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Sample records for a2 inhibits angiogenesis

  1. Inhibition of angiogenesis by leflunomide via targeting the soluble ephrin-A1/EphA2 system in bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Chu, Maolin; Zhang, Chunying

    2018-01-24

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in bladder cancer (BCa). The immunosuppressive drug leflunomide has attracted worldwide attention. However, the effects of leflunomide on angiogenesis in cancer remain unclear. Here, we report the increased expression of soluble ephrin-A1 (sEphrin-A1) in supernatants of BCa cell lines (RT4, T24, and TCCSUP) co-cultured with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) compared with that in immortalized uroepithelial cells (SV-HUC-1) co-cultured with HUVECs. sEphrin-A1 is released from BCa cells as a monomeric protein that is a functional form of the ligand. The co-culture supernatants containing sEphrin-A1 caused the internalization and down-regulation of EphA2 on endothelial cells and dramatic functional activation of HUVECs. This sEphrin-A1/EphA2 system is mainly functional in regulating angiogenesis in BCa tissue. We showed that leflunomide (LEF) inhibited angiogenesis in a N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine (BBN)-induced bladder carcinogenesis model and a tumor xenograft model, as well as in BCa cell and HUVEC co-culture systems, via significant inhibition of the sEphrin-A1/EphA2 system. Ephrin-A1 overexpression could partially reverse LEF-induced suppression of angiogenesis and subsequent tumor growth inhibition. Thus, LEF has a significant anti-angiogenesis effect on BCa cells and BCa tissue via its inhibition of the functional angiogenic sEphrin-A1/EphA2 system and may have potential for treating BCa beyond immunosuppressive therapy.

  2. MVL-PLA2, a Snake Venom Phospholipase A2, Inhibits Angiogenesis through an Increase in Microtubule Dynamics and Disorganization of Focal Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Bazaa, Amine; Pasquier, Eddy; Defilles, Céline; Limam, Ines; Kessentini-Zouari, Raoudha; Kallech-Ziri, Olfa; Battari, Assou El; Braguer, Diane; Ayeb, Mohamed El; Marrakchi, Naziha; Luis, José

    2010-01-01

    Integrins are essential protagonists of the complex multi-step process of angiogenesis that has now become a major target for the development of anticancer therapies. We recently reported and characterized that MVL-PLA2, a novel phospholipase A2 from Macrovipera lebetina venom, exhibited anti-integrin activity. In this study, we show that MVL-PLA2 also displays potent anti-angiogenic properties. This phospholipase A2 inhibited adhesion and migration of human microvascular-endothelial cells (HMEC-1) in a dose-dependent manner without being cytotoxic. Using Matrigel™ and chick chorioallantoic membrane assays, we demonstrated that MVL-PLA2, as well as its catalytically inactivated form, significantly inhibited angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. We have also found that the actin cytoskeleton and the distribution of αvβ3 integrin, a critical regulator of angiogenesis and a major component of focal adhesions, were disturbed after MVL-PLA2 treatment. In order to further investigate the mechanism of action of this protein on endothelial cells, we analyzed the dynamic instability behavior of microtubules in living endothelial cells. Interestingly, we showed that MVL-PLA2 significantly increased microtubule dynamicity in HMEC-1 cells by 40%. We propose that the enhancement of microtubule dynamics may explain the alterations in the formation of focal adhesions, leading to inhibition of cell adhesion and migration. PMID:20405031

  3. Clinical biomarkers of angiogenesis inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Aaron P.; Citrin, Deborah E.; Camphausen, Kevin A.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction An expanding understanding of the importance of angiogenesis in oncology and the development of numerous angiogenesis inhibitors are driving the search for biomarkers of angiogenesis. We review currently available candidate biomarkers and surrogate markers of anti-angiogenic agent effect. Discussion A number of invasive, minimally invasive, and non-invasive tools are described with their potential benefits and limitations. Diverse markers can evaluate tumor tissue or biological fluids, or specialized imaging modalities. Conclusions The inclusion of these markers into clinical trials may provide insight into appropriate dosing for desired biological effects, appropriate timing of additional therapy, prediction of individual response to an agent, insight into the interaction of chemotherapy and radiation following exposure to these agents, and perhaps most importantly, a better understanding of the complex nature of angiogenesis in human tumors. While many markers have potential for clinical use, it is not yet clear which marker or combination of markers will prove most useful. PMID:18414993

  4. Cannabidiol inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Solinas, M; Massi, P; Cantelmo, AR; Cattaneo, MG; Cammarota, R; Bartolini, D; Cinquina, V; Valenti, M; Vicentini, LM; Noonan, DM; Albini, A; Parolaro, D

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Several studies have demonstrated anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic actions of cannabinoids on various tumours, together with their anti-angiogenic properties. The non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) effectively inhibits the growth of different types of tumours in vitro and in vivo and down-regulates some pro-angiogenic signals produced by glioma cells. As its anti-angiogenic properties have not been thoroughly investigated to date, and given its very favourable pharmacological and toxicological profile, here, we evaluated the ability of CBD to modulate tumour angiogenesis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Firstly, we evaluated the effect of CBD on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and viability – through [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay and FACS analysis – and in vitro motility – both in a classical Boyden chamber test and in a wound-healing assay. We next investigated CBD effects on different angiogenesis-related proteins released by HUVECs, using an angiogenesis array kit and an ELISA directed at MMP2. Then we evaluated its effects on in vitro angiogenesis in treated HUVECs invading a Matrigel layer and in HUVEC spheroids embedded into collagen gels, and further characterized its effects in vivo using a Matrigel sponge model of angiogenesis in C57/BL6 mice. KEY RESULTS CBD induced HUVEC cytostasis without inducing apoptosis, inhibited HUVEC migration, invasion and sprouting in vitro, and angiogenesis in vivo in Matrigel sponges. These effects were associated with the down-modulation of several angiogenesis-related molecules. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS This study reveals that CBD inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms. Its dual effect on both tumour and endothelial cells supports the hypothesis that CBD has potential as an effective agent in cancer therapy. PMID:22624859

  5. Cannabidiol inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Solinas, M; Massi, P; Cantelmo, A R; Cattaneo, M G; Cammarota, R; Bartolini, D; Cinquina, V; Valenti, M; Vicentini, L M; Noonan, D M; Albini, A; Parolaro, D

    2012-11-01

    Several studies have demonstrated anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic actions of cannabinoids on various tumours, together with their anti-angiogenic properties. The non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) effectively inhibits the growth of different types of tumours in vitro and in vivo and down-regulates some pro-angiogenic signals produced by glioma cells. As its anti-angiogenic properties have not been thoroughly investigated to date, and given its very favourable pharmacological and toxicological profile, here, we evaluated the ability of CBD to modulate tumour angiogenesis. Firstly, we evaluated the effect of CBD on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and viability - through [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay and FACS analysis - and in vitro motility - both in a classical Boyden chamber test and in a wound-healing assay. We next investigated CBD effects on different angiogenesis-related proteins released by HUVECs, using an angiogenesis array kit and an ELISA directed at MMP2. Then we evaluated its effects on in vitro angiogenesis in treated HUVECs invading a Matrigel layer and in HUVEC spheroids embedded into collagen gels, and further characterized its effects in vivo using a Matrigel sponge model of angiogenesis in C57/BL6 mice. CBD induced HUVEC cytostasis without inducing apoptosis, inhibited HUVEC migration, invasion and sprouting in vitro, and angiogenesis in vivo in Matrigel sponges. These effects were associated with the down-modulation of several angiogenesis-related molecules. This study reveals that CBD inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms. Its dual effect on both tumour and endothelial cells supports the hypothesis that CBD has potential as an effective agent in cancer therapy. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Functional inhibition of UQCRB suppresses angiogenesis in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Yoon Sun; Jung, Hye Jin; Seok, Seung Hyeok

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: ► This is the first functional characterization of UQCRB in vivo model. ► Angiogenesis is inhibited with UQCRB loss of function in zebrafish. ► UQCRB is introduced as a prognostic marker for mitochondria- and angiogenesis-related diseases. -- Abstract: As a subunit of mitochondrial complex III, UQCRB plays an important role in complex III stability, electron transport, and cellular oxygen sensing. Herein, we report UQCRB function regarding angiogenesis in vivo with the zebrafish (Danio rerio). UQCRB knockdown inhibited angiogenesis in zebrafish leading to the suppression of VEGF expression. Moreover, the UQCRB-targeting small molecule terpestacin also inhibited angiogenesis and VEGF levelsmore » in zebrafish, supporting the role of UQCRB in angiogenesis. Collectively, UQCRB loss of function by either genetic and pharmacological means inhibited angiogenesis, indicating that UQCRB plays a key role in this process and can be a prognostic marker of angiogenesis- and mitochondria-related diseases.« less

  7. Inhibition of angiogenesis by S-adenosylmethionine

    SciTech Connect

    Sahin, Mehmet, E-mail: msahin@akdeniz.edu.tr; Sahin, Emel; Guemueslue, Saadet

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} Effects of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) were investigated in endothelial cells. {yields} Our results showed that SAM decreased proliferation of endothelial cells. {yields} SAM influentially inhibited the percentage of cell migration. {yields} SAM probably stopped migration as independent from its effects on proliferation. {yields} SAM was shown to suppress in vitro angiogenesis. -- Abstract: Metastasis is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in cancer. One of the steps in metastasis process is the formation of new blood vessels. Aberrant DNA methylation patterns are common in cancer cells. In recent studies, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), which is a DNA methylating agent, hasmore » been found to have inhibitory effects on some carcinoma cells in vivo and in vitro. In the present study, we have used SAM to investigate whether it is effective against angiogenesis in vitro. Our results have shown that SAM can reduce the formation and organization of capillary-like structures of endothelial cells in tumoral environment. Besides, we have found SAM can block endothelial cell proliferation and the migration of cells towards growth factors-rich media. In conclusion, our study suggests that SAM may be used against angiogenesis as a natural bio-product.« less

  8. CC-chemokine class inhibition attenuates pathological angiogenesis while preserving physiological angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ridiandries, Anisyah; Tan, Joanne T M; Ravindran, Dhanya; Williams, Helen; Medbury, Heather J; Lindsay, Laura; Hawkins, Clare; Prosser, Hamish C G; Bursill, Christina A

    2017-03-01

    Increasing evidence shows that CC-chemokines promote inflammatory-driven angiogenesis, with little to no effect on hypoxia-mediated angiogenesis. Inhibition of the CC-chemokine class may therefore affect angiogenesis differently depending on the pathophysiological context. We compared the effect of CC-chemokine inhibition in inflammatory and physiological conditions. In vitro , the broad-spectrum CC-chemokine inhibitor "35K" inhibited inflammatory-induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tubulogenesis, with more modest effects in hypoxia. In vivo , adenoviruses were used to overexpress 35K (Ad35K) and GFP (AdGFP, control virus). Plasma chemokine activity was suppressed by Ad35K in both models. In the periarterial femoral cuff model of inflammatory-driven angiogenesis, overexpression of 35K inhibited adventitial neovessel formation compared with control AdGFP-infused mice. In contrast, 35K preserved neovascularization in the hindlimb ischemia model and had no effect on physiological neovascularization in the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. Mechanistically, 2 key angiogenic proteins (VEGF and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α) were conditionally regulated by 35K, such that expression was inhibited in inflammation but was unchanged in hypoxia. In conclusion, CC-chemokine inhibition by 35K suppresses inflammatory-driven angiogenesis while preserving physiological ischemia-mediated angiogenesis via conditional regulation of VEGF and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. CC-chemokine inhibition may be an alternative therapeutic strategy for suppressing diseases associated with inflammatory angiogenesis without inducing the side effects caused by global inhibition.- Ridiandries, A., Tan, J. T. M., Ravindran, D., Williams, H., Medbury, H. J., Lindsay, L., Hawkins, C., Prosser, H. C. G., Bursill, C. A. CC-chemokine class inhibition attenuates pathological angiogenesis while preserving physiological angiogenesis. © FASEB.

  9. A cannabinoid quinone inhibits angiogenesis by targeting vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Natalya M; Blázquez, Cristina; Alvarez, Luis; Gallily, Ruth; Schlesinger, Michael; Guzmán, Manuel; Mechoulam, Raphael

    2006-07-01

    Recent findings on the inhibition of angiogenesis and vascular endothelial cell proliferation by anthracycline antibiotics, which contain a quinone moiety, make this type of compound a very promising lead in cancer research/therapy. We have reported that a new cannabinoid anticancer quinone, cannabidiol hydroxyquinone (HU-331), is highly effective against tumor xenografts in nude mice. For evaluation of the antiangiogenic action of cannabinoid quinones, collagen-embedded rat aortic ring assay was used. The ability of cannabinoids to cause endothelial cell apoptosis was assayed by TUNEL staining and flow cytometry analysis. To examine the genes and pathways targeted by HU-331 in vascular endothelial cells, human cDNA microarrays and polymerase chain reaction were used. Immunostaining with anti-CD31 of tumors grown in nude mice served to indicate inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. HU-331 was found to be strongly antiangiogenic, significantly inhibiting angiogenesis at concentrations as low as 300 nM. HU-331 inhibited angiogenesis by directly inducing apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells without changing the expression of pro- and antiangiogenic cytokines and their receptors. A significant decrease in the total area occupied by vessels in HU-331-treated tumors was also observed. These data lead us to consider HU-331 to have high potential as a new antiangiogenic and anticancer drug.

  10. N-acetylcysteine inhibits endothelial cell invasion and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cai, T; Fassina, G; Morini, M; Aluigi, M G; Masiello, L; Fontanini, G; D'Agostini, F; De Flora, S; Noonan, D M; Albini, A

    1999-09-01

    The thiol N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a chemopreventive agent that acts through a variety of mechanisms and can prevent in vivo carcinogenesis. We have previously shown that NAC inhibits invasion and metastasis of malignant cells as well as tumor take. Neovascularization is critical for tumor mass expansion and metastasis formation. We investigated whether a target of the anti-cancer activity of NAC could be the inhibition of the tumor angiogenesis-associated phenotype in vitro and in vivo using the potent angiogenic mixture of Kaposi's sarcoma cell products as a stimulus. Two endothelial (EAhy926 and human umbilical vein endothelial [HUVE]) cell lines were utilized in a panel of assays to test NAC ability in inhibiting chemotaxis, invasion, and gelatinolytic activity in vitro. NAC treatment of EAhy926 and HUVE cells in vitro dose-dependently reduced their ability to invade a reconstituted basement membrane, an indicator of endothelial cell activation. Invasion of HUVE cells was inhibited with an ID50 of 0.24 mM NAC, whereas inhibition of chemotaxis required a 10 fold higher doses, indicating that invasion is a preferential target. NAC inhibited the enzymatic activity and conversion to active forms of the gelatinase produced by endothelial cells. The matrigel in vivo assay was used for the evaluation of angiogenesis; NAC strongly inhibited neovascularization of the matrigel sponges in response to Kaposi's sarcoma cell products. NAC prevented angiogenesis while preserving endothelial cells, implying that it could be safely used as an anti-angiogenic treatment.

  11. Mature and progenitor endothelial cells perform angiogenesis also under protease inhibition: the amoeboid angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chillà, Anastasia; Margheri, Francesca; Biagioni, Alessio; Del Rosso, Mario; Fibbi, Gabriella; Laurenzana, Anna

    2018-04-03

    Controlling vascular growth is a challenging aim for the inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis. The amoeboid and mesenchymal types of invasiveness are two modes of migration interchangeable in cancer cells: the Rac-dependent mesenchymal migration requires the activity of proteases; the Rho-ROCK-dependent amoeboid motility is protease-independent and has never been described in endothelial cells. A cocktail of physiologic inhibitors (Ph-C) of serine-proteases, metallo-proteases and cysteine-proteases, mimicking the physiological environment that cells encounter during their migration within the angiogenesis sites was used to induce amoeboid style migration of Endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) and mature endothelial cells (ECs). To evaluate the mesenchymal-ameboid transition RhoA and Rac1 activation assays were performed along with immunofluorescence analysis of proteins involved in cytoskeleton organization. Cell invasion was studied in Boyden chambers and Matrigel plug assay for the in vivo angiogenesis. In the present study we showed in both ECFCs and ECs, a decrease of activated Rac1 and an increase of activated RhoA upon shifting of cells to the amoeboid conditions. In presence of Ph-C inhibitors both cell lines acquired a round morphology and Matrigel invasion was greatly enhanced with respect to that observed in the absence of protease inhibition. We also observed that the urokinase-plasminogen-activator (uPAR) receptor silencing and uPAR-integrin uncoupling with the M25 peptide abolished both mesenchymal and amoeboid angiogenesis of ECFCs and ECs in vitro and in vivo, indicating a role of the uPAR-integrin-actin axis in the regulation of amoeboid angiogenesis. Furthermore, under amoeboid conditions endothelial cells seem to be indifferent to VEGF stimulation, which induces an amoeboid signaling pattern also in mesenchymal conditions. Here we first provide a data set disclosing that endothelial cells can move and differentiate into vascular

  12. VEGF blockade inhibits angiogenesis and reepithelialization of endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiujun; Krieg, Sacha; Kuo, Calvin J.; Wiegand, Stanley J.; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Druzin, Maurice L.; Brenner, Robert M.; Giudice, Linda C.; Nayak, Nihar R.

    2008-01-01

    Despite extensive literature on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and regulation by steroid hormones, the lack of clear understanding of the mechanisms of angiogenesis in the endometrium is a major limitation for use of antiangiogenic therapy targeting endometrial vessels. In the current work, we used the rhesus macaque as a primate model and the decidualized mouse uterus as a murine model to examine angiogenesis during endometrial breakdown and regeneration. We found that blockade of VEGF action with VEGF Trap, a potent VEGF blocker, completely inhibited neovascularization during endometrial regeneration in both models but had no marked effect on preexisting or newly formed vessels, suggesting that VEGF is essential for neoangiogenesis but not survival of mature vessels in this vascular bed. Blockade of VEGF also blocked reepithelialization in both the postmenstrual endometrium and the mouse uterus after decidual breakdown, evidence that VEGF has pleiotropic effects in the endometrium. In vitro studies with a scratch wound assay showed that the migration of luminal epithelial cells during repair involved signaling through VEGF receptor 2–neuropilin 1 (VEGFR2-NP1) receptors on endometrial stromal cells. The leading front of tissue growth during endometrial repair was strongly hypoxic, and this hypoxia was the local stimulus for VEGF expression and angiogenesis in this tissue. In summary, we provide novel experimental data indicating that VEGF is essential for endometrial neoangiogenesis during postmenstrual/postpartum repair.—Fan, X., Krieg, S., Kuo, C. J., Wiegand, S. J., Rabinovitch, M., Druzin, M. L., Brenner, R. M., Giudice, L. C., Nayak, N. R. VEGF blockade inhibits angiogenesis and reepithelialization of endometrium. PMID:18606863

  13. S1P1 inhibits sprouting angiogenesis during vascular development.

    PubMed

    Ben Shoham, Adi; Malkinson, Guy; Krief, Sharon; Shwartz, Yulia; Ely, Yona; Ferrara, Napoleone; Yaniv, Karina; Zelzer, Elazar

    2012-10-01

    Coordination between the vascular system and forming organs is essential for proper embryonic development. The vasculature expands by sprouting angiogenesis, during which tip cells form filopodia that incorporate into capillary loops. Although several molecules, such as vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa), are known to induce sprouting, the mechanism that terminates this process to ensure neovessel stability is still unknown. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P(1)) has been shown to mediate interaction between endothelial and mural cells during vascular maturation. In vitro studies have identified S1P(1) as a pro-angiogenic factor. Here, we show that S1P(1) acts as an endothelial cell (EC)-autonomous negative regulator of sprouting angiogenesis during vascular development. Severe aberrations in vessel size and excessive sprouting found in limbs of S1P(1)-null mouse embryos before vessel maturation imply a previously unknown, mural cell-independent role for S1P(1) as an anti-angiogenic factor. A similar phenotype observed when S1P(1) expression was blocked specifically in ECs indicates that the effect of S1P(1) on sprouting is EC-autonomous. Comparable vascular abnormalities in S1p(1) knockdown zebrafish embryos suggest cross-species evolutionary conservation of this mechanism. Finally, genetic interaction between S1P(1) and Vegfa suggests that these factors interplay to regulate vascular development, as Vegfa promotes sprouting whereas S1P(1) inhibits it to prevent excessive sprouting and fusion of neovessels. More broadly, because S1P, the ligand of S1P(1), is blood-borne, our findings suggest a new mode of regulation of angiogenesis, whereby blood flow closes a negative feedback loop that inhibits sprouting angiogenesis once the vascular bed is established and functional.

  14. VEGF blockade inhibits angiogenesis and reepithelialization of endometrium.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiujun; Krieg, Sacha; Kuo, Calvin J; Wiegand, Stanley J; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Druzin, Maurice L; Brenner, Robert M; Giudice, Linda C; Nayak, Nihar R

    2008-10-01

    Despite extensive literature on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and regulation by steroid hormones, the lack of clear understanding of the mechanisms of angiogenesis in the endometrium is a major limitation for use of antiangiogenic therapy targeting endometrial vessels. In the current work, we used the rhesus macaque as a primate model and the decidualized mouse uterus as a murine model to examine angiogenesis during endometrial breakdown and regeneration. We found that blockade of VEGF action with VEGF Trap, a potent VEGF blocker, completely inhibited neovascularization during endometrial regeneration in both models but had no marked effect on preexisting or newly formed vessels, suggesting that VEGF is essential for neoangiogenesis but not survival of mature vessels in this vascular bed. Blockade of VEGF also blocked reepithelialization in both the postmenstrual endometrium and the mouse uterus after decidual breakdown, evidence that VEGF has pleiotropic effects in the endometrium. In vitro studies with a scratch wound assay showed that the migration of luminal epithelial cells during repair involved signaling through VEGF receptor 2-neuropilin 1 (VEGFR2-NP1) receptors on endometrial stromal cells. The leading front of tissue growth during endometrial repair was strongly hypoxic, and this hypoxia was the local stimulus for VEGF expression and angiogenesis in this tissue. In summary, we provide novel experimental data indicating that VEGF is essential for endometrial neoangiogenesis during postmenstrual/postpartum repair.

  15. Activation of the UNC5B receptor by Netrin-1 inhibits sprouting angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Larrivée, Bruno; Freitas, Catarina; Trombe, Marc; Lv, Xiang; Delafarge, Benjamin; Yuan, Li; Bouvrée, Karine; Bréant, Christiane; Del Toro, Raquel; Bréchot, Nicolas; Germain, Stéphane; Bono, Françoise; Dol, Frédérique; Claes, Filip; Fischer, Christian; Autiero, Monica; Thomas, Jean-Léon; Carmeliet, Peter; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Eichmann, Anne

    2007-10-01

    Netrins are secreted molecules with roles in axonal growth and angiogenesis. The Netrin receptor UNC5B is required during embryonic development for vascular patterning, suggesting that it may also contribute to postnatal and pathological angiogenesis. Here we show that unc5b is down-regulated in quiescent adult vasculature, but re-expressed during sprouting angiogenesis in matrigel and tumor implants. Stimulation of UNC5B-expressing neovessels with an agonist (Netrin-1) inhibits sprouting angiogenesis. Genetic loss of function of unc5b reduces Netrin-1-mediated angiogenesis inhibition. Expression of UNC5B full-length receptor also triggers endothelial cell repulsion in response to Netrin-1 in vitro, whereas a truncated UNC5B lacking the intracellular signaling domain fails to induce repulsion. These data show that UNC5B activation inhibits sprouting angiogenesis, thus identifying UNC5B as a potential anti-angiogenic target.

  16. Activation of the UNC5B receptor by Netrin-1 inhibits sprouting angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Larrivée, Bruno; Freitas, Catarina; Trombe, Marc; Lv, Xiang; DeLafarge, Benjamin; Yuan, Li; Bouvrée, Karine; Bréant, Christiane; Del Toro, Raquel; Bréchot, Nicolas; Germain, Stéphane; Bono, Françoise; Dol, Frédérique; Claes, Filip; Fischer, Christian; Autiero, Monica; Thomas, Jean-Léon; Carmeliet, Peter; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Eichmann, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Netrins are secreted molecules with roles in axonal growth and angiogenesis. The Netrin receptor UNC5B is required during embryonic development for vascular patterning, suggesting that it may also contribute to postnatal and pathological angiogenesis. Here we show that unc5b is down-regulated in quiescent adult vasculature, but re-expressed during sprouting angiogenesis in matrigel and tumor implants. Stimulation of UNC5B-expressing neovessels with an agonist (Netrin-1) inhibits sprouting angiogenesis. Genetic loss of function of unc5b reduces Netrin-1-mediated angiogenesis inhibition. Expression of UNC5B full-length receptor also triggers endothelial cell repulsion in response to Netrin-1 in vitro, whereas a truncated UNC5B lacking the intracellular signaling domain fails to induce repulsion. These data show that UNC5B activation inhibits sprouting angiogenesis, thus identifying UNC5B as a potential anti-angiogenic target. PMID:17908930

  17. Bioresponsive cancer-targeted polysaccharide nanosystem to inhibit angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang; Fang, Xueyang; Jiang, Wenting; Chen, Tianfeng

    2017-01-01

    With many desirable features, such as being more effective and having multiple effects, antiangiogenesis has become one of the promising cancer treatments. The aim of this study was to design and synthesize a new targeted bioresponsive nanosystem with antiangiogenesis properties. The mUPR@Ru(POP) nanosystem was constructed by the polymerization of Ulva lactuca polysaccharide and N -isopropyl acrylamide, decorated with methoxy polyethylene glycol and Arg-Gly-Asp peptide, and encapsulated with anticancer complex [Ru(phen)2p-MOPIP](PF 6 ) 2 ·2H 2 O. The nanosystem was both pH responsive and targeted. Therefore, the cellular uptake of the drug was greatly improved. Moreover, the mUPR@Ru(POP) had strong suppressive effects against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis through apoptosis. The mUPR@Ru(POP) significantly inhibited VEGF-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell migration, invasion, and tube formation. These findings have presented new insights into the development of antiangiogenesis drugs.

  18. Genetic Inactivation of the Adenosine A2A Receptor Attenuates Pathologic but Not Developmental Angiogenesis in the Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Ling; Zhou, Rong; Pan, Qi-Qi; Jia, Xiao-Lin; Gao, Wei-Na; Wu, Jun; Lin, Jing; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) modulates normal vascularization and pathologic angiogenesis in many tissues and may contribute to the pathogenesis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) characterized by abnormal retinal vascularization in surviving premature infants. Here, the authors studied the effects of the genetic inactivation of A2AR on normal retinal vascularization and the development of pathologic angiogenesis in oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), an animal model of ROP. Methods. After exposure to 75% oxygen for 5 days (postnatal day [P] 7–P12) and subsequently to room air for the next 9 days (P13–P21), we evaluated retinal vascular morphology by ADPase staining in retinal whole mounts, retinal neovascularization response by histochemistry in serial retinal sections, and retinal VEGF gene expression by real-time PCR analysis in A2AR knockout (KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates. Results. At P17, A2AR KO mice displayed attenuated OIR compared with WT littermates, as evidenced by reduced vaso-obliteration and areas of nonperfusion in the center of the retina, reduced pathologic angiogenesis as evident by decreased non-ganglion cells and neovascular nuclei, and inhibited hypoxia-induced retinal VEGF gene expression. Notably, the attenuation of pathologic angiogenesis by A2AR inactivation was selective for OIR because it did not affect normal retinal vascularization during postnatal development. Conclusions. These findings provide the first evidence that A2AR is critical for the development of OIR and suggest a novel therapeutic approach of A2AR inactivation for ROP by selectively targeting pathologic but not developmental angiogenesis in the retina. PMID:20610844

  19. Inhibition of angiogenesis in vitro by Arg-Gly-Asp-containing synthetic peptide.

    PubMed Central

    Nicosia, R. F.; Bonanno, E.

    1991-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of the synthetic peptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (GRGDS) on angiogenesis in serum-free collagen gel culture of rat aorta. The GRGDS peptide contains the amino acid sequence Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), which has been implicated as a recognition site in interactions between extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and cell membrane receptors. RGD-containing synthetic peptides are known to inhibit attachment of endothelial cells to substrates, but their effect on angiogenesis has not been fully characterized. Aortic explants embedded in collagen gel in the absence of GRGDS generated branching microvessels through a process of endothelial migration and proliferation. Addition of GRGDS to the culture medium caused a marked inhibition of angiogenesis. In contrast, GRGES, a control peptide lacking the RGD sequence, failed to inhibit angiogenesis. The inhibitory effect of GRGDS was nontoxic and reversible. The angiogenic activity of aortic explants previously inhibited with GRGDS could be restored by incubating the cultures in GRGDS-free medium. These findings suggest that angiogenesis is an anchorage-dependent process that can be inhibited by interfering with the attachment of endothelial cells to the ECM. It also indicates that synthetic peptides can be used as probes to study the mechanisms by which the ECM regulates angiogenesis. Images Figure 1 PMID:1707235

  20. Extract of Artemisia lavandulaefolia Inhibits In Vitro Angiogenesis in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Eui-Yeun; Han, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Yung-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis is important processes for tumor growth and metastasis. Anti-angiogenesis target therapy has recently been known to be new anti-cancer therapeutic strategies. Natural products such as traditional medicine comprise a major source of angiogenesis inhibitors. Artemisia lavandulaefolia has been known to use in the traditional medical practices. However, its molecular mechanism on the tumor protection and therapy was not clearly elucidated. In this study, we investigated the possibility that extract of A. lavandulaefolia inhibits in vitro angiogenesis. Therefore, we examined the effect of extract of A. lavandulaefolia on the vascular network formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found that the treatment of A. lavandulaefolia extract suppressed the tube formation of HUVECs without any influence on the viability of HUVECs. In addition, extract of A. lavandulaefolia inhibited the migration and invasion of HUVECs. These results suggest that extract of A. lavandulaefolia could be act for an angiogenic inhibitor. PMID:25574458

  1. Formononetin, a novel FGFR2 inhibitor, potently inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in preclinical models.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao Yu; Xu, Hao; Wu, Zhen Feng; Chen, Che; Liu, Jia Yun; Wu, Guan Nan; Yao, Xue Quan; Liu, Fu Kun; Li, Gang; Shen, Liang

    2015-12-29

    Most anti-angiogenic therapies currently being evaluated in clinical trials target vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway, however, the tumor vasculature can acquire resistance to VEGF-targeted therapy by shifting to other angiogenesis mechanisms. Therefore, other potential therapeutic agents that block non-VEGF angiogenic pathways need to be evaluated. Here we identified formononetin as a novel agent with potential anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer activities. Formononetin demonstrated inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation in response to basic fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). In ex vivo and in vivo angiogenesis assays, formononetin suppressed FGF2-induced microvessel sprouting of rat aortic rings and angiogenesis. To understand the underlying molecular basis, we examined the effects of formononetin on different molecular components in treated endothelial cell, and found that formononetin suppressed FGF2-triggered activation of FGFR2 and protein kinase B (Akt) signaling. Moreover, formononetin directly inhibited proliferation and blocked the oncogenic signaling pathways in breast cancer cell. In vivo, using xenograft models of breast cancer, formononetin showed growth-inhibitory activity associated with inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Moreover, formononetin enhanced the effect of VEGFR2 inhibitor sunitinib on tumor growth inhibition. Taken together, our results indicate that formononetin targets the FGFR2-mediated Akt signaling pathway, leading to the suppression of tumor growth and angiogenesis.

  2. Formononetin, a novel FGFR2 inhibitor, potently inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in preclinical models

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhen Feng; Chen, Che; Liu, Jia Yun; Wu, Guan Nan; Yao, Xue Quan; Liu, Fu Kun; Li, Gang; Shen, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Most anti-angiogenic therapies currently being evaluated in clinical trials target vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway, however, the tumor vasculature can acquire resistance to VEGF-targeted therapy by shifting to other angiogenesis mechanisms. Therefore, other potential therapeutic agents that block non-VEGF angiogenic pathways need to be evaluated. Here we identified formononetin as a novel agent with potential anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer activities. Formononetin demonstrated inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation in response to basic fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). In ex vivo and in vivo angiogenesis assays, formononetin suppressed FGF2-induced microvessel sprouting of rat aortic rings and angiogenesis. To understand the underlying molecular basis, we examined the effects of formononetin on different molecular components in treated endothelial cell, and found that formononetin suppressed FGF2-triggered activation of FGFR2 and protein kinase B (Akt) signaling. Moreover, formononetin directly inhibited proliferation and blocked the oncogenic signaling pathways in breast cancer cell. In vivo, using xenograft models of breast cancer, formononetin showed growth-inhibitory activity associated with inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Moreover, formononetin enhanced the effect of VEGFR2 inhibitor sunitinib on tumor growth inhibition. Taken together, our results indicate that formononetin targets the FGFR2-mediated Akt signaling pathway, leading to the suppression of tumor growth and angiogenesis. PMID:26575424

  3. Isthmin is a novel secreted angiogenesis inhibitor that inhibits tumour growth in mice

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Wei; Ke, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Yong; Ho-Yuet Cheng, Grace; Irwan, Ishak Darryl; Sulochana, K N; Potturi, Padma; Wang, Zhengyuan; Yang, He; Wang, Jingyu; Zhuo, Lang; Kini, R Manjunatha; Ge, Ruowen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Anti-angiogenesis represents a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of various malignancies. Isthmin (ISM) is a gene highly expressed in the isthmus of the midbrain–hindbrain organizer in Xenopus with no known functions. It encodes a secreted 60 kD protein containing a thrombospondin type 1 repeat domain in the central region and an adhesion-associated domain in MUC4 and other proteins (AMOP) domain at the C-terminal. In this work, we demonstrate that ISM is a novel angiogenesis inhibitor. Recombinant mouse ISM inhibited endothelial cell (EC) capillary network formation on Matrigel through its C-terminal AMOP domain. It also suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induced in vivo angiogenesis in mouse. It mitigated VEGF-stimulated EC proliferation without affecting EC migration. Furthermore, ISM induced EC apoptosis in the presence of VEGF through a caspase-dependent pathway. ISM binds to αvβ5 integrin on EC surface and supports EC adhesion. Overexpression of ISM significantly suppressed mouse B16 melanoma tumour growth through inhibition of tumour angiogenesis without affecting tumour cell proliferation. Knockdown of isthmin in zebrafish embryos using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides led to disorganized intersegmen-tal vessels in the trunk. Our results demonstrate that ISM is a novel endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor with functions likely in physiological as well as pathological angiogenesis. PMID:19874420

  4. Isthmin is a novel secreted angiogenesis inhibitor that inhibits tumour growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Wei; Ke, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Yong; Cheng, Grace Ho-Yuet; Irwan, Ishak Darryl; Sulochana, K N; Potturi, Padma; Wang, Zhengyuan; Yang, He; Wang, Jingyu; Zhuo, Lang; Kini, R Manjunatha; Ge, Ruowen

    2011-02-01

    Anti-angiogenesis represents a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of various malignancies. Isthmin (ISM) is a gene highly expressed in the isthmus of the midbrain-hindbrain organizer in Xenopus with no known functions. It encodes a secreted 60 kD protein containing a thrombospondin type 1 repeat domain in the central region and an adhesion-associated domain in MUC4 and other proteins (AMOP) domain at the C-terminal. In this work, we demonstrate that ISM is a novel angiogenesis inhibitor. Recombinant mouse ISM inhibited endothelial cell (EC) capillary network formation on Matrigel through its C-terminal AMOP domain. It also suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induced in vivo angiogenesis in mouse. It mitigated VEGF-stimulated EC proliferation without affecting EC migration. Furthermore, ISM induced EC apoptosis in the presence of VEGF through a caspase-dependent pathway. ISM binds to αvβ(5) integrin on EC surface and supports EC adhesion. Overexpression of ISM significantly suppressed mouse B16 melanoma tumour growth through inhibition of tumour angiogenesis without affecting tumour cell proliferation. Knockdown of isthmin in zebrafish embryos using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides led to disorganized intersegmental vessels in the trunk. Our results demonstrate that ISM is a novel endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor with functions likely in physiological as well as pathological angiogenesis. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Wogonoside inhibits angiogenesis in breast cancer via suppressing Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yujie; Zhao, Kai; Hu, Yang; Zhou, Yuxin; Luo, Xuwei; Li, Xiaorui; Wei, Libin; Li, Zhiyu; You, Qidong; Guo, Qinglong; Lu, Na

    2016-11-01

    Wogonoside, a main flavonoid component derived from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been reported to have anti-angiogenesis and anti-leukemia activities. However, whether it can inhibit tumor angiogenesis is unclear. In this study, we investigate the inhibitory effect of wogonoside on angiogenesis in breast cancer and its underlying mechanisms. ELISA assay shows that wogonoside (25, 50, and 100 µM) decreases the secretion of VEGF in MCF-7 cells by 30.0%, 35.4%, and 40.1%, respectively. We find it inhibits angiogenesis induced by the conditioned media from MCF-7 cells in vitro and in vivo by migration, tube formation, rat aortic ring, and chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Meanwhile, wogonoside can inhibit the growth and angiogenesis of MCF-7 cells xenografts in nude mice. The reduction of tumor weight can be found both in wogonoside (80 mg/kg) and bevacizumab (20 mg/kg) treated group, and the tumor inhibition rate is 42.1% and 48.7%, respectively. In addition, mechanistic studies demonstrate that wogonoside suppresses the activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in MCF-7 cells. Wogonoside (100 µM) decreases the intracellular level of Wnt3a, increases the expression of GSK-3β, AXIN, and promotes the phosphorylation of β-catenin for proteasome degradation significantly. Furthermore, the nuclear accumulation of β-catenin and the DNA-binding activity of β-catenin/TCF/Lef complex are inhibited by 49.2% and 28.7%, respectively, when treated with 100 µM wogonoside. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that wogonoside is a potential inhibitor of tumor angiogenesis and can be developed as a therapeutic agent for breast cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Curcumin inhibits VEGF-mediated angiogenesis in human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells through COX-2 and MAPK inhibition.

    PubMed

    Binion, D G; Otterson, M F; Rafiee, P

    2008-11-01

    Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels, is a critical homeostatic mechanism which regulates vascular populations in response to physiological requirements and pathophysiological demand, including chronic inflammation and cancer. The importance of angiogenesis in gastrointestinal chronic inflammation and cancer has been defined, as antiangiogenic therapy has demonstrated benefit in models of inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer treatment. Curcumin is a natural product undergoing evaluation for the treatment of chronic inflammation, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The effect of curcumin on human intestinal angiogenesis is not defined. The antiangiogenic effect of curcumin on in vitro angiogenesis was examined using primary cultures of human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells (HIMECs), stimulated with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Curcumin inhibited proliferation, cell migration and tube formation in HIMECs induced by VEGF. Activation of HIMECs by VEGF resulted in enhanced expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA, protein and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production. Pretreatment of HIMECs with 10 microM curcumin as well as 1 microM NS398, a selective inhibitor of COX-2, resulted in inhibition of COX-2 at the mRNA and protein level and PGE(2) production. Similarly COX-2 expression in HIMECs was significantly inhibited by Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK; SP600125) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK; SB203580) inhibitors and was reduced by p44/42 MAPK inhibitor (PD098059). Taken together, these data demonstrate an important role for COX-2 in the regulation of angiogenesis in HIMECs via MAPKs. Moreover, curcumin inhibits microvascular endothelial cell angiogenesis through inhibition of COX-2 expression and PGE(2) production, suggesting that this natural product possesses antiangiogenic properties, which warrants further investigation as adjuvant treatment of IBD and cancer.

  7. Celecoxib and octreotide synergistically ameliorate portal hypertension via inhibition of angiogenesis in cirrhotic rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jin-Hang; Wen, Shi-Lei; Feng, Shi; Yang, Wen-Juan; Lu, Yao-Yao; Tong, Huan; Liu, Rui; Tang, Shi-Hang; Huang, Zhi-Yin; Tang, Ying-Mei; Yang, Jin-Hui; Xie, Hui-Qi; Tang, Cheng-Wei

    2016-10-01

    Abnormal angiogenesis is critical for portal hypertension in cirrhosis. Except for etiological treatment, no efficient medication or regime has been explored to treat the early stage of cirrhosis when angiogenesis is initiated or overwhelming. In this study, we explored an anti-angiogenesis effort through non-cytotoxic drugs octreotide and celecoxib to treat early stage of cirrhotic portal hypertension in an animal model. Peritoneal injection of thioacetamide (TAA) was employed to induce liver cirrhosis in rats. A combination treatment of celecoxib and octreotide was found to relieve liver fibrosis, portal venous pressure, micro-hepatic arterioportal fistulas, intrahepatic and splanchnic angiogenesis. Celecoxib and octreotide exerted their anti-angiogenesis effect via an axis of cyclooxygenase-2/prostaglandin E2/EP-2/somatostatin receptor-2, which consequently down-regulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK)-hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) integrated signaling pathways. In conclusions, combination of celecoxib and octreotide synergistically ameliorated liver fibrosis and portal hypertension of the cirrhotic rats induced by TAA via the inhibition of intrahepatic and extrahepatic angiogenesis. The potential mechanisms behind the regimen may due to the inactivation of p-ERK-HIF-1α-VEGF signaling pathway.

  8. Dimethyl phenyl piperazine iodide (DMPP) induces glioma regression by inhibiting angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yan-qing; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-yu

    1,1-Dimethyl-4-phenyl piperazine iodide (DMPP) is a synthetic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist that could reduce airway inflammation. In this study, we demonstrated that DMPP could dramatically inhibit glioma size maintained on the chick embryonic chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). We first performed MTT and BrdU incorporation experiments on U87 glioma cells in vitro to understand the mechanism involved. We established that DMPP did not significantly affect U87 cell proliferation and survival. We speculated that DMPP directly caused the tumor to regress by affecting the vasculature in and around the implanted tumor on our chick CAM model. Hence, we conducted detailed analysis ofmore » DMPP's inhibitory effects on angiogenesis. Three vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in vivo models were used in the study which included (1) early chick blood islands formation, (2) chick yolk-sac membrane (YSW) and (3) CAM models. The results revealed that DMPP directly suppressed all developmental stages involved in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis – possibly by acting through Ang-1 and HIF-2α signaling. In sum, our results show that DMPP could induce glioma regression grown on CAM by inhibiting vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. - Highlights: ●We demonstrated that DMPP inhibited the growth of glioma cells on chick CAM. ●DMPP did not significantly affect the proliferation and survival of U87 cells. ●We revealed that DMPP suppressed vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in chick embryo. ●Angiogenesis in chick CAM was inhibited by DMPP via most probably Ang-1 and HIF-2α. ●DMPP could be potentially developed as an anti-tumor drug in the future.« less

  9. Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis suppresses tumour growth in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. Jin; Li, Bing; Winer, Jane; Armanini, Mark; Gillett, Nancy; Phillips, Heidi S.; Ferrara, Napoleone

    1993-04-01

    THE development of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) is required for many physiological processes including embryogenesis, wound healing and corpus luteum formation1,2. Blood vessel neoformation is also important in the pathogenesis of many disorders1-5, particularly rapid growth and metastasis of solid tumours3-5. There are several potential mediators of tumour angiogenesis, including basic and acidic fibroblast growth factors, tumour necrosis factor-α and transforming factors-α and -β 1,2. But it is unclear whether any of these agents actually mediates angiogenesis and tumour growth in vivo. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial cell-specific mitogen and an angiogenesis inducer released by a variety of tumour cells and expressed in human tumours in situ. To test whether VEGF may be a tumour angiogenesis factor in vivo, we injected human rhabdomyosar-coma, glioblastoma multiforme or leiomyosarcoma cell lines into nude mice. We report here that treatment with a monoclonal antibody specific for VEGF inhibited the growth of the tumours, but had no effect on the growth rate of the tumour cells In vitro. The density of vessels was decreased in the antibody-treated tumours. These findings demonstrate that inhibition of the action of an angiogenic factor spontaneously produced by tumour cells may suppress tumour growth in vivo.

  10. Curcumin attenuates angiogenesis in liver fibrosis and inhibits angiogenic properties of hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Zili; Chen, Li; Kong, Desong; Zhang, Xiaoping; Lu, Chunfeng; Lu, Yin; Zheng, Shizhong

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is concomitant with sinusoidal pathological angiogenesis, which has been highlighted as novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of chronic liver disease. Our prior studies have demonstrated that curcumin has potent antifibrotic activity, but the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The current work demonstrated that curcumin ameliorated fibrotic injury and sinusoidal angiogenesis in rat liver with fibrosis caused by carbon tetrachloride. Curcumin reduced the expression of a number of angiogenic markers in fibrotic liver. Experiments in vitro showed that the viability and vascularization of rat liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and rat aortic ring angiogenesis were not impaired by curcumin. These results indicated that hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) that are characterized as liver-specific pericytes could be potential target cells for curcumin. Further investigations showed that curcumin inhibited VEGF expression in HSCs associated with disrupting platelet-derived growth factor-β receptor (PDGF-βR)/ERK and mTOR pathways. HSC motility and vascularization were also suppressed by curcumin associated with blocking PDGF-βR/focal adhesion kinase/RhoA cascade. Gain- or loss-of-function analyses revealed that activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) was required for curcumin to inhibit angiogenic properties of HSCs. We concluded that curcumin attenuated sinusoidal angiogenesis in liver fibrosis possibly by targeting HSCs via a PPAR-γ activation-dependent mechanism. PPAR-γ could be a target molecule for reducing pathological angiogenesis during liver fibrosis. PMID:24779927

  11. DSGOST inhibits tumor growth by blocking VEGF/VEGFR2-activated angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyeong Sim; Lee, Kangwook; Kim, Min Kyoung; Lee, Kang Min; Shin, Yong Cheol; Cho, Sung-Gook; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2016-04-19

    Tumor growth requires a process called angiogenesis, a new blood vessel formation from pre-existing vessels, as newly formed vessels provide tumor cells with oxygen and nutrition. Danggui-Sayuk-Ga-Osuyu-Saenggang-Tang (DSGOST), one of traditional Chinese medicines, has been widely used in treatment of vessel diseases including Raynaud's syndrome in Northeast Asian countries including China, Japan and Korea. Therefore, we hypothesized that DSGOST might inhibit tumor growth by targeting newly formed vessels on the basis of its historical prescription. Here, we demonstrate that DSGOST inhibits tumor growth by inhibiting VEGF-induced angiogenesis. DSGOST inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenic abilities of endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo, which resulted from its inhibition of VEGF/VEGFR2 interaction. Furthermore, DSGOST attenuated pancreatic tumor growth in vivo by reducing angiogenic vessel numbers, while not affecting pancreatic tumor cell viability. Thus, our data conclude that DSGOST inhibits VEGF-induced tumor angiogenesis, suggesting a new indication for DSGOST in treatment of cancer.

  12. Luteolin Inhibits Human Prostate Tumor Growth by Suppressing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2-Mediated Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Young-Ok; Budhraja, Amit; Wang, Xin; Ding, Songze; Wang, Lei; Hitron, Andrew; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Kim, Donghern; Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Zhuo; Luo, Jia; Shi, Xianglin

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vascular beds, is essential for tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Luteolin is a common dietary flavonoid found in fruits and vegetables. We studied the antiangiogenic activity of luteolin using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models. In vitro studies using rat aortic ring assay showed that luteolin at non-toxic concentrations significantly inhibited microvessel sprouting and proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation of endothelial cells, which are key events in the process of angiogenesis. Luteolin also inhibited ex vivo angiogenesis as revealed by chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM) and matrigel plug assay. Gelatin zymographic analysis demonstrated the inhibitory effect of luteolin on the activation of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9. Western blot analysis showed that luteolin suppressed VEGF induced phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 and their downstream protein kinases AKT, ERK, mTOR, P70S6K, MMP-2, and MMP-9 in HUVECs. Proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α level were significantly reduced by the treatment of luteolin in PC-3 cells. Luteolin (10 mg/kg/d) significantly reduced the volume and the weight of solid tumors in prostate xenograft mouse model, indicating that luteolin inhibited tumorigenesis by targeting angiogenesis. CD31 and CD34 immunohistochemical staining further revealed that the microvessel density could be remarkably suppressed by luteolin. Moreover, luteolin reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, which were correlated with the downregulation of AKT, ERK, mTOR, P70S6K, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expressions. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that luteolin inhibits human prostate tumor growth by suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-mediated angiogenesis. PMID:23300633

  13. Systemic miRNA-7 delivery inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth in murine xenograft glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Babae, Negar; Bourajjaj, Meriem; Liu, Yijia; Van Beijnum, Judy R; Cerisoli, Francesco; Scaria, Puthupparampil V; Verheul, Mark; Van Berkel, Maaike P; Pieters, Ebel H E; Van Haastert, Rick J; Yousefi, Afrouz; Mastrobattista, Enrico; Storm, Gert; Berezikov, Eugene; Cuppen, Edwin; Woodle, Martin; Schaapveld, Roel Q J; Prevost, Gregoire P; Griffioen, Arjan W; Van Noort, Paula I; Schiffelers, Raymond M

    2014-08-30

    Tumor-angiogenesis is the multi-factorial process of sprouting of endothelial cells (EC) into micro-vessels to provide tumor cells with nutrients and oxygen. To explore miRNAs as therapeutic angiogenesis-inhibitors, we performed a functional screen to identify miRNAs that are able to decrease EC viability. We identified miRNA-7 (miR-7) as a potent negative regulator of angiogenesis. Introduction of miR-7 in EC resulted in strongly reduced cell viability, tube formation, sprouting and migration. Application of miR-7 in the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay led to a profound reduction of vascularization, similar to anti-angiogenic drug sunitinib. Local administration of miR-7 in an in vivo murine neuroblastoma tumor model significantly inhibited angiogenesis and tumor growth. Finally, systemic administration of miR-7 using a novel integrin-targeted biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles that targets both EC and tumor cells, strongly reduced angiogenesis and tumor proliferation in mice with human glioblastoma xenografts. Transcriptome analysis of miR-7 transfected EC in combination with in silico target prediction resulted in the identification of OGT as novel target gene of miR-7. Our study provides a comprehensive validation of miR-7 as novel anti-angiogenic therapeutic miRNA that can be systemically delivered to both EC and tumor cells and offers promise for miR-7 as novel anti-tumor therapeutic.

  14. Overexpression of miRNA-497 inhibits tumor angiogenesis by targeting VEGFR2

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, Yingfeng; Liu, Li; Zhao, Dongliang

    Recent studies reported miR-497 exhibited inhibitory effects in various cancers. However, whether miR-497 is involved in inhibiting angiogenesis, which is critical for tumor growth and metastasis, is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential role of miR-497 in tumor angiogenesis. In this work, cell proliferation and apoptosis analyses were conducted to explore the potential function of miR-497 in HUVECs by using MTT and TUNEL assays. Western blotting (WB) was employed to validate the downstream targets of miR-497. Furthermore, in order to disclose the role of miR-497 on angiogenesis, VEGFR2-luc transgenic mice were treated with miR-497more » mimic and applied to monitor tumor angiogenesis and growth by in vivo bioluminescent imaging (BLI). The results demonstrated that overexpression of miR-497 showed inhibitory effects on VEGFR2 activation and downstream Raf/MEK/ERK signal pathways in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, overexpression of miR-497 effectively induced HUVECs apoptosis by targeting VEGFR2 and downstream PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Furthermore, miR-497 exhibited anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor effects in the VEGFR2-luc breast tumor model proven by BLI, WB and immunohistochemistry analysis. In summary, miR-497 inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth via targeting VEGFR2, indicating miR-497 can be explored as a potential drug candidate for cancer therapy.« less

  15. Overexpression of miRNA-497 inhibits tumor angiogenesis by targeting VEGFR2

    DOE PAGES

    Tu, Yingfeng; Liu, Li; Zhao, Dongliang; ...

    2015-09-08

    Recent studies reported miR-497 exhibited inhibitory effects in various cancers. However, whether miR-497 is involved in inhibiting angiogenesis, which is critical for tumor growth and metastasis, is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential role of miR-497 in tumor angiogenesis. In this work, cell proliferation and apoptosis analyses were conducted to explore the potential function of miR-497 in HUVECs by using MTT and TUNEL assays. Western blotting (WB) was employed to validate the downstream targets of miR-497. Furthermore, in order to disclose the role of miR-497 on angiogenesis, VEGFR2-luc transgenic mice were treated with miR-497more » mimic and applied to monitor tumor angiogenesis and growth by in vivo bioluminescent imaging (BLI). The results demonstrated that overexpression of miR-497 showed inhibitory effects on VEGFR2 activation and downstream Raf/MEK/ERK signal pathways in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, overexpression of miR-497 effectively induced HUVECs apoptosis by targeting VEGFR2 and downstream PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Furthermore, miR-497 exhibited anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor effects in the VEGFR2-luc breast tumor model proven by BLI, WB and immunohistochemistry analysis. In summary, miR-497 inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth via targeting VEGFR2, indicating miR-497 can be explored as a potential drug candidate for cancer therapy.« less

  16. Centchroman regulates breast cancer angiogenesis via inhibition of HIF-1α/VEGFR2 signalling axis.

    PubMed

    Dewangan, Jayant; Kaushik, Shweta; Rath, Srikanta Kumar; Balapure, Anil K

    2018-01-15

    Angiogenesis is a recognized hallmark of cancer which promotes cancer cell progression and metastasis. Inhibition of angiogenesis to attenuate cancer growth is becoming desirable strategy for breast cancer management. The present study is aimed to investigate the antiangiogenic efficacy of a novel selective estrogen receptor modulator Centchroman (CC) on human breast cancer cells. Effect of CC on cell viability was evaluated using Sulforhodamine B assay. Endothelial cell proliferation, wound healing, Boyden chamber cell invasion, tube formation and chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays were performed to assess the effect of CC on migration, invasion and angiogenesis. Apoptosis, reactive oxygen species generation, caspase-3/7 and intracellular calcium ion level were measured through flow cytometry. Expression levels of HIF-1α, VEGF, VEGFR2, AKT and ERK were assessed by western blot analysis. CC selectively induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cells without affecting non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells MCF-10A. Moreover, it inhibits migratory, invasive and mammosphere forming potential of breast cancer. Furthermore, CC also inhibited VEGF-induced migration, invasion and tube formation of HUVECs in vitro. CC effectively inhibited neovasculature formation in chicken CAM. Western blot analysis demonstrated that CC inhibited expression of HIF-1α and its downstream target VEGF. Interestingly, CC also suppressed VEGFR2 phosphorylation and consequently attenuated AKT and ERK phosphorylation. Our findings suggest that CC downregulates VEGF-induced angiogenesis by modulating HIF-1α/VEGFR2 pathway and recommend it (CC) as a potential therapeutic drug for breast cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. STAT3 Oligonucleotide Inhibits Tumor Angiogenesis in Preclinical Models of Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Jonah D.; Sano, Daisuke; Sen, Malabika; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Kim, Seungwon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has shown to play a critical role in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and we have recently completed clinical trials of STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide in patients with recurrent or metastatic HNSCC. However, there is limited understanding of the role of STAT3 in modulating other aspects of tumorigenesis such as angiogenesis. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide on tumor angiogenesis. Experimental Design A STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide and small interfering RNA (siRNA) were used to inhibit STAT3 in endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. The biochemical effects of STAT3 inhibition were examined in conjunction with the consequences on proliferation, migration, apoptotic staining, and tubule formation. Additionally, we assessed the effects of STAT3 inhibition on tumor angiogenesis using murine xenograft models. Results STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide decreased proliferation, induces apoptosis, decreased migration, and decreased tubule formation of endothelial cells in vitro. The STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide also inhibited tumor angiogenesis in murine tumor xenografts. Lastly, our data suggest that the antiangiogenic effects of STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide were mediatedthrough the inhibition of both STAT3 and STAT1. Conclusions The STAT3 decoy oligonucleotidewas found to be an effective antiangiogenic agent, which is likely to contribute to the overall antitumor effects of this agent in solid tumors.Taken together with the previously demonstrated antitumor activity of this agent, STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide represents a promising single agent approach to targeting both the tumor and vascular compartments in various malignancies. PMID:24404126

  18. Clopidogrel inhibits angiogenesis of gastric ulcer healing via downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiing-Chyuan; Peng, Yen-Ling; Chen, Tseng-Shing; Huo, Teh-Ia; Hou, Ming-Chih; Huang, Hui-Chun; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Fa-Yauh

    2016-09-01

    Although clopidogrel does not cause gastric mucosal injury, it does not prevent peptic ulcer recurrence in high-risk patients. We explored whether clopidogrel delays gastric ulcer healing via inhibiting angiogenesis and to elucidate the possible mechanisms. Gastric ulcers were induced in Sprague Dawley rats, and ulcer healing and angiogenesis of ulcer margin were compared between clopidogrel-treated rats and controls. The expressions of the proangiogenic growth factors and their receptors including basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), bFGF receptor (FGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGFR1, VEGFR2, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)A, PDGFB, PDGFR A, PDGFR B, and phosphorylated form of mitogenic activated protein kinase pathways over the ulcer margin were compared via western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In vitro, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to elucidate how clopidogrel inhibited growth factors-stimulated HUVEC proliferation. The ulcer sizes were significantly larger and the angiogenesis of ulcer margin was significantly diminished in the clopidogrel (2 and 10 mg/kg/d) treated groups. Ulcer induction markedly increased the expression of phosphorylated form of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK), FGFR2, VEGF, VEGFR2, and PDGFRA when compared with those of normal mucosa. Clopidogrel treatment significantly decreased pERK, FGFR2, VEGF, VEGFR2, and PDGFRA expression at the ulcer margin when compared with those of the respective control group. In vitro, clopidogrel (10(-6)M) inhibited VEGF-stimulated (20 ng/mL) HUVEC proliferation, at least, via downregulation of VEGFR2 and pERK. Clopidogrel inhibits the angiogenesis of gastric ulcer healing at least partially by the inhibition of the VEGF-VEGFR2-ERK signal transduction pathway. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. VEGF111b, a new member of VEGFxxxb isoforms and induced by mitomycin C, inhibits angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Fang; Li, Xiuli; Kong, Jian

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •We discovered a new member of VEGFxxxb family-VEGF111b. •We found VEGF111b mRNA and protein can be induced by mitomycin C. •We confirmed VEGF111b over-expression inhibits angiogenesis. •VEGF111b inhibits angiogenesis through inhibiting VEGF-R2/PI3K/Akt and VEGF-R2/ERK1/2 phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) stimulating angiogenesis is required for tumor growth and progression. The conventional VEGF-A isoforms have been considered as pro-angiogenic factors. Another family of VEGF-A isoforms generated by alternative splicing, termed VEGFxxxb isoforms, has anti-angiogenic property, exemplified by VEGF165b. Here, we identify a new number of VEGFxxx family-VEGF111b induced by mitomycin C, although not detected in mitomycin C-unexposed ovarianmore » cancer cells. SKOV3 cells were transfected with pcDNA{sub 3.1} empty vector, pcDNA{sub 3.1}-VEGF111b or pcDNA{sub 3.1}-VEGF165b to collect conditioned mediums respectively. VEGF111b overexpression inhibits proliferation, migration and tube formation of endothelial cell by inhibiting VEGF-R2 phosphorylation and its downstream signaling, similar to VEGF165b but slightly lower than VEGF165b. The anti-angiogenic property depends on the six amino acids of exon 8b of the VEGFxxxb isoforms. Our results show that VEGF111b is a novel potent anti-angiogenic agent that can target the VEGF-R2 and its signaling pathway to inhibit ovarian tumor growth.« less

  20. Inhibition of osteopontin suppresses in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Du, Xue-lian; Jiang, Tao; Sheng, Xiu-gui; Gao, Rong; Li, Qing-shui

    2009-12-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) has been found to play an important role in tumor angiogenesis in recent years. Our previous studies have shown that OPN is overexpressed in tumor-associated human endometrial endothelial cells (HEECs) isolated from tissue samples of patients with endometrial cancer. In the present study, we aimed to further determine the role of OPN in endometrial cancer-associated angiogenesis. We knock down OPN expression in HEECs and human endometrial cancer Ishikawa (ISK) cells using the small interference RNA method, and then evaluate the effects of OPN on endometrial cancer-associated angiogenesis by in vivo mouse studies and in vitro assays. Our results revealed that proliferative activity of HEECs and ISK cells in vitro was not affected by transfection with the siOPN-RNA (P>0.05). Inhibition of OPN expression in HEECs reduced the cell migration, with the percentage of repaired area of 36.32+/-2.88 vs. 8.54+/-1.13 (P=0.007). HEEC/siOPN and ISK/siOPN demonstrated 67.4% and 51.2% decreased invasiveness compared with controls, respectively (P<0.05). The number of branched points per well was obviously lower in HEEC/siOPN than that in HEEC/Control (32.46+/-17.10 vs. 53.15+/-15.44, P=0.021). Furthermore, ISK cells transfected with OPN siRNA formed smaller tumor in mice and led to a lower microvessel density, i.e., angiogenesis, in transplanted tumors of mice than scrambled siRNA controls (12.88+/-7.14 vs. 28.42+/-9.69 vessels per HPF, P=0.019). These data confirm the positive role of OPN in endometrial cancer-associated angiogenesis and might be of great benefit for finding rational approach in endometrial cancer therapy.

  1. Inositol Polyphosphate Multikinase Inhibits Angiogenesis via Inositol Pentakisphosphate-Induced HIF-1α Degradation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chenglai; Tyagi, Richa; Chin, Alfred C; Rojas, Tomas; Li, Ruo-Jing; Guha, Prasun; Bernstein, Isaac A; Rao, Feng; Xu, Risheng; Cha, Jiyoung Y; Xu, Jing; Snowman, Adele M; Semenza, Gregg L; Snyder, Solomon H

    2018-02-02

    Inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK) and its major product inositol pentakisphosphate (IP5) regulate a variety of cellular functions, but their role in vascular biology remains unexplored. We have investigated the role of IPMK in regulating angiogenesis. Deletion of IPMK in fibroblasts induces angiogenesis in both in vitro and in vivo models. IPMK deletion elicits a substantial increase of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), which mediates the regulation of angiogenesis by IPMK. The regulation of VEGF by IPMK requires its catalytic activity. IPMK is predominantly nuclear and regulates gene transcription. However, IPMK does not apparently serve as a transcription factor for VEGF. HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor)-1α is a major determinant of angiogenesis and induces VEGF transcription. IPMK deletion elicits a major enrichment of HIF-1α protein and thus VEGF. HIF-1α is constitutively ubiquitinated by pVHL (von Hippel-Lindau protein) followed by proteasomal degradation under normal conditions. However, HIF-1α is not recognized and ubiquitinated by pVHL in IPMK KO (knockout) cells. IP5 reinstates the interaction of HIF-1α and pVHL. HIF-1α prolyl hydroxylation, which is prerequisite for pVHL recognition, is interrupted in IPMK-deleted cells. IP5 promotes HIF-1α prolyl hydroxylation and thus pVHL-dependent degradation of HIF-1α. Deletion of IPMK in mouse brain increases HIF-1α/VEGF levels and vascularization. The increased VEGF in IPMK KO disrupts blood-brain barrier and enhances brain blood vessel permeability. IPMK, via its product IP5, negatively regulates angiogenesis by inhibiting VEGF expression. IP5 acts by enhancing HIF-1α hydroxylation and thus pVHL-dependent degradation of HIF-1α. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Ghrelin inhibits atherosclerotic plaque angiogenesis and promotes plaque stability in a rabbit atherosclerotic model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Chen, Qingwei; Ke, Dazhi; Li, Guiqiong

    2017-04-01

    Intraplaque angiogenesis associates with the instability of atherosclerotic plaques. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ghrelin on intraplaque angiogenesis and plaque instability in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis. The rabbits were randomly divided into three groups, namely, the control group, atherosclerotic model group, and ghrelin-treated group, with treatments lasting for 4 weeks. We found that the thickness ratio of the intima to media in rabbits of the ghrelin-treated group was significantly lower than that in rabbits of the atherosclerotic model group. The number of neovessels and the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) decreased dramatically in rabbits of the ghrelin-treated group compared to those of the atherosclerotic model group. Ghrelin significantly decreased the plaque content of macrophages, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9, in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis. In addition, the level of the pro-inflammatory factor monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 was significantly lower in rabbits of the ghrelin-treated group than in rabbits of the atherosclerotic model group. In summary, ghrelin can inhibit intraplaque angiogenesis and promote plaque stability by down-regulating VEGF and VEGFR2 expression, inhibiting the plaque content of macrophages, and reducing MCP-1 expression at an advanced stage of atherosclerosis in rabbits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A small molecule targeting ALK1 prevents Notch cooperativity and inhibits functional angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Georgina; Sheldon, Helen; Chaikuad, Apirat; Alfano, Ivan; von Delft, Frank; Bullock, Alex N; Harris, Adrian L

    2015-04-01

    Activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1, encoded by the gene ACVRL1) is a type I BMP/TGF-β receptor that mediates signalling in endothelial cells via phosphorylation of SMAD1/5/8. During angiogenesis, sprouting endothelial cells specialise into tip cells and stalk cells. ALK1 synergises with Notch in stalk cells to induce expression of the Notch targets HEY1 and HEY2 and thereby represses tip cell formation and angiogenic sprouting. The ALK1-Fc soluble protein fusion has entered clinic trials as a therapeutic strategy to sequester the high-affinity extracellular ligand BMP9. Here, we determined the crystal structure of the ALK1 intracellular kinase domain and explored the effects of a small molecule kinase inhibitor K02288 on angiogenesis. K02288 inhibited BMP9-induced phosphorylation of SMAD1/5/8 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells to reduce both the SMAD and the Notch-dependent transcriptional responses. In endothelial sprouting assays, K02288 treatment induced a hypersprouting phenotype reminiscent of Notch inhibition. Furthermore, K02288 caused dysfunctional vessel formation in a chick chorioallantoic membrane assay of angiogenesis. Such activity may be advantageous for small molecule inhibitors currently in preclinical development for specific BMP gain of function conditions, including diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma and fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, as well as more generally for other applications in tumour biology.

  4. Emodin-Loaded Magnesium Silicate Hollow Nanocarriers for Anti-Angiogenesis Treatment through Inhibiting VEGF

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hua; Zhu, Chao; Li, Zhaohui; Yang, Wei; Song, E

    2014-01-01

    The applications of anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) treatment in ophthalmic fields to inhibit angiogenesis have been widely documented in recent years. However, the hydrophobic nature of many agents makes its delivery difficult in practice. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to introduce a new kind of hydrophobic drug carrier by employing nanoparticles with a hollow structure inside. Followed by the synthesis and characterization of magnesium silicate hollow spheres, cytotoxicity was evaluated in retina capillary endothelial cells. The loading and releasing capacity were tested by employing emodin, and the effect on VEGF expression was performed at the gene and protein level. Finally, an investigation on angiogenesis was carried on fertilized chicken eggs. The results indicated that the magnesium silicate nanoparticles had low toxicity. Emodin–MgSiO3 can inhibit the expression of both VEGF gene and protein effectively. Angiogenesis of eggs was also reduced significantly. Based on the above results, we concluded that magnesium silicate hollow spheres were good candidates as drug carriers with enough safety. PMID:25250911

  5. Peptide-modified chitosan hydrogels promote skin wound healing by enhancing wound angiogenesis and inhibiting inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xionglin; Zhang, Min; Wang, Xueer; Chen, Yinghua; Yan, Yuan; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Cutaneous wound healing following trauma is a complex and dynamic process involving multiple overlapping events following trauma. Two critical elements affecting skin wound healing are neovascularization and inflammation. A nascent vessel can provide nutrition and oxygen to a healing wound. Therefore, treatments strategies that enhance angiogenesis and inhibit inflammation can promote skin wound healing. Previous studies have shown that the SIKVAV peptide (Ser-Ile-Lys-Val-Ala-Val) from laminin can promote angiogenesis in vitro. This study evaluated the effects of peptide SIKVAV-modified chitosan hydrogels on skin wound healing. We established skin wounds established in mice and treated them with SIKVAV-modified chitosan hydrogels. H&E staining showed that peptide-modified chitosan hydrogels accelerated the reepithelialization of wounds compared with the negative and positive controls. Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that more myofibroblasts were deposited at wounds treated with peptide-modified chitosan hydrogels that at those treated with negative and positive controls. In addition, peptide-modified chitosan hydrogels promoted angiogenesis as well as keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, but inhibited inflammation in skin wounds. Taken together, these results suggest that SIKVAV-modified chitosan hydrogels are a promising treatment component for healing-impaired wounds. PMID:28559985

  6. A novel taspine analog, HMQ1611, inhibits growth of non-small cell lung cancer by inhibiting angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    LU, WEN; DAI, BINGLING; MA, WEINA; ZHANG, YANMIN

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the antitumor activity of HMQ1611, a novel synthetic taspine derivative, in vivo and evaluated associated potential antiangiogenesis mechanisms. The proliferation of A549 cells was examined by WST-1 assay in vitro. Tube formation and lung tissue vessel models were used to observe the antiangiogenic activity of HMQ1611. In addition, vascular enodthelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion and KDR kinase activities were measured by ELISA and the HTRF®KinEASE™-TK assay. In vivo, the antitumor activity was assessed by implantation of A549 cells in athymic mice. The results showed that HMQ1611 inhibited A549 cell proliferation and VEGF secretion, while it significantly inhibited tube formation and tissue vascularization. Furthermore, HMQ1611 inhibited A549 xenograft tumor growth. In conclusion, the results of our study suggest that HMQ1611 has latent properties for the inhibition of angiogenesis which are involved in its antitumor activity. PMID:23162661

  7. A novel taspine analog, HMQ1611, inhibits growth of non-small cell lung cancer by inhibiting angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wen; Dai, Bingling; Ma, Weina; Zhang, Yanmin

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated the antitumor activity of HMQ1611, a novel synthetic taspine derivative, in vivo and evaluated associated potential antiangiogenesis mechanisms. The proliferation of A549 cells was examined by WST-1 assay in vitro. Tube formation and lung tissue vessel models were used to observe the antiangiogenic activity of HMQ1611. In addition, vascular enodthelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion and KDR kinase activities were measured by ELISA and the HTRF(®)KinEASE(™)-TK assay. In vivo, the antitumor activity was assessed by implantation of A549 cells in athymic mice. The results showed that HMQ1611 inhibited A549 cell proliferation and VEGF secretion, while it significantly inhibited tube formation and tissue vascularization. Furthermore, HMQ1611 inhibited A549 xenograft tumor growth. In conclusion, the results of our study suggest that HMQ1611 has latent properties for the inhibition of angiogenesis which are involved in its antitumor activity.

  8. Poly-ADP-ribose polymerase inhibition enhances ischemic and diabetic wound healing by promoting angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin; Patel, Darshan; Sen, Sabyasachi; Shanmugam, Victoria; Sidawy, Anton; Mishra, Lopa; Nguyen, Bao-Ngoc

    2017-04-01

    Chronic nonhealing wounds are a major health problem for patients in the United States and worldwide. Diabetes and ischemia are two major risk factors behind impaired healing of chronic lower extremity wounds. Poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) is found to be overactivated with both ischemic and diabetic conditions. This study seeks a better understanding of the role of PARP in ischemic and diabetic wound healing, with a specific focus on angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Ischemic and diabetic wounds were created in FVB/NJ mice and an in vitro scratch wound model. PARP inhibitor PJ34 was delivered to the animals at 10 mg/kg/d through implanted osmotic pumps or added to the culture medium, respectively. Animal wound healing was assessed by daily digital photographs. Animal wound tissues, peripheral blood, and bone marrow cells were collected at different time points for further analysis with Western blot and flow cytometry. Scratch wound migration and invasion angiogenesis assays were performed using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Measurements were reported as mean ± standard deviation. Continuous measurements were compared by t-test. P < .05 was considered statistically significant. A significant increase in PARP activity was observed under ischemic and diabetic conditions that correlated with delayed wound healing and slower HUVEC migration. The beneficial effect of PARP inhibition with PJ34 on ischemic and diabetic wound healing was observed in both animal and in vitro models. In the animal model, the percentage of wound healing was significantly enhanced from 43% ± 6% to 71% ± 9% (P < .05) by day 7 with the addition of PJ34. PARP inhibition promoted angiogenesis at the ischemic and diabetic wound beds as evidenced by significantly higher levels of endothelial cell markers (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 [VEGFR2] and endothelial nitric oxide synthase) in mice treated with PJ34 compared with controls. Flow cytometry

  9. Flavonoids from the leaves of Carya cathayensis Sarg. inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Sha-Sha; Jiang, Fu-Sheng; Zhang, Kun; Zhu, Xue-Xin; Jin, Bo; Lu, Jin-Jian; Ding, Zhi-Shan

    2014-01-01

    The total flavonoids (TFs) were isolated from the leaves of Carya cathayensis Sarg. (LCC), a well-known Chinese medicinal herb commercially cultivated in Tianmu Mountain district, a cross area of Zhejiang and Anhui provinces in China. Five flavonoids, i.e. cardamonin, pinostrobin chalcone (PC), wogonin, chrysin, and pinocembrin were the main components of the TFs. The TFs and these pure compounds suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis as detected in the mouse aortic ring assay, and cardamonin showed the best effect among them. To further elucidate the mechanisms for suppressing angiogenesis of these flavonoids, assays of VEGF-induced proliferation and migration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were performed. The TFs, cardamonin, pinocembrin, and chrysin obviously suppressed both VEGF-induced HUVEC proliferation and migration. However, PC and wogonin not only slightly inhibited VEGF-induced proliferation but also remarkably suppressed those of migration in HUVECs. Our further study showed that cardamonin decreased the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT induced by VEGF with a dose-dependent manner in HUVECs. Our findings indicate that the TFs and these pure flavonoids may become potential preventive and/or therapeutic agents against angiogenesis-related diseases. © 2013.

  10. Salicin, an extract from white willow bark, inhibits angiogenesis by blocking the ROS-ERK pathways.

    PubMed

    Kong, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ka-Hyun; Choi, Jae-Sun; Kim, Ja-Eun; Park, Chan; Jeong, Joo-Won

    2014-08-01

    Salicin has been studied as a potent antiinflammatory agent. Angiogenesis is an essential process for tumor progression, and negative regulation of angiogenesis provides a good strategy for antitumor therapy. However, the potential medicinal value of salicin on antitumorigenic and antiangiogenic effects remain unexplored. In this study, we examined the antitumorigenic and antiangiogenic activity of salicin and its underlying mechanism of action. Salicin suppressed the angiogenic activity of endothelial cells, such as migration, tube formation, and sprouting from an aorta. Moreover, salicin reduced reactive oxygen species production and activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor was also decreased by salicin in endothelial cells. When the salicin was administered to mice, salicin inhibited tumor growth and angiogenesis in a mouse tumor model. Taken together, salicin targets the signaling pathways mediated by reactive oxygen species and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, providing new perspectives into a potent therapeutic agent for hypervascularized tumors. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Inhibition of mTOR complex 2 restrains tumor angiogenesis in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Lamanuzzi, Aurelia; Saltarella, Ilaria; Desantis, Vanessa; Frassanito, Maria Antonia; Leone, Patrizia; Racanelli, Vito; Nico, Beatrice; Ribatti, Domenico; Ditonno, Paolo; Prete, Marcella; Solimando, Antonio Giovanni; Dammacco, Francesco; Vacca, Angelo; Ria, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    The mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) is an intracellular serine/threonine kinase that mediates intracellular metabolism, cell survival and actin rearrangement. mTOR is made of two independent complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, activated by the scaffold proteins RAPTOR and RICTOR, respectively. The activation of mTORC1 triggers protein synthesis and autophagy inhibition, while mTORC2 activation promotes progression, survival, actin reorganization, and drug resistance through AKT hyper-phosphorylation on Ser473. Due to the mTOR pivotal role in the survival of tumor cells, we evaluated its activation in endothelial cells (ECs) from 20 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and 47 patients with multiple myeloma (MM), and its involvement in angiogenesis. MM-ECs showed a significantly higher expression of mTOR and RICTOR than MGUS-ECs. These data were supported by the higher activation of mTORC2 downstream effectors, suggesting a major role of mTORC2 in the angiogenic switch to MM. Specific inhibition of mTOR activity through siRNA targeting RICTOR and dual mTOR inhibitor PP242 reduced the MM-ECs angiogenic functions, including cell migration, chemotaxis, adhesion, invasion, in vitro angiogenesis on Matrigel®, and cytoskeleton reorganization. In addition, PP242 treatment showed anti-angiogenic effects in vivo in the Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane (CAM) and Matrigel® plug assays. PP242 exhibited a synergistic effect with lenalidomide and bortezomib, suggesting that mTOR inhibition can enhance the anti-angiogenic effect of these drugs. Data to be shown indicate that mTORC2 is involved in MM angiogenesis, and suggest that the dual mTOR inhibitor PP242 may be useful for the anti-angiogenic management of MM patients. PMID:29755672

  12. Decursin inhibited proliferation and angiogenesis of endothelial cells to suppress diabetic retinopathy via VEGFR2.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Yang, Ke; Li, Yiping; Li, Xianli; Sun, Qiangming; Meng, Hua; Zeng, Ying; Hu, Yong; Zhang, Ying

    2013-09-25

    Diabetes induces pathologic proliferation and angiogenesis in the retina that leads to catastrophic loss of vision. Decursin is a novel therapeutic that targets the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor (VEGFR) with putative anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic activities. Thereby we utilized human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMEC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) under conditions of excess glucose to explore dose-dependent responses of decursin on markers of migration, angiogenesis, and proliferation. Decursin dose-dependently inhibited tube formation, VEGFR-2 expression, along with relative metabolic activity and 5-bromo-2'-deoxy-uridine (BrdU) activity in both cell lines. We then correlated our findings to the streptozotocin-induced rat model of diabetes. Following three months of decursin treatment VEGFR-2 expression was significantly inhibited. Our data would suggest that decursin may be a potent anti-angiogenic and anti-proliferative agent targeting the VEGFR-2 signaling pathway, which significantly inhibits diabetic retinal neovascularization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhibition of angiogenic attributes by decursin in endothelial cells and ex vivo rat aortic ring angiogenesis model.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Tariq A; Moon, Jung S; Lee, Sookyeon; Yim, Dongsool; Singh, Rana P

    2011-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to observe the inhibition of angiogenesis by decursin. It was the first time to show that decursin offered strong anti-angiogenic activities under the biologically relevant growth (with serum) conditions. Decursin significantly inhibited human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation concomitant with G1 phase cell cycle arrest. Decursin also inhibited HUVEC-capillary tube formation and invasion/migration in a dose-dependant manner which was associated with the suppression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -2 and -9 activities. Decursin suppressed angiogenesis in ex vivo rat aortic ring angiogenesis model where it significantly inhibited blood capillary-network sprouting from rat aortic sections. Taken together, these findings suggested anti-angiogenic activity of decursin in biologically relevant condition, and warrants further pre-clinical studies for its potential clinical usefulness.

  14. Chlorogenic Acid-Enriched Extract of Ilex kudingcha C.J. Tseng Inhibits Angiogenesis in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Tao; Piao, Linghua; Kim, Hyun Jung; Liu, Xiande; Jiang, Shengnan; Liu, Guomin

    2017-12-01

    Kudingcha is a particularly bitter tasting tea that has been widely used in China to eliminate fever and itching eyes, and to clear blood toxins. Kudingcha is considered of value for its potential anticancer effects that are attributed to the presence of characteristic bioactive ingredients. The chlorogenic acid (CGA) derivatives 3-0-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-0-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-0-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 4,5-0-dicaffeoylquinic acid were separated from Ilex kudingcha C.J. Tseng extract by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-photodiode array detector (PDA) and HPLC-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In Tg(flk1:EGFP) zebrafish embryos at 52 hours postfertilization (hpf), angiogenesis was significantly inhibited by kudingcha extract (KDCE) at concentrations of 400 and 500 μg/mL and CGA also showed significant inhibition in embryos treated with 80, 100, and 130 μg/mL. Endothelial cell apoptosis showed a dose-dependent increase in response to KDCE and CGA. CGA derivatives from KDCE could have potential as anticancer agents against tumor angiogenesis.

  15. A DNA vaccine targeting angiomotin inhibits angiogenesis and suppresses tumor growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmgren, Lars; Ambrosino, Elena; Birot, Olivier; Tullus, Carl; Veitonmäki, Niina; Levchenko, Tetyana; Carlson, Lena-Maria; Musiani, Piero; Iezzi, Manuela; Curcio, Claudia; Forni, Guido; Cavallo, Federica; Kiessling, Rolf

    2006-06-01

    Endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors have shown promise in preclinical trials, but clinical use has been hindered by low half-life in circulation and high production costs. Here, we describe a strategy that targets the angiostatin receptor angiomotin (Amot) by DNA vaccination. The vaccination procedure generated antibodies that detected Amot on the endothelial cell surface. Purified Ig bound to the endothelial cell membrane and inhibited endothelial cell migration. In vivo, DNA vaccination blocked angiogenesis in the matrigel plug assay and prevented growth of transplanted tumors for up to 150 days. We further demonstrate that a combination of DNA vaccines encoding Amot and the extracellular and transmembrane domains of the human EGF receptor 2 (Her-2)/neu oncogene inhibited breast cancer progression and impaired tumor vascularization in Her-2/neu transgenic mice. No toxicity or impairment of normal blood vessels could be detected. This work shows that DNA vaccination targeting Amot may be used to mimic the effect of angiostatin. cancer vaccines | neoplasia | neovascularization | breast cancer | angiostatin

  16. Myricetin inhibits UVB-induced angiogenesis by regulating PI-3 kinase in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung Keun; Lee, Ki Won; Byun, Sanguine; Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Jong-Eun; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang

    2010-01-01

    Myricetin is one of the principal phytochemicals in onions, berries and red wine. Previous studies showed that myricetin exhibits potent anticancer and chemopreventive effects. The present study examined the effect of myricetin on ultraviolet (UV) B-induced angiogenesis in an SKH-1 hairless mouse skin tumorigenesis model. Topical treatment with myricetin inhibited repetitive UVB-induced neovascularization in SKH-1 hairless mouse skin. The induction of vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-13 expression by chronic UVB irradiation was significantly suppressed by myricetin treatment. Immunohistochemical and western blot analyses revealed that myricetin inhibited UVB-induced hypoxia inducible factor-1α expression in mouse skin. Western blot analysis and kinase assay data revealed that myricetin suppressed UVB-induced phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase activity and subsequently attenuated the UVB-induced phosphorylation of Akt/p70S6K in mouse skin lysates. A pull-down assay revealed the direct binding of PI-3 kinase and myricetin in mouse skin lysates. Our results indicate that myricetin suppresses UVB-induced angiogenesis by regulating PI-3 kinase activity in vivo in mouse skin. PMID:20008033

  17. Solena amplexicaulis induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and inhibits angiogenesis in hepatocarcinoma cells and HUVECs.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jie; Xu, Yuan Yuan; Jiang, He Fei; Yang, Meng; Huang, Qian Hui; Yang, Jie; Hu, Kun; Wei, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Solena amplexicaulis (Lam.) Gandhi (SA) has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of dysentery, multiple abscess, gastralgia, urethritis, and eczema in the minority area of China. This study was aimed to examine the cell proliferation inhibitory activity of the SA extract (SACE) and its mechanism of action in human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) and evaluate its anti-angiogenesis activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (HUVEC). SACE could inhibit the growth of HepG2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. FCM analysis showed that SACE could induce G2/M phase arrest, cell apoptosis, the mitochondrial membrane potential loss (ΔΨm) and increase the production of intracellular ROS of HepG2 cells. After treatment with SACE, topical morphological changes of apoptotic body formation, obvious increase of apoptosis-related protein expressions, such as Bax, cytochrome c, caspase-3, PARP-1, and decrease of Bcl-2, procaspase-9 protein expressions were observed at the same time. Moreover, SACE caused the significant inhibition of endothelial cell migration and tube formation in HUVEC cells. The results suggested that SACE could act as an angiogenesis inhibitor and induce cell apoptosis via a caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathway. Therefore, SACE could be a potent candidate for the prevention and treatment of liver cancer.

  18. ALK1 Signaling Inhibits Angiogenesis by Cooperating with the Notch Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Larrivée, Bruno; Prahst, Claudia; Gordon, Emma; del Toro, Raquel; Mathivet, Thomas; Duarte, Antonio; Simons, Michael; Eichmann, Anne

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1) is an endothelial-specific member of the TGF-β/BMP receptor family that is inactivated in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). How ALK1 signaling regulates angiogenesis remains incompletely understood. Here we show that ALK1 inhibits angiogenesis by cooperating with the Notch pathway. Blocking Alk1 signaling during postnatal development in mice leads to retinal hypervascularization and the appearance of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Combined blockade of Alk1 and Notch signaling further exacerbates hypervascularization, whereas activation of Alk1 by its high-affinity ligand BMP9 rescues hypersprouting induced by Notch inhibition. Mechanistically, ALK1-dependent SMAD signaling synergizes with activated Notch in stalk cells to induce expression of the Notch targets HEY1 and HEY2, thereby repressing VEGF signaling, tip cell formation, and endothelial sprouting. Taken together, these results uncover a direct link between ALK1 and Notch signaling during vascular morpho-genesis that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of HHT vascular lesions. PMID:22421041

  19. ALK1 signaling inhibits angiogenesis by cooperating with the Notch pathway.

    PubMed

    Larrivée, Bruno; Prahst, Claudia; Gordon, Emma; del Toro, Raquel; Mathivet, Thomas; Duarte, Antonio; Simons, Michael; Eichmann, Anne

    2012-03-13

    Activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1) is an endothelial-specific member of the TGF-β/BMP receptor family that is inactivated in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). How ALK1 signaling regulates angiogenesis remains incompletely understood. Here we show that ALK1 inhibits angiogenesis by cooperating with the Notch pathway. Blocking Alk1 signaling during postnatal development in mice leads to retinal hypervascularization and the appearance of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Combined blockade of Alk1 and Notch signaling further exacerbates hypervascularization, whereas activation of Alk1 by its high-affinity ligand BMP9 rescues hypersprouting induced by Notch inhibition. Mechanistically, ALK1-dependent SMAD signaling synergizes with activated Notch in stalk cells to induce expression of the Notch targets HEY1 and HEY2, thereby repressing VEGF signaling, tip cell formation, and endothelial sprouting. Taken together, these results uncover a direct link between ALK1 and Notch signaling during vascular morphogenesis that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of HHT vascular lesions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Luteolin suppresses angiogenesis and vasculogenic mimicry formation through inhibiting Notch1-VEGF signaling in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Zang, Mingde; Hu, Lei; Zhang, Baogui; Zhu, Zhenglun; Li, Jianfang; Zhu, Zhenggang; Yan, Min; Liu, Bingya

    2017-08-26

    Gastric cancer is a great threat to the health of the people worldwide and lacks effective therapeutic regimens. Luteolin is one of Chinese herbs and presents in many fruits and green plants. In our previous study, we observed that luteolin inhibited cell migration and promoted cell apoptosis in gastric cancer. In the present study, luteolin significantly inhibited tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) through decreasing cell migration and proliferation of HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) tubes formed by gastric cancer cells were also inhibited with luteolin treatment. To explore how luteolin inhibited tubes formation, ELISA assay for VEGF was performed. Both of the VEGF secretion from Hs-746T cells and HUVECs were significantly decreased subsequent to luteolin treatment. In addition, cell migration was increased with the interaction between gastric cancer cells and HUVECs in co-culture assays. However, the promoting effects were abolished subsequent to luteolin treatment. Furthermore, luteolin inhibited VEGF secretion through suppressing Notch1 expression in gastric cancer. Overexpression of Notch1 in gastric cancer cells partially rescued the effects on cell migration, proliferation, HUVECs tube formation, and VM formation induced by luteolin treatment. In conclusion, luteolin inhibits angiogenesis and VM formation in gastric cancer through suppressing VEGF secretion dependent on Notch1 expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibition of rat corneal angiogenesis by a nuclease-resistant RNA aptamer specific for angiopoietin-2

    PubMed Central

    White, Rebekah R.; Shan, Siqing; Rusconi, Christopher P.; Shetty, Geetha; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Kontos, Christopher D.; Sullenger, Bruce A.

    2003-01-01

    Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) appears to be a naturally occurring antagonist of the endothelial receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2, an important regulator of vascular stability. Destabilization of the endothelium by Ang2 is believed to potentiate the actions of proangiogenic growth factors. To investigate the specific role of Ang2 in the adult vasculature, we generated a nuclease-resistant RNA aptamer that binds and inhibits Ang2 but not the related Tie2 agonist, angiopoietin-1. Local delivery of this aptamer but not a partially scrambled mutant aptamer inhibited basic fibroblast growth factor-mediated neovascularization in the rat corneal micropocket angiogenesis assay. These in vivo data directly demonstrate that a specific inhibitor of Ang2 can act as an antiangiogenic agent. PMID:12692304

  2. p53-mediated inhibition of angiogenesis through up-regulation of a collagen prolyl hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Teodoro, Jose G; Parker, Albert E; Zhu, Xiaochun; Green, Michael R

    2006-08-18

    Recent evidence suggests that antiangiogenic therapy is sensitive to p53 status in tumors, implicating a role for p53 in the regulation of angiogenesis. Here we show that p53 transcriptionally activates the alpha(II) collagen prolyl-4-hydroxylase [alpha(II)PH] gene, resulting in the extracellular release of antiangiogenic fragments of collagen type 4 and 18. Conditioned media from cells ectopically expressing either p53 or alpha(II)PH selectively inhibited growth of primary human endothelial cells. When expressed intracellularly or exogenously delivered, alpha(II)PH significantly inhibited tumor growth in mice. Our results reveal a genetic and biochemical linkage between the p53 tumor suppressor pathway and the synthesis of antiangiogenic collagen fragments.

  3. The hexane fraction of Ardisia crispa Thunb. A. DC. roots inhibits inflammation-induced angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ardisia crispa (Myrsinaceae) is used in traditional Malay medicine to treat various ailments associated with inflammation, including rheumatism. The plant’s hexane fraction was previously shown to inhibit several diseases associated with inflammation. As there is a strong correlation between inflammation and angiogenesis, we conducted the present study to investigate the anti-angiogenic effects of the plant’s roots in animal models of inflammation-induced angiogenesis. Methods We first performed phytochemical screening and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting of the hexane fraction of Ardisia crispa roots ethanolic extract (ACRH) and its quinone-rich fraction (QRF). The anti-inflammatory properties of ACRH and QRF were tested using the Miles vascular permeability assay and the murine air pouch granuloma model following oral administration at various doses. Results Preliminary phytochemical screening of ACRH revealed the presence of flavonoids, triterpenes, and tannins. The QRF was separated from ACRH (38.38% w/w) by column chromatography, and was isolated to yield a benzoquinonoid compound. The ACRH and QRF were quantified by HPLC. The LD50 value of ACRH was 617.02 mg/kg. In the Miles vascular permeability assay, the lowest dose of ACRH (10 mg/kg) and all doses of QRF significantly reduced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced hyperpermeability, when compared with the vehicle control. In the murine air pouch granuloma model, ACRH and QRF both displayed significant and dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects, without granuloma weight. ACRH and QRF significantly reduced the vascular index, but not granuloma tissue weight. Conclusions In conclusion, both ACRH and QRF showed potential anti-inflammatory properties in a model of inflammation-induced angiogenesis model, demonstrating their potential anti-angiogenic properties. PMID:23298265

  4. Suramin inhibits bFGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Danesi, R.; Del Bianchi, S.; Soldani, P.; Campagni, A.; La Rocca, R. V.; Myers, C. E.; Paparelli, A.; Del Tacca, M.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of suramin, an inhibitor of growth factor mitogenic activity, were evaluated on basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced proliferation of bovine aortic endothelial cells and on angiogenesis in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of chick embryos. The role of bFGF gene expression in endothelial cell growth was also investigated by using an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide to bFGF. The 4-fold increase in [3H]-thymidine uptake in endothelial cells in vitro upon stimulation with 10 ng ml-1 of bFGF was inhibited by suramin 300 micrograms ml-1. bFGF antisense oligomer (10 microM) reduced [3H]-thymidine incorporation in exponentially growing cells by 76%; this effect was reversed by bFGF 10 ng ml-1. In the CAM of chick embryos suramin 50 micrograms was a more potent inhibitor of angiogenesis than the combination of heparin 60 micrograms/hydrocortisone 50 micrograms; the mean value of the area with reduced vascularity was significantly larger in suramin-treated CAMs (2.4 cm2) than in heparin/hydrocortisone (0.6 cm2), while the reduction of vascular density was similar (- 35 and - 29% compared to controls, respectively), In conclusion, the effects of treatments with bFGF and bFGF antisense oligomer demonstrate that bFGF plays a relevant role in endothelial cell proliferation and may be the target of suramin since the drug is able to suppress basal and bFGF-induced endothelial cell growth; in addition to this, suramin is a more potent angiogenesis inhibitor in the CAM than the combination of heparin/hydrocortisone. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:7692920

  5. Inhibition of angiogenesis by vitamin D-binding protein: characterization of anti-endothelial activity of DBP-maf.

    PubMed

    Kalkunte, Satyan; Brard, Laurent; Granai, Cornelius O; Swamy, Narasimha

    2005-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a complex process involving coordinated steps of endothelial cell activation, proliferation, migration, tube formation and capillary sprouting with participation of intracellular signaling pathways. Regulation of angiogenesis carries tremendous potential for cancer therapy. Our earlier studies showed that vitamin D-binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-maf) acts as a potent anti-angiogenic factor and inhibits tumor growth in vivo. The goal of this investigation was to understand the effect of DBP-maf on human endothelial cell (HEC) and the mechanism of angiogenesis inhibition. DBP-maf inhibited human endothelial cell (HEC) proliferation by inhibiting DNA synthesis (IC(50) = 7.8 +/- 0.15 microg/ml). DBP-maf significantly induced S- and G0/G1-phase arrest in HEC in 72 h. DBP-maf potently blocked VEGF-induced migration, tube-formation of HEC in a dose dependent manner. In addition, DBP-maf inhibited growth factor-induced microvessel sprouting in rat aortic ring assay. Moreover, DBP-maf inhibited VEGF signaling by decreasing VEGF-mediated phosphorylation of VEGFR-2 and ERK1/2, a downstream target of VEGF signaling cascade. However, Akt activation was not affected. These studies collectively demonstrate that DBP-maf inhibits angiogenesis by blocking critical steps such as HEC proliferation, migration, tube formation and microvessel sprouting. DBP-maf exerts its effect by inhibiting VEGR-2 and ERK1/2 signaling cascades. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of anti-endothelial activity of DBP-maf will allow us to develop it as an angiogenesis targeting novel drug for tumor therapy.

  6. Broad-Spectrum Inhibition of the CC-Chemokine Class Improves Wound Healing and Wound Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ridiandries, Anisyah; Bursill, Christina; Tan, Joanne

    2017-01-13

    Angiogenesis is involved in the inflammation and proliferation stages of wound healing, to bring inflammatory cells to the wound and provide a microvascular network to maintain new tissue formation. An excess of inflammation, however, leads to prolonged wound healing and scar formation, often resulting in unfavourable outcomes such as amputation. CC-chemokines play key roles in the promotion of inflammation and inflammatory-driven angiogenesis. Therefore, inhibition of the CC-chemokine class may improve wound healing. We aimed to determine if the broad-spectrum CC-chemokine inhibitor "35K" could accelerate wound healing in vivo in mice. In a murine wound healing model, 35K protein or phosphate buffered saline (PBS, control) were added topically daily to wounds. Cohorts of mice were assessed in the early stages (four days post-wounding) and in the later stages of wound repair (10 and 21 days post-wounding). Topical application of the 35K protein inhibited CC-chemokine expression (CCL5, CCL2) in wounds and caused enhanced blood flow recovery and wound closure in early-mid stage wounds. In addition, 35K promoted neovascularisation in the early stages of wound repair. Furthermore, 35K treated wounds had significantly lower expression of the p65 subunit of NF-κB, a key inflammatory transcription factor, and augmented wound expression of the pro-angiogenic and pro-repair cytokine TGF-β. These findings show that broad-spectrum CC-chemokine inhibition may be beneficial for the promotion of wound healing.

  7. Targeting long non-coding RNA-TUG1 inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis in hepatoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Dong, R; Liu, G-B; Liu, B-H; Chen, G; Li, K; Zheng, S; Dong, K-R

    2016-01-01

    Hepatoblastoma is the most common liver tumor of early childhood, which is usually characterized by unusual hypervascularity. Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) have emerged as gene regulators and prognostic markers in several cancers, including hepatoblastoma. We previously reveal that lnRNA-TUG1 is upregulated in hepatoblastoma specimens by microarray analysis. In this study, we aim to elucidate the biological and clinical significance of TUG1 upregulation in hepatoblastoma. We show that TUG1 is significantly upregulated in human hepatoblastoma specimens and metastatic hepatoblastoma cell lines. TUG1 knockdown inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo, and decreases hepatoblastoma cell viability, proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. TUG1, miR-34a-5p, and VEGFA constitutes to a regulatory network, and participates in regulating hepatoblastoma cell function, tumor progression, and tumor angiogenesis. Overall, our findings indicate that TUG1 upregulation contributes to unusual hypervascularity of hepatoblastoma. TUG1 is a promising therapeutic target for aggressive, recurrent, or metastatic hepatoblastoma. PMID:27362796

  8. Targeting long non-coding RNA-TUG1 inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis in hepatoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Dong, R; Liu, G-B; Liu, B-H; Chen, G; Li, K; Zheng, S; Dong, K-R

    2016-06-30

    Hepatoblastoma is the most common liver tumor of early childhood, which is usually characterized by unusual hypervascularity. Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) have emerged as gene regulators and prognostic markers in several cancers, including hepatoblastoma. We previously reveal that lnRNA-TUG1 is upregulated in hepatoblastoma specimens by microarray analysis. In this study, we aim to elucidate the biological and clinical significance of TUG1 upregulation in hepatoblastoma. We show that TUG1 is significantly upregulated in human hepatoblastoma specimens and metastatic hepatoblastoma cell lines. TUG1 knockdown inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo, and decreases hepatoblastoma cell viability, proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. TUG1, miR-34a-5p, and VEGFA constitutes to a regulatory network, and participates in regulating hepatoblastoma cell function, tumor progression, and tumor angiogenesis. Overall, our findings indicate that TUG1 upregulation contributes to unusual hypervascularity of hepatoblastoma. TUG1 is a promising therapeutic target for aggressive, recurrent, or metastatic hepatoblastoma.

  9. Inhibition of breast tumor growth and angiogenesis by a medicinal herb: Ocimum sanctum

    PubMed Central

    Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Tait, Larry; Hogan, Victor; Shekhar, Malathy P.V.; Funasaka, Tatsuyoshi; Raz, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    Ocimum sanctum (OS) is a traditionally used medicinal herb, which shows anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, radio-protective and free radical scavenging properties. So far no detailed studies have been reported on its effects on human cancers. Thus, we analyzed its effects on human breast cancer utilizing in vitro and in vivo methodologies. Aqueous extracts were prepared from the mature leaves of Ocimum sanctum cultivated devoid of pesticides. Tumor progression and angiogenesis related processes like chemotaxis, proliferation, apoptosis, 3-dimensional growth and morphogenesis, angiogenesis, and tumor growth were studied in the presence or absence of the extract and in some experiments a comparison was made with purified commercially available eugenol, apigenin and ursolic acid. Aqueous OS leaf extract inhibits proliferation, migration, anchorage independent growth, three dimensional growth and morphogenesis, and induction of COX-2 protein in breast cancer cells. A comparative analysis with eugenol, apigenin and ursolic acid showed that the inhibitory effects on chemotaxis and three dimensional morphogenesis of breast cancer cells were specific to OS extract. In addition, OS extracts also reduced tumor size and neoangiogenesis in a MCF10 DCIS.com xenograft model of human DCIS. This is the first detailed report showing that OS leaf extract may be of value as a breast cancer preventive and therapeutic agent and might be considered as additional additive in the arsenal of components aiming at combating breast cancer progression and metastasis. PMID:17437270

  10. Gamabufotalin, a major derivative of bufadienolide, inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis by suppressing VEGFR-2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ning; Shi, Lei; Yu, Zhenlong; Dong, Peipei; Wang, Chao; Huo, Xiaokui; Zhang, Baojing; Huang, Shanshan; Deng, Sa; Liu, Kexin; Ma, Tonghui; Wang, Xiaobo; Wu, Lijun; Ma, Xiao-Chi

    2016-01-19

    Gamabufotalin (CS-6), a main active compound isolated from Chinese medicine Chansu, has been shown to strongly inhibit cancer cell growth and inflammatory response. However, its effects on angiogenesis have not been known yet. Here, we sought to determine the biological effects of CS-6 on signaling mechanisms during angiogenesis. Our present results fully demonstrate that CS-6 could significantly inhibit VEGF triggered HUVECs proliferation, migration, invasion and tubulogenesis in vitro and blocked vascularization in Matrigel plugs impregnated in C57/BL6 mice as well as reduced vessel density in human lung tumor xenograft implanted in nude mice. Computer simulations revealed that CS-6 interacted with the ATP-binding sites of VEGFR-2 using molecular docking. Furthermore, western blot analysis indicated that CS-6 inhibited VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR-2 kinase and suppressed the activity of VEGFR-2-mediated signaling cascades. Therefore, our studies demonstrated that CS-6 inhibited angiogenesis by inhibiting the activation of VEGFR-2 signaling pathways and CS-6 could be a potential candidate in angiogenesis-related disease therapy.

  11. A Complex Extracellular Sphingomyelinase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Inhibits Angiogenesis by Selective Cytotoxicity to Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vasil, Michael L.; Stonehouse, Martin J.; Vasil, Adriana I.; Wadsworth, Sandra J.; Goldfine, Howard; Bolcome, Robert E.; Chan, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    The hemolytic phospholipase C (PlcHR) expressed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the original member of a Phosphoesterase Superfamily, which includes phosphorylcholine-specific phospholipases C (PC-PLC) produced by frank and opportunistic pathogens. PlcHR, but not all its family members, is also a potent sphingomyelinase (SMase). Data presented herein indicate that picomolar (pM) concentrations of PlcHR are selectively lethal to endothelial cells (EC). An RGD motif of PlcHR contributes to this selectivity. Peptides containing an RGD motif (i.e., GRGDS), but not control peptides (i.e., GDGRS), block the effects of PlcHR on calcium signaling and cytotoxicity to EC. Moreover, RGD variants of PlcHR (e.g., RGE, KGD) are significantly reduced in their binding and toxicity, but retain the enzymatic activity of the wild type PlcHR. PlcHR also inhibits several EC-dependent in vitro assays (i.e., EC migration, EC invasion, and EC tubule formation), which represent key processes involved in angiogenesis (i.e., formation of new blood vessels from existing vasculature). Finally, the impact of PlcHR in an in vivo model of angiogenesis in transgenic zebrafish, and ones treated with an antisense morpholino to knock down a key blood cell regulator, were evaluated because in vitro assays cannot fully represent the complex processes of angiogenesis. As little as 2 ng/embryo of PlcHR was lethal to ∼50% of EGFP-labeled EC at 6 h after injection of embryos at 48 hpf (hours post-fertilization). An active site mutant of PlcHR (Thr178Ala) exhibited 120-fold reduced inhibitory activity in the EC invasion assay, and 20 ng/embryo elicited no detectable inhibitory activity in the zebrafish model. Taken together, these observations are pertinent to the distinctive vasculitis and poor wound healing associated with P. aeruginosa sepsis and suggest that the potent antiangiogenic properties of PlcHR are worthy of further investigation for the treatment of diseases where angiogenesis contributes

  12. Combination of hTERT knockdown and interferon-γ treatment inhibited angiogenesis and tumor progression in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    George, Joseph; Banik, Naren L.; Ray, Swapan K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The limitless invasive and proliferative capacities of tumor cells are associated with telomerase and expression of its catalytic component, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) modulates several cellular activities including signaling pathways and cell cycle through transcriptional regulation. Experimental Design Using a recombinant plasmid with hTERT siRNA cDNA, we down regulated hTERT during IFN-γ treatment in human glioblastoma SNB-19 and LN-18 cell lines and examined whether such a combination could inhibit angiogenesis and tumor growth in nude mice. In vitro angiogenesis assay was performed using co-culture of tumor cells with human microvascular endothelial cells. In vivo angiogenesis assay was performed using diffusion chambers under the dorsal skin of nude mice. In vivo imaging of intracerebral tumorigenesis and longitudinal solid tumor development studies were conducted in nude mice. Results In vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays demonstrated inhibition of capillary-like network formation of microvascular endothelial cells and neovascularization under dorsal skin of nude mice, respectively. We observed inhibition of intracerebral tumorigenesis and subcutaneous solid tumor formation in nude mice after treatment with combination of hTERT siRNA and IFN-γ. Western blotting of solid tumor samples demonstrated significant down regulation of the molecules that regulate cell invasion, angiogenesis, and tumor progression. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that combination of hTERT siRNA and IFN-γ effectively inhibited angiogenesis and tumor progression through down regulation of molecules involved in these processes. Therefore, combination of hTERT siRNA and IFN-γ is a promising therapeutic strategy for controlling growth of human glioblastoma. PMID:19934306

  13. The PPARδ ligand L-165041 inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis, but the antiangiogenic effect is not related to PPARδ.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Hee; Lee, Kuy-Sook; Lim, Hyun-Joung; Kim, Hanna; Kwak, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Hyun-Young

    2012-06-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)δ is known to be expressed ubiquitously and involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. Recent studies have demonstrated that PPARδ is expressed in endothelial cells (ECs) and plays a potential role in endothelial survival and proliferation. Although PPARα and PPARγ are well recognized to play anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and antiangiogenic roles in ECs, the general effect of PPARδ on angiogenesis in ECs remains unclear. Thus, we investigated the effect of the PPARδ ligand L-165041 on vascular EC proliferation and angiogenesis in vitro as well as in vivo. Our data show that L-165041 inhibited VEGF-induced cell proliferation and migration in human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs). L-165041 also inhibited angiogenesis in the Matrigel plug assay and aortic ring assay. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that L-165041 reduced the number of ECs in the S phase and the expression levels of cell cycle regulatory proteins such as cyclin A, cyclin E, CDK2, and CDK4; phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein was suppressed by pretreatment with L-165041. We confirmed whether these antiangiogenic effects of L-165041 were PPARδ-dependent using GW501516 and PPARδ siRNA. GW501516 treatment did not inhibit VEGF-induced angiogenesis, and transfection of PPARδ siRNA did not reverse this antiangiogenic effect of L-165041, suggesting that the antiangiogenic effect of L-165041 on ECs is PPARδ-independent. Together, these data indicate that the PPARδ ligand L-165041 inhibits VEGF-stimulated angiogenesis by suppressing the cell cycle progression independently of PPARδ. This study highlights the therapeutic potential of L-165041 in the treatment of many disorders related to pathological angiogenesis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Apatinib Inhibits Angiogenesis Via Suppressing Akt/GSK3β/ANG Signaling Pathway in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhijian; Cheng, Xi; Feng, Haoran; Kuang, Jie; Yang, Weiping; Peng, Chenghong; Shen, Baiyong; Qiu, Weihua

    2017-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most lethal human malignancies, and there is no efficient method to slow its process. Apatinib, a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), has been confirmed for its efficacy and safety in the treatment of advanced gastric carcinoma patients. However, the effects of Apatinib in ATC are still unknown. In this study, we explored the effects and mechanisms of Apatinib on tumor growth and angiogenesis in vitro and in vitro in ATC cells. Angiogenesis antibodies array was utilized to detect the expression of angiogenesis-related genes after Apatinib treatment in ATC cells. In addition, we used Akt activator, Akt inhibitor and GSK3β inhibitor to further study the mechanism for how Apatinib suppressed angiogenesis. Apatinib treatment could suppress the growth of ATC cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner via inducing apoptosis and blocking cell cycle progression at G0/G1 phase. Moreover, Apatinib treatment decreased the expression of angiogenin (ANG) and inhibited angiogenesis of ATC cells in vitro and in vitro. We further confirmed that recombinant human ANG (rhANG) significantly abrogated Apatinib-mediated anti-angiogenic ability in ATC cells. Additionally, Apatinib treatment decreased the level of p-Akt and p-GSK3β. Moreover, the Apatinib-mediated decrease of ANG and anti-angiogenic ability were partly reversed when an Akt activator, SC79, was administered. Furthermore, the anti-angiogenic ability of Apatinib can be enhanced in the presence of Akt inhibitor, and the inhibition of GSK3β attenuated the anti-angiogenic ability of Apatinib. Our results demonstrated that Apatinib treatment inhibited tumor growth, and Apatinib-induced suppression of Akt/GSK3β/ANG signaling pathway may play an important role in the inhibition of angiogenesis in ATC, supporting a potential therapeutic approach for using Apatinib in the treatment of ATC. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Copper binding by tetrathiomolybdate attenuates angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation through the inhibition of superoxide dismutase 1.

    PubMed

    Juarez, Jose C; Betancourt, Oscar; Pirie-Shepherd, Steven R; Guan, Xiaojun; Price, Melissa L; Shaw, David E; Mazar, Andrew P; Doñate, Fernando

    2006-08-15

    A second-generation tetrathiomolybdate analogue (ATN-224; choline tetrathiomolybdate), which selectively binds copper with high affinity, is currently completing two phase I clinical trials in patients with advanced solid and advanced hematologic malignancies. However, there is very little information about the mechanism of action of ATN-224 at the molecular level. The effects of ATN-224 on endothelial and tumor cell growth were evaluated in cell culture experiments in vitro. The antiangiogenic activity of ATN-224 was investigated using the Matrigel plug model of angiogenesis. ATN-224 inhibits superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) in tumor and endothelial cells. The inhibition of SOD1 leads to inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation in vitro and attenuation of angiogenesis in vivo. The inhibition of SOD1 activity in endothelial cells is dose and time dependent and leads to an increase in the steady-state levels of superoxide anions, resulting in the inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation without apparent induction of apoptosis. In contrast, the inhibition of SOD1 in tumor cells leads to the induction of apoptosis. The effects of ATN-224 on endothelial and tumor cells could be substantially reversed using Mn(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin chloride, a catalytic small-molecule SOD mimetic. These data provide a distinct molecular target for the activity of ATN-224 and provide validation for SOD1 as a target for the inhibition of angiogenesis and tumor growth.

  16. Kaempferol Identified by Zebrafish Assay and Fine Fractionations Strategy from Dysosma versipellis Inhibits Angiogenesis through VEGF and FGF Pathways.

    PubMed

    Liang, Fang; Han, Yuxiang; Gao, Hao; Xin, Shengchang; Chen, Shaodan; Wang, Nan; Qin, Wei; Zhong, Hanbing; Lin, Shuo; Yao, Xinsheng; Li, Song

    2015-10-08

    Natural products are a rich resource for the discovery of therapeutic substances. By directly using 504 fine fractions from isolated traditional Chinese medicine plants, we performed a transgenic zebrafish based screen for anti-angiogenesis substances. One fraction, DYVE-D3, was found to inhibit the growth of intersegmental vessels in the zebrafish vasculature. Bioassay-guided isolation of DYVE-D3 indicates that the flavonoid kaempferol was the active substance. Kaempferol also inhibited the proliferation and migration of HUVECs in vitro. Furthermore, we found that kaempferol suppressed angiogenesis through inhibiting VEGFR2 expression, which can be enhanced by FGF inhibition. In summary, this study shows that the construction of fine fraction libraries allows efficient identification of active substances from natural products.

  17. Kaempferol Identified by Zebrafish Assay and Fine Fractionations Strategy from Dysosma versipellis Inhibits Angiogenesis through VEGF and FGF Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Fang; Han, Yuxiang; Gao, Hao; Xin, Shengchang; Chen, Shaodan; Wang, Nan; Qin, Wei; Zhong, Hanbing; Lin, Shuo; Yao, Xinsheng; Li, Song

    2015-01-01

    Natural products are a rich resource for the discovery of therapeutic substances. By directly using 504 fine fractions from isolated traditional Chinese medicine plants, we performed a transgenic zebrafish based screen for anti-angiogenesis substances. One fraction, DYVE-D3, was found to inhibit the growth of intersegmental vessels in the zebrafish vasculature. Bioassay-guided isolation of DYVE-D3 indicates that the flavonoid kaempferol was the active substance. Kaempferol also inhibited the proliferation and migration of HUVECs in vitro. Furthermore, we found that kaempferol suppressed angiogenesis through inhibiting VEGFR2 expression, which can be enhanced by FGF inhibition. In summary, this study shows that the construction of fine fraction libraries allows efficient identification of active substances from natural products. PMID:26446489

  18. Phloroglucinol Inhibits the Bioactivities of Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Suppresses Tumor Angiogenesis in LLC-Tumor-Bearing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yi-Hong; Jung, Seok-Yun; Kim, Jae-Won; Lee, Sang-Hun; Lee, Jun-Hee; Lee, Boo-Yong; Kwon, Sang-Mo

    2012-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that phloroglucinol, a compound from Ecklonia cava, induces the apoptosis of cancer cells, eventually suppressing tumor angiogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings This is the first report on phloroglucinol's ability to potentially inhibit the functional bioactivities of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and thereby attenuate tumor growth and angiogenesis in the Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)-tumor-bearing mouse model. Although Phloroglucinol did not affect their cell toxicity, it specifically inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) dependent migration and capillary-like tube formation of EPCs. Our matrigel plug assay clearly indicated that orally injected phloroglucinol effectively disrupts VEGF-induced neovessel formation. Moreover, we demonstrated that when phloroglucinol is orally administered, it significantly inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis as well as CD45−/CD34+ progenitor mobilization into peripheral blood in vivo in the LLC-tumor-bearing mouse model. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest a novel role for phloroglucinol: Phloroglucinol might be a modulator of circulating EPC bioactivities, eventually suppressing tumorigenesis. Therefore, phloroglucinol might be a candidate compound for biosafe drugs that target tumor angiogenesis. PMID:22496756

  19. Endophytic fungi from mangrove inhibit lung cancer cell growth and angiogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Wu, Xin; Ma, Yuefan; Zhang, Wenzhang; Hu, Liang; Feng, Xiaowei; Li, Xiangyong; Tang, Xudong

    2017-03-01

    The secondary metabolites of mangrove-derived endophytic fungi contain multiple substances with novel structures and biological activities. In the present study, three types of mangrove plants, namely Kandelia candel, Rhizophora stylosa and Rhizophoraceae from Zhanjiang region including the leaves, roots and stems were collected, and endophytic fungi were isolated, purified and identified from these mangrove plants. MTT assay was used to observe the effects of the isolated endophytic fungi on the growth of A549 and NCI-H460 lung cancer cells. The effect of the endophytic fungi on lung cancer angiogenesis in vitro induced by the HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein was observed. Our results showed that 28 strains of endophytic fungi were isolated, purified and identified from the three types of mangrove plants. Ten strains of endophytic fungi significantly suppressed the growth of A549 and NCI-H460 cells. The average inhibitory rates in the A549 cells were 64.4, 59.5, 81.9, 43.9, 58.3, 56.2, 48.3, 42.4, 93.0 and 49.7%, respectively. The average inhibitory rates in the NCI-H460 cells were 41.2, 49.3, 82.7, 40.7, 53.9, 52.6, 56.8, 64.3, 91.0 and 45.6%, respectively. Particularly, three strains of endophytic fungi markedly inhibited HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein‑induced lung cancer angiogenesis in vitro. These findings contribute to the further screening of potential chemotherapeutic agents from mangrove-derived endophytic fungi.

  20. Robo4 maintains vessel integrity and inhibits angiogenesis by interacting with UNC5B.

    PubMed

    Koch, Alexander W; Mathivet, Thomas; Larrivée, Bruno; Tong, Raymond K; Kowalski, Joe; Pibouin-Fragner, Laurence; Bouvrée, Karine; Stawicki, Scott; Nicholes, Katrina; Rathore, Nisha; Scales, Suzie J; Luis, Elizabeth; del Toro, Raquel; Freitas, Catarina; Bréant, Christiane; Michaud, Annie; Corvol, Pierre; Thomas, Jean-Léon; Wu, Yan; Peale, Franklin; Watts, Ryan J; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Bagri, Anil; Eichmann, Anne

    2011-01-18

    Robo4 is an endothelial cell-specific member of the Roundabout axon guidance receptor family. To identify Robo4 binding partners, we performed a protein-protein interaction screen with the Robo4 extracellular domain. We find that Robo4 specifically binds to UNC5B, a vascular Netrin receptor, revealing unexpected interactions between two endothelial guidance receptors. We show that Robo4 maintains vessel integrity by activating UNC5B, which inhibits signaling downstream of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Function-blocking monoclonal antibodies against Robo4 and UNC5B increase angiogenesis and disrupt vessel integrity. Soluble Robo4 protein inhibits VEGF-induced vessel permeability and rescues barrier defects in Robo4(-/-) mice, but not in mice treated with anti-UNC5B. Thus, Robo4-UNC5B signaling maintains vascular integrity by counteracting VEGF signaling in endothelial cells, identifying a novel function of guidance receptor interactions in the vasculature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Apatinib inhibits VEGFR-2 and angiogenesis in an in vivo murine model of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qiu-Xia; Han, Yun-Wei; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Hu, Jie; Fan, Juan; Fu, Shao-Zhi; Xu, Shan; Wan, Qiang

    2017-08-08

    Angiogenesis is initiated by the activation of the vascular epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) by the vascular epidermal growth factor (VEGF) ligand. Overexpression of VEGFR-2 increases the growth of nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC). Apatinib (YN968D1) is a highly-selective inhibitor of VEGFR-2, but its effects on NPC have not been hitherto investigated. In the present study, CNE-2 NPC cells were xenografted into 132 nude mice, which were treated with one of 6 drug regimens of apatinib administered alone or in combination with cisplatin (DDP). The impact of treatment regimens on the growth, microvascularization, apoptosis, and metabolic response of tumors, as well as mouse survival was determined by histopathology, immunohistochemistry (VEGFR-2 and CD31), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL), micro 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging and survival curves. Administration of apatinib alone inhibited tumor growth, reduced microvascular density, and facilitated the apoptosis of tumors. Tumors treated simultaneously with apatinib and cisplatin exhibited significantly-increased inhibition of tumor growth, prolonged survival time, decreased expression of VEGFR-2, reduced microvascular density, and frequency of apoptosis over standalone and sequential administration therapy. Tumors treated simultaneously with apatinib and cisplatin had the lowest uptake of FDG. Taken together, the simultaneous administration of apatinib and cisplatin improves the therapeutic efficacy over standalone treatments, which also led to improved efficacy over sequential administration regimens. VEGFR-2 is an important predictive marker for efficacy of apatinib treatment of NPC.

  2. ABT-510, a modified type 1 repeat peptide of thrombospondin, inhibits malignant glioma growth in vivo by inhibiting angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joshua C; Grammer, J Robert; Wang, Wenquan; Nabors, L Burton; Henkin, Jack; Stewart, Jerry E; Gladson, Candece L

    2007-03-01

    Anti-angiogenic therapies would be particularly beneficial in the treatment of malignant gliomas. Peptides derived from the second type 1 repeat (TSR) of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) have been shown to inhibit angiogenesis in non-glioma tumor models and a modified TSR peptide, ABT-510, has now entered into Phase II clinical trials of its efficacy in non-glioma tumors. As microvascular endothelial cells (MvEC) exhibit heterogeneity, we evaluated the ability of the modified TSR peptide (NAcSarGlyValDallolleThrNvalleArgProNHE, ABT-510) to inhibit malignant glioma growth in vivo and to induce apoptosis of brain microvessel endothelial cells (MvEC) propagated in vitro. We found that daily administration of ABT-510 until euthanasia (days 7 to 19), significantly inhibited the growth of human malignant astrocytoma tumors established in the brain of athymic nude mice. The microvessel density was significantly lower and the number of apoptotic MvEC was significantly higher (3-fold) in the tumors of the ABT-510-treated animals. Similar results were found using a model in which the established tumor is an intracerebral malignant glioma propagated in a syngeneic mouse model. ABT-510 treatment of primary human brain MvEC propagated as a monolayer resulted in induction of apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner through a caspase-8-dependent mechanism. It also inhibited tubular morphogenesis of MvEC propagated in collagen gels in a dose- and caspase-8 dependent manner through a mechanism that requires the TSP-1 receptor (CD36) on the MvEC. These findings indicate that ABT-510 should be evaluated as a therapeutic option for patients with malignant glioma.

  3. Ganoderma lucidum suppresses angiogenesis through the inhibition of secretion of VEGF and TGF-{beta}1 from prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, Gwenaelle; Harvey, Kevin; Slivova, Veronika

    2005-04-29

    Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) is a popular medicinal mushroom that has been used as a home remedy for the general promotion of health and longevity in East Asia. The dried powder of G. lucidum, which was recommended as a cancer chemotherapy agent in traditional Chinese medicine, is currently popularly used worldwide in the form of dietary supplements. We have previously demonstrated that G. lucidum induces apoptosis, inhibits cell proliferation, and suppresses cell migration of highly invasive human prostate cancer cells PC-3. However, the molecular mechanism(s) responsible for the inhibitory effects of G. lucidum on the prostate cancer cells has notmore » been fully elucidated. In the present study, we examined the effect of G. lucidum on angiogenesis related to prostate cancer. We found that G. lucidum inhibits the early event in angiogenesis, capillary morphogenesis of the human aortic endothelial cells. These effects are caused by the inhibition of constitutively active AP-1 in prostate cancer cells, resulting in the down-regulation of secretion of VEGF and TGF-{beta}1 from PC-3 cells. Thus, G. lucidum modulates the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt kinases in PC-3 cells, which in turn inhibits the activity of AP-1. In summary, our results suggest that G. lucidum inhibits prostate cancer-dependent angiogenesis by modulating MAPK and Akt signaling and could have potential therapeutic use for the treatment of prostate cancer.« less

  4. Inhibition of human cancer cell line growth and human umbilical vein endothelial cell angiogenesis by artemisinin derivatives in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huan-Huan; Zhou, Hui-Jun; Fang, Xin

    2003-09-01

    Artemisinin derivatives artesunate (ART) and dihydroartemisinin are remarkable anti-malarial drugs with low toxicity to humans. In the present investigation, we find they also inhibited tumor cell growth and suppressed angiogenesis in vitro. The anti-cancer activity was demonstrated by inhibition (IC(50)) of four human cancer cell lines: cervical cancer Hela, uterus chorion cancer JAR, embryo transversal cancer RD and ovarian cancer HO-8910 cell lines growth by the MTT assay. IC(50) values ranged from 15.4 to 49.7 microM or from 8.5 to 32.9 microM after treatment with ART or dihydroartemisinin for 48 h, indicating that dihydroartemisinin was more effective than ART in inhibiting cancer cell lines. The anti-angiogenic activities were tested on in vitro models of angiogenesis, namely, proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVE) cells. We investigated the inhibitory effects of ART and dihydroartemisinin on HUVE cells proliferation by cell counting, migration into the scratch wounded area in HUVE cell monolayers and microvessel tube-like formation on collagen gel. The results showed ART and dihydroartemisinin significantly inhibited angiogenisis in a dose-dependent form in range of 12.5-50 microM and 2.5-50 microM, respectively. They indicated that dihydroartemisinin was more effective than ART in inhibiting angiogenesis either. These results and the known low toxicity are clues that ART and dihydroartemisinin may be promising novel candidates for cancer chemotherapy.

  5. Silica nanoparticles inhibit macrophage activity and angiogenesis via VEGFR2-mediated MAPK signaling pathway in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Duan, Junchao; Hu, Hejing; Feng, Lin; Yang, Xiaozhe; Sun, Zhiwei

    2017-09-01

    The safety evaluation of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) are getting great attention due to its widely-used in food sciences, chemical industry and biomedicine. However, the adverse effect and underlying mechanisms of SiNPs on cardiovascular system, especially on angiogenesis is still unclear. This study was aimed to illuminate the possible mechanisms of SiNPs on angiogenesis in zebrafish transgenic lines, Tg(fli-1:EGFP) and Albino. SiNPs caused the cardiovascular malformations in a dose-dependent manner via intravenous microinjection. The incidences of cardiovascular malformations were observed as: Pericardial edema > Bradycardia > Blood deficiency. The area of subintestinal vessels (SIVs) was significant reduced in SiNPs-treated groups, accompanied with the weaken expression of vascular endothelial cells in zebrafish embryos. Using neutral red staining, the quantitative number of macrophage was declined; whereas macrophage inhibition rate was elevated in a dose-dependent way. Furthermore, SiNPs significantly decreased the mRNA expression of macrophage activity related gene, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and the angiogenesis related gene, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2). The protein levels of p-Erk1/2 and p-p38 MAPK were markedly decreased in zebrafish exposed to SiNPs. Our results implicate that SiNPs inhibited the macrophage activity and angiogenesis via the downregulation of MAPK singaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Decursin and decursinol angelate inhibit VEGF-induced angiogenesis via suppression of the VEGFR-2-signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jung, Myung Hwan; Lee, Sun Hee; Ahn, Eun-Mi; Lee, You Mie

    2009-04-01

    Inhibition of angiogenesis is an attractive approach for the treatment of angiogenic diseases, such as cancer. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most important activators of angiogenesis and interacts with the high-affinity tyrosine kinase receptors, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2. The pyranocoumarin compounds decursin and decursinol angelate isolated from the herb, Angelica gigas, are known to possess potent anti-inflammatory activities. However, little is known about their antiangiogenic activity or their underlying mechanisms. Here, we show the antiangiogenic effects of decursin and decursinol angelate using in vitro assays and in vivo animal experiments. Decursin and decursinol angelate inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenic processes in vitro, including proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Decursin and decursinol angelate significantly suppressed neovessel formation in chick chorioallantoic membrane and tumor growth in a mouse model. The microvessel density in tumors treated with decursin for 14 days was significantly decreased compared with a vehicle control group. Decursin and decursinol angelate inhibited VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR-2, extracellular signal-regulated kinases and c-Jun N-terminal kinase mitogen-activated protein kinases. Taken together, these results demonstrate that decursin and decursinol angelate are novel candidates for inhibition of VEGF-induced angiogenesis.

  7. Anthelmintic drug ivermectin inhibits angiogenesis, growth and survival of glioblastoma through inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yingying; Fang, Shanshan; Sun, Qiushi

    Glioblastoma is one of the most vascular brain tumour and highly resistant to current therapy. Targeting both glioblastoma cells and angiogenesis may present an effective therapeutic strategy for glioblastoma. In our work, we show that an anthelmintic drug, ivermectin, is active against glioblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo, and also targets angiogenesis. Ivermectin significantly inhibits growth and anchorage-independent colony formation in U87 and T98G glioblastoma cells. It induces apoptosis in these cells through a caspase-dependent manner. Ivermectin significantly suppresses the growth of two independent glioblastoma xenograft mouse models. In addition, ivermectin effectively targets angiogenesis through inhibiting capillary network formation, proliferation andmore » survival in human brain microvascular endothelial cell (HBMEC). Mechanistically, ivermectin decreases mitochondrial respiration, membrane potential, ATP levels and increases mitochondrial superoxide in U87, T98G and HBMEC cells exposed to ivermectin. The inhibitory effects of ivermectin are significantly reversed in mitochondria-deficient cells or cells treated with antioxidants, further confirming that ivermectin acts through mitochondrial respiration inhibition and induction of oxidative stress. Importantly, we show that ivermectin suppresses phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR and ribosomal S6 in glioblastoma and HBMEC cells, suggesting its inhibitory role in deactivating Akt/mTOR pathway. Altogether, our work demonstrates that ivermectin is a useful addition to the treatment armamentarium for glioblastoma. Our work also highlights the therapeutic value of targeting mitochondrial metabolism in glioblastoma. - Highlights: • Ivermectin is effective in glioblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. • Ivermectin inhibits angiogenesis. • Ivermectin induces mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. • Ivermectin deactivates Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.« less

  8. Inhibition of angiogenesis: a novel antitumor mechanism of the herbal compound arctigenin.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yuan; Scheuer, Claudia; Feng, Dilu; Menger, Michael D; Laschke, Matthias W

    2013-09-01

    Arctigenin, a functional ingredient of several traditional Chinese herbs, has been reported to have potential antitumor activity. However, its mechanisms of action are still not well elucidated. Because the establishment and metastatic spread of tumors is crucially dependent on angiogenesis, here we investigated whether arctigenin inhibits tumor growth by disturbing blood vessel formation. For this purpose, human dermal microvascular endothelial cells were exposed to different arctigenin doses to study their viability, proliferation, protein expression, migration, and tube formation compared with vehicle-treated controls. In addition, arctigenin action on vascular sprouting was analyzed in an aortic ring assay. Furthermore, we studied direct arctigenin effects on CT26.WT colon carcinoma cells. Spheroids of these tumor cells were transplanted into the dorsal skinfold chamber of arctigenin-treated and vehicle-treated BALB/c mice for the in-vivo analysis of tumor vascularization and growth by intravital fluorescence microscopy, histology, and immunohistochemistry. We found that noncytotoxic doses of arctigenin dose dependently reduced the proliferation of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells without affecting their migratory and tube-forming capacity. Arctigenin treatment also resulted in a decreased cellular expression of phosphorylated serine/threonine protein kinase AKT, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen and inhibited vascular sprouting from aortic rings. In addition, proliferation, but not secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor, was decreased in arctigenin-treated tumor cells. Finally, arctigenin suppressed the vascularization and growth of engrafting CT26.WT tumors in the dorsal skinfold chamber model. Taken together, these results show for the first time an antiangiogenic action of arctigenin, which may contribute considerably toward its antitumor activity.

  9. Cucurbitacin B inhibits breast cancer metastasis and angiogenesis through VEGF-mediated suppression of FAK/MMP-9 signaling axis.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sonam; Khan, Sajid; Shukla, Samriddhi; Lakra, Amar Deep; Kumar, Sudhir; Das, Gunjan; Maurya, Rakesh; Meeran, Syed Musthapa

    2016-08-01

    Available breast cancer therapeutic strategies largely target the primary tumor but are ineffective against tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. In our current study, we determined the effect of Cucurbitacin B (CuB), a plant triterpenoid, on the metastatic and angiogenic potential of breast cancer cells. CuB was found to inhibit cellular proliferation and induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Further, CuB-treatment significantly inhibited the migratory and invasive potential of highly metastatic breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and 4T1 cells at sub-IC50 concentrations, where no significant apoptosis was observed. CuB was also found to inhibit migratory, invasive and tube-forming capacities of HUVECs in vitro. In addition, inhibition of pre-existing vasculature in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane ex vivo further supports the anti-angiogenic effect of CuB. CuB-mediated anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic effects were associated with the downregulation of VEGF/FAK/MMP-9 signaling, which has been validated by using FAK-inhibitor (FI-14). CuB-treatment resulted in a significant inhibition of VEGF-induced phosphorylation of FAK and MMP-9 expressions similar to the action of FI-14. CuB was also found to decrease the micro-vessel density as evidenced by the decreased expression of CD31, a marker for neovasculature. Further, CuB-treatment inhibited tumor growth, lung metastasis and angiogenesis in a highly metastatic 4T1-syngeneic mouse mammary cancer. Collectively, our findings suggest that CuB inhibited breast cancer metastasis and angiogenesis, at least in part, through the downregulation of VEGF/FAK/MMP-9 signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoform 4 inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated angiogenesis through interaction with calcineurin.

    PubMed

    Baggott, Rhiannon R; Alfranca, Arantzazu; López-Maderuelo, Dolores; Mohamed, Tamer M A; Escolano, Amelia; Oller, Jorge; Ornes, Beatriz C; Kurusamy, Sathishkumar; Rowther, Farjana B; Brown, James E; Oceandy, Delvac; Cartwright, Elizabeth J; Wang, Weiguang; Gómez-del Arco, Pablo; Martínez-Martínez, Sara; Neyses, Ludwig; Redondo, Juan Miguel; Armesilla, Angel Luis

    2014-10-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been identified as a crucial regulator of physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Among the intracellular signaling pathways triggered by VEGF, activation of the calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) signaling axis has emerged as a critical mediator of angiogenic processes. We and others previously reported a novel role for the plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) as an endogenous inhibitor of the calcineurin/NFAT pathway, via interaction with calcineurin, in cardiomyocytes and breast cancer cells. However, the functional significance of the PMCA/calcineurin interaction in endothelial pathophysiology has not been addressed thus far. Using in vitro and in vivo assays, we here demonstrate that the interaction between PMCA4 and calcineurin in VEGF-stimulated endothelial cells leads to downregulation of the calcineurin/NFAT pathway and to a significant reduction in the subsequent expression of the NFAT-dependent, VEGF-activated, proangiogenic genes RCAN1.4 and Cox-2. PMCA4-dependent inhibition of calcineurin signaling translates into a reduction in endothelial cell motility and blood vessel formation that ultimately impairs in vivo angiogenesis by VEGF. Given the importance of the calcineurin/NFAT pathway in the regulation of pathological angiogenesis, targeted modulation of PMCA4 functionality might open novel therapeutic avenues to promote or attenuate new vessel formation in diseases that occur with angiogenesis. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. A BMP7 Variant Inhibits Tumor Angiogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo through Direct Modulation of Endothelial Cell Biology.

    PubMed

    Tate, Courtney M; Mc Entire, Jacquelyn; Pallini, Roberto; Vakana, Eliza; Wyss, Lisa; Blosser, Wayne; Ricci-Vitiani, Lucia; D'Alessandris, Quintino Giorgio; Morgante, Liliana; Giannetti, Stefano; Larocca, Luigi Maria; Todaro, Matilde; Benfante, Antonina; Colorito, Maria Luisa; Stassi, Giorgio; De Maria, Ruggero; Rowlinson, Scott; Stancato, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), members of the TGF-β superfamily, have numerous biological activities including control of growth, differentiation, and vascular development. Using an in vitro co-culture endothelial cord formation assay, we investigated the role of a BMP7 variant (BMP7v) in VEGF, bFGF, and tumor-driven angiogenesis. BMP7v treatment led to disruption of neo-endothelial cord formation and regression of existing VEGF and bFGF cords in vitro. Using a series of tumor cell models capable of driving angiogenesis in vitro, BMP7v treatment completely blocked cord formation. Pre-treatment of endothelial cells with BMP7v significantly reduced their cord forming ability, indicating a direct effect on endothelial cell function. BMP7v activated the canonical SMAD signaling pathway in endothelial cells but targeted gene knockdown using shRNA directed against SMAD4 suggests this pathway is not required to mediate the anti-angiogenic effect. In contrast to SMAD activation, BMP7v selectively decreased ERK and AKT activation, significantly decreased endothelial cell migration and down-regulated expression of critical RTKs involved in VEGF and FGF angiogenic signaling, VEGFR2 and FGFR1 respectively. Importantly, in an in vivo angiogenic plug assay that serves as a measurement of angiogenesis, BMP7v significantly decreased hemoglobin content indicating inhibition of neoangiogenesis. In addition, BMP7v significantly decreased angiogenesis in glioblastoma stem-like cell (GSLC) Matrigel plugs and significantly impaired in vivo growth of a GSLC xenograft with a concomitant reduction in microvessel density. These data support BMP7v as a potent anti-angiogenic molecule that is effective in the context of tumor angiogenesis.

  12. Deletion of connective tissue growth factor ameliorates peritoneal fibrosis by inhibiting angiogenesis and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Toda, Naohiro; Mori, Kiyoshi; Kasahara, Masato; Koga, Kenichi; Ishii, Akira; Mori, Keita P; Osaki, Keisuke; Mukoyama, Masashi; Yanagita, Motoko; Yokoi, Hideki

    2018-06-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) regulates the signalling of other growth factors and promotes fibrosis. CTGF is increased in mice and humans with peritoneal fibrosis. Inhibition of CTGF has not been examined as a potential therapeutic target for peritoneal fibrosis because systemic CTGF knockout mice die at the perinatal stage. To study the role of CTGF in peritoneal fibrosis of adult mice, we generated CTGF conditional knockout (cKO) mice by crossing CTGF floxed mice with RosaCreERT2 mice. We administered tamoxifen to Rosa-CTGF cKO mice to delete the CTGF gene throughout the body. We induced peritoneal fibrosis by intraperitoneal injection of chlorhexidine gluconate (CG) in wild-type and Rosa-CTGF cKO mice. Induction of peritoneal fibrosis in wild-type mice increased CTGF expression and produced severe thickening of the peritoneum. In contrast, CG-treated Rosa-CTGF cKO mice exhibited reduced thickening of the peritoneum. Peritoneal equilibration test revealed that the excessive peritoneal small-solute transport in CG-treated wild-type mice was normalized by CTGF deletion. CG-treated Rosa-CTGF cKO mice exhibited a reduced number of αSMA-, Ki67-, CD31- and MAC-2-positive cells in the peritoneum. Analyses of peritoneal mRNA showed that CG-treated Rosa-CTGF cKO mice exhibited reduced expression of Cd68, Acta2 (αSMA), Pecam1 (CD31) and Vegfa. These results indicate that a deficiency of CTGF can reduce peritoneal thickening and help to maintain peritoneal function by reducing angiogenesis and inflammation in peritoneal fibrosis. These results suggest that CTGF plays an important role in the progression of peritoneal fibrosis.

  13. D-Amino acid oxidase-induced oxidative stress, 3-bromopyruvate and citrate inhibit angiogenesis, exhibiting potent anticancer effects.

    PubMed

    El Sayed, S M; El-Magd, R M Abou; Shishido, Y; Yorita, K; Chung, S P; Tran, D H; Sakai, T; Watanabe, H; Kagami, S; Fukui, K

    2012-10-01

    Angiogenesis is critical for cancer growth and metastasis. Steps of angiogenesis are energy consuming, while vascular endothelial cells are highly glycolytic. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly vascular tumor and this enhances its aggressiveness. D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) is a promising therapeutic protein that induces oxidative stress upon acting on its substrates. Oxidative stress-energy depletion (OSED) therapy was recently reported (El Sayed et al., Cancer Gene Ther, 19, 1-18, 2012). OSED combines DAO-induced oxidative stress with energy depletion caused by glycolytic inhibitors such as 3-bromopyruvate (3BP), a hexokinase II inhibitor that depleted ATP in cancer cells and induced production of hydrogen peroxide. 3BP disturbs the Warburg effect and antagonizes effects of lactate and pyruvate (El Sayed et al., J Bioenerg Biomembr, 44, 61-79, 2012). Citrate is a natural organic acid capable of inhibiting glycolysis by targeting phosphofructokinase. Here, we report that DAO, 3BP and citrate significantly inhibited angiogenesis, decreased the number of vascular branching points and shortened the length of vascular tubules. OSED delayed the growth of C6/DAO glioma cells. 3BP combined with citrate delayed the growth of C6 glioma cells and decreased significantly the number and size of C6 glioma colonies in soft agar. Human GBM cells (U373MG) were resistant to chemotherapy e.g. cisplatin and cytosine arabinoside, while 3BP was effective in decreasing the viability and disturbing the morphology of U373MG cells.

  14. An arabinogalactan from flowers of Panax notoginseng inhibits angiogenesis by BMP2/Smad/Id1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peipei; Zhang, Lei; Yao, Jian; Shi, Yikang; Li, Ping; Ding, Kan

    2015-05-05

    Angiogenesis plays an essential role in tumor development. Blocking angiogenesis in tumor has become a promising tactic in limiting cancer progression. Here, an arabinogalactan polysaccharide, RN1 was isolated from flowers of Panax notoginseng. Its structure was determined to possess a backbone of 1,6-linked Galp branched at C3 by side 1,3-linked Galp, with branches attached at position O-3 of it. The branches mainly contained 1,5-linked, 1,3,5-linked, terminal Arabinose and terminal Galactose. RN1 could inhibit microvessel formation in the BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cell xenograft tumor in nude mice. The antiangiogenesis assay showed that RN1 could reduce the migratory activity of endothelial cells and their ability of tube formation on matrigel, but no effect on endothelial cells growth. Further studies revealed that RN1 could inhibit BMP2/Smad1/5/8/Id1 signaling. All those data indicated the RN1 had an antiangiogenic effect via BMP2 signaling and could be a potential novel inhibitor of angiogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vasculostatin inhibits intracranial glioma growth and negatively regulates in vivo angiogenesis through a CD36-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Balveen; Cork, Sarah M; Sandberg, Eric M; Devi, Narra S; Zhang, Zhaobin; Klenotic, Philip A; Febbraio, Maria; Shim, Hyunsuk; Mao, Hui; Tucker-Burden, Carol; Silverstein, Roy L; Brat, Daniel J; Olson, Jeffrey J; Van Meir, Erwin G

    2008-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a critical physiological process that is appropriated during tumorigenesis. Little is known about how this process is specifically regulated in the brain. Brain Angiogenesis Inhibitor-1 (BAI1) is a primarily brain specific seven-transmembrane protein that contains five anti-angiogenic thrombospondin type-1 repeats (TSR). We recently showed that BAI1 is cleaved at a conserved proteolytic cleavage site releasing a soluble, 120 kDa anti-angiogenic factor called Vasculostatin (Vstat120). Vstat120 has been shown to inhibit in vitro angiogenesis and suppress subcutaneous tumor growth. Here, we examine its effect on intracranial growth of malignant gliomas and further study the mechanism of its anti-tumor effects. First, we show that expression of Vstat120 strongly suppresses the intracranial growth of malignant gliomas, even in the presence of the strong pro-angiogenic stimulus mediated by the oncoprotein Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor variant III (EGFRvIII). This tumor suppressive effect is accompanied by a decrease in vascular density in the tumors, suggesting a potent anti-angiogenic effect in the brain. Second, and consistent with this interpretation, we find that treatment with Vstat120 reduces the migration of cultured microvascular endothelial cells in vitro and inhibits corneal angiogenesis in vivo. Third, we demonstrate that these anti-vascular effects are critically dependent on the presence of the cell surface receptor CD36 on endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo, supporting a role of the Vstat120 TSRs in mediating these effects. These results advance the understanding of brain-specific angiogenic regulation, and suggest that Vstat120 has therapeutic potential in the treatment of brain tumors and other intra-cerebral vasculopathies. PMID:19176395

  16. Extracellular matrix and cell shape: potential control points for inhibition of angiogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingber, D.

    1991-01-01

    Capillary endothelial (CE) cells require two extracellular signals in order to switch from quiescence to growth and back to differentiation during angiogenesis: soluble angiogenic factors and insoluble extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules. Soluble endothelial mitogens, such as basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), act over large distances to trigger capillary growth, whereas ECM molecules act locally to modulate cell responsiveness to these soluble cues. Recent studies reveal that ECM molecules regulate CE cell growth and differentiation by modulating cell shape and by activating intracellular chemical signaling pathways inside the cell. Recognition of the importance of ECM and cell shape during capillary morphogenesis has led to the identification of a series of new angiogenesis inhibitors. Elucidation of the molecular mechanism of capillary regulation may result in development of even more potent angiogenesis modulators in the future.

  17. Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV prevents high fat diet-induced liver cancer angiogenesis by downregulating chemokine ligand 2.

    PubMed

    Qin, Chen-Jie; Zhao, Ling-Hao; Zhou, Xu; Zhang, Hui-Lu; Wen, Wen; Tang, Liang; Zeng, Min; Wang, Ming-Da; Fu, Gong-Bo; Huang, Shuai; Huang, Wei-Jian; Yang, Yuan; Bao, Zhi-Jun; Zhou, Wei-Ping; Wang, Hong-Yang; Yan, He-Xin

    2018-04-28

    Obesity is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is typically accompanied by higher levels of serum dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4). However, the role of DPP4 in obesity-promoted HCC is unclear. Here, we found that consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) promoted HCC cell proliferation and metastasis and led to poor survival in a carcinogen-induced model of HCC in rats. Notably, genetic ablation of DPP4 or treatment with a DPP4 inhibitor (vildagliptin) prevented HFD-induced HCC. Moreover, HFD-induced DPP4 activity facilitated angiogenesis and cancer cell metastasis in vitro and in vivo, and vildagliptin prevented tumor progression by mediating the pro-angiogenic role of chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2). Loss of DPP4 effectively reversed HFD-induced CCL2 production and angiogenesis, indicating that the DPP4/CCL2/angiogenesis cascade had key roles in HFD-associated HCC progression. Furthermore, concomitant changes in serum DPP4 and CCL2 were observed in 210 patients with HCC, and high serum DPP4 activity was associated with poor clinical prognosis. These results revealed a link between obesity-related high serum DPP4 activity and HCC progression. Inhibition of DPP4 may represent a novel therapeutic intervention for patients with HCC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The somatostatin analogue octreotide inhibits angiogenesis in the earliest, but not in advanced, stages of portal hypertension in rats.

    PubMed

    Mejias, Marc; Garcia-Pras, Ester; Tiani, Carolina; Bosch, Jaime; Fernandez, Mercedes

    2008-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an important determinant of the pathophysiology of portal hypertension contributing to the formation of portosystemic collateral vessels and the hyperdynamic splanchnic circulation associated to this syndrome. Somatostatin and its analogues, like octreotide, have been shown to be powerful inhibitors of experimental angiogenesis. To determine whether octreotide has angioinhibitory effects in portal hypertensive rats. Partial portal vein-ligated (PPVL) rats were treated with octreotide or vehicle during 4 or 7 days. Splanchnic neovascularization and VEGF expression were determined by histological analysis and western blotting. Expression of the somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2), which mediates the anti-angiogenic effects of octreotide, was also analyzed. Formation of portosystemic collaterals (radioactive microspheres) and hemodynamic parameters were also measured. Octreotide treatment during 4 days markedly and significantly decreased splanchnic neovascularization, VEGF expression by 63% and portal pressure by 15%, whereas portosystemic collateralization and splanchnic blood flow were not modified. After 1 week of octreotide injection, portal pressure was reduced by 20%, but inhibition of angiogenesis escaped from octreotide therapy, a phenomenon that could be related to the finding that expression of SSTR2 receptor decreased progressively (up to 78% reduction) during the evolution of portal hypertension. This study provides the first experimental evidence showing that octreotide may be an effective anti-angiogenic therapy early after induction of portal hypertension, but not in advanced stages most likely due to SSTR2 down-regulation during the progression of portal hypertension in rats. These findings shed light on new mechanisms of action of octreotide in portal hypertension.

  19. Targeting oncogenic KRAS in non-small cell lung cancer cells by phenformin inhibits growth and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi Dong; Wei, Sheng Quan; Wang, Qin Yi

    2015-01-01

    Tumors require a vascular supply to grow and can achieve this via the expression of pro-angiogenic growth factors. Many potential oncogenic mutations have been identified in tumor angiogenesis. Somatic mutations in the small GTPase KRAS are the most common activating lesions found in human cancer, and are generally associated with poor response to standard therapies. Biguanides, such as the diabetes therapeutics metformin and phenformin, have demonstrated anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. The extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) signaling is known to be a major cellular target of biguanides. Based on KRAS activates several down-stream effectors leading to the stimulation of the RAF/mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (RAF/MEK/ERK) and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathways, we investigated the anti-tumor effects of biguanides on the proliferation of KRAS-mutated tumor cells in vitro and on KRAS-driven tumor growth in vivo. In cancer cells harboring oncogenic KRAS, phenformin switches off the ERK pathway and inhibit the expression of pro-angiogenic molecules. In tumor xenografts harboring the KRAS mutation, phenformin extensively modifies the tumor growth causing abrogation of angiogenesis. These results strongly suggest that significant therapeutic advantage may be achieved by phenformin anti-angiogenesis for the treatment of tumor.

  20. A sustained release formulation of novel quininib-hyaluronan microneedles inhibits angiogenesis and retinal vascular permeability in vivo.

    PubMed

    Galvin, Orla; Srivastava, Akshay; Carroll, Oliver; Kulkarni, Rajiv; Dykes, Steve; Vickers, Steven; Dickinson, Keith; Reynolds, Alison L; Kilty, Claire; Redmond, Gareth; Jones, Rob; Cheetham, Sharon; Pandit, Abhay; Kennedy, Breandán N

    2016-07-10

    Pathologic neovascularisation and ocular permeability are hallmarks of proliferative diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. Current pharmacologic interventions targeting VEGF are effective in only 30-60% of patients and require multiple intraocular injections associated with iatrogenic infection. Thus, our goal is to develop novel small molecule drugs that are VEGF-independent are amenable to sustained ocular-release, and which reduce retinal angiogenesis and retinal vascular permeability. Here, the anti-angiogenic drug quininib was formulated into hyaluronan (HA) microneedles whose safety and efficacy was evaluated in vivo. Quininib-HA microneedles were formulated via desolvation from quininib-HA solution and subsequent cross-linking with 4-arm-PEG-amine prior to freeze-drying. Scanning electron microscopy revealed hollow needle-shaped particle ultrastructure, with a zeta potential of -35.5mV determined by electrophoretic light scattering. The incorporation efficiency and pharmacokinetic profile of quininib released in vitro from the microneedles was quantified by HPLC. Quininib incorporation into these microneedles was 90%. In vitro, 20% quininib was released over 4months; or in the presence of increasing concentrations of hyaluronidase, 60% incorporated quininib was released over 4months. Zebrafish hyaloid vasculature assays demonstrated quininib released from these microneedles significantly (p<0.0001) inhibited ocular developmental angiogenesis compared to control. Sustained amelioration of retinal vascular permeability (RVP) was demonstrated using a bespoke cysteinyl leukotriene induced rodent model. Quininib-HA microparticles significantly inhibited RVP in Brown Norway rats one month after administration compared to neat quininib control (p=0.0071). In summary, quininib-HA microneedles allow for sustained release of quininib; are safe in vivo and quininib released from these microneedles effectively inhibits angiogenesis and RVP in vivo

  1. Inhibition of Breast Cancer-Induced Angiogenesis by a Diverged Homeobox Gene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    Choy, and S Rafii (2001). The role of CXC chemokines in the regulation of tumor angiogenesis. Cancer Invest 19: 732-738. 70. Dias S, M Choy, K Alitalo...and S Rafii (2002). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C signaling through FLT-4 (VEGFR-3) mediates leukemic cell proliferation, survival, and

  2. Inhibition of VEGF-dependent angiogenesis by the anti-CD82 monoclonal antibody 4F9 through regulation of lipid raft microdomains

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Sayaka; Iwata, Satoshi; Hatano, Ryo

    CD82 (also known as KAI1) belongs to the tetraspanin superfamily of type III transmembrane proteins, and is involved in regulating cell adhesion, migration and proliferation. In contrast to these well-established roles of CD82 in tumor biology, its function in endothelial cell (EC) activity and tumor angiogenesis is yet to be determined. In this study, we show that suppression of CD82 negatively regulates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis. Moreover, we demonstrate that the anti-CD82 mAb 4F9 effectively inhibits phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), which is the principal mediator of the VEGF-induced angiogenic signaling process in tumor angiogenesis, by regulatingmore » the organization of the lipid raft microdomain signaling platform in human EC. Our present work therefore suggests that CD82 on EC is a potential target for anti-angiogenic therapy in VEGFR2-dependent tumor angiogenesis. -- Highlights: •Knockdown of CD82 decreases EC migration, proliferation and angiogenesis. •Anti-CD82 mAb 4F9 inhibits EC migration, proliferation and angiogenesis. •4F9 inhibits VEGFR2 phosphorylation via control of CD82 distribution in lipid rafts.« less

  3. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced fracture nonunion: an inhibition of angiogenesis?

    PubMed

    Murnaghan, Mark; Li, Gang; Marsh, David R

    2006-11-01

    Approximately 5% to 10% of fractures may result in delayed union or nonunion. The results of research done over the past three decades have shown that the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has an inhibitory effect on fracture repair, but the exact mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. Cancer research has identified that NSAIDs impede cell proliferation by inhibiting angiogenesis. It is proposed that a similar mechanism occurs in the induction of NSAID-induced nonunions. This hypothesis was investigated in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of the NSAID rofecoxib with use of a murine femoral fracture model. Two hundred and forty mice were randomized to receive either the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug rofecoxib (5 mg/kg orally) in a 0.5% methylcellulose solution (the NSAID group) or the 0.5% methylcellulose solution only (the control group). Two hundred and thirty-five of the 240 mice underwent surgery to induce an open transverse middiaphyseal femoral fracture, which was then treated with use of a custom-made external fixator. Five additional animals underwent sham surgery with no fracture induced. Outcomes measures included radiographic assessment, histologic analysis, biomechanical testing, and use of laser Doppler flowmetry to assess blood flow across the fracture gap. Radiography revealed similar healing patterns in both groups; however, at the later stages (day 32), the NSAID group had poorer healing. Histological analysis demonstrated that the control animals healed quicker (at days 24 and 32) and had more callus and less fibrous tissue (at days 8 and 32) than the NSAID animals did. Biomechanical testing found that the control animals were stronger at day 32. Both groups exhibited a similar pattern of blood flow; however, the NSAID group exhibited a lower median flow from day 4 onward (significant at days 4, 16, and 24). Positive correlations were demonstrated between both histological and radiographic assessments of healing

  4. Targeting the lactate transporter MCT1 in endothelial cells inhibits lactate-induced HIF-1 activation and tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sonveaux, Pierre; Copetti, Tamara; De Saedeleer, Christophe J; Végran, Frédérique; Verrax, Julien; Kennedy, Kelly M; Moon, Eui Jung; Dhup, Suveera; Danhier, Pierre; Frérart, Françoise; Gallez, Bernard; Ribeiro, Anthony; Michiels, Carine; Dewhirst, Mark W; Feron, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Switching to a glycolytic metabolism is a rapid adaptation of tumor cells to hypoxia. Although this metabolic conversion may primarily represent a rescue pathway to meet the bioenergetic and biosynthetic demands of proliferating tumor cells, it also creates a gradient of lactate that mirrors the gradient of oxygen in tumors. More than a metabolic waste, the lactate anion is known to participate to cancer aggressiveness, in part through activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) pathway in tumor cells. Whether lactate may also directly favor HIF-1 activation in endothelial cells (ECs) thereby offering a new druggable option to block angiogenesis is however an unanswered question. In this study, we therefore focused on the role in ECs of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) that we previously identified to be the main facilitator of lactate uptake in cancer cells. We found that blockade of lactate influx into ECs led to inhibition of HIF-1-dependent angiogenesis. Our demonstration is based on the unprecedented characterization of lactate-induced HIF-1 activation in normoxic ECs and the consecutive increase in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) expression. Furthermore, using a variety of functional assays including endothelial cell migration and tubulogenesis together with in vivo imaging of tumor angiogenesis through intravital microscopy and immunohistochemistry, we documented that MCT1 blockers could act as bona fide HIF-1 inhibitors leading to anti-angiogenic effects. Together with the previous demonstration of MCT1 being a key regulator of lactate exchange between tumor cells, the current study identifies MCT1 inhibition as a therapeutic modality combining antimetabolic and anti-angiogenic activities.

  5. Natural health products that inhibit angiogenesis: a potential source for investigational new agents to treat cancer—Part 1

    PubMed Central

    Sagar, S.M.; Yance, D.; Wong, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    An integrative approach for managing a patient with cancer should target the multiple biochemical and physiologic pathways that support tumour development and minimize normal-tissue toxicity. Angiogenesis is a key process in the promotion of cancer. Many natural health products that inhibit angiogenesis also manifest other anticancer activities. The present article focuses on products that have a high degree of anti-angiogenic activity, but it also describes some of the many other actions of these agents that can inhibit tumour progression and reduce the risk of metastasis. Natural health products target molecular pathways other than angiogenesis, including epidermal growth factor receptor, the HER2/neu gene, the cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme, the nuclear factor kappa-B transcription factor, the protein kinases, the Bcl-2 protein, and coagulation pathways. The herbs that are traditionally used for anticancer treatment and that are anti-angiogenic through multiple interdependent processes (including effects on gene expression, signal processing, and enzyme activities) include Artemisia annua (Chinese wormwood), Viscum album (European mistletoe), Curcuma longa (curcumin), Scutellaria baicalensis (Chinese skullcap), resveratrol and proanthocyanidin (grape seed extract), Magnolia officinalis (Chinese magnolia tree), Camellia sinensis (green tea), Ginkgo biloba, quercetin, Poria cocos, Zingiber officinalis (ginger), Panax ginseng, Rabdosia rubescens hora (Rabdosia), and Chinese destagnation herbs. Quality assurance of appropriate extracts is essential prior to embarking upon clinical trials. More data are required on dose–response, appropriate combinations, and potential toxicities. Given the multiple effects of these agents, their future use for cancer therapy probably lies in synergistic combinations. During active cancer therapy, they should generally be evaluated in combination with chemotherapy and radiation. In this role, they act as modifiers of biologic response or

  6. PEG-b-PCL polymeric nano-micelle inhibits vascular angiogenesis by activating p53-dependent apoptosis in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tian; Dong, Qinglei; Shen, Yang; Wu, Wei; Wu, Haide; Luo, Xianglin; Liao, Xiaoling; Wang, Guixue

    Micro/nanoparticles could cause adverse effects on cardiovascular system and increase the risk for cardiovascular disease-related events. Nanoparticles prepared from poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)- b -poly( ε -caprolactone) (PCL), namely PEG- b -PCL, a widely studied biodegradable copolymer, are promising carriers for the drug delivery systems. However, it is unknown whether polymeric PEG- b -PCL nano-micelles give rise to potential complications of the cardiovascular system. Zebrafish were used as an in vivo model to evaluate the effects of PEG- b -PCL nano-micelle on cardiovascular development. The results showed that PEG- b -PCL nano-micelle caused embryo mortality as well as embryonic and larval malformations in a dose-dependent manner. To determine PEG- b -PCL nano-micelle effects on embryonic angiogenesis, a critical process in zebrafish cardiovascular development, growth of intersegmental vessels (ISVs) and caudal vessels (CVs) in flk1-GFP transgenic zebrafish embryos using fluorescent stereomicroscopy were examined. The expression of fetal liver kinase 1 (flk1), an angiogenic factor, by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and in situ whole-mount hybridization were also analyzed. PEG- b -PCL nano-micelle decreased growth of ISVs and CVs, as well as reduced flk1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Parallel to the inhibitory effects on angiogenesis, PEG- b -PCL nano-micelle exposure upregulated p53 pro-apoptotic pathway and induced cellular apoptosis in angiogenic regions by qPCR and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) apoptosis assay. This study further showed that inhibiting p53 activity, either by pharmacological inhibitor or RNA interference, could abrogate the apoptosis and angiogenic defects caused by PEG- b -PCL nano-micelles, indicating that PEG- b -PCL nano-micelle inhibits angiogenesis by activating p53-mediated apoptosis. This study indicates that polymeric PEG- b -PCL nano-micelle could

  7. Targeting the Lactate Transporter MCT1 in Endothelial Cells Inhibits Lactate-Induced HIF-1 Activation and Tumor Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sonveaux, Pierre; Copetti, Tamara; De Saedeleer, Christophe J.; Végran, Frédérique; Verrax, Julien; Kennedy, Kelly M.; Moon, Eui Jung; Dhup, Suveera; Danhier, Pierre; Frérart, Françoise; Gallez, Bernard; Ribeiro, Anthony; Michiels, Carine

    2012-01-01

    Switching to a glycolytic metabolism is a rapid adaptation of tumor cells to hypoxia. Although this metabolic conversion may primarily represent a rescue pathway to meet the bioenergetic and biosynthetic demands of proliferating tumor cells, it also creates a gradient of lactate that mirrors the gradient of oxygen in tumors. More than a metabolic waste, the lactate anion is known to participate to cancer aggressiveness, in part through activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) pathway in tumor cells. Whether lactate may also directly favor HIF-1 activation in endothelial cells (ECs) thereby offering a new druggable option to block angiogenesis is however an unanswered question. In this study, we therefore focused on the role in ECs of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) that we previously identified to be the main facilitator of lactate uptake in cancer cells. We found that blockade of lactate influx into ECs led to inhibition of HIF-1-dependent angiogenesis. Our demonstration is based on the unprecedented characterization of lactate-induced HIF-1 activation in normoxic ECs and the consecutive increase in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) expression. Furthermore, using a variety of functional assays including endothelial cell migration and tubulogenesis together with in vivo imaging of tumor angiogenesis through intravital microscopy and immunohistochemistry, we documented that MCT1 blockers could act as bona fide HIF-1 inhibitors leading to anti-angiogenic effects. Together with the previous demonstration of MCT1 being a key regulator of lactate exchange between tumor cells, the current study identifies MCT1 inhibition as a therapeutic modality combining antimetabolic and anti-angiogenic activities. PMID:22428047

  8. Esculin and its oligomer fractions inhibit adhesion and migration of U87 glioblastoma cells and in vitro angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mokdad-Bzeouich, Imen; Kovacic, Hervé; Ghedira, Kamel; Chebil, Latifa; Ghoul, Mohamed; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila; Luis, José

    2016-03-01

    Cancer metastasis is the major cause of cancer-related death. Chemoprevention is defined as the use of natural or synthetic substances to prevent cancer formation or cancer progress. In the present study, we investigate the antitumor activity of esculin and its oligomer fractions in U87 glioblastoma cells. We showed that esculin and its oligomers reduced U87 cell growth in a dose dependent manner. They also inhibited cell adhesion to collagen IV and vitronectin by interfering with the function of their respective receptors α2β1 and αvβ5 integrins. Furthermore, the tested samples were able to reduce migration of U87 cells towards another extracellular matrix fibronectin. Moreover, esculin and its oligomer fractions inhibited in vitro angiogenesis of endothelial cells (HMEC-1). In summary, our data provide the first evidence that esculin and its oligomer fractions are able to reduce adhesion, migration of glioblastoma cells and in vitro angiogenesis. Esculin and its oligomers may thus exert multi-target functions against cancer cells.

  9. Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis in lung cancer by T4 phage surface displaying mVEGFR2 vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ren, Shunxiang; Fengyu; Zuo, Shuguang; Zhao, Minyi; Wang, Xiaobin; Wang, Xicai; Chen, Yan; Wu, Zhiping; Ren, Zhaojun

    2011-08-05

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been known as a potential vasculogenic and angiogenic factor and its receptor (VEGFR2) is a major receptor to response to the angiogenic activity of VEGF. The technique that to break the immune tolerance of "self-antigens" associated with angiogenesis is an attractive approach for cancer therapy with T4 phage display system. In this experiment, mouse VEGFR2 was constructed on T4 phage nanometer-particle surface as a recombinant vaccine. T4-mVEGFR2 recombinant vaccine was identified by PCR and western blot assay. Immunotherapy with T4-mVEGFR2 was confirmed by protective immunity against Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in mice. The antibody against mVEGFR2 was detected by ELISPOT, ELISA and Dot ELISA. The inhibitive effects against angiogenesis were studied using CD31 and CD105 via histological analysis. VEGF-mediated endothelial cells proliferation and tube formation were inhibited in vitro by immunoglobulin induced by T4-mVEGFR2. The antitumor activity was substantiated from the adoptive transfer of the purified immunoglobulin. Antitumor activity and autoantibody production of mVEGFR2 could be neutralized by the depletion of CD4+T lymphocytes. These studies strongly suggest that T4-mVEGFR2 recombinant vaccine might be a promising antitumor approach. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Angiogenesis in a human neuroblastoma xenograft model: mechanisms and inhibition by tumour-derived interferon-γ

    PubMed Central

    Ribatti, D; Nico, B; Pezzolo, A; Vacca, A; Meazza, R; Cinti, R; Carlini, B; Parodi, F; Pistoia, V; Corrias, M V

    2006-01-01

    Tumour progression in neuroblastoma (NB) patients correlates with high vascular index. We have previously shown that the ACN NB cell line is tumorigenic and angiogenic in immunodeficient mice, and that interferon-γ (IFN-γ) gene transfer dampens ACN tumorigenicity. As IFN-γ represses lymphocyte-induced tumour angiogenesis in various murine models and inhibits proliferation and migration of human endothelial cells, we have investigated the antiangiogenic activity of tumour-derived IFN-γ and the underlying mechanism(s). In addition, we characterised the tumour vasculature of the ACN xenografts, using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay. We show that the ACN/IFN-γ xenografts had a lower microvessel density and less in vivo angiogenic potential than the vector-transfected ACN/neo. The vascular channels of both xenografts were formed by a mixed endothelial cell population of murine and human origin, as assessed by the FICTION (fluorescence immunophenotyping and interphase cytogenetics) technique. With respect to ACN/neo, the ACN/IFN-γ xenografts showed more terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling-positive human and murine endothelial cells, suggesting that inhibition of angiogenesis by IFN-γ was dependent on the induction of apoptosis, likely mediated by nitric oxide. Once the dual origin of tumour vasculature is confirmed in NB patients, the xenograft model described here will prove useful in testing the efficacy of different antiangiogenic compounds. PMID:16721359

  11. Total alkaloids of Rubus alceifolius Poir inhibit tumor angiogenesis through suppression of the Notch signaling pathway in a mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinyan; Lin, Wei; Cao, Zhiyun; Zhuang, Qunchuan; Zheng, Liangpu; Peng, Jun; Hong, Zhenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis, which has a critical role in human tumor growth and development, is tightly regulated by the Notch signaling pathway. Total alkaloids are active components of the plant Rubus alceifolius Poir, which is used for the treatment of various types of cancer. A previous study by our group showed that the total alkaloids of Rubus alceifolius Poir (TARAP) induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell apoptosis through the activation of the mitochondria-dependent pathway in vitro and in vivo, as well as inhibited angiogenesis in a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane model. In the present study, to further analyze the specific mechanisms underlying the antitumor activity of TARAP, a HCC xenograft mouse model was used to assess the effect of TARAP on angiogenesis in vivo. TARAP was found to suppress the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A and VEGF receptor-2 in tumor tissues, which resulted in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. In addition, TARAP treatment was observed to inhibit the expression of Notch1, delta-like ligand 4 and jagged 1, which are key mediators of the Notch signaling pathway. The present study identified that the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis through the suppression of the Notch signaling pathway may be one of the mechanisms through which TARAP may be effective in the treatment of cancer.

  12. Blocking CLEC14A-MMRN2 binding inhibits sprouting angiogenesis and tumour growth

    PubMed Central

    PJ, Noy; P, Lodhia; K, Khan; X, Zhuang; DG, Ward; AR, Verissimo; A, Bacon; R, Bicknell

    2015-01-01

    We previously identified CLEC14A as a tumour endothelial marker. Here we show CLEC14A is a regulator of sprouting angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Using a HUVEC spheroid sprouting assay we found CLEC14A to be a regulator of sprout initiation. Analysis of endothelial sprouting in aortic ring and in vivo subcutaneous sponge assays from clec14a+/+ and clec14a−/− mice revealed defects in sprouting angiogenesis in CLEC14A deficient animals. Tumour growth was retarded and vascularity reduced in clec14a−/− mice. Pulldown and co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed MMRN2 binds to the extracellular region of CLEC14A. The CLEC14A-MMRN2 interaction was interrogated using mouse monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies were screened for their ability to block this interaction. Clone C4 but not C2 blocked CLEC14A-MMRN2 binding. C4 antibody perturbed tube formation and endothelial sprouting in vitro and in vivo, with a similar phenotype to loss of CLEC14A. Significantly, tumour growth was impaired in C4 treated animals and vascular density was also reduced in the C4 treated group. We conclude that CLEC14A-MMRN2 binding has a role in inducing sprouting angiogenesis during tumour growth, that has the potential to be manipulated in future anti-angiogenic therapy design. PMID:25745997

  13. Notch Decoys that Selectively Block Dll/Notch or Jagged/Notch Disrupt Angiogenesis by Unique Mechanisms to Inhibit Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Kangsamaksin, Thaned; Murtomaki, Aino; Kofler, Natalie M.; Cuervo, Henar; Chaudhri, Reyhaan A.; Tattersall, Ian W.; Rosenstiel, Paul E.; Shawber, Carrie J.; Kitajewski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    A pro-angiogenic role for Jagged-dependent activation of Notch signaling in the endothelium has yet to be described. Using proteins that encoded different NOTCH1 EGF-like repeats, we identified unique regions of DLL-class and JAG-class ligand/receptor interactions, and developed Notch decoys that function as ligand-specific Notch inhibitors. N110-24 decoy blocked JAG1/JAG2-mediated NOTCH1 signaling, angiogenic sprouting in vitro and retinal angiogenesis, demonstrating JAG-dependent Notch signal activation promotes angiogenesis. In tumors, N110-24 decoy reduced angiogenic sprouting, vessel perfusion, pericyte coverage, and tumor growth. JAG/NOTCH signaling uniquely inhibited expression of anti-angiogenic sVEFGFR-1/sFlt-1. N11-13 decoy interfered with DLL1/DLL4-mediated NOTCH1 signaling and caused endothelial hypersprouting in vitro, in retinal angiogenesis and in tumors. Thus, blockade of JAG- or DLL-mediated Notch signaling inhibits angiogenesis by distinct mechanisms. JAG/Notch signaling positively regulates angiogenesis by suppressing sVEGFR-1/sFlt-1 and promoting mural/endothelial cell interactions. Blockade of JAG-class ligands represents a novel, viable therapeutic approach to block tumor angiogenesis and growth. PMID:25387766

  14. Native and recombinant phospholipases A2 of Scorpio maurus venom glands impair angiogenesis by targeting integrins α5β1 and αvβ3.

    PubMed

    Krayem, Najeh; Abdelkefi-Koubaa, Zaineb; Marrakchi, Naziha; Gargouri, Youssef; Luis, José

    2018-04-30

    We recently purified an heterodimeric phospholipase A 2 named Sm-PLGV from the venom glands of scorpion Scorpio maurus containing a Long chain, a penta-peptide insertion, which is cut out during the maturation, followed by a short chain. Three recombinant forms of Sm-PLGV were produced in Escherichia coli: rPLA 2 (+5) containing the full-length sequence including the penta-peptide insert, rPLA 2 (-5) a fused continuous chain of the Long and the short chains without the penta-peptide and the Long chain alone without the short one. In this study, we showed that Sm-PLGV, rPLA 2 (+5) and rPLA 2 (-5) displayed more potent anti-angiogenic properties than the recombinant Long chain and the short chain obtained by chemical synthesis. These phospholipases A 2 inhibited in a dose-dependent manner adhesion, migration and invasion of human microvascular endothelial cells through the alteration of α5β1 and αvβ3 integrins function. Using Matrigel™ and chick chorioallantoic membrane assays, we demonstrated that Sm-PLGV, rPLA 2 (+5) and rPLA 2 (-5) significantly inhibited both in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis. We also showed a clear dissociation of the anti-angiogenic effect of Sm-PLGV and its catalytic activity. This is the first study describing an anti-angiogenic effect for recombinant scorpion venom enzymes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Celiac Disease–Specific TG2-Targeted Autoantibodies Inhibit Angiogenesis Ex Vivo and In Vivo in Mice by Interfering with Endothelial Cell Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Kalliokoski, Suvi; Sulic, Ana-Marija; Korponay-Szabó, Ilma R.; Szondy, Zsuzsa; Frias, Rafael; Perez, Mileidys Alea; Martucciello, Stefania; Roivainen, Anne; Pelliniemi, Lauri J.; Esposito, Carla; Griffin, Martin; Sblattero, Daniele; Mäki, Markku; Kaukinen, Katri; Lindfors, Katri; Caja, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    A characteristic feature of celiac disease is the presence of circulating autoantibodies targeted against transglutaminase 2 (TG2), reputed to have a function in angiogenesis. In this study we investigated whether TG2-specific autoantibodies derived from celiac patients inhibit angiogenesis in both ex vivo and in vivo models and sought to clarify the mechanism behind this phenomenon. We used the ex vivo murine aorta-ring and the in vivo mouse matrigel-plug assays to address aforementioned issues. We found angiogenesis to be impaired as a result of celiac disease antibody supplementation in both systems. Our results also showed the dynamics of endothelial cells was affected in the presence of celiac antibodies. In the in vivo angiogenesis assays, the vessels formed were able to transport blood despite impairment of functionality after treatment with celiac autoantibodies, as revealed by positron emission tomography. We conclude that celiac autoantibodies inhibit angiogenesis ex vivo and in vivo and impair vascular functionality. Our data suggest that the anti-angiogenic mechanism of the celiac disease-specific autoantibodies involves extracellular TG2 and inhibited endothelial cell mobility. PMID:23824706

  16. Diet-derived polyphenols inhibit angiogenesis by modulating the interleukin-6/STAT3 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Lamy, Sylvie; Akla, Naoufal; Ouanouki, Amira

    Several epidemiological studies have indicated that abundant consumption of foods from plant origin is associated with a reduced risk of developing several types of cancers. This chemopreventive effect is related to the high content of these foods in phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, that interfere with several processes involved in cancer progression including tumor cell growth, survival and angiogenesis. In addition to the low intake of plant-based foods, increased body mass and physical inactivity have recently emerged as other important lifestyle factors influencing cancer risk, leading to the generation of low-grade chronic inflammatory conditions which are a key process involved inmore » tumor progression. The objectives of the current study are to investigate the inhibitory effects of these polyphenols on angiogenesis triggered by an inflammatory cytokine (IL-6) and to determine the mechanisms underlying this action. We found that, among the tested polyphenols, apigenin and luteolin were the most potent angiogenesis inhibitors through their inhibitory effect on the inflammatory cytokine IL-6/STAT3 pathway. These effects resulted in modulation of the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 signaling triggered by IL-6, as well as in a marked reduction in the proliferation, migration and morphogenic differentiation of endothelial cells. Interestingly, these polyphenols also modulated the expression of IL-6 signal transducing receptor (IL-6R{alpha}) and the secretion of the extracellular matrix degrading enzyme MMP-2 as well as the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS3) protein. Overall, these results may provide important new information on the role of diet in cancer prevention.« less

  17. Diet-derived polyphenols inhibit angiogenesis by modulating the interleukin-6/STAT3 pathway.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Sylvie; Akla, Naoufal; Ouanouki, Amira; Lord-Dufour, Simon; Béliveau, Richard

    2012-08-01

    Several epidemiological studies have indicated that abundant consumption of foods from plant origin is associated with a reduced risk of developing several types of cancers. This chemopreventive effect is related to the high content of these foods in phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, that interfere with several processes involved in cancer progression including tumor cell growth, survival and angiogenesis. In addition to the low intake of plant-based foods, increased body mass and physical inactivity have recently emerged as other important lifestyle factors influencing cancer risk, leading to the generation of low-grade chronic inflammatory conditions which are a key process involved in tumor progression. The objectives of the current study are to investigate the inhibitory effects of these polyphenols on angiogenesis triggered by an inflammatory cytokine (IL-6) and to determine the mechanisms underlying this action. We found that, among the tested polyphenols, apigenin and luteolin were the most potent angiogenesis inhibitors through their inhibitory effect on the inflammatory cytokine IL-6/STAT3 pathway. These effects resulted in modulation of the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 signaling triggered by IL-6, as well as in a marked reduction in the proliferation, migration and morphogenic differentiation of endothelial cells. Interestingly, these polyphenols also modulated the expression of IL-6 signal transducing receptor (IL-6Rα) and the secretion of the extracellular matrix degrading enzyme MMP-2 as well as the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS3) protein. Overall, these results may provide important new information on the role of diet in cancer prevention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibition of VEGF: a novel mechanism to control angiogenesis by Withania somnifera's key metabolite Withaferin A.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sanjib; Islam, Md Khirul; Shilpi, Jamil A; Hasan, Shihab

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis, or new blood vessel formation from existing one, plays both beneficial and detrimental roles in living organisms in different aspects. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a signal protein, well established as key regulator of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. VEGF ensures oxygen supply to the tissues when blood supply is not adequate, or tissue environment is in hypoxic condition. Limited expression of VEGF is necessary, but if it is over expressed, then it can lead to serious disease like cancer. Cancers that have ability to express VEGF are more efficient to grow and metastasize because solid cancers cannot grow larger than a limited size without adequate blood and oxygen supply. Anti-VEGF drugs are already available in the market to control angiogenesis, but they are often associated with severe side-effects like fetal bleeding and proteinuria in the large number of patients. To avoid such side-effects, new insight is required to find potential compounds as anti-VEGF from natural sources. In the present investigation, molecular docking studies were carried out to find the potentiality of Withaferin A, a key metabolite of Withania somnifera, as an inhibitor of VEGF. Molecular Docking studies were performed in DockingServer and SwissDock. Bevacizumab, a commercial anti-VEGF drug, was used as reference to compare the activity of Withaferin A. X-ray crystallographic structure of VEGF, was retrieved from Protein Data Bank (PDB), and used as drug target protein. Structure of Withaferin A and Bevacizumab was obtained from PubChem and ZINC databases. Molecular visualization was performed using UCSF Chimera. Withaferin A showed favorable binding with VEGF with low binding energy in comparison to Bevacizumab. Molecular Docking studies also revealed potential protein-ligand interactions for both Withaferin A and Bevacizumab. Conclusively our results strongly suggest that Withaferin A is a potent anti-VEGF agent as ascertained by its potential

  19. Interleukin-12 Inhibits Tumor Growth in a Novel Angiogenesis Canine Hemangiosarcoma Xenograft Model1

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Erin B; Steinberg, Howard; Breen, Matthew; Auerbach, Robert; Helfand, Stuart C

    2004-01-01

    Abstract We established a canine hemangiosarcoma cell line derived from malignant endothelial cells comprising a spontaneous tumor in a dog to provide a renewable source of endothelial cells for studies of angiogenesis in malignancy. Pieces of the hemangiosarcoma biopsy were engrafted subcutaneously in a bg/nu/XID mouse allowing the tumor cells to expand in vivo. A cell line, SB-HSA, was derived from the xenograft. SB-HSA cells expressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors 1 and 2, CD31, CD146, and αvβ3 integrin, and produced several growth factors and cytokines, including VEGF, basic fibroblast growth factor, and interleukin (IL)-8 that are stimulatory to endothelial cell growth. These results indicated that the cells recapitulated features of mitotically activated endothelia. In vivo, SB-HSA cells stimulated robust angiogenic responses in mice and formed tumor masses composed of aberrant vascular channels in immunocompromised mice providing novel opportunities for investigating the effectiveness of antiangiogenic agents. Using this model, we determined that IL-12, a cytokine with both immunostimulatory and antiangiogenic effects, suppressed angiogenesis induced by, and tumor growth of, SB-HSA cells. The endothelial cell model we have described offers unique opportunities to pursue further investigations with IL-12, as well as other antiangiogenic approaches in cancer therapy. PMID:15140399

  20. YKL-40-Induced Inhibition of miR-590-3p Promotes Interleukin-18 Expression and Angiogenesis of Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Te-Mao; Liu, Shan-Chi; Huang, Ya-Hsin; Huang, Chien-Chung; Hsu, Chin-Jung; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Wang, Shih-Wei; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    YKL-40, also known as human cartilage glycoprotein-39 or chitinase-3-like-1, is a pro-inflammatory protein that is highly expressed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Angiogenesis is a critical step in the pathogenesis of RA, promoting the infiltration of inflammatory cells into joints and providing oxygen and nutrients to RA pannus. In this study, we examined the effects of YKL-40 in the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18), and the stimulation of angiogenesis and accumulation of osteoblasts. We observed that YKL-40 induces IL-18 production in osteoblasts and thereby stimulates angiogenesis of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). We found that this process occurs through the suppression of miR-590-3p via the focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. YKL-40 inhibition reduced angiogenesis in in vivo models of angiogenesis: the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and Matrigel plug models. We report that YKL-40 stimulates IL-18 expression in osteoblasts and facilitates EPC angiogenesis. PMID:28448439

  1. YKL-40-Induced Inhibition of miR-590-3p Promotes Interleukin-18 Expression and Angiogenesis of Endothelial Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Te-Mao; Liu, Shan-Chi; Huang, Ya-Hsin; Huang, Chien-Chung; Hsu, Chin-Jung; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Wang, Shih-Wei; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2017-04-27

    YKL-40, also known as human cartilage glycoprotein-39 or chitinase-3-like-1, is a pro-inflammatory protein that is highly expressed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Angiogenesis is a critical step in the pathogenesis of RA, promoting the infiltration of inflammatory cells into joints and providing oxygen and nutrients to RA pannus. In this study, we examined the effects of YKL-40 in the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18), and the stimulation of angiogenesis and accumulation of osteoblasts. We observed that YKL-40 induces IL-18 production in osteoblasts and thereby stimulates angiogenesis of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). We found that this process occurs through the suppression of miR-590-3p via the focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. YKL-40 inhibition reduced angiogenesis in in vivo models of angiogenesis: the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and Matrigel plug models. We report that YKL-40 stimulates IL-18 expression in osteoblasts and facilitates EPC angiogenesis.

  2. PTEN inhibition enhances angiogenesis in an in vitro model of ischemic injury by promoting Akt phosphorylation and subsequent hypoxia inducible factor-1α upregulation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Lixia; Huang, Jiankang; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Xiuzhe; Fu, Jianliang; Geng, Zhi; Zhao, Yuwu; Chen, Hao

    2018-06-24

    Angiogenesis is an important pathophysiological response to cerebral ischemia. PTEN is a lipid phosphatase whose loss activates PI3K/Akt signaling, which is related to HIF-1α upregulation and enhanced angiogenesis in human cancer cells. However, the specific roles of PTEN in endothelial cell functions and angiogenesis after cerebral ischemia remain unknown. Therefore, we sought to examine the potential effects of PTEN inhibition on post-ischemic angiogenesis in human blood vessel cells and to determine the underlying mechanism. In this present study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis, in vitro tube formation and expression of PTEN/Akt pathway and angiogenic factors were examined in HUVECs after treatment with PTEN inhibitor bisperoxovanadium (bpV) at different doses. The results showed that bpV significantly increased the cell proliferation and reduced cell apoptosis indicating that the drug exerts a cytoprotective effect on HUVECs with OGD exposure. bpV also enhanced cell migration and tube formation in HUVECs following OGD, and upregulated HIF-1α and VEGF expressions, but attenuated endostatin expression. Additionally, western blotting analysis demonstrated that Akt phosphorylation in HUVECs was significantly increased after bpV treatment. These findings suggest that PTEN inhibition promotes post-ischemic angiogenesis in HUVECs after exposure to OGD and this enhancing effect might be achieved through activation of the Akt signal cascade.

  3. PEG-b-PCL polymeric nano-micelle inhibits vascular angiogenesis by activating p53-dependent apoptosis in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tian; Dong, Qinglei; Shen, Yang; Wu, Wei; Wu, Haide; Luo, Xianglin; Liao, Xiaoling; Wang, Guixue

    2016-01-01

    Micro/nanoparticles could cause adverse effects on cardiovascular system and increase the risk for cardiovascular disease-related events. Nanoparticles prepared from poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), namely PEG-b-PCL, a widely studied biodegradable copolymer, are promising carriers for the drug delivery systems. However, it is unknown whether polymeric PEG-b-PCL nano-micelles give rise to potential complications of the cardiovascular system. Zebrafish were used as an in vivo model to evaluate the effects of PEG-b-PCL nano-micelle on cardiovascular development. The results showed that PEG-b-PCL nano-micelle caused embryo mortality as well as embryonic and larval malformations in a dose-dependent manner. To determine PEG-b-PCL nano-micelle effects on embryonic angiogenesis, a critical process in zebrafish cardiovascular development, growth of intersegmental vessels (ISVs) and caudal vessels (CVs) in flk1-GFP transgenic zebrafish embryos using fluorescent stereomicroscopy were examined. The expression of fetal liver kinase 1 (flk1), an angiogenic factor, by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and in situ whole-mount hybridization were also analyzed. PEG-b-PCL nano-micelle decreased growth of ISVs and CVs, as well as reduced flk1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Parallel to the inhibitory effects on angiogenesis, PEG-b-PCL nano-micelle exposure upregulated p53 pro-apoptotic pathway and induced cellular apoptosis in angiogenic regions by qPCR and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) apoptosis assay. This study further showed that inhibiting p53 activity, either by pharmacological inhibitor or RNA interference, could abrogate the apoptosis and angiogenic defects caused by PEG-b-PCL nano-micelles, indicating that PEG-b-PCL nano-micelle inhibits angiogenesis by activating p53-mediated apoptosis. This study indicates that polymeric PEG-b-PCL nano-micelle could pose potential hazards

  4. A truncated form of CD9-partner 1 (CD9P-1), GS-168AT2, potently inhibits in vivo tumour-induced angiogenesis and tumour growth

    PubMed Central

    Colin, S; Guilmain, W; Creoff, E; Schneider, C; Steverlynck, C; Bongaerts, M; Legrand, E; Vannier, J P; Muraine, M; Vasse, M; Al-Mahmood, S

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tetraspanins are transmembrane proteins known to contribute to angiogenesis. CD9 partner-1 (CD9P-1/EWI-F), a glycosylated type 1 transmembrane immunoglobulin, is a member of the tetraspanin web, but its role in angiogenesis remains to be elucidated. Methods: We measured the expression of CD9P-1 under angiogenic and angiostatic conditions, and the influence of its knockdown onto capillary structures formation by human endothelial cells (hECs). A truncated form of CDP-1, GS-168AT2, was produced and challenged vs hEC proliferation, migration and capillaries' formation. Its association with CD9P-1, CD9, CD81 and CD151 and the expressions of these later at hEC surface were analysed. Finally, its effects onto in vivo tumour-induced angiogenesis and tumour growth were investigated. Results: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced capillary tube-like formation was inhibited by tumour necrosis factor α and was associated with a rise in CD9P-1 mRNA expression (P<0.05); accordingly, knockdown of CD9P-1 inhibited VEGF-dependent in vitro angiogenesis. GS-168AT2 dose-dependently inhibited in vitro angiogenesis, hEC migration and proliferation (P<0.05). Co-precipitation experiments suggest that GS-168AT2 corresponds to the sequence by which CD9P-1 physiologically associates with CD81. GS-168AT2 induced the depletion of CD151, CD9 and CD9P-1 from hEC surface, correlating with GS-168AT2 degradation. Finally, in vivo injections of GS-168AT2 inhibited tumour-associated angiogenesis by 53.4±9.5% (P=0.03), and reduced tumour growth of Calu 6 tumour xenografts by 73.9±16.4% (P=0.007) without bodyweight loss. Conclusion: The truncated form of CD9P-1, GS-168AT2, potently inhibits angiogenesis and cell migration by at least the downregulation of CD151 and CD9, which provides the first evidences for the central role of CD9P-1 in tumour-associated angiogenesis and tumour growth. PMID:21863033

  5. Capacity of wild-type and chemokine-armed parvovirus H-1PV for inhibiting neo-angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lavie, Muriel; Struyf, Sofie; Stroh-Dege, Alexandra

    2013-12-15

    Anti-angiogenic therapy has been recognized as a powerful potential strategy for impeding the growth of various tumors. However no major therapeutic effects have been observed to date, mainly because of the emergence of several resistance mechanisms. Among novel strategies to target tumor vasculature, some oncolytic viruses open up new prospects. In this context, we addressed the question whether the rodent parvovirus H-1PV can target endothelial cells. We show that cultures of human normal (HUVEC) and immortalized (KS-IMM) endothelial cells sustain an abortive viral cycle upon infection with H-1PV and are sensitive to H-1PV cytotoxicity. H-1PV significantly inhibits infected KS-IMM tumormore » growth. This effect may be traced back by the virus ability to both kill proliferating endothelial cells and inhibit VEGF production Recombinant H-1PV vectors can also transduce tumor cells with chemokines endowed with anti-angiogenesis properties, and warrant further validation for the treatment of highly vascularized tumors. - Highlights: • The oncolytic parvovirus H-1PV can target endothelial cells. • Abortive viral cycle upon infection of endothelial cells with H-1PV. • Inhibition of VEGF expression and KS-IMM tumor growth by H-1PV.« less

  6. Cytostatic inhibition of endothelial cell growth by the angiogenesis inhibitor TNP-470 (AGM-1470).

    PubMed Central

    Kusaka, M.; Sudo, K.; Matsutani, E.; Kozai, Y.; Marui, S.; Fujita, T.; Ingber, D.; Folkman, J.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, we reported the anti-angiogenic action along with anti-tumour activity of TNP-470 (AGM-1470). In this study, the effect of TNP-470 on the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVE) cells was examined. TNP-470 inhibited the growth of HUVE cells in a biphasic manner. The inhibition was cytostatic in the first phase (complete inhibition at 300 pg ml-1 to 3 micrograms ml-1 with an IC50 of 15 pg ml-1) and cytotoxic in the second phase (> or = 30 micrograms ml-1). The cytostatic inhibition of HUVE cell growth by TNP-470 was durable after washing out TNP-470 in culture. Incorporation of thymidine but not uridine and leucine by HUVE cells was inhibited in the first phase, while that of all three compounds was inhibited in the second phase. Human and rat endothelial cells among various types of cells were the most sensitive to the cytostatic inhibition, while differences in the cytotoxic inhibition were minimal. These results suggest that TNP-470 exerts its specific anti-angiogenic action by inhibiting cytostatically growth of endothelial cells in a relatively specific manner. PMID:8297716

  7. Raddeanin A, a triterpenoid saponin isolated from Anemone raddeana, suppresses the angiogenesis and growth of human colorectal tumor by inhibiting VEGFR2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ying-Yun; Liu, Hai-Jun; Luan, Xin; Xu, Jian-Rong; Lu, Qin; Liu, Ya-Rong; Gao, Yun-Ge; Zhao, Mei; Chen, Hong-Zhuan; Fang, Chao

    2015-01-15

    Raddeanin A (RA) is an active triterpenoid saponin from a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, Anemone raddeana Regel. It was previously reported that RA possessed attractive antitumor activity through inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of multiple cancer cells. However, whether RA can inhibit angiogenesis, an essential step in cancer development, remains unknown. In this study, we found that RA could significantly inhibit human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation, motility, migration, and tube formation. RA also dramatically reduced angiogenesis in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), restrained the trunk angiogenesis in zebrafish, and suppressed angiogenesis and growth of human HCT-15 colorectal cancer xenograft in mice. Western blot assay showed that RA suppressed VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and its downstream protein kinases including PLCγ1, JAK2, FAK, Src, and Akt. Molecular docking simulation indicated that RA formed hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions within the ATP binding pocket of VEGFR2 kinase domain. Our study firstly provides the evidence that RA has high antiangiogenic potency and explores its molecular basis, demonstrating that RA is a potential agent or lead candidate for antiangiogenic cancer therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Overexpression of YB1 C-terminal domain inhibits proliferation, angiogenesis and tumorigenicity in a SK-BR-3 breast cancer xenograft mouse model.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jian-Hong; Cui, Nai-Peng; Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Ming-Zhi; Wang, Bing; Wang, Ya-Nan; Chen, Bao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB1) is a multifunctional transcription factor with vital roles in proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In this study, we have examined the role of its C-terminal domain (YB1 CTD) in proliferation, angiogenesis and tumorigenicity in breast cancer. Breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3 was infected with GFP-tagged YB1 CTD adenovirus expression vector. An 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) proliferation assay showed that YB1 CTD decreased SK-BR-3 cell proliferation, and down-regulated cyclin B1 and up-regulated p21 levels in SK-BR-3 cells. YB1 CTD overexpression changed the cytoskeletal organization and slightly inhibited the migration of SK-BR-3 cells. YB1 CTD also inhibited secreted VEGF expression in SK-BR-3 cells, which decreased SK-BR-3-induced EA.hy926 endothelial cell angiogenesis in vitro. YB1 CTD overexpression attenuated the ability of SK-BR-3 cells to form tumours in nude mice, and decreased in vivo VEGF levels and angiogenesis in the xenografts in SK-BR-3 tumour-bearing mice. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the vital role of YB1 CTD overexpression in inhibiting proliferation, angiogenesis and tumorigenicity of breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3.

  9. Schedule-dependent inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha protein accumulation, angiogenesis, and tumor growth by topotecan in U251-HRE glioblastoma xenografts.

    PubMed

    Rapisarda, Annamaria; Zalek, Jessica; Hollingshead, Melinda; Braunschweig, Till; Uranchimeg, Badarch; Bonomi, Carrie A; Borgel, Suzanne D; Carter, John P; Hewitt, Stephen M; Shoemaker, Robert H; Melillo, Giovanni

    2004-10-01

    We have previously shown that topotecan, a topoisomerase I poison, inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha protein accumulation by a DNA damage-independent mechanism. Here, we report that daily administration of topotecan inhibits HIF-1alpha protein expression in U251-HRE glioblastoma xenografts. Concomitant with HIF-1alpha inhibition, topotecan caused a significant tumor growth inhibition associated with a marked decrease of angiogenesis and expression of HIF-1 target genes in tumor tissue. These results provide a compelling rationale for testing topotecan in clinical trials to target HIF-1 in cancer patients.

  10. Inhibition of angiogenesis by β-galactosylceramidase deficiency in globoid cell leukodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Belleri, Mirella; Ronca, Roberto; Coltrini, Daniela; Nico, Beatrice; Ribatti, Domenico; Poliani, Pietro L.; Giacomini, Arianna; Alessi, Patrizia; Marchesini, Sergio; Santos, Marta B.; Bongarzone, Ernesto R.

    2013-01-01

    Globoid cell leukodystrophy (Krabbe disease) is a neurological disorder of infants caused by genetic deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme β-galactosylceramidase leading to accumulation of the neurotoxic metabolite 1-β-d-galactosylsphingosine (psychosine) in the central nervous system. Angiogenesis plays a pivotal role in the physiology and pathology of the brain. Here, we demonstrate that psychosine has anti-angiogenic properties by causing the disassembling of endothelial cell actin structures at micromolar concentrations as found in the brain of patients with globoid cell leukodystrophy. Accordingly, significant alterations of microvascular endothelium were observed in the post-natal brain of twitcher mice, an authentic model of globoid cell leukodystrophy. Also, twitcher endothelium showed a progressively reduced capacity to respond to pro-angiogenic factors, defect that was corrected after transduction with a lentiviral vector harbouring the murine β-galactosylceramidase complementary DNA. Finally, RNA interference-mediated β-galactosylceramidase gene silencing causes psychosine accumulation in human endothelial cells and hampers their mitogenic and motogenic response to vascular endothelial growth factor. Accordingly, significant alterations were observed in human microvasculature from brain biopsy of a globoid cell leukodystrophy case. Together these data demonstrate that β-galactosylceramidase deficiency induces significant alterations in endothelial neovascular responses that may contribute to central nervous system and systemic damages that occur in globoid cell leukodystrophy. PMID:23983033

  11. An easily accessible sulfated saccharide mimetic inhibits in vitro human tumor cell adhesion and angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Marano, Grazia; Gronewold, Claas; Frank, Martin; Merling, Anette; Kliem, Christian; Sauer, Sandra; Wiessler, Manfred; Frei, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Summary Oligosaccharides aberrantly expressed on tumor cells influence processes such as cell adhesion and modulation of the cell’s microenvironment resulting in an increased malignancy. Schmidt’s imidate strategy offers an effective method to synthesize libraries of various oligosaccharide mimetics. With the aim to perturb interactions of tumor cells with extracellular matrix proteins and host cells, molecules with 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan as core structure were synthesized and screened in biological assays for their abilities to interfere in cell adhesion and other steps of the metastatic cascade, such as tumor-induced angiogenesis. The most active compound, (4-{[(β-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]methyl}furan-3-yl)methyl hydrogen sulfate (GSF), inhibited the activation of matrix-metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) as well as migration of the human melanoma cells of the lines WM-115 and WM-266-4 in a two-dimensional migration assay. GSF inhibited completely the adhesion of WM-115 cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, fibrinogen and fibronectin. In an in vitro angiogenesis assay with human endothelial cells, GSF very effectively inhibited endothelial tubule formation and sprouting of blood vessels, as well as the adhesion of endothelial cells to ECM proteins. GSF was not cytotoxic at biologically active concentrations; neither were 3,4-bis{[(β-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]methyl}furan (BGF) nor methyl β-D-galactopyranoside nor 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan, which were used as controls, eliciting comparable biological activity. In silico modeling experiments, in which binding of GSF to the extracellular domain of the integrin αvβ3 was determined, revealed specific docking of GSF to the same binding site as the natural peptidic ligands of this integrin. The sulfate in the molecule coordinated with one manganese ion in the binding site. These studies show that this chemically easily accessible molecule GSF, synthesized in three steps from 3,4-bis

  12. A CD13-targeting peptide integrated protein inhibits human liver cancer growth by killing cancer stem cells and suppressing angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yan-Bo; Gong, Jian-Hua; Liu, Xiu-Jun; Li, Yi; Zhen, Yong-Su

    2017-05-01

    CD13 is a marker of angiogenic endothelial cells, and recently it is proved to be a biomarker of human liver cancer stem cells (CSCs). Herein, the therapeutic effects of NGR-LDP-AE, a fusion protein composed of CD13-targeting peptide NGR and antitumor antibiotic lidamycin, on human liver cancer and its mechanism were studied. Western blot and immunofluorescence assay demonstrated that CD13 (WM15 epitope) was expressed in both human liver cancer cell lines and vascular endothelial cells, while absent in normal liver cells. MTT assay showed that NGR-LDP-AE displayed potent cytotoxicity to cultured tumor cell lines with IC 50 values at low nanomolar level. NGR-LDP-AE inhibited tumorsphere formation of liver cancer cells, and the IC 50 values were much lower than that in MTT assay, indicating selectively killing of CSCs. In endothelial tube formation assay, NGR-LDP-AE at low cytotoxic dose significantly inhibited the formation of intact tube networks. Animal experiment demonstrated that NGR-LDP-AE inhibited the growth of human liver cancer xenograft. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that NGR-LDP-AE induced the down-regulation of CD13. In vitro experiment using cultured tumor cells also confirmed this result. NGR-LDP-AE activated both apoptotic and autophagic pathways in cultured tumor cells, while the induced autophagy protected cells from death. Conclusively, NGR-LDP-AE exerts its antitumor activity via killing liver CSCs and inhibiting angiogenesis. With one targeting motif, NGR-LDP-AE acts on both liver CSCs and angiogenic endothelial cells. It is a promising dual targeting fusion protein for liver cancer therapy, especially for advanced or relapsed cancers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Enhanced peripheral dopamine impairs post-ischemic healing by suppressing angiotensin receptor type 1 expression in endothelial cells and inhibiting angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Chandrani; Ganju, Ramesh K; Pompili, Vincent J; Chakroborty, Debanjan

    2017-02-01

    Increased circulating catecholamines have been linked with cardiovascular anomalies as well as with peripheral vascular diseases. Although the roles of epinephrine and norepinephrine have received considerable attention, the role of the other catecholamine, dopamine, has been less studied. Since dopamine is a potent endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis and as angiogenesis is essential for ischemic healing, we therefore studied the role played by dopamine during ischemic healing using dopamine D 2 receptor knockout (KOD2) mice. Although concentration of dopamine and its rate-limiting enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase, was considerably high in the muscle tissues of wild-type and KOD2 mice with unilateral hind limb ischemia (HLI), recovery was significantly faster in the KOD2 mice compared to the wild-type controls, thereby indicating that peripheral dopamine might have a role in this healing process. In addition, we observed significant differences in post-ischemic angiogenesis between these two groups. Our study further revealed that elevated dopamine independently suppressed activation of local tissue-based renin-angiotensin system (RAS), a critical growth factor system stimulating angiogenesis in ischemia. Angiotensin II (ATII) and its receptor, angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R), are the key players in RAS-mediated angiogenesis. Dopamine acting through its D 2 receptors in endothelial cells inhibited ATII-mediated angiogenesis by suppressing the expression of AT1R in these cells. This study thus for the first time demonstrates the role played by dopamine in prolonging post-ischemic recovery. Therefore, pharmacological intervention inhibiting the action of dopamine holds promise as future therapeutic strategy for the treatment of HLI and other peripheral arterial diseases.

  14. NBBA, a synthetic small molecule, inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced angiogenesis by suppressing the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Nam Hee; Jung, Hye Jin; Shibasaki, Futoshi

    2010-01-15

    Nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) is a crucial transcription factor that contributes to cancer development by regulating a number of genes involved in angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. Here, we describe (Z)-N-(3-(7-nitro-3-oxobenzo[d][1,2]selenazol-2(3H)-yl)benzylidene) propan-2-amine oxide (NBBA) as a new anti-angiogenic small molecule that targets NF-{kappa}B activity. NBBA showed stronger growth inhibition on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) than on the cancer cell lines we tested. Moreover, NBBA inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha})-induced tube formation and invasion of HUVECs. In addition, NBBA suppressed the neovascularization of chorioallantonic membrane from growing chick embryos in vivo. To address the mode of action of the compound, the effectmore » of NBBA on TNF-{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B transcription activity was investigated. NBBA suppressed TNF-{alpha}-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation, which resulted in suppression of transcription of NF-{kappa}B and its target genes, including interleukin-8, interleukin-1{alpha}, and epidermal growth factor. Collectively, these results demonstrated that NBBA is a new anti-angiogenic small molecule that targets the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway.« less

  15. Capacity of wild-type and chemokine-armed parvovirus H-1PV for inhibiting neo-angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lavie, Muriel; Struyf, Sofie; Stroh-Dege, Alexandra; Rommelaere, Jean; Van Damme, Jo; Dinsart, Christiane

    2013-12-01

    Anti-angiogenic therapy has been recognized as a powerful potential strategy for impeding the growth of various tumors. However no major therapeutic effects have been observed to date, mainly because of the emergence of several resistance mechanisms. Among novel strategies to target tumor vasculature, some oncolytic viruses open up new prospects. In this context, we addressed the question whether the rodent parvovirus H-1PV can target endothelial cells. We show that cultures of human normal (HUVEC) and immortalized (KS-IMM) endothelial cells sustain an abortive viral cycle upon infection with H-1PV and are sensitive to H-1PV cytotoxicity. H-1PV significantly inhibits infected KS-IMM tumor growth. This effect may be traced back by the virus ability to both kill proliferating endothelial cells and inhibit VEGF production Recombinant H-1PV vectors can also transduce tumor cells with chemokines endowed with anti-angiogenesis properties, and warrant further validation for the treatment of highly vascularized tumors. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mastic oil from Pistacia lentiscus var. chia inhibits growth and survival of human K562 leukemia cells and attenuates angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Loutrari, Heleni; Magkouta, Sophia; Pyriochou, Anastasia; Koika, Vasiliki; Kolisis, Fragiskos N; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Roussos, Charis

    2006-01-01

    Mastic oil from Pistacia lentiscus var. chia, a natural plant extract traditionally used as a food additive, has been extensively studied for its antimicrobial activity attributed to the combination of its bioactive components. One of them, perillyl alcohol (POH), displays tumor chemopreventive, chemotherapeutic, and antiangiogenic properties. We investigated whether mastic oil would also suppress tumor cell growth and angiogenesis. We observed that mastic oil concentration and time dependently exerted an antiproliferative and proapoptotic effect on K562 human leukemia cells and inhibited the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from K562 and B16 mouse melanoma cells. Moreover, mastic oil caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of endothelial cell (EC) proliferation without affecting cell survival and a significant decrease of microvessel formation both in vitro and in vivo. Investigation of underlying mechanism(s) demonstrated that mastic oil reduced 1) in K562 cells the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2) known to control leukemia cell proliferation, survival, and VEGF secretion and 2) in EC the activation of RhoA, an essential regulator of neovessel organization. Overall, our results underscore that mastic oil, through its multiple effects on malignant cells and ECs, may be a useful natural dietary supplement for cancer prevention.

  17. Combining radiation with autophagy inhibition enhances suppression of tumor growth and angiogenesis in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongshun; Li, Xiaohong; Guo, Leiming; Wu, Xiaoyuan; He, Chunyu; Zhang, Song; Xiao, Yanjing; Yang, Yuanyuan; Hao, Daxuan

    2015-08-01

    Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for esophageal cancer; however, tumor resistance to radiation remains a major biological problem. The present study aimed to investigate whether inhibition of autophagy may decrease overall tumor resistance to radiation. The effects of the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) on radiosensitivity were tested in the EC9706 human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line by colony formation assay. Furthermore, the synergistic cytotoxic effects of 3-MA and radiation were assessed in a tumor xenograft model in nude mice. Mechanistic studies were performed using flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that radiation induced an accumulation of autophagosomes and 3-MA effectively inhibited radiation-induced autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy was shown to significantly increase the radiosensitivity of the tumors in vitro and in vivo. The enhancement ratio of sensitization in EC9706 cells was 1.76 when the cells were treated with 10 mM 3-MA, alongside ionizing radiation. In addition, autophagy inhibition increased apoptosis and reduced tumor cell proliferation. The combination of radiation and autophagy inhibition resulted in a significant reduction in tumor volume and vasculature in the murine model. The present study demonstrated in vitro and in vivo that radiation-induced autophagy has a protective effect against cell death, and inhibition of autophagy is able to enhance the radiosensitivity of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

  18. Combining radiation with autophagy inhibition enhances suppression of tumor growth and angiogenesis in esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, YONGSHUN; LI, XIAOHONG; GUO, LEIMING; WU, XIAOYUAN; HE, CHUNYU; ZHANG, SONG; XIAO, YANJING; YANG, YUANYUAN; HAO, DAXUAN

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for esophageal cancer; however, tumor resistance to radiation remains a major biological problem. The present study aimed to investigate whether inhibition of autophagy may decrease overall tumor resistance to radiation. The effects of the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) on radiosensitivity were tested in the EC9706 human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line by colony formation assay. Furthermore, the synergistic cytotoxic effects of 3-MA and radiation were assessed in a tumor xenograft model in nude mice. Mechanistic studies were performed using flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that radiation induced an accumulation of autophagosomes and 3-MA effectively inhibited radiation-induced autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy was shown to significantly increase the radiosensitivity of the tumors in vitro and in vivo. The enhancement ratio of sensitization in EC9706 cells was 1.76 when the cells were treated with 10 mM 3-MA, alongside ionizing radiation. In addition, autophagy inhibition increased apoptosis and reduced tumor cell proliferation. The combination of radiation and autophagy inhibition resulted in a significant reduction in tumor volume and vasculature in the murine model. The present study demonstrated in vitro and in vivo that radiation-induced autophagy has a protective effect against cell death, and inhibition of autophagy is able to enhance the radiosensitivity of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25891159

  19. OSU-A9 inhibits angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells via disrupting Akt–NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Omar, Hany A.; Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62514; Arafa, El-Shaimaa A.

    2013-11-01

    Since the introduction of angiogenesis as a useful target for cancer therapy, few agents have been approved for clinical use due to the rapid development of resistance. This problem can be minimized by simultaneous targeting of multiple angiogenesis signaling pathways, a potential strategy in cancer management known as polypharmacology. The current study aimed at exploring the anti-angiogenic activity of OSU-A9, an indole-3-carbinol-derived pleotropic agent that targets mainly Akt–nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling which regulates many key players of angiogenesis such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to studymore » the in vitro anti-angiogenic effect of OSU-A9 on several key steps of angiogenesis. Results showed that OSU-A9 effectively inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in HUVECs. Besides, OSU-A9 inhibited angiogenesis as evidenced by abrogation of migration/invasion and Matrigel tube formation in HUVECs and attenuation of the in vivo neovascularization in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay. Mechanistically, Western blot, RT-PCR and ELISA analyses showed the ability of OSU-A9 to inhibit MMP-2 production and VEGF expression induced by hypoxia or phorbol-12-myristyl-13-acetate. Furthermore, dual inhibition of Akt–NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, the key regulators of angiogenesis, was observed. Together, the current study highlights evidences for the promising anti-angiogenic activity of OSU-A9, at least in part through the inhibition of Akt–NF-κB and MAPK signaling and their consequent inhibition of VEGF and MMP-2. These findings support OSU-A9's clinical promise as a component of anticancer therapy. - Highlights: • The antiangiogenic activity of OSU-A9 in HUVECs was explored. • OSU-A9 inhibited HUVECs proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation. • OSU-A9

  20. Human plasminogen kringle 1-5 inhibits angiogenesis and induces thrombomodulin degradation in a protein kinase A-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chia-Fong; Chen, Po-Ku; Chang, Po-Chiao; Wu, Hau-Lin; Shi, Guey-Yueh

    2013-10-01

    Kringle 1-5 (K1-5), an endogenous proteolytic fragment of human plasminogen (Plg), is an angiostatin-related protein that inhibits angiogenesis. Many angiostatin-related proteins have been identified, but the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying their antiangiogenic effects remain unclear. Thrombomodulin (TM) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that plays a major role in the anticoagulation process in endothelial cells. Previously, we demonstrated that recombinant TM could interact with Plg to enhance Plg activation. In the present study, we investigated the interaction between TM and K1-5, and their functions in endothelial cells. We found that K1-5 colocalized with TM and directly interacted with TM through the TM lectin-like domain. After K1-5 interacted with TM, it induced TM internalization and degradation. In addition, the K1-5-induced TM internalization and degradation in proteasomes after ubiquitin modification were dependent on protein kinase A (PKA). Moreover, a PKA-specific inhibitor reversed the effects of K1-5 on cell migration and tube formation. Consistent with these findings, TM overexpression resulted in increased cell migration; moreover, K1-5 inhibited the increase of TM-mediated cell migration in a PKA-dependent manner. We determined that TM acts as a K1-5 receptor and that K1-5 induces TM internalization, ubiquitination, and degradation through the PKA pathway, by which K1-5 may inhibit endothelial cell migration and tube formation. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Magnolol suppresses vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis by inhibiting Ras-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Mo; Kim, No Soo; Kim, Jinhee; Park, Jong-Shik; Yi, Jin Mu; Lee, Jun; Bang, Ok-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Magnolol, a hydroxylated biphenyl compound isolated from Magnolia officinalis, has been reported to possess anticancer activity. Recent studies have also demonstrated that magnolol inhibits cell growth and induces the apoptosis of cancer cells. However, the effects of magnolol on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis in endothelial cells have not been studied. In the present study, we have used human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to investigate the antiangiogenic effect and molecular mechanism of magnolol. Magnolol inhibited the VEGF-induced proliferation, chemotactic motility and tube formation of HUVECs in vitro as well as the vessel sprouting of the aorta ex vivo. Furthermore, magnolol inhibited VEGF-induced Ras activation and subsequently suppressed extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and p38, but not Src and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Interestingly, the knockdown of Ras by short interfering RNA produced inhibitory effects that were similar to the effects of magnolol on VEGF-induced angiogenic signaling events, such as ERK and Akt/eNOS activation, and resulted in the inhibition of proliferation, migration, and vessel sprouting in HUVECs. In combination, these results demonstrate that magnolol is an inhibitor of angiogenesis and suggest that this compound could be a potential candidate in the treatment of angiogenesis-related diseases.

  2. Multifunctions of dual Zn/Mg ion co-implanted titanium on osteogenesis, angiogenesis and bacteria inhibition for dental implants.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yiqiang; Jin, Guodong; Xue, Yang; Wang, Donghui; Liu, Xuanyong; Sun, Jiao

    2017-02-01

    In order to improve the osseointegration and long-term survival of dental implants, it is urgent to develop a multifunctional titanium surface which would simultaneously have osteogeneic, angiogeneic and antibacterial properties. In this study, a potential dental implant material-dual Zn/Mg ion co-implanted titanium (Zn/Mg-PIII) was developed via plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII). The Zn/Mg-PIII surfaces were found to promote initial adhesion and spreading of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) via the upregulation of the gene expression of integrin α1 and integrin β1. More importantly, it was revealed that Zn/Mg-PIII could increase Zn 2+ and Mg 2+ concentrations in rBMSCs by promoting the influx of Zn 2+ and Mg 2+ and inhibiting the outflow of Zn 2+ , and then could enhance the transcription of Runx2 and the expression of ALP and OCN. Meanwhile, Mg 2+ ions from Zn/Mg-PIII increased Mg 2+ influx by upregulating the expression of MagT1 transporter in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and then stimulated the transcription of VEGF and KDR via activation of hypoxia inducing factor (HIF)-1α, thus inducing angiogenesis. In addition to this, it was discovered that zinc in Zn/Mg-PIII had certain inhibitory effects on oral anaerobic bacteria (Pg, Fn and Sm). Finally, the Zn/Mg-PIII implants were implanted in rabbit femurs for 4 and 12weeks with Zn-PIII, Mg-PIII and pure titanium as controls. Micro-CT evaluation, sequential fluorescent labeling, histological analysis and push-out test consistently demonstrated that Zn/Mg-PIII implants exhibit superior capacities for enhancing bone formation, angiogenesis and osseointegration, while consequently increasing the bonding strength at bone-implant interfaces. All these results suggest that due to the multiple functions co-produced by zinc and magnesium, rapid osseointegration and sustained biomechanical stability are enhanced by the novel Zn/Mg-PIII implants, which have the potential

  3. Naringenin Impairs Two-Pore Channel 2 Activity And Inhibits VEGF-Induced Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pafumi, Irene; Festa, Margherita; Papacci, Francesca; Lagostena, Laura; Giunta, Cristina; Gutla, Vijay; Cornara, Laura; Favia, Annarita; Palombi, Fioretta; Gambale, Franco; Filippini, Antonio; Carpaneto, Armando

    2017-07-11

    Our research introduces the natural flavonoid naringenin as a novel inhibitor of an emerging class of intracellular channels, Two-Pore Channel 2 (TPC2), as shown by electrophysiological evidence in a heterologous system, i.e. Arabidopsis vacuoles lacking endogenous TPCs. In view of the control exerted by TPC2 on intracellular calcium signaling, we demonstrated that naringenin dampens intracellular calcium responses of human endothelial cells stimulated with VEGF, histamine or NAADP-AM, but not with ATP or Angiopoietin-1 (negative controls). The ability of naringenin to impair TPC2-dependent biological activities was further explored in an established in vivo model, in which VEGF-containing matrigel plugs implanted in mice failed to be vascularized in the presence of naringenin. Overall, the present data suggest that naringenin inhibition of TPC2 activity and the observed inhibition of angiogenic response to VEGF are linked by impaired intracellular calcium signaling. TPC2 inhibition is emerging as a key therapeutic step in a range of important pathological conditions including the progression and metastatic potential of melanoma, Parkinson's disease, and Ebola virus infection. The identification of naringenin as an inhibitor of TPC2-mediated signaling provides a novel and potentially relevant tool for the advancement of this field of research.

  4. Potent inhibition of VEGFR-2 activation by tight binding of green tea epigallocatechin gallate and apple procyanidins to VEGF: relevance to angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Moyle, Christina W A; Cerezo, Ana B; Winterbone, Mark S; Hollands, Wendy J; Alexeev, Yuri; Needs, Paul W; Kroon, Paul A

    2015-03-01

    Excessive concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drive angiogenesis and cause complications such as increased growth of tumours and atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular mechanism underlying the potent inhibition of VEGF signalling by polyphenols. We show that the polyphenols epigallocatechin gallate from green tea and procyanidin oligomers from apples potently inhibit VEGF-induced VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) signalling in human umbilical vein endothelial cells by directly interacting with VEGF. The polyphenol-induced inhibition of VEGF-induced VEGFR-2 activation occurred at nanomolar polyphenol concentrations and followed bi-phasic inhibition kinetics. VEGF activity could not be recovered by dialysing VEGF-polyphenol complexes. Exposure of VEGF to epigallocatechin gallate or procyanidin oligomers strongly inhibited subsequent binding of VEGF to human umbilical vein endothelial cells expressing VEGFR-2. Remarkably, even though VEGFR-2 signalling was completely inhibited at 1 μM concentrations of polyphenols, endothelial nitric oxide synthase was shown to still be activated via the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway which is downstream of VEGFR-2. These data demonstrate for the first time that VEGF is a key molecular target for specific polyphenols found in tea, apples and cocoa which potently inhibit VEGF signalling and angiogenesis at physiological concentrations. These data provide a plausible mechanism which links bioactive compounds in food with their beneficial effects. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Silencing of VEGF inhibits human osteosarcoma angiogenesis and promotes cell apoptosis via VEGF/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Ningning; Gao, Shuming; Guo, Xu; Wang, Guangya; Cheng, Cai; Li, Min; Liu, Kehun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteosarcoma is a kind of highly malignant tumor and the growth and metastasis is closely related to angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important angiogenesis-promoting factor. In the current study, we investigated the effects of suppressed VEGF on osteosarcoma and its molecular mechanism provided for a basis by targeting angiogenesis. Material/Methods: We established bearing human osteosarcoma Wistar rats model by subcutaneous inoculation of human SaOS-2 cells and the adenovirus vector Ad-VEGF-siRNA was constructed for further study. We assessed the efficiency of VEGF silencing and its influence on SaOS-2 cells. The expression of mRNA and protein were detected by RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. Intratumoral microvessel density (MVD), VEGF and CD31 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. We detected the cell apoptotic rates by flow cytometry. Results: Our results indicated that Ad-VEGF-siRNA could effectively suppressed the expression of VEGF expression, inhibited the proliferation capability and promoted apoptosis of SaOS-2 cells in vitro. Silencing of VEGF expression also suppress osteosarcoma tumor growth and reduce osteosarcoma angiogenesis in the Wistar rats model in vivo. Furthermore, We found that phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (AKT) activation were considerably reduced while inhibition VEGF expression in SaOS-2 cells. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that VEGF silencing could suppress cells proliferation, promote cells apoptosis and reduce osteosarcoma angiogenesis through inactivation of VEGF/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. PMID:27158386

  6. Quercetin-4′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (QODG) Inhibits Angiogenesis by Suppressing VEGFR2-Mediated Signaling in Zebrafish and Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chen; Wu, Menghua; Dong, Jianyong

    2012-01-01

    Background Angiogenesis plays an important role in many physiological and pathological processes. Identification of small molecules that block angiogenesis and are safe and affordable has been a challenge in drug development. Hypericum attenuatum Choisy is a Chinese herb medicine commonly used for treating hemorrhagic diseases. The present study investigates the anti-angiogenic effects of quercetin-4′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (QODG), a flavonoid isolated from Hypericum attenuatum Choisy, in vivo and in vitro, and clarifies the underlying mechanism of the activity. Methodology/Principal Findings Tg(fli1:EGFP) transgenic zebrafish embryos were treated with different concentrations of quercetin-4′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (QODG) (20, 60, 180 µM) from 6 hours post fertilisation (hpf) to 72 hpf, and adult zebrafish were allowed to recover in different concentrations of QODG (20, 60, 180 µM) for 7 days post amputation (dpa) prior morphological observation and angiogenesis phenotypes assessment. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with or without VEGF and different concentrations of QODG (5, 20, 60, 180 µM), then tested for cell viability, cell migration, tube formation and apoptosis. The role of VEGFR2-mediated signaling pathway in QODG-inhibited angiogenesis was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. Conclusion/Significance Quercetin-4′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (QODG) was shown to inhibit angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro and zebrafish in vivo via suppressing VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR2. Our results further indicate that QODG inhibits angiogenesis via inhibition of VEGFR2-mediated signaling with the involvement of some key kinases such as c-Src, FAK, ERK, AKT, mTOR and S6K and induction of apoptosis. Together, this study reveals, for the first time, that QODG acts as a potent VEGFR2 kinase inhibitor, and exerts the anti-angiogenic activity at least in part

  7. Novel Midkine Inhibitor iMDK Inhibits Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Masui, Masanori; Okui, Tatsuo; Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Takabatake, Kiyofumi; Fukazawa, Takuya; Matsumoto, Kenichi; Kurio, Naito; Ibaragi, Soichiro; Naomoto, Yoshio; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Akira

    2016-06-01

    Midkine is a heparin-binding growth factor highly expressed in various human malignant tumors. However, its role in the growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma is not well understood. In this study, we analyzed the antitumor effect of a novel midkine inhibitor (iMDK) against oral squamous cell carcinoma. Administration of iMDK induced a robust antitumor response and suppressed cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31) expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-2 cells and SAS cells xenograft models. iMDK inhibited the proliferation of these cells dose-dependently, as well as the expression of midkine and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase in HSC-2 and SAS cells. Moreover, iMDK significantly inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor and induced tube growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in a dose-dependent fashion. These findings suggest that midkine is critically involved in oral squamous cell carcinoma and iMDK can be effectively used for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  8. Knockdown of long non-coding RNA XIST increases blood–tumor barrier permeability and inhibits glioma angiogenesis by targeting miR-137

    PubMed Central

    Yu, H; Xue, Y; Wang, P; Liu, X; Ma, J; Zheng, J; Li, Z; Li, Z; Cai, H; Liu, Y

    2017-01-01

    Antiangiogenic therapy plays a significant role in combined glioma treatment. However, poor permeability of the blood–tumor barrier (BTB) limits the transport of chemotherapeutic agents, including antiangiogenic drugs, into tumor tissues. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in various diseases, especially malignant tumors. The present study found that lncRNA X-inactive-specific transcript (XIST) was upregulated in endothelial cells that were obtained in a BTB model in vitro. XIST knockdown increased BTB permeability and inhibited glioma angiogenesis. The analysis of the mechanism of action revealed that the reduction of XIST inhibited the expression of the transcription factor forkhead box C1 (FOXC1) and zonula occludens 2 (ZO-2) by upregulating miR-137. FOXC1 decreased BTB permeability by increasing the promoter activity and expression of ZO-1 and occludin, and promoted glioma angiogenesis by increasing the promoter activity and expression of chemokine (C–X–C motif) receptor 7b (CXCR7). Overall, the present study demonstrates that XIST plays a pivotal role in BTB permeability and glioma angiogenesis, and the inhibition of XIST may be a potential target for the clinical management of glioma. PMID:28287613

  9. Astaxanthin Inhibits JAK/STAT-3 Signaling to Abrogate Cell Proliferation, Invasion and Angiogenesis in a Hamster Model of Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kowshik, J.; Baba, Abdul Basit; Giri, Hemant; Deepak Reddy, G.; Dixit, Madhulika; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2014-01-01

    Identifying agents that inhibit STAT-3, a cytosolic transcription factor involved in the activation of various genes implicated in tumour progression is a promising strategy for cancer chemoprevention. In the present study, we investigated the effect of dietary astaxanthin on JAK-2/STAT-3 signaling in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model by examining the mRNA and protein expression of JAK/STAT-3 and its target genes. Quantitative RT-PCR, immunoblotting and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that astaxanthin supplementation inhibits key events in JAK/STAT signaling especially STAT-3 phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation of STAT-3. Furthermore, astaxanthin downregulated the expression of STAT-3 target genes involved in cell proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis, and reduced microvascular density, thereby preventing tumour progression. Molecular docking analysis confirmed inhibitory effects of astaxanthin on STAT signaling and angiogenesis. Cell culture experiments with the endothelial cell line ECV304 substantiated the role of astaxanthin in suppressing angiogenesis. Taken together, our data provide substantial evidence that dietary astaxanthin prevents the development and progression of HBP carcinomas through the inhibition of JAK-2/STAT-3 signaling and its downstream events. Thus, astaxanthin that functions as a potent inhibitor of tumour development and progression by targeting JAK/STAT signaling may be an ideal candidate for cancer chemoprevention. PMID:25296162

  10. Anticancer activity of TTAC-0001, a fully human anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2/KDR) monoclonal antibody, is associated with inhibition of tumor angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Geon; Jin, Younggeon; Jin, Juyoun; Yang, Heekyoung; Joo, Kyeung Min; Lee, Weon Sup; Shim, Sang Ryeol; Kim, Sung-Woo; Yoo, Jinsang; Lee, Sang Hoon; Yoo, Jin-San; Nam, Do-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors are considered the primary cause of tumor-induced angiogenesis. Specifically, VEGFR-2/kinase insert domain receptor (KDR) is part of the major signaling pathway that plays a significant role in tumor angiogenesis, which is associated with the development of various types of tumor and metastasis. In particular, KDR is involved in tumor angiogenesis as well as cancer cell growth and survival. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of TTAC-0001, a fully human antibody against VEGFR-2/KDR. To assess the efficacy of the antibody and pharmacokinetic (PK) relationship in vivo, we tested the potency of TTAC-0001 in glioblastoma and colorectal cancer xenograft models. Antitumor activity of TTAC-0001 in preclinical models correlated with tumor growth arrest, induction of tumor cell apoptosis, and inhibition of angiogenesis. We also evaluated the combination effect of TTAC-0001 with a chemotherapeutic agent in xenograft models. We were able to determine the relationship between PK and the efficacy of TTAC-0001 through in vivo single-dose PK study. Taken together, our data suggest that targeting VEGFR-2 with TTAC-0001 could be a promising approach for cancer treatment. PMID:26325365

  11. Neem leaf extract inhibits mammary carcinogenesis by altering cell proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Arunkumar; Agullo, Pamela; Boopalan, Thiyagarajan; Nandy, Sushmita; Lopez, Rebecca; Gutierrez, Christina; Narayan, Mahesh; Rajkumar, Lakshmanaswamy

    2014-01-01

    Plant-based medicines are useful in the treatment of cancer. Many breast cancer patients use complementary and alternative medicine in parallel with conventional treatments. Neem is historically well known in Asia and Africa as a versatile medicinal plant with a wide spectrum of biological activities. The experiments reported herein determined whether the administration of an ethanolic fraction of Neem leaf (EFNL) inhibits progression of chemical carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rat models. Seven-week-old female Sprague Dawley rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU). Upon the appearance of palpable mammary tumors, the rats were divided into vehicle-treated control groups and EFNL-treated groups. Treatment with EFNL inhibited MNU-induced mammary tumor progression. EFNL treatment was also highly effective in reducing mammary tumor burden and in suppressing mammary tumor progression even after the cessation of treatment. Further, we found that EFNL treatment effectively upregulated proapoptotic genes and proteins such as p53, B cell lymphoma-2 protein (Bcl-2)-associated X protein (Bax), Bcl-2-associated death promoter protein (Bad) caspases, phosphatase and tensin homolog gene (PTEN), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). In contrast, EFNL treatment caused downregulation of anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2), angiogenic proteins (angiopoietin and vascular endothelial growth factor A [VEGF-A]), cell cycle regulatory proteins (cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 [Cdk2], and Cdk4), and pro-survival signals such as NFκB, mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1). The data obtained in this study demonstrate that EFNL exert a potent anticancer effect against mammary tumorigenesis by altering key signaling pathways. PMID:24146019

  12. Activation of GPER suppresses migration and angiogenesis of triple negative breast cancer via inhibition of NF-κB/IL-6 signals.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shuwei; Chen, Zhuojia; Jiang, Guanmin; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Qiao; Su, Qiao; Wei, Weidong; Du, Jun; Wang, Hongsheng

    2017-02-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by high vascularity and frequent metastasis. Here, we found that activation of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) by its specific agonist G-1 can significantly inhibit interleukin 6 (IL-6) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A). TNBC tissue microarrays from 100 TNBC patients revealed GPER is negatively associated with IL-6 levels and higher grade and stage. Activation of GPER or anti-IL-6 antibody can inhibit both in vitro tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and migration of TNBC cells. While recombinant IL-6 supplementary can significantly reverse the inhibitory effects of G-1, suggesting the essential role of IL-6 in G-1 induced suppression of angiogenesis and invasiveness of TNBC cells. G-1 treatment decreased the phosphorylation, nuclear localization, transcriptional activities of NF-κB and suppressed its binding with IL-6 promoter. BAY11-7028, the inhibitor of NF-κB, can mimic the effect of G-1 to suppression of IL-6 and VEGF-A. While over expression of p65 can attenuate the inhibitory effects of G-1 on IL-6 and VEGF expression. The suppression of IL-6 by G-1 can further inhibit HIF-1α and STAT3 signals in TNBC cells by inhibition their expression, phosphorylation and/or nuclear localization. Moreover, G-1 also inhibited the in vivo NF-κB/IL-6 signals and angiogenesis and metastasis of MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumors. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that activation of GPER can suppress migration and angiogenesis of TNBC via inhibition of NF-κB/IL-6 signals, therefore it maybe act as an important target for TNBC treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Magnolol suppresses hypoxia-induced angiogenesis via inhibition of HIF-1α/VEGF signaling pathway in human bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meng-Chuan; Lee, Chi-Feng; Huang, Wen-Hsin; Chou, Tz-Chong

    2013-05-01

    The hypoxic environment in tumors is an important factor causing tumor angiogenesis by activating the key transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factors-1α (HIF-1α). Magnolol isolated from Magnolia officinalis has been reported to exhibit an anticancer activity via elevation of apoptosis. However, whether magnolol inhibits tumor angiogenesis remains unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that magnolol significantly inhibited angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo evidenced by the attenuation of hypoxia and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced tube formation of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells, vasculature generation in chicken chorioallantoic membrane and Matrigel plug. In hypoxic human bladder cancer cells (T24), treatment with magnolol inhibited hypoxia-stimulated H2O2 formation, HIF-1α induction including mRNA, protein expression, and transcriptional activity as well as VEGF secretion. Additionally, the enhanced degradation of HIF-1α protein via enhancing prolyl hydroxylase activity and the decreased newly-synthesized HIF-1α protein in hypoxic T24 cells may involve the reduction of HIF-1α protein accumulation by magnolol. Interestingly, magnolol also acts as a VEGFR2 antagonist, and subsequently attenuates the down-stream AKT/mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP-1 kinase activation both in hypoxic T24 cells and tumor tissues. As expected, administration of magnolol greatly attenuated tumor growth, angiogenesis and the protein expression of HIF-1α, VEGF, CD31, a marker of endothelial cells, and carbonic anhydrase IX, an endogenous marker for hypoxia, in the T24 xenograft mouse model. Collectively, these findings strongly indicate that the anti-agngiogenic activity of magnolol is, at least in part, mediated by suppressing HIF-1α/VEGF-dependent pathways, and suggest that magnolol may be a potential drug for human bladder cancer therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Clotrimazole ameliorates intestinal inflammation and abnormal angiogenesis by inhibiting interleukin-8 expression through a nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Dinesh; Lee, Jong Suk; Park, Su-Young; Bae, Yun-Hee; Bae, Soo-Kyung; Kwon, Jun Bum; Kim, Kyoung-Jin; Kwak, Mi-Kyoung; Park, Young-Joon; Choi, Han Gon; Kim, Jung-Ae

    2008-11-01

    Increased interleukin (IL)-8 plays an important role not only in activation and recruitment of neutrophils but also in inducing exaggerated angiogenesis at the inflamed site. In the present study, we investigated the fact that clotrimazole (CLT) inhibits intestinal inflammation, and the inhibitory action is mediated through suppression of IL-8 expression. In the trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced rat colitis model, CLT dose-dependently protected from the TNBS-induced weight loss, colon ulceration, and myeloperoxidase activity increase. In the lesion site, CLT also suppressed the TNBS-induced angiogenesis, IL-8 expression, and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation. In a cellular model of colitis using tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-stimulated HT29 colon epithelial cells, treatment with CLT significantly suppressed TNF-alpha-mediated IL-8 induction and NF-kappaB transcriptional activity revealed by a luciferase reporter gene assay. Furthermore, cotreatment with CLT and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, a NF-kappaB inhibitor, synergistically reduced the NF-kappaB transcriptional activity as well as IL-8 expression. In an in vitro angiogenesis assay, CLT suppressed IL-8-induced proliferation, tube formation, and invasion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The in vivo angiogenesis assay using chick chorioallantoic membrane also showed that CLT significantly inhibited the IL-8-induced formation of new blood vessels. Taken together, these results suggest that CLT may prevent the progression of intestinal inflammation by not only down-regulating IL-8 expression but also inhibiting the action of IL-8 in both colon epithelial and vascular endothelial cells during pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation.

  15. Generational Analysis Reveals that TGF-Beta1 Inhibits the Rate of Angiogenesis in Vivo by Selective Decrease in the Number of New Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Elliott, Katherine E.; Farr, Andrew G.; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Clark, John I.; Sage, E. Helene

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of vascular generational branching demonstrated that transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), a multifunctional cytokine and angiogenic regulator, strongly inhibited angiogenesis in the arterial tree of the developing quail chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) by inhibition of the normal increase in the number of new, small vessels. The cytokine was applied uniformly in solution at embryonic day 7 (E7) to the CAMs of quail embryos cultured in petri dishes. After 24 h the rate of arterial growth was inhibited by as much as 105% as a function of increasing TGF-beta1 concentration. Inhibition of the rate of angiogenesis in the arterial tree by TGF-beta1 relative to controls was measured in digital images by three well-correlated, computerized methods. The first computerized method, direct measurement by the computer code VESGEN of vascular morphological parameters according to branching generations G(sub 1) through G(sub greater than or equal to 5), revealed that TGF-beta1 selectively inhibited the increase in the number density of small vessels, N(sub v greater than or equal to 5), (382 plus or minus 85 per square centimeter) for specimens treated with 1 microgram TGF-beta1/CAM for 24 h, compared to 583 plus or minus 99 per square centimeter for controls), but did not significantly affect other parameters such as average vessel length or vessel diameter. The second and third methods, the fractal dimension (D(sub f)) and grid intersection (rho (sub v)), are statistical descriptors of spatial pattern and density. According to D(sub f) and rho(sub v), arterial density increased in control specimens from 1.382 plus or minus 0.007 and 662 plus or minus 52 per square centimeters at E7 (0 h) to 1.439 plus or minus 0.013 and 884 plus or minus 55 per square centimeters at E8 (24 h), compared to 1.379 plus or minus 0.039 and 650 plus or minus 111 per square centimeter for specimens treated with 1 microgram TGF-beta1/CAM for 24 h. TGF-beta1 therefore

  16. Triamcinolone Acetonide Selectively Inhibits Angiogenesis in Small Blood Vessels and Decreases Vessel Diameter within the Vascular Tree

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Terri L.; Gredeon, Dan J.; Vickerman, Mary B.; Hylton, alan G.; Ribita, Daniela; Olar, Harry H.; Kaiser, Peter K.; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    The steroid triamcinolone acetonide (TA) is a potent anti-angiogenesis drug used to treat retinal vascular diseases that include diabetic retinopathy, vascular occlusions and choroidal neovascularization. To quantify the effects of TA on branching morphology within the angiogenic microvascular tree of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of quail embryos. Increasing concentrations of TA (0-16 ng/ml) were applied topically on embryonic day 7 (E7) to the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of quail embryos cultured in Petri dishes, and incubated for an additional 24 or 48 hours until fixation. Binary (black/white) microscopic images of arterial end points were quantified by VESGEN software (for Generational Analysis of Vessel Branching) to obtain major vascular parameters that include vessel diameter (Dv), fractal dimension (Df), tortuosity (Tv) and densities of vessel area, length, number and branch point (Av, Lv, Nv and Brv). For assessment of specific changes in vascular morphology induced by TA, the VESGEN software automatically segmented the vascular tree into branching generations (G1...G10) according to changes in vessel diameter and branching. Vessel density decreased significantly up to 34% as the function of increasing concentration of TA according to Av, Lv, Brv, Nv and Df. TA selectively inhibited the growth of new, small vessels, because Lv decreased from 13.14plus or minus 0.61 cm/cm2 for controls to 8.012 plus or minus 0.82 cm/cm2 at 16 ng TA/ml in smaller branching generations (G7-G10), and for Nv from 473.83 plus or minus 29.85 cm(-)2 to 302.32 plus or minus 33.09 cm-()2. In contrast, vessel diameter (Dv) decreased throughout the vascular tree (G1-G10).

  17. The biguanides metformin and phenformin inhibit angiogenesis, local and metastatic growth of breast cancer by targeting both neoplastic and microenvironment cells.

    PubMed

    Orecchioni, Stefania; Reggiani, Francesca; Talarico, Giovanna; Mancuso, Patrizia; Calleri, Angelica; Gregato, Giuliana; Labanca, Valentina; Noonan, Douglas M; Dallaglio, Katiuscia; Albini, Adriana; Bertolini, Francesco

    2015-03-15

    The human white adipose tissue (WAT) contains progenitors with cooperative roles in breast cancer (BC) angiogenesis, local and metastatic progression. The biguanide Metformin (Met), commonly used for Type 2 diabetes, might have activity against BC and was found to inhibit angiogenesis in vivo. We studied Met and another biguanide, phenformin (Phe), in vitro and in vivo in BC models. In vitro, biguanides activated AMPK, inhibited Complex 1 of the respiratory chain and induced apoptosis of BC and WAT endothelial cells. In coculture, biguanides inhibited the production of several angiogenic proteins. In vivo, biguanides inhibited local and metastatic growth of triple negative and HER2+ BC in immune-competent and immune-deficient mice orthotopically injected with BC. Biguanides inhibited local and metastatic BC growth in a genetically engineered murine model model of HER2+ BC. In vivo, biguanides increased pimonidazole binding (but not HIF-1 expression) of WAT progenitors, reduced tumor microvessel density and altered the vascular pericyte/endothelial cell ratio, so that cancer vessels displayed a dysplastic phenotype. Phe was significantly more active than Met both in vitro and in vivo. Considering their safety profile, biguanides deserve to be further investigated for BC prevention in high-risk subjects, in combination with chemo and/or targeted therapy and/or as post-therapy consolidation or maintenance therapy for the prevention of BC recurrence. © 2014 UICC.

  18. JS-K has potent anti-angiogenic activity in vitro and inhibits tumour angiogenesis in a multiple myeloma model in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kiziltepe, Tanyel; Anderson, Kenneth C; Kutok, Jeffery L; Jia, Lee; Boucher, Kenneth M; Saavedra, Joseph E; Keefer, Larry K; Shami, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play an important role in multidrug resistance and are upregulated in multiple cancers. We have designed a prodrug class that releases nitric oxide on metabolism by GST. O(2)-(2,4-Dinitrophenyl) 1-[(4-ethoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (JS-K, a member of this class) has potent antineoplastic activity. We studied the effect of JS-K on angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), OPM1 multiple myeloma cells, chick aortic rings and in mice. JS-K inhibited the proliferation of HUVECs with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.432, 0.466 and 0.505 microm at 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. In the cord formation assay, JS-K led to a decrease in the number of cord junctions and cord length with an IC50 of 0.637 and 0.696 microm, respectively. JS-K inhibited cell migration at 5 h using VEGF as a chemoattractant. Migration inhibition occurred with an IC50 of 0.493 microm. In the chick aortic ring assay using VEGF or FGF-2 for vessel growth stimulation, 0.5 microm JS-K completely inhibited vessel growth. JS-K inhibited tumour angiogenesis in vivo in NIH III mice implanted subcutaneously with OPM1 multiple myeloma cells. JS-K is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis in vitro and tumour vessel growth in vivo. As such, it establishes a new class of antineoplastic agent that targets the malignant cells directly as well as their microenvironment.

  19. JS-K has Potent Anti-Angiogenic Activity in vitro and Inhibits Tumor Angiogenesis in a Multiple Myeloma Model in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Gurmeet; Kiziltepe, Tanyel; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Kutok, Jeffery L.; Jia, Lee; Boucher, Kenneth M.; Saavedra, Joseph E.; Keefer, Larry K.; Shami, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Glutathione S-Transferases (GST) play an important role in multidrug resistance and are upregulated in multiple cancers. We have designed a prodrug class that releases NO on metabolism by GST. O2-(2,4-Dinitrophenyl) 1-[(4-ethoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (JS-K, a member of this class) has potent anti-neoplastic activity. We studied the effect of JS-K on angiogenesis. JS-K inhibited the proliferation of HUVEC’s with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.432, 0.466, and 0.505 µM at 24, 48, and 72 hours, respectively. In the cord formation assay, JS-K led to a decrease in the number of cord junctions and cord length with an IC50 of 0.637 and 0.696 µM, respectively. JS-K inhibited cell migration at 5 hours using VEGF as a chemoattractant. Migration inhibition occurred with an IC50 of 0.493 µM. In the chick aortic ring assay using VEGF or FGF-b for vessel growth stimulation, 0.5 µM JS-K completely inhibited vessel growth. JS-K inhibited tumor angiogenesis in vivo in NIH III mice implanted subcutaneously with OPM1 multiple myeloma cells. JS-K is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis in vitro and tumor vessel growth in vivo. As such, it establishes a new class of anti-neoplastic agents that target the malignant cells directly as well as their microenvironment. PMID:20723011

  20. Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth by the DSL domain of human Delta-like 1 targeted to vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xing-Cheng; Dou, Guo-Rui; Wang, Li; Liang, Liang; Tian, Deng-Mei; Cao, Xiu-Li; Qin, Hong-Yan; Wang, Chun-Mei; Zhang, Ping; Han, Hua

    2013-07-01

    The growth of solid tumors depends on neovascularization. Several therapies targeting tumor angiogenesis have been developed. However, poor response in some tumors and emerging resistance necessitate further investigations of new drug targets. Notch signal pathway plays a pivotal role in vascular development and tumor angiogenesis. Either blockade or forced activation of this pathway can inhibit angiogenesis. As blocking Notch pathway results in the formation of vascular neoplasm, activation of Notch pathway to prevent tumor angiogenesis might be an alternative choice. However, an in vivo deliverable reagent with highly efficient Notch-activating capacity has not been developed. Here, we generated a polypeptide, hD1R, which consists of the Delta-Serrate-Lag-2 fragment of the human Notch ligand Delta-like 1 and an arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) motif targeting endothelial cells (ECs). We showed that hD1R could bind to ECs specifically through its RGD motif and effectively triggered Notch signaling in ECs. We demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo that hD1R inhibited angiogenic sprouting and EC proliferation. In tumor-bearing mice, the injection of hD1R effectively repressed tumor growth, most likely through increasing tumor hypoxia and tissue necrosis. The amount and width of vessels reduced remarkably in tumors of mice treated with hD1R. Moreover, vessels in tumors of mice treated with hD1R recruited more NG2(+) perivascular cells and were better perfused. Combined application of hD1R and chemotherapy with cisplatin and teniposide revealed that these two treatments had additive antitumor effects. Our study provided a new strategy for antiangiogenic tumor therapy.

  1. Knockdown of Nrf2 Inhibits the Angiogenesis of Rat Cardiac Micro-vascular Endothelial Cells under Hypoxic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Lihong; Feng, Jian; He, Guoxiang; Jing, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in myocardial repair after myocardial infarction (MI). Cardiac micro-vascular endothelial cells (CMECs) are important participants in myocardial angiogenesis processes. Recent studies have revealed that Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master transcription factor of endogenous anti-oxidative defense systems, exerts cardio-protection in the cardiovascular system. However, the role of Nrf2 in the process of myocardial angiogenesis and corresponding mechanisms are not fully understood. Thus, the present study investigated the role of Nrf2 in the angiogenesis of rat CMECs to hypoxia. Trans-well assay, three-dimensional Matrigel assay were used to determine cell migration and vascular tube formation. Real-time RT-PCR, ELISA and Western blot were measured mRNA and protein expression. Here, we report that the mRNA and protein expression of Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) were temporarily upregulated under hypoxic condition. Furthermore, knock down of Nrf2 significantly suppressed the migration and vascular tube formation of rat CMECs to hypoxia, Nrf2 knockdown also significantly decreased HO-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression at 48 h after transfection under hypoxic condition. Finally, transfection of CMECs with the Nrf2 over-expressing lentiviral vector upregulated HO-1 expression with a concomitant increase in cell migration and vascular tube formation induced by hypoxia, and this effect was greatly attenuated in the presence of ZnPP (a HO-1 inhibitor). Taken together, these results suggest that Nrf2 may mediate the angiogenesis of CMECs under hypoxic condition, and HO-1 is involved in regulating the angiogenesis of CMECs through Nrf2. Therefore, Nrf2 is a potent regulator of hypoxia-condition mediated angiogenesis in CMECs, which may provide a therapeutic strategy for myocardial repair after MI. PMID:23904790

  2. Polyphenols in brewed green tea inhibit prostate tumor xenograft growth by localizing to the tumor and decreasing oxidative stress and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Henning, Susanne M.; Wang, Piwen; Said, Jonathan; Magyar, Clara; Castor, Brandon; Doan, Ngan; Tosity, Carmen; Moro, Aune; Gao, Kun; Li, Luyi; Heber, David

    2011-01-01

    It has been demonstrated in various animal models that the oral administration of green tea (GT) extracts in drinking water can inhibit tumor growth, but the effects of brewed GT on factors promoting tumor growth, including oxidant damage of DNA and protein, angiogenesis, and DNA methylation, have not been tested in an animal model. To explore these potential mechanisms, brewed GT was administered instead of drinking water to male severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice with androgen-dependent human LAPC4 prostate cancer cell subcutaneous xenografts. Tumor volume was decreased significantly in mice consuming GT, and tumor size was significantly correlated with GT polyphenol (GTP) content in tumor tissue. There was a significant reduction in hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor protein expression. GT consumption significantly reduced oxidative DNA and protein damage in tumor tissue as determined by 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine/deoxyguanosine ratio and protein carbonyl assay, respectively. Methylation is known to inhibit antioxidative enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTp1) to permit reactive oxygen species promotion of tumor growth. GT inhibited tumor 5-cytosine DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) mRNA and protein expression significantly, which may contribute to the inhibition of tumor growth by reactivation of antioxidative enzymes. This study advances our understanding of tumor growth inhibition by brewed GT in an animal model by demonstrating tissue localization of GTPs in correlation with inhibition of tumor growth. Our results suggest that the inhibition of tumor growth is due to GTP-mediated inhibition of oxidative stress and angiogenesis in the LAPC4 xenograft prostate tumor in SCID mice. PMID:22405694

  3. Strychnine inhibits inflammatory angiogenesis in mice via down regulation of VEGF, TNF-α and TGF-β.

    PubMed

    Saraswati, Sarita; Agarwal, S S

    2013-05-01

    Strychnine is known to possess anti-inflammatory and antitumour activity, but its roles in tumour angiogenesis, the key step involved in tumour growth and metastasis, and the involved molecular mechanism are still unknown. We aimed to investigate the effects of strychnine on key components of inflammatory angiogenesis in the murine cannulated sponge implant angiogenesis model. Polyester-polyurethane sponges, used as a framework for fibrovascular tissue growth, were implanted in Swiss albino mice and strychnine (0.25, and 0.5 mg/kg/day) was given through installed cannulas for 9 days. The implants collected at day 9 postimplantation were processed for the assessment of haemoglobin (Hb), myeloperoxidase (MPO), N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) and collagen used as indexes for angiogenesis, neutrophil and macrophage accumulation and extracellular matrix deposition, respectively. Relevant inflammatory, angiogenic and fibrogenic cytokines were also determined. Strychnine treatment attenuated the main components of the fibrovascular tissue, wet weight, vascularization (Hb content), macrophage recruitment (NAG activity), collagen deposition and the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and transforming growth factor (TGF-β). A regulatory function of strychnine on multiple parameters of main components of inflammatory angiogenesis has been revealed giving insight into the potential therapeutic underlying the actions of strychnine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. c-Ski overexpression promotes tumor growth and angiogenesis through inhibition of transforming growth factor-beta signaling in diffuse-type gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kiyono, Kunihiko; Suzuki, Hiroshi I; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Komuro, Akiyoshi; Iwata, Caname; Yashiro, Masakazu; Hirakawa, Kosei; Kano, Mitsunobu R; Miyazono, Kohei

    2009-10-01

    c-Ski, originally identified as a proto-oncogene product, is an important negative regulator of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta family signaling through interaction with Smad2, Smad3, and Smad4. High expression of c-Ski has been found in some cancers, including gastric cancer. We previously showed that disruption of TGF-beta signaling by dominant-negative TGF-beta type II receptor in a diffuse-type gastric carcinoma model accelerated tumor growth through induction of tumor angiogenesis by decreased expression of the anti-angiogenic factor thrombospondin (TSP)-1. Here, we examined the function of c-Ski in human diffuse-type gastric carcinoma OCUM-2MLN cells. Overexpression of c-Ski inhibited TGF-beta signaling in OCUM-2MLN cells. Interestingly, c-Ski overexpression resulted in extensive acceleration of the growth of subcutaneous xenografts in BALB/c nu/nu female mice (6 weeks of age). Similar to tumors expressing dominant-negative TGF-beta type II receptor, histochemical studies revealed less fibrosis and increased angiogenesis in xenografted tumors expressing c-Ski compared to control tumors. Induction of TSP-1 mRNA by TGF-beta was attenuated by c-Ski in vitro, and expression of TSP-1 mRNA was decreased in tumors expressing c-Ski in vivo. These findings suggest that c-Ski overexpression promotes the growth of diffuse-type gastric carcinoma through induction of angiogenesis.

  5. miR-204 inhibits angiogenesis and promotes sensitivity to cetuximab in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells by blocking JAK2-STAT3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qingwei; Zhao, Yingying; Wang, Peihua

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the roles of miR-204 in tumor angiogenesis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Here, we found that miR-204 level was reduced in HNSCC tissues relative to that in normal adjacent tissues. Overexpression of miR-204 promoted tumor angiogenesis in HNSCC cells. Mechanistically, JAK2 was identified as a direct target of miR-204, and miR-204 overexpression blocked JAK2/STAT3 pathway. Moreover, overexpression of JAK2 attenuated the inhibition of miR-204 on tumor angiogenesis of HNSCC. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-204 enhanced sensitivity of cetuximab in HNSCC cells, this effect was attenuated by JAK2 overexpression too. Importantly, JAK2 expression was negatively correlated with miR-204 level in HNSCC tissues. Therefore, miR-204 acts as a tumor suppressor by blocking JAK2/STAT3 pathway in HNSCC cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Diallyl trisulfide inhibits proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis of osteosarcoma cells by switching on suppressor microRNAs and inactivating of Notch-1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Yonggang; Zhang, Jingru; Zhang, Lei; Si, Meng; Yin, Han; Li, Jianmin

    2013-07-01

    Notch signaling pathway plays critical roles in human cancers, including osteosarcoma, suggesting that the discovery of specific agents targeting Notch would be extremely valuable for osteosarcoma. Our previous studies have shown that diallyl trisulfide (DATS) inhibits proliferation of osteosarcoma cells by triggering cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in vitro. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we found that DATS suppressed cell survival, wound-healing capacity, invasion and angiogenesis in osteosarcoma cells. These effects were associated with decreased expression of Notch-1 and its downstream genes, such as vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinases, as well as increased expression of a panel of tumor-suppressive microRNAs (miRNAs), including miR-34a, miR-143, miR-145 and miR-200b/c that are typically lost in osteosarcoma. We also found that reexpression of miR-34a and miR-200b by transfection led to reduced expression of Notch-1, resulting in the inhibition of osteosarcoma cell proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis. These results clearly suggest that DATS inhibited osteosarcoma growth and aggressiveness via a novel mechanism targeting a Notch-miRNA regulatory circuit. Our data provide the first evidence that the downregulation of Notch-1 and reexpression of miRNAs by DATS may be an effective approach for the treatment of osteosarcoma.

  7. Curcumin inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and angiogenesis and obesity in C57/BL mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The growth of new blood vessels or angiogenesis is necessary for the growth of adipose tissue. Dietary polyphenols may suppress growth of adipose tissue through their antiangiogenic activity and by modulating adipocyte metabolism. In the present study, we examined the effect of curcumin, a polyphen...

  8. Silibinin inhibits hypoxia-induced HIF-1α-mediated signaling, angiogenesis and lipogenesis in prostate cancer cells: In vitro evidence and in vivo functional imaging and metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Deep, Gagan; Kumar, Rahul; Nambiar, Dhanya K.; Jain, Anil K.; Ramteke, Anand M.; Serkova, Natalie J.; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia is associated with aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis in prostate cancer (PCa) patients suggesting that PCa growth and progression could be controlled via targeting hypoxia-induced signaling and biological effects. Here, we analyzed silibinin (a natural flavonoid) efficacy to target cell growth, angiogenesis and metabolic changes in human PCa, LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells under hypoxic condition. Silibinin treatment inhibited the proliferation, clonogenicity and endothelial cells tube formation by hypoxic (1% O2) PCa cells. Interestingly, hypoxia promoted a lipogenic phenotype in PCa cells via activating acetyl-Co A carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) that was inhibited by silibinin treatment. Importantly, silibinin treatment strongly decreased hypoxia-induced HIF-1α expression in PCa cells together with a strong reduction in hypoxia-induced NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity. HIF-1α overexpression in LNCaP cells significantly increased the lipid accumulation and NOX activity; however, silibinin treatment reduced HIF-1α expression, lipid levels, clonogenicity and NOX activity even in HIF-1α overexpressing LNCaP cells. In vivo, silibinin feeding (200 mg/kg body weight) to male nude mice with 22Rv1 tumors, specifically inhibited tumor vascularity (measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI) resulting in tumor growth inhibition without directly inducing necrosis (as revealed by diffusion-weighted MRI). Silibinin feeding did not significantly affect tumor glucose uptake measured by FDG-PET; however, reduced the lipid synthesis measured by quantitative 1H-NMR metabolomics. IHC analyses of tumor tissues confirmed that silibinin feeding decreased proliferation and angiogenesis as well as reduced HIF-1α, FASN and ACC levels. Together, these findings further support silibinin usefulness against PCa through inhibiting hypoxia-induced signaling. PMID:27533043

  9. Silibinin inhibits hypoxia-induced HIF-1α-mediated signaling, angiogenesis and lipogenesis in prostate cancer cells: In vitro evidence and in vivo functional imaging and metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Deep, Gagan; Kumar, Rahul; Nambiar, Dhanya K; Jain, Anil K; Ramteke, Anand M; Serkova, Natalie J; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2017-03-01

    Hypoxia is associated with aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis in prostate cancer (PCa) patients suggesting that PCa growth and progression could be controlled via targeting hypoxia-induced signaling and biological effects. Here, we analyzed silibinin (a natural flavonoid) efficacy to target cell growth, angiogenesis, and metabolic changes in human PCa, LNCaP, and 22Rv1 cells under hypoxic condition. Silibinin treatment inhibited the proliferation, clonogenicity, and endothelial cells tube formation by hypoxic (1% O 2 ) PCa cells. Interestingly, hypoxia promoted a lipogenic phenotype in PCa cells via activating acetyl-Co A carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) that was inhibited by silibinin treatment. Importantly, silibinin treatment strongly decreased hypoxia-induced HIF-1α expression in PCa cells together with a strong reduction in hypoxia-induced NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity. HIF-1α overexpression in LNCaP cells significantly increased the lipid accumulation and NOX activity; however, silibinin treatment reduced HIF-1α expression, lipid levels, clonogenicity, and NOX activity even in HIF-1α overexpressing LNCaP cells. In vivo, silibinin feeding (200 mg/kg body weight) to male nude mice with 22Rv1 tumors, specifically inhibited tumor vascularity (measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI) resulting in tumor growth inhibition without directly inducing necrosis (as revealed by diffusion-weighted MRI). Silibinin feeding did not significantly affect tumor glucose uptake measured by FDG-PET; however, reduced the lipid synthesis measured by quantitative 1 H-NMR metabolomics. IHC analyses of tumor tissues confirmed that silibinin feeding decreased proliferation and angiogenesis as well as reduced HIF-1α, FASN, and ACC levels. Together, these findings further support silibinin usefulness against PCa through inhibiting hypoxia-induced signaling. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Double Knockdown of Prolyyl Hydroxylase and Factor Inhibiting HIF with Non-Viral Minicircle Gene Therapy Enhances Stem Cell Mobilization and Angiogenesis After Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Mei; Nguyen, Patricia; Jia, Fangjun; Hu, Shijun; Gong, Yongquan; de Almeida, Patricia E.; Wang, Li; Nag, Divya; Kay, Mark A.; Giaccia, Amato J; Robbins, Robert C.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Under normoxic conditions, hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) is rapidly degraded by two hydroxylases, prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) and factor inhibiting HIF-1 (FIH). Because HIF-1α mediates the cardioprotective response to ischemic injury, its up-regulation may be an effective therapeutic option for ischemic heart failure. Methods and Results PHD and FIH were cloned from mouse embryonic stem cells. The best candidate short hairpin sequences for inhibiting PHD isoenzyme 2 (shPHD2) and FIH (shFIH) were inserted into novel non-viral minicircle vectors. In vitro studies after cell transfection of mouse C2C12 myoblasts, HL-1 atrial myocytes, and c-kit+ cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) demonstrated higher expression of angiogenesis factors in the double knockdown group compared to the single knockdown and shScramble control groups. To confirm in vitro data, shRNA minicircle vectors were injected intramyocardially following LAD ligation in adult FVB mice (n=60). Functional studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), echocardiography, and pressure-volume (PV) loops showed greater improvement in cardiac function in the double knockdown group. To assess mechanism(s) of this functional recovery, we performed a cell trafficking experiment, which demonstrated significantly greater recruitment of bone marrow cells to the ischemic myocardium in the double knockdown group. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) showed significantly higher activation of endogenous c-kit+ cardiac progenitor cells. Immunostaining showed increased neovascularization and decreased apoptosis in areas of injured myocardium. Finally, western blots and laser capture microdissection (LCM) analysis confirmed up-regulation of HIF-1α protein and angiogenesis genes, respectively. Conclusions We demonstrated that HIF-1α up-regulation by double knockdown of PHD and FIH synergistically increases stem cell mobilization and myocardial angiogenesis, leading to improved cardiac function. PMID

  11. Anti-sphingosine-1-phosphate monoclonal antibodies inhibit angiogenesis and sub-retinal fibrosis in a murine model of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Caballero, Sergio; Swaney, James; Moreno, Kelli; Afzal, Aqeela; Kielczewski, Jennifer; Stoller, Glenn; Cavalli, Amy; Garland, William; Hansen, Geneviève; Sabbadini, Roger; Grant, Maria B.

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of novel monoclonal antibodies that neutralize the pro-angiogenic mediator, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), were tested using in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis models, including choroidal neovascularization (CNV) induced by laser disruption of Bruch’s membrane. S1P receptor levels in human brain choroid plexus endothelial cells (CPEC), human lung microvascular endothelial cells, human retinal vascular endothelial cells, and circulating endothelial progenitor cells were examined by semi-quantitative PCR. The ability of murine or humanized anti-S1P monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to inhibit S1P-mediated microvessel tube formation by CPEC on Matrigel was evaluated and capillary density in subcutaneous growth factor-loaded Matrigel plugs was determined following anti-S1P treatment. S1P promoted in vitro capillary tube formation in CPEC consistent with the presence of cognate S1P1–5 receptor expression by these cells and the S1P antibody induced a dose-dependent reduction in microvessel tube formation. In a murine model of laser-induced rupture of Bruch’s membrane, S1P was detected in posterior cups of mice receiving laser injury, but not in uninjured controls. Intravitreous injection of anti-S1P mAbs dramatically inhibited CNV formation and sub-retinal collagen deposition in all treatment groups (p < 0.05 compared to controls), thereby identifying S1P as a previously unrecognized mediator of angiogenesis and subretinal fibrosis in this model. These findings suggest that neutralizing S1P with anti-S1P mAbs may be a novel method of treating patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration by reducing angiogenesis and sub-retinal fibrosis, which are responsible for visual acuity loss in this disease. PMID:18723015

  12. Decursin and decursinol inhibit VEGF-induced angiogenesis by blocking the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase.

    PubMed

    Son, Seung Hwa; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Chung, Won-Yoon; Son, Ju-Ah; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Young-Choong; Kang, Sam Sik; Lee, Sang-Kook; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2009-07-18

    The root of Angelica gigas Nakai contains two major coumarins, which have been previously identified as decursin and decursinol. Decursin has been demonstrated to exhibit potent anti-cancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we found that decursin and decursinol at non-cytotoxic doses inhibited the VEGF-induced proliferation, migration, and capillary-tube formation of HUVECs. Moreover, decursin and decursinol suppressed microvessel formation on chorioallantoic membranes in fertilized eggs and into mouse Matrigel plugs. The oral administration of decursin and decursinol also reduced VEGF-induced angiogenesis in Matrigel. Furthermore, decursin and decursinol reduced the phosphorylation of ERK and JNK, but not p38 MAPK, in VEGF-stimulated HUVECs. Taken together, our results reveal that decursin and decursinol inhibit VEGF-induced angiogenesis by reducing the activation of ERK and JNK in HUVECs, and possess potent in vivo anti-angiogenic activity, coupled with the advantage of oral dosing. Thus, these compounds may have the potential for the treatment of cancers dependent on VEGF-induced vascularization.

  13. Modified rice bran hemicellulose inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis in vitro via VEGFR2 and its downstream signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, Xia; OKUBO, Aya; IGARI, Naoki; NINOMIYA, Kentaro; EGASHIRA, Yukari

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is implicated in diverse pathological conditions such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, atherosclerosis, and retinal neovascularization. In the present study, we investigated the effects of modified rice bran hemicellulose (MRBH), a water-soluble hemicellulose preparation from rice bran treated with shiitake enzymes, on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis in vitro and its mechanism. We found that MRBH significantly inhibited VEGF-induced tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) co-cultured with human dermal fibroblasts. We also observed that MRBH dose-dependently suppressed the VEGF-induced proliferation and migration of HUVECs. Furthermore, examination of the anti-angiogenic mechanism indicated that MRBH reduced not only VEGF-induced activation of VEGF receptor 2 but also of the downstream signaling proteins Akt, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. These findings suggest that MRBH has in vitro anti-angiogenic effects that are partially mediated through the inhibition of VEGF signaling. PMID:28439487

  14. Inhibitors of Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Büning, H; Hacker, U T

    Angiogenesis plays a pivotal role in malignant, ischemic, inflammatory, infectious and immune disorders. The increasing molecular understanding of angiogenic processes fostered the development of strategies to induce or inhibit angiogenesis for therapeutic purposes. Here, we focus on anti-angiogenic therapies, which represent a standard of care in the treatment of different cancer types and in neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Specifically, strategies related to the blockade of angiogenic proteins and receptors will be outlined covering both preclinical and clinical aspects. Finally, examples of gene therapy based anti-angiogenic approaches are presented.

  15. Inhibition of Delta-like 4 mediated signaling induces abortion in mice due to deregulation of decidual angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    García-Pascual, C M; Ferrero, H; Zimmermann, R C; Simón, C; Pellicer, A; Gómez, R

    2014-07-01

    To explore whether the Dll4/Notch1 pathway plays a key role in regulating the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) driven decidual angiogenesis and related pregnancy through induction of a tip/stalk phenotype. Progesterone-replaced ovariectomized pregnant mice received a single injection of YW152F (Dll4 blocking antibody, BAb) or placebo at embryonic day (E) 4.5. Animals were sacrificed at different time points; blood and uterus were collected for further analysis. Number of embryos and implantation site, uteri weight, and serum progesterone levels were assessed. Alterations in the tip/stalk phenotype were determined by quantitative immunofluorescent analysis of vascularization, Dll4 expression, cellular proliferation and apoptosis in uterine sections. Abrogation of Dll4 signaling leads to a promiscuous expression of Dll4, increased cell proliferation, apoptosis and vascularization at E 6.5. Such an abrogation was associated with a dramatic disruption of embryo growth and development starting at E 9.5. The observed promiscuous expression of Dll4 and the increase in cell proliferation, apoptosis and vascularization are events compatible with loss of the tip/stalk phenotype. Excessive (although very likely defective) decidual angiogenesis due to such vascular alterations is the most likely cause of subsequent interruption of embryo development and related pregnancy in Dll4 treated mice. Dll4 plays a key role in regulating decidual angiogenesis and related pregnancy through induction of a tip/stalk phenotype. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The neem limonoids azadirachtin and nimbolide inhibit hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis by modulating xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, DNA damage, antioxidants, invasion and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Priyadarsini, Ramamurthi Vidya; Manikandan, Palrasu; Kumar, Gurram Harish; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2009-05-01

    The neem tree has attracted considerable research attention as a rich source of limonoids that have potent antioxidant and anti-cancer properties. The present study was designed to evaluate the chemopreventive potential of the neem limonoids azadirachtin and nimbolide based on in vitro antioxidant assays and in vivo inhibitory effects on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. Both azadirachtin and nimbolide exhibited concentration-dependent anti-radical scavenging activity and reductive potential in the order: nimbolide > azadirachtin > ascorbate. Administration of both azadirachtin and nimbolide inhibited the development of DMBA-induced HBP carcinomas by influencing multiple mechanisms including prevention of procarcinogen activation and oxidative DNA damage, upregulation of antioxidant and carcinogen detoxification enzymes and inhibition of tumour invasion and angiogenesis. On a comparative basis, nimbolide was found to be a more potent antioxidant and chemopreventive agent and offers promise as a candidate agent in multitargeted prevention and treatment of cancer.

  17. Inhibition of EGF expression and NF-κB activity by treatment with quercetin leads to suppression of angiogenesis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dong-Yan; Dai, Zhi-Rao; Li, Wei-Min; Wang, Rong-Guan; Yang, Shi-Ming

    2018-05-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effect of quercetin on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) angiogenesis. The real-time RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were performed to analyze the expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines prior to and after the quercetin treatment. Effect of quercetin on the rate of cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay. It was observed that quercetin treatment at a concentration of 10 mg/mL reduced the rate of NPC039 cell viability to 36% compared to control after 24 h. The expression of VEGF and activity of NF-κB was also markedly reduced. The ability of tube formation in HUVECs was inhibited significantly on exposure to quercetin compared to the untreated cells. Therefore, quercetin plays an important role in the inhibition of NPC039 nasopharyngeal carcinoma and can be of therapeutic importance.

  18. Angiogenesis assays.

    PubMed

    Mydlo, J H

    2001-01-01

    Angiogenesis-the formation of a vascular network-is essential for the support of a developing tumor when simple diffusion of nutrients is impossible. The ability of a solid tumor to achieve metabolic needs beyond simple diffusion is dependent on the development of this neovascular network. The process of angiogenesis lets the tumor become self-sufficient to grow, and also gives it the ability to metastasize. Growth factors added to human-vein endothelial cells in culture may demonstrate tubularization of cells, but this does not necessarily imply angiogenesis. True in vivo angiogenesis means not only the mobilization of endothelial cells, but the degradation of the matrix and the formation of vessel sprouts in a network that can transport red blood cells (RBCs).

  19. Pancreatic carcinogenesis: apoptosis and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Onizuka, Shinya; Kawakami, Shunsuke; Taniguchi, Ken; Fujioka, Hikaru; Miyashita, Kosei

    2004-04-01

    Apoptosis and angiogenesis are critical biologic processes that are altered during carcinogenesis. Both apoptosis and angiogenesis may play an important role in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Despite numerous advances in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer, its prognosis remains dismal and a new therapeutic approach is much needed. Recent research has revealed that apoptosis and angiogenesis are closely interrelated. Several reports show that a tumor suppresser gene that is expressed in pancreatic carcinoma and related to malignant potential can induce apoptosis and also inhibit angiogenesis. At present, it is generally accepted that tumor growth in cancers, including pancreatic cancer, depends on angiogenesis. We have identified 2 new angiogenesis inhibitors from a conditioned medium of human pancreatic carcinoma cell line (BxPC-3): antiangiogenic antithrombin III (aaAT-III) and vitamin D binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-maf). These molecules were able to regress tumors in severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) mice, demonstrating potent inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. Moreover, the angiogenesis inhibitors induced tumor dormancy in the animal model. These results suggest that antiangiogenic therapy using angiogenesis inhibitors may become a new strategy for treatment of pancreatic cancer in the near future.

  20. Dual inhibition of Met kinase and angiogenesis to overcome HGF-induced EGFR-TKI resistance in EGFR mutant lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Shinji; Wang, Wei; Li, Qi; Yamada, Tadaaki; Kita, Kenji; Donev, Ivan S; Nakamura, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Kunio; Shimizu, Eiji; Nishioka, Yasuhiko; Sone, Saburo; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Uenaka, Toshimitsu; Yano, Seiji

    2012-09-01

    Acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is a serious problem in the management of EGFR mutant lung cancer. We recently reported that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induces resistance to EGFR-TKIs by activating the Met/PI3K pathway. HGF is also known to induce angiogenesis in cooperation with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is an important therapeutic target in lung cancer. Therefore, we hypothesized that dual inhibition of HGF and VEGF may be therapeutically useful for controlling HGF-induced EGFR-TKI-resistant lung cancer. We found that a dual Met/VEGF receptor 2 kinase inhibitor, E7050, circumvented HGF-induced EGFR-TKI resistance in EGFR mutant lung cancer cell lines by inhibiting the Met/Gab1/PI3K/Akt pathway in vitro. HGF stimulated VEGF production by activation of the Met/Gab1 signaling pathway in EGFR mutant lung cancer cell lines, and E7050 showed an inhibitory effect. In a xenograft model, tumors produced by HGF-transfected Ma-1 (Ma-1/HGF) cells were more angiogenic than vector control tumors and showed resistance to gefitinib. E7050 alone inhibited angiogenesis and retarded growth of Ma-1/HGF tumors. E7050 combined with gefitinib induced marked regression of tumor growth. Moreover, dual inhibition of HGF and VEGF by neutralizing antibodies combined with gefitinib also markedly regressed tumor growth. These results indicate the therapeutic rationale of dual targeting of HGF-Met and VEGF-VEGF receptor 2 for overcoming HGF-induced EGFR-TKI resistance in EGFR mutant lung cancer. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Scutellarin inhibits cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 1A2 (CYP1A2) in rats.

    PubMed

    Jian, Tun-Yu; He, Jian-Chang; He, Gong-Hao; Feng, En-Fu; Li, Hong-Liang; Bai, Min; Xu, Gui-Li

    2012-08-01

    Scutellarin is the most important flavone glycoside in the herbal drug Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz. It is used frequently in the clinic to treat ischemic vascular diseases in China. However, the direct relationship between scutellarin and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) is unclear. The present study investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of scutellarin on cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP 1A2) metabolism. According to in vitro experiments, scutellarin (10-250 µM) decreased the formation of 4-acetamidophenol in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC₅₀ value of 108.20 ± 0.657 µM. Furthermore, scutellarin exhibited a weak mixed-type inhibition against the activity of CYP1A2 in rat liver microsomes, with a K(i) value of 95.2 µM. Whereas in whole animal studies, scutellarin treatment for 7 days (at 5, 15, 30 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased the clearance (CL), and increased the T(1/2) (at 15, 30 mg/kg, i.p.), it did not affect the V(d) of phenacetin. Scutellarin treatment (at 5, 15, 30 mg/kg, i.p.) increased the AUC(0-∞) by 14.3%, 67.3% and 159.2%, respectively. Scutellarin at 30 mg/kg also weakly inhibited CYP1A2 activity, in accordance with our in vitro study. Thus, the results indicate that CYP1A2 is inhibited directly, but weakly, by scutellarin in vivo, and provide useful information on the safe and effective use of scutellarin in clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Herpes simplex virus amplicon delivery of a hypoxia-inducible soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (sFlk-1) inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Reinblatt, Maura; Pin, Richard H; Bowers, William J; Federoff, Howard J; Fong, Yuman

    2005-12-01

    Tumor hypoxia induces vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, which stimulates angiogenesis and tumor proliferation. The VEGF signaling pathway is inhibited by soluble VEGF receptors (soluble fetal liver kinase 1; sFlk-1), which bind VEGF and block its interaction with endothelial cells. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) amplicons are replication-incompetent viruses used for gene delivery. We attempted to attenuate angiogenesis and inhibit pancreatic tumor growth through HSV amplicon-mediated expression of sFlk-1 under hypoxic control. A multimerized hypoxia-responsive enhancer (10 x HRE) was cloned upstream of the sFlk-1 gene (10 x HRE/sFlk-1). A novel HSV amplicon expressing 10 x HRE/sFlk-1 was genetically engineered (HSV10 x HRE/sFlk-1).Human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells (AsPC1) were transduced with HSV10 x HRE/sFlk-1 and incubated in normoxia (21% oxygen) or hypoxia (1% oxygen). Capillary inhibition was evaluated by human umbilical vein endothelial cell assay. Western blot assessed sFlk-1 expression. AsPC1 flank tumor xenografts (n = 24) were transduced with HSV10 x HRE/sFlk-1. Media from normoxic AsPC1 transduced with HSV10 x HRE/sFlk-1 yielded a 36% reduction in capillary formation versus controls (P < .05), whereas hypoxic AsPC1 yielded a 76% reduction (P < .005). Western blot of AsPC1 transduced with HSV10 x HRE/sFlk-1 demonstrated greater sFlk-1 expression in hypoxia versus normoxia. AsPC1 flank tumors treated with HSV10 x HRE/sFlk-1 exhibited a 59% reduction in volume versus controls (P < .000001). HSV amplicon delivery of a hypoxia-inducible soluble VEGF receptor significantly reduces new vessel formation and tumor growth. Tumor hypoxia can thus be used to direct antiangiogenic therapy to pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  3. Dipetalodipin, a Novel Multifunctional Salivary Lipocalin That Inhibits Platelet Aggregation, Vasoconstriction, and Angiogenesis through Unique Binding Specificity for TXA2, PGF2α, and 15(S)-HETE*

    PubMed Central

    Assumpção, Teresa C. F.; Alvarenga, Patricia H.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Andersen, John F.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.

    2010-01-01

    Dipetalodipin (DPTL) is an 18 kDa protein cloned from salivary glands of the triatomine Dipetalogaster maxima. DPTL belongs to the lipocalin superfamily and has strong sequence similarity to pallidipin, a salivary inhibitor of collagen-induced platelet aggregation. DPTL expressed in Escherichia coli was found to inhibit platelet aggregation by collagen, U-46619, or arachidonic acid without affecting aggregation induced by ADP, convulxin, PMA, and ristocetin. An assay based on incubation of DPTL with small molecules (e.g. prostanoids, leukotrienes, lipids, biogenic amines) followed by chromatography, mass spectrometry, and isothermal titration calorimetry showed that DPTL binds with high affinity to carbocyclic TXA2, TXA2 mimetic (U-46619), TXB2, PGH2 mimetic (U-51605), PGD2, PGJ2, and PGF2α. It also interacts with 15(S)-HETE, being the first lipocalin described to date to bind to a derivative of 15-lipoxygenase. Binding was not observed to other prostaglandins (e.g. PGE1, PGE2, 8-iso-PGF2α, prostacyclin), leukotrienes (e.g,. LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, LTE4), HETEs (e.g. 5(S)-HETE, 12(S)-HETE, 20-HETE), lipids (e.g. arachidonic acid, PAF), and biogenic amines (e.g. ADP, serotonin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, histamine). Consistent with its binding specificity, DPTL prevents contraction of rat uterus stimulated by PGF2α and induces relaxation of aorta previously contracted with U-46619. Moreover, it inhibits angiogenesis mediated by 15(S)-HETE and did not enhance inhibition of collagen-induced platelet aggregation by SQ29548 (TXA2 antagonist) and indomethacin. A 3-D model for DPTL and pallidipin is presented that indicates the presence of a conserved Arg39 and Gln135 in the binding pocket of both lipocalins. Results suggest that DPTL blocks platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction, and angiogenesis through binding to distinct eicosanoids involved in inflammation. PMID:20889972

  4. Prostate tumor-induced angiogenesis is blocked by exosomes derived from menstrual stem cells through the inhibition of reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Alcayaga-Miranda, Francisca; González, Paz L.; Lopez-Verrilli, Alejandra; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; Aguila-Díaz, Carolina; Contreras, Luis; Khoury, Maroun

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete exosomes that are capable of modifying the tumor environment through different mechanisms including changes in the cancer-cell secretome. This activity depends on their cargo content that is largely defined by their cellular origin. Endometrial cells are fine regulators of the angiogenic process during the menstrual cycle that includes an angiostatic condition that is associated with the end of the cycle. Hence, we studied the angiogenic activity of menstrual stem cells (MenSCs)-secreted exosomes on prostate PC3 tumor cells. Our results showed that exosomes induce a reduction in VEGF secretion and NF-κB activity. Lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in exosomes-treated cells was detected by the DCF method, suggesting that the inhibition of the intracellular ROS impacts both NF-κB and VEGF pathways. We confirmed using tubule formation and plug transplantation assays that MenSCs-exosomes suppress the secretion of pro-angiogenic factors by the PC3 cells in a ROS-dependent manner. The inhibition of the tumor angiogenesis and, consequently, the tumor growth was also confirmed using a xenograft mouse model. Additionally, the anti-tumoral effect was associated with a reduction of tumor hemoglobin content, vascular density and inhibition of VEGF and HIF-1α expression. Importantly, we demonstrate that the exosomes anti-angiogenic effect is specific to the menstrual cell source, as bone marrow MSCs-derived exosomes showed an opposite effect on the VEGF and bFGF expression in tumor cells. Altogether, our results indicate that MenSCs-derived exosomes acts as blockers of the tumor-induced angiogenesis and therefore could be suitable for anti-cancer therapies. PMID:27286448

  5. Tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R Inhibits Osteosarcoma Angiogenesis in the In Vivo Gelfoam® Assay Visualized by Color-coded Imaging.

    PubMed

    Kiyuna, Tasuku; Tome, Yasunori; Uehara, Fuminari; Murakami, Takashi; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Ming; Kanaya, Fuminori; Hoffman, Robert M

    2018-01-01

    We previously developed a color-coded imaging model that can quantify the length of nascent blood vessels using Gelfoam® implanted in nestin-driven green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP) nude mice. In this model, nascent blood vessels selectively express GFP. We also previously showed that osteosarcoma cells promote angiogenesis in this assay. We have also previously demonstrated the tumor-targeting bacteria Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (S. typhimurium A1-R) can inhibit or regress all tested tumor types in mouse models. The aim of the present study was to determine if S. typhimurium A1-R could inhibit osteosarcoma angiogenesis in the in vivo Gelfoam® color-coded imaging assay. Gelfoam® was implanted subcutaneously in ND-GFP nude mice. Skin flaps were made 7 days after implantation and 143B-RFP human osteosarcoma cells expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) were injected into the implanted Gelfoam. After establishment of tumors in the Gelfoam®, control-group mice were treated with phosphate buffered saline via tail-vein injection (iv) and the experimental group was treated with S. typhimurium A1-R iv Skin flaps were made at day 7, 14, 21, and 28 after implantation of the Gelfoam® to allow imaging of vascularization in the Gelfoam® using a variable-magnification small-animal imaging system and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Nascent blood vessels expressing ND-GFP extended into the Gelfoam® over time in both groups. However, the extent of nascent blood-vessel growth was significantly inhibited by S. typhimurium A1-R treatment by day 28. The present results indicate S. typhimurium A1-R has potential for anti-angiogenic targeted therapy of osteosarcoma. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  6. A putative G-quadruplex structure in the proximal promoter of vegfr-2 has implications for drug design to inhibit tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaping; Lan, Wenxian; Wang, Chunxi; Cao, Chunyang

    2018-04-17

    Tumor angiogenesis is mainly regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), produced by cancer cells. It is active on the endothelium via VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2). G-quadruplexes are DNA secondary structures formed by guanine-rich sequences, for example, within gene promoters where they may contribute to transcriptional activity. The proximal promoter of vegfr-2 contains a G-quadruplex, which has been suggested to interact with small molecules that inhibit VEGFR-2 expression and thereby tumor angiogenesis. However, its structure is not known. Here, we determined its NMR solution structure, which is composed of three stacked G-tetrads containing three syn guanines. The first guanine (G1) is positioned within the central G-tetrad. We also observed that a noncanonical, V-shaped loop spans three G-tetrad planes, including no bridging nucleotides. A long and diagonal loop, which includes six nucleotides, connects reversal double chains. With a melting temperature of 54.51°C, the scaffold of this quadruplex is stabilized by one G-tetrad plane stacking with one nonstandard base pair, G3-C8, whose bases interact with each other through only one hydrogen bond. In summary, the NMR solution structure of the G-quadruplex in the proximal promoter region of the VEGFR-2 gene reported here has uncovered its key features as a potential anticancer drug target. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Radiation and inhibition of angiogenesis by canstatin synergize to induce HIF-1α–mediated tumor apoptotic switch

    PubMed Central

    Magnon, Claire; Opolon, Paule; Ricard, Marcel; Connault, Elisabeth; Ardouin, Patrice; Galaup, Ariane; Métivier, Didier; Bidart, Jean-Michel; Germain, Stéphane; Perricaudet, Michel; Schlumberger, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Tumor radioresponsiveness depends on endothelial cell death, which leads in turn to tumor hypoxia. Radiation-induced hypoxia was recently shown to trigger tumor radioresistance by activating angiogenesis through hypoxia-inducible factor 1–regulated (HIF-1–regulated) cytokines. We show here that combining targeted radioiodide therapy with angiogenic inhibitors, such as canstatin, enhances direct tumor cell apoptosis, thereby overcoming radio-induced HIF-1–dependent tumor survival pathways in vitro and in vivo. We found that following dual therapy, HIF-1α increases the activity of the canstatin-induced αvβ5 signaling tumor apoptotic pathway and concomitantly abrogates mitotic checkpoint and tetraploidy triggered by radiation. Apoptosis in conjunction with mitotic catastrophe leads to lethal tumor damage. We discovered that HIF-1 displays a radiosensitizing activity that is highly dependent on treatment modalities by regulating key apoptotic molecular pathways. Our findings therefore support a crucial role for angiogenesis inhibitors in shifting the fate of radiation-induced HIF-1α activity from hypoxia-induced tumor radioresistance to hypoxia-induced tumor apoptosis. This study provides a basis for developing new biology-based clinically relevant strategies to improve the efficacy of radiation oncology, using HIF-1 as an ally for cancer therapy. PMID:17557121

  8. Rhus coriaria suppresses angiogenesis, metastasis and tumor growth of breast cancer through inhibition of STAT3, NFκB and nitric oxide pathways

    PubMed Central

    El Hasasna, Hussain; Saleh, Alaaeldin; Samri, Halima Al; Athamneh, Khawlah; Attoub, Samir; Arafat, Kholoud; Benhalilou, Nehla; Alyan, Sofyan; Viallet, Jean; Dhaheri, Yusra Al; Eid, Ali; Iratni, Rabah

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we reported that Rhus coriaria exhibits anticancer activities by promoting cell cycle arrest and autophagic cell death of the metastatic triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Here, we investigated the effect of Rhus coriaria on the migration, invasion, metastasis and tumor growth of TNBC cells. Our current study revealed that non-cytotoxic concentrations of Rhus coriaria significantly inhibited migration and invasion, blocked adhesion to fibronectin and downregulated MMP-9 and prostaglandin E2 (PgE2). Not only did Rhus coriaria decrease their adhesion to HUVECs and to lung microvascular endothelial (HMVEC-L) cells, but it also inhibited the transendothelial migration of MDA-MB-231 cells through TNF-α-activated HUVECs. Furthermore, we found that Rhus coriaria inhibited angiogenesis, reduced VEGF production in both MDA-MB-231 and HUVECs and downregulated the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8. The underlying mechanism for Rhus coriaria effects appears to be through inhibiting NFκB, STAT3 and nitric oxide (NO) pathways. Most importantly, by using chick embryo tumor growth assay, we showed that Rhus coriaria suppressed tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. The results described in the present study identify Rhus coriaria as a promising chemopreventive and therapeutic candidate that modulate triple negative breast cancer growth and metastasis. PMID:26888313

  9. Imaging angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Charnley, Natalie; Donaldson, Stephanie; Price, Pat

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for direct imaging of effects on tumor vasculature in assessment of response to antiangiogenic drugs and vascular disrupting agents. Imaging tumor vasculature depends on differences in permeability of vasculature of tumor and normal tissue, which cause changes in penetration of contrast agents. Angiogenesis imaging may be defined in terms of measurement of tumor perfusion and direct imaging of the molecules involved in angiogenesis. In addition, assessment of tumor hypoxia will give an indication of tumor vasculature. The range of imaging techniques available for these processes includes positron emission tomography (PET), dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), perfusion computed tomography (CT), and ultrasound (US).

  10. Inhibition of angiogenesis and tumor growth in the brain. Suppression of endothelial cell turnover by penicillamine and the depletion of copper, an angiogenic cofactor.

    PubMed Central

    Brem, S. S.; Zagzag, D.; Tsanaclis, A. M.; Gately, S.; Elkouby, M. P.; Brien, S. E.

    1990-01-01

    Microvascular proliferation, a hallmark of malignant brain tumors, represents an attractive target of anticancer research, especially because of the quiescent nonproliferative endothelium of the normal brain. Cerebral neoplasms sequester copper, a trace metal that modulates angiogenesis. Using a rabbit brain tumor model, normocupremic animals developed large vascularized VX2 carcinomas. By contrast, small, circumscribed, relatively avascular tumors were found in the brains of rabbits copper-depleted by diet and penicillamine treatment (CDPT). The CDPT rabbits showed a significant decrease in serum copper, copper staining of tumor cell nuclei, microvascular density, the tumor volume, endothelial cell turnover, and an increase in the vascular permeability (breakdown of the blood-brain barrier), as well as peritumoral brain edema. In non-tumor-bearing animals, CDPT did not alter the vascular permeability or the brain water content. CDPT also inhibited the intracerebral growth of the 9L gliosarcoma in F-344 rats, with a similar increase of the peritumoral vascular permeability and the brain water content. CDPT failed to inhibit tumor growth and the vascularization of the VX2 carcinoma in the thigh muscle or the metastases to the lung, findings that may reflect regional differences in the responsiveness of the endothelium, the distribution of copper, or the activity of cuproenzymes. Metabolic and pharmacologic withdrawal of copper suppresses intracerebral tumor angiogenesis; angiosuppression is a novel biologic response modifier for the in situ control of tumor growth in the brain. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 12 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:1700617

  11. Procyanidins from evening primrose (Oenothera paradoxa) defatted seeds inhibit invasiveness of breast cancer cells and modulate the expression of selected genes involved in angiogenesis, metastasis, and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, Urszula; Szewczyk, Karolina; Owczarek, Katarzyna; Hrabec, Zbigniew; Podsędek, Anna; Sosnowska, Dorota; Hrabec, Elżbieta

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing interest in plant polyphenols (including flavanols) that exhibit pleiotropic biological activities such as antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer effects. Here, we report for the first time the inhibition of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell viability and invasiveness by an evening primrose flavanol preparation (EPFP). We observed a decrease in MDA-MB-231 viability of 50% vs. a control after 72 h of incubation with EPFP at a concentration of 58 μM gallic acid equivalents (GAE) and an inhibition of their invasiveness of 65% vs. a control at 75 μM GAE after 48 h of incubation. EPFP caused a 10-fold reduction in matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity at 100 μM GAE. Furthermore, through modulation of mRNA expression, EPFP reduced the expression levels of the following proteins: antiapoptotic Bcl-2, angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and 2 transcription factors (c-Jun, c-Fos). Moreover, analysis by flow cytometry revealed that EPFP induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, our data shows that EPFP inhibits cell viability by increasing apoptosis and decreases cell invasiveness by decreasing angiogenesis.

  12. NO-donating aspirin inhibits angiogenesis by suppressing VEGF expression in HT-29 human colon cancer mouse xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Nengtai; Williams, Jennie L.; Rigas, Basil

    2008-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of NO-donating aspirin (NO-ASA) on colon cancer has been demonstrated in vivo and in vitro but its mechanism is still obscure. We investigated the effect of NO-ASA on angiogenesis. Four groups of athymic mice (N = 12) bearing subcutaneous xenotransplants of HT-29 human colon cancer cells were injected intratumorally twice a week for 3 weeks with vehicle or m-NO-ASA or p-NO-ASA; the fourth group received no injections. The necrotic area of tumors, expressed as percentage of total area, was similar in the non-injected and vehicle-injected groups (51.8 ± 2.8 versus 52.2 ± 4.1, P > 0.05; mean ± SEM for these and subsequent values). Compared with the vehicle group, the necrotic area of tumors was higher in the m-NO-ASA-treated (61.0 ± 2.7, P < 0.02) and p-NO-ASA (65.8 ± 2.4, P < 0.001)-treated groups. NO-ASA decreased microvessel density: vehicle = 11.7 ± 0.8; m-NO-ASA = 7.8 ± 0.6 (P = 0.0003 versus vehicle) and p-NO-ASA 6.2 ± 0.7 (P = 0.0001 versus vehicle). The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was significantly reduced in response to NO-ASA, with the p- isomer being more potent than the m-. NO-ASA altered the spatial distribution of VGEF expression, with 16.7% of the vehicle-treated xenografts displaying diminished VEGF in the inner region of the area between necrosis and the outer perimeter of the tumor, compared with those treated with m- (58.3%) or p-NO-ASA (75%, P < 0.01 for both versus control). Our findings indicate that NO-ASA suppresses the expression of VEGF, which leads to suppressed angiogenesis. The antiangiogenic activity of NO-ASA may be part of its antineoplastic effect. PMID:18544566

  13. Topical Rapamycin Suppresses the Angiogenesis Pathways Induced by Pulsed Dye Laser: Molecular Mechanisms of Inhibition of Regeneration and Revascularization of Photocoagulated Cutaneous Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wenbin; Jia, Wangcun; Sun, Victor; Mihm, Martin C.; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Pulsed dye laser (PDL) is the most effective treatment for port wine stain (PWS) birthmarks. However, regeneration and revascularization of photocoagulated blood vessels may result in poor therapeutic outcome. We have recently shown that rapamycin (RPM), an angiogenesis inhibitor, can reduce the regeneration and revascularization of photocoagulated blood vessels. Herein, we attempt to further elucidate the molecular pathophysiology on the inhibition of the regeneration and revascularization of photocoagulated blood vessels by topical RPM in an animal model. Materials and Methods Two separate skin areas on each hamster were irradiated by PDL. After PDL exposure, topical RPM was applied daily to one of the randomly selected test sites. PDL, PDL + RPM and normal skin test sites were biopsied on day 3 after PDL exposure. The total ribonucleic acid (RNA) and protein were extracted from biopsied skin samples and quantified. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunoblot were subsequently performed to quantify the mRNA and protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6). The phosphorylation levels of S6 and AKT were also evaluated by immunoblot. Results The mRNA and protein levels of HIF-1α, VEGF, and S6 significantly increased after PDL exposure as compared to the normal hamster skin. Topical application of 1% RPM suppressed the PDL-induced increase in mRNA and protein levels of those genes on day 3 post-PDL exposure. The phosphorylation levels of S6 and AKT increased after PDL exposure but the increases were suppressed by the topical application of RPM. Conclusion The increase in expression of HIF-1α, VEGF, and S6 after PDL-exposure suggests that angiogenesis pathways play very active roles in the process of skin blood vessel regeneration and revascularization. Topical application of 1% RPM can suppress the

  14. Naringin, a flavanone glycoside, promotes angiogenesis and inhibits endothelial apoptosis through modulation of inflammatory and growth factor expression in diabetic foot ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Kandhare, Amit D; Ghosh, Pinaki; Bodhankar, Subhash L

    2014-08-05

    Chronic, unhealed diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is one of the most severe complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). Naringin, a flavanone glycoside antioxidant, was reported to have antidiabetic and anti-apoptotic properties. In the present study DM was induced experimentally by streptozotocin (STZ, 55 mg/kg, i.p.). In surgically introduced wounds on the dorsal surface of the hind paw of rats, the healing potential of naringin was investigated. Rats were treated with naringin (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg, p.o.), insulin (10 IU/kg, s.c.) and tetrachlorodecaoxide (TCDO) (1 drop, twice a day, topically) for 16 days. The wound area was measured every second day, and on day 17 various biochemical parameters were determined in serum, wound tissue, and histopathological examination of the wound was performed. Naringin (40 and 80 mg/kg) significantly (P<0.05) improved wound area, serum glucose level, glycated Hb and serum insulin. Naringin treatment at 40 and 80 mg/kg resulted in significant (P<0.05) up-regulation of mRNA expression of growth factor (IFG-1, TGF-β and VEGF-c), Ang-1 and collagen-1 whereas mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) was down-regulated. Furthermore, naringin significantly (P<0.05) attenuated STZ-induced apoptosis and stimulated angiogenesis in the wound tissue. Further results suggest that angiogenesis was improved via naringin-mediated inhibition of hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, down-regulation of inflammatory mediator expression and up-regulation of growth factor expression, leading to improved wound healing of DFU. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. miRNA-27b Targets Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C to Inhibit Tumor Progression and Angiogenesis in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dang; Wu, Pin; Ni, Chao; Zhang, Zhigang; Chen, Zhigang; Qiu, Fuming; Xu, Jinghong; Huang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent cancers globally and is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths due to therapy resistance and metastasis. Understanding the mechanism underlying colorectal carcinogenesis is essential for the diagnosis and treatment of CRC. microRNAs (miRNAs) can act as either oncogenes or tumor suppressors in many cancers. A tumor suppressor role for miR-27b has recently been reported in neuroblastoma, while no information about miR-27b in CRC is available. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-27b expression is decreased in most CRC tissues and determined that overexpression of miR-27b represses CRC cell proliferation, colony formation and tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. We identified vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) as a novel target gene of miR-27b and determined that miR-27b functioned as an inhibitor of tumor progression and angiogenesis through targeting VEGFC in CRC. We further determined that DNA hypermethylation of miR-27b CpG islands decreases miR-27b expression. In summary, an anti-tumor role for miR-27b and its novel target VEGFC in vivo could lead to tumor necrosis and provide a rationale for developing miR-27b as a therapeutic agent. PMID:23593282

  16. β2-Glycoprotein I Inhibits Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Induced Angiogenesis by Suppressing the Phosphorylation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2, Akt, and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Wen-Chin; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Chung, Meng-Ju; Chiang, An-Na

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the process of new blood vessel formation, and it plays a key role in various physiological and pathological conditions. The β2-glycoprotein I (β2-GPI) is a plasma glycoprotein with multiple biological functions, some of which remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to identify the contribution of 2-GPI on the angiogenesis induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a pro-angiogenic factor that may regulate endothelial remodeling, and its underlying mechanism. Our results revealed that β2-GPI dose-dependently decreased the VEGF-induced increase in endothelial cell proliferation, using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assays. Furthermore, incubation with both β2-GPI and deglycosylated β2-GPI inhibited the VEGF-induced tube formation. Our results suggest that the carbohydrate residues of β2-GPI do not participate in the function of anti-angiogenesis. Using in vivo Matrigel plug and angioreactor assays, we show that β2-GPI remarkably inhibited the VEGF-induced angiogenesis at a physiological concentration. Moreover, β2-GPI inhibited the VEGF-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), Akt, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). In summary, our in vitro and in vivo data reveal for the first time that β2-GPI inhibits the VEGF-induced angiogenesis and highlights the potential for β2-GPI in anti-angiogenic therapy. PMID:27579889

  17. Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn leaves extract inhibits the angiogenesis and metastasis of breast cancer cells by downregulation connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) mediated PI3K/AKT/ERK signaling.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Hua; Ou, Ting-Tsz; Yang, Mon-Yuan; Huang, Chi-Chou; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2016-07-21

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn (Nymphaeaceae) has been recognized as a medicinal plant, which was distributed throughout the Asia. The aqueous extract of Nelumbo nucifera leaves extract (NLE) has various biologically active components such as polyphenols, flavonoids, oligomeric procyanidines. However, the role of NLE in breast cancer therapy is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to identify the hypothesis that NLE can suppress tumor angiogenesis and metastasis through CTGF (connective tissue growth factor), which has been implicated in tumor angiogenesis and progression in breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. We examined the effects of NLE on angiogenesis in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. The data showed that NLE could reduce the chorionic plexus at day 17 in CAM and the duration of this inhibition was dose-dependent. In Xenograft model, NLE treatment significantly reduced tumor weight and CD31 (capillary density) over control, respectively. We examined the role of angiogenesis involved restructuring of endothelium using human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) in Matrigel angiogenesis model. The results indicated that vascular-like structure formation was further blocked by NLE treatment. Moreover, knockdown of CTGF expression markedly reduced the expression of MMP2 as well as VEGF, and attenuated PI3K-AKT-ERK activation, indication that these signaling pathways are crucial in mediating CTGF function. The present results suggest that NLE might be useful for treatment in therapy-resistance triple negative breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Terrestrosin D, a steroidal saponin from Tribulus terrestris L., inhibits growth and angiogenesis of human prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shihu; Fukuhara, Hideo; Chen, Guang; Kawada, Chiaki; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Furihata, Mutsuo; Inoue, Keiji; Shuin, Taro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether terrestrosin D (TED) inhibits the progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer and consider its mechanism. Cell cycle, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and apoptosis were determined by flow cytometry. Caspase-3 activity and vascular endothelial growth factor secretion were detected by a caspase-3 assay and human vascular endothelial growth factor kit, respectively. A PC-3 xenograft mouse model was used to evaluate the anticancer effect of TED in vivo. In vitro, TED strongly suppressed the growth of prostate cancer cells and endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. TED induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in PC-3 cells and human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). TED-induced apoptosis did not involve the caspase pathway. TED also decreased ΔΨm in PC-3 cells and HUVECs. In vivo, TED significantly suppressed tumor growth in nude mice bearing PC-3 cells, without any overt toxicity. Immunohistochemical analysis showed TED induced apoptotic cell death and inhibited angiogenesis in xenograft tumor cells. Cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells and endothelial cells might be plausible mechanisms of actions for the observed antitumor and antiangiogenic activities of TED. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. History of research on angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ribatti, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, the number of Medline publications dealing with angiogenesis has increased in a nonlinear fashion, reflecting the interest among basic scientists and clinicians in this field. Under physiological conditions, angiogenesis is regulated by the local balance between endogenous stimulators and inhibitors of this process. In tumor growth, there is an imbalance between endogenous stimulator and inhibitor levels, leading to an 'angiogenic switch'. Starting with the hypothesis formulated by Judah Folkman that tumor growth is angiogenesis-dependent, this area of research has a solid scientific foundation and inhibition of angiogenesis is a major area of therapeutic development for the treatment of cancer. This paper offers an account of the most relevant discoveries in this field of biomedical research. Copyright © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Inhibition by an angiogenesis inhibitor, TNP-470, of the growth of a human hepatoblastoma heterotransplanted into nude mice.

    PubMed

    Matsusaka, S; Nakasho, K; Terada, N; Sugihara, A; Tsujimura, T; Takanashi, T; Uematsu, K; Okamoto, E; Toyosaka, A

    2000-08-01

    The effect of TNP-470, an angiogenesis inhibitor, on the growth of a hepatoblastoma transplanted into nude mice was examined. A hepatoblastoma obtained from a 3-year-old girl was serially transplanted into nude mice subcutaneously, and the transplant tumors of the seventh and eighth generations were used for experiments. Expression of various markers in the tumors was examined immunohistochemically. TNP-470 was injected subcutaneously every other day into tumor-bearing mice from 3 weeks after tumor transplantation. The proliferation of tumor cells and endothelial cells was estimated by means of the bromodeoxyuridine labeling index. The original hepatoblastoma showed the histology of the epithelial type, consisting of both the fetal and embryonal subtypes and was positively stained with anti-alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), anti-cytokeratin-19 and polyclonal anticarcinoembryonic antigen antibodies, and an antihuman hepatocyte antibody (hepatocyte paraffin 1). The transplant tumors consisted of solid nests of tumor cells with numerous vascular lakes of various sizes, and showed positive staining with all antibodies that reacted positively with the original hepatoblastoma. Injections of TNP-470 at the doses of 15 mg and 30 mg/kg body weight suppressed the tumor growth and the increase in the serum level of AFP dose dependently. Injections of TNP-470 also suppressed the proliferation of tumor cells and endothelial cells in the tumors. Hepatoblastomas maintained in nude mice retained the immunohistochemical characteristics of the original hepatoblastoma, and TNP-470 suppressed the growth of hepatoblastomas transplanted into nude mice. TNP-470 may be worth investigating further as to its usefulness as a therapy for hepatoblastomas.

  1. Lack of endogenous parathyroid hormone delays fracture healing by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor‑mediated angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Qingfeng; Sun, Peng; Zhou, Hao; Wan, Bowen; Yin, Jian; Huang, Yao; Li, Qingqing; Yin, Guoyong; Fan, Jin

    2018-07-01

    Intermittent low‑dose injections of parathyroid hormone (PTH) have been reported to exert bone anabolic effects and to promote fracture healing. As an important proangiogenic cytokine, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is secreted by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and osteoblasts, and serves a crucial regulatory role in the process of vascular development and regeneration. To investigate whether lack of endogenous PTH causes reduced angiogenic capacity and thereby delays the process of fracture healing by downregulating the VEGF signaling pathway, a PTH knockout (PTHKO) mouse fracture model was generated. Fracture healing was observed using X‑ray and micro‑computerized tomography. Bone anabolic and angiogenic markers were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. The expression levels of VEGF and associated signaling pathways in murine BMSC‑derived osteoblasts were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The expression levels of protein kinase A (PKA), phosphorylated‑serine/threonine protein kinase (pAKT), hypoxia‑inducible factor‑1α (HIF1α) and VEGF were significantly decreased in BMSC‑derived osteoblasts from PTHKO mice. In addition, positive platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule staining was reduced in PTHKO mice, as determined by immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of HIF1α, VEGF, runt‑related transcription factor 2, osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase were also decreased in PTHKO mice, and fracture healing was delayed. In conclusion, lack of endogenous PTH may reduce VEGF expression in BMSC‑derived osteoblasts by downregulating the activity of the PKA/pAKT/HIF1α/VEGF pathway, thus affecting endochondral bone formation by causing a reduction in angiogenesis and osteogenesis, ultimately leading to delayed fracture healing.

  2. Fe-MIL-101 exhibits selective cytotoxicity and inhibition of angiogenesis in ovarian cancer cells via downregulation of MMP

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiaqiang; Chen, Daomei; Li, Bin; He, Jiao; Duan, Deliang; Shao, Dandan; Nie, Minfang

    2016-01-01

    Though metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have inspired potential applications in biomedicine, cytotoxicity studies of MOFs have been relatively rare. Here we demonstrate for the first time that an easily available MOF, Fe-MIL-101, possesses intrinsic activity against human SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells and suppress the proliferation of SKOV3 cells (IC50 = 23.6 μg mL−1) and normal mouse embryonic fibroblasts (BABL-3T3, IC50 = 78.3 μg mL−1) cells. It was more effective against SKOV3 cells than typical anticancer drugs such as artesunate (ART, IC50 = 96.9 μg mL−1) and oxaliplatin (OXA, IC50 = 64.4 μg mL−1), but had less effect on normal BABL-3T3 cells compared with ART (IC50 = 36.6 μg mL−1) and OXA (IC50 = 13.8 μg mL−1). Fe-MIL-101 induced apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) via G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in HUVECs and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, Fe-MIL-101 exhibited stronger antiangiogenic effects in HUVEC cells than antiangiogenic inhibitor (SU5416) via downregulation the expression of MMP-2/9. Our results reveal a new role of Fe-MIL-101 as a novel, non-toxic anti-angiogenic agent that restricted ovarian tumour growth. These findings could open a new avenue of using MOFs as potential therapeutics in angiogenesis-dependent diseases, including ovarian cancer. PMID:27188337

  3. CIGB-300, an anti-CK2 peptide, inhibits angiogenesis, tumor cell invasion and metastasis in lung cancer models.

    PubMed

    Benavent Acero, Fernando; Capobianco, Carla S; Garona, Juan; Cirigliano, Stéfano M; Perera, Yasser; Urtreger, Alejandro J; Perea, Silvio E; Alonso, Daniel F; Farina, Hernan G

    2017-05-01

    Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is overexpressed in several types of cancer. It has more than 300 substrates mainly involved in DNA reparation and replication, chromatin remodeling and cellular growth. In recent years CK2 became an interesting target for anticancer drug development. CIGB-300 is a peptidic inhibitor of CK2 activity, designed to bind to the phospho-acceptor domain of CK2 substrates, impairing the correct phosphorylation by the enzyme. The aim of this work was to explore the antitumor effects of this inhibitor in preclinical lung cancer models. Human H125 and murine 3LL Lewis lung carcinoma cell lines were used to evaluate the effect of CIGB-300 treatment in vitro. For this purpose, adhesion, migration and invasion capabilities of cancer cells were tested. Proteolytic activity of tumor cell-secreted uPA and MMP after CIGB-300 incubation was also analyzed. In vivo anticancer efficacy of the peptide was evaluated using experimental and spontaneous lung colonization assays in C57BL/6 mice. Finally, in order to test the effect of CIGB-300 on tumor cell-induced angiogenesis, a modified Matrigel plug assay was conducted. We demonstrate that treatment with low micromolar concentrations of CIGB-300 caused a drastic reduction of adhesion, migration and invasion of lung cancer cells. Reduced invasiveness after CIGB-300 incubation was associated with decreased proteolytic activity of tumor cell-conditioned medium. In vivo, intravenous administration of CIGB-300 (10mg/kg) markly decreased lung colonization and metastasis development of 3LL cells. Interestingly, after 5days of systemic treatment with CIGB-300, tumor cell-driven neovascularization was significantly reduced in comparison to control group. Altogether our data suggest an important role of CK2 in lung tumor development, suggesting a potential use of CIGB-300 as a novel therapeutic agent against lung cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibition of EphA2/EphrinA1 signal attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji Young; Shin, Mi Hwa; Douglas, Ivor S; Chung, Kyung Soo; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Ji Ye; Kang, Young Ae; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Kim, Young Sam; Park, Moo Suk

    2016-11-01

    Eph-Ephrin signalling mediates various cellular processes, including vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, cell migration, axon guidance, fluid homoeostasis and repair after injury. Although previous studies have demonstrated that stimulation of the EphA receptor induces increased vascular permeability and inflammatory response in lung injury, the detailed mechanisms of EphA2 signalling are unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the role of EphA2 signalling in mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury. Acute LPS exposure significantly up-regulated EphA2 and EphrinA1 expression. Compared with LPS+IgG mice (IgG instillation after LPS exposure), LPS+EphA2 mAb mice [EphA2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) instillation posttreatment after LPS exposure] had attenuated lung injury and reduced cell counts and protein concentration of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). EphA2 mAb posttreatment down-regulated the expression of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) 110γ, phospho-Akt, phospho-NF-κB p65, phospho-Src and phospho-S6K in lung lysates. In addition, inhibiting the EphA2 receptor augmented the expression of E-cadherin, which is involved in cell-cell adhesion. Our study identified EphA2 receptor as an unrecognized modulator of several signalling pathways-including PI3K-Akt-NF-kB, Src-NF-κB, E-cadherin and mTOR-in LPS-induced lung injury. These results suggest that EphA2 receptor inhibitors may function as novel therapeutic agents for LPS-induced lung injury. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  5. Naringin inhibits vascular endothelial cell apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum stress- and mitochondrial-mediated pathways and promotes intraosseous angiogenesis in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhan-Chun; Tang, Lu-Min; Shao, Jiang; Li, He

    2017-01-01

    In this study, to investigate the effects of naringin on vascular endothelial cell (VEC) function, proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis, rat VECs were cultured in vitro and randomly divided into four groups: control, serum-starved, low-concentration naringin treatment, and high-concentration naringin treatment. MTT assay was used to detect cell proliferation while Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry were used to detect apoptosis. Changes in the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins [GRP78, CHOP, caspase-12, and cytochrome c (Cyt.c)] were detected using western blotting. JC-1 staining was employed to detect changes in mitochondrial membrane potential. Intracellular caspase-3, -8, and -9 activity was determined by spectrophotometry. ELISA was used to detect endothelin (ET), and a Griess assay was used to detect changes in the expression of nitric oxide (NO) in culture medium. The study further divided an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of osteoporosis randomly into four groups: OVX, sham-operated, low-concentration naringin treatment (100 mg/kg), and high-concentration naringin treatment (200 mg/kg). After 3 months of treatment, changes in serum ET and NO expression, bone mineral density (BMD), and microvessel density of the distal femur (using CD34 labeling of VECs) were determined. At each concentration, naringin promoted VEC proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Naringin also significantly reduced serum starvation-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells, inhibited the expression of GRP78, CHOP, caspase-12, and Cyt.c proteins, and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential as well as reduced the activities of caspase-3 and -9. Furthermore, naringin suppressed ET in vitro and in vivo while enhancing NO synthesis. Distal femoral microvascular density assessment showed that the naringin treatment groups had a significantly higher number of microvessels than the OVX group, and that microvascular density was positively correlated with BMD. In

  6. Naringin inhibits vascular endothelial cell apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum stress‑ and mitochondrial‑mediated pathways and promotes intraosseous angiogenesis in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Shangguan, Wen-Ji; Zhang, Yue-Hui; Li, Zhan-Chun; Tang, Lu-Min; Shao, Jiang; Li, He

    2017-12-01

    In this study, to investigate the effects of naringin on vascular endothelial cell (VEC) function, proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis, rat VECs were cultured in vitro and randomly divided into four groups: control, serum‑starved, low‑concentration naringin treatment, and high‑concentration naringin treatment. MTT assay was used to detect cell proliferation while Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry were used to detect apoptosis. Changes in the expression of apoptosis‑associated proteins [GRP78, CHOP, caspase‑12, and cytochrome c (Cyt.c)] were detected using western blotting. JC‑1 staining was employed to detect changes in mitochondrial membrane potential. Intracellular caspase‑3, ‑8, and ‑9 activity was determined by spectrophotometry. ELISA was used to detect endothelin (ET), and a Griess assay was used to detect changes in the expression of nitric oxide (NO) in culture medium. The study further divided an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of osteoporosis randomly into four groups: OVX, sham‑operated, low‑concentration naringin treatment (100 mg/kg), and high‑concentration naringin treatment (200 mg/kg). After 3 months of treatment, changes in serum ET and NO expression, bone mineral density (BMD), and microvessel density of the distal femur (using CD34 labeling of VECs) were determined. At each concentration, naringin promoted VEC proliferation in a time‑ and dose‑dependent manner. Naringin also significantly reduced serum starvation‑induced apoptosis in endothelial cells, inhibited the expression of GRP78, CHOP, caspase‑12, and Cyt.c proteins, and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential as well as reduced the activities of caspase‑3 and ‑9. Furthermore, naringin suppressed ET in vitro and in vivo while enhancing NO synthesis. Distal femoral microvascular density assessment showed that the naringin treatment groups had a significantly higher number of microvessels than the OVX group, and that

  7. Apo-10'-lycopenoic acid inhibits cancer cell migration and angiogenesis and induces peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scope: We have previously shown that apo-10'-lycopenoic acid (ALA), a derivative of lycopene through cleavage by carotene-9',10'-oxygenase, inhibits tumor progression and metastasis in both liver and lung cancer animal models. The underlying mechanism remains unknown. We hypothesized that ALA inhibi...

  8. Dietary phenethyl isothiocyanate inhibition of androgen-responsive LNCaP prostate cancer cell tumor growth correlates with decreased angiogenesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), found in certain cruciferous vegetables, has antitumor activity in several cancer models, including prostate cancer. In our xenograft model, dietary administration of PEITC (100-150 mg/kg/d) inhibited androgen-responsive LNCaP human prostate cancer cell tumor growth...

  9. α-santalol inhibits the angiogenesis and growth of human prostate tumor growth by targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-mediated AKT/mTOR/P70S6K signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) inhibitors, as efficient antiangiogenesis agents, have been applied in the cancer treatment. However, recently, most of these anticancer drugs have some adverse effects. Discovery of novel VEGFR2 inhibitors as anticancer drug candidates is still needed. Methods We used α-santalol and analyzed its inhibitory effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and Prostate tumor cells (PC-3 or LNCaP) in vitro. Tumor xenografts in nude mice were used to examine the in vivo activity of α-santalol. Results α-santalol significantly inhibits HUVEC proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation. Western blot analysis indicated that α-santalol inhibited VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR2 kinase and the downstream protein kinases including AKT, ERK, FAK, Src, mTOR, and pS6K in HUVEC, PC-3 and LNCaP cells. α-santalol treatment inhibited ex vivo and in vivo angiogenesis as evident by rat aortic and sponge implant angiogenesis assay. α-santalol significantly reduced the volume and the weight of solid tumors in prostate xenograft mouse model. The antiangiogenic effect by CD31 immunohistochemical staining indicated that α-santalol inhibited tumorigenesis by targeting angiogenesis. Furthermore, α-santalol reduced the cell viability and induced apoptosis in PC-3 cells, which were correlated with the downregulation of AKT, mTOR and P70S6K expressions. Molecular docking simulation indicated that α-santalol form hydrogen bonds and aromatic interactions within the ATP-binding region of the VEGFR2 kinase unit. Conclusion α-santalol inhibits angiogenesis by targeting VEGFR2 regulated AKT/mTOR/P70S6K signaling pathway, and could be used as a potential drug candidate for cancer therapy. PMID:24261856

  10. Ginkgo biloba exocarp extracts inhibits angiogenesis and its effects on Wnt/β-catenin-VEGF signaling pathway in Lewis lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Han, Dongdong; Cao, Chengjie; Su, Ya; Wang, Jun; Sun, Jian; Chen, Huasheng; Xu, Aihua

    2016-11-04

    A fruit of Ginkgo biloba L. also known as Ginkgo biloba, can be used for the treatment of cancer in Chinese traditional medicine. The scientific name of succulent skin, which is the episperm of Ginkgo nuts, is exocarp. Experiment shows that Ginkgo biloba exocarp extracts (GBEE) has the effects of immune promotion, cancer inhibition and etc. Study on the activity of GBEE against Lewis lung cancer (LLC) angiogenesis and its partial molecular mechanism. The effect of GBEE on proliferation of LLC cells was detected by MTT method in vitro. The metastasis model of LLC was set up. The C57BL/6J mice were randomly separated into normal control, model control, positive control and GBEE (50, 100, 200mg/kg) treatment groups, n=10. The mice in normal group and model group were both intragastric gavage (i.g.) normal saline (NS) in a volume of 0.1mL/10g (b.w.), positive group were intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection cyclophosphamide (CPA) at a dose of 20mg/kg (b.w.) , the GBEE treatment groups were respectively i.g. GBEE 50, 100, and 200mg/kg (b.w.), once a day for 20d. After treatment, we calculated the tumor inhibition rate and anti-metastasis rate. The microvessel density (MVD) was measured by immunohistochemistry method in transplanted tumor. The expression levels of vascular en-dothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGFR2 mRNA or Wnt3a, β-catenin, VEGF, VEGFR2 and p-Akt/Akt protein expression were respectively tested by Quantitative Reverse transcription Polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) or western blot in vitro and vivo. GBEE suppressed the growth of LLC cells in a dose-dependent way at the dose of 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160µg/mL in vitro. It can suppressed Wnt3a and β-catenin protein expression and the content of mRNA of VEGF and VEGFR2 in LLC cells significantly. In vivo, we discovered GBEE can retard the growth of LLC transplanted tumor in a dose-dependent way at the dose of 50, 100, 200mg/kg, suppressing tumor lung metastasis. The expression of CD34 was reduced, which

  11. Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Repression by 3,3'-Diindolylmethane Inhibits Invasion and Angiogenesis in Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-D–Overexpressing PC3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Dejuan; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Huang, Wei; Li, Yiwei; Wang, Zhiwei; Kim, Hyeong-Reh Choi; Sarkar, Fazlul H.

    2013-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor-D (PDGF-D) is a newly recognized growth factor known to regulate many cellular processes, including cell proliferation, transformation, invasion, and angiogenesis. Recent studies have shown that PDGF-D and its cognate receptor PDGFR-β are expressed in prostate tumor tissues, suggesting that PDGF-D might play an important role in the development and progression of prostate cancer. However, the biological role of PDGF-D in tumorigenesis remains elusive. In this study, we found that PDGF-D–overexpressing PC3 cells (PC3 cells stably transfected with PDGF-D cDNA and referred to as PC3 PDGF-D) exhibited a rapid growth rate and enhanced cell invasion that was associated with the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and reduced Akt activity. Rapamycin repressed mTOR activity and concomitantly resulted in the activation of Akt, which could attenuate the therapeutic effects of mTOR inhibitors. In contrast, B-DIM (BR-DIM from Bioresponse, Inc.; a chemopreventive agent) significantly inhibited both mTOR and Akt in PC3 PDGF-D cells, which were correlated with decreased cell proliferation and invasion. Moreover, conditioned medium from PC3 PDGF-D cells significantly increased the tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, which was inhibited by B-DIM treatment concomitant with reduced full-length and active form of PDGF-D. Our results suggest that B-DIM could serve as a novel and efficient chemopreventive and/or therapeutic agent by inactivation of both mTOR and Akt activity in PDGF-D–overexpressing prostate cancer. PMID:18339874

  12. Lebein, a snake venom disintegrin, suppresses human colon cancer cells proliferation and tumor-induced angiogenesis through cell cycle arrest, apoptosis induction and inhibition of VEGF expression.

    PubMed

    Zakraoui, Ons; Marcinkiewicz, Cezary; Aloui, Zohra; Othman, Houcemeddine; Grépin, Renaud; Haoues, Meriam; Essafi, Makram; Srairi-Abid, Najet; Gasmi, Ammar; Karoui, Habib; Pagès, Gilles; Essafi-Benkhadir, Khadija

    2017-01-01

    Lebein, is an heterodimeric disintegrin isolated from Macrovipera lebetina snake venom that was previously characterized as an inhibitor of ADP-induced platelet aggregation. In this study, we investigated the effect of Lebein on the p53-dependent growth of human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. We found that Lebein significantly inhibited LS174 (p53wt), HCT116 (p53wt), and HT29 (p53mut) colon cancer cell viability by inducing cell cycle arrest through the modulation of expression levels of the tumor suppression factor p53, cell cycle regulating proteins cyclin D1, CDK2, CDK4, retinoblastoma (Rb), CDK1, and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27. Interestingly, Lebein-induced apoptosis of colon cancer cells was dependent on their p53 status. Thus, in LS174 cells, cell death was associated with PARP cleavage and the activation of caspases 3 and 8 while in HCT116 cells, Lebein induced caspase-independent apoptosis through increased expression of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). In LS174 cells, Lebein triggers the activation of the MAPK ERK1/2 pathway through induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It also decreased cell adhesion and migration to fibronectin through down regulation of α5β1 integrin. Moreover, Lebein significantly reduced the expression of two angiogenesis stimulators, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Neuropilin 1 (NRP1). It inhibited the VEGF-induced neovascularization process in the quail embryonic CAM system and blocked the development of human colon adenocarcinoma in nude mice. Overall, our work indicates that Lebein may be useful to design a new therapy against colon cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Amphiregulin enhances VEGF-A production in human chondrosarcoma cells and promotes angiogenesis by inhibiting miR-206 via FAK/c-Src/PKCδ pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-Qun; Huang, Yu-Wen; Wang, Shih-Wei; Huang, Yuan-Li; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Zhao, Yong-Ming; Huang, Bi-Fei; Xu, Guo-Hong; Fong, Yi-Chin; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2017-01-28

    Chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary malignancy of bone after myeloma and osteosarcoma. Chondrosarcoma development may be linked to angiogenesis, which is principally elicited by vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). The expression of VEGF-A has been recognized as a prognostic marker in angiogenesis. Amphiregulin (AR), an epidermal growth factor receptor ligand, promotes tumor proliferation, metastasis and angiogenesis. However, the role of AR in VEGF-A expression and angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma remains largely unknown. This current study shows that AR promoted VEGF-A production and induced angiogenesis of human endothelial progenitor cells. Moreover, AR-enhanced VEGF-A expression and angiogenesis involved the FAK, c-Src and PKCδ signaling pathways, while miR-206 expression was negatively mediated by AR via the FAK, c-Src and PKCδ pathways. Our results illustrate the clinical significance between AR, VEGF-A and miR-206, as well as tumor stage, in human chondrosarcoma. AR may represent a novel therapeutic target in the metastasis and angiogenesis of chondrosarcoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vitamin D Binding Protein-Macrophage Activating Factor (DBP-maf) Inhibits Angiogenesis and Tumor Growth in Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Kisker, Oliver; Onizuka, Shinya; Becker, Christian M; Fannon, Michael; Flynn, Evelyn; D'Amato, Robert; Zetter, Bruce; Folkman, Judah; Ray, Rahul; Swamy, Narasimha; Pirie-Shepherd, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Abstract We have isolated a selectively deglycosylated form of vitamin D binding protein (DBP-maf) generated from systemically available DBP by a human pancreatic cancer cell line. DBP-maf is antiproliferative for endothelial cells and antiangiogenic in the chorioallantoic membrane assay. DBP-maf administered daily was able to potently inhibit the growth of human pancreatic cancer in immune compromised mice (T/C=0.09). At higher doses, DBP-maf caused tumor regression. Histological examination revealed that treated tumors had a higher number of infiltrating macrophages as well as reduced microvessel density, and increased levels of apoptosis relative to untreated tumors. Taken together, these data suggest that DBP-maf is an antiangiogenic molecule that can act directly on endothelium as well as stimulate macrophages to attack both the endothelial and tumor cell compartment of a growing malignancy. PMID:12659668

  15. Vitamin D binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-maf) inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Kisker, Oliver; Onizuka, Shinya; Becker, Christian M; Fannon, Michael; Flynn, Evelyn; D'Amato, Robert; Zetter, Bruce; Folkman, Judah; Ray, Rahul; Swamy, Narasimha; Pirie-Shepherd, Steven

    2003-01-01

    We have isolated a selectively deglycosylated form of vitamin D binding protein (DBP-maf) generated from systemically available DBP by a human pancreatic cancer cell line. DBP-maf is antiproliferative for endothelial cells and antiangiogenic in the chorioallantoic membrane assay. DBP-maf administered daily was able to potently inhibit the growth of human pancreatic cancer in immune compromised mice (T/C=0.09). At higher doses, DBP-maf caused tumor regression. Histological examination revealed that treated tumors had a higher number of infiltrating macrophages as well as reduced microvessel density, and increased levels of apoptosis relative to untreated tumors. Taken together, these data suggest that DBP-maf is an antiangiogenic molecule that can act directly on endothelium as well as stimulate macrophages to attack both the endothelial and tumor cell compartment of a growing malignancy.

  16. CXCL4L1 inhibits angiogenesis and induces undirected endothelial cell migration without affecting endothelial cell proliferation and monocyte recruitment.

    PubMed

    Sarabi, A; Kramp, B K; Drechsler, M; Hackeng, T M; Soehnlein, O; Weber, C; Koenen, R R; Von Hundelshausen, P

    2011-01-01

    The non-allelic variant of CXCL4/PF4, CXCL4L1/PF4alt, differs from CXCL4 in three amino acids of the C-terminal α-helix and has been characterized as a potent anti-angiogenic regulator. Although CXCL4 structurally belongs to the chemokine family, it does not behave like a 'classical' chemokine, lacking significant chemotactic properties. Specific hallmarks are its angiostatic, anti-proliferative activities, and proinflammatory functions, which can be conferred by heteromer-formation with CCL5/RANTES enhancing monocyte recruitment. Here we show that tube formation of endothelial cells was inhibited by CXCL4L1 and CXCL4, while only CXCL4L1 triggered chemokinesis of endothelial cells. The chemotactic response towards VEGF and bFGF was attenuated by both variants and CXCL4L1-induced chemokinesis was blocked by bFGF or VEGF. Endothelial cell proliferation was inhibited by CXCL4 (IC(50) 6.9 μg mL(-1)) but not by CXCL4L1, while both chemokines bound directly to VEGF and bFGF. Moreover, CXCL4 enhanced CCL5-induced monocyte arrest in flow adhesion experiments and monocyte recruitment into the mouse peritoneal cavity in vivo, whereas CXCL4L1 had no effect. CXCL4L1 revealed lower affinity to CCL5 than CXCL4, as quantified by isothermal fluorescence titration. As evidenced by the reduction of the activated partial thromboplastin time, CXCL4L1 showed a tendency towards less heparin-neutralizing activity than CXCL4 (IC(50) 2.45 vs 0.98 μg mL(-1)).  CXCL4L1 may act angiostatically by causing random endothelial cell locomotion, disturbing directed migration towards angiogenic chemokines, serving as a homeostatic chemokine with a moderate structural distinction yet different functional profile from CXCL4. © 2010 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  17. WISP-3 inhibition of miR-452 promotes VEGF-A expression in chondrosarcoma cells and induces endothelial progenitor cells angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Yang; Tzeng, Huey-En; Li, Te-Mao; Chen, Hsien-Te; Lee, Yi; Yang, Yi-Chen; Wang, Shih-Wei; Yang, Wei-Hung; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2017-06-13

    Chondrosarcoma is the second most prevalent general primary tumor of bone following osteosarcoma. Chondrosarcoma development may be linked to angiogenesis, which is principally elicited by vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). VEGF-A level has been recognized as a prognostic marker in angiogenesis. WNT1-inducible signaling pathway protein-3 (WISP)-3/CCN6 belongs to the CCN family and is involved in regulating several cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Nevertheless, the effect of WISP-3 on VEGF-A production and angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma remains largely unknown. This current study shows that WISP-3 promoted VEGF-A production and induced angiogenesis of human endothelial progenitor cells. Moreover, WISP-3-enhanced VEGF-A expression and angiogenesis involved the c-Src and p38 signaling pathways, while miR-452 expression was negatively affected by WISP-3 via the c-Src and p38 pathways. Our results illustrate the clinical significance of WISP-3, VEGF-A and miR-452 in human chondrosarcoma patients. WISP-3 may illustrate a novel therapeutic target in the metastasis and angiogenesis of chondrosarcoma.

  18. Rapamycin inhibits oxidative/nitrosative stress and enhances angiogenesis in high glucose-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells: Role of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Rezabakhsh, Aysa; Ahmadi, Mahdi; Khaksar, Majid; Montaseri, Azadeh; Malekinejad, Hassan; Rahbarghazi, Reza; Garjani, Alireza

    2017-09-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia is a potent risk factor of abnormal angiogenesis with various tissue diseases. Autophagy, as an alternative cell response, is mostly generated by a vast array of insults. Applying autophagic response contributes to normal cell retrieval circumstance during various insults. We aimed to show whether stimulation/inhibition of autophagy could reduce or exacerbate oxidative status and angiogenic potential in endothelial cells after exposure to 30mM glucose. HUVECs were incubated with the combined regime of 100nM Rapamycin and 30mM glucose over a period of 72h. The effect of rapamycin on cell viability, malondialdehyde levels, and nitric oxide were monitored by convenient assays. Intracellular ROS level was measured by flow cytometric analysis and DCFDA. HUVECs migration and angiogenic properties were assessed using scratch test and tubulogenesis assay. The expression of autophagic modulators LC3, Becline-1 and P62 was measured by using western blotting. Data showed 30mM glucose reduced cell viability, migration and in vitro tubulogenesis and level of ROS and nitric oxide were found to increased (p<0.05). Rapamycin had potential to increase cell survival and significantly decreased the total levels of oxidative stress markers after cell exposure to 30mM glucose (p<0.05). Rapamycin potentially improved the detrimental effect of 30mM glucose on cell migration and tubulogenesis capacity (p<0.05). Effective autophagic response was stimulated by rapamycin by increasing beclin-1, and the LC3-II/I ratio and reducing intracellular P62 level (p<0.05), resulting in the improvement of cell health and function. Together, rapamycin protected HUVECs from damages caused by high glucose concentration. This effect was possibly mediated by autophagy-dependent pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Ilexgenin A exerts anti-inflammation and anti-angiogenesis effects through inhibition of STAT3 and PI3K pathways and exhibits synergistic effects with Sorafenib on hepatoma growth

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Hao

    Recently, we reported that Ilexgenin A exhibits anti-cancer activities and induces cell arrest. Here, we investigated the effect of Ilexgenin A on the inflammation, angiogenesis and tumor growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our current study revealed that Ilexgenin A significantly inhibited the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 levels and downregulated pro-angiogenic factor VEGF production and transcription in HepG2 cells. The underlying mechanism for Ilexgenin A effects appears to be through inhibiting STAT3 and PI3K pathways. Furthermore, we found that not only Ilexgenin A inhibited STAT3 and PI3K pathways in HepG2 cells but also blocked these signaling pathways in HUVECs. Mostmore » importantly, by employing two HCC xenografts models - HepG2 and H22, we showed that Ilexgenin A reduced tumor growth and exhibited synergy effect with Sorafenib. ELISA assay, histological analysis and immunohistochemistry examination revealed that the expression of VEGF and MVD was significantly decreased after the treatment with Ilexgenin A and the combination. Moreover, Ilexgenin A could enhance caspase-3/7 activity in vitro and transmission electron microscope indicated that the combination induced evident apoptosis of tumor cells and caused the structural changes of mitochondria in vivo. Although no apparent adverse effects occurred during the treatment period, Sorafenib monotherapy elicited hepatotoxicity for specific expression in the increased level of AST and the ratio of AST/ALT. However, the combination could remedy this adverse effect. In conclusion, the results described in the present study identifies Ilexgenin A as a promising therapeutic candidate that modulates inflammation, angiogenesis, and HCC growth. - Highlights: • Ilexgenin A exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenesis effects in hepatoma. • Ilexgenin A may exert these effects through inhibition of STAT3 and PI3K pathways. • Ilexgenin A exhibits synergistic effects with Sorafenib on

  20. Inhibition of Hydrogen Sulfide-induced Angiogenesis and Inflammation in Vascular Endothelial Cells: Potential Mechanisms of Gastric Cancer Prevention by Korean Red Ginseng.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ki-Seok; Song, Heup; Kim, Eun-Hee; Choi, Jae Hyung; Hong, Hua; Han, Young-Min; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2012-04-01

    Previously, we reported that Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis and gastric cancer are closely associated with increased levels of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and that Korean red ginseng significantly reduced the severity of H. pylori-associated gastric diseases by attenuating H2S generation. Because the incubation of endothelial cells with H2S has been known to enhance their angiogenic activities, we hypothesized that the amelioration of H2S-induced gastric inflammation or angiogenesis in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) might explain the preventive effect of Korean red ginseng on H. pylori-associated carcinogenesis. The expression of inflammatory mediators, angiogenic growth factors, and angiogenic activities in the absence or presence of Korean red ginseng extracts (KRGE) were evaluated in HUVECs stimulated with the H2S generator sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS). KRGE efficiently decreased the expression of cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase, enzymes that are essential for H2S synthesis. Concomitantly, a significant decrease in the expression of inflammatory mediators, including cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase, and several angiogenic factors, including interleukin (IL)-8, hypoxia inducible factor-1a, vascular endothelial growth factor, IL-6, and matrix metalloproteinases, was observed; all of these factors are normally induced after NaHS. An in vitro angiogenesis assay demonstrated that NaHS significantly increased tube formation in endothelial cells, whereas KRGE pretreatment significantly attenuated tube formation. NaHS activated p38 and Akt, increasing the expression of angiogenic factors and the proliferation of HUVECs, whereas KRGE effectively abrogated this H2S-activated angiogenesis and the increase in inflammatory mediators in vascular endothelial cells. In conclusion, KRGE was able to mitigate H2S-induced angiogenesis, implying that antagonistic action against H2S-induced angiogenesis may be the

  1. Deletion of striatal adenosine A2A receptor spares latent inhibition and prepulse inhibition but impairs active avoidance learning

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Philipp; Wei, Catherine J.; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Boison, Detlev; Yee, Benjamin K.

    2013-01-01

    Following early clinical leads, the adenosine A2AR receptor (A2AR) has continued to attract attention as a potential novel target for treating schizophrenia; especially against the negative and cognitive symptoms of the disease because of A2AR’s unique modulatory action over glutamatergic in addition to dopaminergic signaling. Through the antagonistic interaction with the dopamine D2 receptor, and by regulating glutamate release and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor function, striatal A2AR is ideally positioned to fine-tune the dopamine-glutamate balance whose disturbance is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, the precise function of striatal A2ARsin the regulation of schizophrenia-relevant behavior is poorly understood. Here, we tested the impact of conditional striatum-specific A2AR knockout (st-A2AR-KO) on latent inhibition (LI) and prepulse inhibition (PPI) – behavior that is tightly regulated by striatal dopamine and glutamate. These are two common cross-species translational tests for the assessment of selective attention and sensorimotor gating deficits reported in schizophrenia patients; and enhanced performance in these tests is associated with antipsychotic drug action. We found that neither LI nor PPI was significantly affected in st-A2AR-KO mice; although a deficit in active avoidance learning was identified in these animals. The latter phenotype, however, was not replicated in another form of aversive conditioning – conditioned taste aversion. Hence, the present study shows that neither learned inattention (as measured by LI) nor sensory gating (as indexed by PPI) requires the integrity of striatal A2ARs– a finding that may undermine the hypothesized importance of A2AR in the genesis and/or treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:23276608

  2. Blueberry inhibits invasion and angiogenesis in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral squamous cell carcinogenesis in hamsters via suppression of TGF-β and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Baba, Abdul Basit; Kowshik, Jaganathan; Krishnaraj, Jayaraman; Sophia, Josephraj; Dixit, Madhulika; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2016-09-01

    Aberrant activation of oncogenic signaling pathways plays a pivotal role in tumor initiation and progression. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the chemopreventive and therapeutic efficacy of blueberry in the hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model based on its ability to target TGF-β, PI3K/Akt, MAPK and NF-κB signaling and its impact on invasion and angiogenesis. Squamous cell carcinomas were induced in the HBP by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). The effect of blueberry on the oncogenic signaling pathways and downstream events was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting. Experiments with the ECV304 cell line were performed to explore the mechanism by which blueberry regulates angiogenesis. Blueberry supplementation inhibited the development and progression of HBP carcinomas by abrogating TGF-β and PI3K/Akt pathways. Although blueberry failed to influence MAPK, it suppressed NF-κB activation by preventing nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. Blueberry also modulated the expression of the oncomiR miR-21 and the tumor suppressor let-7. Collectively, these changes induced a shift to an anti-invasive and anti-angiogenic phenotype as evidenced by downregulating matrix metalloproteinases and vascular endothelial growth factor. Blueberry also inhibited angiogenesis in ECV304 cells by suppressing migration and tube formation. The results of the present study suggest that targeting oncogenic signaling pathways that influence acquisition of cancer hallmarks is an effective strategy for chemointervention. Identification of modulatory effects on phosphorylation, intracellular localization of oncogenic transcription factors and microRNAs unraveled by the present study as key mechanisms of action of blueberry is critical from a therapeutic perspective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) stimulates cAMP formation in human mononuclear cells and inhibits angiogenesis in chick embryo chorionallantoic membrane assay.

    PubMed

    Pacini, Stefania; Morucci, Gabriele; Punzi, Tiziana; Gulisano, Massimo; Ruggiero, Marco

    2011-04-01

    The effects of Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) have been studied in cancer and other conditions where angiogenesis is deregulated. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that the mitogenic response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to GcMAF was associated with 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) formation. The effect was dose dependent, and maximal stimulation was achieved using 0.1 ng/ml. Heparin inhibited the stimulatory effect of GcMAF on PBMCs. In addition, we demonstrate that GcMAF (1 ng/ml) inhibited prostaglandin E(1)- and human breast cancer cell-stimulated angiogenesis in chick embryo chorionallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Finally, we tested different GcMAF preparations on CAM, and the assay proved to be a reliable, reproducible and inexpensive method to determine the relative potencies of different preparations and their stability; we observed that storage at room temperature for 15 days decreased GcMAF potency by about 50%. These data could prove useful for upcoming clinical trials on GcMAF.

  4. Mechanism of inhibition of human secretory phospholipase A2 by flavonoids: rationale for lead design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lättig, Jens; Böhl, Markus; Fischer, Petra; Tischer, Sandra; Tietböhl, Claudia; Menschikowski, Mario; Gutzeit, Herwig O.; Metz, Peter; Pisabarro, M. Teresa

    2007-08-01

    The human secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (PLA2-IIA) is a lipolytic enzyme. Its inhibition leads to a decrease in eicosanoids levels and, thereby, to reduced inflammation. Therefore, PLA2-IIA is of high pharmacological interest in treatment of chronic diseases such as asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. Quercetin and naringenin, amongst other flavonoids, are known for their anti-inflammatory activity by modulation of enzymes of the arachidonic acid cascade. However, the mechanism by which flavonoids inhibit Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) remained unclear so far. Flavonoids are widely produced in plant tissues and, thereby, suitable targets for pharmaceutical extractions and chemical syntheses. Our work focuses on understanding the binding modes of flavonoids to PLA2, their inhibition mechanism and the rationale to modify them to obtain potent and specific inhibitors. Our computational and experimental studies focused on a set of 24 compounds including natural flavonoids and naringenin-based derivatives. Experimental results on PLA2-inhibition showed good inhibitory activity for quercetin, kaempferol, and galangin, but relatively poor for naringenin. Several naringenin derivatives were synthesized and tested for affinity and inhibitory activity improvement. 6-(1,1-dimethylallyl)naringenin revealed comparable PLA2 inhibition to quercetin-like compounds. We characterized the binding mode of these compounds and the determinants for their affinity, selectivity, and inhibitory potency. Based on our results, we suggest C(6) as the most promising position of the flavonoid scaffold to introduce chemical modifications to improve affinity, selectivity, and inhibition of PLA2-IIA by flavonoids.

  5. Inhibition of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha by dihydroxyphenylethanol, a product from olive oil, blocks microsomal prostaglandin-E synthase-1/vascular endothelial growth factor expression and reduces tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Terzuoli, Erika; Donnini, Sandra; Giachetti, Antonio; Iñiguez, Miguel A; Fresno, Manuel; Melillo, Giovanni; Ziche, Marina

    2010-08-15

    2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenil)-ethanol (DPE), a polyphenol present in olive oil, has been found to attenuate the growth of colon cancer cells, an effect presumably related to its anti-inflammatory activity. To further explore the effects of DPE on angiogenesis and tumor growth we investigated the in vivo efficacy of DPE in a HT-29 xenograft model and in vitro activities in colon cancer cells exposed to interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2). DPE (10 mg/kg/day for 14 days) inhibited tumor growth, reducing vessel lumina and blood perfusion to tumor, and diminished expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and microsomal prostaglandin-E synthase-1 (mPGEs-1). In vitro, DPE (100 mumol/L) neither affected cell proliferation nor induced apoptosis in HT-29 and WiDr cells. DPE prevented the IL-1beta-mediated increase of mPGEs-1 expression and PGE-2 generation, as it did the silencing of HIF-1alpha. Moreover, DPE blocked mPGEs-1-dependent expression of VEGF and inhibited endothelial sprouting induced by tumor cells in a coculture system. PGE-2 triggers a feed-forward loop involving HIF-1alpha, which impinges on mPGEs-1 and VEGF expression, events prevented by DPE via extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2. The reduction of PGE-2 and VEGF levels, caused by DPE, was invariably associated with a marked decrease in HIF-1alpha expression and activity, independent of proteasome activity, indicating that the DPE effects on tumor growth and angiogenesis are dependent on the inhibition of HIF-1alpha translation. We show that the in vivo DPE antitumor effect is associated with anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic activities resulting from the downregulation of the HIF-1alpha/mPGEs-1/VEGF axis.

  6. The COOH-terminal peptide of platelet factor-4 variant (CXCL4L1/PF-4var47-70) strongly inhibits angiogenesis and suppresses B16 melanoma growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Vandercappellen, Jo; Liekens, Sandra; Bronckaers, Annelies; Noppen, Samuel; Ronsse, Isabelle; Dillen, Chris; Belleri, Mirella; Mitola, Stefania; Proost, Paul; Presta, Marco; Struyf, Sofie; Van Damme, Jo

    2010-03-01

    Chemokines influence tumor growth directly or indirectly via both angiogenesis and tumor-leukocyte interactions. Platelet factor-4 (CXCL4/PF-4), which is released from alpha-granules of activated platelets, is the first described angiostatic chemokine. Recently, it was found that the variant of CXCL4/PF-4 (CXCL4L1/PF-4var) could exert a more pronounced angiostatic and antitumoral effect than CXCL4/PF-4. However, the molecular mechanisms of the angiostatic activities of the PF-4 forms remain partially elusive. Here, we studied the biological properties of the chemically synthesized COOH-terminal peptides of CXCL4/PF-4 (CXCL4/PF-4(47-70)) and CXCL4L1/PF-4var (CXCL4L1/PF-4var(47-70)). Both PF-4 peptides lacked monocyte and lymphocyte chemotactic activity but equally well inhibited (25 nmol/L) endothelial cell motility and proliferation in the presence of a single stimulus (i.e., exogenous recombinant fibroblast growth factor-2). In contrast, when assayed in more complex angiogenesis test systems characterized by the presence of multiple mediators, including in vitro wound-healing (2.5 nmol/L versus 12.5 nmol/L), Matrigel (60 nmol/L versus 300 nmol/L), and chorioallantoic membrane assays, CXCL4L1/PF-4var(47-70) was found to be significantly (5-fold) more angiostatic than CXCL4/PF-4(47-70). In addition, low (7 microg total) doses of intratumoral CXCL4L1/PF-4var(47-70) inhibited B16 melanoma growth in mice more extensively than CXCL4/PF-4(47-70). This antitumoral activity was predominantly mediated through inhibition of angiogenesis (without affecting blood vessel stability) and induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by immunohistochemical and fluorescent staining of B16 tumor tissue. In conclusion, CXCL4L1/PF-4var(47-70) is a potent antitumoral and antiangiogenic peptide. These results may represent the basis for the design of CXCL4L1/PF-4var COOH-terminal-derived peptidomimetic anticancer drugs.

  7. Curcumin inhibits vasculogenic mimicry through the downregulation of erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma-A2, phosphoinositide 3-kinase and matrix metalloproteinase-2

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, YIMING; HUANG, MIN; LI, JIANWEN; SUN, XINLIN; JIANG, XIAODAN; LI, LIANGPING; KE, YIQUAN

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastomas (GBMs) are the most common and aggressive malignant primary brain tumors found in humans. In high-grade gliomas, vasculogenic mimicry (VM) is often detected. VM is the formation of de novo vascular networks by highly invasive tumor cells, instead of endothelial cells. An understanding of the mechanisms of VM formation will contribute to the targeted therapy of GBMs. In the present study, the efficacy of curcumin (CCM) on VM formation and its mechanisms were investigated. It was found that CCM inhibits the VM formation, proliferation, migration and invasion of human glioma U251 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CCM downregulated the protein and mRNA expression of erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma-A2, phosphoinositide 3-kinase and matrix metalloproteinase-2, indicating that CCM may function through these factors for the inhibition of VM formation. These data provide novel insights into the use of CCM to antagonize VM, and may contribute to the angiogenesis-targeted therapy of malignant glioma. PMID:25202424

  8. Soliton driven angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonilla, L. L.; Carretero, M.; Terragni, F.; Birnir, B.

    2016-08-01

    Angiogenesis is a multiscale process by which blood vessels grow from existing ones and carry oxygen to distant organs. Angiogenesis is essential for normal organ growth and wounded tissue repair but it may also be induced by tumours to amplify their own growth. Mathematical and computational models contribute to understanding angiogenesis and developing anti-angiogenic drugs, but most work only involves numerical simulations and analysis has lagged. A recent stochastic model of tumour-induced angiogenesis including blood vessel branching, elongation, and anastomosis captures some of its intrinsic multiscale structures, yet allows one to extract a deterministic integropartial differential description of the vessel tip density. Here we find that the latter advances chemotactically towards the tumour driven by a soliton (similar to the famous Korteweg-de Vries soliton) whose shape and velocity change slowly. Analysing these collective coordinates paves the way for controlling angiogenesis through the soliton, the engine that drives this process.

  9. TEM8 May Be a Better Anti-Angiogenesis Target | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Anti-angiogenesis agents have improved the efficacy of many treatment strategies for solid tumors, but their ability to inhibit tumor vasculature is often incomplete and comes at a price, namely, side effects that can harm normal tissues including blood vessels. As a result, tumor angiogenesis is seldom completely halted, and both angiogenesis and tumor growth inevitably

  10. TEM8 May Be a Better Anti-Angiogenesis Target | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Anti-angiogenesis agents have improved the efficacy of many treatment strategies for solid tumors, but their ability to inhibit tumor vasculature is often incomplete and comes at a price, namely, side effects that can harm normal tissues including blood vessels. As a result, tumor angiogenesis is seldom completely halted, and both angiogenesis and tumor growth inevitably progress.

  11. Angiogenesis is inhibitory for mammalian digit regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ling; Yan, Mingquan; Simkin, Jennifer; Ketcham, Paulina D.; Leininger, Eric; Han, Manjong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The regenerating mouse digit tip is a unique model for investigating blastema formation and epimorphic regeneration in mammals. The blastema is characteristically avascular and we previously reported that blastema expression of a known anti‐angiogenic factor gene, Pedf, correlated with a successful regenerative response (Yu, L., Han, M., Yan, M., Lee, E. C., Lee, J. & Muneoka, K. (2010). BMP signaling induces digit regeneration in neonatal mice. Development, 137, 551–559). Here we show that during regeneration Vegfa transcripts are not detected in the blastema but are expressed at the onset of differentiation. Treating the amputation wound with vascular endothelial growth factor enhances angiogenesis but inhibits regeneration. We next tested bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9), another known mediator of angiogenesis, and found that BMP9 is also a potent inhibitor of digit tip regeneration. BMP9 induces Vegfa expression in the digit stump suggesting that regenerative failure is mediated by enhanced angiogenesis. Finally, we show that BMP9 inhibition of regeneration is completely rescued by treatment with pigment epithelium‐derived factor. These studies show that precocious angiogenesis is inhibitory for regeneration, and provide compelling evidence that the regulation of angiogenesis is a critical factor in designing therapies aimed at stimulating mammalian regeneration. PMID:27499862

  12. Suppressing effect of C a2 + blips on puff amplitudes by inhibiting channels to prevent recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuan; Qi, Hong; Li, Xiang; Cai, Meichun; Chen, Xingqiang; Liu, Wen; Shuai, Jianwei

    2016-08-01

    As local signals, calcium puffs arise from the concerted opening of a few nearby inositol 1,4,5-trisphospate receptor channels to release C a2 + ions from the endoplasmic reticulum. Although C a2 + puffs have been well studied, little is known about the modulation of cytosolic basal C a2 + concentration ([Ca2 +] Basal) on puff dynamics. In this paper we consider a puff model to study how the statistical properties of puffs are modulated by [Ca2 +] Basal. The puff frequency and lifetime trivially increase with the increasing [Ca2 +] Basal, but an unexpected result is that the puff amplitude and the maximum open-channel number of the puff show decreasing relationship with the increasing [Ca2 +] Basal. The underlying dynamics is related not only to the increasing puff frequency which gives a shorter recovery time, but also to the increasing frequency of blips with only one channel open. We indicate that C a2 + blips cause the channels to be inhibited and prevent their recovery during interpuff intervals, resulting in the suppressing effect on puff amplitudes. With increasing [Ca2 +] Basal, more blips occur to cause more channels to be inhibited, leaving fewer channels available for puff events. This study shows that the blips may play relevant functions in global C a2 + waves through modulating puff dynamics.

  13. The SAM domain inhibits EphA2 interactions in the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deo R; Ahmed, Fozia; Paul, Michael D; Gedam, Manasee; Pasquale, Elena B; Hristova, Kalina

    2017-01-01

    All members of the Eph receptor family of tyrosine kinases contain a SAM domain near the C terminus, which has been proposed to play a role in receptor homotypic interactions and/or interactions with binding partners. The SAM domain of EphA2 is known to be important for receptor function, but its contribution to EphA2 lateral interactions in the plasma membrane has not been determined. Here we use a FRET-based approach to directly measure the effect of the SAM domain on the stability of EphA2 dimers on the cell surface in the absence of ligand binding. We also investigate the functional consequences of EphA2 SAM domain deletion. Surprisingly, we find that the EphA2 SAM domain inhibits receptor dimerization and decreases EphA2 tyrosine phosphorylation. This role is dramatically different from the role of the SAM domain of the related EphA3 receptor, which we previously found to stabilize EphA3 dimers and increase EphA3 tyrosine phosphorylation in cells in the absence of ligand. Thus, the EphA2 SAM domain likely contributes to a unique mode of EphA2 interaction that leads to distinct signaling outputs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ta1722, an anti-angiogenesis inhibitor targeted on VEGFR-2 against human hepatoma.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lei; He, Xu; Ma, Weina; Dai, Bingling; Zhan, Yingzhuan; Zhang, Yanmin

    2012-10-01

    In order to investigate the anti-angiogenesis potential and related mechanisms of Ta1722 (a novel taspine derivative compound), a series of experiments in vivo and in vitro were carried out. The proliferation on human cell lines of SMMC-7721, A549, MCF-7, Lovo, and ECV304 was examined by MTT. Angiogenesis inhibition was examined by chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenesis and tube formation assays. Related angiogenesis proteins and their mRNA expression were determined by western blotting and RT-PCR. In addition, the SMMC-7721 nude mouse xenotransplant model was used to evaluate the inhibition of tumor growth. The results showed that Ta1722 inhibited cell proliferation, angiogenesis of CAM and tube formation, and downregulated related positive angiogenesis proteins. The above indicated Ta1722 could serve as a promising candidate of angiogenesis inhibitors by interrupting the VEGF/VEGFR-2 pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. [Angiogenesis and endometriose].

    PubMed

    Becker, C M; Bartley, J; Mechsner, S; Ebert, A D

    2004-08-01

    Endometriosis is considered a chronic disease of women during their reproductive phase, which resembles many signs of malignancy. So far, therapeutic options for endometriosis-associated pain and infertility are unsatisfactory and often lead to recurrence of disease after termination of treatment. Angiogenesis seems to play an important role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. The use of angiogenesis inhibitors may add an important new tool to well-established treatment schedules. Therefore, it is very important to thoroughly investigate the role of angiogenesis in endometriosis with respect to the female reproductive system.

  16. CXCR1/2 antagonism with CXCL8/Interleukin-8 analogue CXCL8(3–72)K11R/G31P restricts lung cancer growth by inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and suppressing angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Noman; Wang, Bing; Wei, Jing; Zhang, Yingqiu; Li, Qiang; Luan, Xuelin; Cheng, Jya-Wei; Gordon, John R.; Li, Fang; Liu, Han

    2015-01-01

    CXCR1 and CXCR2 together with cognate chemokines are significantly upregulated in a number of cancers, where they act as key regulators of tumor cell proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis. We have previously reported a mutant protein of CXCL8/Interleukin-8, CXCL8(3–72)K11R/G31P (G31P), which can act as a selective antagonist towards CXCR1/2 with therapeutic efficacy in both inflammatory diseases and malignancies. In this study, we investigated the effect of this ELR-CXC chemokine antagonist G31P on human non-small cell lung cancer cells and lung tumor progression in an orthotopic xenograft model. We report increased mRNA levels of CXCR1 and CXCR2 in human lung cancer tissues compared to normal counterparts. Expression levels of CXCR1/2 cognate ligands was determined by ELISA. CXCR1/2 receptor antagonism via G31P leads to decreased H460 and A549 cell proliferation and migration in a dose-dependent manner. G31P also enhanced apoptosis in lung cancer cells as determined by elevated levels of cleaved PARP, Caspase-8, and Bax, together with a reduced expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. In an in vivo orthotopic xenograft mouse model of human lung cancer, G31P treatment suppressed tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis. At the molecular level, G31P treatment was correlated with decreased expression of VEGF and NFкB-p65, in addition to reduced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT. Our results suggest that G31P blockage of CXCR1 and CXCR2 can inhibit human lung cancer cell growth and metastasis, which offers potential therapeutic opportunities. PMID:26087179

  17. Cucurbitacin B purified from Ecballium elaterium (L.) A. Rich from Tunisia inhibits α5β1 integrin-mediated adhesion, migration, proliferation of human glioblastoma cell line and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Touihri-Barakati, Imen; Kallech-Ziri, Olfa; Ayadi, Wiem; Kovacic, Hervé; Hanchi, Belgacem; Hosni, Karim; Luis, José

    2017-02-15

    Integrins are essential protagonists in the complex multistep process of cancer progression and are thus attractive targets for the development of anticancer agents. Cucurbitacin B, a triterpenoid purified from the leaves of Tunisian Ecballium elaterium exhibited an anticancer effect and displayed anti-integrin activity on human glioblastoma U87 cells, without being cytotoxic at concentrations up to 500nM. Here we show that cucurbitacin B affected the adhesion and migration of U87 cells to fibronectin in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 86.2nM and 84.6nM, respectively. Time-lapse videomicroscopy showed that cucurbitacin B significantly reduced U87 cells motility and affected directional persistence. Cucurbitacin B also inhibited proliferation with IC50 value of 70.1nM using Crystal Violet assay. Moreover, cucurbitacin B efficiently inhibited in vitro human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC) angiogenesis with concentration up to 10nM. Interestingly, we demonstrate for the first time that this effect was specifically mediated by α5β1 integrins. These findings reveal a novel mechanism of action for cucurbitacin B, which displays a potential interest as a specific anti-integrin drug. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Melatonin as an angiogenesis inhibitor to combat cancer: Mechanistic evidence.

    PubMed

    Goradel, Nasser Hashemi; Asghari, Mohammad Hossein; Moloudizargari, Milad; Negahdari, Babak; Haghi-Aminjan, Hamed; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2017-11-15

    Melatonin, a pineal indolamine, participates in different body functions and is shown to possess diverse biological activities such as anti-tumor action. Angiogenesis inhibition is one of the mechanisms by which melatonin exerts its oncostatic effects. Increased angiogenesis is a major feature of tumor progression, thus angiogenesis inhibition is a critical step in cancer therapy. Melatonin employs a variety of mechanisms to target nutrients and oxygen supply to cancer cells. At the transcriptional level, hypoxia induced factor-1α (HIF-1α) and the genes under its control, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are the main targets of melatonin for inhibition of angiogenesis. Melatonin prevents translocation of HIF-1α into the nucleus thereby hindering VEGF expression and also prevents the formation of HIF-1α, phospho-STAT3 and CBP/p300 complex which is involved in the expression of angiogenesis-related genes. Angiostatic properties of melatonin could be also due to its ability to inhibit VEGFR2's activation and expression. Other angiostatic mechanisms of melatonin include the inhibition of endothelial cell migration, invasion, and tube formation. In the present study, we have reviewed the molecular anti-angiogenesis pathways mediated by melatonin and the responsible mechanisms in various types of cancers both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Activation of Adenosine A2A Receptors Inhibits Neutrophil Transuroepithelial Migration ▿

    PubMed Central

    Säve, Susanne; Mohlin, Camilla; Vumma, Ravi; Persson, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine has been identified as a significant inhibitor of inflammation by acting on adenosine A2A receptors. In this study, we examined the role of adenosine and A2A receptors in the transmigration of human neutrophils across an in vitro model of the transitional bladder urothelium. Human uroepithelial cells (UROtsa) were grown on transwell inserts; uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and neutrophils were added to the transwell system; and the number of migrating neutrophils was evaluated. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry were used to investigate the expression of adenosine receptors, the epithelial adhesion molecule ICAM-1, and the neutrophil integrin CD11b. Levels of proinflammatory interleukin-8 (IL-8) and phosphorylated IκBα were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and Luminex assays, respectively. The neutrophils expressed all four adenosine receptor subtypes (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 receptors), but A3 receptors were not expressed by UROtsa cells. UPEC stimulated neutrophil transuroepithelial migration, which was significantly decreased in response to the specific A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680. The inhibitory effect of CGS 21680 on neutrophil migration was reversed by the A2A receptor antagonist SCH 58261. The production of chemotactic IL-8 and the expression of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1 or CD11b were not significantly affected by CGS 21680. However, a significant decrease in the level of phosporylated IκBα was revealed in response to CGS 21680. In conclusion, UPEC infection in vitro evoked neutrophil migration through a multilayered human uroepithelium. The UPEC-evoked neutrophil transmigration decreased in response to A2A receptor activation, possibly through inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:21646447

  20. Intracellular targeting of annexin A2 inhibits tumor cell adhesion, migration, and in vivo grafting.

    PubMed

    Staquicini, Daniela I; Rangel, Roberto; Guzman-Rojas, Liliana; Staquicini, Fernanda I; Dobroff, Andrey S; Tarleton, Christy A; Ozbun, Michelle A; Kolonin, Mikhail G; Gelovani, Juri G; Marchiò, Serena; Sidman, Richard L; Hajjar, Katherine A; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2017-06-26

    Cytoskeletal-associated proteins play an active role in coordinating the adhesion and migration machinery in cancer progression. To identify functional protein networks and potential inhibitors, we screened an internalizing phage (iPhage) display library in tumor cells, and selected LGRFYAASG as a cytosol-targeting peptide. By affinity purification and mass spectrometry, intracellular annexin A2 was identified as the corresponding binding protein. Consistently, annexin A2 and a cell-internalizing, penetratin-fused version of the selected peptide (LGRFYAASG-pen) co-localized and specifically accumulated in the cytoplasm at the cell edges and cell-cell contacts. Functionally, tumor cells incubated with LGRFYAASG-pen showed disruption of filamentous actin, focal adhesions and caveolae-mediated membrane trafficking, resulting in impaired cell adhesion and migration in vitro. These effects were paralleled by a decrease in the phosphorylation of both focal adhesion kinase (Fak) and protein kinase B (Akt). Likewise, tumor cells pretreated with LGRFYAASG-pen exhibited an impaired capacity to colonize the lungs in vivo in several mouse models. Together, our findings demonstrate an unrecognized functional link between intracellular annexin A2 and tumor cell adhesion, migration and in vivo grafting. Moreover, this work uncovers a new peptide motif that binds to and inhibits intracellular annexin A2 as a candidate therapeutic lead for potential translation into clinical applications.

  1. [Expressions of angiogenesis-related factors: CD105, EphA2 and EphrinA1 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and clinical implication].

    PubMed

    Su, J; Ji, X B; Xie, J H; Li, W

    2016-12-07

    Objective: To investigate the expressions of endoglin (CD105), erythropoietin-producing hepatocyte receptor A2 (EphA2) and its ligand ephrinA1 proteins in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and the relationship between their expressions and the clinicopathological factors of LSCC. Methods: The expressions of CD105, EphA2 and EphrinA1 proteins were detected with immunohistochemical staining in LSCC in 76 cases and adjacent normal laryngeal tissues (ANLT) (S-P) in 25 cases.SPSS 17.0 software was used to analyze the data. Results: The mean microvessel density (MVD) value marked by CD105 staining in LSCC was 10.33±2.29, which was significantly higher than that in ANLT(1.20±1.04, t =18.732, P <0.05). The CD105-MVD was correlated with T stage, histological grading, clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, recurrence and prognosis in LSCC (F value was 5.34, 4.79, 5.36, t value was -2.70, 2.56, all P <0.05). The positive expression rates of EphA2 and EphrinA1 in LSCC were 78.95% (60/76), and 81.85% (62/76), which were respectively significantly higher than 40% (10/25) for EphA2 expression and 44% (11/25) for EphrinA1, expression in ANLT (χ 2 value was 13.41, 13.26, both P <0.05). EphA2 expression was correlated with histological grading, T stage, clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, recurrence and prognosis in LSCC (χ 2 value was 6.25, 14.60, 15.11, 8.52, 5.54, all P <0.05). EphrinA1 expression was correlated with T stage, clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, recurrence and prognosis in LSCC (χ 2 value was 6.44, 12.28, 16.78, 6.44, all P <0.05). The expressions of CD105, EphA2 and EphrinA1 were positively correlated with each other r value was 0.72, 0.74, 0.64, all P <0.05. Survival analysis indicated that the expressions of CD105 and EphA2, histological grading, lymph node metastasis, clinical stage and recurrence were independent factors for tumor prognosis in LSCC ( P <0.05). Conclusions: The expressions of CD105, EphA2 and EphrinA1 protein were positively

  2. REGULATION OF VASCULOGENESIS AND ANGIOGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulation of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis.
    B.D. Abbott
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Vasculogenesis and angiogenesis are regulated by a complex, interactive family of receptors and lig...

  3. Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) E1 Binds to hnRNP A2 and Inhibits Translation of A2 Response Element mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Kosturko, Linda D.; Maggipinto, Michael J.; Korza, George; Lee, Joo Won; Carson, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2 is a trans-acting RNA-binding protein that mediates trafficking of RNAs containing the cis-acting A2 response element (A2RE). Previous work has shown that A2RE RNAs are transported to myelin in oligodendrocytes and to dendrites in neurons. hnRNP E1 is an RNA-binding protein that regulates translation of specific mRNAs. Here, we show by yeast two-hybrid analysis, in vivo and in vitro coimmunoprecipitation, in vitro cross-linking, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy that hnRNP E1 binds to hnRNP A2 and is recruited to A2RE RNA in an hnRNP A2-dependent manner. hnRNP E1 is colocalized with hnRNP A2 and A2RE mRNA in granules in dendrites of oligodendrocytes. Overexpression of hnRNP E1 or microinjection of exogenous hnRNP E1 in neural cells inhibits translation of A2RE mRNA, but not of non-A2RE RNA. Excess hnRNP E1 added to an in vitro translation system reduces translation efficiency of A2RE mRNA, but not of nonA2RE RNA, in an hnRNP A2-dependent manner. These results are consistent with a model where hnRNP E1 recruited to A2RE RNA granules by binding to hnRNP A2 inhibits translation of A2RE RNA during granule transport. PMID:16775011

  4. Hyperforin acts as an angiogenesis inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Schempp, Christoph M; Kiss, Judit; Kirkin, Vladimir; Averbeck, Marco; Simon-Haarhaus, Birgit; Kremer, Bernhard; Termeer, Christian C; Sleeman, Jonathan; Simon, Jan C

    2005-11-01

    Hyperforin is a plant compound from Hypericum perforatum that inhibits tumor cell proliferation in vitro by induction of apoptosis. Here, we report that hyperforin also acts as an angiogenesis inhibitor in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, hyperforin blocked microvessel formation of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC) on a complex extracellular matrix. Furthermore, hyperforin reduced proliferation of HDMEC in a dose-dependent manner, without displaying toxic effects or inducing apoptosis of the cells. To evaluate the antiangiogenic activity of hyperforin in vivo, Wistar rats were subcutaneously injected with MT-450 mammary carcinoma cells and were treated with peritumoral injections of hyperforin or solvent. Hyperforin significantly inhibited tumor growth, induced apoptosis of tumor cells and reduced tumor vascularization, as shown by in situ staining of CD31-positive microvessels in the tumor stroma. These data suggest that, in addition to the induction of tumor cell apoptosis, hyperforin can also suppress angiogenesis by a direct, non-toxic effect on endothelial cells.

  5. VEGF-B is dispensable for blood vessel growth but critical for their survival, and VEGF-B targeting inhibits pathological angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Tang, Zhongshu; Hou, Xu; Lennartsson, Johan; Li, Yang; Koch, Alexander W.; Scotney, Pierre; Lee, Chunsik; Arjunan, Pachiappan; Dong, Lijin; Kumar, Anil; Rissanen, Tuomas T.; Wang, Bin; Nagai, Nobuo; Fons, Pierre; Fariss, Robert; Zhang, Yongqing; Wawrousek, Eric; Tansey, Ginger; Raber, James; Fong, Guo-Hua; Ding, Hao; Greenberg, David A.; Becker, Kevin G.; Herbert, Jean-Marc; Nash, Andrew; Yla-Herttuala, Seppo; Cao, Yihai; Watts, Ryan J.; Li, Xuri

    2009-01-01

    VEGF-B, a homolog of VEGF discovered a long time ago, has not been considered an important target in antiangiogenic therapy. Instead, it has received little attention from the field. In this study, using different animal models and multiple types of vascular cells, we revealed that although VEGF-B is dispensable for blood vessel growth, it is critical for their survival. Importantly, the survival effect of VEGF-B is not only on vascular endothelial cells, but also on pericytes, smooth muscle cells, and vascular stem/progenitor cells. In vivo, VEGF-B targeting inhibited both choroidal and retinal neovascularization. Mechanistically, we found that the vascular survival effect of VEGF-B is achieved by regulating the expression of many vascular prosurvival genes via both NP-1 and VEGFR-1. Our work thus indicates that the function of VEGF-B in the vascular system is to act as a “survival,” rather than an “angiogenic” factor and that VEGF-B inhibition may offer new therapeutic opportunities to treat neovascular diseases. PMID:19369214

  6. Inhibition of proanthocyanidin A2 on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yao; Duan, Mubing; Tian, Ge; Deng, Xianbo; Sun, Yankuo; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Guihong; Chen, Weisan

    2018-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a widely prevalent and endemic swine pathogen that causes significant economic losses for the global pig industry annually. Currently, the most prevalent strategy for PRRSV control remains the prevention of virus transmission, with highly effective therapeutic agents and vaccines still lacking. Proanthocyanidin A2 (PA2) belongs to the family of tea polyphenols, which have been reported to exhibit a range of biological activities including anti-oxidative, cardio-protective, anti-tumoural, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro as well as in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that PA2 exhibits potent anti-viral activity against PRRSV infection in Marc-145 cells. Similar inhibitory effects were also found in porcine alveolar macrophages, the primary target cell type of PRRSV infection in pigs in vivo. For traditional type II PRRSV CH-1a strain and high pathogenic GD-XH strain and GD-HD strain, PA2 exhibited broad-spectrum and comparable inhibitory activities in vitro with EC50 ranging from 2.2 to 3.2 μg/ml. Treatment of PRRSV-infected Marc-145 cells with PA2 significantly inhibited viral RNA synthesis, viral protein expression and progeny virus production in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, PA2 treatment reduced gene expressions of cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-α, IL-1β and IL-6) induced by PRRSV infection in PAMs. Mechanistically, PA2 inhibited PRRSV replication by targeting multiple pathways including blockade of viral entry and progeny virus release. Altogether, our findings suggest that PA2 has the potential to serve as a novel prophylactic and therapeutic strategies against PRRSV infection. PMID:29489892

  7. Cytosolic PhospholipaseA2 Inhibition with PLA-695 Radiosensitizes Tumors in Lung Cancer Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Daniel J.; Kotipatruni, Rama P.; Bhave, Sandeep R.; Jaboin, Jerry J.; Hallahan, Dennis E.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States and the rest of the world. The advent of molecularly directed therapies holds promise for improvement in therapeutic efficacy. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) is associated with tumor progression and radioresistance in mouse tumor models. Utilizing the cPLA2 specific inhibitor PLA-695, we determined if cPLA2 inhibition radiosensitizes non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and tumors. Treatment with PLA-695 attenuated radiation induced increases of phospho-ERK and phospho-Akt in endothelial cells. NSCLC cells (LLC and A549) co-cultured with endothelial cells (bEND3 and HUVEC) and pre-treated with PLA-695 showed radiosensitization. PLA-695 in combination with irradiation (IR) significantly reduced migration and proliferation in endothelial cells (HUVEC & bEND3) and induced cell death and attenuated invasion by tumor cells (LLC &A549). In a heterotopic tumor model, the combination of PLA-695 and radiation delayed growth in both LLC and A549 tumors. LLC and A549 tumors treated with a combination of PLA-695 and radiation displayed reduced tumor vasculature. In a dorsal skin fold model of LLC tumors, inhibition of cPLA2 in combination with radiation led to enhanced destruction of tumor blood vessels. The anti-angiogenic effects of PLA-695 and its enhancement of the efficacy of radiotherapy in mouse models of NSCLC suggest that clinical trials for its capacity to improve radiotherapy outcomes are warranted. PMID:23894523

  8. Cytosolic phospholipaseA2 inhibition with PLA-695 radiosensitizes tumors in lung cancer animal models.

    PubMed

    Thotala, Dinesh; Craft, Jeffrey M; Ferraro, Daniel J; Kotipatruni, Rama P; Bhave, Sandeep R; Jaboin, Jerry J; Hallahan, Dennis E

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States and the rest of the world. The advent of molecularly directed therapies holds promise for improvement in therapeutic efficacy. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) is associated with tumor progression and radioresistance in mouse tumor models. Utilizing the cPLA2 specific inhibitor PLA-695, we determined if cPLA2 inhibition radiosensitizes non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and tumors. Treatment with PLA-695 attenuated radiation induced increases of phospho-ERK and phospho-Akt in endothelial cells. NSCLC cells (LLC and A549) co-cultured with endothelial cells (bEND3 and HUVEC) and pre-treated with PLA-695 showed radiosensitization. PLA-695 in combination with irradiation (IR) significantly reduced migration and proliferation in endothelial cells (HUVEC & bEND3) and induced cell death and attenuated invasion by tumor cells (LLC &A549). In a heterotopic tumor model, the combination of PLA-695 and radiation delayed growth in both LLC and A549 tumors. LLC and A549 tumors treated with a combination of PLA-695 and radiation displayed reduced tumor vasculature. In a dorsal skin fold model of LLC tumors, inhibition of cPLA2 in combination with radiation led to enhanced destruction of tumor blood vessels. The anti-angiogenic effects of PLA-695 and its enhancement of the efficacy of radiotherapy in mouse models of NSCLC suggest that clinical trials for its capacity to improve radiotherapy outcomes are warranted.

  9. Interaction of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with endothelial cells: internalization and inhibition of angiogenesis in vitro through the PI3K/Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xingxing; Zhou, Kai; Huang, Fei; Wang, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HAP) has been proposed as a better candidate for bone tissue engineering; however, the interactions of nano-HAP with endothelial cells are currently unclear. In this study, HAP nanoparticles (HANPs; 20 nm np20 and 80 nm np80) and micro-sized HAP particles (m-HAP; 12 μm) were employed to explore and characterize cellular internalization, subcellular distribution, effects of HANPs on endothelial cell function and underlying mechanisms using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as an in vitro model. It was found that HANPs were able to accumulate in the cytoplasm, and both adhesion and uptake of the HANPs followed a function of time; compared to np80, more np20 had been uptaken at the end of the observation period. HANPs were mainly uptaken via clathrin- and caveolin-mediated endocytosis, while macropinocytosis was the main pathway for m-HAP uptake. Unexpectedly, exposure to HANPs suppressed the angiogenic ability of HUVECs in terms of cell viability, cell cycle, apoptosis response, migration and capillary-like tube formation. Strikingly, HANPs reduced the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) in HUVECs, which was associated with the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and phosphorylation of eNOS. These findings provide additional insights into specific biological responses as HANPs interface with endothelial cells. PMID:28848353

  10. Glycobiology of ocular angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Markowska, Anna I; Cao, Zhiyi; Panjwani, Noorjahan

    2014-01-01

    Ocular neovascularization can affect almost all the tissues of the eye: the cornea, the iris, the retina, and the choroid. Pathological neovascularization is the underlying cause of vision loss in common ocular conditions such as diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity and age-related macular neovascularization. Glycosylation is the most common covalent posttranslational modification of proteins in mammalian cells. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that glycosylation influences the process of angiogenesis and impacts activation, proliferation, and migration of endothelial cells as well as the interaction of angiogenic endothelial cells with other cell types necessary to form blood vessels. Recent studies have provided evidence that members of the galectin class of β-galactoside-binding proteins modulate angiogenesis by novel carbohydrate-based recognition systems involving interactions between glycans of angiogenic cell surface receptors and galectins. This review discusses the significance of glycosylation and the role of galectins in the pathogenesis of ocular neovascularization. PMID:25108228

  11. Environmentally persistent free radical-containing particulate matter competitively inhibits metabolism by cytochrome P450 1A2

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, James R., E-mail: rreed@lsuhsc.edu; Cruz, Albert Leo N. dela, E-mail: adelac2@tigers.lsu.edu; Lomnicki, Slawo M., E-mail: slomni1@lsu.edu

    Combustion processes generate different types of particulate matter (PM) that can have deleterious effects on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems. Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) represent a type of particulate matter that is generated after combustion of environmental wastes in the presence of redox-active metals and aromatic hydrocarbons. Cytochromes P450 (P450/CYP) are membrane-bound enzymes that are essential for the phase I metabolism of most lipophilic xenobiotics. The EPFR formed by chemisorption of 2-monochlorophenol to silica containing 5% copper oxide (MCP230) has been shown to generally inhibit the activities of different forms of P450s without affecting those of cytochrome P450 reductasemore » and heme oxygenase-1. The mechanism of inhibition of rat liver microsomal CYP2D2 and purified rabbit CYP2B4 by MCP230 has been shown previously to be noncompetitive with respect to substrate. In this study, MCP230 was shown to competitively inhibit metabolism of 7-benzyl-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin and 7-ethoxyresorufin by the purified, reconstituted rabbit CYP1A2. MCP230 is at least 5- and 50-fold more potent as an inhibitor of CYP1A2 than silica containing 5% copper oxide and silica, respectively. Thus, even though PM generally inhibit multiple forms of P450, PM interacts differently with the forms of P450 resulting in different mechanisms of inhibition. P450s function as oligomeric complexes within the membrane. We also determined the mechanism by which PM inhibited metabolism by the mixed CYP1A2–CYP2B4 complex and found that the mechanism was purely competitive suggesting that the CYP2B4 is dramatically inhibited when bound to CYP1A2. - Highlights: • Combustion of organic pollutants generates long-lived particulate radicals (EPFRs). • Particulate matter (PM) competitively inhibited CYP1A2 activity. • EPFRs were much more potent CYP1A2 inhibitors than other types of PM. • PM interacts differently with different forms of P450.

  12. The Harvard angiogenesis story.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joan W

    2014-01-01

    I shall discuss the work of researchers at Harvard Medical School who came together in the early 1990s. Scattered across various Harvard-affiliated hospitals and research centers, these individuals were unified by their interest in ocular neovascularization. Together and separately, they investigated models of ocular neovascularization, exploring tumor angiogenesis in eye development and disease. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Heme oxygenase-1 accelerates tumor angiogenesis of human pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Sunamura, Makoto; Duda, Dan G; Ghattas, Maivel H; Lozonschi, Lucian; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Yamauchi, Jun-Ichiro; Matsuno, Seiki; Shibahara, Shigeki; Abraham, Nader G

    2003-01-01

    Angiogenesis is necessary for the continued growth of solid tumors, invasion and metastasis. Several studies clearly showed that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays an important role in angiogenesis. In this study, we used the vital microscope system, transparent skinfold model, lung colonization model and transduced pancreatic cancer cell line (Panc-1)/human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) cells, to precisely analyze, for the first time, the effect of hHO-1 gene on tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Our results revealed that HO-1 stimulates angiogenesis of pancreatic carcinoma in severe combined immune deficient mice. Overexpression of human hHO-1 after its retroviral transfer into Panc-1 cells did not interfere with tumor growth in vitro. While in vivo the development of tumors was accelerated upon transfection with hHO-1. On the other hand, inhibition of heme oxygenase (HO) activity by stannous mesoporphyrin was able transiently to delay tumor growth in a dose dependent manner. Tumor angiogenesis was markedly increased in Panc-1/hHO-1 compared to mock transfected and wild type. Lectin staining and Ki-67 proliferation index confirmed these results. In addition hHO-1 stimulated in vitro tumor angiogenesis and increased endothelial cell survival. In a lung colonization model, overexpression of hHO-1 increased the occurrence of metastasis, while inhibition of HO activity by stannous mesoporphyrin completely inhibited the occurrence of metastasis. In conclusion, overexpression of HO-1 genes potentiates pancreatic cancer aggressiveness, by increasing tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis and that the inhibition of the HO system may be of useful benefit for the future treatment of the disease.

  14. Autophagy triggered by magnolol derivative negatively regulates angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S; Guru, S K; Pathania, A S; Kumar, A; Bhushan, S; Malik, F

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis has a key role in the tumor progression and metastasis; targeting endothelial cell proliferation has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for the prevention of cancer. Previous studies have revealed a complex association between the process of angiogenesis and autophagy and its outcome on tumorigenesis. Autophagy, also known as type-II cell death, has been identified as an alternative way of cell killing in apoptotic-resistant cancer cells. However, its involvement in chemoresistance and tumor promotion is also well known. In this study, we used a derivate of natural product magnolol (Ery5), a potent autophagy inducer, to study the association between the autophagy and angiogenesis in both in vitro and in vivo model system. We found that the robust autophagy triggered by Ery5, inhibited angiogenesis and caused cell death independent of the apoptosis in human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells and PC-3 cells. Ery5 induced autophagy effectively inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation. We further demonstrated that Ery5-mediated autophagy and subsequent inhibition of angiogenesis was reversed when autophagy was inhibited through 3-methyl adenine and knocking down of key autophagy proteins ATG7 and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3. While evaluating the negative regulation of autophagy on angiogenesis, it was interesting to find that angiogenic environment produced by the treatment of VEGF and CoCl2 remarkably downregulated the autophagy and autophagic cell death induced by Ery5. These studies, while disclosing the vital role of autophagy in the regulation of angiogenesis, also suggest that the potent modulators of autophagy can lead to the development of effective therapeutics in apoptosis-resistant cancer. PMID:24176847

  15. Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C) enhances the sensitivity of murine breast adenocarcinoma cells to doxorubicin (DOX) through inhibition of NF-κβ, blocking angiogenesis and regulation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Hajra, Subhadip; Patra, Arup Ranjan; Basu, Abhishek; Saha, Prosenjit; Bhattacharya, Sudin

    2018-06-25

    Various epidemiological and preclinical studies have already established the cancer chemopreventive potential of naturally occurring glucosinolate breakdown product Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C) as well as its abilities to induce selective cell death towards malignant cell. Therefore, the objective of the present study is to improve the therapeutic efficacy and prevention of doxorubicin (DOX)-induced toxicity, by the concurrent use of Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C). In this study, I3C was administered (20 mg/kg b.w., p.o.) to breast adenocarcinoma (Ehrlich ascites carcinoma) induced solid tumor bearing mice alone as well as in combination with DOX (5 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) in concomitant and pretreatment schedule. The results showed that concurrent administration of I3C and DOX significantly (P < 0.05) improved therapeutic efficacy as evidenced by reduction of tumor size and enhancement of host survivability. Oral administration of I3C significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the expression of NF-κβ in both tumor cells and cardiac tissue as well as maximizes the therapeutic outcome in terms of tumor cell killing and toxicity. In addition, I3C sensitized tumor cells to DOX-therapy by down-regulating the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and by up-regulating molecules like Bax, cytochrome c, caspases, which led to PARP cleavage and apoptosis. Significant inhibition of angiogenesis along with reduction in the serum levels of VEGF-A and MMP-9 further contribute to the sensitization accomplished by I3C. Moreover, we also found that I3C provided additional host survival advantages by attenuated DOX-induced toxicities through modulation of Nrf2/ARE pathway and promoted expression of cytoprotective proteins HO-1, NQO1 and GSTπ in cardiac tissue. In addition, I3C significantly attenuated DOX-induced inflammation by down-regulation of NF-kβ, iNOS, COX-2 and IL-6 in cardiac tissue. Thus, the present study clearly suggested therapeutic benefit of I3C in combination with DOX

  16. Adenosine A2A receptor inhibition restores the normal transport of endothelial glutamate transporters in the brain.

    PubMed

    Bai, Wei; Li, Ping; Ning, Ya-Lei; Peng, Yan; Xiong, Ren-Ping; Yang, Nan; Chen, Xing; Zhou, Yuan-Guo

    2018-04-15

    Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) on cerebral vascular endothelial cells play an important role in maintaining glutamate homeostasis in the brain. The dysfunction of endothelial EAATs is an important reason for the dramatically elevated brain glutamate levels after brain injury, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI). The adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2A R) plays an important role in regulating the brain glutamate level after brain injury; however, researchers have not clearly determined whether this role was related to its ability to regulate endothelial EAATs. Activation of A 2A R in vitro not only decreased the PKA- and glutamate level-dependent strengthening of the interaction between NKA-α1 and the FXYD1 subunit and the subsequent decrease in the activity of Na + /K + -ATPases (NKAs) but also enhanced its interaction with EAATs and ultimately aggravated the reverse transport function of endothelial EAATs under oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) conditions. Conversely, inhibition of A 2A R restored the normal transport of EAAT. Moreover, A 2A R inhibition increased NKA activity and decreased its interaction with EAATs in isolated brain capillaries after TBI, further confirming its role in endothelial EAATs in vivo. Based on our results, A 2A R played an important role in regulating endothelial EAAT function, and strategies that restore the normal transport of endothelial EAATs through the inhibition of A 2A R might serve as an effective treatment for brain injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pancreatic and snake venom presynaptically active phospholipases A2 inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Vulfius, Catherine A; Kasheverov, Igor E; Kryukova, Elena V; Spirova, Ekaterina N; Shelukhina, Irina V; Starkov, Vladislav G; Andreeva, Tatyana V; Faure, Grazyna; Zouridakis, Marios; Tsetlin, Victor I; Utkin, Yuri N

    2017-01-01

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are enzymes found throughout the animal kingdom. They hydrolyze phospholipids in the sn-2 position producing lysophospholipids and unsaturated fatty acids, agents that can damage membranes. PLA2s from snake venoms have numerous toxic effects, not all of which can be explained by phospholipid hydrolysis, and each enzyme has a specific effect. We have earlier demonstrated the capability of several snake venom PLA2s with different enzymatic, cytotoxic, anticoagulant and antiproliferative properties, to decrease acetylcholine-induced currents in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons, and to compete with α-bungarotoxin for binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and acetylcholine binding protein. Since nAChRs are implicated in postsynaptic and presynaptic activities, in this work we probe those PLA2s known to have strong presynaptic effects, namely β-bungarotoxin from Bungarus multicinctus and crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus. We also wished to explore whether mammalian PLA2s interact with nAChRs, and have examined non-toxic PLA2 from porcine pancreas. It was found that porcine pancreatic PLA2 and presynaptic β-bungarotoxin blocked currents mediated by nAChRs in Lymnaea neurons with IC50s of 2.5 and 4.8 μM, respectively. Crotoxin competed with radioactive α-bungarotoxin for binding to Torpedo and human α7 nAChRs and to the acetylcholine binding protein. Pancreatic PLA2 interacted similarly with these targets; moreover, it inhibited radioactive α-bungarotoxin binding to the water-soluble extracellular domain of human α9 nAChR, and blocked acetylcholine induced currents in human α9α10 nAChRs heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. These and our earlier results show that all snake PLA2s, including presynaptically active crotoxin and β-bungarotoxin, as well as mammalian pancreatic PLA2, interact with nAChRs. The data obtained suggest that this interaction may be a general property of all PLA2s, which should be proved by

  18. Inhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupperman, Joel J.

    1978-01-01

    Explores the use of the concept of inhibition in moral philosophy. Argues that there are strong practical reasons for basing moral teaching on simple moral rules and for inculcating inhibitions about breaking these rules. (Author)

  19. Dimethyl ester of bilirubin exhibits anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of secretory phospholipase A2, lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Vikram; Umashankara, M; Ramakrishnan, Chandrasekaran; Nanjaraj Urs, Ankanahalli N; Suvilesh, Kanve Nagaraj; Velmurugan, Devadasan; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S; Vishwanath, Bannikuppe Sannanaik

    2016-05-15

    Overproduction of arachidonic acid (AA) mediated by secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (sPLA2IIA) is a hallmark of many inflammatory disorders. AA is subsequently converted into pro-inflammatory eicosanoids through 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and cyclooxygenase-1/2 (COX-1/2) activities. Hence, inhibition of sPLA2IIA, 5-LOX and COX-1/2 activities is critical in regulating inflammation. We have previously reported unconjugated bilirubin (UCB), an endogenous antioxidant, as sPLA2IIA inhibitor. However, lipophilic UCB gets conjugated in liver with glucuronic acid into hydrophilic conjugated bilirubin (CB). Since hydrophobicity is pre-requisite for sPLA2IIA inhibition, conjugation reduces the efficacy of UCB. In this regard, UCB was chemically modified and derivatives were evaluated for sPLA2IIA, 5-LOX and COX-1/2 inhibition. Among the derivatives, BD1 (dimethyl ester of bilirubin) exhibited ∼ 3 fold greater inhibitory potency towards sPLA2IIA compared to UCB. Both UCB and BD1 inhibited human 5-LOX and COX-2 activities; however only BD1 inhibited AA induced platelet aggregation. Molecular docking studies demonstrated BD1 as better inhibitor of aforesaid enzymes than UCB and other endogenous antioxidants. These data suggest that BD1 exhibits strong anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of AA cascade enzymes which is of great therapeutic importance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Piperine Inhibits the Activities of Platelet Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 and Thromboxane A2 Synthase without Affecting Cyclooxygenase-1 Activity: Different Mechanisms of Action Are Involved in the Inhibition of Platelet Aggregation and Macrophage Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Son, Dong Ju; Akiba, Satoshi; Hong, Jin Tae; Yun, Yeo Pyo; Hwang, Seock Yeon; Park, Young Hyun; Lee, Sung Eun

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Piperine, a major alkaloid of black pepper (Piper nigrum) and long pepper (Piper longum), was shown to have anti-inflammatory activity through the suppression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 gene expression and enzyme activity. It is also reported to exhibit anti-platelet activity, but the mechanism underlying this action remains unknown. In this study, we investigated a putative anti-platelet aggregation mechanism involving arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism and how this compares with the mechanism by which it inhibits macrophage inflammatory responses; METHODS: Rabbit platelets and murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were treated with piperine, and the effect of piperine on the activity of AA-metabolizing enzymes, including cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), COX-1, COX-2, and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) synthase, as well as its effect on AA liberation from the plasma membrane components, were assessed using isotopic labeling methods and enzyme immunoassay kit; RESULTS: Piperine significantly suppressed AA liberation by attenuating cPLA2 activity in collagen-stimulated platelets. It also significantly inhibited the activity of TXA2 synthase, but not of COX-1, in platelets. These results suggest that piperine inhibits platelet aggregation by attenuating cPLA2 and TXA2 synthase activities, rather than through the inhibition of COX-1 activity. On the other hand, piperine significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced generation of prostaglandin (PG)E2 and PGD2 in RAW264.7 cells by suppressing the activity of COX-2, without effect on cPLA2; CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that piperine inhibits platelet aggregation and macrophage inflammatory response by different mechanisms. PMID:25153972

  1. Novel endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors and their therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Nithya; Lee, Yu Fei; Ge, Ruowen

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from the pre-existing vasculature is essential for embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. It also plays critical roles in diseases such as cancer and retinopathy. A delicate balance between pro- and anti-angiogenic factors ensures normal physiological homeostasis. Endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors are proteins or protein fragments that are formed in the body and have the ability to limit angiogenesis. Many endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors have been discovered, and the list continues to grow. Endogenous protein/peptide inhibitors are relatively less toxic, better tolerated and have a lower risk of drug resistance, which makes them attractive as drug candidates. In this review, we highlight ten novel endogenous protein angiogenesis inhibitors discovered within the last five years, including ISM1, FKBPL, CHIP, ARHGAP18, MMRN2, SOCS3, TAp73, ZNF24, GPR56 and JWA. Although some of these proteins have been well characterized for other biological functions, we focus on their new and specific roles in angiogenesis inhibition and discuss their potential for therapeutic application. PMID:26364800

  2. Novel endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors and their therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Rao, Nithya; Lee, Yu Fei; Ge, Ruowen

    2015-10-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from the pre-existing vasculature is essential for embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. It also plays critical roles in diseases such as cancer and retinopathy. A delicate balance between pro- and anti-angiogenic factors ensures normal physiological homeostasis. Endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors are proteins or protein fragments that are formed in the body and have the ability to limit angiogenesis. Many endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors have been discovered, and the list continues to grow. Endogenous protein/peptide inhibitors are relatively less toxic, better tolerated and have a lower risk of drug resistance, which makes them attractive as drug candidates. In this review, we highlight ten novel endogenous protein angiogenesis inhibitors discovered within the last five years, including ISM1, FKBPL, CHIP, ARHGAP18, MMRN2, SOCS3, TAp73, ZNF24, GPR56 and JWA. Although some of these proteins have been well characterized for other biological functions, we focus on their new and specific roles in angiogenesis inhibition and discuss their potential for therapeutic application.

  3. [Virtual screening of anti-angiogenesis flavonoids from Sophora flavescens].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi-Xin; Liu, Yi; Huang, Rong; Zhao, Lin-Lin; Chen, Lei; Wang, Shu-Mei

    2017-03-01

    Angiogenesis is a dynamic, multi-step process. It is known that about 70 diseases are related to angiogenesis. Both the experimental and the literature reports showed that Sophora flavescens inhibit angiogenesis significantly, but the material basis and the mechanism of action have not been clear. In this study, molecular docking was used for screening of anti-angiogenesis flavonoids from the roots of S. flavescens. One handred and twenty-six flavonoids selected from S. flavescens were screened in the docking ligand database with six targets(VEGF-a,TEK,KDR,Flt1,FGFR1 and FGFR2) as the receptors. In addition, the small-molecule approved drugs of targets from DrugBank database were set as a reference with minimum score of each target's approved drugs as threshold. The LibDock module in Discovery Studio 2.5 (DS2.5) software was applied to screen the compounds. As a result, 37 compounds were screened out that their scores were higher than the minimum score of approved drugs as well as being in the top of 10%. At last the mechanism of flavonoids anti-angiogenesis was preliminarily revealed, which provided a new method for the development of angiogenesis inhibitor drugs. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. Preventing local regeneration of glucocorticoids by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enhances angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Small, Gary R.; Hadoke, Patrick W. F.; Sharif, Isam; Dover, Anna R.; Armour, Danielle; Kenyon, Christopher J.; Gray, Gillian A.; Walker, Brian R.

    2005-01-01

    Angiogenesis restores blood flow to healing tissues, a process that is inhibited by high doses of glucocorticoids. However, the role of endogenous glucocorticoids and the potential for antiglucocorticoid therapy to enhance angiogenesis is unknown. Using in vitro and in vivo models of angiogenesis in mice, we examined effects of (i) endogenous glucocorticoids, (ii) blocking endogenous glucocorticoid action with the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU38486, and (iii) abolishing local regeneration of glucocorticoids by the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1). Glucocorticoids, administered at physiological concentrations, inhibited angiogenesis in an in vitro aortic ring model and in vivo in polyurethane sponges implanted s.c. RU38486-enhanced angiogenesis in s.c. sponges, in healing surgical wounds, and in the myocardium of mice 7 days after myocardial infarction induced by coronary artery ligation. 11βHSD1 knockout mice showed enhanced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo within sponges, wounds, and infarcted myocardium. Endogenous glucocorticoids, including those generated locally by 11βHSD1, exert tonic inhibition of angiogenesis. Inhibition of 11βHSD1 in liver and adipose has been advocated to reduce cardiovascular risk in the metabolic syndrome: these data suggest that 11βHSD1 inhibition offers a previously uncharacterized therapeutic approach to improve healing of ischemic or injured tissue. PMID:16093320

  5. Green tea and its anti-angiogenesis effects.

    PubMed

    Rashidi, Bahman; Malekzadeh, Mehrnoush; Goodarzi, Mohammad; Masoudifar, Aria; Mirzaei, Hamed

    2017-05-01

    The development of new blood vessels from a pre-existing vasculature (also known as angiogenesis) is required for many physiological processes including embryogenesis and post-natal growth. However, pathological angiogenesis is also a hallmark of cancer and many ischaemic and inflammatory diseases. The pro-angiogenic members of the VEGF family (vascular endothelial growth factor family), VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D and placental growth factor (PlGF), and the related receptors, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 have a central and decisive role in angiogenesis. Indeed, they are the targets for anti-angiogenic drugs currently approved. Green tea (from the Camellia sinensis plant) is one of the most popular beverages in the world. It is able to inhibit angiogenesis by different mechanisms such as microRNAs (miRNAs). Green tea and its polyphenolic substances (like catechins) show chemo-preventive and chemotherapeutic features in various types of cancer and experimental models for human cancers. The tea catechins, including (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), have multiple effects on the cellular proteome and signalome. Note that the polyphenolic compounds from green tea are able to change the miRNA expression profile associated with angiogenesis in various cancer types. This review focuses on the ability of the green tea constituents to suppress angiogenesis signaling and it summarizes the mechanisms by which EGCG might inhibit the VEGF family. We also highlighted the miRNAs affected by green tea which are involved in anti-angiogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. FAK-heterozygous mice display enhanced tumour angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kostourou, Vassiliki; Lechertier, Tanguy; Reynolds, Louise E; Lees, Delphine M; Baker, Marianne; Jones, Dylan T; Tavora, Bernardo; Ramjaun, Antoine R; Birdsey, Graeme M; Robinson, Stephen D; Parsons, Maddy; Randi, Anna M; Hart, Ian R; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan

    2013-01-01

    Genetic ablation of endothelial focal adhesion kinase (FAK) can inhibit pathological angiogenesis, suggesting that loss of endothelial FAK is sufficient to reduce neovascularization. Here we show that reduced stromal FAK expression in FAK-heterozygous mice unexpectedly enhances both B16F0 and CMT19T tumour growth and angiogenesis. We further demonstrate that cell proliferation and microvessel sprouting, but not migration, are increased in serum-stimulated FAK-heterozygous endothelial cells. FAK-heterozygous endothelial cells display an imbalance in FAK phosphorylation at pY397 and pY861 without changes in Pyk2 or Erk1/2 activity. By contrast, serum-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt is enhanced in FAK-heterozygous endothelial cells and these cells are more sensitive to Akt inhibition. Additionally, low doses of a pharmacological FAK inhibitor, although too low to affect FAK autophosphorylation in vitro, can enhance angiogenesis ex vivo and tumour growth in vivo. Our results highlight a potential novel role for FAK as a nonlinear, dose-dependent regulator of angiogenesis where heterozygous levels of FAK enhance angiogenesis.

  7. FAK-heterozygous mice display enhanced tumour angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kostourou, Vassiliki; Lechertier, Tanguy; Reynolds, Louise E.; Lees, Delphine M.; Baker, Marianne; Jones, Dylan T.; Tavora, Bernardo; Ramjaun, Antoine R.; Birdsey, Graeme M.; Robinson, Stephen D.; Parsons, Maddy; Randi, Anna M.; Hart, Ian R; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan

    2013-01-01

    Genetic ablation of endothelial Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) can inhibit pathological angiogenesis, suggesting that loss of endothelial FAK is sufficient to reduce neovascularisation. Here we show that reduced stromal-FAK expression in FAK-heterozygous mice unexpectedly enhances both B16F0 and CMT19T tumour growth and angiogenesis. We further demonstrate that cell proliferation and microvessel sprouting, but not migration, are increased in serum-stimulated FAK-heterozygous endothelial cells. FAK-heterozygous endothelial cells display an imbalance in FAK phosphorylation at pY397 and pY861 without changes in Pyk2 or Erk1/2 activity. By contrast, serum-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt is enhanced in FAK-heterozygous endothelial cells and these cells are more sensitive to Akt inhibition. Additionally, low doses of a pharmacological FAK inhibitor, although too low to affect FAK autophosphorylation in vitro, can enhance angiogenesis ex vivo and tumor growth in vivo. Our results highlight a potential novel role for FAK as a non-linear, dose-dependent regulator of angiogenesis where heterozygous levels of FAK enhance angiogenesis. PMID:23799510

  8. MiR-26b inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion by targeting EphA2.

    PubMed

    Li, Hesheng; Sun, Qinglei; Han, Bing; Yu, Xingquan; Hu, Baoguang; Hu, Sanyuan

    2015-01-01

    Deregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play important roles in cancer progression as a result of changes in expression of their target genes. In this study, we investigated the expression of miR-16b in eight hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, revealed the roles of miR-26b on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and confirmed that EphA2 is a direct target of miR-26b. The miR-26b expression was decreased and EphA2 expression was evaluated in HCC cell lines. Luciferase assays revealed that miR-26b inhibited EphA2 expression by targeting the 3'-untranslated region of EphA2 mRNA. Overexpression of miR-26b dramatically inhibited the proliferation, invasion, and migration of HCC cells by targeting EphA2. Moreover, miR-26b down-regulated c-Myc and CyclinD1 expression, which was reversed by overexpressed EphA2. Taken together, our data demonstrated the mechanism of miR-26b contributed to HCC progression and implicated that miR-26b's potential in HCC therapy.

  9. Inhibition of HDACs-EphA2 Signaling Axis with WW437 Demonstrates Promising Preclinical Antitumor Activity in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Jingjie; Ma, Xiaojun; Yang, Yang; Sun, Wei; Jin, Wangrui; Wang, Lei; He, Yuan; Yang, Feifei; Yi, Zhengfang; Hua, Yingqi; Liu, Mingyao; Chen, Yihua; Cai, Zhengdong

    2018-05-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are small molecules targeting epigenetic enzymes approved for hematologic neoplasms, which have also demonstrated clinical activities in solid tumors. In our present study, we screened our internal compound library and discovered a novel HDACi, WW437, with potent anti-breast cancer ability in vitro and in vivo. WW437 significantly inhibited phosphorylated EphA2 and EphA2 expression. Further study demonstrated WW437 blocked HDACs-EphA2 signaling axis in breast cancer. In parallel, we found that EphA2 expression positively correlates with breast cancer progression; and combined use of WW437 and an EphA2 inhibitor (ALW-II-41-27) exerted more remarkable effect on breast cancer growth than either drug alone. Our findings suggested inhibition of HDACs-EphA2 signaling axis with WW437 alone or in combination with other agents may be a promising therapeutic strategy for advanced breast cancer. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Up-regulation of eEF1A2 promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yue; Du, Chengli; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Yanling; Liu, Xiaoyan; Ren, Guoping

    2014-07-18

    eEF1A2 is a protein translation factor involved in protein synthesis, which possesses important function roles in cancer development. This study aims at investigating the expression pattern of eEF1A2 in prostate cancer and its potential role in prostate cancer development. We examined the expression level of eEF1A2 in 30 pairs of prostate cancer tissues by using RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining (IHC). Then we applied siRNA specifically targeting eEF1A2 to down-regulate its expression in DU-145 and PC-3 cells. Flow cytometer was used to explore apoptosis and Western-blot was used to detect the pathway proteins of apoptosis. Our results showed that the expression level of eEF1A2 in prostate cancer tissues was significantly higher compared to their corresponding normal tissues. Reduction of eEF1A2 expression in DU-145 and PC-3 cells led to a dramatic inhibition of proliferation accompanied with enhanced apoptosis rate. Western blot revealed that apoptosis pathway proteins (caspase3, BAD, BAX, PUMA) were significantly up-regulated after suppression of eEF1A2. More importantly, the levels of eEF1A2 and caspase3 were inversely correlated in prostate cancer tissues. Our data suggests that eEF1A2 plays an important role in prostate cancer development, especially in inhibiting apoptosis. So eEF1A2 might serve as a potential therapeutic target in prostate cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. INHIBITION OF HUMAN AND RAT CYP1A2 BY TCDD AND DIOXIN-LIKE CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dioxins have been shown to bind and induce rodent CYP1A2, producing a dose-dependent hepatic sequestration in vivo. The induction of CYP1A2 activity has been used as a noninvasive biomarker for human exposure to dioxins; while there is a consistent relationship between exposure ...

  12. Discovery of multi-target receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors as novel anti-angiogenesis agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Lin; Pan, Xiaoyan; Dai, Bingling; Sun, Ying; Li, Chuansheng; Zhang, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Recently, we have identified a biphenyl-aryl urea incorporated with salicylaldoxime (BPS-7) as an anti-angiogenesis agent. Herein, we disclosed a series of novel anti-angiogenesis agents with BPS-7 as lead compound through combining diarylureas with N-pyridin-2-ylcyclopropane carboxamide. Several title compounds exhibited simultaneous inhibition effects against three pro-angiogenic RTKs (VEGFR-2, TIE-2 and EphB4). Some of them displayed potent anti-proliferative activity against human vascular endothelial cell (EA.hy926). In particular, two potent compounds (CDAU-1 and CDAU-2) could be considered as promising anti-angiogenesis agents with triplet inhibition profile. The biological evaluation and molecular docking results indicate that N-pyridin-2-ylcyclopropane carboxamide could serve as a hinge-binding group (HBG) for the discovery of multi-target anti-angiogenesis agents. CDAU-2 also exhibited promising anti-angiogenic potency in a tissue model for angiogenesis.

  13. Discovery of multi-target receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors as novel anti-angiogenesis agents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Lin; Pan, Xiaoyan; Dai, Bingling; Sun, Ying; Li, Chuansheng; Zhang, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Recently, we have identified a biphenyl-aryl urea incorporated with salicylaldoxime (BPS-7) as an anti-angiogenesis agent. Herein, we disclosed a series of novel anti-angiogenesis agents with BPS-7 as lead compound through combining diarylureas with N-pyridin-2-ylcyclopropane carboxamide. Several title compounds exhibited simultaneous inhibition effects against three pro-angiogenic RTKs (VEGFR-2, TIE-2 and EphB4). Some of them displayed potent anti-proliferative activity against human vascular endothelial cell (EA.hy926). In particular, two potent compounds (CDAU-1 and CDAU-2) could be considered as promising anti-angiogenesis agents with triplet inhibition profile. The biological evaluation and molecular docking results indicate that N-pyridin-2-ylcyclopropane carboxamide could serve as a hinge-binding group (HBG) for the discovery of multi-target anti-angiogenesis agents. CDAU-2 also exhibited promising anti-angiogenic potency in a tissue model for angiogenesis. PMID:28332573

  14. The effect of acetylshikonin isolated from Lithospermum canescens roots on tumor-induced cutaneous angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pietrosiuk, Agnieszka; Furmanowa, Mirosława; Skopińiska-Rózewska, Ewa; Sommer, Ewa; Skurzak, Henryk; Bany, Janusz

    2004-01-01

    This study has demonstrated that acetylshikonin (ACS), the isolated ingredient from Lithospermum canescens Lehm. roots, in a daily dose of 200 microg for 3 days, inhibited cutaneous angiogenesis induced by L-1 sarcoma cells in Balb/c mice.

  15. Secreted and intracellular phospholipases A2 inhibition by 1-decyl 2-octyl-glycerophosphocholine in rat peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Boucrot, P; Bobin-Dubigeon, C; Elkihel, L; Letourneux, Y; Jugé, M; Gandemer, G; Petit, J Y

    1998-01-01

    Compounds able to inhibit phospholipases A2 can be considered as potential anti-inflammatory drugs. In this respect, the inhibitory effect of the phospholipid analogue 1-decyl 2-octyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine (decyloctyl-GPC) added to the culture medium of rat peritoneal macrophages stimulated with ionophore A23187 was determined. (a) The substrate of phospholipase A2 1-octadecanoyl 2-[14C]eicosatetraenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine ([14C]20:4-GPC) was added to the culture medium. In macrophages + extracellular fluids, its hydrolysis at the 2-position, produced [14C]non-phosphorous lipids which reached 12% of the dose at 0.14 microM, 73% at 0.9 and > 90% at 1.6 microM; in experiments where macrophages and extracellular fluids were analyzed separately, decyloctyl-GPC initially added at 4 microM, significantly inhibited the release of [14C]fatty acids and the eicosanoid synthesis, demonstrating its ability to inhibit secreted and/or intracellular phospholipases A2. (b) Extracellular fluids were separated from the macrophages and incubated with [14C]20:4-GPC: 48% of the dose was hydrolyzed by extracellular fluid-associated secreted phospholipase A2 and decyloctyl-GPC at 3 microM, reduced this hydrolysis by 50%. (c) [3H]arachidonic acid ([3H]20:4) was added to the culture medium and was esterified in the macrophage membrane phospholipids. Activation of intracellular phospholipase A2 induced the release of [3H] fatty acids and eicosanoid synthesis. These releases were inhibited by 50% with decyloctyl-GPC added at 4 microM. (d) [3H]20:4 and [14C]20:4-GPC were added to the culture medium of the macrophages. [3H] and [14C] fatty acids and eicosanoids were released in macrophages or extracellular fluids. They were significantly reduced by the phospholipid analogue added at 4 microM. It is concluded that secreted and intracellular phospholipases A2 were both inhibited by decyloctyl-GPC which extensively reduced the 20:4 release from exogenous and membrane phospholipids

  16. Diabetes and Wound Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Okonkwo, Uzoagu A; DiPietro, Luisa A

    2017-07-03

    Diabetes Mellitus Type II (DM2) is a growing international health concern with no end in sight. Complications of DM2 involve a myriad of comorbidities including the serious complications of poor wound healing, chronic ulceration, and resultant limb amputation. In skin wound healing, which has definite, orderly phases, diabetes leads to improper function at all stages. While the etiology of chronic, non-healing diabetic wounds is multi-faceted, the progression to a non-healing phenotype is closely linked to poor vascular networks. This review focuses on diabetic wound healing, paying special attention to the aberrations that have been described in the proliferative, remodeling, and maturation phases of wound angiogenesis. Additionally, this review considers therapeutics that may offer promise to better wound healing outcomes.

  17. Diabetes and Wound Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Okonkwo, Uzoagu A.; DiPietro, Luisa A.

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus Type II (DM2) is a growing international health concern with no end in sight. Complications of DM2 involve a myriad of comorbidities including the serious complications of poor wound healing, chronic ulceration, and resultant limb amputation. In skin wound healing, which has definite, orderly phases, diabetes leads to improper function at all stages. While the etiology of chronic, non-healing diabetic wounds is multi-faceted, the progression to a non-healing phenotype is closely linked to poor vascular networks. This review focuses on diabetic wound healing, paying special attention to the aberrations that have been described in the proliferative, remodeling, and maturation phases of wound angiogenesis. Additionally, this review considers therapeutics that may offer promise to better wound healing outcomes. PMID:28671607

  18. Orphan nuclear receptor NR4A2 inhibits hepatic stellate cell proliferation through MAPK pathway in liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pengguo; Li, Jie; Huo, Yan; Lu, Jin; Wan, Lili; Li, Bin; Gan, Run; Guo, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a crucial role in liver fibrosis, which is a pathological process characterized by extracellular matrix accumulation. NR4A2 is a nuclear receptor belonging to the NR4A subfamily and vital in regulating cell growth, metabolism, inflammation and other biological functions. However, its role in HSCs is unclear. We analyzed NR4A2 expression in fibrotic liver and stimulated HSCs compared with control group and studied the influence on cell proliferation, cell cycle, cell apoptosis and MAPK pathway after NR4A2 knockdown. NR4A2 expression was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analyses. NR4A2 expression was significantly lower in fibrotic liver tissues and PDGF BB or TGF-β stimulated HSCs compared with control group. After NR4A2 knockdown α-smooth muscle actin and Col1 expression increased. In addition, NR4A2 silencing led to the promotion of cell proliferation, increase of cell percentage in S phase and reduced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, P38 and JNK in HSCs. These results indicate that NR4A2 can inhibit HSC proliferation through MAPK pathway and decrease extracellular matrix in liver fibrogenesis. NR4A2 may be a promising therapeutic target for liver fibrosis.

  19. NcoA2-Dependent Inhibition of HIF-1α Activation Is Regulated via AhR.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chi-Hao; Li, Ching-Hao; Liao, Po-Lin; Cheng, Yu-Wen; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Huang, Shih-Hsuan; Kang, Jaw-Jou

    2015-12-01

    High endogenous levels of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) contribute to hypoxia signaling pathway inhibition following exposure to the potent AhR ligand benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and could alter cellular homeostasis and disease condition. Increasing evidence indicates that AhR might compete with AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) for complex formation with hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) for transactivation, which could alter several physiological variables. Nuclear receptor coactivator 2 (NcoA2) is a transcription coactivator that regulates transcription factor activation and inhibition of basic helix-loop-helix Per (Period)-ARNT-SIM (single-minded) (bHLH-PAS) family proteins, such as HIF-1α, ARNT, and AhR, through protein-protein interactions. In this study, we demonstrated that both hypoxia and hypoxia-mimic conditions decreased NcoA2 protein expression in HEK293T cells. Hypoxia response element (HRE) and xenobiotic-responsive element (XRE) transactivation also were downregulated with NcoA2 knockdown under hypoxic conditions. In addition, B[a]P significantly decreased NcoA2 protein expression be accompanied with AhR degradation. We next evaluated whether the absence of AhR could affect NcoA2 protein function under hypoxia-mimetic conditions. NcoA2 and HIF-1α nuclear localization decreased in both B[a]P-pretreated and AhR-knockdown HepG2 cells under hypoxia-mimic conditions. Interestingly, NcoA2 overexpression downregulated HRE transactivation by competing with HIF-1α and AhR to form protein complexes with ARNT. Both NcoA2 knockdown and overexpression inhibited endothelial cell tube formation in vitro. We also demonstrated using the in vivo plug assay that NcoA2-regulated vascularization decreased in mice. Taken together, these results revealed a biphasic role of NcoA2 between AhR and hypoxic conditions, thus providing a novel mechanism underlying the cross talk between AhR and hypoxia that affects disease development and progression. © The Author 2015

  20. Inhibition of carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema by crotapotin, a polypeptide complexed with phospholipase A2.

    PubMed Central

    Landucci, E C; Antunes, E; Donato, J L; Faro, R; Hyslop, S; Marangoni, S; Oliveira, B; Cirino, G; de Nucci, G

    1995-01-01

    1. The effect of purified crotapotin, a non-toxic non-enzymatic chaperon protein normally complexed to a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in South America rattlesnake venom, was studied in the acute inflammatory response induced by carrageenin (1 mg/paw), compound 48/80 (3 micrograms/paw) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) (3 micrograms/paw) in the rat hind-paw. The effects of crotapotin on platelet aggregation, mast cell degranulation and eicosanoid release from guinea-pig isolated lung were also investigated. 2. Subplantar co-injection of crotapotin (1 and 10 micrograms/paw) with carrageenin or injection of crotapotin (10 micrograms/paw) into the contralateral paw significantly inhibited the carrageenin-induced oedema. This inhibition was also observed when crotapotin (10-30 micrograms/paw) was administered either intraperitoneally or orally. Subplantar injection of heated crotapotin (15 min at 60 degrees C) failed to inhibit carrageenin-induced oedema. Subplantar injection of crotapotin (10 micrograms/paw) also significantly inhibited the rat paw oedema induced by compound 48/80, but it did not affect 5-HT-induced oedema. 3. In adrenalectomized animals, subplantar injection of crotapotin markedly inhibited the oedema induced by carrageenin. The inhibitory effect of crotapotin was also observed in rats depleted of histamine and 5-HT stores. 4. Crotapotin (30 micrograms/paw) had no effect on either the histamine release induced by compound 48/80 in vitro or on the platelet aggregation induced by both arachidonic acid (1 nM) and platelet activating factor (1 microM) in human platelet-rich plasma. The platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) release induced by thrombin (100 mu ml-1) in washed human platelets were also not affected by crotapotin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7537590

  1. Effect of biomaterials on angiogenesis during vital pulp therapy

    PubMed Central

    SAGHIRI, Mohammad Ali; ASATOURIAN, Armen; GARCIA-GODOY, Franklin; SHEIBANI, Nader

    2016-01-01

    This review intended to provide an overview of the effects of dental materials, used in dentin-pulp complex and dental pulp regeneration, on angiogenesis processes during regenerative endodontic procedures. An electronic search was performed in PubMed and MEDLINE databases via OVID using the keywords mentioned in the PubMed and MeSH headings for English language published articles from January 2005–April 2014 that evaluated the angiogenic properties of different dental materials used in regenerative endodontic procedures. Of the articles identified in an initial search, only 40 articles met the inclusion criteria set for this review. Vital pulp therapy materials might have positive effects on angiogenesis events, while most of the canal irrigating solutions and antibiotic pastes have anti-angiogenic activity except for EDTA. Future clinical studies will be helpful in defining the mechanisms of action for dental materials that promote or inhibit angiogenesis events at applied areas. PMID:27546854

  2. Angiogenesis in alkaptonuria.

    PubMed

    Millucci, Lia; Bernardini, Giulia; Marzocchi, Barbara; Braconi, Daniela; Geminiani, Michela; Gambassi, Silvia; Laschi, Marcella; Frediani, Bruno; Galvagni, Federico; Orlandini, Maurizio; Santucci, Annalisa

    2016-11-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare genetic disease that affects the entire joint. Current standard of AKU treatment is palliative and little is known about its physiopathology. Neovascularization is involved in the pathogenesis of systemic inflammatory rheumatic diseases, a family of related disorders that includes AKU. Here, we investigated the presence of neoangiogenesis in AKU synovium and healthy controls. Synovium from AKU patients, who had undergone total joint replacement or arthroscopy, or from healthy patients without any history of rheumatic diseases, who underwent surgical operation following sport trauma was subjected to hematoxylin and eosin staining. Histologic grades were assigned for clinical disease activity and synovitis based on cellular content of the synovium. By immunofluorescence microscopy, using different endothelial cell markers, we observed large vascularization in AKU but not in healthy synovium. Moreover, Western blotting and quantification analyses confirmed strong expression of endothelial cell markers in AKU synovial tissues. Importantly, AKU synovium vascular endothelium expressed high levels of β-dystroglycan, a protein previously involved in the regulation of angiogenesis in osteoarthritic synovium. This is the first report providing experimental evidences that new blood vessels are formed in AKU synovial tissues, opening new perspectives for AKU therapy.

  3. Selective inhibition of tumor cell associated Vacuolar-ATPase 'a2' isoform overcomes cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kulshrestha, Arpita; Katara, Gajendra K; Ginter, Jordyn; Pamarthy, Sahithi; Ibrahim, Safaa A; Jaiswal, Mukesh K; Sandulescu, Corina; Periakaruppan, Ramayee; Dolan, James; Gilman-Sachs, Alice; Beaman, Kenneth D

    2016-06-01

    Development of resistance to platinum compounds significantly hinders successful ovarian cancer (OVCA) treatment. In tumor cells, dysregulated pH gradient across cell membranes is a key physiological mechanism of metastasis/chemo-resistance. These pH alterations are mediated by aberrant activation of key multi-subunit proton pumps, Vacuolar-ATPases (V-ATPases). In tumor cells, its 'a2' isoform (V-ATPase-V0a2) is a component of functional plasma-membrane complex and promotes tumor invasion through tumor-acidification and immuno-modulation. Its involvement in chemo-resistance has not been studied. Here, we show that V-ATPase-V0a2 is over-expressed in acquired-cisplatin resistant OVCA cells (cis-A2780/cis-TOV112D). Of all the 'a' subunit isoforms, V-ATPase-V0a2 exhibited an elevated expression on plasma membrane of cisplatin-resistant cells compared to sensitive counterparts. Immuno-histochemistry revealed V-ATPase-V0a2 expression in both low grade (highly drug-resistant) and high grade (highly recurrent) human OVCA tissues indicating its role in a centralized mechanism of tumor resistance. In cisplatin resistant cells, shRNA mediated inhibition of V-ATPase-V0a2 enhanced sensitivity towards both cisplatin and carboplatin. This improved cytotoxicity was mediated by enhanced cisplatin-DNA-adduct formation and suppressed DNA-repair pathway, leading to enhanced apoptosis. Suppression of V0a2 activity strongly reduced cytosolic pH in resistant tumor cells, which is known to enhance platinum-associated DNA-damage. As an indicator of reduced metastasis and chemo-resistance, in contrast to plasma membrane localization, a diffused cytoplasmic localization of acidic vacuoles was observed in V0a2-knockdown resistant cells. Interestingly, pre-treatment with monoclonal V0a2-inhibitory antibody enhanced cisplatin cytotoxicity in resistant cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that the isoform specific inhibition of V-ATPase-V0a2 could serve as a therapeutic strategy for chemo

  4. Adenosine A(2B) receptor antagonist PSB603 suppresses tumor growth and metastasis by inhibiting induction of regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Wakako; Tanaka, Satomi; Tsukimoto, Mitsutoshi; Kojima, Shuji

    2014-04-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a role in suppression of immune response, including anti-tumor immunity. We have recently reported that treatment of naïve CD4 T cells with adenosine A(2B) receptor antagonist PSB603 under Treg-skewing conditions inhibits expression of Foxp3, a marker of differentiation to Treg, without blocking IL-2 production or CD25 expression, which are activation markers, in CD4 T cells. We hypothesized that PSB603 suppresses cancer growth and metastasis by inhibiting induction of Treg, thereby facilitating anti-tumor immunity. In this study, we first examined the effect of PSB603 on tumor growth in B16 melanoma-bearing C57BL/6 mice. Administration of PSB603 significantly suppressed the increase of tumor volume as well as the increase of Treg population in these mice. The populations of CD4 and CD8 T cells were higher and splenic lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity towards B16 melanoma was significantly increased in PSB603-treated mice. We confirmed that PSB603 did not reduce the viability of B16 melanoma cells in vitro. Moreover, we also examined the effect of PSB603 on tumor metastasis in pulmonary metastasis model mice intravenously injected with B16 melanoma cells. The metastasis was also suppressed in PSB603-treated mice, in which the population of Treg was significantly lower. Overall, our results suggest that A(2B) receptor antagonist PSB603 enhances anti-tumor immunity by inhibiting differentiation to Treg, resulting in a delay of tumor growth and a suppression of metastasis.

  5. Resetting microbiota by Lactobacillus reuteri inhibits T reg deficiency–induced autoimmunity via adenosine A2A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Thomas K.; Tian, Xiangjun; Luo, Meng; Zhou, Jain; Tatevian, Nina; Molina, Jose G.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Gomez, Thomas H.

    2017-01-01

    Regulatory T (T reg) cell deficiency causes lethal, CD4+ T cell–driven autoimmune diseases. Stem cell transplantation is used to treat these diseases, but this procedure is limited by the availability of a suitable donor. The intestinal microbiota drives host immune homeostasis by regulating the differentiation and expansion of T reg, Th1, and Th2 cells. It is currently unclear if T reg cell deficiency–mediated autoimmune disorders can be treated by targeting the enteric microbiota. Here, we demonstrate that Foxp3+ T reg cell deficiency results in gut microbial dysbiosis and autoimmunity over the lifespan of scurfy (SF) mouse. Remodeling microbiota with Lactobacillus reuteri prolonged survival and reduced multiorgan inflammation in SF mice. L. reuteri changed the metabolomic profile disrupted by T reg cell deficiency, and a major effect was to restore levels of the purine metabolite inosine. Feeding inosine itself prolonged life and inhibited multiorgan inflammation by reducing Th1/Th2 cells and their associated cytokines. Mechanistically, the inhibition of inosine on the differentiation of Th1 and Th2 cells in vitro depended on adenosine A2A receptors, which were also required for the efficacy of inosine and of L. reuteri in vivo. These results reveal that the microbiota–inosine–A2A receptor axis might represent a potential avenue for combatting autoimmune diseases mediated by T reg cell dysfunction. PMID:27994068

  6. Cell-oriented modeling of angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Guidolin, Diego; Rebuffat, Piera; Albertin, Giovanna

    2011-01-01

    Due to its significant involvement in various physiological and pathological conditions, angiogenesis (the development of new blood vessels from an existing vasculature) represents an important area of the actual biological research and a field in which mathematical modeling proved particularly useful in supporting the experimental work. In this paper, we focus on a specific modeling strategy, known as "cell-centered" approach. This type of mathematical models work at a "mesoscopic scale," assuming the cell as the natural level of abstraction for computational modeling of development. They treat cells phenomenologically, considering their essential behaviors to study how tissue structure and organization emerge from the collective dynamics of multiple cells. The main contributions of the cell-oriented approach to the study of the angiogenic process will be described. From one side, they have generated "basic science understanding" about the process of capillary assembly during development, growth, and pathology. On the other side, models were also developed supporting "applied biomedical research" for the purpose of identifying new therapeutic targets and clinically relevant approaches for either inhibiting or stimulating angiogenesis.

  7. Aloe emodin inhibits colon cancer cell migration/angiogenesis by downregulating MMP-2/9, RhoB and VEGF via reduced DNA binding activity of NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Suboj, Priya; Babykutty, Suboj; Valiyaparambil Gopi, Deepak Roshan; Nair, Rakesh S; Srinivas, Priya; Gopala, Srinivas

    2012-04-11

    Aloe emodin (AE), a natural anthraquinone, is reported to have antiproliferative activity in various cancer cell lines. In this study we analyzed molecular mechanisms involved in the antimigratory and antiangiogenic activity of this hydroxy anthraquinone in colon cancer cell, WiDr. Our results show that a relatively non toxic concentration of AE suppressed the phorbol-12-myristyl-13-acetate (PMA) induced migration and invasion of tumor cells. On analysis for the molecules involved in the migration/invasion, we found AE downregulated mRNA expression and promoter/gelatinolytic activity of Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/9, as well as the RhoB expression at gene and protein level. It was also a strong inhibitor of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) expression, promoter activity and endothelial cell migration/invasion and in vitro angiogenesis. AE suppressed the nuclear translocation and DNA binding of NF-κB, which is an important transcription factor for controlling MMP-2/9 and VEGF gene expression. Taken together these data indicate that AE target multiple molecules responsible for cellular invasion, migration and angiogenesis. Inhibitory effect on angiogenic and metastatic regulatory processes make AE a sensible candidate as a specific blocker of tumor associated events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Crystal structures of human group-VIIA phospholipase A2 inhibited by organophosphorus nerve agents exhibit non-aged complexes.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Uttamkumar; Kirby, Stephen D; Srinivasan, Prabhavathi; Cerasoli, Douglas M; Bahnson, Brian J

    2009-08-15

    The enzyme group-VIIA phospholipase A2 (gVIIA-PLA2) is bound to lipoproteins in human blood and hydrolyzes the ester bond at the sn-2 position of phospholipid substrates with a short sn-2 chain. The enzyme belongs to a serine hydrolase superfamily of enzymes, which react with organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents. OPs ultimately exert their toxicity by inhibiting human acetycholinesterase at nerve synapses, but may additionally have detrimental effects through inhibition of other serine hydrolases. We have solved the crystal structures of gVIIA-PLA2 following inhibition with the OPs diisopropylfluorophosphate, sarin, soman and tabun. The sarin and soman complexes displayed a racemic mix of P(R) and P(S) stereoisomers at the P-chiral center. The tabun complex displayed only the P(R) stereoisomer in the crystal. In all cases, the crystal structures contained intact OP adducts that had not aged. Aging refers to a secondary process OP complexes can go through, which dealkylates the nerve agent adduct and results in a form that is highly resistant to either spontaneous or oxime-mediated reactivation. Non-aged OP complexes of the enzyme were corroborated by trypsin digest and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry of OP-enzyme complexes. The lack of stereoselectivity of sarin reaction was confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using a chiral column to separate and quantitate the unbound stereoisomers of sarin following incubation with enzyme. The structural details and characterization of nascent reactivity of several toxic nerve agents is discussed with a long-term goal of developing gVIIA-PLA2 as a catalytic bioscavenger of OP nerve agents.

  9. Crystal structures of human group-VIIA phospholipase A2 inhibited by organophosphorus nerve agents exhibit non-aged complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, Uttamkumar; Kirby, Stephen D.; Srinivasan, Prabhavathi

    The enzyme group-VIIA phospholipase A2 (gVIIA-PLA2) is bound to lipoproteins in human blood and hydrolyzes the ester bond at the sn-2 position of phospholipid substrates with a short sn-2 chain. The enzyme belongs to a serine hydrolase superfamily of enzymes, which react with organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents. OPs ultimately exert their toxicity by inhibiting human acetycholinesterase at nerve synapses, but may additionally have detrimental effects through inhibition of other serine hydrolases. We have solved the crystal structures of gVIIA-PLA2 following inhibition with the OPs diisopropylfluorophosphate, sarin, soman and tabun. The sarin and soman complexes displayed a racemic mix of P{submore » R} and P{sub S} stereoisomers at the P-chiral center. The tabun complex displayed only the P{sub R} stereoisomer in the crystal. In all cases, the crystal structures contained intact OP adducts that had not aged. Aging refers to a secondary process OP complexes can go through, which dealkylates the nerve agent adduct and results in a form that is highly resistant to either spontaneous or oxime-mediated reactivation. Non-aged OP complexes of the enzyme were corroborated by trypsin digest and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry of OP-enzyme complexes. The lack of stereoselectivity of sarin reaction was confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using a chiral column to separate and quantitate the unbound stereoisomers of sarin following incubation with enzyme. The structural details and characterization of nascent reactivity of several toxic nerve agents is discussed with a long-term goal of developing gVIIA-PLA2 as a catalytic bioscavenger of OP nerve agents.« less

  10. Importance of interaction between nerve growth factor and α9β1 integrin in glial tumor angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Erin M.; Kim, Richard; Del Valle, Luis; Weaver, Michael; Sheffield, Joel; Lazarovici, Philip; Marcinkiewicz, Cezary

    2012-01-01

    NGF is a growth factor for which the role in the promotion of angiogenesis is still not completely understood. We found that NGF promotes the pathological neovascularization process in glioma through a direct interaction with α9β1 integrin, which is up-regulated on microvascular endothelial cells in cancer tissue. We propagated gHMVEC primary cells using a new method of immune-selection, and these cells demonstrated α9β1 integrin-dependent binding of NGF in a cell adhesion assay. Moreover, NGF induced gHMVEC proliferation and chemotaxis inhibited by specific blockers of α9β1 integrin, such as MLD-disintegrins and monoclonal antibody Y9A2. A Matrigel tube formation assay revealed that NGF significantly increased capillary-like growth from gHMVEC to a level comparable to treatment with VEGF. The snake venom disintegrin, VLO5, inhibited the agonistic effect of both growth factors, whereas the effect of Y9A2 was not statistically significant. Angiogenesis exogenously induced by NGF  was also α9β1-integrin dependent in an embryonic quail CAM system. However, angiogenesis pathologically induced by developing glioma in this system was only sensitive for inhibition with MLD-disintegrin, suggesting a more complex effect of cancer cells on the neovascularization process. The anti-angiogenic effect of MLD-disintegrins is probably related to their pro-apoptotic ability induced in activated tumoral endothelial cells. Therefore, the molecular basis of these disintegrins may be useful for developing new angiostatic pharmaceuticals for application in cancer therapy. PMID:22611032

  11. Inhibitory effects of vitamin K3 on DNA polymerase and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Kiminori; Kayashima, Tomoko; Mori, Masaharu; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2008-09-01

    Vitamins play essential roles in cellular reactions and maintain human health. Recent studies have revealed that some vitamins including D3, B6 and K2 and their derivatives have an anti-cancer effect. As a mechanism, their inhibitory effect on cancer-related angiogenesis has been demonstrated. Vitamin K2 (menaquinones) has an anti-cancer effect in particular for hepatic cancer and inhibits angiogenesis. In the current study, we demonstrated that sole vitamin K3 (menadione) selectively inhibits the in vitro activity of eukaryotic DNA polymerase gamma, which is a mitochondrial DNA polymerase, and suppresses angiogenesis in a rat aortic ring model. The anti-angiogenic effect of vitamin K3 has been shown in angiogenesis models using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with regard to HUVEC growth, tube formation on reconstituted basement membrane and chemotaxis. These results suggest that vitamin K3 may be a potential anti-cancer agent like vitamin K2.

  12. Specific inhibition of Xenorhabdus hominickii, an entomopathogenic bacterium, against different types of host insect phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Sadekuzzaman, Md; Kim, Yonggyun

    2017-10-01

    Phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) hydrolyzes ester bond of phospholipids at the sn-2 position to release free fatty acid and lysophospholipids. Some PLA 2 s preferentially release arachidonic acid which is subsequently oxygenated into eicosanoids to mediate immune responses in insects. Xenorhabdus hominickii is an entomopathogenic bacterium that can suppress insect immunity by inhibiting PLA 2 activity. However, little is known about target PLA 2 types inhibited by X. hominickii. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine PLA 2 types in the host insect, Spodoptera exigua using specific inhibitors. All developmental stages of S. exigua possessed significant PLA 2 activities, with late larval stages showing relatively higher PLA 2 activities. In different larval tissues, hemocytes had higher PLA 2 activities than fat body, gut, or epidermis. Various developmental and tissue extracts exhibited differential susceptibilities to three different PLA 2 inhibitors. Late larva-to-adult stages were highly susceptible to all three different types of PLA 2 inhibitors. In contrast, extracts from egg and young larval stages were not susceptible to secretory PLA 2 (sPLA 2 ) or calcium-independent cellular PLA 2 (iPLA 2 ) inhibitors, although they were susceptible to a calcium-dependent cellular PLA 2 (cPLA 2 ) inhibitor in a dose-dependent manner. Different tissues of fifth instars exhibited variation in susceptibility to inhibitors, with epidermal tissue being sensitive to cPLA 2 inhibitor only while other tissues were sensitive to all three types of inhibitors. Bacterial challenge with heat-killed X. hominickii significantly increased PLA 2 activity. However, live bacteria suppressed the induction of PLA 2 activity. An organic extract of X. hominickii-culture broth inhibited the susceptibility of S. exigua to sPLA 2 - and iPLA 2 - specific inhibitors, but not to cPLA 2 -specific inhibitor. Oxindole, a component of the organic extract, exhibited an inhibitory pattern

  13. Functional role of inorganic trace elements in angiogenesis part III: (Ti, Li, Ce, As, Hg, Va, Nb and Pb).

    PubMed

    Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Orangi, Jafar; Asatourian, Armen; Sorenson, Christine M; Sheibani, Nader

    2016-02-01

    Many essential elements exist in nature with significant influence on human health. Angiogenesis is vital in developmental, repair, and regenerative processes, and its aberrant regulation contributes to pathogenesis of many diseases including cancer. Thus, it is of great importance to explore the role of these elements in such a vital process. This is third in a series of reviews that serve as an overview of the role of inorganic elements in regulation of angiogenesis and vascular function. Here we will review the roles of titanium, lithium, cerium, arsenic, mercury, vanadium, niobium, and lead in these processes. The roles of other inorganic elements in angiogenesis were discussed in part I (N, Fe, Se, P, Au, and Ca) and part II (Cr, Si, Zn, Cu, and S) of these series. The methods of exposure, structure, mechanisms, and potential activities of these elements are briefly discussed. An electronic search was performed on the role of these elements in angiogenesis from January 2005 to April 2014. These elements can promote and/or inhibit angiogenesis through different mechanisms. The anti-angiogenic effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles comes from the inhibition of angiogenic processes, and not from its toxicity. Lithium affects vasculogenesis but not angiogenesis. Nanoceria treatment inhibited tumor growth by inhibiting angiogenesis. Vanadium treatment inhibited cell proliferation and induced cytotoxic effects through interactions with DNA. The negative impact of mercury on endothelial cell migration and tube formation activities was dose and time dependent. Lead induced IL-8 production, which is known to promote tumor angiogenesis. Thus, understanding the impact of these elements on angiogenesis will help in development of new modalities to modulate angiogenesis under various conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mechanism and Site of Inhibition of AMPA Receptors: Pairing a Thiadiazole with a 2,3-Benzodiazepine Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    2,3-Benzodiazepine compounds are synthesized as drug candidates for treatment of various neurological disorders involving excessive activity of AMPA receptors. Here we report that pairing a thiadiazole moiety with a 2,3-benzodiazepine scaffold via the N-3 position yields an inhibitor type with >28-fold better potency and selectivity on AMPA receptors than the 2,3-benzodiazepine scaffold alone. Using whole-cell recording, we characterized two thiadiazolyl compounds, that is, one contains a 1,3,4-thiadiazole moiety and the other contains a 1,2,4-thiadiazole-3-one moiety. These compounds exhibit potent, equal inhibition of both the closed-channel and the open-channel conformations of all four homomeric AMPA receptor channels and two GluA2R-containing complex AMPA receptor channels. Furthermore, these compounds bind to the same receptor site as GYKI 52466 does, a site we previously termed as the “M” site. A thiadiazole moiety is thought to occupy more fully the side pocket of the receptor site or the “M” site, thereby generating a stronger, multivalent interaction between the inhibitor and the receptor binding site. We suggest that, as a heterocycle, a thiadiazole can be further modified chemically to produce a new class of even more potent, noncompetitive inhibitors of AMPA receptors. PMID:24313227

  15. Retinal angiogenesis suppression through small molecule activation of p53

    PubMed Central

    Chavala, Sai H.; Kim, Younghee; Tudisco, Laura; Cicatiello, Valeria; Milde, Till; Kerur, Nagaraj; Claros, Nidia; Yanni, Susan; Guaiquil, Victor H.; Hauswirth, William W.; Penn, John S.; Rafii, Shahin; De Falco, Sandro; Lee, Thomas C.; Ambati, Jayakrishna

    2013-01-01

    Neovascular age-related macular degeneration is a leading cause of irreversible vision loss in the Western world. Cytokine-targeted therapies (such as anti-vascular endothelial growth factor) are effective in treating pathologic ocular angiogenesis, but have not led to a durable effect and often require indefinite treatment. Here, we show that Nutlin-3, a small molecule antagonist of the E3 ubiquitin protein ligase MDM2, inhibited angiogenesis in several model systems. We found that a functional p53 pathway was essential for Nutlin-3–mediated retinal antiangiogenesis and disruption of the p53 transcriptional network abolished the antiangiogenic activity of Nutlin-3. Nutlin-3 did not inhibit established, mature blood vessels in the adult mouse retina, suggesting that only proliferating retinal vessels are sensitive to Nutlin-3. Furthermore, Nutlin-3 inhibited angiogenesis in nonretinal models such as the hind limb ischemia model. Our work demonstrates that Nutlin-3 functions through an antiproliferative pathway with conceivable advantages over existing cytokine-targeted antiangiogenesis therapies. PMID:24018558

  16. Angiogenesis in the Infarcted Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Cochain, Clement; Channon, Keith M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Proangiogenic therapy appeared a promising strategy for the treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI), as de novo formation of microvessels, has the potential to salvage ischemic myocardium at early stages after MI, and is also essential to prevent the transition to heart failure through the control of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and contractility. Recent Advances: Exciting preclinical studies evaluating proangiogenic therapies for MI have prompted the initiation of numerous clinical trials based on protein or gene transfer delivery of growth factors and administration of stem/progenitor cells, mainly from bone marrow origin. Nonetheless, these clinical trials showed mixed results in patients with acute MI. Critical Issues: Even though methodological caveats, such as way of delivery for angiogenic growth factors (e.g., protein vs. gene transfer) and stem/progenitor cells or isolation/culture procedure for regenerative cells might partially explain the failure of such trials, it appears that delivery of a single growth factor or cell type does not support angiogenesis sufficiently to promote cardiac repair. Future Directions: Optimization of proangiogenic therapies might include stimulation of both angiogenesis and vessel maturation and/or the use of additional sources of stem/progenitor cells, such as cardiac progenitor cells. Experimental unraveling of the mechanisms of angiogenesis, vessel maturation, and endothelial cell/cardiomyocyte cross talk in the ischemic heart, analysis of emerging pathways, as well as a better understanding of how cardiovascular risk factors impact endogenous and therapeutically stimulated angiogenesis, would undoubtedly pave the way for the development of novel and hopefully efficient angiogenesis targeting therapeutics for the treatment of acute MI. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1100–1113. PMID:22870932

  17. Quantification of indirect pathway inhibition by the adenosine A2a antagonist SYN115 in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Black, Kevin J; Koller, Jonathan M; Campbell, Meghan C; Gusnard, Debra A; Bandak, Stephen I

    2010-12-01

    Adenosine A(2a) receptor antagonists reduce symptom severity in Parkinson disease (PD) and animal models. Rodent studies support the hypothesis that A(2a) antagonists produce this benefit by reducing the inhibitory output of the basal ganglia indirect pathway. One way to test this hypothesis in humans is to quantify regional pharmacodynamic responses with cerebral blood flow (CBF) imaging. That approach has also been proposed as a tool to accelerate pharmaceutical dose finding, but has not yet been applied in humans to drugs in development. We successfully addressed both these aims with a perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of the novel adenosine A(2a) antagonist SYN115. During a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 21 PD patients on levodopa but no agonists, we acquired pulsed arterial spin labeling MRI at the end of each treatment period. SYN115 produced a highly significant decrease in thalamic CBF, consistent with reduced pallidothalamic inhibition via the indirect pathway. Similar decreases occurred in cortical regions whose activity decreases with increased alertness and externally focused attention, consistent with decreased self-reported sleepiness on SYN115. Remarkably, we also derived quantitative pharmacodynamic parameters from the CBF responses to SYN115. These results suggested that the doses tested were on the low end of the effective dose range, consistent with clinical data reported separately. We conclude that (1) SYN115 enters the brain and exerts dose-dependent regional effects, (2) the most prominent of these effects is consistent with deactivation of the indirect pathway as predicted by preclinical studies; and (3) perfusion MRI can provide rapid, quantitative, clinically relevant dose-finding information for pharmaceutical development.

  18. Quantification of indirect pathway inhibition by the adenosine A2a antagonist SYN115 in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Black, Kevin J.; Koller, Jonathan M.; Campbell, Meghan C.; Gusnard, Debra A.; Bandak, Stephen I.

    2010-01-01

    Adenosine A2a receptor antagonists reduce symptom severity in Parkinson disease (PD) and animal models. Rodent studies support the hypothesis that A2a antagonists produce this benefit by reducing the inhibitory output of the basal ganglia indirect pathway. One way to test this hypothesis in humans is to quantify regional pharmacodynamic responses with cerebral blood flow (CBF) imaging. That approach has also been proposed as a tool to accelerate pharmaceutical dose-finding, but has not yet been applied in humans to drugs in development. We successfully addressed both these aims with a perfusion MRI study of the novel adenosine A2a antagonist SYN115. During a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 21 PD patients on levodopa but no agonists, we acquired pulsed arterial spin labeling MRI at the end of each treatment period. SYN115 produced a highly significant decrease in thalamic CBF, consistent with reduced pallidothalamic inhibition via the indirect pathway. Similar decreases occurred in cortical regions whose activity decreases with increased alertness and externally-focused attention, consistent with decreased self-reported sleepiness on SYN115. Remarkably, we also derived quantitative pharmacodynamic parameters from the CBF responses to SYN115. These results suggested that the doses tested were on the low end of the effective dose range, consistent with clinical data reported separately. We conclude that (1) SYN115 enters the brain and exerts dose-dependent regional effects, (2) the most prominent of these effects is consistent with deactivation of the indirect pathway as predicted by preclinical studies; and (3) perfusion MRI can provide rapid, quantitative, clinically relevant dose-finding information for pharmaceutical development. PMID:21123574

  19. Sympathetic nerves: How do they affect angiogenesis, particularly during wound healing of soft tissues?

    PubMed

    Pan, Liangli; Tang, Jianbing; Liu, Hongwei; Cheng, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for wound healing, and angiogenesis impairment can result in chronic ulcers. Studies have shown that the sympathetic nervous system has an important role in angiogenesis. In recent years, researchers have focused on the roles of sympathetic nerves in tumor angiogenesis. In fact, sympathetic nerves can affect angiogenesis in the wound healing of soft tissues, and may have a similar mechanism of action as that seen in tumorigenesis. Sympathetic nerves act primarily through interactions between the neurotransmitters released from nerve endings and receptors present in target organs. Among this, activation or inhibition of adrenergic receptors (mainly β-adrenergic receptors) influence formation of new blood vessels considerably. As sympathetic nerves locate near pericytes in microvessel, go along the capillaries and there are adrenergic receptors present in endothelial cells and pericytes, sympathetic nerves may participate in angiogenesis by influencing the endothelial cells and pericytes of new capillaries. Studying the roles of sympathetic nerves on the angiogenesis of wound healing can contribute to understanding the mechanisms of tissue repair, tissue regeneration, and tumorigenesis, thereby providing new therapeutic perspectives.

  20. Inhibition of the human liver microsomal and human cytochrome P450 1A2 and 3A4 metabolism of estradiol by deployment-related and other chemicals.

    PubMed

    Usmani, Khawja A; Cho, Taehyeon M; Rose, Randy L; Hodgson, Ernest

    2006-09-01

    Cytochromes P450 (P450s) are major catalysts in the metabolism of xenobiotics and endogenous substrates such as estradiol (E2). It has previously been shown that E2 is predominantly metabolized in humans by CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 with 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2) the major metabolite. This study examines effects of deployment-related and other chemicals on E2 metabolism by human liver microsomes (HLM) and individual P450 isoforms. Kinetic studies using HLM, CYP3A4, and CYP1A2 showed similar affinities (Km) for E2 with respect to 2-OHE2 production. Vmax and CLint values for HLM are 0.32 nmol/min/mg protein and 7.5 microl/min/mg protein; those for CYP3A4 are 6.9 nmol/min/nmol P450 and 291 microl/min/nmol P450; and those for CYP1A2 are 17.4 nmol/min/nmol P450 and 633 microl/min/nmol P450. Phenotyped HLM use showed that individuals with high levels of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 have the greatest potential to metabolize E2. Preincubation of HLM with a variety of chemicals, including those used in military deployments, resulted in varying levels of inhibition of E2 metabolism. The greatest inhibition was observed with organophosphorus compounds, including chlorpyrifos and fonofos, with up to 80% inhibition for 2-OHE2 production. Carbaryl, a carbamate pesticide, and naphthalene, a jet fuel component, inhibited ca. 40% of E2 metabolism. Preincubation of CYP1A2 with chlorpyrifos, fonofos, carbaryl, or naphthalene resulted in 96, 59, 84, and 87% inhibition of E2 metabolism, respectively. Preincubation of CYP3A4 with chlorpyrifos, fonofos, deltamethrin, or permethrin resulted in 94, 87, 58, and 37% inhibition of E2 metabolism. Chlorpyrifos inhibition of E2 metabolism is shown to be irreversible.

  1. Gold and silver nanoparticles conjugated with heparin derivative possess anti-angiogenesis properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Melissa M.; Kumar, Ashavani; Mousa, Shaymaa; Dyskin, Evgeny; Yalcin, Murat; Ajayan, Pulickel; Linhardt, Robert J.; Mousa, Shaker A.

    2009-11-01

    Silver and gold nanoparticles display unique physical and biological properties that have been extensively studied for biological and medical applications. Typically, gold and silver nanoparticles are prepared by chemical reductants that utilize excess toxic reactants, which need to be removed for biological purposes. We utilized a clean method involving a single synthetic step to prepare metal nanoparticles for evaluating potential effects on angiogenesis modulation. These nanoparticles were prepared by reducing silver nitrate and gold chloride with diaminopyridinyl (DAP)-derivatized heparin (HP) polysaccharides. Both gold and silver nanoparticles reduced with DAPHP exhibited effective inhibition of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2)-induced angiogenesis, with an enhanced anti-angiogenesis efficacy with the conjugation to DAPHP (P<0.01) as compared to glucose conjugation. These results suggest that DAPHP-reduced silver nanoparticles and gold nanoparticles have potential in pathological angiogenesis accelerated disorders such as cancer and inflammatory diseases.

  2. Circulating fibrocytes stabilize blood vessels during angiogenesis in a paracrine manner.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinqing; Tan, Hong; Wang, Xiaolin; Li, Yuejun; Samuelson, Lisa; Li, Xueyong; Cui, Caibin; Gerber, David A

    2014-02-01

    Accumulating evidence supports that circulating fibrocytes play important roles in angiogenesis. However, the specific role of fibrocytes in angiogenesis and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we found that fibrocytes stabilized newly formed blood vessels in a mouse wound-healing model by inhibiting angiogenesis during the proliferative phase and inhibiting blood vessel regression during the remodeling phase. Fibrocytes also inhibited angiogenesis in a Matrigel mouse model. In vitro study showed that fibrocytes inhibited both the apoptosis and proliferation of vascular endothelial cells (VECs) in a permeable support (Transwell) co-culture system. In a three-dimensional collagen gel, fibrocytes stabilized the VEC tubes by decreasing VEC tube density on stimulation with growth factors and preventing VEC tube regression on withdrawal of growth factors. Further mechanistic investigation revealed that fibrocytes expressed many prosurvival factors that are responsible for the prosurvival effect of fibrocytes on VECs and blood vessels. Fibrocytes also expressed angiogenesis inhibitors, including thrombospondin-1 (THBS1). THBS1 knockdown partially blocked the fibrocyte-induced inhibition of VEC proliferation in the Transwell co-culture system and recovered the fibrocyte-induced decrease of VEC tube density in collagen gel. Purified fibrocytes transfected with THBS1 siRNA partially recovered the fibrocyte-induced inhibition of angiogenesis in both the wound-healing and Matrigel models. In conclusion, our findings reveal that fibrocytes stabilize blood vessels via prosurvival factors and anti-angiogenic factors, including THBS1. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. EndophilinA2 protects against angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy by inhibiting angiotensin II type 1 receptor trafficking in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Shen, Huan-Jia; Wang, Xin-Qiu-Yue; Liu, Hai-Qi; Zheng, Ling-Yun; Luo, Jian-Dong

    2018-06-20

    Cardiac hypertrophy is one of the major risk factors for chronic heart failure. The role of endophilinA2 (EndoA2) in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and clathrin-independent endocytosis is well documented. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that EndoA2 protects against angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac hypertrophy by mediating intracellular angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) trafficking in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs). Cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by using cell surface area and quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) analyses. For the first time, we found that EndoA2 attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis induced by Ang II. Moreover, EndoA2 inhibited apoptosis induced by excessive endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), which accounted for the beneficial effects of EndoA2 on cardiac hypertrophy. We further revealed that there was an interaction between EndoA2 and AT1-R.The expression levels of EndoA2, which inhibits AT1-R transport from the cytoplasm to the membrane, and the interaction between EndoA2 and AT1-R were obviously decreased after Ang II treatment. Furthermore, Ang II inhibited the co-localization of AT1-R with GRP-78, which was reversed by EndoA2 overexpression. In conclusion, our results suggested that EndoA2 plays a role in protecting against cardiac hypertrophy induced by Ang II, possibly by inhibiting AT1-R transport from the cytoplasm to the membrane to suppress signal transduction. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. MDA-9/syntenin and IGFBP-2 promote angiogenesis in human melanoma.

    PubMed

    Das, Swadesh K; Bhutia, Sujit K; Azab, Belal; Kegelman, Timothy P; Peachy, Leyla; Santhekadur, Prasanna K; Dasgupta, Santanu; Dash, Rupesh; Dent, Paul; Grant, Steven; Emdad, Luni; Pellecchia, Maurizio; Sarkar, Devanand; Fisher, Paul B

    2013-01-15

    Melanoma differentiation-associated gene-9 (mda-9/syntenin) encodes an adapter scaffold protein whose expression correlates with and mediates melanoma progression and metastasis. Tumor angiogenesis represents an integral component of cancer metastasis prompting us to investigate a possible role of mda-9/syntenin in inducing angiogenesis. Genetic (gain-of-function and loss-of-function) and pharmacologic approaches were used to modify mda-9/syntenin expression in normal immortal melanocytes, early radial growth phase melanoma, and metastatic melanoma cells. The consequence of modifying mda-9/syntenin expression on angiogenesis was evaluated using both in vitro and in vivo assays, including tube formation assays using human vascular endothelial cells, chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays and xenograft tumor animal models. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments confirm that MDA-9/syntenin induces angiogenesis by augmenting expression of several proangiogenic factors/genes. Experimental evidence is provided for a model of angiogenesis induction by MDA-9/syntenin in which MDA-9/syntenin interacts with the extracellular matrix (ECM), activating Src and FAK resulting in activation by phosphorylation of Akt, which induces hypoxia inducible factor 1-α (HIF-1α). The HIF-1α activates transcription of insulin growth factor-binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2), which is secreted thereby promoting angiogenesis and further induces endothelial cells to produce and secrete VEGF-A augmenting tumor angiogenesis. Our studies delineate an unanticipated cell nonautonomous function of MDA-9/syntenin in the context of angiogenesis, which may directly contribute to its metastasis-promoting properties. As a result, targeting MDA-9/syntenin or its downstream-regulated molecules may provide a means of simultaneously impeding metastasis by both directly inhibiting tumor cell transformed properties (autonomous) and indirectly by blocking angiogenesis (nonautonomous).

  5. MDA-9/Syntenin and IGFBP-2 Promote Angiogenesis in Human Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Das, Swadesh K.; Bhutia, Sujit K.; Azab, Belal; Kegelman, Timothy P.; Peachy, Leyla; Santhekadur, Prasanna K.; Dasgupta, Santanu; Dash, Rupesh; Dent, Paul; Grant, Steven; Emdad, Luni; Pellecchia, Maurizio; Sarkar, Devanand; Fisher, Paul B.

    2012-01-01

    Melanoma differentiation associated gene-9 (mda-9/syntenin) encodes an adapter scaffold protein whose expression correlates with and mediates melanoma progression and metastasis. Tumor angiogenesis represents an integral component of cancer metastasis prompting us to investigate a possible role of mda-9/syntenin in inducing angiogenesis. Genetic (gain-of-function and loss-of-function) and pharmacological approaches were employed to modify mda-9/syntenin expression in normal immortal melanocytes, early radial growth phase melanoma and metastatic melanoma cells. The consequence of modifying mda-9/syntenin expression on angiogenesis was evaluated using both in vitro and in vivo assays, including tube formation assays using human vascular endothelial cells, CAM assays and xenograft tumor animal models. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments confirm that MDA-9/syntenin induces angiogenesis by augmenting expression of several pro-angiogenic factors/genes. Experimental evidence is provided for a model of angiogenesis induction by MDA-9/syntenin in which MDA-9/syntenin interacts with the ECM activating Src and FAK resulting in activation by phosphorylation of Akt, which induces HIF-1α. The HIF-1α activates transcription of Insulin Growth Factor Binding Protein-2 (IGFBP-2), which is secreted thereby promoting angiogenesis and further induces endothelial cells to produce and secrete VEGF-A augmenting tumor angiogenesis. Our studies delineate an unanticipated cell non-autonomous function of MDA-9/syntenin in the context of angiogenesis, which may directly contribute to its metastasis-promoting properties. As a result, targeting MDA-9/syntenin or its downstream-regulated molecules may provide a means of simultaneously impeding metastasis by both directly inhibiting tumor cell transformed properties (autonomous) and indirectly by blocking angiogenesis (non-autonomous). PMID:23233738

  6. Preventing High Altitude Cerebral Edema in Rats with Repurposed Anti-Angiogenesis Pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tarshis, Samantha; Maltzahn, Joanne; Loomis, Zoe; Irwin, David C

    2016-12-01

    High altitude cerebral edema (HACE) is a fulminant, deadly, and yet still unpredictable brain disease. A new prophylactic treatment for HACE and its predecessor, acute mountain sickness (AMS), needs to be developed without the contraindications or adverse effect profiles of acetazolamide and dexamethasone. Since neovascularization signals are likely key contributors to HACE/AMS, our approach was to examine already existing anti-angiogenic drugs to inhibit potential initiating HACE pathway(s). This approach can also reveal crucial early steps in the frequently debated mechanism of HACE/AMS pathogenesis. We exposed four rat cohorts to hypobaric hypoxia and one to sea level (hyperbaric) conditions. The cohorts were treated with saline controls, an anti-angiogenesis drug (motesanib), a pro-angiogenesis drug (deferoxamine), or an intraperitoneal version of the established AMS prophylaxis drug, acetazolamide (benzolamide). Brain tissue was analyzed for cerebrovascular leak using the Evans Blue Dye (EVBD) protocol. We observed significantly increased EVBD in the altitude control and pro-angiogenesis (deferoxamine) cohorts, and significantly decreased EVBD in the anti-angiogenesis (motesanib), established treatment (benzolamide), and sea-level cohorts. Anti-angiogenesis-treated cohorts demonstrated less cerebrovascular extravasation than the altitude control and pro-angiogenesis treated rats, suggesting promise as an alternative prophylactic HACE/AMS treatment. The leak exacerbation with pro-angiogenesis treatment and improvement with anti-angiogenesis treatment support the hypothesis of early neovascularization signals provoking HACE. We demonstrate statistically significant evidence to guide further investigation for VEGF- and HIF-inhibitors as HACE/AMS prophylaxis, and as elucidators of still unknown HACE pathogenesis.Tarshis S, Maltzahn J, Loomis Z, Irwin DC. Preventing high altitude cerebral edema in rats with repurposed anti-angiogenesis pharmacotherapy. Aerosp Med

  7. Inhibition of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2α Impairs an Early Step of Coronavirus Replication in Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christin; Hardt, Martin; Schwudke, Dominik; Neuman, Benjamin W; Pleschka, Stephan; Ziebuhr, John

    2018-02-15

    Coronavirus replication is associated with intracellular membrane rearrangements in infected cells, resulting in the formation of double-membrane vesicles (DMVs) and other membranous structures that are referred to as replicative organelles (ROs). The latter provide a structural scaffold for viral replication/transcription complexes (RTCs) and help to sequester RTC components from recognition by cellular factors involved in antiviral host responses. There is increasing evidence that plus-strand RNA (+RNA) virus replication, including RO formation and virion morphogenesis, affects cellular lipid metabolism and critically depends on enzymes involved in lipid synthesis and processing. Here, we investigated the role of cytosolic phospholipase A 2 α (cPLA 2 α) in coronavirus replication using a low-molecular-weight nonpeptidic inhibitor, pyrrolidine-2 (Py-2). The inhibition of cPLA 2 α activity, which produces lysophospholipids (LPLs) by cleaving at the sn -2 position of phospholipids, had profound effects on viral RNA and protein accumulation in human coronavirus 229E-infected Huh-7 cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that DMV formation in infected cells was significantly reduced in the presence of the inhibitor. Furthermore, we found that (i) viral RTCs colocalized with LPL-containing membranes, (ii) cellular LPL concentrations were increased in coronavirus-infected cells, and (iii) this increase was diminished in the presence of the cPLA 2 α inhibitor Py-2. Py-2 also displayed antiviral activities against other viruses representing the Coronaviridae and Togaviridae families, while members of the Picornaviridae were not affected. Taken together, the study provides evidence that cPLA 2 α activity is critically involved in the replication of various +RNA virus families and may thus represent a candidate target for broad-spectrum antiviral drug development. IMPORTANCE Examples of highly conserved RNA virus proteins that qualify as drug targets for broad

  8. Human IgG1 antibodies suppress angiogenesis in a target-independent manner

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanovich, Sasha; Kim, Younghee; Mizutani, Takeshi; Yasuma, Reo; Tudisco, Laura; Cicatiello, Valeria; Bastos-Carvalho, Ana; Kerur, Nagaraj; Hirano, Yoshio; Baffi, Judit Z; Tarallo, Valeria; Li, Shengjian; Yasuma, Tetsuhiro; Arpitha, Parthasarathy; Fowler, Benjamin J; Wright, Charles B; Apicella, Ivana; Greco, Adelaide; Brunetti, Arturo; Ruvo, Menotti; Sandomenico, Annamaria; Nozaki, Miho; Ijima, Ryo; Kaneko, Hiroki; Ogura, Yuichiro; Terasaki, Hiroko; Ambati, Balamurali K; Leusen, Jeanette HW; Langdon, Wallace Y; Clark, Michael R; Armour, Kathryn L; Bruhns, Pierre; Verbeek, J Sjef; Gelfand, Bradley D; De Falco, Sandro; Ambati, Jayakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant angiogenesis is implicated in diseases affecting nearly 10% of the world’s population. The most widely used anti-angiogenic drug is bevacizumab, a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that targets human VEGFA. Although bevacizumab does not recognize mouse Vegfa, it inhibits angiogenesis in mice. Here we show bevacizumab suppressed angiogenesis in three mouse models not via Vegfa blockade but rather Fc-mediated signaling through FcγRI (CD64) and c-Cbl, impairing macrophage migration. Other approved humanized or human IgG1 antibodies without mouse targets (adalimumab, alemtuzumab, ofatumumab, omalizumab, palivizumab and tocilizumab), mouse IgG2a, and overexpression of human IgG1-Fc or mouse IgG2a-Fc, also inhibited angiogenesis in wild-type and FcγR humanized mice. This anti-angiogenic effect was abolished by Fcgr1 ablation or knockdown, Fc cleavage, IgG-Fc inhibition, disruption of Fc-FcγR interaction, or elimination of FcRγ-initated signaling. Furthermore, bevacizumab’s Fc region potentiated its anti-angiogenic activity in humanized VEGFA mice. Finally, mice deficient in FcγRI exhibited increased developmental and pathological angiogenesis. These findings reveal an unexpected anti-angiogenic function for FcγRI and a potentially concerning off-target effect of hIgG1 therapies. PMID:26918197

  9. NP-313, 2-acetylamino-3-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone, a novel antithrombotic agent with dual inhibition of thromboxane A2 synthesis and calcium entry

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Heng-Lan; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Chang, Chien-Hsin; Chung, Ching-Hu; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Hsu, Chun-Chieh; Peng, Hui-Chin; Huang, Tur-Fu

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE 1,4-Naphthoquinones exhibit antiplatelet activity both in vivo and in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the antiplatelet effect of a novel naphthoquinone derivative NP-313, 2-acetylamino-3-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone and its mechanism of action. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We measured platelet aggregation, Ca2+ mobilization, thromboxane B2 formation and P-selectin expression and examined several enzymatic activities. Furthermore, we used the irradiated mesenteric venules in fluorescein sodium–treated mice to monitor the antithrombotic effect of NP-313 in vivo. KEY RESULTS NP-313 concentration-dependently inhibited human platelet aggregation induced by collagen, arachidonic acid, thapsigargin, thrombin and A23187. NP-313 also inhibited P-selectin expression, thromboxane B2 formation and [Ca2+]i elevation in platelets stimulated by thrombin and collagen. NP-313 at 10 µM inhibited cyclooxygenase, thromboxane A2 synthase, and protein kinase Cα, whereas it did not affect phospholipase A2 or phospholipase C activity. In the presence of indomethacin and an adenosine 5-diphosphate scavenger, NP-313 concentration-dependently inhibited thrombin- and A23187-induced [Ca2+]i increase through its inhibitory effects on Ca2+ influx, rather than blocking Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. NP-313 also inhibited thapsigargin-mediated Ca2+ influx through store-operated calcium channel but had no effect on Ca2+ influx through store-independent calcium channel evoked by the diacylglycerol analogue 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol. Nevertheless, it had little effect on cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels. Also, intravenously administered NP-313 dose-dependently inhibited the thrombus occlusion of the irradiated mesenteric vessels of fluorescein-pretreated mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Taken together, these results indicate that NP-313 exerts its antithrombotic activity through dual inhibition of thromboxane A2 synthesis and Ca2+ influx through SOCC. PMID

  10. Vasculogenic Mimicry and Tumor Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Folberg, Robert; Hendrix, Mary J. C.; Maniotis, Andrew J.

    2000-01-01

    Tumors require a blood supply for growth and hematogenous dissemination. Much attention has been focused on the role of angiogenesis—the recruitment of new vessels into a tumor from pre-existing vessels. However, angiogenesis may not be the only mechanism by which tumors acquire a microcirculation. Highly aggressive and metastatic melanoma cells are capable of forming highly patterned vascular channels in vitro that are composed of a basement membrane that stains positive with the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reagent in the absence of endothelial cells and fibroblasts. These channels formed in vitro are identical morphologically to PAS-positive channels in histological preparations from highly aggressive primary uveal melanomas, in the vertical growth phase of cutaneous melanomas, and in metastatic uveal and cutaneous melanoma. The generation of microvascular channels by genetically deregulated, aggressive tumor cells was termed “vasculogenic mimicry” to emphasize their de novo generation without participation by endothelial cells and independent of angiogenesis. Techniques designed to identify the tumor microcirculation by the staining of endothelial cells may not be applicable to tumors that express vasculogenic mimicry. Although it is not known if therapeutic strategies targeting endothelial cells will be effective in tumors whose blood supply is formed by tumor cells in the absence of angiogenesis, the biomechanical and molecular events that regulate vasculogenic mimicry provide opportunities for the development of novel forms of tumor-targeted treatments. The unique patterning characteristic of vasculogenic mimicry provides an opportunity to design noninvasive imaging techniques to detect highly aggressive neoplasms and their metastases. PMID:10666364

  11. Islet organogenesis, angiogenesis and innervation.

    PubMed

    Cerf, Marlon E

    2011-11-01

    The pancreas is characterized by a major component, an exocrine and ductal system involved in digestion, and a minor component, the endocrine islets represented by islet micro-organs that tightly regulate glucose homoeostasis. Pancreatic organogenesis is strictly co-ordinated by transcription factors that are expressed sequentially to yield functional islets capable of maintaining glucose homoeostasis. Angiogenesis and innervation complete islet development, equipping islets to respond to metabolic demands. Proper regulation of this triad of processes during development is critical for establishing functional islets.

  12. Functional role of inorganic trace elements in angiogenesis--Part I: N, Fe, Se, P, Au, and Ca.

    PubMed

    Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Asatourian, Armen; Orangi, Jafar; Sorenson, Christine M; Sheibani, Nader

    2015-10-01

    Many inorganic elements are recognized as being essential for the growth of all living organisms. Transfer of nutrients and waste material from cells and tissues in the biological systems are accomplished through a functional vasculature network. Maintenance of the vascular system is vital to the wellbeing of organisms, and its alterations contribute to pathogenesis of many diseases. This article is the first part of a review on the functional role of inorganic elements including nitrogen, iron, selenium, phosphorus, gold, and calcium in angiogenesis. The methods of exposure, structure, mechanisms, and potential activity of these elements are briefly summarized. An electronic search was performed on the role of these elements in angiogenesis from January 2005 to April 2014. The recent aspects of the relationship between different elements and their role in angiogenesis, and production of pro- and anti-angiogenic factors were assessed. Several studies emphasized the role of these elements on the different phases of angiogenesis process in vivo. These elements can either enhance or inhibit angiogenesis events. Nitrogen in combination with bisphosphonates has antiangiogenic effects, while nitric oxide promotes the production of angiogenic growth factors. Iron deficiency can stimulate angiogenesis, but its excess suppresses angiogenesis events. Gold nanoparticles and selenium agents have therapeutic effects due to their anti-angiogenic characteristics, while phosphorus and calcium ions are regarded as pro-angiogenic elements. Understanding how these elements impact angiogenesis may provide new strategies for treatment of many diseases with neovascular component. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Binding of the Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus to the Ephrin Binding Surface of the EphA2 Receptor and Its Inhibition by a Small Molecule

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ephrin receptor tyrosine kinase A2 (EphA2) is an entry receptor for Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) that is engaged by the virus through its gH/gL glycoprotein complex. We describe here that natural ephrin ligands inhibit the gH/gL-EphA2 interaction. The effects of point mutations within EphA2 demonstrated that KSHV gH/gL interacts with EphA2 through a restricted set of the same residues that mediate binding of A-type ephrins. Two previously described inhibitors of the EphA2 interaction with ephrin A5 also inhibited binding of KSHV gH/gL to EphA2. The more potent of the two compounds inhibited KSHV infection of blood vessel and lymphatic endothelial cells in the micromolar concentration range. Our results demonstrate that interaction of KSHV with EphA2 occurs in a fashion similar to that of the natural ephrin ligands. Our data further indicate a new avenue for drug development against KSHV. IMPORTANCE Our study reports two important findings. First, we show that KSHV engages its receptor, the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2, at a site that overlaps the binding site of the natural ephrin ligands. Second, we demonstrate that KSHV infection of target cells can be blocked by a small-molecule inhibitor of the viral glycoprotein-EphA2 interaction. These findings represent a novel avenue for the development of strategies to treat KSHV-associated diseases. PMID:24899181

  14. Combination of Anti-angiogenesis with Chemotherapy for More Effective Cancer Treatment*

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jie; Waxman, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a hallmark of tumor development and metastasis and is now a validated target for cancer treatment. Overall, however, the survival benefits of anti-angiogenic drugs have, thus far, been rather modest, stimulating interest in developing more effective ways to combine anti-angiogenic drugs with established chemotherapies. This review discusses recent progress and emerging challenges in this field; interactions between anti-angiogenic drugs and conventional chemotherapeutic agents are examined, and strategies for the optimization of combination therapies are discussed. Anti-angiogenic drugs such as the anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab can induce a functional normalization of the tumor vasculature that is transient and can potentiate the activity of co-administered chemoradiotherapies. However, chronic angiogenesis inhibition typically reduces tumor uptake of co-administered chemotherapeutics, indicating a need to explore new approaches, including intermittent treatment schedules and provascular strategies to increase chemotherapeutic drug exposure. In cases where anti-angiogenesis-induced tumor cell starvation augments the intrinsic cytotoxic effects of a conventional chemotherapeutic drug, combination therapy may increase anti-tumor activity despite a decrease in cytotoxic drug exposure. As new angiogenesis inhibitors enter the clinic, reliable surrogate markers are needed to monitor the progress of anti-angiogenic therapies and to identify responsive patients. New targets for anti-angiogenesis continue to be discovered, increasing the opportunities to interdict tumor angiogenesis and circumvent resistance mechanisms that may emerge with chronic use of these drugs. PMID:19074844

  15. Involvement of {gamma}-secretase in postnatal angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Hiroki; Nakagami, Hironori; Takami, Yoichi

    2007-11-23

    {gamma}-Secretase cleaves the transmembrane domains of several integral membrane proteins involved in vasculogenesis. Here, we investigated the role of {gamma}-secretase in the regulation of postnatal angiogenesis using {gamma}-secretase inhibitors (GSI). In endothelial cell (EC), {gamma}-secretase activity was up-regulated under hypoxia or the treatment of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The treatment of GSI significantly attenuated growth factor-induced EC proliferation and migration as well as c-fos promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. In vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC), treatment of GSI significantly attenuated growth factor-induced VEGF and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) expression. Indeed, GSI attenuated VEGF-induced tube formation and inhibited FGF-2-inducedmore » angiogenesis on matrigel in mice as quantified by FITC-lectin staining of EC. Overall, we demonstrated that {gamma}-secretase may be key molecule in postnatal angiogenesis which may be downstream molecule of growth factor-induced growth and migration in EC, and regulate the expression of angiogenic growth factors in VSMC.« less

  16. A Small Molecule Agonist of EphA2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibits Tumor Cell Migration In Vitro and Prostate Cancer Metastasis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hong; Miao, Hui; Tochtrop, Gregory P.; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Page, Phillip; Liu, Lili; Lindner, Daniel J.; Acharya, Chayan; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Ficker, Eckhard; Song, Jianxing; Wang, Bingcheng

    2012-01-01

    During tumor progression, EphA2 receptor can gain ligand-independent pro-oncogenic functions due to Akt activation and reduced ephrin-A ligand engagement. The effects can be reversed by ligand stimulation, which triggers the intrinsic tumor suppressive signaling pathways of EphA2 including inhibition of PI3/Akt and Ras/ERK pathways. These observations argue for development of small molecule agonists for EphA2 as potential tumor intervention agents. Through virtual screening and cell-based assays, we report here the identification and characterization of doxazosin as a novel small molecule agonist for EphA2 and EphA4, but not for other Eph receptors tested. NMR studies revealed extensive contacts of doxazosin with EphA2/A4, recapitulating both hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions recently found in the EphA2/ephrin-A1 complex. Clinically used as an α1-adrenoreceptor antagonist (Cardura®) for treating hypertension and benign prostate hyperplasia, doxazosin activated EphA2 independent of α1-adrenoreceptor. Similar to ephrin-A1, doxazosin inhibited Akt and ERK kinase activities in an EphA2-dependent manner. Treatment with doxazosin triggered EphA2 receptor internalization, and suppressed haptotactic and chemotactic migration of prostate cancer, breast cancer, and glioma cells. Moreover, in an orthotopic xenograft model, doxazosin reduced distal metastasis of human prostate cancer cells and prolonged survival in recipient mice. To our knowledge, doxazosin is the first small molecule agonist of a receptor tyrosine kinase that is capable of inhibiting malignant behaviors in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22916121

  17. Hericium erinaceus Inhibits TNF-α-Induced Angiogenesis and ROS Generation through Suppression of MMP-9/NF-κB Signaling and Activation of Nrf2-Mediated Antioxidant Genes in Human EA.hy926 Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hebron C; Yang, Hsin-Ling; Pan, Jih-Hao; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Pan, Jian-You; Hsieh, Meng-Chang; Chao, Pei-Min; Huang, Pei-Jane; Tsai, Ching-Tsan; Hseu, You-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (HE) is an edible mushroom that has been shown to exhibit anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the antiangiogenic and antioxidant potentials of ethanol extracts of HE in human endothelial (EA.hy926) cells upon tumor necrosis factor-α- (TNF-α-) stimulation (10 ng/mL). The underlying molecular mechanisms behind the pharmacological efficacies were elucidated. We found that noncytotoxic concentrations of HE (50-200 μg/mL) significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced migration/invasion and capillary-like tube formation of endothelial cells. HE treatment suppressed TNF-α-induced activity and/or overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Furthermore, HE downregulated TNF-α-induced nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) followed by suppression of I-κB (inhibitor-κB) degradation. Data from fluorescence microscopy illustrated that increased intracellular ROS production upon TNF-α-stimulation was remarkably inhibited by HE pretreatment in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, HE triggered antioxidant gene expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCLC), and glutathione levels, which may contribute to inhibition of ROS. Increased antioxidant status was associated with upregulated nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of NF-E2 related factor-2 (Nrf2) in HE treated cells. Our findings conclude that antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activities of H. erinaceus may contribute to its anticancer property through modulation of MMP-9/NF-κB and Nrf2-antioxidant signaling pathways.

  18. Hericium erinaceus Inhibits TNF-α-Induced Angiogenesis and ROS Generation through Suppression of MMP-9/NF-κB Signaling and Activation of Nrf2-Mediated Antioxidant Genes in Human EA.hy926 Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hebron C.; Yang, Hsin-Ling; Pan, Jih-Hao; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Pan, Jian-You; Hsieh, Meng-Chang; Chao, Pei-Min; Huang, Pei-Jane; Tsai, Ching-Tsan; Hseu, You-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (HE) is an edible mushroom that has been shown to exhibit anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the antiangiogenic and antioxidant potentials of ethanol extracts of HE in human endothelial (EA.hy926) cells upon tumor necrosis factor-α- (TNF-α-) stimulation (10 ng/mL). The underlying molecular mechanisms behind the pharmacological efficacies were elucidated. We found that noncytotoxic concentrations of HE (50–200 μg/mL) significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced migration/invasion and capillary-like tube formation of endothelial cells. HE treatment suppressed TNF-α-induced activity and/or overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Furthermore, HE downregulated TNF-α-induced nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) followed by suppression of I-κB (inhibitor-κB) degradation. Data from fluorescence microscopy illustrated that increased intracellular ROS production upon TNF-α-stimulation was remarkably inhibited by HE pretreatment in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, HE triggered antioxidant gene expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCLC), and glutathione levels, which may contribute to inhibition of ROS. Increased antioxidant status was associated with upregulated nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of NF-E2 related factor-2 (Nrf2) in HE treated cells. Our findings conclude that antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activities of H. erinaceus may contribute to its anticancer property through modulation of MMP-9/NF-κB and Nrf2-antioxidant signaling pathways. PMID:26823953

  19. Angiogenesis blockade as a new therapeutic approach to experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    Danese, Silvio; Sans, Miquel; Spencer, David M; Beck, Ivy; Doñate, Fernando; Plunkett, Marian L; de la Motte, Carol; Redline, Raymond; Shaw, David E; Levine, Alan D; Mazar, Andrew P; Fiocchi, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Background Neoangiogenesis is a critical component of chronic inflammatory disorders. Inhibition of angiogenesis is an effective treatment in animal models of inflammation, but has not been tested in experimental colitis. Aim To investigate the effect of ATN‐161, an anti‐angiogenic compound, on the course of experimental murine colitis. Method Interleukin 10‐deficient (IL10−/−) mice and wild‐type mice were kept in ultra‐barrier facilities (UBF) or conventional housing, and used for experimental conditions. Dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)‐treated mice were used as a model of acute colitis. Mice were treated with ATN‐161 or its scrambled peptide ATN‐163. Mucosal neoangiogenesis and mean vascular density (MVD) were assessed by CD31 staining. A Disease Activity Index (DAI) was determined, and the severity of colitis was determined by a histological score. Colonic cytokine production was measured by ELISA, and lamina propria mononuclear cell proliferation by thymidine incorporation. Result MVD increased in parallel with disease progression in IL10−/− mice kept in conventional housing, but not in IL10−/− mice kept in UBF. Angiogenesis also occurred in DSS‐treated animals. IL10−/− mice with established disease treated with ATN‐161, but not with ATN‐163, showed a significant and progressive decrease in DAI. The histological colitis score was significantly lower in ATN‐161‐treated mice than in scrambled peptide‐treated mice. Inhibition of angiogenesis was confirmed by a significant decrease of MVD in ATN‐161‐treated mice than in ATN‐163‐treated mice. No therapeutic effects were observed in the DSS model of colitis. ATN‐161 showed no direct immunomodulatory activity in vitro. Conclusion Active angiogenesis occurs in the gut of IL10−/− and DSS‐treated colitic mice and parallels disease progression. ATN‐161 effectively decreases angiogenesis as well as clinical severity and histological inflammation in IL10

  20. Non-canonical NOTCH3 signalling limits tumour angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuheng; Negulescu, Ana; Bulusu, Sirisha; Gibert, Benjamin; Delcros, Jean-Guy; Ducarouge, Benjamin; Rama, Nicolas; Gadot, Nicolas; Treilleux, Isabelle; Saintigny, Pierre; Meurette, Olivier; Mehlen, Patrick

    2017-07-18

    Notch signalling is a causal determinant of cancer and efforts have been made to develop targeted therapies to inhibit the so-called canonical pathway. Here we describe an unexpected pro-apoptotic role of Notch3 in regulating tumour angiogenesis independently of the Notch canonical pathway. The Notch3 ligand Jagged-1 is upregulated in a fraction of human cancer and our data support the view that Jagged-1, produced by cancer cells, is inhibiting the apoptosis induced by the aberrant Notch3 expression in tumour vasculature. We thus present Notch3 as a dependence receptor inducing endothelial cell death while this pro-apoptotic activity is blocked by Jagged-1. Along this line, using Notch3 mutant mice, we demonstrate that tumour growth and angiogenesis are increased when Notch3 is silenced in the stroma. Consequently, we show that the well-documented anti-tumour effect mediated by γ-secretase inhibition is at least in part dependent on the apoptosis triggered by Notch3 in endothelial cells.

  1. Non-canonical NOTCH3 signalling limits tumour angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shuheng; Negulescu, Ana; Bulusu, Sirisha; Gibert, Benjamin; Delcros, Jean-Guy; Ducarouge, Benjamin; Rama, Nicolas; Gadot, Nicolas; Treilleux, Isabelle; Saintigny, Pierre; Meurette, Olivier; Mehlen, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Notch signalling is a causal determinant of cancer and efforts have been made to develop targeted therapies to inhibit the so-called canonical pathway. Here we describe an unexpected pro-apoptotic role of Notch3 in regulating tumour angiogenesis independently of the Notch canonical pathway. The Notch3 ligand Jagged-1 is upregulated in a fraction of human cancer and our data support the view that Jagged-1, produced by cancer cells, is inhibiting the apoptosis induced by the aberrant Notch3 expression in tumour vasculature. We thus present Notch3 as a dependence receptor inducing endothelial cell death while this pro-apoptotic activity is blocked by Jagged-1. Along this line, using Notch3 mutant mice, we demonstrate that tumour growth and angiogenesis are increased when Notch3 is silenced in the stroma. Consequently, we show that the well-documented anti-tumour effect mediated by γ-secretase inhibition is at least in part dependent on the apoptosis triggered by Notch3 in endothelial cells. PMID:28719575

  2. Proteasome inhibition with bortezomib induces cell death in GBM stem-like cells and temozolomide-resistant glioma cell lines, but stimulates GBM stem-like cells' VEGF production and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bota, Daniela A; Alexandru, Daniela; Keir, Stephen T; Bigner, Darell; Vredenburgh, James; Friedman, Henry S

    2013-12-01

    Recurrent malignant gliomas have inherent resistance to traditional chemotherapy. Novel therapies target specific molecular mechanisms involved in abnormal signaling and resistance to apoptosis. The proteasome is a key regulator of multiple cellular functions, and its inhibition in malignant astrocytic lines causes cell growth arrest and apoptotic cell death. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib was reported to have very good in vitro activity against malignant glioma cell lines, with modest activity in animal models as well as in clinical trials as a single agent. In this paper, the authors describe the multiple effects of bortezomib in both in vitro and in vivo glioma models and offer a novel explanation for its seeming lack of activity. Glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) were obtained from resected glioblastomas (GBMs) at surgery and expanded in culture. Stable glioma cell lines (U21 and D54) as well as temozolomide (TMZ)-resistant glioma cells derived from U251 and D54-MG were also cultured. GSCs from 2 different tumors, as well as D54 and U251 cells, were treated with bortezomib, and the effect of the drug was measured using an XTT cell viability assay. The activity of bortezomib was then determined in D54-MG and/or U251 cells using apoptosis analysis as well as caspase-3 activity and proteasome activity measurements. Human glioma xenograft models were created in nude mice by subcutaneous injection. Bevacizumab was administered via intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 5 mg/kg daily. Bortezomib was administered by intraperitoneal injection 1 hour after bevacizumab administration in doses of at a dose of 0.35 mg/kg on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 every 21 days. Tumors were measured twice weekly. Bortezomib induced caspase-3 activation and apoptotic cell death in stable glioma cell lines and in glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) derived from malignant tumor specimens Furthermore, TMZ-resistant glioma cell lines retained susceptibility to the proteasome inhibition. The bortezomib

  3. Effects of CASP5 gene overexpression on angiogenesis of HMEC-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan; Li, Yuzhen; Cai, Limin; Bai, Bingxue; Wang, Yanhua

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of gene overexpression of CASP5, a caspase family member, in angiogenesis in vitro and its mechanisms were clarified. Human full-length CASP5 gene was delivered into human microvascular endothelial HMEC-1 cells by recombinant lentivirus. The infection was estimated by green fluorescent protein. MTT method was used to analyze the efficacy of gene overexpression in cell proliferation ability, and Matrigel was used to estimate its effects in angiogenesis ability of cells. Meanwhile, Western blot was used to analyze the effects of CASP5 gene overexpression on the expression levels of angpt-1, angpt-2, Tie2 and VEGF-1 in the cells, which were signaling pathway factors related to angiogenesis. Recombinant lentivirus containing human full-length CASP5 gene was packed and purified successfully, with virus titer of 1×10(8) TU/ml. The recombinant lentivirus was used to infect HMEC-1 cells with MOI of 1, leading to a cell infection rate of 100%. There were no significant effects of CASP5 gene overexpression on both cell proliferation ability and the expression level of angpt-1. Meanwhile, expressions of angpt-2 and VEGF-1 were both enhanced, while Tie2 expression was inhibited. Results indicated that CASP5 gene overexpression promoted angiogenesis of HMEC-1 cells. CASP5 gene overexpression significantly promoted angiogenesis ability of HMEC-1 cells, which was probably achieved by inhibiting angpt-1/Tie2 and promoting VEGF-1 signal pathway.

  4. The effects of CD147 on the cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and angiogenesis in glioma.

    PubMed

    Yin, Haoyuan; Shao, Ying; Chen, Xuan

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the effects of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (CD147) on glioma proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and angiogenesis. Tissue samples were obtained from 101 glioma cases while normal brain tissues were obtained from 30 brain injury cases. Immunohistochemical assay was performed to detect the expressions of CD147, CD34, and VEGF in tissue samples. QRT-PCR was performed to detect the relative expression of CD147 mRNA in human glioma cell lines. CD147 siRNA was transfected into glioma cell line U251. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and angiogenesis were tested by MTT, flow cytometry, Transwell assay, and vasculogenic mimicry assay, respectively. Expressions of relative proteins were analyzed with western blot. CD147 was positively expressed with the percentage of 0, 37.5, 44.8, 67.9, and 85.7 % in normal tissues and glioma tissues with WHO grades I-IV, respectively, and the scores of MVDand VEGF were associated with the expression of CD147. CD147 was significantly upregulated in the human glioma cell lines (P < 0.05). Downregulated the expression of CD147 suppressed cell proliferation, blocked cell cycle, induced apoptosis, inhibited cell invasion and angiogenesis in glioma cells in vitro. The expression of CD147 was significantly associated with WHO tumor grade and angiogenesis; silencing of CD147 contributed to inhibition of glioma proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. Our study provided firm evidence that CD 147 is a potential glioma target for anti-angiogenic therapies.

  5. Pharmacological blockade of cholesterol trafficking by cepharanthine in endothelial cells suppresses angiogenesis and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Junfang; Yang, Eun Ju; Head, Sarah A; Ai, Nana; Zhang, Baoyuan; Wu, Changjie; Li, Ruo-Jing; Liu, Yifan; Yang, Chen; Dang, Yongjun; Kwon, Ho Jeong; Ge, Wei; Liu, Jun O; Shim, Joong Sup

    2017-11-28

    Cholesterol is an important modulator of membrane protein function and signaling in endothelial cells, thus making it an emerging target for anti-angiogenic agents. In this study, we employed a phenotypic screen that detects intracellular cholesterol distribution in endothelial cells (HUVEC) and identified 13 existing drugs as cholesterol trafficking inhibitors. Cepharanthine, an approved drug for anti-inflammatory and cancer management use, was amongst the candidates, which was selected for in-depth mechanistic studies to link cholesterol trafficking and angiogenesis. Cepharanthine inhibited the endolysosomal trafficking of free-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein in HUVEC by binding to Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) protein and increasing the lysosomal pH. The blockade of cholesterol trafficking led to a cholesterol-dependent dissociation of mTOR from the lysosomes and inhibition of its downstream signaling. Cepharanthine inhibited angiogenesis in HUVEC and in zebrafish in a cholesterol-dependent manner. Furthermore, cepharanthine suppressed tumor growth in vivo by inhibiting angiogenesis and it enhanced the antitumor activity of the standard chemotherapy cisplatin in lung and breast cancer xenografts in mice. Altogether, these results strongly support the idea that cholesterol trafficking is a viable drug target for anti-angiogenesis and that the inhibitors identified among existing drugs, such as cepharanthine, could be potential anti-angiogenic and antitumor agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Adenosine A2A receptors modulate the dopamine D2 receptor-mediated inhibition of synaptic transmission in the mouse prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Real, Joana I; Simões, Ana Patrícia; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Ferreira, Samira G; Rial, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    Prefrontal cortex (PFC) circuits are modulated by dopamine acting on D 1 - and D 2 -like receptors, which are pharmacologically exploited to manage neuropsychiatric conditions. Adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2 A R) also control PFC-related responses and A 2 A R antagonists are potential anti-psychotic drugs. As tight antagonistic A 2 A R-D 2 R and synergistic A 2 A R-D 1 R interactions occur in other brain regions, we now investigated the crosstalk between A 2 A R and D 1 /D 2 R controlling synaptic transmission between layers II/III and V in mouse PFC coronal slices. Dopamine decreased synaptic transmission, a presynaptic effect based on the parallel increase in paired-pulse responses. Dopamine inhibition was prevented by the D 2 R-like antagonist sulpiride but not by the D 1 R antagonist SCH23390 and was mimicked by the D 2 R agonist sumanirole, but not by the agonists of either D 4 R (A-412997) or D 3 R (PD128907). Dopamine inhibition was prevented by the A 2 A R antagonist, SCH58261, and attenuated in A 2 A R knockout mice. Accordingly, triple-labelling immunocytochemistry experiments revealed the co-localization of A 2 A R and D 2 R immunoreactivity in glutamatergic (vGluT1-positive) nerve terminals of the PFC. This reported positive A 2 A R-D 2 R interaction controlling PFC synaptic transmission provides a mechanistic justification for the anti-psychotic potential of A 2 A R antagonists. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Endothelial cell stimulating angiogenesis factor.

    PubMed

    Weiss, J B; McLaughlin, B

    1998-04-01

    Endothelial cell stimulating angiogenesis factor (ESAF) is a small (> 1000 Da) dialysable non-peptide molecule with potent angiogenic activity. ESAF activates the major pro-matrix metalloproteinases and also uniquely reactivates the complex of these active enzymes with their tissue inhibitors resulting in both active enzyme and inhibitor. These actions may be pivotal in its role as an angiogenic factor. ESAF is primarily involved in angiogenic conditions where inflammatory cells are not evident such as foetal bone growth and electrically stimulated skeletal muscles and proliferative retinopathy. However, high levels also occur in actively growing human intracranial tumours but it is not noticeably elevated in rheumatoid arthritic synovial fluid. Its extreme potency and low molecular mass make its structural determination difficult. Possible therapeutic applications would be in the treatment of ischaemic ulcers, acceleration of fracture repair, infertility and more modestly in the correction of baldness. Analogues of ESAF could be of value in treating angiogenic diseases such as psoriasis and proliferative retinopathy.

  8. Inhibition of calcium-independent phospholipase A2 prevents arachidonic acid incorporation and phospholipid remodeling in P388D1 macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Balsinde, J; Bianco, I D; Ackermann, E J; Conde-Frieboes, K; Dennis, E A

    1995-01-01

    Cellular levels of free arachidonic acid (AA) are controlled by a deacylation/reacylation cycle whereby the fatty acid is liberated by phospholipases and reincorporated by acyltransferases. We have found that the esterification of AA into membrane phospholipids is a Ca(2+)-independent process and that it is blocked up to 60-70% by a bromoenollactone (BEL) that is a selective inhibitor of a newly discovered Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in macrophages. The observed inhibition correlates with a decreased steady-state level of lysophospholipids as well as with the inhibition of the Ca(2+)-independent PLA2 activity in these cells. This inhibition is specific for the Ca(2+)-independent PLA2 in that neither group IV PLA2, group II PLA2, arachidonoyl-CoA synthetase, lysophospholipid:arachidonoyl-CoA acyltransferase, nor CoA-independent transacylase is affected by treatment with BEL. Moreover, two BEL analogs that are not inhibitors of the Ca(2+)-independent PLA2--namely a bromomethyl ketone and methyl-BEL--do not inhibit AA incorporation into phospholipids. Esterification of palmitic acid is only slightly affected by BEL, indicating that de novo synthetic pathways are not inhibited by BEL. Collectively, the data suggest that the Ca(2+)-independent PLA2 in P388D1 macrophages plays a major role in regulating the incorporation of AA into membrane phospholipids by providing the lysophospholipid acceptor employed in the acylation reaction. PMID:7667324

  9. The SH3BGR/STAT3 Pathway Regulates Cell Migration and Angiogenesis Induced by a Gammaherpesvirus MicroRNA

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiangya; Shen, Chenyou; Hu, Minmin; Zhu, Ying; Qin, Di; Lu, Hongmei; Krueger, Brian J.; Renne, Rolf; Gao, Shou-Jiang; Lu, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a gammaherpesvirus etiologically associated with KS, a highly disseminated angiogenic tumor of hyperproliferative spindle endothelial cells. KSHV encodes 25 mature microRNAs but their roles in KSHV-induced tumor dissemination and angiogenesis remain unknown. Here, we investigated KSHV-encoded miR-K12-6-3p (miR-K6-3p) promotion of endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis, which are the underlying mechanisms of tumor dissemination and angiogenesis. We found that ectopic expression of miR-K6-3p promoted endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis. Mass spectrometry, bioinformatics and luciferase reporter analyses revealed that miR-K6-3p directly targeted sequence in the 3’ untranslated region (UTR) of SH3 domain binding glutamate-rich protein (SH3BGR). Overexpression of SH3BGR reversed miR-K6-3p induction of cell migration and angiogenesis. Mechanistically, miR-K6-3p downregulated SH3BGR, hence relieved STAT3 from SH3BGR direct binding and inhibition, which was required for miR-K6-3p maximum activation of STAT3 and induction of cell migration and angiogenesis. Finally, deletion of miR-K6 from the KSHV genome abrogated its effect on the SH3BGR/STAT3 pathway, and KSHV-induced migration and angiogenesis. Our results illustrated that, by inhibiting SH3BGR, miR-K6-3p enhances cell migration and angiogenesis by activating the STAT3 pathway, and thus contributes to the dissemination and angiogenesis of KSHV-induced malignancies. PMID:27128969

  10. Antitumor Activity of Emodin against Pancreatic Cancer Depends on Its Dual Role: Promotion of Apoptosis and Suppression of Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kang-Jie; Tong, Hong-Fei; Wang, Zhao-Hong; Ni, Zhong-Lin; Liu, Hai-Bin; Guo, Hong-Chun; Liu, Dian-Lei

    2012-01-01

    Background Emodin has been showed to induce apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth in our previous studies. This study was designed to investigate whether emodin could inhibit the angiogenesis of pancreatic cancer tissues and its mechanism. Methodology/Principal Finding In accordance with our previous study, emodin inhibited pancreatic cancer cell growth, induced apoptosis, and enhanced the anti-tumor effect of gemcitabine on pancreatic caner cells in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting the activity of NF-κB. Here, for the first time, we demonstrated that emodin inhibited tumor angiogenesis in vitro and in implanted pancreatic cancer tissues, decreased the expression of angiogenesis-associated factors (NF-κB and its regulated factors VEGF, MMP-2, MMP-9, and eNOS), and reduced eNOS phosphorylation, as evidenced by both immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis of implanted tumors. In addition, we found that emodin had no effect on VEGFR expression in vivo. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggested that emodin has potential anti-tumor effect on pancreatic cancer via its dual role in the promotion of apoptosis and suppression of angiogenesis, probably through regulating the expression of NF-κB and NF-κB-regulated angiogenesis-associated factors. PMID:22876305

  11. Inhibition of Langerhans cell maturation by human papillomavirus type 16: a novel role for the annexin A2 heterotetramer in immune suppression1

    PubMed Central

    Woodham, Andrew W.; Raff, Adam B.; Raff, Laura M.; Da Silva, Diane M.; Yan, Lisa; Skeate, Joseph G.; Wong, Michael K.; Lin, Yvonne G.; Kast, W. Martin

    2014-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) are sexually transmitted viruses causally associated with several cancers. During its natural life cycle, HPV16, the most common high-risk genotype, infects the epithelial basal cellsin a process facilitated through a recently identified receptor, the annexin A2 heterotetramer (A2t). During infection, HPV16 also interacts with Langerhans cells (LC), the antigen presenting cells of the epithelium, inducing immune suppression, which is mediated by the HPV16 L2 minor capsid protein. Despite the importance of these virus-immune cell interactions, the specific mechanisms of HPV16 entry into LC and HPV16-induced immune suppression remain undefined. An N-terminal peptide of HPV16 L2 (aa 108-126) has been shown to specifically interact with A2t. Here, we show that incubation of human LC with this peptide blocks binding of HPV16. Inhibiting this interaction with an A2t ligand or by siRNA downregulation of A2t, significantly decreases HPV16 internalization into LC in an L2-dependent manner. A2t is associated with suppression of LC maturation as demonstrated through attenuated secretion of Th1-associated cytokines and decreased surface expression of MHC II on LC exposed to A2t. Conversely, small molecule inhibition of A2t prevents HPV16-induced suppression of LC immune function as indicated by significantly increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines and surface expression of CD86 in HPV16 treated LC pre-exposed to A2t inhibitors. These results demonstrate that HPV16 suppresses LC maturation through an interaction with A2t, revealing a novel role for this protein. PMID:24719459

  12. Inhibition of Langerhans cell maturation by human papillomavirus type 16: a novel role for the annexin A2 heterotetramer in immune suppression.

    PubMed

    Woodham, Andrew W; Raff, Adam B; Raff, Laura M; Da Silva, Diane M; Yan, Lisa; Skeate, Joseph G; Wong, Michael K; Lin, Yvonne G; Kast, W Martin

    2014-05-15

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are sexually transmitted viruses causally associated with several cancers. During its natural life cycle, HPV16, the most common high-risk genotype, infects the epithelial basal cells in a process facilitated through a recently identified receptor, the annexin A2 heterotetramer (A2t). During infection, HPV16 also interacts with Langerhans cells (LC), the APC of the epithelium, inducing immune suppression, which is mediated by the HPV16 L2 minor capsid protein. Despite the importance of these virus-immune cell interactions, the specific mechanisms of HPV16 entry into LC and HPV16-induced immune suppression remain undefined. An N-terminal peptide of HPV16 L2 (aa 108-126) has been shown to specifically interact with A2t. In this study, we show that incubation of human LC with this peptide blocks binding of HPV16. Inhibiting this interaction with an A2t ligand or by small interfering RNA downregulation of A2t significantly decreases HPV16 internalization into LC in an L2-dependent manner. A2t is associated with suppression of LC maturation as demonstrated through attenuated secretion of Th1-associated cytokines and decreased surface expression of MHC class II on LC exposed to A2t. Conversely, small molecule inhibition of A2t prevents HPV16-induced suppression of LC immune function as indicated by significantly increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines and surface expression of CD86 in HPV16 treated LC pre-exposed to A2t inhibitors. These results demonstrate that HPV16 suppresses LC maturation through an interaction with A2t, revealing a novel role for this protein.

  13. Inhibition of untransformed prostaglandin H(2) production and stretch-induced contraction of rabbit pulmonary arteries by indoxam, a selective secretory phospholipase A(2) inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Maki; Morikawa, Yuki; Kamataki, Akihisa; Sawai, Takashi; Hirose, Masamichi; Nakayama, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    Involvement of secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) in the stretch-induced production of untransformed prostaglandin H(2) (PGH(2)) in the endothelium of rabbit pulmonary arteries was investigated. The stretch-induced contraction was significantly inhibited by indoxam, a selective inhibitor for sPLA(2), and NS-398, a selective inhibitor for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Indoxam inhibited the RGD-sensitive-integrin-independent production of untransformed PGH(2), but did not affect the RGD-sensitive-integrin-dependent production of thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)). These results suggest that the stretch-induced contraction and untransformed PGH(2) production was mediated by sPLA(2)-COX-2 pathway, making it a new possible target for pharmacological intervention of pulmonary artery contractility.

  14. Inhibition of Baicalin on Metabolism of Phenacetin, a Probe of CYP1A2, in Human Liver Microsomes and in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Na; Qi, Bing; Liu, Fang-jun; Fang, Yan; Zhou, Jun; Jia, Lin-jing; Qiao, Hai-ling

    2014-01-01

    Baicalin has been used as mainly bioactive constituent of about 100 kinds of traditional Chinese medicines in Chinese pharmacopoeia. The effect of baicalin on cytochrome P450 should be paid more attention because baicalin was used widely. The aim of this study was to investigate whether baicalin could inhibit CYP1A2 in pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs) and in rats in vivo and the gene polymorphisms could affect inter-individual variation in IC50 in 28 human livers. Phenacetin was used as probe of CYP1A2. Kinetic parameter of CYP1A2 and IC50 of baicalin on CYP1A2 to each sample were measured and the common CYP1A2 polymorphisms (−3860G>A and −163C>A) were genotyped. The results showed that baicalin exhibited a mixed-type inhibition in pooled HLMs, with a Ki value of 25.4 µM. There was substantial variation in Km, Vmax, CLint of CYP1A2 and IC50 of baicalin on CYP1A2 (3∼10-fold). The range was from 26.6 to 114.8 µM for Km, from 333 to 1330 pmol·min−1·mg−1protein for Vmax and from 3.8 to 45.3 µL·min−1·mg−1 protein for CLint in HLMs (n = 28). The Mean (range) value of IC50 in 28 HLMs was 36.3 (18.9 to 56.1) µM. The genotypes of −3860G>A and −163C>A had no significant effect on the inhibition of baicalin on CYP1A2. The animal experiment results showed that baicalin (450 mg/kg, i.v.) significantly decreased the Cmax and CL of phenacetin, and increased C60 min, t1/2, Vd and AUC (P<0.05). There were significant correlations between percentage of control in C60 min, t1/2, CL, AUC of phenacetin and Cmax of baicalin in 11 rats (P<0.05). Protein binding experiments in vitro showed that baicalin (0–2000 mg/L) increased the unbound phenacetin from 14.5% to 28.3%. In conclusion, baicalin can inhibit the activity of CYP1A2 in HLMs and exhibit large inter-individual variation that has no relationship with gene polymorphism. Baicalin can change the pharmacokinetics of phenacetin in rats. PMID:24587011

  15. Tumour angiogenesis is reduced in the Tc1 mouse model of Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Louise E; Watson, Alan R; Baker, Marianne; Jones, Tania A; D'Amico, Gabriela; Robinson, Stephen D; Joffre, Carine; Garrido-Urbani, Sarah; Rodriguez-Manzaneque, Juan Carlos; Martino-Echarri, Estefanía; Aurrand-Lions, Michel; Sheer, Denise; Dagna-Bricarelli, Franca; Nizetic, Dean; McCabe, Christopher J; Turnell, Andrew S; Kermorgant, Stephanie; Imhof, Beat A; Adams, Ralf; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Tybulewicz, Victor L J; Hart, Ian R; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan M

    2010-06-10

    Down's syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder caused by full or partial trisomy of human chromosome 21 and presents with many clinical phenotypes including a reduced incidence of solid tumours. Recent work with the Ts65Dn model of DS, which has orthologues of about 50% of the genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21), has indicated that three copies of the ETS2 (ref. 3) or DS candidate region 1 (DSCR1) genes (a previously known suppressor of angiogenesis) is sufficient to inhibit tumour growth. Here we use the Tc1 transchromosomic mouse model of DS to dissect the contribution of extra copies of genes on Hsa21 to tumour angiogenesis. This mouse expresses roughly 81% of Hsa21 genes but not the human DSCR1 region. We transplanted B16F0 and Lewis lung carcinoma tumour cells into Tc1 mice and showed that growth of these tumours was substantially reduced compared with wild-type littermate controls. Furthermore, tumour angiogenesis was significantly repressed in Tc1 mice. In particular, in vitro and in vivo angiogenic responses to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were inhibited. Examination of the genes on the segment of Hsa21 in Tc1 mice identified putative anti-angiogenic genes (ADAMTS1and ERG) and novel endothelial cell-specific genes, never previously shown to be involved in angiogenesis (JAM-B and PTTG1IP), that, when overexpressed, are responsible for inhibiting angiogenic responses to VEGF. Three copies of these genes within the stromal compartment reduced tumour angiogenesis, explaining the reduced tumour growth in DS. Furthermore, we expect that, in addition to the candidate genes that we show to be involved in the repression of angiogenesis, the Tc1 mouse model of DS will permit the identification of other endothelium-specific anti-angiogenic targets relevant to a broad spectrum of cancer patients.

  16. Inhibitory effects of clotrimazole on TNF-alpha-induced adhesion molecule expression and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Dinesh; Lee, Jong Suk; Park, Min-A; Cho, Mi-Yeon; Park, Young-Joon; Choi, Han Gon; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Kim, Jung-Ae

    2009-04-01

    Cell adhesion molecules play a pivotal role in chronic inflammation and pathological angiogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of clotrimazole (CLT) on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced changes in adhesion molecule expression. CLT dose-dependently inhibited monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expressions in TNF-alpha-stimulated HT29 colonic epithelial cells. This inhibitory action of CLT correlated with a significant reduction in TNF-alpha-induced adhesion of monocytes to HT29 cells, which was comparable to the inhibitory effects of anti-ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 monoclonal antibodies on monocyte-epithelial adhesion. These inhibitory actions of CLT were, at least in part, attributable to the inhibition of redox sensitive NF-kappaB activation, as CLT inhibited TNF-alpha-induced ROS generation as well as NF-kappaB nuclear translocation and activation in HT29 cells. Furthermore, the inhibition of TNF-alpha-induced monocyte adhesion was also mimicked by the specific NF-kappaB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC). Inflammatory mediators including TNF-alpha have known to promote angiogenesis, which in turn further contributes to inflammatory pathology. Therefore, we additionally evaluated whether CLT modulates TNF-alpha-induced angiogenesis using in vivo chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. The CAM assay showed that CLT dose-dependently attenuated TNF-alpha-induced angiogenesis, and the effect was correlated with decreased inflammation of the CAM tissue. In conclusion, our results suggest that CLT can inhibit TNF-alpha-triggered expression of adhesion molecules, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, and angiogenesis during inflammation.

  17. EphrinA1-EphA2 interaction-mediated apoptosis and Flt3L-induced immunotherapy inhibits tumor growth in a breast cancer mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Manish; Vemula, Sai V.; Sharma, Anurag; Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Mittal, Shalini; Bangari, Dinesh S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2 is overexpressed in several types of cancers and is currently being pursued as a target for breast cancer therapeutics. The EphA2 ligand EphrinA1 induces EphA2 phosphorylation and intracellular internalization and degradation, thus inhibiting tumor progression. The hematopoietic growth factor, FMS-like tyrosine kinase receptor ligand (Flt3L), promotes expansion and mobilization of functional dendritic cells. Methods We tested the EphrinA1-EphA2 interaction in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells focusing on the receptor-ligand-mediated apoptosis of breast cancer cells. In order to determine whether the EphrinA1-EphA2 interaction-associated apoptosis and Flt3L-mediated immunotherapy would have an additive effect in inhibiting tumor growth, we used an immunocompetent mouse model of breast cancer to evaluate intratumoral (i.t.) inoculation strategies with human adenovirus (HAd) vectors expressing either EphrinA1 (HAd-EphrinA1-Fc), Flt3L (HAd-Flt3L) or a combination of EphrinA1-Fc + Flt3L (HAd-EphrinA1-Fc + HAd-Flt3L). Results In vitro analysis demonstrated that an EphrinA1-EphA2 interaction led to apoptosis-related changes in breast cancer cells. In vivo, three i.t. inoculations of HAd-EphrinA1-Fc showed potent inhibition of tumor growth. Furthermore, increased inhibition in tumor growth was observed with the combination of HAd-EphrinA1-Fc and HAd-Flt3L accompanied by the generation of an anti-tumor adaptive immune response. Conclusions The results indicating induction of apoptosis and inhibition of mammary tumor growth show the potential therapeutic benefits of HAd-EphrinA1-Fc. In combination with HAd-Flt3L, this represents a promising strategy to effectively induce mammary tumor regression by HAd vector-based therapy. PMID:22228563

  18. [Inhibition of phospholipase A2 of peritoneal macrophages in rats by 1,2-di-O-hexadecyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine].

    PubMed

    Boucrot, P; Khettab, E N; Petit, J Y; Welin, L

    1993-01-01

    The 1-O-stearoyl-2-O-[3H] arachidonyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, introduced in the culture medium, was taken up by the peritoneal macrophages activated by the ionophore A 23187. After intracellular phospholipase A2 activity, the [3H] arachidonic acid was found in cells and in extracellular fluids. It also reached the eicosanoid synthesis. When it was introduced in the culture medium with the tritiated phospholipid, the 1, 2 di-O-hexadecyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine, which has a non hydrolysable alkylated structure in the 2 position of the glycerol, inhibited the intracellular phospholipase A2, then contributed to lower the eicosanoid synthesis.

  19. Magnolol inhibits angiogenesis by regulating ROS-mediated apoptosis and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in mES/EB-derived endothelial-like cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gi Dae; Oh, Jedo; Park, Hyen-Joo; Bae, Kihwan; Lee, Sang Kook

    2013-08-01

    Magnolol, a neolignan from the traditional medicinal plant Magnolia obovata, has been shown to possess neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and anti-angiogenic activities. However, the precise mechanism of the anti-angiogenic activity of magnolol remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the anti-angiogenic effect of magnolol was evaluated in mouse embryonic stem (mES)/embryoid body (EB)-derived endothelial-like cells. The endothelial-like cells were obtained by differentiation from mES/EB cells. Magnolol (20 µM) significantly suppressed the transcriptional and translational expression of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM), an endothelial biomarker, in mES/EB-derived endothelial-like cells. To further understand the molecular mechanism of the suppression of PECAM expression, signaling pathways were analyzed in the mES/EB-derived endothelial-like cells. Magnolol induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mitochondria, a process that was associated with the induction of apoptosis as determined by positive Annexin V staining and the activation of cleaved caspase-3. The involvement of ROS generation by magnolol was confirmed by treatment with an antioxidant, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC). NAC inhibited the magnolol-mediated induction of ROS generation and suppression of PECAM expression. In addition, magnolol suppressed the activation of MAPKs (ERK, JNK and p38) and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in mES/EB-derived endothelial-like cells. Taken together, these findings demonstrate for the first time that the anti-angiogenic activity of magnolol may be associated with ROS-mediated apoptosis and the suppression of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in mES/EB-derived endothelial-like cells.

  20. Inhibition of Procarcinogen Activating Enzyme CYP1A2 Activity and Free Radical Formation by Caffeic Acid and its Amide Analogues.

    PubMed

    Narongchai, Paitoon; Niwatananun, Kanokporn; Narongchai, Siripun; Kusirisin, Winthana; Jaikang, Churdsak

    2016-01-01

    Caffeic acid (CAF) and its amide analogues, ethyl 1-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) propen amide (EDPA), phenethyl 1-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) propen amide (PEDPA), phenmethyl 1- (3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) propen amide (PMDPA) and octyl 1-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) propen amide (ODPA) were investigated for the inhibition of procarcinogen activating enzyme. CYP1A2 and scavenging activity on formation of nitric oxide, superoxide anion, DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical. It was found that they inhibited CYP1A2 enzyme by uncompetitive inhibition. Apparent Ki values of CAF, EDPA, PEDPA, PMDPA and ODPA were 0.59, 0.39, 0.45, 0.75 and 0.80 µM, respectively suggesting potent inhibitors of CYP1A2. Moreover, they potentially scavenged nitric oxide radical with IC 50 values of 0.12, 0.22, 0.28, 0.22 and 0.51 mM, respectively. The IC50 values of superoxide anion scavenging were 0.20, 0.22, 0.44, 2.18 and 2.50 mM, respectively. 1, 1- diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging ability, shown as IC50 values, were 0.41, 0.29, 0.30, 0.89 and 0.84 mM, respectively. Moreover, the hydroxyl radical scavenging in vitro model was shown as IC50 values of 23.22, 21.06, 17.10, 17.21 and 15.81 µM, respectively. From our results, caffeic acid and its amide analogues are in vitro inhibitors of human CYP1A2 catalytic activity and free radical formation. They may be useful to be developed as potential chemopreventive agents that block CYP1A2-mediated chemical carcinogenesis.

  1. Galectins in angiogenesis: consequences for gestation.

    PubMed

    Blois, Sandra M; Conrad, Melanie L; Freitag, Nancy; Barrientos, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    Members of the galectin family have been shown to exert several roles in the context of reproduction. They contribute to placentation, maternal immune regulation and facilitate angiogenesis encompassing decidualisation and placenta formation during pregnancy. In the context of neo-vascularisation, galectins have been shown to augment signalling pathways that lead to endothelial cell activation, cell proliferation, migration and tube formation in vitro in addition to angiogenesis in vivo. Angiogenesis during gestation ensures not only proper foetal growth and development, but also maternal health. Consequently, restriction of placental blood flow has major consequences for both foetus and mother, leading to pregnancy diseases. In this review we summarise both the established and the emerging roles of galectin in angiogenesis and discuss the possible implications during healthy and pathological gestation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Targeting p35/Cdk5 signalling via CIP-peptide promotes angiogenesis in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Bosutti, Alessandra; Qi, Jie; Pennucci, Roberta; Bolton, David; Matou, Sabine; Ali, Kamela; Tsai, Li-Huei; Krupinski, Jerzy; Petcu, Eugene B; Montaner, Joan; Al Baradie, Raid; Caccuri, Francesca; Caruso, Arnaldo; Alessandri, Giulio; Kumar, Shant; Rodriguez, Cristina; Martinez-Gonzalez, Jose; Slevin, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (Cdk5) is over-expressed in both neurons and microvessels in hypoxic regions of stroke tissue and has a significant pathological role following hyper-phosphorylation leading to calpain-induced cell death. Here, we have identified a critical role of Cdk5 in cytoskeleton/focal dynamics, wherein its activator, p35, redistributes along actin microfilaments of spreading cells co-localising with p(Tyr15)Cdk5, talin/integrin beta-1 at the lamellipodia in polarising cells. Cdk5 inhibition (roscovitine) resulted in actin-cytoskeleton disorganisation, prevention of protein co-localization and inhibition of movement. Cells expressing Cdk5 (D144N) kinase mutant, were unable to spread, migrate and form tube-like structures or sprouts, while Cdk5 wild-type over-expression showed enhanced motility and angiogenesis in vitro, which was maintained during hypoxia. Gene microarray studies demonstrated myocyte enhancer factor (MEF2C) as a substrate for Cdk5-mediated angiogenesis in vitro. MEF2C showed nuclear co-immunoprecipitation with Cdk5 and almost complete inhibition of differentiation and sprout formation following siRNA knock-down. In hypoxia, insertion of Cdk5/p25-inhibitory peptide (CIP) vector preserved and enhanced in vitro angiogenesis. These results demonstrate the existence of critical and complementary signalling pathways through Cdk5 and p35, and through which coordination is a required factor for successful angiogenesis in sustained hypoxic condition.

  3. HIF-2alpha-dependent PAI-1 induction contributes to angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Geis, Theresa, E-mail: geis@biochem.uni-frankfurt.de; Döring, Claudia, E-mail: C.Doering@em.uni-frankfurt.de; Popp, Rüdiger, E-mail: popp@vrc.uni-frankfurt.de

    Hypoxia promotes progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), not only affecting tumor cell proliferation and invasion, but also angiogenesis and thus, increasing the risk of metastasis. Hypoxia inducible factors (HIF)-1α and -2α cause adaptation of tumors to hypoxia, still with uncertainties towards the angiogenic switch. We created a stable knockdown of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in HepG2 cells and generated cocultures of HepG2 spheroids with embryonic bodies as an in vitro tumor model mimicking the cancer microenvironment. The naturally occuring oxygen and nutrient gradients within the cocultures allow us to question the role of distinct HIF isoforms in regulating HCC angiogenesis. Inmore » cocultures with a HIF-2α knockdown, angiogenesis was attenuated, while the knockdown of HIF-1α was without effect. Microarray analysis identified plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) as a HIF-2α target gene in HepG2 cells. The knockdown of PAI-1 in HepG2 cells also lowered angiogenesis. Blocking plasmin, the downstream target of PAI-1, with aprotinin in HIF-2α knockdown (k/d) cells proved a cause–effect relation and restored angiogenesis, with no effect on control cocultures. Suggestively, HIF-2α increases PAI-1 to lower concentrations of active plasmin, thereby supporting angiogenesis. We conclude that the HIF-2α target gene PAI-1 favors the angiogenic switch in HCC. - Highlights: • HepG2 were cocultured with stem cells to mimic a cancer microenvironment in vitro. • A knockdown of HIF-2α reduces angiogenesis. • PAI-1 was identified as a HIF-2α target gene in HCC by microarray analysis. • HIF-2α induces the angiogenic switch via inhibition of plasmin.« less

  4. Angiogenesis in the Primate Ovulatory Follicle Is Stimulated by Luteinizing Hormone via Prostaglandin E21

    PubMed Central

    Trau, Heidi A.; Davis, John S.; Duffy, Diane M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rapid angiogenesis occurs as the ovulatory follicle is transformed into the corpus luteum. To determine if luteinizing hormone (LH)-stimulated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) regulates angiogenesis in the ovulatory follicle, cynomolgus macaques received gonadotropins to stimulate multiple follicular development and chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) substituted for the LH surge to initiate ovulatory events. Before hCG, vascular endothelial cells were present in the perifollicular stroma but not amongst granulosa cells. Endothelial cells entered the granulosa cell layer 24–36 h after hCG, concomitant with the rise in follicular PGE2 and prior to ovulation, which occurs about 40 h after hCG. Intrafollicular administration of the PG synthesis inhibitor indomethacin was coupled with PGE2 replacement to demonstrate that indomethacin blocked and PGE2 restored follicular angiogenesis in a single, naturally developed monkey follicle in vivo. Intrafollicular administration of indomethacin plus an agonist selective for a single PGE2 receptor showed that PTGER1 and PTGER2 agonists most effectively stimulated angiogenesis within the granulosa cell layer. Endothelial cell tracing and three-dimensional reconstruction indicated that these capillary networks form via branching angiogenesis. To further explore how PGE2 mediates follicular angiogenesis, monkey ovarian microvascular endothelial cells (mOMECs) were isolated from ovulatory follicles. The mOMECs expressed all four PGE2 receptors in vitro. PGE2 and all PTGER agonists increased mOMEC migration. PTGER1 and PTGER2 agonists promoted sprout formation while the PTGER3 agonist inhibited sprouting in vitro. While PTGER1 and PTGER2 likely promote the formation of new capillaries, each PGE2 receptor may mediate aspects of PGE2's actions and, therefore, LH's ability to regulate angiogenesis in the primate ovulatory follicle. PMID:25376231

  5. Decreased angiogenesis and arthritic disease in rabbits treated with an αvβ3 antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Storgard, Chris M.; Stupack, Dwayne G.; Jonczyk, Alfred; Goodman, Simon L.; Fox, Robert I.; Cheresh, David A.

    1999-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease associated with intense angiogenesis and vascular expression of integrin αvβ3. Intra-articular administration of a cyclic peptide antagonist of integrin αvβ3 to rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis early in disease resulted in inhibition of synovial angiogenesis and reduced synovial cell infiltrate, pannus formation, and cartilage erosions. These effects were not associated with lymphopenia or impairment of leukocyte function. Furthermore, when administered in chronic, preexisting disease, the αvβ3 antagonist effectively diminished arthritis severity and was associated with a quantitative increase in apoptosis of the angiogenic blood vessels. Therefore, angiogenesis appears to be a central factor in the initiation and persistence of arthritic disease, and antagonists of integrin αvβ3 may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for RA. PMID:9884333

  6. Hypoxia-driven angiogenesis: role of tip cells and extracellular matrix scaffolding.

    PubMed

    Germain, Stéphane; Monnot, Catherine; Muller, Laurent; Eichmann, Anne

    2010-05-01

    Angiogenesis is a highly coordinated tissue remodeling process leading to blood vessel formation. Hypoxia triggers angiogenesis via induction of expression of growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF instructs endothelial cells to form tip cells, which lead outgrowing capillary sprouts, whereas Notch signaling inhibits sprout formation. Basement membrane deposition and mechanical cues from the extracellular matrix (ECM) induced by hypoxia may participate to coordinated vessel sprouting in conjunction with the VEGF and Notch signaling pathways. Hypoxia regulates ECM composition, deposition, posttranslational modifications and rearrangement. In particular, hypoxia-driven vascular remodeling is dynamically regulated through modulation of ECM-modifying enzyme activities that eventually affect both matricellular proteins and growth factor availability. Better understanding of the complex interplay between endothelial cells and soluble growth factors and mechanical factors from the ECM will certainly have significant implications for understanding the regulation of developmental and pathological angiogenesis driven by hypoxia.

  7. Blocking Modification of Eukaryotic Initiation 5A2 Antagonizes Cervical Carcinoma via Inhibition of RhoA/ROCK Signal Transduction Pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojun; Chen, Dong; Liu, Jiamei; Chu, Zhangtao; Liu, Dongli

    2017-10-01

    Cervical carcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death for female worldwide. Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 belongs to the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A family and is proposed to be a key factor involved in the development of diverse cancers. In the current study, a series of in vivo and in vitro investigations were performed to characterize the role of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in oncogenesis and metastasis of cervical carcinoma. The expression status of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in 15 cervical carcinoma patients was quantified. Then, the effect of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 knockdown on in vivo tumorigenicity ability, cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, and cell mobility of HeLa cells was measured. To uncover the mechanism driving the function of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in cervical carcinoma, expression of members within RhoA/ROCK pathway was detected, and the results were further verified with an RhoA overexpression modification. The level of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in cervical carcinoma samples was significantly higher than that in paired paratumor tissues ( P < .05). And the in vivo tumorigenic ability of HeLa cells was reduced by inhibition of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2. Knockdown of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in HeLa cells decreased the cell viability compared with normal cells and induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest ( P < .05). Moreover, the cell migration ability of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 knockdown cells was dramatically inhibited. Associated with alterations in phenotypes, RhoA, ROCK I, and ROCK II were downregulated. The above-mentioned changes in eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 knockdown cells were alleviated by the overexpression of RhoA. The major findings outlined in the current study confirmed the potential of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 as a promising prognosis predictor and therapeutic target for cervical carcinoma treatment. Also, our data inferred that

  8. A novel regulator of angiogenesis in endothelial cells: 5-hydroxytriptamine 4 receptor.

    PubMed

    Profirovic, Jasmina; Strekalova, Elena; Urao, Norifumi; Krbanjevic, Aleksandar; Andreeva, Alexandra V; Varadarajan, Sudhahar; Fukai, Tohru; Hen, René; Ushio-Fukai, Masuko; Voyno-Yasenetskaya, Tatyana A

    2013-01-01

    The 5-hydroxytryptamine type 4 receptor (5-HT(4)R) regulates many physiological processes, including learning and memory, cognition, and gastrointestinal motility. Little is known about its role in angiogenesis. Using mouse hindlimb ischemia model of angiogenesis, we observed a significant reduction of limb blood flow recovery 14 days after ischemia and a decrease in density of CD31-positive vessels in adductor muscles in 5-HT(4)R(-/-) mice compared to wild type littermates. Our in vitro data indicated that 5-HT(4)R endogenously expressed in endothelial cells (ECs) may promote angiogenesis. Inhibition of the receptor with 5-HT(4)R antagonist RS 39604 reduced EC capillary tube formation in the reconstituted basement membrane. Using Boyden chamber migration assay and wound healing "scratch" assay, we demonstrated that RS 39604 treatment significantly suppressed EC migration. Transendothelial resistance measurement and immunofluorescence analysis showed that a 5-HT(4)R agonist RS 67333 led to an increase in endothelial permeability, actin stress fiber and interendothelial gap formation. Importantly, we provided the evidence that 5-HT(4)R-regulated EC migration may be mediated by Gα13 and RhoA. Our results suggest a prominent role of 5-HT(4)R in promoting angiogenesis and identify 5-HT(4)R as a potential therapeutic target for modulating angiogenesis under pathological conditions.

  9. Evaluation of angiogenesis, epithelialisation and microcirculation after application of polyhexanide, chitosan and sodium chloride in rodents.

    PubMed

    Goertz, Ole; Lauer, Henrik; Hirsch, Tobias; Daigeler, Adrien; Harati, Kamran; Stricker, Ingo; Lehnhardt, Marcus; von der Lohe, Leon

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of polyhexanide and a new developed chitin-based wound dressing on skin microcirculation, epithelialisation and angiogenesis. A full-thickness dermal layer extending to the underlying cartilage was excised on the dorsal side of hairless mice (n = 27; 2·3 ± 0·3 mm 2 ). A polyhexanide ointment, a chitosan solution and a sodium chloride group as control were analysed using intravital fluorescence microscopy. Angiogenesis, epithelialisation and microcirculatory standard parameters were measured over a time period of 20 days. The non-perfused area is regarded as a parameter for angiogenesis and showed the following results: on days 12, 16 and 20, the sodium chloride group was significantly superior to chitosan solution (P < 0·05) and, on days 8, 12, 16 and 20, the polyhexanide group was superior to chitosan solution (P < 0·05). The epithelialisation was measured significantly faster in the polyhexanide and control group on day 8 versus chitosan solution. Whereas polyhexanide and sodium chloride were nearly completely epithelialised, treatment with chitosan solution showed still an open wound of 11% of the initial wound size. Altogether, we could demonstrate the advantageous effects of a polyhexanide ointment on microcirculation, angiogenesis and epithelialisation. Chitosan solution appears to inhibit angiogenesis and delays epithelialisation. Further studies in different models would be worthwhile to confirm these results. © 2015 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Alteration of Developmental and Pathological Retinal Angiogenesis in angptl4-deficient Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Perdiguero, Elisa Gomez; Galaup, Ariane; Durand, Mélanie; Teillon, Jérémie; Philippe, Josette; Valenzuela, David M.; Murphy, Andrew J.; Yancopoulos, George D.; Thurston, Gavin; Germain, Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    Proper vessel maturation, remodeling of endothelial junctions, and recruitment of perivascular cells is crucial for establishing and maintaining vessel functions. In proliferative retinopathies, hypoxia-induced angiogenesis is associated with disruption of the vascular barrier, edema, and vision loss. Therefore, identifying factors that regulate vascular maturation is critical to target pathological angiogenesis. Given the conflicting role of angiopoietin-like-4 (ANGPTL4) reported in the current literature using gain of function systems both in vitro and in vivo, the goal of this study was to characterize angiogenesis, focusing on perinatal retinal vascularization and pathological circumstances in angpl4-deficient mice. We report altered organization of endothelial junctions and pericyte coverage, both leading to impaired angiogenesis and increased vascular leakage that were eventually caught up, suggesting a delay in vessel maturation. In a model of oxygen-induced retinopathy, pathological neovascularization, which results from tissue hypoxia, was also strongly inhibited in angptl4-deficient mice. This study therefore shows that ANGPTL4 tunes endothelial cell junction organization and pericyte coverage and controls vascular permeability and angiogenesis, both during development and in pathological conditions. PMID:21832056

  11. Angelica Dahurica ethanolic extract improves impaired wound healing by activating angiogenesis in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Na; Ma, Ze-Jun; Wang, Ying; Sun, Bei; Guo, Xin; Pan, Cong-Qing; Chen, Li-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal angiogenesis plays an important role in impaired wound healing and development of chronic wounds in diabetes mellitus. Angelica dahurica radix is a common traditional Chinese medicine with wide spectrum medicinal effects. In this study, we analyzed the potential roles of Angelica dahurica ethanolic extract (ADEE) in correcting impaired angiogenesis and delayed wound healing in diabetes by using streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. ADEE treatment accelerated diabetic wound healing through inducing angiogenesis and granulation tissue formation. The angiogenic property of ADEE was subsequently verified ex vivo using aortic ring assays. Furthermore, we investigated the in vitro angiogenic activity of ADEE and its underlying mechanisms using human umbilical vein endothelial cells. ADEE treatment induced HUVECs proliferation, migration, and tube formation, which are typical phenomena of angiogenesis, in dose-dependent manners. These effects were associated with activation of angiogenic signal modulators, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), Akt, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) as well as increased NO production, and independent of affecting VEGF expression. ADEE-induced angiogenic events were inhibited by the MEK inhibitor PD98059, the PI3K inhibitor Wortmannin, and the eNOS inhibitor L-NAME. Our findings highlight an angiogenic role of ADEE and its ability to protect against impaired wound healing, which may be developed as a promising therapy for impaired angiogenesis and delayed wound healing in diabetes.

  12. Inhibition of Group IIA Secretory Phospholipase A2 and its Inflammatory Reactions in Mice by Ethanolic Extract of Andrographis paniculata, a Well-known Medicinal Food

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, V.; Yarla, N. S.; Zameer, F.; Nagendra Prasad, M. N.; Santosh, M. S.; More, S. S.; Rao, D. G.; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2016-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata Nees is an important medicinal plant found in the tropical regions of the world, which has been traditionally used in Indian and Chinese medicinal systems. It is also used as medicinal food. A. paniculata is found to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities; however, its inhibitory potential on inflammatory Group IIA phospholipases A2 (PLA2) and its associated inflammatory reactions are not clearly understood. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the inhibitory/neutralizing potential of ethanolic extract of A. paniculata on the isolated inflammatory PLA2 (VRV-PL-VIIIa) from Daboii rusellii pulchella (belonging to Group IIA inflammatory secretory PLA2 [sPLA2]) and its associated edema-induced activities in Swiss albino mice. A. paniculata extract dose dependently inhibited the Group IIA sPLA2 enzymatic activity with an IC50 value of 10.3 ± 0.5 μg/ml. Further, the extract dose dependently inhibited the edema formation, when co-injected with enzyme indicating that a strong correlation exists between lipolytic and pro-inflammatory activities of the enzyme. In conclusion, results of this study shows that the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata effectively inhibits Group IIA sPLA2 and its associated inflammatory activities, which substantiate its anti-inflammatory properties. The results of the present study warranted further studies to develop bioactive compound (s) in ethanolic extract of A. paniculata as potent therapeutic agent (s) for inflammatory diseases. SUMMARY This study emphasis the anti-inflammatory effect of A. paniculata by inhibiting the inflammatory Group IIA sPLA2 and its associated inflammatory activities such as edema. It was found that there is a strong correlation between lipolytic activity and pro-inflammatory activity inhibition. Therefore, the study suggests that the extract processes potent anti-inflammatory agents, which could be developed as a potential therapeutic agent against inflammatory and related diseases

  13. The potent inhibition of vapiprost, a novel thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist, on the secondary aggregation and ATP release of human platelets.

    PubMed

    Horie, S; Yamada, M; Satoh, M; Noritake, S; Hiraishi, S; Kizaki, K; Kurusu, O; Nakahara, T; Ishii, H; Kazama, M

    1997-06-01

    The inhibitory effects of vapiprost hydrochloride (vapiprost), a novel thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist, on platelet aggregation and ATP release were studied using platelet rich plasma (PRP) of humans, guinea pigs, rabbits and rats. In in vitro experiments with human platelet, vapiprost inhibited the aggregation and ATP release stimulated with U-46619, collagen or arachidonic acid (AA) at an IC50 of less than 2.1 x 10(-8) M. Vapiprost did not inhibit the primary aggregation or ATP release of human platelets stimulated with adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), epinephrine (Epi) or platelet activating factor (PAF), but inhibited the secondary aggregation stimulated with those agonists at an IC50 of less than 1.3 x 10(-7) M. The sensitivity of platelets in various species of animals to vapiprost was in the following order: human > or = guinea pigs > rats > rabbits. In ex vivo experiments with guinea pigs which received a single oral dose of vapiprost, the agent demonstrated strong inhibition of ATP release from platelets stimulated with U-46619, collagen or AA at an ID50 of less than 25.8 micrograms/kg. These inhibitory effects were observed within 30 min and sustained for 24 h at a single dosage of 5 mg/kg of vapiprost. In AA-induced pulmonary infarction models of mice, the sudden death rates decreased significantly with the oral administration of 10 mg/kg or more of vapiprost. These results indicate that vapiprost effectively inhibits the secondary aggregation and ATP release of human platelets stimulated with various agonists, and that guinea pig and human platelets are similar in response to vapiprost. Furthermore, it was demonstrated in ex vivo experiments with guinea pigs that the inhibitory action of vapiprost appears rapidly and lasts for long periods.

  14. A 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid analog screened using a maize coleoptile system potentially inhibits indole-3-acetic acid influx in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hiromi; Matano, Naoyuki; Nishimura, Takeshi; Koshiba, Tomokazu

    2014-01-01

    Studies using inhibitors of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) transport, not only for efflux but influx carriers, provide many aspects of auxin physiology in plants. 1-Naphtoxyacetic acid (1-NOA), an analog of the synthetic auxin 1-N-naphtalene acetic acid (NAA), inhibits the IAA influx carrier AUX1. However, 1-NOA also shows auxin activity because of its structural similarity to NAA. In this study, we have identified another candidate inhibitor of the IAA influx carrier. The compound, “7-B3; ethyl 2-[(2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl)thio]acetate,” is a 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) analog. At high concentrations (> 300 µM), 7-B3 slightly reduced IAA transport and tropic curvature of maize coleoptiles, whereas lower concentrations had almost no effect. We have analyzed the effects of 7-B3 on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. 7-B3 rescued the 2,4-D-inhibited root elongation, but not the NAA-inhibited root elongation. The effect of 7-B3 was weaker than that of 1-NOA. Both 1-NOA and 7-B3 inhibited DR5::GUS expression induced by IAA and 2,4-D, but not that induced by NAA. At high concentrations, 1-NOA exhibited auxin activity, but 7-B3 did not. Furthermore, 7-B3 inhibited apical hook formation in etiolated seedlings more effectively than 1-NOA did. These results indicate that 7-B3 is a potential inhibitor of IAA influx that has almost no effect on IAA efflux or auxin signaling. PMID:24800738

  15. Deletion of the distal COOH-terminus of the A2B adenosine receptor switches internalization to an arrestin- and clathrin-independent pathway and inhibits recycling.

    PubMed

    Mundell, S J; Matharu, A-L; Nisar, S; Palmer, T M; Benovic, J L; Kelly, E

    2010-02-01

    We have investigated the effect of deletions of a postsynaptic density, disc large and zo-1 protein (PDZ) motif at the end of the COOH-terminus of the rat A(2B) adenosine receptor on intracellular trafficking following long-term exposure to the agonist 5'-(N-ethylcarboxamido)-adenosine. The trafficking of the wild type A(2B) adenosine receptor and deletion mutants expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells was studied using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in combination with immunofluorescence microscopy. The wild type A(2B) adenosine receptor and deletion mutants were all extensively internalized following prolonged treatment with NECA. The intracellular compartment through which the Gln(325)-stop receptor mutant, which lacks the Type II PDZ motif found in the wild type receptor initially trafficked was not the same as the wild type receptor. Expression of dominant negative mutants of arrestin-2, dynamin or Eps-15 inhibited internalization of wild type and Leu(330)-stop receptors, whereas only dominant negative mutant dynamin inhibited agonist-induced internalization of Gln(325)-stop, Ser(326)-stop and Phe(328)-stop receptors. Following internalization, the wild type A(2B) adenosine receptor recycled rapidly to the cell surface, whereas the Gln(325)-stop receptor did not recycle. Deletion of the COOH-terminus of the A(2B) adenosine receptor beyond Leu(330) switches internalization from an arrestin- and clathrin-dependent pathway to one that is dynamin dependent but arrestin and clathrin independent. The presence of a Type II PDZ motif appears to be essential for arrestin- and clathrin-dependent internalization, as well as recycling of the A(2B) adenosine receptor following prolonged agonist addition.

  16. ADAM-17 regulates endothelial cell morphology, proliferation, and in vitro angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Goeoz, Pal; Goeoz, Monika; Baldys, Aleksander

    2009-02-27

    Modulation of angiogenesis is a promising approach for treating a wide variety of human diseases including ischemic heart disease and cancer. In this study, we show that ADAM-17 is an important regulator of several key steps during angiogenesis. Knocking down ADAM-17 expression using lentivirus-delivered siRNA in HUVECs inhibited cell proliferation and the ability of cells to form close contact in two-dimensional cultures. Similarly, ADAM-17 depletion inhibited the ability of HUVECs to form capillary-like networks on top of three-dimensional Matrigel as well as in co-culture with fibroblasts within a three-dimensional scaffold. In mechanistic studies, both baseline and VEGF-induced MMP-2 activation andmore » Matrigel invasion were inhibited by ADAM-17 depletion. Based on our findings we propose that ADAM-17 is part of a novel pro-angiogenic pathway leading to MMP-2 activation and vessel formation.« less

  17. Phenotype-based Discovery of 2-[(E)-2-(Quinolin-2-yl)vinyl]phenol as a Novel Regulator of Ocular Angiogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Alison L.; Alvarez, Yolanda; Sasore, Temitope; Waghorne, Nora; Butler, Clare T.; Kilty, Claire; Smith, Andrew J.; McVicar, Carmel; Wong, Vickie H. Y.; Galvin, Orla; Merrigan, Stephanie; Osman, Janina; Grebnev, Gleb; Sjölander, Anita; Stitt, Alan W.; Kennedy, Breandán N.

    2016-01-01

    Retinal angiogenesis is tightly regulated to meet oxygenation and nutritional requirements. In diseases such as proliferative diabetic retinopathy and neovascular age-related macular degeneration, uncontrolled angiogenesis can lead to blindness. Our goal is to better understand the molecular processes controlling retinal angiogenesis and discover novel drugs that inhibit retinal neovascularization. Phenotype-based chemical screens were performed using the ChemBridge DiversetTM library and inhibition of hyaloid vessel angiogenesis in Tg(fli1:EGFP) zebrafish. 2-[(E)-2-(Quinolin-2-yl)vinyl]phenol, (quininib) robustly inhibits developmental angiogenesis at 4–10 μm in zebrafish and significantly inhibits angiogenic tubule formation in HMEC-1 cells, angiogenic sprouting in aortic ring explants, and retinal revascularization in oxygen-induced retinopathy mice. Quininib is well tolerated in zebrafish, human cell lines, and murine eyes. Profiling screens of 153 angiogenic and inflammatory targets revealed that quininib does not directly target VEGF receptors but antagonizes cysteinyl leukotriene receptors 1 and 2 (CysLT1–2) at micromolar IC50 values. In summary, quininib is a novel anti-angiogenic small-molecule CysLT receptor antagonist. Quininib inhibits angiogenesis in a range of cell and tissue systems, revealing novel physiological roles for CysLT signaling. Quininib has potential as a novel therapeutic agent to treat ocular neovascular pathologies and may complement current anti-VEGF biological agents. PMID:26846851

  18. Broad targeting of angiogenesis for cancer prevention and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zongwei; Dabrosin, Charlotta; Yin, Xin; Fuster, Mark M.; Arreola, Alexandra; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Generali, Daniele; Nagaraju, Ganji P.; El-Rayes, Bassel; Ribatti, Domenico; Chen, Yi Charlie; Honoki, Kanya; Fujii, Hiromasa; Georgakilas, Alexandros G.; Nowsheen, Somaira; Amedei, Amedeo; Niccolai, Elena; Amin, Amr; Ashraf, S. Salman; Helferich, Bill; Yang, Xujuan; Guha, Gunjan; Bhakta, Dipita; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Aquilano, Katia; Chen, Sophie; Halicka, Dorota; Mohammed, Sulma I.; Azmi, Asfar S.; Bilsland, Alan; Keith, W. Nicol; Jensen, Lasse D.

    2015-01-01

    Deregulation of angiogenesis – the growth of new blood vessels from an existing vasculature – is a main driving force in many severe human diseases including cancer. As such, tumor angiogenesis is important for delivering oxygen and nutrients to growing tumors, and therefore considered an essential pathologic feature of cancer, while also playing a key role in enabling other aspects of tumor pathology such as metabolic deregulation and tumor dissemination/metastasis. Recently, inhibition of tumor angiogenesis has become a clinical anti-cancer strategy in line with chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery, which underscore the critical importance of the angiogenic switch during early tumor development. Unfortunately the clinically approved anti-angiogenic drugs in use today are only effective in a subset of the patients, and many who initially respond develop resistance over time. Also, some of the anti-angiogenic drugs are toxic and it would be of great importance to identify alternative compounds, which could overcome these drawbacks and limitations of the currently available therapy. Finding “the most important target” may, however, prove a very challenging approach as the tumor environment is highly diverse, consisting of many different cell types, all of which may contribute to tumor angiogenesis. Furthermore, the tumor cells themselves are genetically unstable, leading to a progressive increase in the number of different angiogenic factors produced as the cancer progresses to advanced stages. As an alternative approach to targeted therapy, options to broadly interfere with angiogenic signals by a mixture of non-toxic natural compound with pleiotropic actions were viewed by this team as an opportunity to develop a complementary anti-angiogenesis treatment option. As a part of the “Halifax Project” within the “Getting to know cancer” framework, we have here, based on a thorough review of the literature, identified 10 important aspects of tumor

  19. Flavocoxid Inhibits Phospholipase A2, Peroxidase Moieties of the Cyclooxygenases (COX), and 5-Lipoxygenase, Modifies COX-2 Gene Expression, and Acts as an Antioxidant

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Bruce P.; Bitto, Alessandra; Altavilla, Domenica; Squadrito, Francesco; Levy, Robert M.; Pillai, Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    The multiple mechanisms of action for flavocoxid relating to arachidonic acid (AA) formation and metabolism were studied in vitro. Flavocoxid titrated into rat peritoneal macrophage cultures inhibited cellular phospholipase A2 (PLA2) (IC50 = 60 μg/mL). In in vitro enzyme assays, flavocoxid showed little anti-cyclooxygenase (CO) activity on COX-1/-2 enzymes, but inhibited the COX-1 (IC50 = 12.3) and COX-2 (IC50 = 11.3 μg/mL) peroxidase (PO) moieties as well as 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) (IC50 = 110 μg/mL). No detectable 5-LOX inhibition was found for multiple traditional and COX-2 selective NSAIDs. Flavocoxid also exhibited strong and varied antioxidant capacities in vitro and decreased nitrite levels (IC50 = 38 μg/mL) in rat peritoneal macrophages. Finally, in contrast to celecoxib and ibuprofen, which upregulated the cox-2 gene, flavocoxid strongly decreased expression. This work suggests that clinically favourable effects of flavocoxid for management of osteoarthritis (OA) are achieved by simultaneous modification of multiple molecular pathways relating to AA metabolism, oxidative induction of inflammation, and neutralization of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:21765617

  20. Flavocoxid inhibits phospholipase A2, peroxidase moieties of the cyclooxygenases (COX), and 5-lipoxygenase, modifies COX-2 gene expression, and acts as an antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Bruce P; Bitto, Alessandra; Altavilla, Domenica; Squadrito, Francesco; Levy, Robert M; Pillai, Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    The multiple mechanisms of action for flavocoxid relating to arachidonic acid (AA) formation and metabolism were studied in vitro. Flavocoxid titrated into rat peritoneal macrophage cultures inhibited cellular phospholipase A2 (PLA(2)) (IC(50) = 60 μg/mL). In in vitro enzyme assays, flavocoxid showed little anti-cyclooxygenase (CO) activity on COX-1/-2 enzymes, but inhibited the COX-1 (IC(50) = 12.3) and COX-2 (IC(50) = 11.3 μg/mL) peroxidase (PO) moieties as well as 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) (IC(50) = 110 μg/mL). No detectable 5-LOX inhibition was found for multiple traditional and COX-2 selective NSAIDs. Flavocoxid also exhibited strong and varied antioxidant capacities in vitro and decreased nitrite levels (IC(50) = 38 μg/mL) in rat peritoneal macrophages. Finally, in contrast to celecoxib and ibuprofen, which upregulated the cox-2 gene, flavocoxid strongly decreased expression. This work suggests that clinically favourable effects of flavocoxid for management of osteoarthritis (OA) are achieved by simultaneous modification of multiple molecular pathways relating to AA metabolism, oxidative induction of inflammation, and neutralization of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  1. Ferulic Acid Exerts Anti-Angiogenic and Anti-Tumor Activity by Targeting Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1-Mediated Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Song; Lu, Wei-Qin

    2015-10-12

    Most anti-angiogenic therapies currently being evaluated target the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway; however, the tumor vasculature can acquire resistance to VEGF-targeted therapy by shifting to other angiogenesis mechanisms. Therefore, other therapeutic agents that block non-VEGF angiogenic pathways need to be evaluated. Here, we identified ferulic acid as a novel fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) inhibitor and a novel agent with potential anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer activities. Ferulic acid demonstrated inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation in response to basic fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1). In ex vivo and in vivo angiogenesis assays, ferulic acid suppressed FGF1-induced microvessel sprouting of rat aortic rings and angiogenesis. To understand the underlying molecular basis, we examined the effects of ferulic acid on different molecular components and found that ferulic acid suppressed FGF1-triggered activation of FGFR1 and phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (Akt) signaling. Moreover, ferulic acid directly inhibited proliferation and blocked the PI3K-Akt pathway in melanoma cell. In vivo, using a melanoma xenograft model, ferulic acid showed growth-inhibitory activity associated with inhibition of angiogenesis. Taken together, our results indicate that ferulic acid targets the FGFR1-mediated PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, leading to the suppression of melanoma growth and angiogenesis.

  2. Differential expression of IL-6/IL-6R and MAO-A regulates invasion/angiogenesis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Rashmi; Dey, Goutam; Das, Anjan Kumar; Mandal, Mahitosh

    2018-04-26

    Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are mitochondrial enzymes functioning in oxidative metabolism of monoamines. The action of MAO-A has been typically described in neuro-pharmacological domains. Here, we have established a co-relation between IL-6/IL-6R and MAO-A and their regulation in hypoxia induced invasion/angiogenesis. We employed various in-vitro and in-vivo techniques and clinical samples. We studied a co-relation among MAO-A and IL-6/IL-6R and tumour angiogenesis/invasion in hypoxic environment in breast cancer model. Activation of IL-6/IL-6R and its downstream was found in hypoxic cancer cells. This elevation of IL-6/IL-6R caused sustained inhibition of MAO-A in hypoxic environment. Inhibition of IL-6R signalling or IL-6R siRNA increased MAO-A activity and inhibited tumour angiogenesis and invasion significantly in different models. Further, elevation of MAO-A with 5-azacytidine (5-Aza) modulated IL-6 mediated angiogenesis and invasive signatures including VEGF, MMPs and EMT in hypoxic breast cancer. High grade invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) clinical specimen displayed elevated level of IL-6R and depleted MAO-A expression. Expression of VEGF and HIF-1α was unregulated and loss of E-Cadherin was observed in high grade IDC tissue specimen. Suppression of MAO-A by IL-6/IL-6R activation promotes tumour angiogenesis and invasion in hypoxic breast cancer environment.

  3. A novel angiogenesis inhibitor impairs lovo cell survival via targeting against human VEGFR and its signaling pathway of phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y M; Dai, B L; Zheng, L; Zhan, Y Z; Zhang, J; Smith, W W; Wang, X L; Chen, Y N; He, L C

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer represents the fourth commonest malignancy, and constitutes a major cause of significant morbidity and mortality among other diseases. However, the chemical therapy is still under development. Angiogenesis plays an important role in colon cancer development. We developed HMQ18–22 (a novel analog of taspine) with the aim to target angiogenesis. We found that HMQ18–22 significantly reduced angiogenesis of chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and mouse colon tissue, and inhibited cell migration and tube formation as well. Then, we verified the interaction between HMQ18–22 and VEGFR2 by AlphaScreen P-VEGFR assay, screened the targets on angiogenesis by VEGF Phospho Antibody Array, validated the target by western blot and RNAi in lovo cells. We found HMQ18–22 could decrease phosphorylation of VEGFR2(Tyr1214), VEGFR1(Tyr1333), Akt(Tyr326), protein kinase Cα (PKCα) (Tyr657) and phospholipase-Cγ-1 (PLCγ-1) (Tyr771). Most importantly, HMQ18–22 inhibited proliferation of lovo cell and tumor growth in a human colon tumor xenografted model of athymic mice. Compared with normal lovo cells proliferation, the inhibition on proliferation of knockdown cells (VEGFR2, VEGFR1, Akt, PKCα and PLCγ-1) by HMQ18–22 decreased. These results suggested that HMQ18–22 is a novel angiogenesis inhibitor and can be a useful therapeutic candidate for colon cancer intervention. PMID:23059825

  4. A novel angiogenesis inhibitor impairs lovo cell survival via targeting against human VEGFR and its signaling pathway of phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y M; Dai, B L; Zheng, L; Zhan, Y Z; Zhang, J; Smith, W W; Wang, X L; Chen, Y N; He, L C

    2012-10-11

    Colorectal cancer represents the fourth commonest malignancy, and constitutes a major cause of significant morbidity and mortality among other diseases. However, the chemical therapy is still under development. Angiogenesis plays an important role in colon cancer development. We developed HMQ18-22 (a novel analog of taspine) with the aim to target angiogenesis. We found that HMQ18-22 significantly reduced angiogenesis of chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and mouse colon tissue, and inhibited cell migration and tube formation as well. Then, we verified the interaction between HMQ18-22 and VEGFR2 by AlphaScreen P-VEGFR assay, screened the targets on angiogenesis by VEGF Phospho Antibody Array, validated the target by western blot and RNAi in lovo cells. We found HMQ18-22 could decrease phosphorylation of VEGFR2(Tyr(1214)), VEGFR1(Tyr(1333)), Akt(Tyr(326)), protein kinase Cα (PKCα) (Tyr(657)) and phospholipase-Cγ-1 (PLCγ-1) (Tyr(771)). Most importantly, HMQ18-22 inhibited proliferation of lovo cell and tumor growth in a human colon tumor xenografted model of athymic mice. Compared with normal lovo cells proliferation, the inhibition on proliferation of knockdown cells (VEGFR2, VEGFR1, Akt, PKCα and PLCγ-1) by HMQ18-22 decreased. These results suggested that HMQ18-22 is a novel angiogenesis inhibitor and can be a useful therapeutic candidate for colon cancer intervention.

  5. Mitochondrially Targeted α-Tocopheryl Succinate Is Antiangiogenic: Potential Benefit Against Tumor Angiogenesis but Caution Against Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Kluckova, Katarina; Zobalova, Renata; Goodwin, Jacob; Tilly, David; Stursa, Jan; Pecinova, Alena; Philimonenko, Anatoly; Hozak, Pavel; Banerjee, Jaideep; Ledvina, Miroslav; Sen, Chandan K.; Houstek, Josef; Coster, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aims A plausible strategy to reduce tumor progress is the inhibition of angiogenesis. Therefore, agents that efficiently suppress angiogenesis can be used for tumor suppression. We tested the antiangiogenic potential of a mitochondrially targeted analog of α-tocopheryl succinate (MitoVES), a compound with high propensity to induce apoptosis. Results MitoVES was found to efficiently kill proliferating endothelial cells (ECs) but not contact-arrested ECs or ECs deficient in mitochondrial DNA, and suppressed angiogenesis in vitro by inducing accumulation of reactive oxygen species and induction of apoptosis in proliferating/angiogenic ECs. Resistance of arrested ECs was ascribed, at least in part, to the lower mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential compared with the proliferating ECs, thus resulting in the lower level of mitochondrial uptake of MitoVES. Shorter-chain homologs of MitoVES were less efficient in angiogenesis inhibition, thus suggesting a molecular mechanism of its activity. Finally, MitoVES was found to suppress HER2-positive breast carcinomas in a transgenic mouse as well as inhibit tumor angiogenesis. The antiangiogenic efficacy of MitoVES was corroborated by its inhibitory activity on wound healing in vivo. Innovation and Conclusion We conclude that MitoVES, a mitochondrially targeted analog of α-tocopheryl succinate, is an efficient antiangiogenic agent of potential clinical relevance, exerting considerably higher activity than its untargeted counterpart. MitoVES may be helpful against cancer but may compromise wound healing. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 2923–2935. PMID:21902599

  6. [Isolation and purification of recombinant soluble and non-fusion angiogenesis inhibitor Kringle 5 using chromatography].

    PubMed

    Ma, Lina; Wu, Dan; Bian, Liujiao

    2012-08-01

    The Kringle 5 domain of plasminogen is one of the most potent angiogenesis inhibitors known to date, which can inhibit cell proliferation and migration efficiently. In the study, on the foundation of successful clone and expression of recombinant soluble and non-fusion angiogenesis inhibitor Kringle 5, a two-step chromatographic method, including the use of SP Sepharose Fast Flow cation exchanger and Sephacryl S-100 HR size exclusion chromatography in sequence, was established to separate and purify angiogenesis inhibitor Kringle 5. On the SP Sepharose Fast Flow column, the buffer A consisted of 50.0 mmol/L acetic acid-sodium acetate (pH 5.2), and the buffer B consisted of buffer A with the addition of 0.5 mol/L sodium chloride (pH 5.2); on Sephacryl S-100 HR column, the elution buffer was 5.0 mmol/L phosphate solution (pH 7.0). Through the two-step chromatographic purification process, the purity of the obtained Kringle 5 was more than 98%. In addition, it was found that the obtained Kringle 5 could inhibit the blood vessel growth of chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane effectively. Finally it is concluded that this method can effectively separate active recombinant soluble and non-fusion angiogenesis inhibitor Kringle 5.

  7. Galpha13 regulates MEF2-dependent gene transcription in endothelial cells: role in angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guoquan; Han, Jingyan; Profirovic, Jasmina; Strekalova, Elena; Voyno-Yasenetskaya, Tatyana A

    2009-01-01

    The alpha subunit of heterotrimeric G13 protein is required for the embryonic angiogenesis (Offermanns et al., Science 275:533-536, 1997). However, the molecular mechanism of Galpha13-dependent angiogenesis is not understood. Here, we show that myocyte-specific enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) mediates Galpha13-dependent angiogenesis. Our data showed that constitutively activated Galpha13Q226L stimulated MEF2-dependent gene transcription. In addition, downregulation of endogenous Galpha13 inhibited thrombin-stimulated MEF2-dependent gene transcription in endothelial cells. Both Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase IV (CaMKIV) and histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) were involved in Galpha13-mediated MEF2-dependent gene transcription. Galpha13Q226L also increased Ca(2+)/calmodulin-independent CaMKIV activity, while dominant negative mutant of CaMKIV inhibited MEF2-dependent gene transcription induced by Galpha13Q226L. Furthermore, Galpha13Q226L was able to derepress HDAC5-mediated repression of gene transcription and induce the translocation of HDAC5 from nucleus to cytoplasm. Finally, downregulation of endogenous Galpha13 and MEF2 proteins in endothelial cells reduced cell proliferation and capillary tube formation. Decrease of endothelial cell proliferation that was caused by the Galpha13 downregulation was partially restored by the constitutively active MEF2-VP16. Our studies suggest that MEF2 proteins are an important component in Galpha13-mediated angiogenesis.

  8. Peptide-coated gold nanoparticles for modulation of angiogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Roma-Rodrigues, Catarina; Heuer-Jungemann, Amelie; Fernandes, Alexandra R; Kanaras, Antonios G; Baptista, Pedro V

    2016-01-01

    In this work, peptides designed to selectively interact with cellular receptors involved in the regulation of angiogenesis were anchored to oligo-ethylene glycol-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and used to evaluate the modulation of vascular development using an ex ovo chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. These nanoparticles alter the balance between naturally secreted pro- and antiangiogenic factors, under various biological conditions, without causing toxicity. Exposure of chorioallantoic membranes to AuNP-peptide activators of angiogenesis accelerated the formation of new arterioles when compared to scrambled peptide-coated nanoparticles. On the other hand, antiangiogenic AuNP-peptide conjugates were able to selectively inhibit angiogenesis in vivo. We demonstrated that AuNP vectorization is crucial for enhancing the effect of active peptides. Our data showed for the first time the effective control of activation or inhibition of blood vessel formation in chick embryo via AuNP-based formulations suitable for the selective modulation of angiogenesis, which is of paramount importance in applications where promotion of vascular growth is desirable (eg, wound healing) or ought to be contravened, as in cancer development.

  9. MiR-506 suppresses liver cancer angiogenesis through targeting sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) mRNA.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhanping; Zhang, Weiying; Gao, Shan; Jiang, Qiulei; Xiao, Zelin; Ye, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaodong

    MicroRNAs acting as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes play crucial roles in human cancers. Sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) and its metabolite sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) contribute to tumor angiogenesis. We have reported that the down-regulation of miR-506 targeting YAP mRNA results in the hepatocarcinogenesis. In the present study, we report a novel function of miR-506, which suppresses tumor angiogenesis through targeting SPHK1 mRNA in liver cancer. Bioinformatics analysis showed that miR-506 might target 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of SPHK1 mRNA. Then, we validated that by luciferase reporter gene assays. MiR-506 was able to reduce the expression of SPHK1 at the levels of mRNA and protein using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis in hepatoma HepG2 cells. Functionally, human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) tube formation assays demonstrated that the forced miR-506 expression remarkably inhibited the production of S1P in the supernatant of hepatoma cells. The supernatant resulted in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Interestingly, the supernatant with overexpression of SPHK1 could rescue the inhibition of angiogenesis of liver cancer mediated by miR-506. Anti-miR-506 increased the production of S1P in the supernatant of hepatoma cells, but the supernatant with silencing of SPHK1 abolished anti-miR-506-induced acceleration of tumor angiogenesis. Clinically, we observed that the levels of miR-506 were negatively related to those of SPHK1 mRNA in liver cancer tissues. Thus, we conclude that miR-506 depresses the angiogenesis of liver cancer through targeting 3'UTR of SPHK1 mRNA. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism of tumor angiogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Screening and characterization of a Annenix A2 binding aptamer that inhibits the proliferation of myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weihua; Zhang, Yibin; Zeng, Yayue; Peng, Minyuan; Li, Hui; Sun, Shuming; Ma, Bianying; Wang, Yanpeng; Ye, Mao; Liu, Jing

    2018-06-12

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant plasma cell disease and is considered incurable. Annexin A2 (ANXA2) is closely related to the proliferation and adhesion of MM. Using protein-SELEX, we performed a screen for aptamers that bind GST-ANXA2 from a library, and GST protein was used for negative selection. The enrichment of the ssDNA pool was monitored by filter-binding assay during selection. After nine rounds of screening and high-throughput sequencing, we obtained six candidate aptamers that bind to the ANXA2 protein. The affinities of the candidate aptamers for ANXA2 were determined by ELONA. Binding of aptamer wh6 to the ANXA2 protein and to the MM cell was verified by aptamer pulldown experiment and flow cytometry, respectively. Aptamer wh6 binds the ANXA2 protein with good stability and has a dissociation constant in the nanomolar range. The binding specificity of aptamer wh6 was confirmed in vivo in nude mouse xenografts with MM cells and with MM bone marrow aspirates. Furthermore, aptamer wh6 can block MM cell adhesion to ANXA2 and block the proliferation of MM cells induced by ANXA2. In summary, wh6 can be considered a promising candidate tool for MM diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  11. Advances and challenges in skeletal muscle angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Oliver; Hellsten, Ylva; Egginton, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    The role of capillaries is to serve as the interface for delivery of oxygen and removal of metabolites to/from tissues. During the past decade there has been a proliferation of studies that have advanced our understanding of angiogenesis, demonstrating that tissue capillary supply is under strict control during health but poorly controlled in disease, resulting in either excessive capillary growth (pathological angiogenesis) or losses in capillarity (rarefaction). Given that skeletal muscle comprises nearly 40% of body mass in humans, skeletal muscle capillary density has a significant impact on metabolism, endocrine function, and locomotion and is tightly regulated at many different levels. Skeletal muscle is also high adaptable and thus one of the few organ systems that can be experimentally manipulated (e.g., by exercise) to study physiological regulation of angiogenesis. This review will focus on the methodological concerns that have arisen in determining skeletal muscle capillarity and highlight the concepts that are reshaping our understanding of the angio-adaptation process. We also summarize selected new findings (physical influences, molecular changes, and ultrastructural rearrangement of capillaries) that identify areas of future research with the greatest potential to expand our understanding of how angiogenesis is normally regulated, and that may also help to better understand conditions of uncontrolled (pathological) angiogenesis. PMID:26608338

  12. Inhibition of Intestinal Bile Acid Transporter Slc10a2 Improves Triglyceride Metabolism and Normalizes Elevated Plasma Glucose Levels in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Snaith, Michael; Lindmark, Helena; Lundberg, Johanna; Östlund-Lindqvist, Ann-Margret; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats

    2012-01-01

    Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids increases cholesterol catabolism, thereby stimulating hepatic cholesterol synthesis from acetate. We hypothesized that such treatment should lower the hepatic acetate pool which may alter triglyceride and glucose metabolism. We explored this using mice deficient of the ileal sodium-dependent BA transporter (Slc10a2) and ob/ob mice treated with a specific inhibitor of Slc10a2. Plasma TG levels were reduced in Slc10a2-deficient mice, and when challenged with a sucrose-rich diet, they displayed a reduced response in hepatic TG production as observed from the mRNA levels of several key enzymes in fatty acid synthesis. This effect was paralleled by a diminished induction of mature sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (Srebp1c). Unexpectedly, the SR-diet induced intestinal fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15 mRNA and normalized bile acid synthesis in Slc10a2−/− mice. Pharmacologic inhibition of Slc10a2 in diabetic ob/ob mice reduced serum glucose, insulin and TGs, as well as hepatic mRNA levels of Srebp1c and its target genes. These responses are contrary to those reported following treatment of mice with a bile acid binding resin. Moreover, when key metabolic signal transduction pathways in the liver were investigated, those of Mek1/2 - Erk1/2 and Akt were blunted after treatment of ob/ob mice with the Slc10a2 inhibitor. It is concluded that abrogation of Slc10a2 reduces hepatic Srebp1c activity and serum TGs, and in the diabetic ob/ob model it also reduces glucose and insulin levels. Hence, targeting of Slc10a2 may be a promising strategy to treat hypertriglyceridemia and diabetes. PMID:22662222

  13. EZH2 Modulates Angiogenesis In Vitro and in a Mouse Model of Limb Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Mitić, Tijana; Caporali, Andrea; Floris, Ilaria; Meloni, Marco; Marchetti, Micol; Urrutia, Raul; Angelini, Gianni D; Emanueli, Costanza

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms may regulate the expression of pro-angiogenic genes, thus affecting reparative angiogenesis in ischemic limbs. The enhancer of zest homolog-2 (EZH2) induces thtrimethylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27me3), which represses gene transcription. We explored (i) if EZH2 expression is regulated by hypoxia and ischemia; (ii) the impact of EZH2 on the expression of two pro-angiogenic genes: eNOS and BDNF; (iii) the functional effect of EZH2 inhibition on cultured endothelial cells (ECs); (iv) the therapeutic potential of EZH2 inhibition in a mouse model of limb ischemia (LI). EZH2 expression was increased in cultured ECs exposed to hypoxia (control: normoxia) and in ECs extracted from mouse ischemic limb muscles (control: absence of ischemia). EZH2 increased the H3K27me3 abundance onto regulatory regions of eNOS and BDNF promoters. In vitro RNA silencing or pharmacological inhibition by 3-deazaneplanocin (DZNep) of EZH2 increased eNOS and BDNF mRNA and protein levels and enhanced functional capacities (migration, angiogenesis) of ECs under either normoxia or hypoxia. In mice with experimentally induced LI, DZNep increased angiogenesis in ischaemic muscles, the circulating levels of pro-angiogenic hematopoietic cells and blood flow recovery. Targeting EZH2 for inhibition may open new therapeutic avenues for patients with limb ischemia. PMID:25189741

  14. SH003 represses tumor angiogenesis by blocking VEGF binding to VEGFR2

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyeong Sim; Kim, Min Kyoung; Lee, Kangwook; Lee, Kang Min; Choi, Youn Kyung; Shin, Yong Cheol; Cho, Sung-Gook; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is a key feature of cancer progression, because a tumor requires abundant oxygen and nutrition to grow. Here, we demonstrate that SH003, a mixed herbal extract containing Astragalus membranaceus (Am), Angelica gigas (Ag) and Trichosanthes Kirilowii Maximowicz (Tk), represses VEGF-induced tumor angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. SH003 inhibited VEGF-induced migration, invasion and tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with no effect on the proliferation. SH003 reduced CD31-positive vessel numbers in tumor tissues and retarded tumor growth in our xenograft mouse tumor model, while SH003 did not affect pancreatic tumor cell viability. Consistently, SH003 inhibited VEGF-stimulated vascular permeability in ears and back skins. Moreover, SH003 inhibited VEGF-induced VEGFR2-dependent signaling by blocking VEGF binding to VEGFR2. Therefore, our data conclude that SH003 represses tumor angiogenesis by inhibiting VEGF-induced VEGFR2 activation, and suggest that SH003 may be useful for treating cancer. PMID:27105528

  15. Vasculogenesis and Angiogenesis: Molecular and Cellular Controls

    PubMed Central

    Kubis, N.; Levy, B.I.

    2003-01-01

    Summary Angiogenesis characterizes embryonic development, but also occurs in adulthood in physiological situations such as adaptation to muscle exercise, and in pathological conditions like cancer. Major advances have been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, largely due to the use of “knock-out mice”, i.e. mice in which the gene coding for the protein under investigation has been inactivated. Interestingly, the same growth factors and their receptors are equally involved in the different aspects of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis during development and in adulthood. This review aims to describe in detail their respective roles and how interactions between them lead to a newly formed vessel. PMID:20591248

  16. Mesoscopic and continuum modelling of angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Spill, F.; Guerrero, P.; Alarcon, T.; Maini, P. K.; Byrne, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones in response to chemical signals secreted by, for example, a wound or a tumour. In this paper, we propose a mesoscopic lattice-based model of angiogenesis, in which processes that include proliferation and cell movement are considered as stochastic events. By studying the dependence of the model on the lattice spacing and the number of cells involved, we are able to derive the deterministic continuum limit of our equations and compare it to similar existing models of angiogenesis. We further identify conditions under which the use of continuum models is justified, and others for which stochastic or discrete effects dominate. We also compare different stochastic models for the movement of endothelial tip cells which have the same macroscopic, deterministic behaviour, but lead to markedly different behaviour in terms of production of new vessel cells. PMID:24615007

  17. Regulatory effects of ferritin on angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Coffman, Lan G.; Parsonage, Derek; D'Agostino, Ralph; Torti, Frank M.; Torti, Suzy V.

    2009-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the synthesis of new blood vessels from preexisting vessels, plays a critical role in normal wound healing and tumor growth. HKa (cleaved high molecular weight kininogen) is an endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis formed by the cleavage of kininogen on endothelial cells. Ferritin is a protein principally known for its central role in iron storage. Here, we demonstrate that ferritin binds to HKa with high affinity (Kd 13 nM). Further, ferritin antagonizes the antiangiogenic effects of HKa, enhancing the migration, assembly, and survival of HKa-treated endothelial cells. Effects of ferritin were independent of its iron content. Peptide mapping revealed that ferritin binds to a 22-aa subdomain of HKa that is critical to its antiangiogenic activity. In vivo, ferritin opposed HKa's antiangiogenic effects in a human prostate cancer xenograft, restoring tumor-dependent vessel growth. Ferritin-mediated regulation of angiogenesis represents a new angiogenic regulatory pathway, and identifies a new role for ferritin in cell biology. PMID:19126685

  18. KSHV-Mediated Angiogenesis in Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Purushothaman, Pravinkumar; Uppal, Timsy; Sarkar, Roni; Verma, Subhash C.

    2016-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is a malignant human oncovirus belonging to the gamma herpesvirus family. HHV-8 is closely linked to the pathogenesis of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) and two other B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases: primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and a plasmablastic variant of multicentric Castleman’s disease (MCD). KS is an invasive tumor of endothelial cells most commonly found in untreated HIV-AIDS or immuno-compromised individuals. KS tumors are highly vascularized and have abnormal, excessive neo-angiogenesis, inflammation, and proliferation of infected endothelial cells. KSHV directly induces angiogenesis in an autocrine and paracrine fashion through a complex interplay of various viral and cellular pro-angiogenic and inflammatory factors. KS is believed to originate due to a combination of KSHV’s efficient strategies for evading host immune systems and several pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory stimuli. In addition, KSHV infection of endothelial cells produces a wide array of viral oncoproteins with transforming capabilities that regulate multiple host-signaling pathways involved in the activation of angiogenesis. It is likely that the cellular-signaling pathways of angiogenesis and lymph-angiogenesis modulate the rate of tumorigenesis induction by KSHV. This review summarizes the current knowledge on regulating KSHV-mediated angiogenesis by integrating the findings reported thus far on the roles of host and viral genes in oncogenesis, recent developments in cell-culture/animal-model systems, and various anti-angiogenic therapies for treating KSHV-related lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:27447661

  19. Endothelial TWIST1 Promotes Pathological Ocular Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Liu, Chi-Hsiu; Sun, Ye; Gong, Yan; Fu, Zhongjie; Evans, Lucy P.; Tian, Katherine T.; Juan, Aimee M.; Hurst, Christian G.; Mammoto, Akiko; Chen, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Pathological neovessel formation impacts many blinding vascular eye diseases. Identification of molecular signatures distinguishing pathological neovascularization from normal quiescent vessels is critical for developing new interventions. Twist-related protein 1 (TWIST1) is a transcription factor important in tumor and pulmonary angiogenesis. This study investigated the potential role of TWIST1 in modulating pathological ocular angiogenesis in mice. Methods. Twist1 expression and localization were analyzed in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Pathological ocular angiogenesis in Tie2-driven conditional Twist1 knockout mice were evaluated in both OIR and laser-induced choroidal neovascularization models. In addition, the effects of TWIST1 on angiogenesis and endothelial cell function were analyzed in sprouting assays of aortic rings and choroidal explants isolated from Twist1 knockout mice, and in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells treated with TWIST1 small interfering RNA (siRNA). Results. TWIST1 is highly enriched in pathological neovessels in OIR retinas. Conditional Tie2-driven depletion of Twist1 significantly suppressed pathological neovessels in OIR without impacting developmental retinal angiogenesis. In a laser-induced choroidal neovascularization model, Twist1 deficiency also resulted in significantly smaller lesions with decreased vascular leakage. In addition, loss of Twist1 significantly decreased vascular sprouting in both aortic ring and choroid explants. Knockdown of TWIST1 in endothelial cells led to dampened expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and decreased endothelial cell proliferation. Conclusions. Our study suggests that TWIST1 is a novel regulator of pathologic ocular angiogenesis and may represent a new molecular target for developing potential therapeutic treatments to suppress pathological neovascularization in vascular eye diseases. PMID:25414194

  20. Donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor against Alzheimer's dementia, promotes angiogenesis in an ischemic hindlimb model.

    PubMed

    Kakinuma, Yoshihiko; Furihata, Mutsuo; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Arikawa, Mikihiko; Handa, Takemi; Katare, Rajesh G; Sato, Takayuki

    2010-04-01

    Our recent studies have indicated that acetylcholine (ACh) protects cardiomyocytes from prolonged hypoxia through activation of the PI3K/Akt/HIF-1alpha/VEGF pathway and that cardiomyocyte-derived VEGF promotes angiogenesis in a paracrine fashion. These results suggest that a cholinergic system plays a role in modulating angiogenesis. Therefore, we assessed the hypothesis that the cholinergic modulator donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor utilized in Alzheimer's disease, exhibits beneficial effects, especially on the acceleration of angiogenesis. We evaluated the effects of donepezil on angiogenic properties in vitro and in vivo, using an ischemic hindlimb model of alpha7 nicotinic receptor-deleted mice (alpha7 KO) and wild-type mice (WT). Donepezil activated angiogenic signals, i.e., HIF-1alpha and VEGF expression, and accelerated tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). ACh and nicotine upregulated signal transduction with acceleration of tube formation, suggesting that donepezil promotes a common angiogenesis pathway. Moreover, donepezil-treated WT exhibited rich capillaries with enhanced VEGF and PCNA endothelial expression, recovery from impaired tissue perfusion, prevention of ischemia-induced muscular atrophy with sustained surface skin temperature in the limb, and inhibition of apoptosis independent of the alpha7 receptor. Donepezil exerted comparably more effects in alpha7 KO in terms of angiogenesis, tissue perfusion, biochemical markers, and surface skin temperature. Donepezil concomitantly elevated VEGF expression in intracardiac endothelial cells of WT and alpha7 KO and further increased choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) protein expression, which is critical for ACh synthesis in endothelial cells. The present study concludes that donepezil can act as a therapeutic tool to accelerate angiogenesis in cardiovascular disease patients. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fluorescence imaging of angiogenesis in green fluorescent protein-expressing tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Meng; Baranov, Eugene; Jiang, Ping; Li, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Jin W.; Li, Lingna; Yagi, Shigeo; Moossa, A. R.; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2002-05-01

    The development of therapeutics for the control of tumor angiogenesis requires a simple, reliable in vivo assay for tumor-induced vascularization. For this purpose, we have adapted the orthotopic implantation model of angiogenesis by using human and rodent tumors genetically tagged with Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP) for grafting into nude mice. Genetically-fluorescent tumors can be readily imaged in vivo. The non-luminous induced capillaries are clearly visible against the bright tumor fluorescence examined either intravitally or by whole-body luminance in real time. Fluorescence shadowing replaces the laborious histological techniques for determining blood vessel density. High-level GFP-expressing tumor cell lines made it possible to acquire the high-resolution real-time fluorescent optical images of angiogenesis in both primary tumors and their metastatic lesions in various human and rodent tumor models by means of a light-based imaging system. Intravital images of angiogenesis onset and development were acquired and quantified from a GFP- expressing orthotopically-growing human prostate tumor over a 19-day period. Whole-body optical imaging visualized vessel density increasing linearly over a 20-week period in orthotopically-growing, GFP-expressing human breast tumor MDA-MB-435. Vessels in an orthotopically-growing GFP- expressing Lewis lung carcinoma tumor were visualized through the chest wall via a reversible skin flap. These clinically-relevant angiogenesis mouse models can be used for real-time in vivo evaluation of agents inhibiting or promoting tumor angiogenesis in physiological micro- environments.

  2. Comparative Evaluation of TRAIL, FGF-2 and VEGF-A-Induced Angiogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cartland, Siân P.; Genner, Scott W.; Zahoor, Amna; Kavurma, Mary M.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis-factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been implicated in angiogenesis; the growth of new blood vessels from an existing vessel bed. Our aim was to compare pro-angiogenic responses of TRAIL, vascular endothelial growth-factor-A (VEGF-A) and fibroblast growth-factor-2 (FGF-2) either separately (10 ng/mL) or in combination, followed by the assessment of proliferation, migration and tubule formation using human microvascular endothelial-1 (HMEC-1) cells in vitro. Angiogenesis was also measured in vivo using the Matrigel plug assay. TRAIL and FGF-2 significantly augmented HMEC-1 cell proliferation and migration, with combination treatment having an enhanced effect on cell migration only. In contrast, VEGF-A did not stimulate HMEC-1 migration at 10 ng/mL. Tubule formation was induced by all three factors, with TRAIL more effective compared to VEGF-A, but not FGF-2. TRAIL at 400 ng/mL, but not VEGF-A, promoted CD31-positive staining into the Matrigel plug. However, FGF-2 was superior, stimulating cell infiltration and angiogenesis better than TRAIL and VEGF-A in vivo. These findings demonstrate that each growth factor is more effective at different processes of angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Understanding how these molecules stimulate different processes relating to angiogenesis may help identify new strategies and treatments aimed at inhibiting or promoting dysregulated angiogenesis in people. PMID:27918462

  3. Comparative Evaluation of TRAIL, FGF-2 and VEGF-A-Induced Angiogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Cartland, Siân P; Genner, Scott W; Zahoor, Amna; Kavurma, Mary M

    2016-12-02

    Tumor necrosis-factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been implicated in angiogenesis; the growth of new blood vessels from an existing vessel bed. Our aim was to compare pro-angiogenic responses of TRAIL, vascular endothelial growth-factor-A (VEGF-A) and fibroblast growth-factor-2 (FGF-2) either separately (10 ng/mL) or in combination, followed by the assessment of proliferation, migration and tubule formation using human microvascular endothelial-1 (HMEC-1) cells in vitro. Angiogenesis was also measured in vivo using the Matrigel plug assay. TRAIL and FGF-2 significantly augmented HMEC-1 cell proliferation and migration, with combination treatment having an enhanced effect on cell migration only. In contrast, VEGF-A did not stimulate HMEC-1 migration at 10 ng/mL. Tubule formation was induced by all three factors, with TRAIL more effective compared to VEGF-A, but not FGF-2. TRAIL at 400 ng/mL, but not VEGF-A, promoted CD31-positive staining into the Matrigel plug. However, FGF-2 was superior, stimulating cell infiltration and angiogenesis better than TRAIL and VEGF-A in vivo. These findings demonstrate that each growth factor is more effective at different processes of angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Understanding how these molecules stimulate different processes relating to angiogenesis may help identify new strategies and treatments aimed at inhibiting or promoting dysregulated angiogenesis in people.

  4. Disrupting Tumor Angiogenesis and "the Hunger Games" for Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ziwei; Yao, Herui; Hu, Hai

    2017-01-01

    Angiogenesis, one of the hallmarks of cancers, has become an attractive target for cancer therapy since decades ago. It is broadly thought that upregulation of angiogenesis is involved in tumor progression and metastasis. Though tumor vessels are tortuous, disorganized, and leaky, they deliver oxygen and nutrients for tumor development. Based on this knowledge, many kinds of drugs targeting angiogenesis pathways have been developed, such as bevacizumab. However, the clinical outcomes of anti-angiogenesis therapies are moderate in metastatic breast cancer as well as in metastatic colorectal cancer and non-small cell lung cancer, even combined with traditional chemotherapy. In this chapter, the morphologic angiogenesis patterns and the key molecular pathways regulating angiogenesis are elaborated. The FDA-approved anti-angiogenesis drugs and current challenges of anti-angiogenesis therapy are described. The strategies to overcome the barriers will also be elucidated.

  5. Prognostic value of angiogenesis in solitary bone plasmacytoma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shaji; Fonseca, Rafael; Dispenzieri, Angela; Lacy, Martha Q; Lust, John A; Wellik, Linda; Witzig, Thomas E; Gertz, Morie A; Kyle, Robert A; Greipp, Philip R; Rajkumar, S Vincent

    2003-03-01

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in the biology of multiple myeloma (MM) and has prognostic importance in this disease. Solitary plasmacytoma is a localized plasma cell malignancy that progresses to MM in a significant number of patients. We examined if angiogenesis is increased in solitary plasmacytoma and if it can help identify patients likely to progress to myeloma. We studied angiogenesis in plasmacytoma biopsy samples and bone marrow biopsies from 25 patients. High-grade angiogenesis was present in 64% of plasmacytomas. In contrast, bone marrow angiogenesis was low in all patients. Patients with high-grade angiogenesis in the plasmacytoma sample were more likely to progress to myeloma and had a shorter progression-free survival compared with patients with low-grade angiogenesis (P =.02). Angiogenesis is increased in solitary plasmacytoma and is a significant predictor of progression to myeloma and provides further evidence of its importance in the pathogenesis of myeloma.

  6. A prodrug of green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (Pro-EGCG) serves as a novel angiogenesis inhibitor in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianzhang; Man, Gene Chi Wai; Chan, Tak Hang; Kwong, Joseph; Wang, Chi Chiu

    2018-01-01

    Anti-angiogenesis effect of a prodrug of green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (Pro-EGCG) in malignant tumors is not well studied. Here, we investigated how the treatment with Pro-EGCG inhibited tumor angiogenesis in endometrial cancer. Tumor xenografts of human endometrial cancer were established and subjected to microarray analysis after Pro-EGCG treatment. First, we showed Pro-EGCG inhibited tumor angiogenesis in xenograft models through down-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1α) in tumor cells and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12) in host stroma by immunohistochemical staining. Next, we investigated how HIF1α/VEGFA was down-regulated and how the reduction of CXCL12 inhibited tumor angiogenesis. We found that VEGFA secretion from endometrial cancer cells was decreased by Pro-EGCG treatment through inhibiting PI3K/AKT/mTOR/HIF1α pathway. Furthermore, the down-regulation of CXCL12 in stromal cells by Pro-EGCG treatment restricted migration and differentiation of macrophages thereby inhibited infiltration of VEGFA-expressing tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Taken together, we demonstrated that treatment with Pro-EGCG not only decreases cancer cell-secreted VEGFA but also inhibits TAM-secreted VEGFA in endometrial cancer. These findings demonstrate that Pro-EGCG is a novel angiogenesis inhibitor for endometrial cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Lipo-chitin oligosaccharides, plant symbiosis signalling molecules that modulate mammalian angiogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Michael A; Bezos, Anna; Susanti; Marmuse, Laurence; Driguez, Hugues; Samain, Eric; Vauzeilles, Boris; Beau, Jean-Marie; Kordbacheh, Farzaneh; Rolfe, Barry G; Schwörer, Ralf; Daines, Alison M; Gresshoff, Peter M; Parish, Christopher R

    2014-01-01

    Lipochitin oligosaccharides (LCOs) are signaling molecules required by ecologically and agronomically important bacteria and fungi to establish symbioses with diverse land plants. In plants, oligo-chitins and LCOs can differentially interact with different lysin motif (LysM) receptors and affect innate immunity responses or symbiosis-related pathways. In animals, oligo-chitins also induce innate immunity and other physiological responses but LCO recognition has not been demonstrated. Here LCO and LCO-like compounds are shown to be biologically active in mammals in a structure dependent way through the modulation of angiogenesis, a tightly-regulated process involving the induction and growth of new blood vessels from existing vessels. The testing of 24 LCO, LCO-like or oligo-chitin compounds resulted in structure-dependent effects on angiogenesis in vitro leading to promotion, or inhibition or nil effects. Like plants, the mammalian LCO biological activity depended upon the presence and type of terminal substitutions. Un-substituted oligo-chitins of similar chain lengths were unable to modulate angiogenesis indicating that mammalian cells, like plant cells, can distinguish between LCOs and un-substituted oligo-chitins. The cellular mode-of-action of the biologically active LCOs in mammals was determined. The stimulation or inhibition of endothelial cell adhesion to vitronectin or fibronectin correlated with their pro- or anti-angiogenic activity. Importantly, novel and more easily synthesised LCO-like disaccharide molecules were also biologically active and de-acetylated chitobiose was shown to be the primary structural basis of recognition. Given this, simpler chitin disaccharides derivatives based on the structure of biologically active LCOs were synthesised and purified and these showed biological activity in mammalian cells. Since important chronic disease states are linked to either insufficient or excessive angiogenesis, LCO and LCO-like molecules may have the

  8. Lysyl oxidase-like-2 promotes tumour angiogenesis and is a potential therapeutic target in angiogenic tumours.

    PubMed

    Zaffryar-Eilot, Shelly; Marshall, Derek; Voloshin, Tali; Bar-Zion, Avinoam; Spangler, Rhyannon; Kessler, Ofra; Ghermazien, Haben; Brekhman, Vera; Suss-Toby, Edith; Adam, Dan; Shaked, Yuval; Smith, Victoria; Neufeld, Gera

    2013-10-01

    Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2), a secreted enzyme that catalyzes the cross-linking of collagen, plays an essential role in developmental angiogenesis. We found that administration of the LOXL2-neutralizing antibody AB0023 inhibited bFGF-induced angiogenesis in Matrigel plug assays and suppressed recruitment of angiogenesis promoting bone marrow cells. Small hairpin RNA-mediated inhibition of LOXL2 expression or inhibition of LOXL2 using AB0023 reduced the migration and network-forming ability of endothelial cells, suggesting that the inhibition of angiogenesis results from a direct effect on endothelial cells. To examine the effects of AB0023 on tumour angiogenesis, AB0023 was administered to mice bearing tumours derived from SKOV-3 ovarian carcinoma or Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells. AB0023 treatment significantly reduced the microvascular density in these tumours but did not inhibit tumour growth. However, treatment of mice bearing SKOV-3-derived tumours with AB0023 also promoted increased coverage of tumour vessels with pericytes and reduced tumour hypoxia, providing evidence that anti-LOXL2 therapy results in the normalization of tumour blood vessels. In agreement with these data, treatment of mice bearing LLC-derived tumours with AB0023 improved the perfusion of the tumour-associated vessels as determined by ultrasonography. Improved perfusion and normalization of tumour vessels after treatment with anti-angiogenic agents were previously found to improve the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents into tumours and to result in an enhancement of chemotherapeutic efficiency. Indeed, treatment with AB0023 significantly enhanced the anti-tumourigenic effects of taxol. Our results suggest that inhibition of LOXL2 may prove beneficial for the treatment of angiogenic tumours.

  9. The natural compound codonolactone impairs tumor induced angiogenesis by downregulating BMP signaling in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan; Cai, Rui; Ma, Junchao; Liu, Ting; Ke, Xiaoqin; Lu, Hong; Fu, Jianjiang

    2015-10-15

    Angiogenesis, the recruitment of new blood vessels, was demonstrated that is an essential component of the growth of a tumor beyond a certain size and the metastatic pathway. The potential use of angiogenesis-based agents, such as those involving natural and synthetic inhibitors as anticancer drugs is currently under intense investigation. In this study, the anti-angiogenic properties of codonolactone (CLT), a sesquiterpene lactone from Atractylodes lancea, were examined in endothelial cells. Our published study reported that CLT shows significant anti-metastatic properties in vitro and in vivo. In order to determine whether angiogenic-involved mechanisms contribute to the anti-metastatic effects of CLT, we checked the anti-angiogenic properties of CLT and its potential mechanisms. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and EA.hy 926 cells were involved in this study. Immunofluorescence assay for cells and immunohistochemistry assay for tissues were used to check the expression of angiogenic markers. In vitro migration and invasion of endothelial cells treated with and without CLT were analyzed. Protein expressions were measured by Western blot analysis. For MMPs activity assay, fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based MMPs activity assay and gelatin zymography assay were involved in this study. Here we demonstrated that CLT exhibited inhibition on cancer cell induced angiogenesis in vivo, and direct inhibited migration and invasion of endothelial cells in vitro. Moreover, we observed that the down-regulation of MMPs and VEGF-VEGFR2 was involved in the anti-angiogenic effects of CLT. Data from Western blotting showed that, in endothelial cells, CLT reduced Runx2 activation and BMP signaling. Our findings demonstrated that CLT impaired the development of angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo by direct inhibition on endothelial cells. These inhibitory effects were depended on its ability to interference with BMP signaling in endothelial cells, which may

  10. Dexamethasone Alleviates Tumor-Associated Brain Damage and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zheng; Sehm, Tina; Rauh, Manfred; Buchfelder, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Children and adults with the most aggressive form of brain cancer, malignant gliomas or glioblastoma, often develop cerebral edema as a life-threatening complication. This complication is routinely treated with dexamethasone (DEXA), a steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with pleiotropic action profile. Here we show that dexamethasone reduces murine and rodent glioma tumor growth in a concentration-dependent manner. Low concentrations of DEXA are already capable of inhibiting glioma cell proliferation and at higher levels induce cell death. Further, the expression of the glutamate antiporter xCT (system Xc −; SLC7a11) and VEGFA is up-regulated after DEXA treatment indicating early cellular stress responses. However, in human gliomas DEXA exerts differential cytotoxic effects, with some human glioma cells (U251, T98G) resistant to DEXA, a finding corroborated by clinical data of dexamethasone non-responders. Moreover, DEXA-resistant gliomas did not show any xCT alterations, indicating that these gene expressions are associated with DEXA-induced cellular stress. Hence, siRNA-mediated xCT knockdown in glioma cells increased the susceptibility to DEXA. Interestingly, cell viability of primary human astrocytes and primary rodent neurons is not affected by DEXA. We further tested the pharmacological effects of DEXA on brain tissue and showed that DEXA reduces tumor-induced disturbances of the microenvironment such as neuronal cell death and tumor-induced angiogenesis. In conclusion, we demonstrate that DEXA inhibits glioma cell growth in a concentration and species-dependent manner. Further, DEXA executes neuroprotective effects in brains and reduces tumor-induced angiogenesis. Thus, our investigations reveal that DEXA acts pleiotropically and impacts tumor growth, tumor vasculature and tumor-associated brain damage. PMID:24714627

  11. Automatic extraction of angiogenesis bioprocess from text

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinglong; McKendrick, Iain; Barrett, Ian; Dix, Ian; French, Tim; Tsujii, Jun'ichi; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: Understanding key biological processes (bioprocesses) and their relationships with constituent biological entities and pharmaceutical agents is crucial for drug design and discovery. One way to harvest such information is searching the literature. However, bioprocesses are difficult to capture because they may occur in text in a variety of textual expressions. Moreover, a bioprocess is often composed of a series of bioevents, where a bioevent denotes changes to one or a group of cells involved in the bioprocess. Such bioevents are often used to refer to bioprocesses in text, which current techniques, relying solely on specialized lexicons, struggle to find. Results: This article presents a range of methods for finding bioprocess terms and events. To facilitate the study, we built a gold standard corpus in which terms and events related to angiogenesis, a key biological process of the growth of new blood vessels, were annotated. Statistics of the annotated corpus revealed that over 36% of the text expressions that referred to angiogenesis appeared as events. The proposed methods respectively employed domain-specific vocabularies, a manually annotated corpus and unstructured domain-specific documents. Evaluation results showed that, while a supervised machine-learning model yielded the best precision, recall and F1 scores, the other methods achieved reasonable performance and less cost to develop. Availability: The angiogenesis vocabularies, gold standard corpus, annotation guidelines and software described in this article are available at http://text0.mib.man.ac.uk/~mbassxw2/angiogenesis/ Contact: xinglong.wang@gmail.com PMID:21821664

  12. Ovarian angiogenesis in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Mariana; Pascuali, Natalia; Parborell, Fernanda; Abramovich, Dalhia

    2018-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine pathology among women in reproductive age. Its main symptoms are oligo or amenorrhea, hyperandrogenism and the presence of ovarian cysts. It is also associated with infertility, obesity and insulin resistance. Mainly due to its heterogeneity, PCOS treatments are directed to manage its symptoms and to prevent associated diseases. The correct formation and regression of blood vessels during each ovarian cycle is indispensable for proper follicular development, ovulation and corpus luteum formation. The importance of these processes opened a new and promising field: ovarian angiogenesis. Vascular alterations characterize numerous pathologies, either with increased, decreased or abnormal angiogenesis. In the last years, several anomalies of ovarian angiogenesis have been described in women with PCOS. Therefore, it has been suggested that these alterations may be associated with the decreased - or lack of - ovulation rates and for the formation of cysts in the PCOS ovaries. Restoration of a proper vessel formation in the ovaries may lead to improved follicular development and ovulation in these patients. In the present review, we attempt to summarize the alterations in ovarian angiogenesis that have been described in women with PCOS. We also discuss the therapeutic approaches aimed to correct these alterations and their beneficial effects on the treatment of infertility in PCOS. © 2018 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  13. Regulation of angiogenesis by phospholipid lysophosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiliang; Ramakrishnan, Devi Prasadh; Ren, Bin

    2013-06-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) as a bioactive phospholipid signaling mediator is emerging as an important regulator of endothelial cell functions and angiogenesis. Many studies have shown that LPA is an active player in regulating the processes of endothelial cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation, all essential in angiogenesis. Through modulating angiogenesis associated gene expression, LPA also promotes pathological angiogenesis. Intriguingly, the angiogenic signaling mechanisms mediated by LPA have been linked to specific G-protein coupled receptors and down stream MAPK including Erk1/2, p38 and JNK, protein kinase D (PKD-1), Rho kinase (ROCK), and the NF-kappa B signaling pathways. LPA regulates angiogenic responses via a complex signaling network, and LPA signaling is integrated and transduced to the nucleus to coordinate the transcription of different angiogenic genes. Investigation of these mechanisms will provide novel and valuable insights into the understanding of endothelial cell biology and angiogenic programs. This knowledge will facilitate designs for better therapies for the ischemic cardiovascular diseases and malignant tumors.

  14. Adrenomedullin promotes lung angiogenesis, alveolar development, and repair.

    PubMed

    Vadivel, Arul; Abozaid, Sameh; van Haaften, Tim; Sawicka, Monika; Eaton, Farah; Chen, Ming; Thébaud, Bernard

    2010-08-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and emphysema are significant global health problems at the extreme stages of life. Both are characterized by alveolar simplification and abnormal distal airspace enlargement due to arrested development or loss of alveoli, respectively. Both lack effective treatments. Mechanisms that inhibit distal lung growth are poorly understood. Adrenomedullin (AM), a recently discovered potent vasodilator, promotes angiogenesis and has protective effects on the cardiovascular and respiratory system. Its role in the developing lung is unknown. We hypothesized that AM promotes lung angiogenesis and alveolar development. Accordingly, we report that lung mRNA expression of AM increases during normal alveolar development. In vivo, intranasal administration of the AM antagonist, AM22-52 decreases lung capillary density (12.4 +/- 1.5 versus 18 +/- 1.5 in control animals; P < 0.05) and impairs alveolar development (mean linear intercept, 52.3 +/- 1.5 versus 43.8 +/- 1.8 [P < 0.05] and septal counts 62.0 +/- 2.7 versus 90.4 +/- 3.5 [P < 0.05]) in neonatal rats, resulting in larger and fewer alveoli, reminiscent of BPD. This was associated with decreased lung endothelial nitric oxide synthase and vascular endothelial growth factor-A mRNA expression. In experimental oxygen-induced BPD, a model of arrested lung vascular and alveolar growth, AM attenuates arrested lung angiogenesis (vessel density, 6.9 +/- 1.1 versus 16.2 +/- 1.3, P < 0.05) and alveolar development (mean linear intercept, 51.9 +/- 3.2 versus 44.4 +/- 0.7, septal counts 47.6 +/- 3.4 versus 67.7 +/- 4.0, P < 0.05), an effect in part mediated by inhibition of apoptosis. AM also prevents pulmonary hypertension in this model, as assessed by decreased right ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary artery medial wall thickness. Our findings suggest a role for AM during normal alveolar development. AM may have therapeutic potential in diseases associated with alveolar injury.

  15. The HLA-A2 Restricted T Cell Epitope HCV Core35–44 Stabilizes HLA-E Expression and Inhibits Cytolysis Mediated by Natural Killer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nattermann, Jacob; Nischalke, Hans Dieter; Hofmeister, Valeska; Ahlenstiel, Golo; Zimmermann, Henning; Leifeld, Ludger; Weiss, Elisabeth H.; Sauerbruch, Tilman; Spengler, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    Impaired activity of natural killer cells has been proposed as a mechanism contributing to viral persistence in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Natural cytotoxicity is regulated by interactions of HLA-E with inhibitory CD94/NKG2A receptors on natural killer (NK) cells. Here, we studied whether HCV core encodes peptides that bind to HLA-E and inhibit natural cytotoxicity. We analyzed 30 HCV core-derived peptides. Peptide-induced stabilization of HLA-E expression was measured flow cytometrically after incubating HLA-E-transfected cells with peptides. NK cell function was studied with a 51chromium-release-assay. Intrahepatic HLA-E expression was analyzed by an indirect immunoperoxidase technique and flow cytometry of isolated cells using a HLA-E-specific antibody. We identified peptide aa35–44, a well-characterized HLA-A2 restricted T cell epitope, as a peptide stabilizing HLA-E expression and thereby inhibiting NK cell-mediated lysis. Blocking experiments confirmed that this inhibitory effect of peptide aa35–44 on natural cytotoxicity was mediated via interactions between CD94/NKG2A receptors and enhanced HLA-E expression. In line with these in vitro data we found enhanced intrahepatic HLA-E expression on antigen-presenting cells in HCV-infected patients. Our data indicate the existence of T cell epitopes that can be recognized by HLA-A2 and HLA-E. This dual recognition may contribute to viral persistence in hepatitis C. PMID:15681828

  16. Purification of a post-synaptic neurotoxic phospholipase A2 from Naja naja venom and its inhibition by a glycoprotein from Withania somnifera.

    PubMed

    Machiah, Deepa K; Gowda, T Veerabasappa

    2006-06-01

    A post-synaptic neurotoxic phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) has been purified from Indian cobra Naja naja venom. It was associated with a peptide in the venom. The association was disrupted using 8 M urea. It is denoted to be a basic protein by its behavior on both ion exchange chromatography and electrophoresis. It is toxic to mice, LD(50) 1.9 mg/kg body weight (ip). It is proved to be post-synaptic PLA(2) by chymographic experiment using frog nerve-muscle preparation. A glycoprotein, (WSG) was isolated from a folk medicinal plant Withania somnifera. The WSG inhibited the phospholipase A(2) activity of NN-XIa-PLA(2,) isolated from the cobra venom, completely at a mole-to-mole ratio of 1:2 (NN-XIa-PLA(2): WSG) but failed to neutralize the toxicity of the molecule. However, it reduced the toxicity as well as prolonged the death time of the experimental mice approximately 10 times when compared to venom alone. The WSG also inhibited several other PLA(2) isoforms from the venom to varying extent. The interaction of the WSG with the PLA(2) is confirmed by fluorescence quenching and gel-permeation chromatography. Chemical modification of the active histidine residue of PLA(2) using p-brophenacyl bromide resulted in the loss of both catalytic activity as well as neurotoxicity of the molecule. These findings suggest that the venom PLA(2) has multiple sites on it; perhaps some of them are overlapping. Application of the plant extract on snakebite wound confirms the medicinal value associated with the plant.

  17. Depolymerized products of lambda-carrageenan as a potent angiogenesis inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haimin; Yan, Xiaojun; Lin, Jing; Wang, Feng; Xu, Weifeng

    2007-08-22

    Since angiogenesis is involved in initiating and promoting several diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular events, this study was designed to evaluate the anti-angiogenesis of low-molecular-weight (LMW), highly sulfated lambda-carrageenan oligosaccharides (lambda-CO) obtained by carrageenan depolymerization, by CAM (chick chorioallantoic membrane) model and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Significant inhibition of vessel growth was observed at 200 microg/pellet. A histochemistry assay also revealed a decrease of capillary plexus and connective tissue in lambda-CO treated samples. lambda-CO inhibited the viability of cells at the high concentration of 1 mg/mL, whereas it affected the cell survival slightly (>95%) at a low concentration (<250 microg/mL), and HUVEC is the most sensitive to lambda-CO among three kinds of cells. Furthermore, the inhibitory action of lambda-CO was also observed in the endothelial cell invasion and migration at relatively low concentration (150-300 microg/mL), through down-regulation of intracellular matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2) expression on endothelial cells. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that lambda-CO is a potential angiogenesis inhibitor with combined effects of inhibiting invasion, migration, and proliferation.

  18. Disruption of Angiogenesis by Anthocyanin-Rich Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa

    PubMed Central

    Joshua, Madu; Okere, Christiana; Sylvester, O’Donnell; Yahaya, Muhammad; Precious, Omale; Dluya, Thagriki; Um, Ji-Yeon; Neksumi, Musa; Boyd, Jessica; Vincent-Tyndall, Jennifer; Choo, Dong-Won; Gutsaeva, Diana R.; Jahng, Wan Jin

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal vessel formations contribute to the progression of specific angiogenic diseases including age-related macular degeneration. Adequate vessel growth and maintenance represent the coordinated process of endothelial cell proliferation, matrix remodeling, and differentiation. However, the molecular mechanism of the proper balance between angiogenic activators and inhibitors remains elusive. In addition, quantitative analysis of vessel formation has been challenging due to complex angiogenic morphology. We hypothesized that conjugated double bond containing-natural products, including anthocyanin extracts from Hibiscus sabdariffa, may control the proper angiogenesis. The current study was designed to determine whether natural molecules from African plant library modulate angiogenesis. Further, we questioned how the proper balance of anti- or pro-angiogenic signaling can be obtained in the vascular microenvironment by treating anthocyanin or fatty acids using chick chorioallantoic membrane angiogenesis model in ovo. The angiogenic morphology was analyzed systematically by measuring twenty one angiogenic indexes using Angiogenic Analyzer software. Chick chorioallantoic model demonstrated that anthocyanin-rich extracts inhibited angiogenesis in time- and concentration-dependent manner. Molecular modeling analysis proposed that hibiscetin as a component in Hibiscus may bind to the active site of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) with ΔG= −8.42 kcal/mol of binding energy. Our results provided the evidence that anthocyanin is an angiogenic modulator that can be used to treat uncontrolled neovascular-related diseases, including age-related macular degeneration. PMID:28459020

  19. Protective Effect of Perindopril on Tumor Progression and Angiogenesis in Animal Model of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Patel, Snehal S; Nakka, Surender

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that the renin angiotensin system via angiogenesis is involved in tumor development. Therefore, objective of the present study was to examine the effect of perindopril on tumor growth and angiogenesis in animal models of breast cancer. In the present study, the effect of perindopril on tumor development of mammary gland cancer induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, mouse tumor xenograft and corneal micropocket model has been investigated. Anti-angiogenic effect by chick yolk sac membrane assay has also been studied. In the present study, it has been found that perindopril produced a significant inhibition of tumor growth, in DMBA induced breast cancer. Treatment also produced significant suppression of cancer biomarkers such as lactate dehydrogenase, gamma glutamyl transferase and inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Histopathological analysis also showed that perindopril was able to inhibit tumor development by the inhibition of hyperplastic lesions. Perindopril produced significant inhibition of tumor growth, in a mouse xenograft model and caused inhibition of neovascularization in the corneal micropocket model. In chick yolk sac membrane assay, perindopril showed inhibition of vascular growth and reduced blood vessel formation. Therefore, perindopril is widely used in clinical practice, may represent a neo-adjuvant therapy for treatment of breast cancer. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Tumour angiogenesis is reduced in the Tc1 mouse model of Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Louise E.; Watson, Alan R.; Baker, Marianne; Jones, Tania A.; D’Amico, Gabriela; Robinson, Stephen D.; Joffre, Carine; Garrido-Urbani, Sarah; Rodriguez-Manzaneque, Juan Carlos; Martino-Echarri, Estefanía; Aurrand-Lions, Michel; Sheer, Denise; Dagna-Bricarelli, Franca; Nizetic, Dean; McCabe, Christopher J.; Turnell, Andrew S.; Kermorgant, Stephanie; Imhof, Beat A.; Adams, Ralf; Fisher, Elizabeth M.C.; Tybulewicz, Victor L. J.; Hart, Ian R.; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan M.

    2012-01-01

    Down Syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder caused by full or partial trisomy of chromosome 21. It occurs in approximately 1/750 live births and presents with many clinical phenotypes including a reduced incidence of solid tumours1,2. Recent work using the Ts65Dn model of DS, that has orthologs of approximately 50% of the genes on human chromosome 21 (Hsa21), has suggested that three copies of the ETS23 or Down Syndrome candidate region 1 (DSCR1) genes4 (a previously known suppressor of angiogenesis5,6) is sufficient to inhibit tumour growth. We have used the Tc1 transchromosomic mouse model of DS9 to dissect the contribution of extra copies of genes on Hsa21 to tumour angiogenesis. This mouse expresses approximately 81% of Hsa21 genes but not the human DSCR1 region (Supplementary Fig. 1). We transplanted B16F0 and Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) tumour cells into Tc1 mice and showed that growth of these tumours was reduced substantially when compared to wild-type littermate controls. Furthermore, tumour angiogenesis was repressed significantly in Tc1 mice. In particular, in vitro and in vivo angiogenic responses to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were inhibited. Examination of the genes on the segment of Hsa21 in Tc1 mice identified putative anti-angiogenic genes (ADAMTS17,8 and ERG9) and novel endothelial cell-specific genes10, never shown before to be involved in angiogenesis (JAM-B11 and PTTG1IP) that, when overexpressed, are responsible for the inhibition of angiogenic responses to VEGF. Three copies of these genes within the stromal compartment reduced tumour angiogenesis providing an explanation for the reduced tumour growth in DS. Furthermore, we anticipate that, in addition to the candidate genes that we show to be involved in the repression of angiogenesis, the Tc1 mouse model of DS will likely allow for the identification of other endothelial-specific anti-angiogenic targets relevant to a broad spectrum of cancer patients. PMID:20535211

  1. 2-(ω-Carboxyethyl)pyrrole Antibody as a New Inhibitor of Tumor Angiogenesis and Growth.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunying; Wang, Xizhen; Tomko, Nicholas; Zhu, Junqing; Wang, William R; Zhu, Jinle; Wangf, Bin; Wang, Yanming; Salomon, Robert G

    2017-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a fundamental process in the progression, invasion, and metastasis of tumors. Therapeutic drugs such as bevacizumab and ranibuzumab have thus been developed to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEFG)-promoted angiogenesis. While these anti-angiogenic drugs have been commonly used in the treatment of cancer, patients often develop significant resistance that limits the efficacy of anti-VEGF therapies to a short period of time. This is in part due to the fact that an independent pathway of angiogenesis exists, which is mediated by 2-(ω-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP) in a TLR2 receptor-dependent manner that can compensate for inhibition of the VEGF-mediated pathway. In this work, we evaluated a CEP antibody as a new tumor growth inhibitor that blocks CEP-induced angiogenesis. We first evaluated the effectiveness of a CEP antibody as a monotherapy to impede tumor growth in two human tumor xenograft models. We then determined the synergistic effects of bevacizumab and CEP antibody in a combination therapy, which demonstrated that blocking of the CEP-mediated pathway significantly enhanced the anti-angiogenic efficacy of bevacizumab in tumor growth inhibition indicating that CEP antibody is a promising chemotherapeutic drug. To facilitate potential translational studies of CEP-antibody, we also conducted longitudinal imaging studies and identified that FMISO-PET is a non-invasive imaging tool that can be used to quantitatively monitor the anti-angiogenic effects of CEP-antibody in the clinical setting. That treatment with CEP antibody induces hypoxia in tumor tissue WHICH was indicated by 43% higher uptake of [18F]FMISO in CEP antibody-treated tumor xenografs than in the control PBS-treated littermates. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. CCL5 promotes VEGF-dependent angiogenesis by down-regulating miR-200b through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in human chondrosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guan-Ting; Chen, Hsien-Te; Tsou, Hsi-Kai; Tan, Tzu-Wei; Fong, Yi-Chin; Chen, Po-Chen; Yang, Wei-Hung; Wang, Shih-Wei; Chen, Jui-Chieh; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary malignant bone cancer, with potential for local invasion and distant metastasis. Chemokine CCL5 (formerly RANTES) of the CC-chemokine family plays a crucial role in metastasis. Angiogenesis is essential for the cancer metastasis. However, correlation of CCL5 with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma is still unknown. CCL5-mediated VEGF expression was assessed by qPCR, ELISA, and Western blotting. CCL5-induced angiogenesis was examined by migration and tube formation in endothelial progenitor cells in vitro. CCL5 increased VEGF expression and also promoted chondrosarcoma conditional medium-mediated angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Stimulation of chondrosarcoma with CCL5 augmented PI3K and Akt phosphorylation, while PI3K and Akt inhibitor or siRNA abolished CCL5-induced VEGF expression and angiogenesis. We also demonstrated CCL5 inhibiting miR-200b expression and miR-200b mimic reversing the CCL5-enhanced VEGF expression and angiogenesis. Moreover, in chondrosarcoma patients showed the positive correlation between CCL5 and VEGF; negative correlation between CCL5 and miR-200b. Taken together, results demonstrate CCL5 promoting VEGF-dependent angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma cells by down-regulating miR-200b through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:25301739

  3. STAT3-regulated exosomal miR-21 promotes angiogenesis and is involved in neoplastic processes of transformed human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Luo, Fei; Wang, Bairu; Li, Huiqiao; Xu, Yuan; Liu, Xinlu; Shi, Le; Lu, Xiaolin; Xu, Wenchao; Lu, Lu; Qin, Yu; Xiang, Quanyong; Liu, Qizhan

    2016-01-01

    Although microRNA (miRNA) enclosed in exosomes can mediate intercellular communication, the roles of exosomal miRNA and angiogenesis in lung cancer remain unclear. We investigated functions of STAT3-regulated exosomal miR-21 derived from cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-transformed human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells in the angiogenesis of CSE-induced carcinogenesis. miR-21 levels in serum were higher in smokers than those in non-smokers. The medium from transformed HBE cells promoted miR-21 levels in normal HBE cells and angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Transformed cells transferred miR-21 into normal HBE cells via exosomes. Knockdown of STAT3 reduced miR-21 levels in exosomes derived from transformed HBE cells, which blocked the angiogenesis. Exosomes derived from transformed HBE cells elevated levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in HBE cells and thereby promoted angiogenesis in HUVEC cells. Inhibition of exosomal miR-21, however, decreased VEGF levels in recipient cells, which blocked exosome-induced angiogenesis. Thus, miR-21 in exosomes leads to STAT3 activation, which increases VEGF levels in recipient cells, a process involved in angiogenesis and malignant transformation of HBE cells. These results, demonstrating the function of exosomal miR-21 from transformed HBE cells, provide a new perspective for intervention strategies to prevent carcinogenesis of lung cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Plasmin-Cleaved β-2-Glycoprotein 1 Is an Inhibitor of Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Taro; Balasubramanian, Krishnakumar; Maiti, Sourindra; Halder, Jyotsna B.; Schroit, Alan J.

    2007-01-01

    β-2-Glycoprotein 1, an abundant plasma glycoprotein, binds anionic cell surfaces and functions as a regulator of thrombosis. Here, we show that cleavage of the kringle domain at Lys317/Thr318 switches its function to a regulator of angiogenesis. In vitro, the cleaved protein specifically inhibited the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. The protein was without effect on preformed endothelial cell tubes. In vivo, the cleaved protein inhibited neovascularization into subcutaneously implanted Matrigel and Gelfoam sponge implants and the growth of orthotopically injected tumors. Collectively, these data indicate that plasmin-cleaved β-2-glycoprotein 1 is a potent antiangiogenic and antitumor molecule of potential therapeutic significance. PMID:17872974

  5. Chemopreventive apigenin controls UVB-induced cutaneous proliferation and angiogenesis through HuR and thrombospondin-1

    PubMed Central

    Veliceasa, Dorina; Bridgeman, Bryan B.; Fitchev, Philip; Cornwell, Mona L.; Crawford, Susan E.; Pelling, Jill C.; Volpert, Olga V.

    2014-01-01

    Plant flavonoid apigenin prevents and inhibits UVB-induced carcinogenesis in the skin and has strong anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic properties. Here we identify mechanisms, by which apigenin controls these oncogenic events. We show that apigenin acts, at least in part, via endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor, thrombospondin-1 (TSP1). TSP1 expression by the epidermal keratinocytes is potently inhibited by UVB. It inhibits cutaneous angiogenesis and UVB-induced carcinogenesis. We show that apigenin restores TSP1 in epidermal keratinocytes subjected to UVB and normalizes proliferation and angiogenesis in UVB-exposed skin. Importantly, reconstituting TSP1 anti-angiogenic function in UVB-irradiated skin with a short bioactive peptide mimetic representing exclusively its anti-angiogenic domain reproduced the anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic effects of apigenin. Cox-2 and HIF-1α are important mediators of angiogenesis. Both apigenin and TSP1 peptide mimetic attenuated their induction by UVB. Finally we identified the molecular mechanism, whereby apigenin did not affect TSP1 mRNA, but increased de novo protein synthesis. Knockdown studies implicated the RNA-binding protein HuR, which controls mRNA stability and translation. Apigenin increased HuR cytoplasmic localization and physical association with TSP1 mRNA causing de novo TSP1 synthesis. HuR cytoplasmic localization was, in turn, dependent on CHK2 kinase. Together, our data provide a new mechanism, by which apigenin controls UVB-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:25526033

  6. TNF-α-induced LRG1 promotes angiogenesis and mesenchymal stem cell migration in the subchondral bone during osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiyun; Xu, Jiajia; Zhang, Xudong; Wang, Chuandong; Huang, Yan; Dai, Kerong; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2017-03-30

    The incomplete understanding of aberrant neovascularization, which contributes to osteoarthritis suggests that additional modulators have yet to be identified. Our objective was to identify the role of Leucine-rich-alpha-2-glycoprotein1 (LRG1), a new regulator of pathogenic angiogenesis, in osteoarthritis progression and to develop effective treatment strategies. In this study, immunohistochemistry showed that LRG1 was increased in the subchondral bone and articular cartilage in anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) mice. Further studies were focused on the role of LRG1 in osteoarthritis. Results showed that LRG1 promoted angiogenesis and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) migration, which contribute to aberrant bone formation in the subchondral bone. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), not interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6 or IL-17, induced the LRG1 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and this effect was inhibited by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase or NF-κB inhibitor. Notably, inhibition of TNF-α and LRG1 activity by Lenalidomide, an inhibitor of TNF-α production, in ACLT mice attenuated degeneration of osteoarthritis articular cartilage. This study shows that TNF-α is the predominant proinflammatory cytokine that induces the secretion of LRG1. LRG1 contributes to angiogenesis-coupled de novo bone formation by increasing angiogenesis and recruiting MSCs in the subchondral bone of osteoarthritis joints. Inhibition of TNF-α and LRG1 by Lenalidomide could be a potential therapeutic approach.

  7. Angiogenesis inhibitors: current strategies and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Cook, Kristina M; Figg, William D

    2010-01-01

    Angiogenesis has become an attractive target for drug therapy because of its key role in tumor growth. An extensive array of compounds is currently in preclinical development, with many now entering the clinic and/or achieving approval from the US Food and Drug Administration. Several regulatory and signaling molecules governing angiogenesis are of interest, including growth factors (eg, vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, and epidermal growth factor), receptor tyrosine kinases, and transcription factors such as hypoxia inducible factor, as well as molecules involved in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. Pharmacologic agents have been identified that target these pathways, yet for some agents (notably thalidomide), an understanding of the specific mechanisms of antitumor action has proved elusive. The following review describes key molecular mechanisms and novel therapies that are on the horizon for antiangiogenic tumor therapy. (c) 2010 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  8. Shock Wave Therapy Enhances Angiogenesis through VEGFR2 Activation and Recycling

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tien-Hung; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Chen, Yi-Ling; Wang, Ching-Jen; Yin, Tsung-Cheng; Lee, Mel S; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2016-01-01

    Although low-energy shock wave (SW) is adopted to treat ischemic diseases because of its pro-angiogenic properties, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study is aimed at testing whether SW-induced angiogenesis may be through endothelial vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) signaling and trafficking. Phosphorylation of VEGFR2- Akt-eNOS axis and production of nitric oxide (NO) were determined in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with SW. Carotid artery in ob/ob mice was treated with SW before evaluation with sprouting assay. Critical limb ischemia was induced in ob/ob mice to evaluate blood flow recovery post-SW treatment. Tube formation and migration assays were also performed with/without SW treatment in the presence/absence of SU5416 (VEGFR2 kinase inhibitor) and siRNA-driven silencing of VEGFR2. Chloroquine was used for disrupting endosome, and Rab11a controlling slow endocytic recycling was silenced with siRNA in vitro. Following SW treatment, augmented ligand-independent phosphorylation in VEGFR2-Akt-eNOS axis and endogenous NO production, increased cellular migration and tube formation and elevated sprouting of carotid artery and blood flow in ischemic limb in ob/ob mice were noted. Moreover, SU5416 and VEGFR2 silencing both inhibited SW-induced angiogenesis. SW-induced angiogenesis, accompanied by increased VEGFR2 protein expression without transcriptional change, was suppressed by chloroquine and Rab11a silencing. We concluded that SW enhanced angiogenesis via ligand-independent activation of VEGFR2 and further prolonged angiogenesis through endosome-to-plasma membrane recycling in endothelial cells. PMID:27925633

  9. Ovulatory Induction of SCG2 in Human, Nonhuman Primate, and Rodent Granulosa Cells Stimulates Ovarian Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Patrick R; Duffy, Diane M; Rosewell, Katherine L; Brännström, Mats; Akin, James W; Curry, Thomas E

    2018-06-01

    The luteinizing hormone (LH) surge is essential for ovulation, but the intrafollicular factors induced by LH that mediate ovulatory processes (e.g., angiogenesis) are poorly understood, especially in women. The role of secretogranin II (SCG2) and its cleaved bioactive peptide, secretoneurin (SN), were investigated as potential mediators of ovulation by testing the hypothesis that SCG2/SN is induced in granulosa cells by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), via a downstream LH receptor signaling mechanism, and stimulates ovarian angiogenesis. Humans, nonhuman primates, and rodents were treated with hCG in vivo resulting in a significant increase in the messenger RNA and protein levels of SCG2 in granulosa cells collected early during the periovulatory period and just prior to ovulation (humans: 12 to 34 hours; monkeys: 12 to 36 hours; rodents: 4 to 12 hours post-hCG). This induction by hCG was recapitulated in an in vitro culture system utilizing granulosa-lutein cells from in vitro fertilization patients. Using this system, inhibition of downstream LH receptor signaling pathways revealed that the initial induction of SCG2 is regulated, in part, by epidermal growth factor receptor signaling. Further, human ovarian microvascular endothelial cells were treated with SN (1 to 100 ng/mL) and subjected to angiogenesis assays. SN significantly increased endothelial cell migration and new sprout formation, suggesting induction of ovarian angiogenesis. These results establish that SCG2 is increased in granulosa cells across species during the periovulatory period and that SN may mediate ovulatory angiogenesis in the human ovary. These findings provide insight into the regulation of human ovulation and fertility.

  10. Orchestration of Angiogenesis by Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Antonino; Pagani, Arianna; Pulze, Laura; Albini, Adriana; Dallaglio, Katiuscia; Noonan, Douglas M.; Mortara, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the tumor microenvironment (TUMIC) plays a major role in cancer and is indispensable for tumor progression. The TUMIC involves many “players” going well beyond the malignant-transformed cells, including stromal, immune, and endothelial cells (ECs). The non-malignant cells can acquire tumor-promoting functions during carcinogenesis. In particular, these cells can “orchestrate” the “symphony” of the angiogenic switch, permitting the creation of new blood vessels that allows rapid expansion and progression toward malignancy. Considerable attention within the context of tumor angiogenesis should focus not only on the ECs, representing a fundamental unit, but also on immune cells and on the inflammatory tumor infiltrate. Immune cells infiltrating tumors typically show a tumor-induced polarization associated with attenuation of anti-tumor functions and generation of pro-tumor activities, among these angiogenesis. Here, we propose a scenario suggesting that the angiogenic switch is an immune switch arising from the pro-angiogenic polarization of immune cells. This view links immunity, inflammation, and angiogenesis to tumor progression. Here, we review the data in the literature and seek to identify the “conductors” of this “orchestra.” We also suggest that interrupting the immune → inflammation → angiogenesis → tumor progression process can delay or prevent tumor insurgence and malignant disease. PMID:25072019

  11. The mouse cornea micropocket angiogenesis assay.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Michael S; Birsner, Amy E; D'Amato, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    The mouse corneal micropocket angiogenesis assay uses the avascular cornea as a canvas to study angiogenesis in vivo. Through the use of standardized slow-release pellets, a predictable angiogenic response is generated over the course of 5 d and then quantified. Uniform slow-release pellets are prepared by mixing purified angiogenic growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor or vascular endothelial growth factor with sucralfate (a stabilizer) and Hydron (poly-HEMA (poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)) to allow slow release). This mixture is applied to a mesh that controls unit size and then allowed to harden. A micropocket is surgically created in the mouse cornea and a pellet implanted. Five days later, the area of the cornea overgrown by the angiogenic response is measured using a slit lamp. A skilled investigator can implant and grade 40 eyes in about 2.5 h. The results of the assay are used to assess the ability of potential therapeutic molecules or genetic differences to modulate angiogenesis in vivo.

  12. Protein Kinase D-dependent Phosphorylation and Nuclear Export of Histone Deacetylase 5 Mediates Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-induced Gene Expression and Angiogenesis*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Chang Hoon; Wang, Weiye; Jhun, Bong Sook; Wong, Chelsea; Hausser, Angelika; Pfizenmaier, Klaus; McKinsey, Timothy A.; Olson, Eric N.; Jin, Zheng-Gen

    2008-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is essential for normal and pathological angiogenesis. However, the signaling pathways linked to gene regulation in VEGF-induced angiogenesis are not fully understood. Here we demonstrate a critical role of protein kinase D (PKD) and histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) in VEGF-induced gene expression and angiogenesis. We found that VEGF stimulated HDAC5 phosphorylation and nuclear export in endothelial cells through a VEGF receptor 2-phospholipase Cγ-protein kinase C-PKD-dependent pathway. We further showed that the PKD-HDAC5 pathway mediated myocyte enhancer factor-2 transcriptional activation and a specific subset of gene expression in response to VEGF, including NR4A1, an orphan nuclear receptor involved in angiogenesis. Specifically, inhibition of PKD by overexpression of the PKD kinase-negative mutant prevents VEGF-induced HDAC5 phosphorylation and nuclear export as well as NR4A1 induction. Moreover, a mutant of HDAC5 specifically deficient in PKD-dependent phosphorylation inhibited VEGF-mediated NR4A1 expression, endothelial cell migration, and in vitro angiogenesis. These findings suggest that the PKD-HDAC5 pathway plays an important role in VEGF regulation of gene transcription and angiogenesis. PMID:18332134

  13. Inhibitory effect of tocotrienol on eukaryotic DNA polymerase {lambda} and angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Shibata, Akira

    2006-01-20

    Tocotrienols, vitamin E compounds that have an unsaturated side chain with three double bonds, selectively inhibited the activity of mammalian DNA polymerase {lambda} (pol {lambda}) in vitro. These compounds did not influence the activities of replicative pols such as {alpha}, {delta}, and {epsilon}, or even the activity of pol {beta} which is thought to have a very similar three-dimensional structure to the pol {beta}-like region of pol {lambda}. Since {delta}-tocotrienol had the strongest inhibitory effect among the four ({alpha}- to {delta}-) tocotrienols, the isomer's structure might be an important factor in the inhibition of pol {lambda}. The inhibitory effect ofmore » {delta}-tocotrienol on both intact pol {lambda} (residues 1-575) and a truncated pol {lambda} lacking the N-terminal BRCA1 C-terminus (BRCT) domain (residues 133-575, del-1 pol {lambda}) was dose-dependent, with 50% inhibition observed at a concentration of 18.4 and 90.1 {mu}M, respectively. However, del-2 pol {lambda} (residues 245-575) containing the C-terminal pol {beta}-like region was unaffected. Tocotrienols also inhibited the proliferation of and formation of tubes by bovine aortic endothelial cells, with {delta}-tocotrienol having the greatest effect. These results indicated that tocotrienols targeted both pol {lambda} and angiogenesis as anti-cancer agents. The relationship between the inhibition of pol {lambda} and anti-angiogenesis by {delta}-tocotrienol was discussed.« less

  14. Cellular context–mediated Akt dynamics regulates MAP kinase signaling thresholds during angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hellesøy, Monica; Lorens, James B.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of new blood vessels by sprouting angiogenesis is tightly regulated by contextual cues that affect angiogeneic growth factor signaling. Both constitutive activation and loss of Akt kinase activity in endothelial cells impair angiogenesis, suggesting that Akt dynamics mediates contextual microenvironmental regulation. We explored the temporal regulation of Akt in endothelial cells during formation of capillary-like networks induced by cell–cell contact with vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) and vSMC-associated VEGF. Expression of constitutively active Akt1 strongly inhibited network formation, whereas hemiphosphorylated Akt1 epi-alleles with reduced kinase activity had an intermediate inhibitory effect. Conversely, inhibition of Akt signaling did not affect endothelial cell migration or morphogenesis in vSMC cocultures that generate capillary-like structures. We found that endothelial Akt activity is transiently blocked by proteasomal degradation in the presence of SMCs