K+ -adenosine triphosphatase) in the parietal cells, but, compared with other PPIs, its binding may be more specific for the proton pump. Pantoprazole is well absorbed when administered as an enteric-coated, delayed-release tablet, with an oral bioavailability of approximately 77%. It is hepatically metabolized via cytochrome P2C19 to hydroxypantoprazole, an inactive metabolite that subsequently undergoes sulfate conjugation. The elimination half-life ranges from 0.9 to 1.9 hours and is independent of dose. Pantoprazole has similar efficacy to other PPIs in the healing of gastric and duodenal ulcers, as well as erosive esophagitis, and as part of triple-drug regimens for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori from the gastric mucosa. It is well tolerated, with the most common adverse effects being headache, diarrhea, flatulence, and abdominal pain. In clinical studies, it has been shown to have no interactions with various other agents, including carbamazepine, cisapride, cyclosporine, digoxin, phenytoin, theophylline, and warfarin. Pantoprazole appears to be as effective as other PPIs. Its low potential for drug interactions may give it an advantage in patients taking other drugs.

  15. Prodrugs of herpes simplex thymidine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yanachkova, Milka; Xu, Wei-Chu; Dvoskin, Sofya; Dix, Edward J; Yanachkov, Ivan B; Focher, Federico; Savi, Lida; Sanchez, M Dulfary; Foster, Timothy P; Wright, George E

    2015-04-01

    Because guanine-based herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase inhibitors are not orally available, we synthesized various 6-deoxy prodrugs of these compounds and evaluated them with regard to solubility in water, oral bioavailability, and efficacy to prevent herpes simplex virus-1 reactivation from latency in a mouse model. Organic synthesis was used to prepare compounds, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to analyze hydrolytic conversion, Mass Spectrometry (MS) to measure oral bioavailability, and mouse latent infection and induced reactivation to evaluate the efficacy of a specific prodrug. Aqueous solubilities of prodrugs were improved, oxidation of prodrugs by animal cytosols occurred in vitro, and oral absorption of the optimal prodrug sacrovir™ (6-deoxy-mCF3PG) in the presence of the aqueous adjuvant Soluplus® and conversion to active compound N(2)-[3-(trifluoromethyl)pheny])guanine (mCF3PG) were accomplished in mice. Treatment of herpes simplex virus-1 latent mice with sacrovir™ in 1% Soluplus in drinking water significantly suppressed herpes simplex virus-1 reactivation and viral genomic replication. Ad libitum oral delivery of sacrovir™ was effective in suppressing herpes simplex virus-1 reactivation in ocularly infected latent mice as measured by the numbers of mice shedding infectious virus at the ocular surface, numbers of trigeminal ganglia positive for infectious virus, number of corneas that had detectable infectious virus, and herpes simplex virus-1 genome copy numbers in trigeminal ganglia following reactivation. These results demonstrate the statistically significant effect of the prodrug on suppressing herpes simplex virus-1 reactivation in vivo. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Prognostic Factors in Cholinesterase Inhibitor Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sun, In O; Yoon, Hyun Ju; Lee, Kwang Young

    2015-09-28

    Organophosphates and carbamates are insecticides that are associated with high human mortality. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prognostic factors affecting survival in patients with cholinesterase inhibitor (CI) poisoning. This study included 92 patients with CI poisoning in the period from January 2005 to August 2013. We divided these patients into 2 groups (survivors vs. non-survivors), compared their clinical characteristics, and analyzed the predictors of survival. The mean age of the included patients was 56 years (range, 16-88). The patients included 57 (62%) men and 35 (38%) women. When we compared clinical characteristics between the survivor group (n=81, 88%) and non-survivor group (n=11, 12%), there were no differences in renal function, pancreatic enzymes, or serum cholinesterase level, except for serum bicarbonate level and APACHE II score. The serum bicarbonate level was lower in non-survivors than in survivors (12.45±2.84 vs. 18.36±4.73, P<0.01). The serum APACHE II score was higher in non-survivors than in survivors (24.36±5.22 vs. 12.07±6.67, P<0.01). The development of pneumonia during hospitalization was higher in non-survivors than in survivors (n=9, 82% vs. n=31, 38%, P<0.01). In multiple logistic regression analysis, serum bicarbonate concentration, APACHE II score, and pneumonia during hospitalization were the important prognostic factors in patients with CI poisoning. Serum bicarbonate and APACHE II score are useful prognostic factors in patients with CI poisoning. Furthermore, pneumonia during hospitalization was also important in predicting prognosis in patients with CI poisoning. Therefore, prevention and active treatment of pneumonia is important in the management of patients with CI poisoning.

  17. Neuraminidase inhibitor therapy in a military population.

    PubMed

    Fairchok, Mary P; Chen, Wei-Ju; Arnold, John C; Schofield, Christina; Danaher, Patrick J; McDonough, Erin A; Ottolini, Martin; Mor, Deepika; Ridore, Michelande; Burgess, Timothy H; Millar, Eugene V

    2015-06-01

    Although neuraminidase inhibitors (NI) are the mainstay of treatment for influenza infection, prescribing practice for these agents is not well described. Additionally, benefit is contested. We examined provider prescriptions of NI during the 2009 pandemic and post-pandemic periods. We also evaluated the effectiveness of NI in reducing severity of influenza infection. Data on NI prescription and severity of influenza infection were compiled in healthy pediatric and adult beneficiaries enrolled in a prospective study of influenza like illness conducted at five military medical centers over five years. Subjects underwent nasal swabs to determine viral etiology of their infection. Demographic, medication and severity data were collected. Subjects with positive influenza were included. Two hundred sixty three subjects were influenza positive [38% [H1N1] pdm09, 38.4% H3N2, and 20.5% B); 23.9% were treated with NI. NI were initiated within 48h in 63% of treated subjects. Although NI use increased over the five years of the study, early use declined. Most measures for severity of illness were not significantly reduced with NI; adults treated within 48h had only a modest reduction in duration and severity of some of their symptoms. NI use in our population is increasing, but early use is not. NI use resulted in no reduction in complications of illness. Resolution of symptoms and reduction in severity of some symptoms were slightly better in adults who were treated early. These modest benefits do not support routine treatment with NI in otherwise healthy individuals with influenza. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional screening of selective mitochondrial inhibitors of Plasmodium.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Lorenzo, Maria G; Rodríguez-Alejandre, Ane; Moliner-Cubel, Sonia; Martínez-Hoyos, María; Bahamontes-Rosa, Noemí; Gonzalez Del Rio, Rubén; Ródenas, Carolina; Fuente, Jesús de la; Lavandera, Jose Luis; García-Bustos, Jose F; Mendoza-Losana, Alfonso

    2018-05-09

    Phenotypic screening has produced most of the new chemical entities currently in clinical development for malaria, plus many lead compounds active against Plasmodium falciparum asexual stages. However, lack of knowledge about the mode of action of these compounds delays and may even hamper their future development. Identifying the mode of action of the inhibitors greatly helps to prioritise compounds for further development as novel antimalarials. Here we describe a whole-cell method to detect inhibitors of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, using oxygen consumption as high throughput readout in 384-well plate format. The usefulness of the method has been confirmed with the Tres Cantos Antimalarial Compound Set (TCAMS). The assay identified 124 respiratory inhibitors in TCAMS, seven of which were novel anti-plasmodial chemical structures never before described as mitochondrial inhibitors. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Novel amide-based inhibitors of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Watterson, Scott H; Liu, Chunjian; Dhar, T G Murali; Gu, Henry H; Pitts, William J; Barrish, Joel C; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine; Sherbina, N Z; Hollenbaugh, Diane L; Iwanowicz, Edwin J

    2002-10-21

    A series of novel amide-based small molecule inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) was explored. The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SARs) derived from in vitro studies are described.

  20. Rapid synthesis of triazine inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Pitts, William J; Guo, Junqing; Dhar, T G Murali; Shen, Zhongqi; Gu, Henry H; Watterson, Scott H; Bednarz, Mark S; Chen, Bang Chi; Barrish, Joel C; Bassolino, Donna; Cheney, Daniel; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine A; Hollenbaugh, Diane L; Iwanowicz, Edwin J

    2002-08-19

    A series of novel triazine-based small molecule inhibitors (IV) of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase was prepared. The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SAR) derived from in vitro studies are described.

  1. Literature review on pickling inhibitors and cadmium electroplating processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsea, A. R.; Fletcher, E. E.; Groeneveld, T. P.

    1969-01-01

    Because introduction of hydrogen during bright-cadmium electroplating of high strength steels causes hydrogen-stress cracking, a program was undertaken to evaluate various processes and materials. Report describes effectiveness of inhibitors for reducing hydrogen absorption by steels.

  2. Are SGLT2 inhibitors reasonable antihypertensive drugs and renoprotective?

    PubMed

    Lovshin, J A; Gilbert, R E

    2015-06-01

    By eliminating glucose in the urine, the sodium-glucose-linked cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors act as osmotic diuretics to lower blood pressure in addition to reducing plasma glucose and assisting with weight loss. While not approved as antihypertensive agents, the ability of this new class of antihyperglycemic agents to lower blood pressure is not insubstantial, and while not used primarily for this indication, they may assist diabetic individuals in attaining currently recommended blood pressure targets. In addition to lowering systemic pressure, preclinical and exploratory human studies suggest that SGLT2 inhibitors may also lower intraglomerular pressure, potentially reducing the rate of GFR decline in patients with diabetic nephropathy. However, given the lack of clinically meaningful endpoint data, the use of SGLT2 inhibitors, primarily, as either antihypertensive or renoprotective agents would, at present, be premature. Fortunately, further insight will be garnered from large, randomized controlled trials that will assess the effects of various SGLT2 inhibitors on cardiovascular and renal outcomes.

  3. Acquired high titre factor VIII inhibitor with underlying polyarteritis nodosa.

    PubMed

    Snowden, J A; Hutchings, M; Spearing, R; Patton, W N

    1997-05-01

    We here present the case of a 70-year-old woman referred to our unit for investigation of bleeding. Investigations confirmed a high titre acquired Factor VIII inhibitor. In association there was relapse of systemic illness associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (atypical pattern) for which she had been treated five years previously. Immunosuppression was attempted, but it failed to have an impact both on the inhibitor titre and on the underlying disorder. The patient died from multi-organ failure and massive chest hemorrhage. Post-mortem showed necrotizing vasculitis of medium sized vessels at several sites, including the kidney, consistent with a diagnosis of polyarteritis nodosa. Although it is well recognised that Factor VIII inhibitors are found in conjunction with autoimmune disorders, this case is significant in that it is the first associated with histologically proven polyarteritis nodosa type vasculitis. The case illustrates the difficulties in the investigation and management of patients with acquired high titre Factor VIII inhibitors.

  4. Inhibitor development after liver transplantation in congenital factor VII deficiency.

    PubMed

    See, W-S Q; Chang, K-O; Cheuk, D K-L; Leung, Y-Y R; Chan, G C-F; Chan, S-C; Ha, S-Y

    2016-09-01

    Congenital factor VII (FVII) deficiency is the commonest type of the rare bleeding disorders. Very few cases of congenital FVII deficiency developed inhibitor and liver transplant is considered as definitive treatment. In the literature, twelve patients with congenital FVII deficiency developed inhibitors. Two had spontaneous resolution of inhibitors and one did not respond to high dose recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) and died. Regarding liver transplant in congenital FVII patients, seven patients underwent liver transplant with good prognosis. We report a 5-year-old girl with confirmed severe congenital FVII deficiency since neonatal period. She suffered from recurrent intracranial bleeding despite rFVIIa replacement. After auxiliary liver transplant at the age of 4, she continued to show persistent deranged clotting profile and was found to have inhibitor towards FVII. Interestingly, she was still responsive to rFVIIa replacement. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Aromatase inhibitor (anastrozole) affects growth of endometrioma cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Badawy, Shawky Z A; Brown, Shereene; Kaufman, Lydia; Wojtowycz, Martha A

    2015-05-01

    To study the effects of aromatase inhibitor (anastrozole) on the growth and estradiol secretion of endometrioma cells in culture. Endometrioma cells are grown in vitro until maximum growth before used in this study. This was done in the research laboratory for tissue culture, in an academic hospital. Testosterone at a concentration of 10 μg/mL was added as a substrate for the intracellular aromatase. In addition, aromatase inhibitor was added at a concentration of 200 and 300 μg/mL. The effect on cell growth and estradiol secretion is evaluated using Student's t-test. The use of testosterone increased estradiol secretion by endometrioma cells in culture. The use of aromatase inhibitor significantly inhibited the growth of endometrioma cells, and estradiol secretion. Aromatase inhibitor (anastrozole) may be an effective treatment for endometriosis due to inhibition of cellular aromatase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Towards isozyme-selective HDAC inhibitors for interrogating disease.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Praveer; Reid, Robert C; Iyer, Abishek; Sweet, Matthew J; Fairlie, David P

    2012-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes have emerged as promising targets for the treatment of a wide range of human diseases, including cancers, inflammatory and metabolic disorders, immunological, cardiovascular, and infectious diseases. At present, such applications are limited by the lack of selective inhibitors available for each of the eighteen HDAC enzymes, with most currently available HDAC inhibitors having broad-spectrum activity against multiple HDAC enzymes. Such broad-spectrum activity maybe useful in treating some diseases like cancers, but can be detrimental due to cytotoxic side effects that accompany prolonged treatment of chronic diseased states. Here we summarize progress towards the design and discovery of HDAC inhibitors that are selective for some of the eleven zinc-containing classical HDAC enzymes, and identify opportunities to use such isozyme-selective inhibitors as chemical probes for interrogating the biological roles of individual HDAC enzymes in diseases.

  7. Aptamer antagonists of myelin-derived inhibitors promote axon growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuxuan; Khaing, Zin Z; Li, Na; Hall, Brad; Schmidt, Christine E; Ellington, Andrew D

    2010-03-16

    Myelin of the adult central nervous system (CNS) is one of the major sources of inhibitors of axon regeneration following injury. The three known myelin-derived inhibitors (Nogo, MAG, and OMgp) bind with high affinity to the Nogo-66 receptor (NgR) on axons and limit neurite outgrowth. Here we show that RNA aptamers can be generated that bind with high affinity to NgR, compete with myelin-derived inhibitors for binding to NgR, and promote axon elongation of neurons in vitro even in the presence of these inhibitors. Aptamers may have key advantages over protein antagonists, including low immunogenicity and the possibility of ready modification during chemical synthesis for stability, signaling, or immobilization. This first demonstration that aptamers can directly influence neuronal function suggests that aptamers may prove useful for not only healing spinal cord and other neuronal damage, but may be more generally useful as neuromodulators.

  8. Aptamer Antagonists of Myelin-Derived Inhibitors Promote Axon Growth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuxuan; Khaing, Zin Z.; Li, Na; Hall, Brad; Schmidt, Christine E.; Ellington, Andrew D.

    2010-01-01

    Myelin of the adult central nervous system (CNS) is one of the major sources of inhibitors of axon regeneration following injury. The three known myelin-derived inhibitors (Nogo, MAG, and OMgp) bind with high affinity to the Nogo-66 receptor (NgR) on axons and limit neurite outgrowth. Here we show that RNA aptamers can be generated that bind with high affinity to NgR, compete with myelin-derived inhibitors for binding to NgR, and promote axon elongation of neurons in vitro even in the presence of these inhibitors. Aptamers may have key advantages over protein antagonists, including low immunogenicity and the possibility of ready modification during chemical synthesis for stability, signaling, or immobilization. This first demonstration that aptamers can directly influence neuronal function suggests that aptamers may prove useful for not only healing spinal cord and other neuronal damage, but may be more generally useful as neuromodulators. PMID:20300533

  9. Tetrapeptide Inhibitors of the Glutamate Vesicular Transporter (VGLUT)

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sarjubhai A.; Nagy, Jon O.; Bolstad, Erin D.; Gerdes, John M.; Thompson, Charles M.

    2007-01-01

    Quinoline-2,4-dicaboxylic acids (QDCs) bearing lipophilic substituents in the 6- or 7-position were shown to be inhibitors of the glutamate vesicular transporter (VGLUT). Using the arrangement of the QDC lipophilic substituents as a template, libraries of X1X2EF and X1X2EW tetrapeptides were synthesized and tested as VGLUT inhibitors. The peptides QIEW and WNEF were found to be the most potent. Further stereochemical deconvolution of these two peptides showed dQlIdElW to be the best inhibitor (Ki = 828 ± 252 μM). Modeling and overlay of the tetrapeptide inhibitors with the existing pharmacophore showed that H-bonding and lipophilic residues are important for VGLUT binding. PMID:17662605

  10. Corrosion inhibitors for water-base slurry in multiblade sawing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.; Odonnell, T. P.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a water-base slurry instead of the standard PC oil vehicle was proposed for multiblade sawing (MBS) silicon wafering technology. Potential cost savings were considerable; however, significant failures of high-carbon steel blades were observed in limited tests using a water-based slurry during silicon wafering. Failures were attributed to stress corrosion. A specially designed fatigue test of 1095 steel blades in distilled water with various corrosion inhibitor solutions was used to determine the feasibility of using corrosion inhibitors in water-base MBS wafering. Fatigue tests indicate that several corrosion inhibitors have significant potential for use in a water-base MBS operation. Blade samples tested in these specific corrosion-inhibitor solutions exhibited considerably greater lifetime than those blades tested in PC oil.

  11. Ultrahigh resolution drug design I: details of interactions in human aldose reductase-inhibitor complex at 0.66 A.

    PubMed

    Howard, E I; Sanishvili, R; Cachau, R E; Mitschler, A; Chevrier, B; Barth, P; Lamour, V; Van Zandt, M; Sibley, E; Bon, C; Moras, D; Schneider, T R; Joachimiak, A; Podjarny, A

    2004-06-01

    The first subatomic resolution structure of a 36 kDa protein [aldose reductase (AR)] is presented. AR was cocrystallized at pH 5.0 with its cofactor NADP+ and inhibitor IDD 594, a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of diabetic complications. X-ray diffraction data were collected up to 0.62 A resolution and treated up to 0.66 A resolution. Anisotropic refinement followed by a blocked matrix inversion produced low standard deviations (<0.005 A). The model was very well ordered overall (CA atoms' mean B factor is 5.5 A2). The model and the electron-density maps revealed fine features, such as H-atoms, bond densities, and significant deviations from standard stereochemistry. Other features, such as networks of hydrogen bonds (H bonds), a large number of multiple conformations, and solvent structure were also better defined. Most of the atoms in the active site region were extremely well ordered (mean B approximately 3 A2), leading to the identification of the protonation states of the residues involved in catalysis. The electrostatic interactions of the inhibitor's charged carboxylate head with the catalytic residues and the charged coenzyme NADP+ explained the inhibitor's noncompetitive character. Furthermore, a short contact involving the IDD 594 bromine atom explained the selectivity profile of the inhibitor, important feature to avoid toxic effects. The presented structure and the details revealed are instrumental for better understanding of the inhibition mechanism of AR by IDD 594, and hence, for the rational drug design of future inhibitors. This work demonstrates the capabilities of subatomic resolution experiments and stimulates further developments of methods allowing the use of the full potential of these experiments. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. In Vitro Antiviral Activity and Resistance Profile of the Next-Generation Hepatitis C Virus NS5A Inhibitor Pibrentasvir.

    PubMed

    Ng, Teresa I; Krishnan, Preethi; Pilot-Matias, Tami; Kati, Warren; Schnell, Gretja; Beyer, Jill; Reisch, Thomas; Lu, Liangjun; Dekhtyar, Tatyana; Irvin, Michelle; Tripathi, Rakesh; Maring, Clarence; Randolph, John T; Wagner, Rolf; Collins, Christine

    2017-05-01

    Pibrentasvir (ABT-530) is a novel and pan-genotypic hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A inhibitor with 50% effective concentration (EC 50 ) values ranging from 1.4 to 5.0 pM against HCV replicons containing NS5A from genotypes 1 to 6. Pibrentasvir demonstrated similar activity against a panel of chimeric replicons containing HCV NS5A of genotypes 1 to 6 from clinical samples. Resistance selection studies were conducted using HCV replicon cells with NS5A from genotype 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 4a, 5a, or 6a at a concentration of pibrentasvir that was 10- or 100-fold over its EC 50 for the respective replicon. With pibrentasvir at 10-fold over the respective EC 50 , only a small number of colonies (0.00015 to 0.0065% of input cells) with resistance-associated amino acid substitutions were selected in replicons containing genotype 1a, 2a, or 3a NS5A, and no viable colonies were selected in replicons containing NS5A from other genotypes. With pibrentasvir at 100-fold over the respective EC 50 , very few colonies (0.0002% of input cells) were selected by pibrentasvir in genotype 1a replicon cells while no colonies were selected in other replicons. Pibrentasvir is active against common resistance-conferring substitutions in HCV genotypes 1 to 6 that were identified for other NS5A inhibitors, including those at key amino acid positions 28, 30, 31, or 93. The combination of pibrentasvir with HCV inhibitors of other classes produced synergistic inhibition of HCV replication. In summary, pibrentasvir is a next-generation HCV NS5A inhibitor with potent and pan-genotypic activity, and it maintains activity against common amino acid substitutions of HCV genotypes 1 to 6 that are known to confer resistance to currently approved NS5A inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Ng et al.

  13. Interaction of ABC multidrug transporters with anticancer protein kinase inhibitors: substrates and/or inhibitors?

    PubMed

    Hegedus, Csilla; Ozvegy-Laczka, Csilla; Szakács, Gergely; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2009-05-01

    Protein kinase inhibitors (PKI) are becoming key agents in modern cancer chemotherapy, and combination of PKIs with classical chemotherapeutic drugs may help to overcome currently untreatable metastatic cancers. Since chemotherapy resistance is a recurrent problem, mechanisms of resistance should be clarified in order to help further drug development. Here we suggest that in addition to PKI resistance based on altered target structures, the active removal of these therapeutic agents by the MDR-ABC transporters should also be considered as a major cause of clinical resistance. We discuss the occurring systemic and cellular mechanisms, which may hamper PKI efficiency, and document the role of selected MDR-ABC transporters in these phenomena through their interactions with these anticancer agents. Moreover, we suggest that PKI interactions with ABC transporters may modulate overall drug metabolism, including the fate of diverse, chemically or target-wise unrelated drugs. These effects are based on multiple forms of MDR-ABC transporter interaction with PKIs, as these compounds may be both substrates and/or inhibitors of an ABC transporter. We propose that these interactions should be carefully considered in clinical application, and a combined MDR-ABC transporter and PKI effect may bring a major advantage in future drug development.

  14. [Insect cholinesterases and irreversible inhibitors. Statistical treatment of the data].

    PubMed

    Moralev, S N

    2010-01-01

    The data on sensitivity of cholinesterases (ChE) of different insects to reversible inhibitors, as well as the data on physico-chemical parameters of amino acids constituting their active centers, were treated by factor analysis and juxtaposed. It is shown that both these characteristics are related to taxonomical belonging of insects. It is revealed the "material substrate" of the factors determining inhibitor action specificity, which are specific sites in ChE active center.

  15. Enhancing Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy in Kidney Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0141 TITLE: Enhancing Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor therapy in Kidney Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Hans-Joerg Hammers...SUBTITLE Enhancing Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor therapy in Kidney Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH- 15-1-0141 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...immune checkpoint inhibition in kidney cancer . The work is designed to test different strategies to induce or enhance the abscopal in a kidney cancer

  16. Carprofen analogues as sirtuin inhibitors: enzyme and cellular studies.

    PubMed

    Mellini, Paolo; Carafa, Vincenzo; Di Rienzo, Barbara; Rotili, Dante; De Vita, Daniela; Cirilli, Roberto; Gallinella, Bruno; Provvisiero, Donatella Paola; Di Maro, Salvatore; Novellino, Ettore; Altucci, Lucia; Mai, Antonello

    2012-11-01

    The best of both: SIRT1/2 inhibitors were developed by combining chemical features of selisistat (SIRT1-selective inhibitor; blue) and carprofen (anti-inflammatory drug; red). The most potent compound (shown) increased acetyl-p53 and acetyl-α-tubulin levels, and induced slight apoptosis at 50 μM in U937 cells, differently from selisistat and carprofen. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Enhancing Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy In Kidney Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0141 TITLE: Enhancing Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor therapy in Kidney Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Hans-Joerg Hammers...Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor therapy in Kidney Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH- 15-1-0141 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...to develop strategies to enhance immune checkpoint inhibition in kidney cancer. The work is designed to test different strategies to induce or

  18. Selectivity of ROCK inhibitors in the spontaneously tonic smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Satish; Patel, Chirag A

    2008-03-01

    The selectivity of different Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitors in the spontaneously tonic smooth muscle has not been investigated. We examined this issue using Y-27632 [(R)-(+)-trans-N-(4-pyridyl)-4-(1-aminoethyl)-cyclohexanecarbox anecarboxamide, 2HCl], H-1152 [(S)-(+)-(2-methyl-5-isoquinolinyl) sulfonylhomopiperazine, 2HCl], HA-1077 [(5 isoquinolinesulfonyl) homopiperazine, 2HCl], and ROCK inhibitor II [N-(4-pyridyl)-N'-(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)urea]. We compared these inhibitors in the spontaneously tonic smooth muscle of the internal anal sphincter (IAS). ROCK, protein kinase C (PKC), and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) activities were determined in the IAS, before and after different ROCK inhibitors. Y-27632 and H-1152 were approximately 30-fold more potent in the IAS (IC(50): 4.4 x 10(-7) and 7.9 x 10(-8) M, respectively) vs. the phasic rectal smooth muscle (RSM) (IC(50): 1.3 x 10(-5) and 2.5 x 10(-6) M, respectively). HA-1077 and ROCK inhibitor II were equipotent in the IAS vs. RSM. In the IAS, H-1152 was the most potent whereas ROCK inhibitor II is the least. Y-27632 and H-1152 caused concentration-dependent decrease in the IAS tone that correlates directly with the decreases in ROCK activity, without significant effect in the PKC and MLCK activities. This specifically selective correlation between ROCK activity and decrease in the IAS tone was absent in the case of HA-1077 and ROCK inhibitor II, which also inhibited PKC and MLCK. We conclude that the IAS tone is critically dependent on ROCK activity, and H-1152 and Y-27632 are the most selective and potent ROCK inhibitors in the IAS.

  19. Risk factors for inhibitor development in severe hemophilia a.

    PubMed

    Garagiola, Isabella; Palla, Roberta; Peyvandi, Flora

    2018-05-25

    Although significant advances in hemophilia treatment have improved patient outcomes and quality of life, one of the greatest complications in severe hemophilia A is the development of anti-Factor VIII (FVIII) antibodies that inhibit FVIII activity in almost 30% of previously untreated patients (PUPs). Inhibitors make very difficult the management of patients and increase their morbidity and mortality reducing drastically their quality of life. Numerous studies have investigated the mechanisms leading to the development of FVIII inhibitors. However, the etiology of their onset is complex and not yet fully understood. Inhibitors develop from a multicausal immune response involving both genetic (unmodifiable) and environmental (modifiable) factors. F8 gene mutations are the most important genetic risk factor, with null mutations being associated with the highest risk of inhibitor development. Immune response genes (e.g. the human leukocyte antigen complex) and proteins (e.g. cytokines) were studied without any strong confirmation of their role in modulating of inhibitor development. Type of FVIII product is the most important modifiable risk factor. The plasma-derived products containing von Willebrand factor were recently suggested to determine a lower incidence of inhibitor development than recombinant products in PUPs, in the first 50 exposure days (EDs). Other environmental factors including, age at first treatment, treatment intensity and the danger signal effect (surgery, severe bleeds, vaccinations and infections) has also been postulated as an explanation for environment-related inhibitor risk. This review reports the current knowledge on genetic and environmental risk factors on inhibitor development in patients with severe hemophilia A. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Corrosion inhibitors for solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.; Deramus, G. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Problems dealing with corrosion and corrosion protection of solar heating and cooling systems are discussed. A test program was conducted to find suitable and effective corrosion inhibitors for systems employing either water or antifreeze solutions for heat transfer and storage. Aluminum-mild-steel-copper-stainless steel assemblies in electrical contact were used to simulate a multimetallic system which is the type most likely to be employed. Several inhibitors show promise for this application.

  1. Design of Monoamine Reuptake Inhibitors: SSRIs, SNRIs and NRIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlock, Gavin A.; Andrews, Mark D.; Brown, Alan D.; Fish, Paul V.; Stobie, Alan; Wakenhut, Florian

    This review will detail the medicinal chemistry involved in the design, synthesis and discovery of selective serotonin, noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors and dual serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors. In particular, this review will focus exclusively on series and compounds which have been disclosed within the medicinal chemistry literature between January 2000 and June 2008. Background information on previously disclosed clinical agents, such as atomoxetine, milnacipran and reboxetine, is included for comparison purposes with more recently disclosed agents.

  2. Identifying Determinants of PARP Inhibitor Sensitivity in Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    inhibitors. Ovarian cancer patients that harbored germ- line BRCA1 mutations treated with PARP inhibitors exhibited meaningful responses in early phase...hypothesized that a range of common ovarian cancer predisposing germ- line BRCA1 gene mutations produce semi-functional proteins that are capable of...we have started our work examining exome sequences and gene expression in PARPi sensitive and resistance cancer cell lines . I attended and presented

  3. Discovery of Type II Inhibitors of TGFβ-Activated Kinase 1 (TAK1) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 2 (MAP4K2)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We developed a pharmacophore model for type II inhibitors that was used to guide the construction of a library of kinase inhibitors. Kinome-wide selectivity profiling of the library resulted in the identification of a series of 4-substituted 1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridines that exhibited potent inhibitory activity against two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), TAK1 (MAP3K7) and MAP4K2, as well as pharmacologically well interrogated kinases such as p38α (MAPK14) and ABL. Further investigation of the structure–activity relationship (SAR) resulted in the identification of potent dual TAK1 and MAP4K2 inhibitors such as 1 (NG25) and 2 as well as MAP4K2 selective inhibitors such as 16 and 17. Some of these inhibitors possess good pharmacokinetic properties that will enable their use in pharmacological studies in vivo. A 2.4 Å cocrystal structure of TAK1 in complex with 1 confirms that the activation loop of TAK1 assumes the DFG-out conformation characteristic of type II inhibitors. PMID:25075558

  4. Discovery of Type II Inhibitors of TGFβ-Activated Kinase 1 (TAK1) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 2 (MAP4K2)

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Li; Nomanbhoy, Tyzoon; Gurbani, Deepak

    Here, we developed a pharmacophore model for type II inhibitors that was used to guide the construction of a library of kinase inhibitors. Kinome-wide selectivity profiling of the library resulted in the identification of a series of 4-substituted 1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridines that exhibited potent inhibitory activity against two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), TAK1 (MAP3K7) and MAP4K2, as well as pharmacologically well interrogated kinases such as p38α (MAPK14) and ABL. Further investigation of the structure–activity relationship (SAR) resulted in the identification of potent dual TAK1 and MAP4K2 inhibitors such as 1 (NG25) and 2 as well as MAP4K2 selective inhibitors such as 16more » and 17. Some of these inhibitors possess good pharmacokinetic properties that will enable their use in pharmacological studies in vivo. Lastly, a 2.4 Å cocrystal structure of TAK1 in complex with 1 confirms that the activation loop of TAK1 assumes the DFG-out conformation characteristic of type II inhibitors.« less

  5. Discovery of Type II Inhibitors of TGFβ-Activated Kinase 1 (TAK1) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 2 (MAP4K2)

    DOE PAGES

    Tan, Li; Nomanbhoy, Tyzoon; Gurbani, Deepak; ...

    2014-07-17

    Here, we developed a pharmacophore model for type II inhibitors that was used to guide the construction of a library of kinase inhibitors. Kinome-wide selectivity profiling of the library resulted in the identification of a series of 4-substituted 1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridines that exhibited potent inhibitory activity against two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), TAK1 (MAP3K7) and MAP4K2, as well as pharmacologically well interrogated kinases such as p38α (MAPK14) and ABL. Further investigation of the structure–activity relationship (SAR) resulted in the identification of potent dual TAK1 and MAP4K2 inhibitors such as 1 (NG25) and 2 as well as MAP4K2 selective inhibitors such as 16more » and 17. Some of these inhibitors possess good pharmacokinetic properties that will enable their use in pharmacological studies in vivo. Lastly, a 2.4 Å cocrystal structure of TAK1 in complex with 1 confirms that the activation loop of TAK1 assumes the DFG-out conformation characteristic of type II inhibitors.« less

  6. MAO inhibitors and their wider applications: a patent review.

    PubMed

    Carradori, Simone; Secci, Daniela; Petzer, Jacques P

    2018-03-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, after the initial 'golden age', are currently used as third-line antidepressants (selective MAO-A inhibitors) or clinically enrolled as co-adjuvants for neurodegenerative diseases (selective MAO-B inhibitors). However, the research within this field is always increasing due to their pivotal role in modulating synaptic functions and monoamines metabolism. Areas covered: In this paper, MAO inhibitors (2015-2017) are disclosed ordering all the patents according to their chemical scaffold. Structure-activity relationships (SARs) are extrapolated for the most investigated chemotypes (coumarins, pyrazole/oxazepinones, (hetero)arylamides). 108 Compounds are divided into two main groups: newly synthesized molecules and naturally-occurring metabolites. Finally, new therapeutic options are outlined to ensure a more complete view on the potential of these inhibitors. Expert opinion: New proposed MAO inhibitors are endowed with a marked isoform selectivity, with innovative therapeutic potential toward other targets (gliomas, inflammation, muscle dystrophies, migraine, chronic pain, pseudobulbar affect), and with a promising ability to address multi-faceted pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease. The increasing number of patents is analyzed collecting data from 2002 to 2017.

  7. Subcutaneous infusion of human C1 inhibitor in swine.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haixiang; Zhang, Hua-Mei; Frank, Michael M

    2010-09-01

    Hereditary angioedema afflicts patients with unpredictable episodes of swelling that can be life threatening. Treatments approved by the Food and Drug Administration for routine prophylaxis include danazol given orally and the nanofiltered human C1 esterase inhibitor, CINRYZE, which is approved for intravenous administration. Approved for the treatment of acute attacks are the C1 esterase inhibitor, Berinert, given intravenously, and the kallikrein inhibitor, KALBITOR, given subcutaneously. C1 inhibitor has generally been non-toxic and neither pro-inflammatory nor pro-fibrotic, suggesting that it may be suitable for subcutaneous infusion. The current study used a swine model to compare blood levels of human C1 inhibitor following intravenous and subcutaneous infusion, and the effect of infusion route on heart and skin pathology. Levels of C1 inhibitor achieved with SC infusion compared favorably with levels achieved after IV infusion and were relatively more stable than those after IV infusion. Neither cardiac nor skin toxicity was observed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. HDAC inhibitors and immunotherapy; a double edged sword?

    PubMed Central

    Kroesen, Michiel; Armandari, Inna; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.; Adema, Gosse J.

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications, like histone acetylation, are essential for regulating gene expression within cells. Cancer cells acquire pathological epigenetic modifications resulting in gene expression patterns that facilitate and sustain tumorigenesis. Epigenetic manipulation therefore is emerging as a novel targeted therapy for cancer. Histone Acetylases (HATs) and Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) regulate histone acetylation and hence gene expression. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are well known to affect cancer cell viability and biology and are already in use for the treatment of cancer patients. Immunotherapy can lead to clinical benefit in selected cancer patients, especially in patients with limited disease after tumor debulking. HDAC inhibitors can potentially synergize with immunotherapy by elimination of tumor cells. The direct effects of HDAC inhibitors on immune cell function, however, remain largely unexplored. Initial data have suggested HDAC inhibitors to be predominantly immunosuppressive, but more recent reports have challenged this view. In this review we will discuss the effects of HDAC inhibitors on tumor cells and different immune cell subsets, synergistic interactions and possible mechanisms. Finally, we will address future challenges and potential application of HDAC inhibitors in immunocombination therapy of cancer. PMID:25115382

  9. Differential protein acetylation induced by novel histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Glaser, K B; Li, J; Pease, L J; Staver, M J; Marcotte, P A; Guo, J; Frey, R R; Garland, R B; Heyman, H R; Wada, C K; Vasudevan, A; Michaelides, M R; Davidsen, S K; Curtin, M L

    2004-12-17

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors induce the hyperacetylation of nucleosomal histones in carcinoma cells resulting in the expression of repressed genes that cause growth arrest, terminal differentiation, and/or apoptosis. In vitro selectivity of several novel hydroxamate HDAC inhibitors including succinimide macrocyclic hydroxamates and the non-hydroxamate alpha-ketoamide inhibitors was investigated using isolated enzyme preparations and cellular assays. In vitro selectivity for the HDAC isozymes (HDAC1/2, 3, 4/3, and 6) was not observed for these HDAC inhibitors or the reference HDAC inhibitors, MS-275 and SAHA. In T24 and HCT116 cells these compounds caused the accumulation of acetylated histones H3 and H4; however, the succinimide macrocyclic hydroxamates and the alpha-ketoamides did not cause the accumulation of acetylated alpha-tubulin. These data suggest "selectivity" can be observed at the cellular level with HDAC inhibitors and that the nature of the zinc-chelating moiety is an important determinant of activity against tubulin deacetylase.

  10. A FGFR1 inhibitor patent review: progress since 2010.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tao; Yang, Yanyan; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Yinfeng; Xu, Hong; Li, Mengpeng; Ponnusamy, Murugavel; Wang, Kun; Wang, Jian-Xun; Li, Pei-Feng

    2017-04-01

    FGFR1 is a well known molecular target for anticancer therapy. Many studies have proved that the regulation of FGFR1 activity is a promising therapeutic approach to treat a series of cancers. Therefore, the development of potent inhibitors has consequently become a key focus in the present drug discovery, and it is encouraging that several highly selective FGFR1 inhibitors have been identified from various sources in recent years. Areas covered: This article reviews patents and patent applications related to selective FGFR1 inhibitors published from 2010 to 2016. This summary highlights about 15 patents from different pharmaceutical companies and academic research groups. We used Baidu and NCBI search engines to find relevant patents as a search term. Expert opinion: In the past few years, considerable progress has been made in the identification and development of selective FGFR1 inhibitors in use. At present, at least 10 inhibitors of FGFR1 are in clinical trials, and several agents have shown encouraging results under experimental conditions. Given the fact that FGFR1 plays a crucial role in the regulation of cancer and other diseases, we hope that it will gain further attraction from pharmaceutical companies and encourage development of more novel, safe and efficient FGFR1 inhibitors in the future.

  11. Investigational Notch and Hedgehog Inhibitors – Therapies for Cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, EM; Guha, S; Walls, D; Cahill, PA

    2011-01-01

    Importance to the field During the past decade a variety of Notch and Hedgehog pathway inhibitors have been developed for the treatment of several cancers. An emerging paradigm suggests that these same gene regulatory networks are often recapitulated in the context of cardiovascular disease and may now offer an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. Areas Covered This article briefly reviews the profile of Notch and Hedgehog inhibitors that have reached the pre-clinic and clinic for cancer treatment and discusses the clinical issues surrounding targeted use of these inhibitors in the treatment of vascular disorders. Expert Opinion Pre-clinical and clinical data using pan-Notch inhibitors (γ-secretase inhibitors) and selective antibodies to preferentially target notch receptors and ligands has proven successful but concerns remain over normal organ homeostasis and significant pathology in multiple organs. In contrast, the Hedgehog based drug pipeline is rich with more than a dozen Smoothened (SMO) inhibitors at various stages of development. Overall, refined strategies will be necessary to harness these pathways safely as a powerful tool to disrupt angiogenesis and vascular proliferative phenomena without causing prohibitive side effects already seen with cancer models and patients. PMID:22007748

  12. Microarray-based screening of heat shock protein inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Schax, Emilia; Walter, Johanna-Gabriela; Märzhäuser, Helene; Stahl, Frank; Scheper, Thomas; Agard, David A; Eichner, Simone; Kirschning, Andreas; Zeilinger, Carsten

    2014-06-20

    Based on the importance of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease or malaria, inhibitors of these chaperons are needed. Today's state-of-the-art techniques to identify HSP inhibitors are performed in microplate format, requiring large amounts of proteins and potential inhibitors. In contrast, we have developed a miniaturized protein microarray-based assay to identify novel inhibitors, allowing analysis with 300 pmol of protein. The assay is based on competitive binding of fluorescence-labeled ATP and potential inhibitors to the ATP-binding site of HSP. Therefore, the developed microarray enables the parallel analysis of different ATP-binding proteins on a single microarray. We have demonstrated the possibility of multiplexing by immobilizing full-length human HSP90α and HtpG of Helicobacter pylori on microarrays. Fluorescence-labeled ATP was competed by novel geldanamycin/reblastatin derivatives with IC50 values in the range of 0.5 nM to 4 μM and Z(*)-factors between 0.60 and 0.96. Our results demonstrate the potential of a target-oriented multiplexed protein microarray to identify novel inhibitors for different members of the HSP90 family. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular mechanism of respiratory syncytial virus fusion inhibitors

    DOE PAGES

    Battles, Michael B.; Langedijk, Johannes P.; Furmanova-Hollenstein, Polina; ...

    2015-12-07

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of pneumonia and bronchiolitis in young children and the elderly. Therapeutic small molecules have been developed that bind the RSV F glycoprotein and inhibit membrane fusion, yet their binding sites and molecular mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. In this paper, we show that these inhibitors bind to a three-fold-symmetric pocket within the central cavity of the metastable prefusion conformation of RSV F. Inhibitor binding stabilizes this conformation by tethering two regions that must undergo a structural rearrangement to facilitate membrane fusion. Inhibitor-escape mutations occur in residues that directly contact the inhibitorsmore » or are involved in the conformational rearrangements required to accommodate inhibitor binding. Resistant viruses do not propagate as well as wild-type RSV in vitro, indicating a fitness cost for inhibitor escape. Finally and collectively, these findings provide new insight into class I viral fusion proteins and should facilitate development of optimal RSV fusion inhibitors.« less

  14. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 by PARP inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolescu, Adrian C.; Holt, Andrew; Kandasamy, Arulmozhi D.

    2009-10-02

    Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), a ubiquitously expressed zinc-dependent endopeptidase, and poly(ADP-ribosyl) polymerase (PARP), a nuclear enzyme regulating DNA repair, are activated by nitroxidative stress associated with various pathologies. As MMP-2 plays a detrimental role in heart injuries resulting from enhanced nitroxidative stress, where PARP and MMP inhibitors are beneficial, we hypothesized that PARP inhibitors may affect MMP-2 activity. Using substrate degradation assays to determine MMP-2 activity we found that four PARP inhibitors (3-AB, PJ-34, 5-AIQ, and EB-47) inhibited 64 kDa MMP-2 in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC{sub 50} values of PJ-34 and 5-AIQ were in the high micromolar range and comparablemore » to those of known MMP-2 inhibitors doxycycline, minocycline or o-phenanthroline, whereas those for 3-AB and EB-47 were in the millimolar range. Co-incubation of PARP inhibitors with doxycycline showed an additive inhibition of MMP-2 that was significant for 3-AB alone. These data demonstrate that the protective effects of some PARP inhibitors may include inhibition of MMP-2 activity.« less

  15. Explorative study on isoform-selective histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takayoshi

    2009-09-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) catalyze the deacetylation of the acetylated lysine residues of histones and non-histone proteins, and are involved in various fundamental life phenomena, such as gene expression and cell cycle progression. Thus far, eighteen HDAC family members (HDAC1-11 and SIRT1-7) have been identified, but the functions of the HDAC isoforms are not yet fully understood. In addition, some of the HDAC isoforms have been suggested to be associated with various disease states, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, isoform-selective HDAC inhibitors are of great interest, not only as tools for probing the biological functions of the isoforms, but also as candidate therapeutic agents with few side effects. It was against this background that we initiated research programs to identify isoform-selective HDAC inhibitors. We designed HDAC inhibitors based on the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme and on the proposed catalytic mechanism of HDACs, and found several isoform-selective HDAC inhibitors. Furthermore, we elucidated the functions of HDAC6 by chemical genetic approaches using these inhibitors. The results of this research also suggested the feasibility of using isoform-selective HDAC inhibitors as therapeutic agents.

  16. Multimorbidities and Overprescription of Proton Pump Inhibitors in Older Patients.

    PubMed

    Delcher, Anne; Hily, Sylvie; Boureau, Anne Sophie; Chapelet, Guillaume; Berrut, Gilles; de Decker, Laure

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether there is an association between overprescription of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and multimorbidities in older patients. Multicenter prospective study. Acute geriatric medicine at the University Hospital of Nantes and the Hospital of Saint-Nazaire. Older patients aged 75 and over hospitalized in acute geriatric medicine. Older patients in acute geriatric medicine who received proton pump inhibitors. Variables studied were individual multimorbidities, the burden of multimorbidity evaluated by the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale, age, sex, type of residence (living in nursing home or not), functional abilities (Lawton and Katz scales), nutritional status (Body Mass Index), and the type of concomitant medications (antiaggregant, corticosteroids', or anticoagulants). Overprescription of proton pump inhibitors was found in 73.9% older patients. In the full model, cardiac diseases (odds ratio [OR] = 4.17, p = 0.010), metabolic diseases (OR = 2.14, p = 0.042) and corticosteroids (OR = 5.39, p = 0.028) were significantly associated with overprescription of proton pump inhibitors. Esogastric diseases (OR = 0.49, p = 0.033) were negatively associated with overprescription of proton pump inhibitors. Cardiac diseases and metabolic diseases were significantly associated with overprescription of proton pump inhibitors.

  17. Multimorbidities and Overprescription of Proton Pump Inhibitors in Older Patients

    PubMed Central

    Delcher, Anne; Hily, Sylvie; Boureau, Anne Sophie; Chapelet, Guillaume; Berrut, Gilles; de Decker, Laure

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether there is an association between overprescription of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and multimorbidities in older patients. Design Multicenter prospective study. Setting Acute geriatric medicine at the University Hospital of Nantes and the Hospital of Saint-Nazaire. Participants Older patients aged 75 and over hospitalized in acute geriatric medicine. Measurements Older patients in acute geriatric medicine who received proton pump inhibitors. Variables studied were individual multimorbidities, the burden of multimorbidity evaluated by the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale, age, sex, type of residence (living in nursing home or not), functional abilities (Lawton and Katz scales), nutritional status (Body Mass Index), and the type of concomitant medications (antiaggregant, corticosteroids’, or anticoagulants). Results Overprescription of proton pump inhibitors was found in 73.9% older patients. In the full model, cardiac diseases (odds ratio [OR] = 4.17, p = 0.010), metabolic diseases (OR = 2.14, p = 0.042) and corticosteroids (OR = 5.39, p = 0.028) were significantly associated with overprescription of proton pump inhibitors. Esogastric diseases (OR = 0.49, p = 0.033) were negatively associated with overprescription of proton pump inhibitors. Conclusion Cardiac diseases and metabolic diseases were significantly associated with overprescription of proton pump inhibitors. PMID:26535585

  18. Synthesis and Application of Pyrrolidone-containing Shale Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yonggui; Hou, Jie; Zhang, Yang; Yan, Jing; Song, Tao; Xu, Yongjun

    2018-03-01

    New generation polyamine inhibitors are amino-terminated polyethers with excellent inhibiting capabilities; they play a key role in borehole stabilization and reservoir protection. However, polyamine inhibitors are limited by their poor thermal stability, which can be attributed to the presence of ether bonds in their molecular structures. We propose a three-step synthesis approach fora novel pyrrolidone-containing polyamine inhibitor (DYNP) by introducing N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) on divinyloxyethane. This polyamine inhibitor exhibits an optimized molecular structure and has enhanced heat resistance. Characterizations by infrared (IR) spectroscopy and evaluation tests demonstrate several advantages of DYNP inhibitors, including excellent inhibiting capability (superior to similar materials such as polyamines), improved heat resistance (reasonable stability at temperatures up to 240°C), and good compatibility with both fresh water and salt water drilling fluids. These can be attributed to the presence of considerable amounts of amino groups in the repeating unit of DYNP molecules. The DYNP inhibitor was applied in over 20 boreholes in tight oil blocks in Daqing Oilfield to relieve hydration of formations with high shale contents. For instance, drilling in the 2033.5m horizontal section of Dragon 2 borehole was smooth, with a borehole diameter expansion ratio below 10%.

  19. FAITH – Fast Assembly Inhibitor Test for HIV

    SciTech Connect

    Hadravová, Romana; Rumlová, Michaela, E-mail: michaela.rumlova@vscht.cz; Department of Biotechnology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague

    Due to the high number of drug-resistant HIV-1 mutants generated by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), there is continuing demand for new types of inhibitors. Both the assembly of the Gag polyprotein into immature and mature HIV-1 particles are attractive candidates for the blocking of the retroviral life cycle. Currently, no therapeutically-used assembly inhibitor is available. One possible explanation is the lack of a reliable and simple assembly inhibitor screening method. To identify compounds potentially inhibiting the formation of both types of HIV-1 particles, we developed a new fluorescent high-throughput screening assay. This assay is based on the quantification ofmore » the assembly efficiency in vitro in a 96-well plate format. The key components of the assay are HIV-1 Gag-derived proteins and a dual-labelled oligonucleotide, which emits fluorescence only when the assembly of retroviral particles is inhibited. The method was validated using three (CAI, BM2, PF74) reported assembly inhibitors. - Highlights: • Allows screening of assembly inhibitors of both mature and immature HIV-1 particles. • Based on Gag-derived proteins with CA in mature or immature conformation. • Simple and sensitive method suitable for high-throughput screening of inhibitors. • Unlike in other HIV assembly methods, works under physiological conditions. • No washing steps are necessary.« less

  20. Sulphonamides as corrosion inhibitor: Experimental and DFT studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obayes, Hasan R.; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A.; Alwan, Ghadah H.; Abdullah, Thamer Adnan; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2017-06-01

    Inhibitors are synthetic and natural molecules have various functional groups like double or triple bonds and heteroatoms; N, O or S, which permit adsorption onto the MS (metal surface). These inhibitors have the ability to adsorb onto the MS and block the active site that was reducing the corrosion rate. Inhibition efficiencies of the investigated compounds: Sulfacetamide (SAM), Sulfamerazine (SMR), Sulfapyridine (SPY) and Sulfathiazole (STI), as inhibitors in corrosive solution were evaluated based on weight loss technique. Nitro and Amino groups were chosen for the study of the substituted reaction of four corrosion inhibitor compounds: SAM, SMR, SPY and STI, theoretically utilizing the thickness capacities hypothesis DFT (density functions theory) method with the level [rB3LYP/6-311G(d,p)]. Our research demonstrated that the nitration of studied molecules lead to a diminishing in inhibition efficiencies, group lead to an increase in inhibition efficiency. Compared with corrosion inhibitor molecules these results gave a significant improvement in inhibition efficiency for corrosion inhibitor molecules.

  1. Plk1 Inhibitors in Cancer Therapy: From Laboratory to Clinics.

    PubMed

    Gutteridge, Rosie Elizabeth Ann; Ndiaye, Mary Ann; Liu, Xiaoqi; Ahmad, Nihal

    2016-07-01

    Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) overexpression has been shown to occur in a wide range of tumors, prompting research and development of Plk1 inhibitors as a means of cancer treatment. This review discusses recent advances in the development of Plk1 inhibitors for cancer management. Plk1 inhibition has been shown to cause mitotic block and apoptosis of cells with higher mitotic index and therefore higher Plk1 expression. The potential of Plk1 inhibitors as cancer therapeutics has been widely investigated. However, a complete understanding of Plk1 biology/mechanism is yet to be fully achieved. Resistance to certain chemotherapeutic drugs has been linked to Plk1 overexpression, and Plk1-mediated mitotic events such as microtubule rearrangement have been found to reduce the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. The Plk1 inhibitor volasertib has shown considerable promise in clinical studies, having reached phase III trials. However, preclinical success with Plk1 inhibitors has not translated well into clinical success. In our view, combined therapies targeting other relevant pathways together with Plk1 may be vital to combat issues observed with monotherapy, especially resistance. In addition, research should also be directed toward understanding the mechanisms of Plk1 and designing additional next generations of specific, potent Plk1 inhibitors to target cancer. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(7); 1427-35. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Resistance to MEK inhibitors: should we co-target upstream?

    PubMed

    Poulikakos, Poulikos I; Solit, David B

    2011-03-29

    Aberrant activation of the ERK pathway is common in human tumors. This pathway consists of a three-tiered kinase module [comprising the kinases RAF, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase (MEK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)] that functions as a negative feedback amplifier to confer robustness and stabilization of pathway output. Because this pathway is frequently dysregulated in human cancers, intense efforts are under way to develop selective inhibitors of the ERK pathway as anticancer drugs. Although promising results have been reported in early trials for inhibitors of RAF or MEK, resistance invariably occurs. Amplification of the upstream oncogenic driver of ERK signaling has been identified as a mechanism for MEK inhibitor resistance in cells with mutant BRAF or KRAS. Increased abundance of the oncogenic driver (either KRAS or BRAF in the appropriate cellular context) in response to prolonged drug treatment results in increased flux through the ERK pathway and restoration of ERK activity above the threshold required for cell growth. For patients with BRAF mutant tumors, the results suggest that the addition of a RAF inhibitor to a MEK inhibitor may delay or overcome drug resistance. The data thus provide a mechanistic basis for ongoing trials testing concurrent treatment with RAF and MEK inhibitors.

  3. 32 CFR 168a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability. 168a.2 Section 168a.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE... the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Military Departments, and the Defense Agencies (hereafter referred...

  4. 32 CFR 168a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 168a.2 Section 168a.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE... the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Military Departments, and the Defense Agencies (hereafter referred...

  5. 42 CFR 63a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Human Services. NIH means the National Institutes of Health and its organizational components that award... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 63a.2 Section 63a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING...

  6. 42 CFR 63a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Human Services. NIH means the National Institutes of Health and its organizational components that award... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 63a.2 Section 63a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING...

  7. 22 CFR 9a.2 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... important element of our national security. The effectiveness of the Agreement depends significantly upon... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General policy. 9a.2 Section 9a.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO CERTAIN INTERNATIONAL...

  8. 42 CFR 54a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... financial assistance under an applicable program. (e) SAMHSA means the Substance Abuse and Mental Health... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 54a.2 Section 54a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS CHARITABLE CHOICE REGULATIONS...

  9. In silico prediction of multiple-category classification model for cytochrome P450 inhibitors and non-inhibitors using machine-learning method.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Basith, S; Cui, M; Kim, B; Choi, S

    2017-10-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme superfamily is involved in phase I metabolism which chemically modifies a variety of substrates via oxidative reactions to make them more water-soluble and easier to eliminate. Inhibition of these enzymes leads to undesirable effects, including toxic drug accumulations and adverse drug-drug interactions. Hence, it is necessary to develop in silico models that can predict the inhibition potential of compounds for different CYP isoforms. This study focused on five major CYP isoforms, including CYP1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A4, that are responsible for more than 90% of the metabolism of clinical drugs. The main aim of this study is to develop a multiple-category classification model (MCM) for the major CYP isoforms using a Laplacian-modified naïve Bayesian method. The dataset composed of more than 4500 compounds was collected from the PubChem Bioassay database. VolSurf+ descriptors and FCFP_8 fingerprint were used as input features to build classification models. The results demonstrated that the developed MCM using Laplacian-modified naïve Bayesian method was successful in classifying inhibitors and non-inhibitors for each CYP isoform. Moreover, the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity values for both training and test sets were above 80% and also yielded satisfactory area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and Matthews correlation coefficient values.

  10. STUDIES OF TWO KINDS OF VIRUS PARTICLES WHICH COMPRISE INFLUENZA A2 VIRUS STRAINS

    PubMed Central

    Choppin, Purnell W.; Tamm, Igor

    1960-01-01

    Two kinds of virus particles have been found in varying proportions in influenza A2 strains isolated during the 1957 pandemic. Pure populations of the different particles were obtained, and these substrains were genetically stable on serial passage in the chick embryo. The two virus particles differ markedly in several biological properties though they are antigenically similar. One kind of particle, designated "+," is relatively sensitive to specific antibody, is highly sensitive to inhibition by serum inhibitors and urinary mucoprotein, fails to elute or elutes very slowly from human erythrocytes, and is capable of agglutinating erythrocytes treated extensively with V. cholerae filtrate. The other particle, designated "-," is relatively insensitive to antibodies and urinary mucoprotein, completely insensitive to serum inhibitors, elutes rapidly from erythrocytes, and can agglutinate erythrocytes treated extensively with V. cholerae filtrate. Both "+" and "-" particles destroy virus receptors on urinary mucoprotein. The relative proportions of these two particles determine the characteristics of parent strains in reactions with specific antibody, mucoprotein inhibitors, and erythrocytes. The "+" and "-" particles with several easily identifiable markers are well suited for genetic studies. PMID:19867182

  11. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) entry is inhibited by serine protease inhibitor AEBSF when present during an early stage of infection.

    PubMed

    Van der Gucht, Winke; Leemans, Annelies; De Schryver, Marjorie; Heykers, Annick; Caljon, Guy; Maes, Louis; Cos, Paul; Delputte, Peter L

    2017-08-17

    Host proteases have been shown to play important roles in many viral activities such as entry, uncoating, viral protein production and disease induction. Therefore, these cellular proteases are putative targets for the development of antivirals that inhibit their activity. Host proteases have been described to play essential roles in Ebola, HCV, HIV and influenza, such that specific protease inhibitors are able to reduce infection. RSV utilizes a host protease in its replication cycle but its potential as antiviral target is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of protease inhibitors on RSV infection. To measure the sensitivity of RSV infection to protease inhibitors, cells were infected with RSV and incubated for 18 h in the presence or absence of the inhibitors. Cells were fixed, stained and studied using fluorescence microscopy. Several protease inhibitors, representing different classes of proteases (AEBSF, Pepstatin A, E-64, TPCK, PMSF and aprotinin), were tested for inhibitory effects on an RSV A2 infection of HEp-2 cells. Different treatment durations, ranging from 1 h prior to inoculation and continuing for 18 h during the assay, were evaluated. Of all the inhibitors tested, AEBSF and TPCK significantly decreased RSV infection. To ascertain that the observed effect of AEBSF was not a specific feature related to HEp-2 cells, A549 and BEAS-2B cells were also used. Similar to HEp-2, an almost complete block in the number of RSV infected cells after 18 h of incubation was observed and the effect was dose-dependent. To gain insight into the mechanism of this inhibition, AEBSF treatment was applied during different phases of an infection cycle (pre-, peri- and post-inoculation treatment). The results from these experiments indicate that AEBSF is mainly active during the early entry phase of RSV. The inhibitory effect was also observed with other RSV isolates A1998/3-2 and A2000/3-4, suggesting that this is a general feature of RSV. RSV infection can be

  12. PROTEASOME INHIBITOR TREATMENT REDUCED FATTY ACID, TRIACYLGLYCEROL AND CHOLESTEROL SYNTHESIS

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Joan; French, Samuel W.; Li, Jun; Bardag-Gorce, Fawzia

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the beneficial effects of proteasome inhibitor treatment in reducing ethanol-induced steatosis were investigated. A microarray analysis was performed on the liver of rats injected with PS-341 (Bortezomib, Velcade®), and the results showed that proteasome inhibitor treatment significantly reduced the mRNA expression of SREBP-1c, and the downstream lipogenic enzymes, such as fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), which catalyzes the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, the rate-limiting step in fatty acid synthesis. ELOVL6, which is responsible for fatty acids long chain elongation, was also significantly down regulated by proteasome inhibitor treatment. Moreover, PS-341 administration significantly reduced the expression of acyl-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (AGPAT), and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), enzyme involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis. Finally, PS-341 was found to down regulate the enzymes 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoenzymeA synthase (HMG-CoA synthase) that is responsible for cholesterol synthesis. Proteasome inhibitor was also found to play a role in intestinal lipid adsorption because apolipoproteins A (apoA-I, apoAII, apoA-IV and ApoCIII) were down regulated by proteasome inhibitor treatment, especially ApoA-II that is known to be a marker of alcohol consumption. Proteasome inhibitor treatment also decreased apobec-1 complementation factor (ACF) leading to lower level of editing and production of ApoB protein. Moreover apolipoprotein C-III, a major component of chylomicrons was significantly down regulated. However, lipoprotein lipase (Lpl) and High density lipoprotein binding protein (Hdlbp) mRNA levels were increased by proteasome inhibitor treatment. These results suggested that proteasome inhibitor treatment could be used to reduce the alcohol-enhanced lipogenesis and alcohol-induced liver steatosis. A morphologic analysis, performed on the liver of rats fed ethanol for one

  13. Field evaluation of corrosion inhibitors for concrete. Interim report 1, Evaluation of exposure slabs repaired with corrosion inhibitors.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-six exposure slabs have been constructed with and without a variety of combinations of corrosion inhibiting admixtures and topically applied inhibitors. To accelerate corrosion one hundred and thirty-six of the slabs were constr...

  14. Theoretical study on the interaction of pyrrolopyrimidine derivatives as LIMK2 inhibitors: insight into structure-based inhibitor design.

    PubMed

    Shen, Mingyun; Zhou, Shunye; Li, Youyong; Li, Dan; Hou, Tingjun

    2013-10-01

    LIM kinases (LIMKs), downstream of Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCKs) and p21-activated protein kinases (PAKs), are shown to be promising targets for the treatment of cancers. In this study, the inhibition mechanism of 41 pyrrolopyrimidine derivatives as LIMK2 inhibitors was explored through a series of theoretical approaches. First, a model of LIMK2 was generated through molecular homology modeling, and the studied inhibitors were docked into the binding active site of LIMK2 by the docking protocol, taking into consideration the flexibility of the protein. The binding poses predicted by molecular docking for 17 selected inhibitors with different bioactivities complexed with LIMK2 underwent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and the binding free energies for the complexes were predicted by using the molecular mechanics/generalized born surface area (MM/GBSA) method. The predicted binding free energies correlated well with the experimental bioactivities (r(2) = 0.63 or 0.62). Next, the free energy decomposition analysis was utilized to highlight the following key structural features related to biological activity: (1) the important H-bond between Ile408 and pyrrolopyrimidine, (2) the H-bonds between the inhibitors and Asp469 and Gly471 which maintain the stability of the DFG-out conformation, and (3) the hydrophobic interactions between the inhibitors and several key residues (Leu337, Phe342, Ala345, Val358, Lys360, Leu389, Ile408, Leu458 and Leu472). Finally, a variety of LIMK2 inhibitors with a pyrrolopyrimidine scaffold were designed, some of which showed improved potency according to the predictions. Our studies suggest that the use of molecular docking with MD simulations and free energy calculations could be a powerful tool for understanding the binding mechanism of LIMK2 inhibitors and for the design of more potent LIMK2 inhibitors.

  15. Aromatic inhibitors derived from ammonia-pretreated lignocellulose hinder bacterial ethanologenesis by activating regulatory circuits controlling inhibitor efflux and detoxification

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, David H.; Zhang, Yaoping; Ong, Irene M.

    2014-08-13

    Efficient microbial conversion of lignocellulosic hydrolysates to biofuels is a key barrier to the economically viable deployment of lignocellulosic biofuels. A chief contributor to this barrier is the impact on microbial processes and energy metabolism of lignocellulose-derived inhibitors, including phenolic carboxylates, phenolic amides (for ammonia-pretreated biomass), phenolic aldehydes, and furfurals. To understand the bacterial pathways induced by inhibitors present in ammonia-pretreated biomass hydrolysates, which are less well studied than acid-pretreated biomass hydrolysates, we developed and exploited synthetic mimics of ammonia-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH). To determine regulatory responses to the inhibitors normally present in ACSH, we measured transcript and proteinmore » levels in an Escherichia coli ethanologen using RNA-seq and quantitative proteomics during fermentation to ethanol of synthetic hydrolysates containing or lacking the inhibitors. Our study identified four major regulators mediating these responses, the MarA/SoxS/Rob network, AaeR, FrmR, and YqhC. Induction of these regulons was correlated with a reduced rate of ethanol production, buildup of pyruvate, depletion of ATP and NAD(P)H, and an inhibition of xylose conversion. The aromatic aldehyde inhibitor 5-hydroxymethylfurfural appeared to be reduced to its alcohol form by the ethanologen during fermentation, whereas phenolic acid and amide inhibitors were not metabolized. Together, our findings establish that the major regulatory responses to lignocellulose-derived inhibitors are mediated by transcriptional rather than translational regulators, suggest that energy consumed for inhibitor efflux and detoxification may limit biofuel production, and identify a network of regulators for future synthetic biology efforts.« less

  16. Oral direct thrombin inhibitors or oral factor Xa inhibitors for the treatment of pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Lindsay; Kesteven, Patrick; McCaslin, James E

    2015-12-04

    Pulmonary embolism is a potentially life-threatening condition in which a clot can travel from the deep veins, most commonly in the leg, up to the lungs. Previously, a pulmonary embolism was treated with the anticoagulants heparin and vitamin K antagonists. Recently, however, two forms of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have been developed: oral direct thrombin inhibitors (DTI) and oral factor Xa inhibitors. The new drugs have characteristics that may be favourable over conventional treatment, including oral administration, a predictable effect, lack of frequent monitoring or re-dosing and few known drug interactions. To date, no Cochrane review has measured the effectiveness and safety of these drugs in the long-term treatment (minimum duration of three months) of pulmonary embolism. To assess the effectiveness of oral DTIs and oral factor Xa inhibitors for the long-term treatment of pulmonary embolism. The Cochrane Vascular Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Specialised Register (last searched January 2015) and the Cochrane Register of Studies (last searched January 2015). Clinical trials databases were also searched for details of ongoing or unpublished studies. We searched the reference lists of relevant articles retrieved by electronic searches for additional citations. We included randomised controlled trials in which patients with a pulmonary embolism confirmed by standard imaging techniques were allocated to receive an oral DTI or an oral factor Xa inhibitor for the long-term (minimum duration three months) treatment of pulmonary embolism. Two review authors (LR, JM) independently extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias in the trials. Any disagreements were resolved by discussion with the third author (PK). We used meta-analyses when we considered heterogeneity low. The two primary outcomes were recurrent venous thromboembolism and pulmonary embolism. Other outcomes included all-cause mortality and major bleeding. We calculated all outcomes

  17. Discovery and Validation of a New Class of Small Molecule Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Matthew D.; Jia, Hongpeng; Eyer, Benjamin; Good, Misty; Guerriero, Christopher J.; Sodhi, Chhinder P.; Afrazi, Amin; Prindle, Thomas; Ma, Congrong; Branca, Maria; Ozolek, John; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.; Wipf, Peter; Hackam, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Many inflammatory diseases may be linked to pathologically elevated signaling via the receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). There has thus been great interest in the discovery of TLR4 inhibitors as potential anti-inflammatory agents. Recently, the structure of TLR4 bound to the inhibitor E5564 was solved, raising the possibility that novel TLR4 inhibitors that target the E5564-binding domain could be designed. We utilized a similarity search algorithm in conjunction with a limited screening approach of small molecule libraries to identify compounds that bind to the E5564 site and inhibit TLR4. Our lead compound, C34, is a 2-acetamidopyranoside (MW 389) with the formula C17H27NO9, which inhibited TLR4 in enterocytes and macrophages in vitro, and reduced systemic inflammation in mouse models of endotoxemia and necrotizing enterocolitis. Molecular docking of C34 to the hydrophobic internal pocket of the TLR4 co-receptor MD-2 demonstrated a tight fit, embedding the pyran ring deep inside the pocket. Strikingly, C34 inhibited LPS signaling ex-vivo in human ileum that was resected from infants with necrotizing enterocolitis. These findings identify C34 and the β-anomeric cyclohexyl analog C35 as novel leads for small molecule TLR4 inhibitors that have potential therapeutic benefit for TLR4-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:23776545

  18. Synthesis of Novel Caspase Inhibitors for Characterization of the Active Caspase Proteome in Vitro and in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Henzing, Alexander J.; Dodson, Helen; Reid, Joel M.; Kaufmann, Scott H.; Baxter, Robert L.; Earnshaw, William C.

    2008-01-01

    Caspases are cysteine proteases that are essential for cytokine maturation and apoptosis. To facilitate the dissection of caspase function in vitro and in vivo, we have synthesized irreversible caspase inhibitors with biotin attached via linker arms of various lengths (12a–d) and a 2,4-dinitrophenyl labeled inhibitor (13). Affinity labeling of apoptotic extracts followed by blotting reveals that these affinity probes detect active caspases. Using the strong affinity of avidin for biotin, we have isolated affinity-labeled caspase-6 from apoptotic cytosolic extracts of cells overexpressing procaspase 6 by treatment with 12c, which contains biotin attached to the Nε-lysine of the inhibitor by a 22.5 Å linker arm, followed by affinity purification on monomeric avidin-Sepharose beads. 13 has proven sufficiently cell permeable to rescue cells from apoptotic execution. These novel caspase inhibitors should provide powerful probes for the study of the active caspase proteome during apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:17181147

  19. Cardiovascular Disease After Aromatase Inhibitor Use.

    PubMed

    Haque, Reina; Shi, Jiaxiao; Schottinger, Joanne E; Chung, Joanie; Avila, Chantal; Amundsen, Britta; Xu, Xiaoqing; Barac, Ana; Chlebowski, Rowan T

    2016-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an important cause of death in older patients with breast cancer. However, limited information exists on the long-term effect of aromatase inhibitor (AI) use on CVD risk in breast cancer survivors. To this point, no other population-based studies have been able to adjust for CVD risk factors or cardiovascular medications. To determine the long-term influence of adjuvant endocrine therapies on CVD in a cohort of postmenopausal breast cancer survivors in analyses that accounted for major CVD risk factors, medication use, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. A retrospective cohort of postmenopausal women with breast cancer diagnosed from January 1, 1991, to December 31, 2010, and followed up through December 31, 2011 (maximum, 21 years [72 886 person-years]), was evaluated using records from a managed care organization with nearly 20 community hospitals in California. A total of 13 273 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer without prior CVD were included. Cardiovascular disease incidence was compared across endocrine therapy categories. Information on demographics, comorbidity, medication, use, and CVD risk was captured from electronic health records. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models using time-dependent endocrine drug use variables and propensity scores were conducted. Data analysis was conducted from September 15, 2014, to February 1, 2016. Women were grouped by endocrine therapy status (tamoxifen citrate only, AI only, both, or neither). Person-year rates of CVD for each therapy group. During 72 886 person-years in 13 273 women (mean [SD] age, 66.8 [8.1] years) with follow-up through 2011, we observed 3711 CVD events. In multivariable analyses (reported as hazard ratio [95% CI]), AI-only users had a similar risk of cardiac ischemia (myocardial infarction and angina) (adjusted, 0.97 [0.78-1.22]) and stroke (adjusted, 0.97 [0.70-1.33]) as tamoxifen-only users (reference). However, we found an

  20. Rapid computational identification of the targets of protein kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Rockey, William M; Elcock, Adrian H

    2005-06-16

    We describe a method for rapidly computing the relative affinities of an inhibitor for all individual members of a family of homologous receptors. The approach, implemented in a new program, SCR, models inhibitor-receptor interactions in full atomic detail with an empirical energy function and includes an explicit account of flexibility in homology-modeled receptors through sampling of libraries of side chain rotamers. SCR's general utility was demonstrated by application to seven different protein kinase inhibitors: for each inhibitor, relative binding affinities with panels of approximately 20 protein kinases were computed and compared with experimental data. For five of the inhibitors (SB203580, purvalanol B, imatinib, H89, and hymenialdisine), SCR provided excellent reproduction of the experimental trends and, importantly, was capable of identifying the targets of inhibitors even when they belonged to different kinase families. The method's performance in a predictive setting was demonstrated by performing separate training and testing applications, and its key assumptions were tested by comparison with a number of alternative approaches employing the ligand-docking program AutoDock (Morris et al. J. Comput. Chem. 1998, 19, 1639-1662). These comparison tests included using AutoDock in nondocking and docking modes and performing energy minimizations of inhibitor-kinase complexes with the molecular mechanics code GROMACS (Berendsen et al. Comput. Phys. Commun. 1995, 91, 43-56). It was found that a surprisingly important aspect of SCR's approach is its assumption that the inhibitor be modeled in the same orientation for each kinase: although this assumption is in some respects unrealistic, calculations that used apparently more realistic approaches produced clearly inferior results. Finally, as a large-scale application of the method, SB203580, purvalanol B, and imatinib were screened against an almost full complement of 493 human protein kinases using SCR in

  1. Dual Use Corrosion Inhibitor and Penetrant for Anomaly Detection in Neutron/X Radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Phillip B. (Inventor); Novak, Howard L. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A dual purpose corrosion inhibitor and penetrant composition sensitive to radiography interrogation is provided. The corrosion inhibitor mitigates or eliminates corrosion on the surface of a substrate upon which the corrosion inhibitor is applied. In addition, the corrosion inhibitor provides for the attenuation of a signal used during radiography interrogation thereby providing for detection of anomalies on the surface of the substrate.

  2. Total synthesis of panicein A2

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Lili; Pilkington, Lisa I; Cadelis, Melissa M; Copp, Brent R

    2015-01-01

    Summary The first total synthesis of the unusual aromatic sesquiterpene panicein A2 is reported and the structure of the natural product has been confirmed. When tested by the NCI against a range of human cancer cell lines, it was found that panicein A2 exhibits very little antiproliferative activity at 10 μM – an observation that is at odds with the earlier report that stated panicein A2 exhibits in vitro cytotoxicity against a number of tumour cell lines. PMID:26664619

  3. Effect of Wall Shear Stress on Corrosion Inhibitor Film Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canto Maya, Christian M.

    In oil and gas production, internal corrosion of pipelines causes the highest incidence of recurring failures. Ensuring the integrity of ageing pipeline infrastructure is an increasingly important requirement. One of the most widely applied methods to reduce internal corrosion rates is the continuous injection of chemicals in very small quantities, called corrosion inhibitors. These chemical substances form thin films at the pipeline internal surface that reduce the magnitude of the cathodic and/or anodic reactions. However, the efficacy of such corrosion inhibitor films can be reduced by different factors such as multiphase flow, due to enhanced shear stress and mass transfer effects, loss of inhibitor due to adsorption on other interfaces such as solid particles, bubbles and droplets entrained by the bulk phase, and due to chemical interaction with other incompatible substances present in the stream. The first part of the present project investigated the electrochemical behavior of two organic corrosion inhibitors (a TOFA/DETA imidazolinium, and an alkylbenzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride), with and without an inorganic salt (sodium thiosulfate), and the resulting enhancement. The second part of the work explored the performance of corrosion inhibitor under multiphase (gas/liquid, solid/liquid) flow. The effect of gas/liquid multiphase flow was investigated using small and large scale apparatus. The small scale tests were conducted using a glass cell and a submersed jet impingement attachment with three different hydrodynamic patterns (water jet, CO 2 bubbles impact, and water vapor cavitation). The large scale experiments were conducted applying different flow loops (hilly terrain and standing slug systems). Measurements of weight loss, linear polarization resistance (LPR), and adsorption mass (using an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance, EQCM) were used to quantify the effect of wall shear stress on the performance and integrity of corrosion inhibitor

  4. Use of ACE inhibitors in Fontan: Rational or irrational?

    PubMed

    Wilson, Thomas G; Iyengar, Ajay J; Winlaw, David S; Weintraub, Robert G; Wheaton, Gavin R; Gentles, Thomas L; Ayer, Julian; Grigg, Leeanne E; Justo, Robert N; Radford, Dorothy J; Bullock, Andrew; Celermajer, David S; Dalziel, Kim; Schilling, Chris; d'Udekem, Yves

    2016-05-01

    Despite a lack of evidence supporting the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in patients with a Fontan circulation, their use is frequent. We decided to identify the rationale for ACE inhibitor therapy in patients within the Australia and New Zealand Fontan Registry. All patients in the Registry taking an ACE inhibitor at last follow up were identified, and a review of medical records was undertaken to determine the rationale for treatment initiation and reasons for treatment continuation or dose increase. In 2015, 36% of the surviving patients in the Registry (462/1268) were taking an ACE inhibitor. Indications for initiation of therapy were ventricular systolic or diastolic dysfunction (29%), atrioventricular valve regurgitation (19%), preservation of normal ventricular function (7%), prolonged effusions at Fontan (6%), hypertension (6%), other (6%) and unknown (2%). No indication was stated in the remaining patients (25%). Those with hypoplastic left heart syndrome were more likely to be on an ACE inhibitor than those with an alternative primary morphology (70% vs 32%; p<0.001). Only 36% of the patients treated with an ACE inhibitor at last follow up (166/462) had an indication that would generally justify treatment in a two-ventricle circulation. It is likely that the use of ACE inhibitors in patients with a Fontan circulation is excessive within our region. The coordination of prospective, multicentre studies and initiatives such as the Australia and New Zealand Fontan Registry will facilitate further investigations to guide treatment decisions in the growing Fontan population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. ACE inhibitors and potassium foods--nurses' knowledge.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Brenda; Livingston-Bowen, Carrie; Duffrin, Christopher; Mann, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    According to Joint Commission standards, patients should be educated about drug-nutrient interactions. Because nurses are well-suited to educating patients, this paper aims to assess their knowledge of ACE inhibitor drugs, nutrient interactions and high- and low-potassium foods. Licensed nurses from a teaching hospital in the US south eastern Atlantic region completed a self-administered questionnaire (n = 83). Means, standard deviations and 95 percent confidence intervals were calculated for continuous data and frequency and percentage distribution for discrete data. Student's t-test was used to evaluate responses by ACE inhibitor patient load and nursing education. Mean nurse knowledge of ACE inhibitors and potassium was 62 +/- 16 percent and identifying high- and low-potassium foods was 32 +/- 23 percent. Most identified five from 12 high-potassium foods and did not know the designation of six, one from 14 low-potassium foods and did not know the designation of 11. Knowledge scores and identifying high- and low-potassium foods were similar regardless of ACE inhibitor patient load and nursing education. ACE inhibitors are the fourth most commonly used drug class in the USA. Nurses are well positioned to recognize potential drug-nutrient interactions owing to changing or adding a drug, dose delivery method, dietary change or a patient's physical or clinical status that may indicate nutrient deficiency. The findings suggest that the nurses surveyed were proficient in identifying ACE inhibitors pharmacology, but that most were unable to identify foods that increase drug-nutrient interaction risk, and thus this is an area in which additional training might be beneficial. Case menus were used to portray real-life scenarios in which healthcare practitioners can provide patient education about ACE inhibitor drug and dietary potassium interactions.

  6. NFκB inhibitors induce cell death in glioblastomas.

    PubMed

    Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Braganhol, Elizandra; Schröder, Rafael; de Souza, Luís Henrique T; Dalmolin, Rodrigo J S; Pasquali, Matheus A Bittencourt; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2011-02-01

    Identification of novel target pathways in glioblastoma (GBM) remains critical due to poor prognosis, inefficient therapies and recurrence associated with these tumors. In this work, we evaluated the role of nuclear-factor-kappa-B (NFκB) in the growth of GBM cells, and the potential of NFκB inhibitors as antiglioma agents. NFκB pathway was found overstimulated in GBM cell lines and in tumor specimens compared to normal astrocytes and healthy brain tissues, respectively. Treatment of a panel of established GBM cell lines (U138MG, U87, U373 and C6) with pharmacological NFκB inhibitors (BAY117082, parthenolide, MG132, curcumin and arsenic trioxide) and NFκB-p65 siRNA markedly decreased the viability of GBMs as compared to inhibitors of other signaling pathways such as MAPKs (ERK, JNK and p38), PKC, EGFR and PI3K/Akt. In addition, NFκB inhibitors presented a low toxicity to normal astrocytes, indicating selectivity to cancerous cells. In GBMs, mitochondrial dysfunction (membrane depolarization, bcl-xL downregulation and cytochrome c release) and arrest in the G2/M phase were observed at the early steps of NFκB inhibitors treatment. These events preceded sub-G1 detection, apoptotic body formation and caspase-3 activation. Also, NFκB was found overstimulated in cisplatin-resistant C6 cells, and treatment of GBMs with NFκB inhibitors overcame cisplatin resistance besides potentiating the effects of the chemotherapeutics, cisplatin and doxorubicin. These findings support NFκB as a potential target to cell death induction in GBMs, and that the NFκB inhibitors may be considered for in vivo testing on animal models and possibly on GBM therapy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Zinc dependent Histone deacetylase inhibitors in cancer therapeutics: Recent update.

    PubMed

    Georgianos, Panagiotis I; Divani, Maria; Eleftheriadis, Theodoros; Mertens, Peter R; Liakopoulos, Vassilios

    2018-05-23

    Despite optimal management of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) with intensive glycemic control and administration of agents blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system, the residual risk for nephropathy progression to end-stage-renal-disease (ESRD) remains high. Sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT-2)-inhibitors represent a newly-introduced anti-diabetic drug class with pleiotropic actions extending above their glucose-lowering efficacy. Herein, we provide an overview of preclinical and clinical-trial evidence supporting a protective effect of SGLT-2 inhibitors on DKD. A systematic literature search of bibliographic databases to identify preclinical studies and randomized trials evaluating the effects SGLT-2 inhibitors on DKD. Preclinical studies performed in animal models of DKD support the renoprotective action of SGLT-2 inhibitors showing that these agents exert albuminuria-lowering effects and reverse glomerulosclerosis. The renoprotective action of SGLT-2 inhibitors is strongly supported by human studies showing that these agents prevent the progression of albuminuria and retard nephropathy progression to ESRD. This beneficial effect of SGLT-2 inhibitors is not fully explained by their glucose-lowering properties. Attenuation of glomerular hyperfiltration and improvement in a number of surrogate risk factors, including associated reduction in systemic blood pressure, body weight, and serum uric acid levels may represent plausible mechanistic explanations for the cardio-renal protection offered by SGLT-2 inhibitors. Furthermore, the tubular cell metabolism seems to be altered towards a ketone-prone pathway with protective activities. SGLT-2 inhibition emerges as a novel therapeutic approach of type 2 diabetes with anticipated benefits towards cardio-renal risk reduction. Additional research efforts are clearly warranted to elucidate this favorable effect in patients with overt DKD. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email

  8. Effectiveness of hsp90 inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Li; Lu, Xiangyi; Ruden, Douglas M

    2006-10-01

    Hsp90 is a chaperone with over 100 identified client proteins. What makes Hsp90 especially promising as a target for anti-cancer drugs is that many of its client proteins are in signaling and chromatin-remodeling pathways, and these pathways are often disrupted in many types of cancers. Recently, it was determined that Hsp90 bound to a client protein in a co-chaperone complex has a higher ATPase activity and binds to the geldanamycin inhibitor with over 100-fold higher affinity than the low-ATPase form. Consequently, despite Hsp90 being an abundant protein in most cell types, Hsp90 inhibitors accumulate at high levels primarily in tumor cells because tumor cells are "oncogene addicted" and require especially high levels of the high-ATPase form of Hsp90. Numerous classes of Hsp90 inhibitors have recently been developed, such as the anasamysin geldanamycin and derivatives 17-AAG and 17-DMAG; the macrolide radicicol and derivatives; purine-scaffold derivatives; pyrazoles; and shepherdins that bind to the N-terminal high-affinity ATP-binding domain of Hsp90. Other inhibitors have recently been shown to bind to the C-terminal dimerization domain of Hsp90, such as cisplatin and novobiocin, or modify Hsp90 postranslationally, such as histone deacetylase or proteasome inhibitors. In this mini-review, we present hypothetical mechanisms for Hsp90 inhibitors in treating cancers, preliminary studies in early clinical trials, and potential tumor-killing and tumor-promoting activities of Hsp90 inhibitors.

  9. [The primary structure of the alpha-amylase inhibitor Hoe 467A from Streptomyces tendae 4158. A new class of inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Aschauer, H; Vértesy, L; Nesemann, G; Braunitzer, G

    1983-10-01

    The native or modified alpha-amylase inhibitor Hoe 467A - isolated from the culture medium of Streptomyces tendae 4158 - and overlapping peptides were degraded by the automatic Edman technique. The oxidized or aminoethylated or oxidized and maleoylated inhibitor was digested with trypsin and the native inhibitor with pepsin. Further digestion with Staphylococcus aureus proteinase was also carried out. After peptic digestion two cystin peptides were isolated, which allowed the establishment of the disulfide bonds. The alpha-amylase inhibitor is a polypeptid consisting of 74 amino-acid residues with a molecular mass of 7958 Da. The inhibitor is composed of all naturally occurring amino acids except methionine and phenylalanine and shows no sequence homology to known inhibitors. The clinical and pharmacological importance in respect to the inhibitors ability for inactivation of human salivary and pancreatic alpha-amylase is discussed. Especially the proteinase resistance of the inhibitor enables a clinical application in human (e.g. Diabetes mellitus) per os.

  10. Annexin A2 in Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    migrate in the presence of macrophages in an in vitro system. In addition, analysis of human retinal tissue from subjects undergoing ocular surgery... tissue from subjects undergoing ocular surgery for PVR reveals the presence of A2- immunoreactive cells that express both macrophage and RPE cell...greatly attenuated in the absence of annexin A2. Task 2: Macrophage depletion and tissue specific knockout. We have completed the characterization

  11. Clinical and prognostic role of annexin A2 in adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuelong; Deng, Jiaojiao; Guo, Gang; Tong, Aiping; Peng, Xirui; Chen, Haifeng; Xu, Jianguo; Liu, Yi; You, Chao; Zhou, Liangxue

    2017-01-01

    Annexin A2 (AnxA2) is a highly conserved Ca2 + -regulated membrane binding protein, which affects cell mobility and tumor progression. Adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (AdaCP) are a kind of epithelial tumors of the sellar region with high tendency to recur. Robust biomarkers are required to predict tumor behavior and to establish follow-up individualized treatment approaches. In this study, we firstly compared four surgical AdaCP samples with normal brain by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) proteomic analysis. Potential prognostic biomarkers were further validated in a large cohort of 65 AdaCPs by immunohistochemistry. The effects of AnxA2 on AdaCP cells proliferation and migration were analyzed in vitro with isolated primary AdaCP cells as well as SV40T-immortalized cells. Finally, the gefitinib sensitivity of AdaCPs with differentially expressed AnxA2 and the potential molecular mechanisms were examined by flow cytometric analysis, Real-time PCR and immunoblot assays. Proteomic analysis indicated that AnxA2 was the protein spot with the most elevated expression in AdaCP samples. Immunohistochemistry assays indicated the expression level of AnxA2 was significantly higher in recurrent AdaCPs compared with primary ones. Moreover, AnxA2 + AdaCP cells exhibited enhanced proliferation and migration ability compared with AnxA2 - AdaCP cells in vitro. Further, we show that AnxA2 + AdaCP cells exhibited elevated expression of EGFR and downstream p-AKT (S308) and p-AKT (S473), and were more sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib. Our data suggest that AnxA2 may serve as a promising biomarker for AdaCP progression, recurrence and drug susceptibility. Our data support potential clinical implications for the follow-up treatment of AdaCP patients with high AnxA2 expression.

  12. Effect of the scale inhibitor on ion content in reverse osmosis system for seawater desalination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yuhua; Liu, Zhenfa; Zhang, Lihui; Li, Haihua

    2017-09-01

    A scale inhibitor was synthesized from polysuccinimide with 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid and aspartic acid. The effect of scale inhibitor on ion content in reverse osmosis system for seawater desalination was studied. The results showed that the ion content of permeate water is lower with the scale inhibitor added in RO system for seawater desalination than without scale inhibitor. On the contrary, the ion content of concentrate water is higher when with scale inhibitor in RO system.

  13. Stereoselective disposition of proton pump inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Tommy; Weidolf, Lars

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that about half of all therapeutic agents are chiral, but most of these drugs are administered in the form of the racemic mixture, i.e. a 50/50 mixture of its enantiomers. However, chirality is one of the main features of biology, and many of the processes essential for life are stereoselective, implying that two enantiomers may work differently from each other in a physiological environment. Thus, receptors or metabolizing enzymes would recognize one of the ligand enantiomers in favour of the other. With one exception, all presently marketed proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)--omeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole and rabeprazole--used for the treatment of gastric acid-related diseases are racemic mixtures. The exception is esomeprazole, the S-enantiomer of omeprazole, which is the only PPI developed as a single enantiomer drug. The development of esomeprazole (an alkaline salt thereof, e.g. magnesium or sodium) was based on unique metabolic properties that clearly differentiated esomeprazole from omeprazole, the racemate. At comparable doses, these properties led to several clinical advantages, for example higher bioavailability in the majority of patients, i.e. the extensive metabolizers (EMs; 97% in Caucasian and 80-85% in Asian populations), lower exposure in poor metabolizers (PMs; 3% in Caucasian and 15-20% in Asian populations) and lower interindividual variation. For the other, i.e. racemic, PPIs there are some data available on the characteristics of the individual enantiomers, and we have therefore undertaken to analyse the current literature with the purpose of evaluating the potential benefits of developing single enantiomer drugs from lansoprazole, pantoprazole and rabeprazole. For lansoprazole, the plasma concentrations of the S-enantiomer are lower than those of the R-enantiomer in both EMs and PMs, and, consequently, the variability in the population or between EMs and PMs is not likely to decrease with either of the lansoprazole

  14. New cholinesterase inhibitors from Garcinia atroviridis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen-Nee; Khairuddean, Melati; Wong, Keng-Chong; Khaw, Kooi-Yeong; Vikneswaran, Murugaiyah

    2014-09-01

    A triflavanone, Garcineflavanone A (1) and a biflavonol, Garcineflavonol A (2) have been isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia atroviridis (Clusiaceae), collected in Peninsular Malaysia. Their structures were established using one and two-dimensional NMR, UV, IR and mass spectrometry and evaluated in vitro for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes inhibitory activity. Molecular docking studies of the isolated compounds were performed using docking procedure of AutoDock to disclose the binding interaction and orientation of these molecules into the active site gorge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Arginine mimetic structures in biologically active antagonists and inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Masic, Lucija Peterlin

    2006-01-01

    Peptidomimetics have found wide application as bioavailable, biostable, and potent mimetics of naturally occurring biologically active peptides. L-Arginine is a guanidino group-containing basic amino acid, which is positively charged at neutral pH and is involved in many important physiological and pathophysiological processes. Many enzymes display a preference for the arginine residue that is found in many natural substrates and in synthetic inhibitors of many trypsin-like serine proteases, e.g. thrombin, factor Xa, factor VIIa, trypsin, and in integrin receptor antagonists, used to treat many blood-coagulation disorders. Nitric oxide (NO), which is produced by oxidation of L-arginine in an NADPH- and O(2)-dependent process catalyzed by isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), exhibits diverse roles in both normal and pathological physiologies and has been postulated to be a contributor to the etiology of various diseases. Development of NOS inhibitors as well as analogs and mimetics of the natural substrate L-arginine, is desirable for potential therapeutic use and for a better understanding of their conformation when bound in the arginine binding site. The guanidino residue of arginine in many substrates, inhibitors, and antagonists forms strong ionic interactions with the carboxylate of an aspartic acid moiety, which provides specificity for the basic amino acid residue in the active side. However, a highly basic guanidino moiety incorporated in enzyme inhibitors or receptor antagonists is often associated with low selectivity and poor bioavailability after peroral application. Thus, significant effort is focused on the design and preparation of arginine mimetics that can confer selective inhibition for specific trypsin-like serine proteases and NOS inhibitors as well as integrin receptor antagonists and possess reduced basicity for enhanced oral bioavailability. This review will describe the survey of arginine mimetics designed to mimic the function of the

  16. Therapeutic Applications of PARP Inhibitors: Anticancer Therapy and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Curtin, Nicola; Szabo, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the current and potential clinical translation of pharmacological inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) for the therapy of various diseases. The first section of the present review summarizes the available preclinical and clinical data with PARP inhibitors in various forms of cancer. In this context, the role of PARP in single-strand DNA break repair is relevant, leading to replication-associated lesions that cannot be repaired if homologous recombination (HRR) repair is defective, and the synthetic lethality of PARP inhibitors in HRR-defective cancer. HRR defects are classically associated with BRCA1 and 2 mutations associated with familial breast and ovarian cancer, but there may be many other causes of HRR defects. Thus, PARP inhibitors may be the drugs of choice for BRCA mutant breast and ovarian cancers, and extend beyond these tumors if appropriate biomarkers can be developed to identify HRR defects. Multiple lines of preclinical data demonstrate that PARP inhibition increases cytotoxicity and tumor growth delay in combination with temozolomide, topoisomerase inhibitors and ionizing radiation. Both single agent and combination clinical trials are underway. The final part of the first section of the present review summarizes the current status of the various PARP inhibitors that are in various stages of clinical development. The second section of the present review summarizes the role of PARP in selected non-oncologic indications. In a number of severe, acute diseases (such as stroke, neurotrauma, circulatory shock and acute myocardial infarction) the clinical translatability of PARP inhibition is supported by multiple lines of preclinical data, as well as observational data demonstrating PARP activation in human tissue samples. In these disease indications, PARP overactivation due to oxidative and nitrative stress drives cell necrosis and pro-inflammatory gene expression, which contributes to disease pathology

  17. [Pharmacogenic osteoporosis beyond cortisone. Proton pump inhibitors, glitazones and diuretics].

    PubMed

    Kann, P H; Hadji, P; Bergmann, R S

    2014-05-01

    [corrected] There are many drugs which can cause osteoporosis or at least favor its initiation. The effect of hormones and drugs with antihormonal activity, such as glucocorticoids and aromatase inhibitors, on initiation of osteoporosis is well known. In addition, proton pump inhibitors, glitazones and diuretics also influence the formation of osteoporosis. The results of currently available studies on the correlation between proton pump inhibitors, glitazones and diuretics on formation of osteoporosis were evaluated and summarized. Proton pump inhibitors and glitazones increase the risk for osteoporotic fractures. Loop diuretics may slightly increase fracture risk, whereas thiazides were shown to be osteoprotective by reducing fracture probability on a relevant scale. Proton pump inhibitors should not be prescribed without serious consideration and then only as long as necessary. Alternatively, the administration of the less effective H2 antagonists should be considered when possible due to the reduction of acid secretion. Because the long-term intake of thiazides is associated with a clinically relevant reduction in the risk of fractures and they are economic and well-tolerated, prescription can be thoroughly recommended within the framework of differential diagnostic considerations in an appropriate clinical context. The briefly increased risk of falling immediately after starting diuretic therapy is the only point which needs to be considered.

  18. Unraveling the Pivotal Role of Bradykinin in ACE Inhibitor Activity.

    PubMed

    Taddei, Stefano; Bortolotto, L

    2016-10-01

    Historically, the first described effect of an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor was an increased activity of bradykinin, one of the substrates of ACE. However, in the subsequent years, molecular models describing the mechanism of action of ACE inhibitors in decreasing blood pressure and cardiovascular risk have focused mostly on the renin-angiotensin system. Nonetheless, over the last 20 years, the importance of bradykinin in regulating vasodilation, natriuresis, oxidative stress, fibrinolysis, inflammation, and apoptosis has become clearer. The affinity of ACE appears to be higher for bradykinin than for angiotensin I, thereby suggesting that ACE inhibitors may be more effective inhibitors of bradykinin degradation than of angiotensin II production. Data describing the effect of ACE inhibition on bradykinin signaling support the hypothesis that the most cardioprotective benefits attributed to ACE inhibition may be due to increased bradykinin signaling rather than to decreased angiotensin II signaling, especially when high dosages of ACE inhibitors are considered. In particular, modulation of bradykinin in the endothelium appears to be a major target of ACE inhibition. These new mechanistic concepts may lead to further development of strategies enhancing the bradykinin signaling.

  19. HDAC inhibitors: modulating leukocyte differentiation, survival, proliferation and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Matthew J; Shakespear, Melanie R; Kamal, Nabilah A; Fairlie, David P

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors in cancer models were first linked to their ability to cause growth arrest and apoptosis of tumor cells. It is now clear that these agents also have pleiotropic effects on angiogenesis and the immune system, and some of these properties are likely to contribute to their anti-cancer activities. It is also emerging that inhibitors of specific HDACs affect the differentiation, survival and/or proliferation of distinct immune cell populations. This is true for innate immune cells such as macrophages, as well as cells of the acquired immune system, for example, T-regulatory cells. These effects may contribute to therapeutic profiles in some autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disease models. Here, we review our current understanding of how classical HDACs (HDACs 1-11) and their inhibitors impact on differentiation, survival and proliferation of distinct leukocyte populations, as well as the likely relevance of these effects to autoimmune and inflammatory disease processes. The ability of HDAC inhibitors to modulate leukocyte survival may have implications for the rationale of developing selective inhibitors as anti-inflammatory drugs.

  20. Inhibitors of V-ATPases: old and new players.

    PubMed

    Huss, Markus; Wieczorek, Helmut

    2009-02-01

    V-ATPases constitute a ubiquitous family of heteromultimeric, proton translocating proteins. According to their localization in a multitude of eukaryotic endomembranes and plasma membranes, they energize many different transport processes. Currently, a handful of specific inhibitors of the V-ATPase are known, which represent valuable tools for the characterization of transport processes on the level of tissues, single cells or even purified proteins. The understanding of how these inhibitors function may provide a basis to develop new drugs for the benefit of patients suffering from diseases such as osteoporosis or cancer. For this purpose, it appears absolutely essential to determine the exact inhibitor binding site in a target protein on the one side and to uncover the crucial structural elements of an inhibitor on the other side. However, even for some of the most popular and long known V-ATPase inhibitors, such as bafilomycin or concanamycin, the authentic structures of their binding sites are elusive. The aim of this review is to summarize the recent advances for the old players in the inhibition game, the plecomacrolides bafilomycin and concanamycin, and to introduce some of the new players, the macrolacton archazolid, the benzolactone enamides salicylihalamide, lobatamide, apicularen, oximidine and cruentaren, and the indolyls.