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Sample records for a2 l-amino acid

  1. Lattice dynamical and dielectric properties of L-amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulip, P. R.; Clark, S. J.

    2006-08-01

    We present the results of ab initio calculations of the lattice dynamical and dielectric properties of the L-amino acids L-alanine, L-leucine, and L-isoleucine. Normal-mode frequencies and dielectric permittivity tensors are obtained using density-functional perturbation theory implemented within the plane-wave pseudopotential approximation. IR spectra are calculated and are used to analyze the effects of intermolecular interactions and zwitterionization upon the lattice dynamics. It is found that vibronic modes associated with the carboxy and amino functional groups undergo modification from their free-molecule values due to the presence of hydrogen bonds. The role of macroscopic electric fields set up by zone-center normal modes in the lattice dynamics is investigated by analysis of the Born effective charge. Calculated permittivity tensors are found to be greater than would be obtained by a naive use of the isolated molecular values, indicating the role of intermolecular interactions in increasing molecular polarizability.

  2. Structural and electronic properties of L-amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulip, P. R.; Clark, S. J.

    2005-05-01

    The structural and electronic properties of four L-amino acids alanine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and the generalized gradient approximation. Within the crystals, it is found that the constituent molecules adopt zwitterionic configurations, in agreement with experimental work. Lattice constants are found to be in good agreement with experimentally determined values, although certain discrepancies do exist due to the description of van der Waals interactions. We find that these materials possess wide DFT band gaps in the region of 5 eV, with electrons highly localized to the constituent molecules. It is found that the main mechanisms behind crystal formation are dipolar interactions and hydrogen bonding of a primarily electrostatic character, in agreement with current biochemical understanding of these systems. The electronic structure suggests that the amine and carboxy functional groups are dominant in determining band structure.

  3. Germination of Aspergillus niger conidia is triggered by nitrogen compounds related to L-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Hayer, Kimran; Stratford, Malcolm; Archer, David B

    2014-10-01

    Conidial germination is fundamentally important to the growth and dissemination of most fungi. It has been previously shown (K. Hayer, M. Stratford, and D. B. Archer, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79:6924-6931, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02061-13), using sugar analogs, that germination is a 2-stage process involving triggering of germination and then nutrient uptake for hyphal outgrowth. In the present study, we tested this 2-stage germination process using a series of nitrogen-containing compounds for the ability to trigger the breaking of dormancy of Aspergillus niger conidia and then to support the formation of hyphae by acting as nitrogen sources. Triggering and germination were also compared between A. niger and Aspergillus nidulans using 2-deoxy-D-glucose (trigger), D-galactose (nontrigger in A. niger but trigger in A. nidulans), and an N source (required in A. niger but not in A. nidulans). Although most of the nitrogen compounds studied served as nitrogen sources for growth, only some nitrogen compounds could trigger germination of A. niger conidia, and all were related to L-amino acids. Using L-amino acid analogs without either the amine or the carboxylic acid group revealed that both the amine and carboxylic acid groups were essential for an L-amino acid to serve as a trigger molecule. Generally, conidia were able to sense and recognize nitrogen compounds that fitted into a specific size range. There was no evidence of uptake of either triggering or nontriggering compounds over the first 90 min of A. niger conidial germination, suggesting that the germination trigger sensors are not located within the spore. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Racemic resolution of some DL-amino acids using Aspergillus fumigatus L-amino acid oxidase.

    PubMed

    Singh, Susmita; Gogoi, Binod K; Bezbaruah, Rajib L

    2011-07-01

    The ability of Aspergillus fumigatus L-amino acid oxidase (L-aao) to cause the resolution of racemic mixtures of DL-amino acids was investigated with DL-alanine, DL-phenylalanine, DL-tyrosine, and DL-aspartic acid. A chiral column, Crownpak CR+ was used for the analysis of the amino acids. The enzyme was able to cause the resolution of the three DL-amino acids resulting in the production of optically pure D-alanine (100% resolution), D-phenylalanine (80.2%), and D-tyrosine (84.1%), respectively. The optically pure D-amino acids have many uses and thus can be exploited industrially. This is the first report of the use of A. fumigatus L: -amino acid oxidase for racemic resolution of DL-amino acids.

  5. Snake Venom L-Amino Acid Oxidases: Trends in Pharmacology and Biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Izidoro, Luiz Fernando M.; Sobrinho, Juliana C.; Mendes, Mirian M.; Costa, Tássia R.; Grabner, Amy N.; Rodrigues, Veridiana M.; da Silva, Saulo L.; Zanchi, Fernando B.; Zuliani, Juliana P.; Fernandes, Carla F. C.; Calderon, Leonardo A.; Stábeli, Rodrigo G.; Soares, Andreimar M.

    2014-01-01

    L-amino acid oxidases are enzymes found in several organisms, including venoms of snakes, where they contribute to the toxicity of ophidian envenomation. Their toxicity is primarily due to enzymatic activity, but other mechanisms have been proposed recently which require further investigation. L-amino acid oxidases exert biological and pharmacological effects, including actions on platelet aggregation and the induction of apoptosis, hemorrhage, and cytotoxicity. These proteins present a high biotechnological potential for the development of antimicrobial, antitumor, and antiprotozoan agents. This review provides an overview of the biochemical properties and pharmacological effects of snake venom L-amino acid oxidases, their structure/activity relationship, and supposed mechanisms of action described so far. PMID:24738050

  6. Computational structural analysis of an anti-l-amino acid antibody and inversion of its stereoselectivity

    PubMed Central

    Ranieri, Daniel I.; Hofstetter, Heike; Hofstetter, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    The binding site of a monoclonal anti-l-amino acid antibody was modeled using the program SWISS-MODEL. Docking experiments with the enantiomers of phenylalanine revealed that the antibody interacts with l-phenylalanine via hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic contacts, whereas the d-enantiomer is rejected due to steric hindrance. Comparison of the sequences of this antibody and an anti-d-amino acid antibody indicates that both immunoglobulins derived from the same germline progenitor. Substitution of four amino acids residues, three in the framework and one in the complementarity determining regions, allowed in silico conversion of the anti-l-amino acid antibody into an antibody that stereoselectively binds d-phenylalanine. PMID:19472280

  7. Screening of Bothrops snake venoms for L-amino acid oxidase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Pessati, M.L.; Fontana, J.D.; Guimaraes, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Toxins, enzymes, and biologically active peptides are the main components of snake venoms from the genus Bothrops. Following the venom inoculation, the local effects are hemorrhage, edema, and myonecrosis. Nineteen different species of Brazilian Bothrops were screened for protein content and L-amino acid oxidase activity. B. cotiara, formerly found in the South of Brazil, is now threatened with extinction. Its venom contains a highly hemorrhagic fraction and, as expected from the deep yellow color of the corresponding lyophilized powder, a high L-amino acid oxidase (LAO) activity was also characterized. Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is its associate coenzyme. B. cotiara venommore » LAO catalyzed the oxidative deamination of several L-amino acids, and the best substrates were methionine, leucine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine, hence, its potential application for the use in biosensors for aspartame determination and for the removal of amino acids from plasma. High levels for LAO were also found in other species than B. cotiara. In addition, the technique of isoelectric focusing (IEF) was employed as a powerful tool to study the iso- or multi-enzyme distribution for LAO activity in the B. cotiara snake venom.« less

  8. The small SLC43 family: facilitator system l amino acid transporters and the orphan EEG1.

    PubMed

    Bodoy, Susanna; Fotiadis, Dimitrios; Stoeger, Claudia; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Palacín, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The SLC43 family is composed of only three genes coding for the plasma membrane facilitator system l amino acid transporters LAT3 (SLC43A1; TC 2.A.1.44.1) and LAT4 (SLC43A2; TC 2.A.1.44.2), and the orphan protein EEG1 (SLC43A3; TC 2.A.1.44.3). Besides the known mechanism of transport of LAT3 and LAT4, their physiological roles still remain quite obscure. Morphants suggested a role of LAT3 in renal podocyte development in zebrafish. Expression in liver and skeletal muscle, and up-regulation by starvation suggest a role of LAT3 in the flux of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) from liver and skeletal muscle to the bloodstream. Finally, LAT3 is up-regulated in androgen-dependent cancers, suggesting a role in mTORC1 signaling in this type of tumors. In addition, LAT4 might contribute to the transfer of BCAAs from mother to fetus. Unfortunately, the EEG1 mouse model (EEG1(Y221∗)) described here has not yet offered a clue to the physiological role of this orphan protein. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. D:L-AMINO Acids and the Turnover of Microbial Biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomstein, B. A.; Braun, S.; Mhatre, S. S.; Jørgensen, B. B.

    2015-12-01

    Decades of ocean drilling have demonstrated wide spread microbial life in deep sub-seafloor sediment, and surprisingly high microbial cell numbers. Despite the ubiquity of life in the deep biosphere, the large community sizes and the low energy fluxes in the vast buried ecosystem are still poorly understood. It is not know whether organisms of the deep biosphere are specifically adapted to extremely low energy fluxes or whether most of the observed cells are in a maintenance state. Recently we developed and applied a new culture independent approach - the D:L-amino acid model - to quantify the turnover times of living microbial biomass, microbial necromass and mean metabolic rates. This approach is based on the built-in molecular clock in amino acids that very slowly undergo chemical racemization until they reach an even mixture of L- and D- forms, unless microorganisms spend energy to keep them in the L-form that dominates in living organisms. The approach combines sensitive analyses of amino acids, the unique bacterial endospore marker (dipicolinic acid) with racemization dynamics of stereo-isomeric amino acids. Based on a heating experiment, we recently reported kinetic parameters for racemization of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine and alanine in bulk sediment from Aarhus Bay, Denmark. The obtained racemization rate constants were faster than the racemization rate constants of free amino acids, which we have previously applied in Holocene sediment from Aarhus Bay and in up to 10 mio yr old sediment from ODP Leg 201. Another important input parameter for the D:L-amino acid model is the cellular carbon content. It has recently been suggested that the cellular carbon content most likely is lower than previously thought. In recognition of these new findings, previously published data based on the D:L-amino acid model were recalculated and will be presented together with new data from an Arctic Holocene setting with constant sub-zero temperatures.

  10. Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering studies of L-amino acids adsorbed on silver nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botta, Raju; Rajanikanth, A.; Bansal, C.

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanocluster films were prepared using plasma inert gas phase condensation technique. These were used as Raman active substrates for Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) studies of 19 standard L-amino acids adsorbed on the surface of Ag nanoclusters via Agsbnd N bonds. A detailed study of two essential aromatic amino acids viz. L-Phenylalanine and L-Tryptophan showed a correlation between the Raman intensity of the characteristic lines of phenol and indole side chains and their molar concentrations in the range 1 μM-1 mM. This indicates that Raman studies can be used for quantitative determination of the amino acids in proteins.

  11. L-Amino Acids Elicit Diverse Response Patterns in Taste Sensory Cells: A Role for Multiple Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Pal Choudhuri, Shreoshi; Delay, Rona J.; Delay, Eugene R.

    2015-01-01

    Umami, the fifth basic taste, is elicited by the L-amino acid, glutamate. A unique characteristic of umami taste is the response potentiation by 5’ ribonucleotide monophosphates, which are also capable of eliciting an umami taste. Initial reports using human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells suggested that there is one broadly tuned receptor heterodimer, T1r1+T1r3, which detects L-glutamate and all other L-amino acids. However, there is growing evidence that multiple receptors detect glutamate in the oral cavity. While much is understood about glutamate transduction, the mechanisms for detecting the tastes of other L-amino acids are less well understood. We used calcium imaging of isolated taste sensory cells and taste cell clusters from the circumvallate and foliate papillae of C57BL/6J and T1r3 knockout mice to determine if other receptors might also be involved in detection of L-amino acids. Ratiometric imaging with Fura-2 was used to study calcium responses to monopotassium L-glutamate, L-serine, L-arginine, and L-glutamine, with and without inosine 5’ monophosphate (IMP). The results of these experiments showed that the response patterns elicited by L-amino acids varied significantly across taste sensory cells. L-amino acids other than glutamate also elicited synergistic responses in a subset of taste sensory cells. Along with its role in synergism, IMP alone elicited a response in a large number of taste sensory cells. Our data indicate that synergistic and non-synergistic responses to L-amino acids and IMP are mediated by multiple receptors or possibly a receptor complex. PMID:26110622

  12. Aldolase as a Chirality Intersection of L-Amino Acids and D-Sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munegumi, Toratane

    2015-06-01

    Aldolase plays an important role in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis to produce D-fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (D-FBP) from dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHP) and D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (D-GAP). This reaction is stereoselective and retains the D-GAP 2R configuration and yields D-FBP (with the configuration: 3S, 4S, 5R). The 3- and 4-position carbons are the newly formed chiral carbons because the 5-position carbon of D-FBP comes from the 2-position of D-GAP. Although four diastereomeric products, ( 3S, 4R, 5R), ( 3R, 4R, 5R), ( 3R, 4S, 5R), ( 3S, 4S, 5R), are expected in the nonenzymatic reaction, only the ( 3S, 4S, 5R) diastereomer (D-FBP) is obtained. Therefore, the chirality in the 3- and 4-positions is induced by the chirality of the enzyme composed of L-amino acid residues. D-Glucose-6-phosphate (D-G6P), which is generated from D-FBP in the gluconeogenesis pathway, produces D-ribose-5-phosphate (D-R5P) in the pentose phosphate pathway. D-R5P is converted to PRPP (5-phosphoribosyl-α-pyrophosphate), which is used for the de novo synthesis of nucleotides. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) uses the nucleotides as building blocks. The configurations of the 4R-carbon and of the 3S-carbon are retained. The stereochemical structure of RNA is based on 3S as well as 4R (D). The consideration above suggests that aldolase is a key enzyme that determines the 3S configuration in D-R5P. It is thus a chirality intersection between amino acids and sugars, because the sugar chirality is determined by the chiral environment of an L-amino acid protein, aldolase, to produce D-FBP.

  13. OPHIDIAN L-AMINO ACID OXIDASE. THE NATURE OF THE ENZYME-SUBSTRATE COMPLEXES.

    PubMed

    ZELLER, E A; RAMACHANDER, G; FLEISHER, G A; ISHIMARU, T; ZELLER, V

    1965-04-01

    1. To investigate the kinetics of ophidian l-amino acid oxidase, V and K(m) were determined for phenylalanines that were substituted in every ring position with groups of various size and reactivity, and for a few ring-substituted tryptophans and histidines. The venom of one representative from each of three major classes of poisonous snakes, Naja melanoleuca, Vipera russelli and Crotalus adamanteus, served as a source of the ophidian l-amino acid oxidase. Both crude and crystalline enzyme from the venom of C. adamanteus were tested. 2. The introduction of a benzene ring into glycine and alanine caused some increase of V and a very marked depression of K(m). 3. With the exception of fluorine, residues in the ortho position of phenylalanine led to a decrease of V. The rates induced by various substitutions follow the pattern: meta >/= para >/= ortho. Within the halogen series, the effects become more pronounced with increasing atomic number. 4. Ring substitution in heterocyclic amino acids also affected the V values markedly. For methyl-substituted tryptophans the pattern was: 5-methyl >/= 6-methyl >/= 4-methyl. In a few instances ring substitution accounts for a considerable elevation of V, as shown for beta-quinol-4-ylalanine and its 6-methoxy derivative. 5. The kinetic constants appear to be unaffected by relatively high concentrations of the corresponding d-amino acids. 6. A general principle that permits a uniform interpretation of a vast body of information is suggested. It is based on the assumption that most substrates form not only eutopic but also dystopic complexes with the enzyme. The latter, in contrast with the former, do not permit the formation of reaction products. K values for eutopic and dystopic complexes are computed. Similar concepts have been presented to elucidate the action of alpha-chymotrypsin (Hein & Niemann, 1962) and of monoamine oxidase.

  14. Aromatic L-Amino Acid Decarboxylase (AADC) Is Crucial for Brain Development and Motor Functions

    PubMed Central

    Shih, De-Fen; Hsiao, Chung-Der; Min, Ming-Yuan; Lai, Wen-Sung; Yang, Chianne-Wen; Lee, Wang-Tso; Lee, Shyh-Jye

    2013-01-01

    Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is a rare pediatric neuro-metabolic disease in children. Due to the lack of an animal model, its pathogenetic mechanism is poorly understood. To study the role of AADC in brain development, a zebrafish model of AADC deficiency was generated. We identified an aadc gene homolog, dopa decarboxylase (ddc), in the zebrafish genome. Whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis showed that the ddc gene is expressed in the epiphysis, locus caeruleus, diencephalic catecholaminergic clusters, and raphe nuclei of 36-h post-fertilization (hpf) zebrafish embryos. Inhibition of Ddc by AADC inhibitor NSD-1015 or anti-sense morpholino oligonucleotides (MO) reduced brain volume and body length. We observed increased brain cell apoptosis and loss of dipencephalic catecholaminergic cluster neurons in ddc morphants (ddc MO-injected embryos). Seizure-like activity was also detected in ddc morphants in a dose-dependent manner. ddc morphants had less sensitive touch response and impaired swimming activity that could be rescued by injection of ddc plasmids. In addition, eye movement was also significantly impaired in ddc morphants. Collectively, loss of Ddc appears to result in similar phenotypes as that of ADCC deficiency, thus zebrafish could be a good model for investigating pathogenetic mechanisms of AADC deficiency in children. PMID:23940784

  15. Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) is crucial for brain development and motor functions.

    PubMed

    Shih, De-Fen; Hsiao, Chung-Der; Min, Ming-Yuan; Lai, Wen-Sung; Yang, Chianne-Wen; Lee, Wang-Tso; Lee, Shyh-Jye

    2013-01-01

    Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is a rare pediatric neuro-metabolic disease in children. Due to the lack of an animal model, its pathogenetic mechanism is poorly understood. To study the role of AADC in brain development, a zebrafish model of AADC deficiency was generated. We identified an aadc gene homolog, dopa decarboxylase (ddc), in the zebrafish genome. Whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis showed that the ddc gene is expressed in the epiphysis, locus caeruleus, diencephalic catecholaminergic clusters, and raphe nuclei of 36-h post-fertilization (hpf) zebrafish embryos. Inhibition of Ddc by AADC inhibitor NSD-1015 or anti-sense morpholino oligonucleotides (MO) reduced brain volume and body length. We observed increased brain cell apoptosis and loss of dipencephalic catecholaminergic cluster neurons in ddc morphants (ddc MO-injected embryos). Seizure-like activity was also detected in ddc morphants in a dose-dependent manner. ddc morphants had less sensitive touch response and impaired swimming activity that could be rescued by injection of ddc plasmids. In addition, eye movement was also significantly impaired in ddc morphants. Collectively, loss of Ddc appears to result in similar phenotypes as that of ADCC deficiency, thus zebrafish could be a good model for investigating pathogenetic mechanisms of AADC deficiency in children.

  16. Cloning and characterization of the gene for L-amino acid oxidase in hybrid tilapia.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yubang; Fu, Gui Hong; Liu, Feng; Yue, Gen Hua

    2015-12-01

    Tilapia is the common name for a group of cichlid fishes. Identification of DNA markers significantly associated with important traits in candidate genes may speed up genetic improvement. L-Amino acid oxidase (LAO) plays a crucial role in the innate immune defences of animals. Previously, whether LAO variants were associated with economic traits had not been studied in fish. We characterized the cDNA sequence of the LAO gene of hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp.). Its ORF was 1536 bp, encoding a flavoenzyme of 511 amino acids. This gene consisted of seven exons and six introns. Its expression was detected in the intestine, blood, kidney, skin, liver. It was highly expressed in the intestine. After a challenge with a bacterial pathogen, Streptococcus agalactiae, its expression was up-regulated significantly in the liver, intestine and spleen (P < 0.05). We identified one SNP in the genomic sequence of the gene and found that this SNP was associated significantly with body length (P < 0.05), but not with resistance to S. agalactiae. The results of this study suggest that the LAO gene plays an important role in innate immune responses to the bacterial pathogen in tilapia. The investigation of relationship between polymorphism of LAO gene and disease resistance and growth in tilapia showed that one SNP was associated significantly with body length. Further experiments on whether SNPs in the LAO gene are associated with growth in tilapia and other populations could be useful in understanding more functions of the LAO gene.

  17. Mapping of human autoantibody epitopes on aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Candeloro, Paola; Voltattorni, Carla Borri; Perniola, Roberto; Bertoldi, Mariarita; Betterle, Corrado; Mannelli, Massimo; Giordano, Roberta; De Bellis, Annamaria; Tiberti, Claudio; Laureti, Stefano; Santeusanio, Fausto; Falorni, Alberto

    2007-03-01

    Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) is target of autoantibodies in autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome I (APS I), especially in patients with autoimmune hepatitis. Little information is currently available on AADC autoantibody epitopes and on the interrelation between autoantibody-mediated inhibition of enzymatic activity and epitope specificity. We tested the immunoreactivity of full-length porcine AADC and of eight fragments of the enzyme with human serum from 18 patients with APS I, 199 with non-APS I autoimmune Addison's disease, 124 with type 1 diabetes mellitus, 36 with Graves' disease, and 141 healthy control subjects, and we evaluated the autoantibody-mediated enzymatic inhibition. AADC antibodies (Ab) were detected in 12 of 18 (67%) APS I patients and in six of 199 (3%) autoimmune Addison's disease patients. Four patients with autoimmune hepatitis were all positive for AADCAb. None of the 141 healthy control subjects, 82 patients with nonautoimmune adrenal insufficiency, 124 with type 1 diabetes mellitus, and 36 with Graves' disease were found positive. Two epitope regions, corresponding to amino acids 274-299 (E1) and 380-471 (E2) were identified. Localization of E1 was confirmed by displacement studies with synthetic peptides corresponding to peptides of porcine AADC. All 12 AADCAb-positive APS I sera reacted with E1, and seven of 12 (58%) reacted also with E2. E2-specific, but not E1-specific, autoantibodies were associated with a significant inhibition of in vitro AADC enzymatic activity. We mapped the human AADCAb epitopes to the middle and COOH-terminal regions of the enzyme. Autoantibodies to the COOH-terminal region induce a significant inhibition of enzymatic activity.

  18. Antiproliferative activity of king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom L-amino acid oxidase.

    PubMed

    Li Lee, Mui; Chung, Ivy; Yee Fung, Shin; Kanthimathi, M S; Hong Tan, Nget

    2014-04-01

    King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO), a heat-stable enzyme, is an extremely potent antiproliferative agent against cancer cells when compared with LAAO isolated from other snake venoms. King cobra venom LAAO was shown to exhibit very strong antiproliferative activities against MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) and A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma) cells, with an IC50 value of 0.04±0.00 and 0.05±0.00 μg/mL, respectively, after 72-hr treatment. In comparison, its cytotoxicity was about 3-4 times lower when tested against human non-tumourigenic breast (184B5) and lung (NL 20) cells, suggesting selective antitumour activity. Furthermore, its potency in MCF-7 and A549 cell lines was greater than the effects of doxorubicin, a clinically established cancer chemotherapeutic agent, which showed an IC50 value of 0.18±0.03 and 0.63±0.21 μg/mL, respectively, against the two cell lines. The selective cytotoxic action of the LAAO was confirmed by phycoerythrin (PE) annexin V/7-amino-actinomycin (AAD) apoptotic assay, in which a significant increase in apoptotic cells was observed in LAAO-treated tumour cells than in their non-tumourigenic counterparts. The ability of LAAO to induce apoptosis in tumour cells was further demonstrated using caspase-3/7 and DNA fragmentation assays. We also determined that this enzyme may target oxidative stress in its killing of tumour cells, as its cytotoxicity was significantly reduced in the presence of catalase (a H2O2 scavenger). In view of its heat stability and selective and potent cytotoxic action on cancer cells, king cobra venom LAAO can be potentially developed for treating solid tumours. © 2013 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  19. Expression and functional characterisation of System L amino acid transporters in the human term placenta.

    PubMed

    Gaccioli, Francesca; Aye, Irving L M H; Roos, Sara; Lager, Susanne; Ramirez, Vanessa I; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2015-06-09

    System L transporters LAT1 (SLC7A5) and LAT2 (SLC7A8) mediate the uptake of large, neutral amino acids in the human placenta. Many System L substrates are essential amino acids, thus representing crucial nutrients for the growing fetus. Both LAT isoforms are expressed in the human placenta, but the relative contribution of LAT1 and LAT2 to placental System L transport and their subcellular localisation are not well established. Moreover, the influence of maternal body mass index (BMI) on placental System L amino acid transport is poorly understood. Therefore the aims of this study were to determine: i) the relative contribution of the LAT isoforms to System L transport activity in primary human trophoblast (PHT) cells isolated from term placenta; ii) the subcellular localisation of LAT transporters in human placenta; and iii) placental expression and activity of System L transporters in response to maternal overweight/obesity. System L mediated leucine uptake was measured in PHT cells after treatment with si-RNA targeting LAT1 and/or LAT2. The localisation of LAT isoforms was studied in isolated microvillous plasma membranes (MVM) and basal membranes (BM) by Western blot analysis. Results were confirmed by immunohistochemistry in sections of human term placenta. Expression and activity System L transporters was measured in isolated MVM from women with varying pre-pregnancy BMI. Both LAT1 and LAT2 isoforms contribute to System L transport activity in primary trophoblast cells from human term placenta. LAT1 and LAT2 transporters are highly expressed in the MVM of the syncytiotrophoblast layer at term. LAT2 is also localised in the basal membrane and in endothelial cells lining the fetal capillaries. Measurements in isolated MVM vesicles indicate that System L transporter expression and activity is not influenced by maternal BMI. LAT1 and LAT2 are present and functional in the syncytiotrophoblast MVM, whereas LAT2 is also expressed in the BM and in the fetal capillary

  20. Autoantibodies to human tryptophan hydroxylase and aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Dal Pra, Chiara; Chen, Shu; Betterle, Corrado; Zanchetta, Renato; McGrath, Vivienne; Furmaniak, Jadwiga; Rees Smith, Bernard

    2004-03-01

    To assess the prevalence of autoantibodies (Abs) to tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) and aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) in patients with different autoimmune diseases and to analyse their respective epitopes. TPH and AADC Abs were measured in an immunoprecipitation assay using (35)S-labelled full-length and fragments of TPH and AADC. Patients with different autoimmune adrenal diseases (n=84), non-adrenal autoimmune diseases (n=37), idiopathic vitiligo (n=8) and 56 healthy blood donors were studied. Fourteen of twenty-three (61%) of patients with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) type I and 1/34 (3%) of patients with isolated Addison's disease (AD) were positive for TPH Abs. None of the patients with APS type II (n=27), coeliac disease (n=10), autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) (n=11), type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) (n=16) or idiopathic vitiligo (n=8) was positive for TPH Abs. AADC Abs were detected in 12/23 (52%) patients with APS type I, in 1/29 (3%) patients with APS type II and 1/34 (3%) patients with isolated AD. None of the patients with coeliac disease, type 1 DM, AITD or idiopathic vitiligo was positive for AADC Abs. TPH Abs were found to interact with the C-terminal amino acids (aa) 308-423, central aa 164-205 and N-terminal aa 1-105 of the TPH molecule. AADC Ab binding epitopes were within the C-terminal aa 382-483, the central aa 243-381 and the N-terminal aa 1-167. Our study suggests that TPH Abs and AADC Abs react with several different epitopes and that different epitopes are recognized by different sera. The prevalence of TPH Abs and AADC Abs in patients with APS type I in our study is in agreement with previous reports. TPH Abs and AADC Abs were found very rarely in patients with other forms of autoimmune adrenal disease and were not detected in patients with non-adrenal autoimmune diseases.

  1. Ligand complex structures of l-amino acid oxidase/monooxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. AIU 813 and its conformational change.

    PubMed

    Im, Dohyun; Matsui, Daisuke; Arakawa, Takatoshi; Isobe, Kimiyasu; Asano, Yasuhisa; Fushinobu, Shinya

    2018-03-01

    l-Amino acid oxidase/monooxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. AIU 813 (l-AAO/MOG) catalyzes both the oxidative deamination and oxidative decarboxylation of the α-group of l-Lys to produce a keto acid and amide, respectively. l-AAO/MOG exhibits limited specificity for l-amino acid substrates with a basic side chain. We previously determined its ligand-free crystal structure and identified a key residue for maintaining the dual activities. Here, we determined the structures of l-AAO/MOG complexed with l-Lys, l-ornithine, and l-Arg and revealed its substrate recognition. Asp238 is located at the ceiling of a long hydrophobic pocket and forms a strong interaction with the terminal, positively charged group of the substrates. A mutational analysis on the D238A mutant indicated that the interaction is critical for substrate binding but not for catalytic control between the oxidase/monooxygenase activities. The catalytic activities of the D238E mutant unexpectedly increased, while the D238F mutant exhibited altered substrate specificity to long hydrophobic substrates. In the ligand-free structure, there are two channels connecting the active site and solvent, and a short region located at the dimer interface is disordered. In the l-Lys complex structure, a loop region is displaced to plug the channels. Moreover, the disordered region in the ligand-free structure forms a short helix in the substrate complex structures and creates the second binding site for the substrate. It is assumed that the amino acid substrate enters the active site of l-AAO/MOG through this route. The atomic coordinates and structure factors (codes 5YB6, 5YB7, and 5YB8) have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank (http://wwpdb.org/). 1.4.3.2 (l-amino acid oxidase), 1.13.12.2 (lysine 2-monooxygenase).

  2. Influence of l-amino acids on aggregation and biofilm formation in Azotobacter chroococcum and Trichoderma viride.

    PubMed

    Velmourougane, K; Prasanna, R

    2017-10-01

    The effects of l-amino acids on growth and biofilm formation in Azotobacter chroococcum (Az) and Trichoderma viride (Tv) as single (Az, Tv) and staggered inoculated cultures (Az-Tv, Tv-Az) were investigated. A preliminary study using a set of 20 l-amino acids, identified 6 amino acids (l-Glu, l-Gln, l-His, l-Ser, l-Thr and l-Trp) which significantly enhanced growth and biofilm formation. Supplementation of these amino acids at different concentrations revealed that 40 mmol l -1 was most effective. l-Glu and l-Gln favoured planktonic growth in both single and in staggered inoculated cultures, while l-Trp and l-Thr, enhanced aggregation and biofilm formation. Addition of l-Glu or l-Gln increased carbohydrate content and planktonic population. Principal component analysis revealed the significant role of proteins in growth and biofilm formation, particularly with supplementation of l-Trp, l-Thr and l-Ser. Azotobacter was found to function better as biofilm under staggered inoculated culture with Trichoderma. The results illustrate that amino acids play crucial roles in microbial biofilm formation, by influencing growth, aggregation and carbohydrates synthesized. The differential and specific roles of amino acids on biofilm formation are of significance for agriculturally important micro-organisms that grow as biofilms, colonize and benefit the plants more effectively. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Novel L-amino acid oxidase with algicidal activity against toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa synthesized by a bacterium Aquimarina sp.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen Ming; Sheu, Fu Sian; Sheu, Shih Yi

    2011-09-10

    A brownish yellow pigmented bacterial strain, designated antisso-27, was recently isolated from a water area of saltpan in Southern Taiwan. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicate that strain antisso-27 belongs the genus Aquimarina in the family Flavobacteriacea and its only closest neighbor is Aquimarina spongiae (96.6%). Based on screening for algicidal activity, strain antisso-27 exhibits potent activity against the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Both the strain antisso-27 bacterial culture and its culture filtrate show algicidal activity against the toxic cyanobacterium, indicating that an algicidal substance is released from strain antisso-27. The algicidal activity of strain antisso-27 occurs during the late stationary phase of bacterial growth. Strain antisso-27 can synthesize an algicidal protein with a molecular mass of 190 kDa, and its isoelectric point is approximately 9.4. This study explores the nature of this algicidal protein such as L-amino acid oxidase with broad substrate specificity. The enzyme is most active with L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-methionine and L-valine and the hydrogen peroxide generated by its catalysis mediates algicidal activity. This is the first report on an Aquimarina strain algicidal to the toxic M. aeruginosa and the algicidal activity is generated through its enzymatic activity of L-amino acid oxidase. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Crystal Structure of a Novel N-Substituted L-Amino Acid Dioxygenase from Burkholderia ambifaria AMMD

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Hui-Min; Miyakawa, Takuya; Jia, Min Ze; Nakamura, Akira; Ohtsuka, Jun; Xue, You-Lin; Kawashima, Takashi; Kasahara, Takuya; Hibi, Makoto; Ogawa, Jun; Tanokura, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    A novel dioxygenase from Burkholderia ambifaria AMMD (SadA) stereoselectively catalyzes the C3-hydroxylation of N-substituted branched-chain or aromatic L-amino acids, especially N-succinyl-L-leucine, coupled with the conversion of α-ketoglutarate to succinate and CO2. To elucidate the structural basis of the substrate specificity and stereoselective hydroxylation, we determined the crystal structures of the SadA.Zn(II) and SadA.Zn(II).α-KG complexes at 1.77 Å and 1.98 Å resolutions, respectively. SadA adopted a double-stranded β-helix fold at the core of the structure. In addition, an HXD/EXnH motif in the active site coordinated a Zn(II) as a substitute for Fe(II). The α-KG molecule also coordinated Zn(II) in a bidentate manner via its 1-carboxylate and 2-oxo groups. Based on the SadA.Zn(II).α-KG structure and mutation analyses, we constructed substrate-binding models with N-succinyl-L-leucine and N-succinyl-L-phenylalanine, which provided new insight into the substrate specificity. The results will be useful for the rational design of SadA variants aimed at the recognition of various N-succinyl L-amino acids. PMID:23724013

  5. A novel L-amino acid oxidase from Trichoderma harzianum ETS 323 associated with antagonism of Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chia-Ann; Cheng, Chi-Hua; Lo, Chaur-Tsuen; Liu, Shu-Ying; Lee, Jeng-Woei; Peng, Kou-Cheng

    2011-05-11

    Trichoderma spp. are used as biocontrol agents against phytopathogens such as Rhizoctonia solani, but their biocontrol mechanisms are poorly understood. A novel L-amino oxidase (Th-LAAO) was identified from the extracellular proteins of Trichoderma harzianum ETS 323. Here, we show a FAD-binding glycoprotein with the best substrate specificity constant for L-phenylalanine. Although the amino acid sequence of Th-LAAO revealed limited homology (16-24%) to other LAAO members, a highly conserved FAD-binding motif was identified in the N-terminus. Th-LAAO was shown to be a homodimeric protein, but the monomeric form was predominant when grown in the presence of deactivated Rhizoctonia solani. Furthermore, in vitro assays demonstrated that Th-LAAO had an antagonistic effect against Rhizoctonia solani and a stimulatory one on hyphal density and sporulation in T. harzianum ETS 323. These findings further our understanding of T. harzianum as a biocontrol agent and provide insight into the biological function of l-amino acid oxidase.

  6. New Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase and Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors, Nalidixic Acid Linked to Isatin Schiff Bases via Certain l-Amino Acid Bridges.

    PubMed

    Naglah, Ahmed M; Ahmed, Atallah F; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Al-Omar, Mohamed A; Amr, Abd El-Galil E; Kalmouch, Atef

    2016-04-15

    A series of new Schiff bases were synthesized by condensation of isatins with the nalidixic acid-l-amino acid hydrazides. Prior to hydrazide formation, a peptide linkage has been prepared via coupling of nalidixic acid with appropriate l-amino acid methyl esters to yield 3a-c. The chemical structures of the new Schiff bases (5b and 5d-h) were confirmed by means of IR, NMR, mass spectroscopic, and elemental analyses. The anti-inflammatory activity of these Schiff bases was evaluated via measurement of the expressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells model. The Schiff bases exhibited significant dual inhibitory effect against the induction of the pro-inflammatory iNOS and COX-2 proteins with variable potencies. However, they strongly down-regulated the iNOS expression to the level of 16.5% ± 7.4%-42.2% ± 19.6% compared to the effect on COX-2 expression (<56.4% ± 3.1% inhibition) at the same concentration (10 μM). The higher iNOS inhibition activity of the tested Schiff bases, relative to that of COX-2, seems to be a reflection of the combined suppressive effects exerted by their nalidixic acid, isatins (4a-c), and l-amino acid moieties against iNOS expression. These synthesized nalidixic acid-l-amino acid-isatin conjugates can be regarded as a novel class of anti-inflammatory antibacterial agents.

  7. Absorption of N-phenylpropenoyl-L-amino acids in healthy humans by oral administration of cocoa (Theobroma cacao).

    PubMed

    Stark, Timo; Lang, Roman; Keller, Daniela; Hensel, Andreas; Hofmann, Thomas

    2008-10-01

    Besides flavan-3-ols, a family of N-phenylpropenoyl-L-amino acids (NPAs) has been recently identified as polyphenol/amino acid conjugates in the seeds of Theobroma cacao as well as in a variety of herbal drugs. Stimulated by reports on their biological activity, the purpose of this study was to investigate if these amides are absorbed by healthy volunteers after administration of a cocoa drink. For the first time, 12 NPAs were quantified in human urine by means of a stable isotope dilution analysis with LC-MS/MS (MRM) detection. A maximum amount was found in the urine taken 2 h after the cocoa consumption. The highest absolute amount of NPAs excreted with the urine was found for N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-aspartic acid (5), but the highest recovery rate (57.3 and 22.8%), that means the percentage amount of ingested amides excreted with the urine, were determined for N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-glutamic acid (6) and N-[4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-tyrosine (13). In order to gain first insights into the NPA metabolism in vivo, urine samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS before and after beta-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment. As independent of the enzyme treatment the same NPA amounts were found in urine, there is strong evidence that these amides are metabolized neither via their O-glucuronides nor their O-sulfates. In order to screen for caffeic acid O-glucuronides as potential NPA metabolites, urine samples were screened by means of LC-MS/MS for caffeic acid 3-O-beta-D-glucuronide and 4-O-beta-D-glucuronide. But not even trace amounts of one of these glucuronides were detectable, thus excluding them as major NPA metabolites and underlining the importance of future investigations on a potential O-methylation or reduction of the N-phenylpropenoyl moiety in NPAs.

  8. Biochemical, biological and molecular characterization of an L-Amino acid oxidase (LAAO) purified from Bothrops pictus Peruvian snake venom.

    PubMed

    Lazo, Fanny; Vivas-Ruiz, Dan E; Sandoval, Gustavo A; Rodríguez, Edith F; Kozlova, Edgar E G; Costal-Oliveira, F; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos; Severino, Ruperto; Yarlequé, Armando; Sanchez, Eladio F

    2017-12-01

    An L-amino acid oxidase from Peruvian Bothrops pictus (Bpic-LAAO) snake venom was purified using a combination of size-exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography. Bpic-LAAO is a homodimeric glycosylated flavoprotein with molecular mass of ∼65 kDa under reducing conditions and ∼132 kDa in its native form as analyzed by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration chromatography, respectively. N-terminal amino acid sequencing showed highly conserved residues in a glutamine-rich motif related to binding substrate. The enzyme exhibited optimal activity towards L-Leu at pH 8.5, and like other reported SV-LAAOs, it is stable until 55 °C. Kinetic studies showed that the cations Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ and Mn 2+ did not alter Bpic-LAAO activity; however, Zn 2+ is an inhibitor. Some reagents such as β-mercaptoethanol, glutathione and iodoacetate had inhibitory effect on Bpic-LAAO activity, but PMSF, EDTA and glutamic acid did not affect its activity. Regarding the biological activities of Bpic-LAAO, this enzyme induced edema in mice (MED = 7.8 μg), and inhibited human platelet aggregation induced by ADP in a dose-dependent manner and showed antibacterial activity on Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria. Bpic-LAAO cDNA of 1494 bp codified a mature protein with 487 amino acid residues comprising a signal peptide of 11 amino acids. Finally, the phylogenetic tree obtained with other sequences of LAAOs, evidenced its similarity to other homologous enzymes, showing two well-established monophyletic groups in Viperidae and Elapidae families. Bpic-LAAO is evolutively close related to LAAOs from B. jararacussu, B. moojeni and B. atrox, and together with the LAAO from B. pauloensis, form a well-defined cluster of the Bothrops genus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. MipLAAO, a new L-amino acid oxidase from the redtail coral snake Micrurus mipartitus

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    L-amino acid oxidases (LAAOs) are ubiquitous enzymes in nature. Bioactivities described for these enzymes include apoptosis induction, edema formation, induction or inhibition of platelet aggregation, as well as antiviral, antiparasite, and antibacterial actions. With over 80 species, Micrurus snakes are the representatives of the Elapidae family in the New World. Although LAAOs in Micrurus venoms have been predicted by venom gland transcriptomic studies and detected in proteomic studies, no enzymes of this kind have been previously purified from their venoms. Earlier proteomic studies revealed that the venom of M. mipartitus from Colombia contains ∼4% of LAAO. This enzyme, here named MipLAAO, was isolated and biochemically and functionally characterized. The enzyme is found in monomeric form, with an isotope-averaged molecular mass of 59,100.6 Da, as determined by MALDI-TOF. Its oxidase activity shows substrate preference for hydrophobic amino acids, being optimal at pH 8.0. By nucleotide sequencing of venom gland cDNA of mRNA transcripts obtained from a single snake, six isoforms of MipLAAO with minor variations among them were retrieved. The deduced sequences present a mature chain of 483 amino acids, with a predicted pI of 8.9, and theoretical masses between 55,010.9 and 55,121.0 Da. The difference with experimentally observed mass is likely due to glycosylation, in agreement with the finding of three putative N-glycosylation sites in its amino acid sequence. A phylogenetic analysis of MmipLAAO placed this new enzyme within the clade of homologous proteins from elapid snakes, characterized by the conserved Serine at position 223, in contrast to LAAOs from viperids. MmipLAAO showed a potent bactericidal effect on S. aureus (MIC: 2 µg/mL), but not on E. coli. The former activity could be of interest to future studies assessing its potential as antimicrobial agent. PMID:29900074

  10. MipLAAO, a new L-amino acid oxidase from the redtail coral snake Micrurus mipartitus.

    PubMed

    Rey-Suárez, Paola; Acosta, Cristian; Torres, Uday; Saldarriaga-Córdoba, Mónica; Lomonte, Bruno; Núñez, Vitelbina

    2018-01-01

    L-amino acid oxidases (LAAOs) are ubiquitous enzymes in nature. Bioactivities described for these enzymes include apoptosis induction, edema formation, induction or inhibition of platelet aggregation, as well as antiviral, antiparasite, and antibacterial actions. With over 80 species, Micrurus snakes are the representatives of the Elapidae family in the New World. Although LAAOs in Micrurus venoms have been predicted by venom gland transcriptomic studies and detected in proteomic studies, no enzymes of this kind have been previously purified from their venoms. Earlier proteomic studies revealed that the venom of M. mipartitus from Colombia contains ∼4% of LAAO. This enzyme, here named MipLAAO, was isolated and biochemically and functionally characterized. The enzyme is found in monomeric form, with an isotope-averaged molecular mass of 59,100.6 Da, as determined by MALDI-TOF. Its oxidase activity shows substrate preference for hydrophobic amino acids, being optimal at pH 8.0. By nucleotide sequencing of venom gland cDNA of mRNA transcripts obtained from a single snake, six isoforms of MipLAAO with minor variations among them were retrieved. The deduced sequences present a mature chain of 483 amino acids, with a predicted pI of 8.9, and theoretical masses between 55,010.9 and 55,121.0 Da. The difference with experimentally observed mass is likely due to glycosylation, in agreement with the finding of three putative N-glycosylation sites in its amino acid sequence. A phylogenetic analysis of MmipLAAO placed this new enzyme within the clade of homologous proteins from elapid snakes, characterized by the conserved Serine at position 223, in contrast to LAAOs from viperids. MmipLAAO showed a potent bactericidal effect on S. aureus (MIC: 2 µg/mL), but not on E. coli . The former activity could be of interest to future studies assessing its potential as antimicrobial agent.

  11. Innate immune reactivity of the liver in rats fed a choline-deficient L-amino-acid-defined diet.

    PubMed

    Kawaratani, Hideto; Tsujimoto, Tatsuhiro; Kitazawa, Toshiyuki; Kitade, Mitsuteru; Yoshiji, Hitoshi; Uemura, Masahito; Fukui, Hiroshi

    2008-11-21

    To investigate the innate immune reactivity of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and CD14 in the liver of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model rats. Male F344 rats were fed a choline-deficient L-amino-acid-defined (CDAA) diet. The rats were killed after 4 or 8 wk of the diet, and their livers were removed for immunohistochemical investigation and RNA extraction. The liver specimens were immunostained for TNF-alpha, TLR4, and CD14. The gene expressions of TNF-alpha, TLR4, and CD14 were determined by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Kupffer cells were isolated from the liver by Percoll gradient centrifugation, and were then cultured to measure TNF-alpha production. The serum and liver levels of TNF-alpha in the CDAA-fed rats increased significantly as compared with the control group, as did the immunohistochemical values and gene expressions of TNF-alpha, TLR4, and CD14 with the progression of steatohepatitis. TNF-alpha production from the isolated Kupffer cells of the CDAA-fed rats was elevated by lipopolysaccharide stimulation. The expressions of TNF-alpha, TLR4, and CD14 increased in the NASH model, suggesting that TLR4 and CD14-mediated endotoxin liver damage may also occur in NASH.

  12. Molecular mechanism of cell death induced by king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom l-amino acid oxidase.

    PubMed

    Fung, Shin Yee; Lee, Mui Li; Tan, Nget Hong

    2015-03-01

    Snake venom LAAOs have been reported to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities, including cytotoxic, edema-inducing, platelet aggregation-inducing/platelet aggregation-inhibiting, bactericidal and antiviral activities. A heat-stable form of l-amino acid oxidase isolated from king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom (OH-LAAO) has been shown to exhibit very potent cytotoxicity against human tumorigenic cells but not in their non-tumorigenic counterparts, and the cytotoxicity was due to the apoptosis-inducing effect of the enzyme. In this work, the molecular mechanism of cell death induced by OH-LAAO was investigated. The enzyme exerts its apoptosis-inducing effect presumably via both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways as suggested by the increase in caspase-8 and -9 activities. Oligonucleotide microarray analysis showed that the expression of a total of 178 genes was significantly altered as a result of oxidative stress induced by the hydrogen peroxide generated by the enzyme. Of the 178 genes, at least 27 genes are involved in apoptosis and cell death. These alterations of gene expression was presumably caused by the direct cytotoxic effect of H2O2 generated during the enzymatic reaction, as well as the non-specific oxidative modifications of signaling molecules that eventually lead to apoptosis and cell death. The very substantial up-regulation of cytochrome P450 genes may also contribute to the potent cytotoxic action of OH-LAAO by producing excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS). In conclusion, the potent apoptosis inducing activity of OH-LAAO was likely due to the direct cytotoxic effect of H2O2 generated during the enzymatic reaction, as well as the non-specific oxidation of signalling molecules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Creation of Optically Pure Crystals from a Meso-Type Gold(I) Metalloligand with d- and l-Amino Acids: A Coordination Trick.

    PubMed

    Itai, Takuma; Kojima, Tatsuhiro; Kuwamura, Naoto; Konno, Takumi

    2017-11-21

    A unique example of a coordination system that creates optically pure crystals from a meso compound with d- and l-amino acids is reported. The 1:1 reaction of a newly prepared meso digold(I) complex, [Au 2 (dcpe)(d-Hpen)(l-Hpen)] ([H 2 1]), with Co(OAc) 2 under aerobic conditions yielded a cationic Au I 2 Co III trinuclear complex, [Au 2 Co(dcpe)(d-pen)(l-pen)] + [2] + , in which [1] 2- acts as a hexadentate-N 2 ,O 2 ,S 2 metalloligand to a Co III center. Similar reactions with M(OAc) 2 (M=Ni and Zn) produced analogous but neutral Au I 2 M II complexes, [Au 2 M(dcpe)(d-pen)(l-pen)] ([3 M ]). Complexes [2] + and [3 M ] are chiral (C vs. A) at the octahedral Co III and M II centers due to the arrangement of the N 2 ,O 2 ,S 2 donor set. In addition, through spontaneous resolution, [3 M ] gave optically pure C-[3 M ] and A-[3 M ] crystals, showing the creation of homochirality from meso-[1] 2- and achiral M 2+ through crystallization. Such a phenomenon was not observed for [2] + , which gave a racemic compound containing both C-[2] + and A-[2] + . © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Amino Acid Metabolism in Acute Renal Failure: Influence of Intravenous Essential L-Amino Acid Hyperalimentation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Abel, Ronald M.; Shih, Vivian E.; Abbott, William M.; Beck, Clyde H.; Fischer, Josef E.

    1974-01-01

    A solution of 8 essential I-amino acids and hypertonic dextrose was administered to 5 patients in acute postoperative renal failure in a program of hyperalimentation designed to decrease the patient's catabolic state and to accrue certain metabolic benefits. A sixth patient receiving intravenous glucose alone served as a control. The pretreatment plasma concentrations of amino acids in all 6 patients did not differ significantly from normal; following intravenous essential amino acids at a dose of approximately 12.6 gm/24 hours, no significant elevations out of the normal range of these substances occurred. Since urinary excretion rates did not dramatically increase, urinary loss was excluded as a possible cause for the failure of increase of plasma concentrations. The results suggest that the administration of an intravenous solution of 1-amino acids and hypertonic dextrose is associated with rapid clearance from the blood of these substances and, with a failure of increased urinary excretion, indirect evidence of amino acid utilization for protein synthesis has been obtained. Histidine supplementation in patients with acute renal failure is probably unnecessary based on the lack of significant decreases in histidine concentrations in these patients. PMID:4850497

  15. In-Gel Determination of L-Amino Acid Oxidase Activity Based on the Visualization of Prussian Blue-Forming Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ning; Zhao, Chuntian

    2013-01-01

    L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) is attracting increasing attention due to its important functions. Diverse detection methods with their own properties have been developed for characterization of LAAO. In the present study, a simple, rapid, sensitive, cost-effective and reproducible method for quantitative in-gel determination of LAAO activity based on the visualization of Prussian blue-forming reaction is described. Coupled with SDS-PAGE, this Prussian blue agar assay can be directly used to determine the numbers and approximate molecular weights of LAAO in one step, allowing straightforward application for purification and sequence identification of LAAO from diverse samples. PMID:23383337

  16. Construction of chiral ligand exchange capillary electrochromatography for d,l-amino acids enantioseparation and its application in glutaminase kinetics study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liping; Qiao, Juan; Zhang, Ke; Li, Dan; Zhang, Hongyi; Qi, Li

    2018-05-04

    A chiral ligand exchange capillary electrochromatography (CLE-CEC) protocol was designed and implemented for d,l-amino acids enantioseparation with poly(maleic anhydride-styrene-methacryloyl-l-arginine methyl ester) as the coating. The block copolymer was synthesized through the reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer reaction. In the constructed CLE-CEC system, poly (methacryloyl-l-arginine methyl ester) moiety of the block copolymer played the role as the immobilized chiral ligand and Zn (II) was used as the central ion. Key factors, including pH of buffer solution, ratio of Zn (II) to ligands, the mass ratio of monomers in the block copolymer, which affect the enantioresolution were investigated. Comparing with the bare capillary, the CLE-CEC enantioresolution was enhanced greatly with the coating one. 5 Pairs of d,l-amino acids enantiomers obtained baseline separation with 5 pairs partly separated. The mechanism of enhancement enantioresolution of the developed CLE-CEC system was explored briefly. Further, good linearities were achieved in the range of 25.0 μM-5.0 mM for quantitative analysis of d-glutamine (r 2  = 0.997) and l-glutamine (r 2  = 0.991). Moreover, the proposed CLE-CEC assay was successfully applied in the kinetics study of glutaminase by using l-glutamine as the substrate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Bacterial Growth, Necromass Turnover, And Endospore Abundance In The Deep Subseafloor Sediments Of The Greenland Shelf Using D:L Amino Acid Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhatre, S. S.; Braun, S.; Jaussi, M.; Røy, H.; Jørgensen, B. B.; Lomstein, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    The subsurface realm is colonized by a large number of microorganisms- about 3 × 1029. Microbial cells in these very stable and oligotrophic settings catabolize at a much slower rate than model organisms in nutrient rich cultures. The aim of this work was to use recently developed D:L-amino acid racemization model for studying the turnover times of microbial biomass and microbial necromass in a ~12,000 years old Greenland shelf marine sediment samples. Sediments were analyzed for total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA), the bacterial endospore marker dipicolinic acid (DPA), and amino acid enantiomers of aspartic acid. The percentage amino acid carbon content (%TAAC) and the percentage amino acid nitrogen content (%TAAN) were used for determining the degradation state of the organic matter. Endospores quantified using DPA quantification method were found to be as abundant as vegetative cells. The microbial necromass turnover times were thousand years, and biomass turnover times were in the range of tens to hundred years. Studies with deeper sediment cores will further improve our understanding of the energetic limits of life in the deep biosphere.

  18. Production of phenylpyruvic acid from L-phenylalanine using an L-amino acid deaminase from Proteus mirabilis: comparison of enzymatic and whole-cell biotransformation approaches.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ying; Hossain, Gazi Sakir; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Liu, Long; Du, Guocheng

    2015-10-01

    Phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) is an important organic acid that has a wide range of applications. In this study, the membrane-bound L-amino acid deaminase (L-AAD) gene from Proteus mirabilis KCTC 2566 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and then the L-AAD was purified. After that, we used the purified enzyme and the recombinant E. coli whole-cell biocatalyst to produce PPA via a one-step biotransformation from L-phenylalanine. L-AAD was solubilized from the membrane and purified 52-fold with an overall yield of 13 %, which corresponded to a specific activity of 0.94 ± 0.01 μmol PPA min(-1)·mg(-1). Then, the biotransformation conditions for the pure enzyme and the whole-cell biocatalyst were optimized. The maximal production was 2.6 ± 0.1 g·L(-1) (specific activity of 1.02 ± 0.02 μmol PPA min(-1)·mg(-1) protein, 86.7 ± 5 % mass conversion rate, and 1.04 g·L(-1)·h(-1) productivity) and 3.3 ± 0.2 g L(-1) (specific activity of 0.013 ± 0.003 μmol PPA min(-1)·mg(-1) protein, 82.5 ± 4 % mass conversion rate, and 0.55 g·L(-1)·h(-1) productivity) for the pure enzyme and whole-cell biocatalyst, respectively. Comparative studies of the enzymatic and whole-cell biotransformation were performed in terms of specific activity, production, conversion, productivity, stability, need of external cofactors, and recycling. We have developed two eco-friendly and efficient approaches for PPA production. The strategy described herein may aid the biotransformational synthesis of other α-keto acids from their corresponding amino acids.

  19. Telmisartan prevents hepatic fibrosis and enzyme-altered lesions in liver cirrhosis rat induced by a choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined diet.

    PubMed

    Jin, Haiyan; Yamamoto, Naoki; Uchida, Koichi; Terai, Shuji; Sakaida, Isao

    2007-12-28

    Rennin-angiotensin system is involved in liver fibrogenesis through activating hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Telmisartan (Tel) is an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, could function as a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activator. Here we studied the effect of Tel on liver fibrosis, pre-neoplastic lesions in vivo and primary HSCs in vitro. In vivo study, we used the choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined (CDAA)-diet induced rat NASH model. The rats were fed the CDAA diet for 8 weeks to induce liver fibrosis and pre-neoplastic lesions, and then co-administrated with Tel for another 10 weeks. Tel prevented liver fibrogenesis and pre-neoplastic lesions by down-regulating TGFbeta1 and TIMP-1, 2 and increasing MMP-13 expression. Tel inhibited HSCs activation and proliferation. These results suggested that Tel could be a promising drug for NASH related liver fibrosis.

  20. Sustainable and Continuous Synthesis of Enantiopure l-Amino Acids by Using a Versatile Immobilised Multienzyme System.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Lozano, Susana; da Silva, Eunice S; Llop, Jordi; López-Gallego, Fernando

    2018-02-16

    The enzymatic synthesis of α-amino acids is a sustainable and efficient alternative to chemical processes, through which achieving enantiopure products is difficult. To more address this synthesis efficiently, a hierarchical architecture that irreversibly co-immobilises an amino acid dehydrogenase with polyethyleneimine on porous agarose beads has been designed and fabricated. The cationic polymer acts as an irreversible anchoring layer for the formate dehydrogenase. In this architecture, the two enzymes and polymer colocalise across the whole microstructure of the porous carrier. This multifunctional heterogeneous biocatalyst was kinetically characterised and applied to the enantioselective synthesis of a variety of canonical and noncanonical α-amino acids in both discontinuous (batch) and continuous modes. The co-immobilised bienzymatic system conserves more than 50 % of its initial effectiveness after five batch cycles and 8 days of continuous operation. Additionally, the environmental impact of this process has been semiquantitatively calculated and compared with the state of the art. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. D:L-Amino Acid Modeling Reveals Fast Microbial Turnover of Days to Months in the Subsurface Hydrothermal Sediment of Guaymas Basin.

    PubMed

    Møller, Mikkel H; Glombitza, Clemens; Lever, Mark A; Deng, Longhui; Morono, Yuki; Inagaki, Fumio; Doll, Mechthild; Su, Chin-Chia; Lomstein, Bente A

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the impact of temperature on the microbial turnover of organic matter (OM) in a hydrothermal vent system in Guaymas Basin, by calculating microbial bio- and necromass turnover times based on the culture-independent D:L-amino acid model. Sediments were recovered from two stations near hydrothermal mounds (<74°C) and from one cold station (<9°C). Cell abundance at the two hydrothermal stations dropped from 10 8 to 10 6 cells cm -3 within ∼5 m of sediment depth resulting in a 100-fold lower cell number at this depth than at the cold site where numbers remained constant at 10 8 cells cm -3 throughout the recovered sediment. There were strong indications that the drop in cell abundance was controlled by decreasing OM quality. The quality of the sedimentary OM was determined by the diagenetic indicators %T AA C (percentage of total organic carbon present as amino acid carbon), %T AA N (percentage of total nitrogen present as amino acid nitrogen), aspartic acid:β-alanine ratios, and glutamic acid:γ-amino butyric acid ratios. All parameters indicated that the OM became progressively degraded with increasing sediment depth, and the OM in the hydrothermal sediment was more degraded than in the uniformly cold sediment. Nonetheless, the small community of microorganisms in the hydrothermal sediment demonstrated short turnover times. The modeled turnover times of microbial bio- and necromass in the hydrothermal sediments were notably faster (biomass: days to months; necromass: up to a few hundred years) than in the cold sediments (biomass: tens of years; necromass: thousands of years), suggesting that temperature has a significant influence on the microbial turnover rates. We suggest that short biomass turnover times are necessary for maintance of essential cell funtions and to overcome potential damage caused by the increased temperature.The reduced OM quality at the hyrothemal sites might thus only allow for a small population size of microorganisms.

  2. Cytotoxic, Anti-Proliferative and Apoptosis Activity of l-Amino Acid Oxidase from Malaysian Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus (CP-LAAO) Venom on Human Colon Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Zainal Abidin, Syafiq Asnawi; Rajadurai, Pathmanathan; Hoque Chowdhury, Md Ezharul; Othman, Iekhsan; Naidu, Rakesh

    2018-06-08

    The aim of this study is to investigate the potential anti-cancer activity of l-amino acid oxidase (CP-LAAO) purified from the venom of Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus on SW480 and SW620 human colon cancer cells. Mass spectrometry guided purification was able to identify and purify CP-LAAO. Amino acid variations identified from the partial protein sequence of CP-LAAO may suggest novel variants of these proteins. The activity of the purified CP-LAAO was confirmed with o-phenyldiamine (OPD)-based spectrophotometric assay. CP-LAAO demonstrated time- and dose-dependent cytotoxic activity and the EC 50 value was determined at 13 µg/mL for both SW480 and SW620 cells. Significant increase of caspase-3 activity, reduction of Bcl-2 levels, as well as morphological changes consistent with apoptosis were demonstrated by CP-LAAO. Overall, these data provide evidence on the potential anti-cancer activity of CP-LAAO from the venom of Malaysian C. purpureomaculatus for therapeutic intervention of human colon cancer.

  3. Infrared and Raman spectra of N-acetyl- L-amino acid methylamides with aromatic side groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Hiroatsu; Hasegawa, Kodo; Miyazawa, Tatsuo

    Infrared and Raman spectra of N-acetyl- L-phenylalanine methylamide, N-acetyl- L-tyrosine methylamide and N-acetyl- L-tryptophan methylamide, as model compounds of aromatic amino acid residues in proteins, were measured in the solid state and in methanol solutions. Vibrational assignments of the spectra were made by utilizing the deuteration effect and by comparison with the spectra of related compounds which include toluene, p-cresol and 3-methylindole. The amide I, III and IV bands were strong in Raman scattering, but other characteristic amide bands were ill-defined. In the Raman spectra of methanol solutions, only the bands due to the aromatic side group vibrations were markedly observed, but those due to the peptide backbone vibrations were very weak, suggesting the coexistence of various molecular conformations in solution.

  4. One-Pot Enzymatic Synthesis of D-Arylalanines Using Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase and L-Amino Acid Deaminase.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Longbao; Feng, Guoqiang; Ge, Fei; Song, Ping; Wang, Taotao; Liu, Yi; Tao, Yugui; Zhou, Zhemin

    2018-06-08

    The phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (AvPAL) from Anabaena variabilis catalyzes the amination of substituent trans-cinnamic acid (t-CA) to produce racemic D,L-enantiomer arylalanine mixture owing to its low stereoselectivity. To produce high optically pure D-arylalanine, a modified AvPAL with high D-selectivity is expected. Based on the analyses of catalytic mechanism and structure, the Asn347 residue in the active site was proposed to control stereoselectivity. Therefore, Asn347 was mutated to construct mutant AvPAL-N347A, the stereoselectivity of AvPAL-N347A for D-enantiomer arylalanine was 2.3-fold higher than that of wild-type AvPAL (WtPAL). Furthermore, the residual L-enantiomer product in reaction solution could be converted into the D-enantiomer product through stereoselective oxidation by PmLAAD and nonselective reduction by reducing agent NH 3 BH 3 . At optimal conditions, the conversion rate of t-CA and optical purity (enantiomeric excess (ee D )) of D-phenylalanine reached 82% and exceeded 99%, respectively. The two enzymes displayed activity toward a broad range of substrate and could be used to efficiently synthesize D-arylalanine with different groups on the phenyl ring. Among these D-arylalanines, the yield of m-nitro-D-phenylalanine was highest and reached 96%, and the ee D exceeded 99%. This one-pot synthesis using AvPAL and PmLAAD has prospects for industrial application.

  5. Role of Transmembrane Domain 8 in Substrate Selectivity and Translocation of SteT, a Member of the l-Amino Acid Transporter (LAT) Family*

    PubMed Central

    Bartoccioni, Paola; del Rio, César; Ratera, Merce; Kowalczyk, Lukasz; Baldwin, Jocelyn M.; Zorzano, Antonio; Quick, Matthias; Baldwin, Stephen A.; Vázquez-Ibar, José Luis; Palacín, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    System l-amino acid transporters (LAT) belong to the amino acid, polyamine, and organic cation superfamily of transporters and include the light subunits of heteromeric amino acid transporters and prokaryotic homologues. Cysteine reactivity of SteT (serine/threonine antiporter) has been used here to study the substrate-binding site of LAT transporters. Residue Cys-291, in transmembrane domain 8 (TM8), is inactivated by thiol reagents in a substrate protectable manner. Surprisingly, DTT activated the transporter by reducing residue Cys-291. Cysteine-scanning mutagenesis of TM8 showed DTT activation in the single-cysteine mutants S287C, G294C, and S298C, lining the same α-helical face. S-Thiolation in Escherichia coli cells resulted in complete inactivation of the single-cysteine mutant G294C. l-Serine blocked DTT activation with an EC50 similar to the apparent KM of this mutant. Thus, S-thiolation abolished substrate translocation but not substrate binding. Mutation of Lys-295, to Cys (K295C) broadened the profile of inhibitors and the spectrum of substrates with the exception of imino acids. A structural model of SteT based on the structural homologue AdiC (arginine/agmatine antiporter) positions residues Cys-291 and Lys-295 in the putative substrate binding pocket. All this suggests that Lys-295 is a main determinant in the recognition of the side chain of SteT substrates. In contrast, Gly-294 is not facing the surface, suggesting conformational changes involving TM8 during the transport cycle. Our results suggest that TM8 sculpts the substrate-binding site and undergoes conformational changes during the transport cycle of SteT. PMID:20610400

  6. Disturbance of DNA methylation patterns in the early phase of hepatocarcinogenesis induced by a choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kyoko; Onishi, Mariko; Sugata, Eriko; Sokuza, Yui; Mori, Chiharu; Nishikawa, Tomoki; Honoki, Kanya; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2007-09-01

    The authors investigated the DNA methylation patterns of the E-cadherin, Connexin 26 (Cx26), Rassf1a and c-fos genes in the early phase of rat hepatocarcinogenesis induced by a choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet. Six-week-old F344 male rats were continuously fed with the CDAA diet, and three animals were then killed at each of 4 and 8 days and 3 weeks. Genomic DNA was extracted from livers for assessment of methylation status in the 5' upstream regions of E-cadherin, Cx26, Rassf1a and c-fos genes by bisulfite sequencing, compared with normal livers. The livers of rats fed the CDAA diet for 4 and 8 days and 3 weeks were methylated in E-cadherin, Cx26 and Rassf1a genes, while normal livers were all unmethylated. In contrast, normal livers were highly methylated in c-fos gene. Although the livers at 4 days were weakly methylated, those at 8 days and 3 weeks were markedly unmethylated. Methylation patterns of CpG sites in E-cadherin, Cx26 and Rassf1a were sparse and the methylation was not associated with gene repression. These results indicate that gene-specific DNA methylation patterns were found in livers of rats after short-term feeding of the CDAA diet, suggesting gene-specific hypermethylation might be involved in the early phase of rat hepatocarcinogenesis induced by the CDAA diet.

  7. Ipragliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, exhibits a prophylactic effect on hepatic steatosis and fibrosis induced by choline-deficient l-amino acid-defined diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Hayashizaki-Someya, Yuka; Kurosaki, Eiji; Takasu, Toshiyuki; Mitori, Hikaru; Yamazaki, Shunji; Koide, Kumi; Takakura, Shoji

    2015-05-05

    Ipragliflozin is a selective sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor that increases urinary glucose excretion by inhibiting renal glucose reabsorption and thereby causes a subsequent antihyperglycemic effect. As nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), is closely linked to metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes, we investigated the effect of ipragliflozin on NAFLD in rats fed a choline-deficient l-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet. Five weeks after starting the CDAA diet, rats exhibited hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation, fibrosis, and mild inflammation. Repeated oral administration of ipragliflozin (3mg/g, once daily for 5 weeks) prevented both hepatic TG accumulation (188 vs.290 mg/g tissue vehicle-treated group; P<0.001) and large lipid droplet formation. Further, ipragliflozin exerted a prophylactic effect on liver fibrosis, as indicated by a marked decrease in hydroxyproline content and fibrosis score. Pioglitazone, which is known to be effective on hepatic fibrosis in CDAA diet-fed rats as well as NASH patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), also exerted a mild prophylactic effect on fibrosis, but not on hepatic TG accumulation or inflammation. In conclusion, ipragliflozin prevented hepatic TG accumulation and fibrosis in CDAA-diet rats. These findings suggest the therapeutic potential of ipragliflozin for patients with NAFLD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Osteoactivin expressed during cirrhosis development in rats fed a choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined diet, accelerates motility of hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Onaga, Masaaki; Ido, Akio; Hasuike, Satoru; Uto, Hirofumi; Moriuchi, Akihiro; Nagata, Kenji; Hori, Takeshi; Hayash, Katsuhiro; Tsubouchi, Hirohito

    2003-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is closely associated with chronic liver diseases, particularly cirrhosis. However, the genes involved in hepatocarcinogenesis in the context of developing cirrhosis remain unknown. This study aims to identify genes associated with early cirrhosis-associated hepatocarcinogenesis. We examined genes differentially expressed between the livers of normal rats and rats fed a choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet using suppression subtractive hybridization. We examined both the expression in the liver and HCC tissues of osteoactivin (OA), isolated in this screen, and its effect on invasiveness and metastasis. OA mRNA was strongly expressed in the livers of rats fed the CDAA diet for 1-3 months. Moderate expression was sustained for 18 months. OA overexpression increased the invasiveness and metastasis of rat hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. In humans, OA expression was not detectable in normal liver tissues. While OA transcripts were detectable in cirrhotic nontumorous liver tissues surrounding HCCs, the majority of HCC tissue samples exhibited higher levels of OA expression than the surrounding normal tissue. These results indicate that OA is a novel factor involved in the progression of HCC via stimulation of tumor invasiveness and metastatic potential.

  9. Influence of nicotine on choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Nakade, Yukiomi; Yamauchi, Taeko; Sakamoto, Kazumasa; Inoue, Tadahisa; Yamamoto, Takaya; Kobayashi, Yuji; Ishii, Norimitsu; Ohashi, Tomohiko; Ito, Kiyoaki; Sumida, Yoshio; Nakao, Haruhisa; Fukuzawa, Yoshitaka; Yoneda, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    Nicotine, a major compound in cigarette smoke, decreases food intake and body weight gain in mammals; however, the influence of nicotine on the progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains controversial. This study aimed to investigate the effect of nicotine on NASH in rat models. Male Wistar rats were fed choline-deficient, l-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet and treated with nicotine or saline. Food intake, body weight gain, presence of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis were assessed 6 weeks after the rats were fed CDAA diet. Hepatic branch vagotomy was performed to elucidate the mechanism through which nicotine affected steatohepatitis. CDAA diet induced hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as increased the expression of inflammation-related genes. Conversely, nicotine significantly attenuated food intake, body weight gain, and inhibited the CDAA-diet-induced hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis, together with increased expression of inflammation-related genes. Hepatic branch vagotomy by itself decreased food intake, body weight gain, and attenuated the CDAA-diet-induced hepatic steatosis, but not inflammation. However, nicotine did not change the food intake, body weight gain, and CDAA diet-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation in vagotomized rats. These results suggest that nicotine attenuates the CDAA-diet-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation through the hepatic branch of the vagus nerve in rats.

  10. Telmisartan prevents hepatic fibrosis and enzyme-altered lesions in liver cirrhosis rat induced by a choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined diet

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Haiyan; Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Yanbian University Hospital, Yanji, Jilin; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2007-12-28

    Rennin-angiotensin system is involved in liver fibrogenesis through activating hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Telmisartan (Tel) is an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, could function as a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} activator. Here we studied the effect of Tel on liver fibrosis, pre-neoplastic lesions in vivo and primary HSCs in vitro. In vivo study, we used the choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined (CDAA)-diet induced rat NASH model. The rats were fed the CDAA diet for 8 weeks to induce liver fibrosis and pre-neoplastic lesions, and then co-administrated with Tel for another 10 weeks. Tel prevented liver fibrogenesis and pre-neoplastic lesions bymore » down-regulating TGF{beta}1 and TIMP-1, 2 and increasing MMP-13 expression. Tel inhibited HSCs activation and proliferation. These results suggested that Tel could be a promising drug for NASH related liver fibrosis.« less

  11. Cellular mechanism of resistance of human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells against apoptosis-induction by Russell's Viper venom L-amino acid oxidase (Rusvinoxidase).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Ashis K; Saviola, Anthony J; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2018-04-24

    The present study highlights the cellular mechanism of resistance in human adenocarcinoma (Colo-205) cells against apoptosis induction by Rusvinoxidase, an L-amino acid oxidase purified from Russell's Viper venom (RVV). The significantly lower cytotoxicity as well as apoptotic activity of Rusvinoxidase towards Colo-205 cells (compared to MCF-7 breast cancer cells) is correlated with lower depletion of cellular glutathione content and increased down-regulation of catalase activity of Colo-205 cells following Rusvinoxidase treatment. Exposure to Rusvinoxidase subsequently diminished reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and failed to impair mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in apoptosis induction resistance in Colo-205 cells. Further, higher expression levels of caspase 8, compared to caspase 9, indicate that Rusvinoxidase preferentially triggers the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis in Colo-205 cells. A time-dependent lower ratio of the relative expression of Bax and Bcl-xL (pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins) in Colo-205 cells, compared to our previous study on MCF-7 cells, unambiguously supports a higher cellular resistance mechanism in Colo-205 cells against Rusvinoxidase-induced apoptosis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Development and validation of a rapid, selective, and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of D- and L-amino acids in human serum: application to the study of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Han, Minlu; Xie, Mengyu; Han, Jun; Yuan, Daoyi; Yang, Tian; Xie, Ying

    2018-04-01

    A validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of D- and L-amino acids in human serum. Under the optimum conditions, except for DL-proline, L-glutamine, and D-lysine, the enantioseparation of the other 19 enantiomeric pairs of proteinogenic amino acids and nonchiral glycine was achieved with a CROWNPAK CR-I(+) chiral column within 13 min. The lower limits of quantitation for L-amino acids (including glycine) and D-amino acids were 5-56.25 μM and 0.625-500 nM, respectively, in human serum. The intraday precision and interday precision for all the analytes were less than 15%, and the accuracy ranged from -12.84% to 12.37% at three quality control levels. The proposed method, exhibiting high rapidity, enantioresolution, and sensitivity, was successfully applied to the quantification of D- and L-amino acid levels in serum from hepatocellular carcinoma patients and healthy individuals. The serum concentrations of L-arginine, L-isoleucine, L-aspartate, L-tryptophan, L-alanine, L-methionine, L-serine, glycine, L-valine, L-leucine, L-phenylalanine, L-threonine, D-isoleucine, D-alanine, D-glutamate, D-glutamine, D-methionine, and D-threonine were significantly reduced in the hepatocellular carcinoma patients compared with the healthy individuals (P < 0.01). D-Glutamate and D-glutamine were identified as the most downregulated serum markers (fold change greater than 1.5), which deserves further attention in hepatocellular carcinoma research. Graphical abstract Simultaneous determination of D- and L-amino acids in human serum from hepatocellular carcinoma patients and healthy individuals. AA amino acid, HCC hepatocellular carcinoma, LC liquid chromatography, MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry, NC normal control, TIC total ion chromatogram.

  13. Export of pre-aged, labile DOM from a central California coastal upwelling system: Insights from D/L amino acids and Δ14C signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, B. D.; Shen, Y.; Benner, R. H.; Druffel, E. R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal upwelling zones are among the most productive regions in the world and play a major role in global carbon and nitrogen cycles. Recent research suggests that a substantial fraction of newly fixed organic matter is exported offshore in the form of dissolved organic matter (DOM). However, to date only a few studies have examined DOM composition in the context of production and export from upwelling systems. The ultimate fate and geochemical impact of coastal DOM exported to offshore and mesopelagic ecosystems also remains largely unknown. Between 2007-2009 we conducted a high-resolution biogeochemical time series at the Granite Canyon Marine Pollution Studies Lab in part to evaluate the seasonal production and export of DOM from the Central CA coast. Our previous work demonstrated substantial, albeit disparate, seasonal production of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen (DOC, DON) - with high DON (and low C:N ratios) produced during upwelling and high DOC produced during summer/fall water column stratification (Walker and McCarthy, 2012). Here we present new total dissolved D/L amino acid (TDAA) and UV-oxidizable DOC radiocarbon (Δ14C) data with the goal of determining the relative sources (heterotrophic vs. autotrophic), bioavailability, microbial processing and 14C-ages of C-rich vs. N-rich DOM exported from this upwelling system. Our results suggest that C-rich DOM produced during water column stratification carries a large microbial signature (i.e. high D/L AA ratios and non-protein AA abundance), whereas N-rich DOM produced during upwelling appears to be fresh, autotrophic DOM (i.e. lowest D/L AA ratios and highest TDAA abundance). DOM Δ14C signatures also did not approximate in situ dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and instead were far more negative and highly correlated to water mass density. Together our results indicate a previously unrecognized source of highly labile yet pre-aged DOM potentially impacting offshore and mesopelagic ecosystems.

  14. Hepatocellular carcinoma in a mouse model fed a choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined, high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Ikawa-Yoshida, Ayae; Matsuo, Saori; Kato, Atsuhiko; Ohmori, Yusuke; Higashida, Atsuko; Kaneko, Eiji; Matsumoto, Masahiko

    2017-08-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cancer worldwide and represents the outcome of the natural history of chronic liver disease. The growing rates of HCC may be partially attributable to increased numbers of people with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, details of the liver-specific molecular mechanisms responsible for the NAFLD-NASH-HCC progression remain unclear, and mouse models that can be used to explore the exact factors that influence the progression of NAFLD/NASH to the more chronic stages of liver disease and subsequent HCC are not yet fully established. We have previously reported a choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined, high-fat diet (CDAHFD) as a dietary NASH model with rapidly progressive liver fibrosis in mice. The current study in C57BL/6J mice fed CDAHFD provided evidence for the chronic persistence of advanced hepatic fibrosis in NASH and disease progression towards HCC in a period of 36 weeks. When mice fed CDAHFD were switched back to a standard diet, hepatic steatosis was normalized and NAFLD activity score improved, but HCC incidence increased and the phenotype of fibrosis-associated HCC development was observed. Moreover, when mice continued to be fed CDAHFD for 60 weeks, HCC further developed without severe body weight loss or carcinogenesis in other organs. The autochthonous tumours showed a variety of histological features and architectural patterns including trabecular, pseudoglandular and solid growth. The CDAHFD mouse model might be a useful tool for studying the development of HCC from NAFLD/NASH, and potentially useful for better understanding pathological changes during hepatocarcinogenesis. © 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Company of the International Journal of Experimental Pathology (CIJEP).

  15. Effect of hepatocyte growth factor on endogenous hepatocarcinogenesis in rats fed a choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined diet.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Chihiro; Moriuchi, Akihiro; Ido, Akio; Numata, Masatsugu; Kim, Il-Deok; Kusumoto, Kazunori; Hasuike, Satoru; Abe, Hiroo; Nagata, Kenji; Akiyama, Yutaka; Uto, Hirofumi; Kataoka, Hiroaki; Tsubouchi, Hirohito

    2006-07-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a promising agent for the treatment of intractable liver disease, due to its mitogenic, anti-apoptotic, and anti-fibrotic effects. We investigated the effect of recombinant human HGF (rh-HGF) on the development of both hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and preneoplastic nodules in rats fed a choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet, an animal model of hepatocarcinogenesis resembling human development of HCC with cirrhosis. From weeks 13 to 48 of the CDAA diet, rh-HGF (0.1 or 0.5 mg/kg/day) was administered intravenously to rats in four-week cycles, with treatment for five consecutive days of each week for two weeks, followed by a two-week washout period. Treatment with rh-HGF significantly inhibited the development of preneoplastic nodules in a dose-dependent manner at 24 weeks. Although the numbers and areas of the preneoplastic nodules in rats treated with rh-HGF were equivalent to those in mock-treated rats by 60 weeks, the incidence of HCC was reduced by HGF treatment. Although one rat treated with low-dose rh-HGF exhibited a massive HCC, which occupied almost the whole liver, and lung metastases, HGF treatment did not increase the overall frequency of HCC. Administration of high-dose rh-HGF, however, induced an increase in the urinary excretion of albumin, leading to decreased serum albumin at 60 weeks. These results indicate that long-term administration of rh-HGF does not accelerate hepatocarcinogenesis in rats fed a CDAA diet. However, these findings do not completely exclude the potential of HGF-induced hepatocarcinogenesis; this issue must be resolved before rh-HGF can be used for patients with intractable liver diseases, especially those with cirrhosis.

  16. Transgenic expression of human neutrophil peptide-1 enhances hepatic fibrosis in mice fed a choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined diet.

    PubMed

    Ibusuki, Rie; Uto, Hirofumi; Arima, Shiho; Mawatari, Seiichi; Setoguchi, Yoshiko; Iwashita, Yuji; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Maeda, Takuro; Tanoue, Shiro; Kanmura, Shuji; Oketani, Makoto; Ido, Akio; Tsubouchi, Hirohito

    2013-11-01

    Neutrophils infiltrate the livers of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Human neutrophil peptides (HNPs) induce cytokine and chemokine production under inflammatory conditions, which may contribute to the progression of NASH. In this study, we focused on the effects of HNP-1 on hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in a mouse model of NASH induced by a choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet. We generated transgenic mice expressing HNP-1 under the control of a β-actin-based promoter. HNP-1 transgenic and wild-type C57BL/6N mice were fed a CDAA diet for 16 weeks to induce hepatic steatosis and fibrosis. Serological and histological features were examined, and the effects of HNP-1 on hepatic stellate cell lines were assessed. HNP-1 transgenic and wild-type mice fed the CDAA diet showed no significant differences in serum alanine aminotransferase levels or the degree of hepatic steatosis based on Oil red O staining and hepatic triglyceride content. In contrast, Sirius Red and Azan staining showed significantly more severe hepatic fibrosis in HNP-1 transgenic mice compared with wild-type mice. In addition, significantly more α-smooth muscle actin-positive hepatic stellate cells were observed in the transgenic mice than in the wild-type mice. Finally, the proliferation of the LI90 hepatic stellate cell line increased in response to HNP-1. Our data indicate that HNP-1 enhances hepatic fibrosis in fatty liver by inducing hepatic stellate cell proliferation. Thus, neutrophil-derived HNP-1 may contribute to the progression of NASH. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Antibacterial action of a heat-stable form of L-amino acid oxidase isolated from king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mui Li; Tan, Nget Hong; Fung, Shin Yee; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2011-03-01

    The major l-amino acid oxidase (LAAO, EC 1.4.3.2) of king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom is known to be an unusual form of snake venom LAAO as it possesses unique structural features and unusual thermal stability. The antibacterial effects of king cobra venom LAAO were tested against several strains of clinical isolates including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli using broth microdilution assay. For comparison, the antibacterial effects of several antibiotics (cefotaxime, kanamycin, tetracycline, vancomycin and penicillin) were also examined using the same conditions. King cobra venom LAAO was very effective in inhibiting the two Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and S. epidermidis) tested, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.78μg/mL (0.006μM) and 1.56μg/mL (0.012μM) against S. aureus and S. epidermidis, respectively. The MICs are comparable to the MICs of the antibiotics tested, on a weight basis. However, the LAAO was only moderately effective against three Gram-negative bacteria tested (P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and E. coli), with MIC ranges from 25 to 50μg/mL (0.2-0.4μM). Catalase at the concentration of 1mg/mL abolished the antibacterial effect of LAAO, indicating that the antibacterial effect of the enzyme involves generation of hydrogen peroxide. Binding studies indicated that king cobra venom LAAO binds strongly to the Gram-positive S. aureus and S. epidermidis, but less strongly to the Gram-negative E. coli and P. aeruginosa, indicating that specific binding to bacteria is important for the potent antibacterial activity of the enzyme. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A pathogenic S250F missense mutation results in a mouse model of mild aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency.

    PubMed

    Caine, Charlotte; Shohat, Meytal; Kim, Jeong-Ki; Nakanishi, Koki; Homma, Shunichi; Mosharov, Eugene V; Monani, Umrao R

    2017-11-15

    Homozygous mutations in the aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) gene result in a severe depletion of its namesake protein, triggering a debilitating and often fatal form of infantile Parkinsonism known as AADC deficiency. AADC deficient patients fail to produce normal levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin, and suffer a multi-systemic disorder characterized by movement abnormalities, developmental delay and autonomic dysfunction; an absolute loss of dopamine is generally considered incompatible with life. There is no optimal treatment for AADC deficiency and few truly good models in which to investigate disease mechanisms or develop and refine therapeutic strategies. In this study, we introduced a relatively frequently reported but mildly pathogenic S250F missense mutation into the murine Aadc gene. We show that mutants homozygous for the mutation are viable and express a stable but minimally active form of the AADC protein. Although the low enzymatic activity of the protein resulted in only modestly reduced concentrations of brain dopamine, serotonin levels were markedly diminished, and this perturbed behavior as well as autonomic function in mutant mice. Still, we found no evidence of morphologic abnormalities of the dopaminergic cells in mutant brains. The striatum as well as substantia nigra appeared normal and no loss of dopamine expressing cells in the latter was detected. We conclude that even minute levels of active AADC are sufficient to allow for substantial amounts of dopamine to be produced in model mice harboring the S250F mutation. Such mutants represent a novel, mild model of human AADC deficiency. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Biochemical, functional and structural characterization of Akbu-LAAO: a novel snake venom L-amino acid oxidase from Agkistrodon blomhoffii ussurensis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming-Zhong; Guo, Chunmei; Tian, Yuxiang; Chen, Duo; Greenaway, Frederick T; Liu, Shuqing

    2010-04-01

    An L-amino acid oxidase (Akbu-LAAO) was isolated from the venom of Agkistrodon blomhoffii ussurensis snake using DEAE Sephadex A-50 ion-exchange, Sephadex G-75 gel filtration, and high performance liquid chromatographies. The homogeneity and molecular mass of Akbu-LAAO were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF spectrometry. The sequences of ten peptides from Akbu-LAAO were established by HPLC-nESI-MS/MS analysis. Protein sequence alignment indicated that i) that Akbu-LAAO is a new snake venom LAAO, and ii) Akbu-LAAO shares homology with several LAAOs from the venoms of Calloselasma rhodost, Agkistrodon halys, Daboia russellii siamensis, and Trimeresurus stejnegeri. Akbu-LAAO is a homodimer with a molecular mass of approximately 124.4 kDa. It reacts optimally with its enzymatic substrate, Leu, at pH 4.7 with a K(m) of 2.1 mM. ICP-AES measurements showed that Akbu-LAAO contains four Zn(2+) per dimer that are unessential for the hydrolytic activity of the enzyme. The emission fluorescence intensity of Akbu-LAAO decreases by 61% on removal of Zn(2+) indicating that the zinc probably helps maintain the structural integrity of the enzyme. The addition of exogenous metal ions, including Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Ca(2+), Ce(3+), Nd(3+), Co(2+) and Tb(3+), increases the l-Leu hydrolytic activity of the enzyme. Akbu-LAAO shows apparent anti-aggregation effects on human and rabbit platelets. It exhibits a strong bacteriostasis effect on Staphylococcus aureus, eighteen fold that of cephalosporin C under the same conditions. Taken together, the biochemical, proteomic, structural and functional characterizations reveal that Akbu-LAAO is a novel LAAO with promise for biotechnological and medical applications. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Bioconversion of l-glutamic acid to α-ketoglutaric acid by an immobilized whole-cell biocatalyst expressing l-amino acid deaminase from Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Gazi Sakir; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R; Du, Guocheng; Liu, Long; Chen, Jian

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop an immobilized whole-cell biocatalytic process for the environment-friendly synthesis of α-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG) from l-glutamic acid. We compared the suitability of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis strains overexpressing Proteus mirabilisl-amino acid deaminase (l-AAD) as potential biocatalysts. Although both recombinant strains were biocatalytically active, the performance of B. subtilis was superior to that of E. coli. With l-glutamic acid as the substrate, α-KG production levels by membranes isolated from B. subtilis and E. coli were 55.3±1.73 and 21.7±0.39μg/mg protein/min, respectively. The maximal conversion ratio of l-glutamic acid to α-KG was 31% (w/w) under the following optimal conditions: 15g/L l-glutamic acid, 20g/L whole-cell biocatalyst, 5mM MgCl2, 40°C, pH 8.0, and 24-h incubation. Immobilization of whole cells with alginate increased the recyclability by an average of 23.33% per cycle. This work established an efficient one-step biotransformation process for the production of α-KG using immobilized whole B. subtilis overexpressing P. mirabilisl-AAD. Compared with traditional multistep chemical synthesis, the biocatalytic process described here has the advantage of reducing environmental pollution and thus has great potential for the large-scale production of α-KG. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Occurrence of N-phenylpropenoyl-L-amino acid amides in different herbal drugs and their influence on human keratinocytes, on human liver cells and on adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to the human stomach.

    PubMed

    Hensel, A; Deters, A M; Müller, G; Stark, T; Wittschier, N; Hofmann, T

    2007-02-01

    Thirty commonly used medicinal plants were screened by a selective and specific LC-MS/MS method for the occurrence of N-phenylpropenoyl- L-amino acid amides, a new homologous class of secondary products. In 15 plants, one or more of the respective derivatives (1 to 12) were found and quantitated. Especially roots from Angelica archangelica, fruits of Cassia angustifolia, C. senna, Coriandrum sativum, leaves from Hedera helix, flowers from Lavandula spec. and from Sambucus nigra contained high amounts (1 to 11 microg/g) of mixtures of the different amides 1 to 12. For functional investigations on potential activity in cellular physiology, two amides with an aliphatic (8) and an aromatic amino acid residue (5) were used. N-(E)-Caffeic acid L-aspartic acid amide (8) and N-(E)-caffeic acid L-tryptophan amide (5) stimulated mitochondrial activity as well as the proliferation rate of human liver cells (HepG2) at 10 microg/mL significantly. When monitoring the influence of selected phase I and II metabolizing enzymes, both compounds did not influence CYP3A4 gene expression, but stimulated CYP1A2 gene expression and inhibited GST expression. Also, the proliferation of human keratinocytes (NHK) was increased up to 150% by both amides 5 and 8; this stimulation was also detectable on the level of gene expression by an up-regulation of the transcription factor STAT6. The aliphatic aspartic compound 8 showed strong antiadhesive properties on the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to human stomach tissue.

  2. Induction of anti-melanoma CTL response using DC transfected with mutated mRNA encoding full-length Melan-A/MART-1 antigen with an A27L amino acid substitution.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, Zeinab; Kalady, Matthew F; Emani, Sirisha; Onaitis, Mark W; Abdel-Wahab, Omar I; Cisco, Robin; Wheless, Lee; Cheng, Tsung-Yen; Tyler, Douglas S; Pruitt, Scott K

    2003-08-01

    Modification of the parental immunodominant Melan-A/MART-1 peptide (MART-1(26-35)) by replacing the alanine with leucine (A27L) enhances its immunogenicity. Because of the reported advantages of RNA over peptides in DC vaccines, we sought to mutate the MART-1 gene to encode a full-length MART-1 antigen with an A27L amino acid substitution. Human DC were transfected with A27L-mutated MART-1 RNA (A27L RNA) or native MART-1 RNA, and then used to stimulate autologous T cells from a series of 8 HLA-A2+ volunteers. After three stimulations, all CTL induced with DC/A27L RNA exhibited more tetramer+ cells, and demonstrated stronger antigen-specific IFNgamma-secreting activity compared to CTL induced with DC/native RNA. A potent MART-1-specific, and predominantly class-I-restricted lysis was detected in most CTL induced with DC/A27L RNA, while native RNA-induced CTL showed minimal and non-specific lysis. HLA-A2+ DC and MART-1 negative/A2+ melanoma cells transfected with the A27L RNA were recognized and killed by MART-1-specific CTL, suggesting that these APC efficiently processed the A27L RNA and presented correct MART-1-specific epitope(s). In summary, introducing an A27L mutation into the MART-1 full-length mRNA sequence enhanced the immunogenicity of the encoded MART-1 Ag. The ease with which such a mutation can be made in RNA presents another potential advantage of using RNA for immunotherapy. Our results support considering this strategy for enhancing the immunogenicity of DC-based RNA vaccines.

  3. Immunohistochemical detection of a substituted 1,N(2)-ethenodeoxyguanosine adduct by omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid hydroperoxides in the liver of rats fed a choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined diet.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Yoshichika; Kato, Yoji; Nakae, Dai; Kusuoka, Osamu; Konishi, Yoichi; Uchida, Koji; Osawa, Toshihiko

    2002-03-01

    Endogenous lipid peroxidation products react with DNA and form exocyclic DNA adducts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo formation of 7-(2-oxo-heptyl)-substituted 1,N(2)-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine adduct (Oxo-heptyl-varepsilondG), one of the major products from the reaction of 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HPODE) with dG. The monoclonal antibody specific to Oxo-heptyl-varepsilondG was prepared using a chemically synthesized conjugate of Oxo-heptyl-varepsilondG and carrier protein as immunogen. The characterization showed that the obtained antibody (mAb6A3) is specific to the Oxo-heptyl-varepsilondG moiety. Using the novel antibody, the presence of the Oxo-heptyl-varepsilondG adduct in vivo was immunohistochemically revealed in the liver of rats fed a choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined diet, an endogenous carcinogenesis model, for 3 days. In addition, the Oxo-heptyl-varepsilondG formation was confirmed in DNAs treated with peroxidized linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and gamma-linolenic acid, respectively, suggesting that the hydroperoxides of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids could be the potential sources of Oxo-heptyl-varepsilondG formation in vivo. Collectively, the results in this study suggest the first evidence that the formation of Oxo-heptyl-varepsilondG, the omega-6 lipid hydroperoxide-mediated DNA adduct, may be a potential biomarker for the early phase of carcinogenesis.

  4. Nitric oxide plays a crucial role in the development/progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in the choline-deficient, l-amino acid-defined diet-fed rat model.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Koji; Nozaki, Yuichi; Yoneda, Masato; Wada, Koichiro; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Kirikoshi, Hiroyuki; Inamori, Masahiko; Saito, Satoru; Iwasaki, Tomoyuki; Terauchi, Yasuo; Maeyama, Shiro; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2010-02-01

    The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is still unclear. Recently, the 2-hit hypothesis was proposed, in which nitric oxide production, representing oxidative stress, was proposed as a very important candidate for the second hit. The total study period was 10 weeks. A total of 20 rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group 1 was administered the Choline-Deficient, l-Amino Acid-Defined diet to produce a NASH model, and Group 2 as control received the Choline-Sufficient, l-Amino Acid-defined diet. The blood and tissue concentrations of nitrate + nitrite were measured using the Griess reagent and the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) proteins and mRNA was determined by Western blotting. In regard to nitric oxide (NO) and NO metabolites, there were significant differences in the blood (especially portal venous blood) as well as tissue (liver and visceral fat) concentrations between the 2 animal groups; the amounts of NO metabolites in the tissues were much higher in the NASH models. The level of nitrotyrosine was much markedly higher in the NASH models than in the controls. In regard to the tissue expression of iNOS a significant difference between the 2 groups was found in the visceral fat, especially in the mesenterium. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the iNOS expression and NO levels in the visceral fat increase, with increased diffusion of NO and its metabolites into the liver, resulting in increased nitrotyrosine formation in the liver; this, in turn, induces inflammation, apoptosis, and fibrosis in the liver, which are one of the characteristic features of NASH.

  5. Persistent fibrosis in the liver of choline-deficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis rat due to continuing oxidative stress after choline supplementation.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi-Yorimoto, Ayano; Noto, Takahisa; Yamada, Atsushi; Miyamae, Yoichi; Oishi, Yuji; Matsumoto, Masahiro

    2013-05-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by combined pathology of steatosis, lobular inflammation, fibrosis, and hepatocellular degeneration, with systemic symptoms of diabetes or hyperlipidemia, all in the absence of alcohol abuse. Given the therapeutic importance and conflicting findings regarding the potential for healing the histopathologic features of NASH in humans, particularly fibrosis, we investigated the reversibility of NASH-related findings in Wistar rats fed a choline-deficient and iron-supplemented l-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet for 12weeks, with a recovery period of 7weeks, during which the diets were switched to a choline-sufficient and iron-supplemented l-amino acid-defined (CSAA) one. Analysis showed that steatosis and inflammation were significantly resolved by the end of the recovery period, along with decreases in AST and ALT activities within 4weeks. In contrast, fibrosis remained even after the recovery period, to an extent similar to that in continuously CDAA-fed animals. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemical investigations revealed that expression of some factors indicating oxidative stress (CYP2E1, 4-HNE, and iNOS) were elevated, whereas catalase and SOD1 were decreased, and a hypoxic state and CD34-positive neovascularization were evident even after the recovery period, although the fibrogenesis pathway by activated α-SMA-positive hepatic stellate cells via TGF-β and TIMPs decreased to the CSAA group level. In conclusion, persistent fibrosis was noted after the recovery period of 7weeks, possibly due to sustained hypoxia and oxidative stress supposedly caused by capillarization. Otherwise, histopathological features of steatosis and inflammation, as well as serum AST and ALT activities, were recovered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Left-handed helical preference in an achiral peptide chain is induced by an L-amino acid in an N-terminal type II β-turn.

    PubMed

    De Poli, Matteo; De Zotti, Marta; Raftery, James; Aguilar, Juan A; Morris, Gareth A; Clayden, Jonathan

    2013-03-15

    Oligomers of the achiral amino acid Aib adopt helical conformations in which the screw-sense may be controlled by a single N-terminal residue. Using crystallographic and NMR techniques, we show that the left- or right-handed sense of helical induction arises from the nature of the β-turn at the N terminus: the tertiary amino acid L-Val induces a left-handed type II β-turn in both the solid state and in solution, while the corresponding quaternary amino acid L-α-methylvaline induces a right-handed type III β-turn.

  7. Helicobacter pylori cagL amino acid polymorphism D58E59 pave the way toward peptic ulcer disease while N58E59 is associated with gastric cancer in north of Iran.

    PubMed

    Cherati, Mina Rezaee; Shokri-Shirvani, Javad; Karkhah, Ahmad; Rajabnia, Ramzan; Nouri, Hamid Reza

    2017-06-01

    The cagL protein of Helicobacter pylori involving in pathogenesis of gastroduodenal disorders. Therefore, the current study was conducted to determine the cagL amino acid polymorphisms in patients with gastric diseases. One hundred gastric biopsies were collected from gastritis, peptic ulcer (PUD) and gastric cancer (GC) patients and were screened for cagL using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Also, sequence variations of the cagL were assessed via sequence translation. The cagL geneopositivity was 71.6% in patients were infected with H. pylori. The cagL from PUD indicated a higher rate of D58 amino acid sequence polymorphism than those of the GC and gastritis (P < 0.05). The D58 polymorphism showed an increased risk of PUD up to 6.5-fold (95% CI: 1.2-35.7). This position was occupied with amino acid N58 in GC. The E59 polymorphism was more frequently found in PUD and GC than gastritis patients. Additionally, presence of Q62 and N122 significantly observed in PUD and GC, whereas I60 was detected in PUD patients. Our results demonstrated that presence of the D, I, Q and N at position 58, 60, 62 and 122, respectively increased the risk of peptic ulcer. However, amino acid N, M, Q and N at the same position alongside V134 increased the risk of gastric cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. New gene cluster from the thermophile Bacillus fordii MH602 in the conversion of DL-5-substituted hydantoins to L-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yan-Zhen; Wan, Yong-Min; He, Bing-Fang; Ying, Han-Jie; Ouyang, Ping-Kai

    2009-12-01

    The thermophile Bacillus fordii MH602 was screened for stereospecifically hydrolyzing DL-5-substituted hydantoins to L-alpha-amino acids. Since the reaction at higher temperature, the advantageous for enhancement of substrate solubility and for racemization of DL-5-substituted hydantoins during the conversion were achieved. The hydantoin metabolism gene cluster from thermophile was firstly reported in this paper. The genes involved in hydantoin utilization (hyu) were isolated on an 8.2 kb DNA fragment by Restriction Site-dependent PCR, and six ORFs were identified by DNA sequence analysis. The hyu gene cluster contained four genes with novel cluster organization characteristics: the hydantoinase gene hyuH, putative transport protein hyuP, hyperprotein hyuHP, and L-carbamoylase gene hyuC. The hyuH and hyuC genes were heterogeneously expressed in E. coli. The results indicated that hyuH and hyuC are involved in the conversion of DL-5-substituted hydantoins to an N-carbamyl intermediate that is subsequently converted to L-alpha-amino acids. Hydantoinase and carbamoylase from B. fordii MH602 comparing respectively with reported hydantoinase and carbamoylase showed the highest identities of 71% and 39%. The novel cluster organization characteristics and the difference of the key enzymes between thermopile B. fordii MH602 and other mesophiles were presumed to be related to the evolutionary origins of concerned metabolism.

  9. Persistent fibrosis in the liver of choline-deficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis rat due to continuing oxidative stress after choline supplementation

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi-Yorimoto, Ayano, E-mail: ayano.takeuchi@astellas.com; Noto, Takahisa; Yamada, Atsushi

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by combined pathology of steatosis, lobular inflammation, fibrosis, and hepatocellular degeneration, with systemic symptoms of diabetes or hyperlipidemia, all in the absence of alcohol abuse. Given the therapeutic importance and conflicting findings regarding the potential for healing the histopathologic features of NASH in humans, particularly fibrosis, we investigated the reversibility of NASH-related findings in Wistar rats fed a choline-deficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet for 12 weeks, with a recovery period of 7 weeks, during which the diets were switched to a choline-sufficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined (CSAA) one. Analysis showed that steatosis andmore » inflammation were significantly resolved by the end of the recovery period, along with decreases in AST and ALT activities within 4 weeks. In contrast, fibrosis remained even after the recovery period, to an extent similar to that in continuously CDAA-fed animals. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemical investigations revealed that expression of some factors indicating oxidative stress (CYP2E1, 4-HNE, and iNOS) were elevated, whereas catalase and SOD1 were decreased, and a hypoxic state and CD34-positive neovascularization were evident even after the recovery period, although the fibrogenesis pathway by activated α-SMA-positive hepatic stellate cells via TGF-β and TIMPs decreased to the CSAA group level. In conclusion, persistent fibrosis was noted after the recovery period of 7 weeks, possibly due to sustained hypoxia and oxidative stress supposedly caused by capillarization. Otherwise, histopathological features of steatosis and inflammation, as well as serum AST and ALT activities, were recovered. - Highlights: ► NASH-like liver lesions are induced in rats by feeding a CDAA diet. ► Steatosis and lobular inflammation are resolved after switching

  10. Splenectomy reduces fibrosis and preneoplastic lesions with increased triglycerides and essential fatty acids in rat liver cirrhosis induced by a choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined diet.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Toshiyuki; Terai, Shuji; Iwamoto, Takuya; Takami, Taro; Yamamoto, Naoki; Sakaida, Isao

    2011-05-01

      This study investigated whether splenectomy is of significance in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).   Five-week-old Wistar rats were fed a choline-deficient diet for 8 weeks to create a NASH model. A sham-operation or splenectomy was then performed, and rats were killed 4 weeks later.   Liver fibrosis and liver preneoplastic lesions were significantly reduced in the splenectomy group compared to the sham-operation group, and α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) expression was significantly inhibited (liver fibrosis area: sham 8.63 ± 4.09%, splenectomy 5.45 ± 3.69%, P < 0.01; preneoplastic lesion size: sham 6.56 ± 3.68 ×10(6)  µm(2) /cm(2) , splenectomy 4.63 ± 3.27 ×10(6)  µm(2) /cm(2) , P < 0.05; the number of preneoplastic lesions: sham 8.33 ± 3.96/cm(2) , splenectomy 5.17 ± 1.80/cm(2) , P < 0.01; α-smooth muscle actin-positive area: sham 4.41 ± 2.48%, splenectomy 2.75 ± 1.66%, P < 0.01) On the other hand, liver triglycerides and essential fatty acids were significantly increased in the splenectomy group (liver triglycerides: sham 182 ± 35.0 mg/g, splenectomy 230 ± 35.0 mg/g, P < 0.05; liver linoleic acid: sham 17.2 ± 4.9 mg/g, splenectomy 23.3 ± 6.9 mg/g, P < 0.05; liver α-linolenic acid: sham 118 ± 36.6 µg/g, splenectomy 162 ± 51.4 µg/g, P < 0.05). In addition, expressions of hepatic fatty acid metabolism-related genes (e.g. acyl-CoA oxidase, liver carnitine palmitoyl-CoA transferase I, cytochrome P450 4A, long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase) were significantly inhibited in the splenectomy group.   These findings suggest that spleen plays an important regulatory role in the fibrosis, preneoplastic lesion and lipid metabolism of liver in a rat choline-deficient L-amino acid model. © 2011 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  11. Conformational and Functional Effects Induced by D- and L-Amino Acid Epimerization on a Single Gene Encoded Peptide from the Skin Secretion of Hypsiboas punctatus

    PubMed Central

    de Magalhães, Mariana T. Q.; Barbosa, Eder A.; Prates, Maura V.; Verly, Rodrigo M.; Munhoz, Victor Hugo O.; de Araújo, Ivan E.; Bloch, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Skin secretion of Hypsiboas punctatus is the source of a complex mixture of bioactive compounds where peptides and small proteins prevail, similarly to many other amphibians. Among dozens of molecules isolated from H. punctatus in a proteomic based approach, we report here the structural and functional studies of a novel peptide named Phenylseptin (FFFDTLKNLAGKVIGALT-NH2) that was purified as two naturally occurring D- and L-Phes configurations. The amino acid epimerization and C-terminal amidation for both molecules were confirmed by a combination of techniques including reverse-phase UFLC, ion mobility mass spectrometry, high resolution MS/MS experiments, Edman degradation, cDNA sequencing and solid-phase peptide synthesis. RMSD analysis of the twenty lowest-energy 1H NMR structures of each peptide revealed a major 90° difference between the two backbones at the first four N-terminal residues and substantial orientation changes of their respective side chains. These structural divergences were considered to be the primary cause of the in vitro quantitative differences in antimicrobial activities between the two molecules. Finally, both molecules elicited equally aversive reactions in mice when delivered orally, an effect that depended entirely on peripheral gustatory pathways. PMID:23565145

  12. Determination of D- and L-amino acids produced by cyanobacteria using gas chromatography on Chirasil-Val after derivatization with pentafluoropropyl chloroformate.

    PubMed

    Zahradnícková, Helena; Husek, Petr; Simek, Petr; Hartvich, Petr; Marsálek, Blahoslav; Holoubek, Ivan

    2007-08-01

    A rapid and simple method was developed for the determination of free amino acids (AAs) released from cyanobacteria. The procedure involves trapping of AAs from the centrifuged cyanobacterial culture fluid on a cation-exchange resin, their release together with the resin by direct treatment with the reaction medium, followed by immediate derivatization with a corresponding chloroformate. The extractive alkylation transfers the analytes into an organic phase, an aliquot of which is subjected to GC analysis. Identification and quantification of AAs was performed by GC/MS and GC/FID, respectively, using propyl chloroformate (PCF) as the derivatization reagent. For chiral analysis, the cyanobacteria extracts were treated with 2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropyl chloroformate (PFPCF) to create more volatile analytes. Separation of the AA enantiomers was accomplished on a Chirasil-Val capillary column and the D/L enantiomeric ratios were determined. AAs of cyanobacteria are considered to be important for the assessment of energy flow in an aquatic food web, nutrition value of cyanobacteria in a food web and for cell-cell communication within cyanobacteria. The highest levels of AAs were found in the summer period at the beginning of the season (July). In the September and October samples, the amount of AAs was lower, the number of D-AAs decreased and the D/L ratio was higher than in the July sample. Based on the obtained results it can be assumed that young populations excrete AAs in higher concentrations and a different composition compared to actively growing populations.

  13. Different mutation patterns of mitochondrial DNA displacement-loop in hepatocellular carcinomas induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine and a choline-deficient l-amino acid-defined diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Mariko; Sokuza, Yui; Nishikawa, Tomoki; Mori, Chiharu; Uwataki, Kimiko; Honoki, Kanya; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2007-10-12

    Mutations of the mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) displacement loop (D-loop) were investigated to clarify different changes of exogenous and endogenous liver carcinogenesis in rats. We induced hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) in rats with N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) and a choline-deficient l-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet. DNAs were extracted from 10 HCCs induced by DEN and 10 HCCs induced by the CDAA diet. To identify mutations in mtDNA D-loop, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, followed by nucleotide sequencing, was performed. Mutations were detected in 5 out of 10 HCCs (50%) induced by DEN. Four out of 5 mutations were G/C to A/T transitions at positions 15707, 15717, 15930, and 16087, and one T/A to C/G transition at position 15559. By contrast, no mutations were found in 10 HCCs induced by the CDAA diet. These results demonstrated that mutations in mtDNA D-loop occur in rat HCCs induced by DEN but not by the CDAA diet, suggesting that mtDNA D-loop is a target of exogenous liver carcinogenesis in rats.

  14. Herbal medicine Inchin-ko-to (TJ-135) prevents liver fibrosis and enzyme-altered lesions in rat liver cirrhosis induced by a choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined diet.

    PubMed

    Sakaida, Isao; Tsuchiya, Masako; Kawaguchi, Kotarou; Kimura, Teruaki; Terai, Shuji; Okita, Kiwamu

    2003-06-01

    The herbal medicine Inchin-ko-to (TJ-135), extract power from three herbs, has recently been reported possessing anti-apoptotic activity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether TJ-135 has any influence on the development of preneoplastic lesions as well as liver fibrosis. The effects of the TJ-135 were examined using the choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined diet-induced liver fibrosis model. In addition, the effect of TJ-135 on mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, type III procollagen mRNA expression and the medium N-terminal procollagen III propeptide (PIIINP) concentration in a hepatic stellate cell line (LI90) were examined. TJ-135 prevented fibrosis in a dose-dependent manner up to 1.5% (w/w). TJ-135 also reduced the expression of type III procollagen mRNA in the liver, as well as the number of activated stellate cells. Furthermore, TJ-135 reduced the area of preneoplastic lesions in the liver. With LI90 cells, TJ-135 reduced MAP kinase (ERK and JNK but not P38) activities resulting in reduced type III procollagen mRNA and PIIINP concentrations in the medium in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that although TJ-135 has anti-apoptotic activity, TJ-135 does not increase preneoplastic lesions but significantly reduces liver fibrosis through the inhibition of stellate cell activation without a reduction of hepatocyte cell death.

  15. CpG site hypermethylation of E-cadherin and Connexin26 genes in hepatocellular carcinomas induced by a choline-deficient L-Amino Acid-defined diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi; Shimizu, Kyoko; Itsuzaki, Yumi; Onishi, Mariko; Sugata, Eriko; Fujii, Hiromasa; Honoki, Kanya

    2007-04-01

    We investigated DNA methylation patterns of E-cadherin and Connexin26 (Cx26) genes in rat hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) induced by a choline-deficient L-Amino Acid-defined (CDAA) diet. Six-wks-old F344 male rats were continuously fed with a CDAA diet for 75 wks, and were then killed. A total of five HCCs were obtained, and genomic DNA was extracted from each HCC for assessment of methylation status in the 5' upstream regions of E-cadherin and Cx26 genes by bisulfite sequencing, comparing to two normal liver tissues. The five HCCs showed highly methylated E-cadherin and Cx26 genes, while these genes in two normal liver tissues were all unmethylated. For analysis of gene expression, real-time quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed. Expressions of E-cadherin and Cx26 genes were significantly reduced in the five HCCs (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.001, respectively) compared to normal liver tissues, correlating with their methylation statuses. These results suggested that hypermethylation of E-cadherin and Cx26 genes may be involved in the development of HCCs induced by a CDAA diet in rats.

  16. King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom L-amino acid oxidase induces apoptosis in PC-3 cells and suppresses PC-3 solid tumor growth in a tumor xenograft mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mui Li; Fung, Shin Yee; Chung, Ivy; Pailoor, Jayalakshmi; Cheah, Swee Hung; Tan, Nget Hong

    2014-01-01

    King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom L-amino acid oxidase (OH-LAAO), a heat stable enzyme, has been shown to exhibit very potent anti-proliferative activity against human breast and lung tumorigenic cells but not in their non-tumorigenic counterparts. We further examine its in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activity in a human prostate adenocarcinoma (PC-3) model. OH-LAAO demonstrated potent cytotoxicity against PC-3 cells with IC50 of 0.05 µg/mL after 72 h incubation in vitro. It induced apoptosis as evidenced with an increase in caspase-3/7 cleavages and an increase in annexin V-stained cells. To examine its in vivo anti-tumor activity, we treated PC-3 tumor xenograft implanted subcutaneously in immunodeficient NU/NU (nude) mice with 1 µg/g OH-LAAO given intraperitoneally (i.p.). After 8 weeks of treatment, OH-LAAO treated PC-3 tumors were markedly inhibited, when compared to the control group (P <0.05). TUNEL staining analysis on the tumor sections showed a significantly increase of apoptotic cells in the LAAO-treated animals. Histological examinations of the vital organs in these two groups showed no significant differences with normal tissues, indicating no obvious tissue damage. The treatment also did not cause any significant changes on the body weight of the mice during the duration of the study. These observations suggest that OH-LAAO cytotoxic effects may be specific to tumor xenografts and less to normal organs. Given its potent anti-tumor activities shown in vitro as well as in vivo, the king cobra venom LAAO can potentially be developed to treat prostate cancer and other solid tumors.

  17. Increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 protein during rat hepatocarcinogenesis caused by a choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined diet and chemopreventive efficacy of a specific inhibitor, nimesulide.

    PubMed

    Denda, Ayumi; Kitayama, Wakashi; Murata, Akiko; Kishida, Hideki; Sasaki, Yasutaka; Kusuoka, Osamu; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Nakae, Dai; Takagi, Hidetoshi; Konishi, Yoichi

    2002-02-01

    Expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 protein during rat hepatocarcinogenesis associated with fatty change, fibrosis, cirrhosis and oxidative DNA damage, caused by a choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet were investigated in F344 male rats, along with the chemopreventive efficacy of the specific COX-2 inhibitor, nimesulide (NIM). Nimesulide, which was administered in the diet at concentrations of 200, 400, 600 and 800 p.p.m. for 12 weeks, decreased the number and size of preneoplastic enzyme-altered liver foci, levels of oxidative DNA damage, and the grade and incidence of fibrosis in a dose-dependent manner. A preliminary long-term study of 65 weeks also revealed that 800 p.p.m. NIM decreased the multiplicity of neoplastic nodules and hepatocellular carcinomas and prevented the development of cirrhosis. Western blot analysis revealed that COX-2 protein was barely expressed in control livers and increased approximately 2.9-fold in the livers of rats fed on a CDAA diet for 12 weeks and approximately 4.5-5.4-fold in tumors, with a diameter larger than 5 mm, at 80 weeks. Immunohistochemically, COX-2 protein was positive in sinusoidal and stromal cells in fibrotic septa, which were identified by immunoelectron microscopy as Kupffer cells, macrophages, either activated Ito cells or fibroblasts, after exposure to the CDAA diet for 12 weeks, whereas it was only occasionally weakly positive in sinusoidal, probably Kupffer, cells in control livers. In neoplastic nodules in rats fed on a CDAA diet for 30 and 80 weeks, sinusoidal cells and cells with relatively large round nuclei and scanty cytoplasm were strongly positive for COX-2 protein, with the neoplastic hepatocytes in the minority of the nodules, but not the cancer cells, being moderately positive. These results clearly indicate that rat hepatocarcinogenesis, along with fatty change, fibrosis and cirrhosis, is associated with increased expression of COX-2 protein, and point to the chemopreventive efficacy

  18. Resolution and isolation of enantiomers of (±)-isoxsuprine using thin silica gel layers impregnated with L-glutamic acid, comparison of separation of its diastereomers prepared with chiral derivatizing reagents having L-amino acids as chiral auxiliaries.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Ravi; Nagar, Hariom

    2015-03-01

    Thin silica gel layers impregnated with optically pure l-glutamic acid were used for direct resolution of enantiomers of (±)-isoxsuprine in their native form. Three chiral derivatizing reagents, based on DFDNB moiety, were synthesized having l-alanine, l-valine and S-benzyl-l-cysteine as chiral auxiliaries. These were used to prepare diastereomers under microwave irradiation and conventional heating. The diastereomers were separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on a C18 column with detection at 340 nm using gradient elution with mobile phase containing aqueous trifluoroacetic acid and acetonitrile in different compositions and by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on reversed phase (RP) C18 plates. Diastereomers prepared with enantiomerically pure (+)-isoxsuprine were used as standards for the determination of the elution order of diastereomers of (±)-isoxsuprine. The elution order in the experimental study of RP-TLC and RP-HPLC supported the developed optimized structures of diastereomers based on density functional theory. The limit of detection was 0.1-0.09 µg/mL in TLC while it was in the range of 22-23 pg/mL in HPLC and 11-13 ng/mL in RP-TLC for each enantiomer. The conditions of derivatization and chromatographic separation were optimized. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, limit of detection and limit of quantification. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nov 18. Review. Citation on PubMed Pearl PL, Taylor JL, Trzcinski S, Sokohl A. The pediatric neurotransmitter disorders. J Child Neurol. 2007 May;22(5):606-16. Review. Citation on PubMed Pons R, Ford B, Chiriboga CA, Clayton PT, Hinton V, Hyland K, ...

  20. Echinococcus granulosus (Cestoda): uptake of L-amino acids by secondary hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Jeffs, S A; Arme, C

    1988-02-01

    The uptake of cycloleucine, L-proline, L-alanine and L-threonine by secondary hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus (U.K. horse strain 3-8 mm in diameter, derived from Balb/c mice infected 300-400 days previously) occurs by passive diffusion into the cyst wall (laminated layer plus germinal layer) and by mediated mechanisms into the fluid-filled interior. The maximal concentrations of these compounds are achieved after incubation for 2 h in vitro and approach those in vivo. Kt and Vmax values describing the uptake of these compounds are given. The flux rates for these compounds are extremely slow compared to those obtained with the protoscolex. A rationale for standardizing the experimental method for uptake studies with hydatid cysts is described.

  1. Redesign of LAOBP to bind novel l-amino acid ligands.

    PubMed

    Banda-Vázquez, Jesús; Shanmugaratnam, Sooruban; Rodríguez-Sotres, Rogelio; Torres-Larios, Alfredo; Höcker, Birte; Sosa-Peinado, Alejandro

    2018-05-01

    Computational protein design is still a challenge for advancing structure-function relationships. While recent advances in this field are promising, more information for genuine predictions is needed. Here, we discuss different approaches applied to install novel glutamine (Gln) binding into the Lysine/Arginine/Ornithine binding protein (LAOBP) from Salmonella typhimurium. We studied the ligand binding behavior of two mutants: a binding pocket grafting design based on a structural superposition of LAOBP to the Gln binding protein QBP from Escherichia coli and a design based on statistical coupled positions. The latter showed the ability to bind Gln even though the protein was not very stable. Comparison of both approaches highlighted a nonconservative shared point mutation between LAOBP_graft and LAOBP_sca. This context dependent L117K mutation in LAOBP turned out to be sufficient for introducing Gln binding, as confirmed by different experimental techniques. Moreover, the crystal structure of LAOBP_L117K in complex with its ligand is reported. © 2018 The Protein Society.

  2. A 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid induced fatality.

    PubMed

    Jorens, P G; Heytens, L; De Paep, R J; Bossaert, L; Selala, M I; Schepens, P J

    1995-03-01

    This paper reports on a fatal intoxication by oral ingestion of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). At admission, the victim was unconscious. His condition deteroriated rapidly with blood loss from his mouth and nose. Since the cause of this condition was not known, gastroscopy was performed and haemorrhagic mucosa was observed in the mouth, oesophagus and stomach. Gastric contents (removed by lavage), urine and blood were submitted for toxicological analysis. Unfortunately, within 3 h of admission (about 5 h following ingestion of the toxin) profound cardiogenic shock developed and the patient died. The identity of the toxic xenobiotic was revealed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Analytical quantification of the herbicide was performed by acid extraction prior to gas chromatographic examination using electron capture detection. His blood level of 2,4-D was 192 mg l-1.

  3. Biotechnological Production of Caffeic Acid by Bacterial Cytochrome P450 CYP199A2

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Yuka; Kino, Kuniki

    2012-01-01

    Caffeic acid is a biologically active molecule that has various beneficial properties, including antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we explored the catalytic potential of a bacterial cytochrome P450, CYP199A2, for the biotechnological production of caffeic acid. When the CYP199A2 enzyme was reacted with p-coumaric acid, it stoichiometrically produced caffeic acid. The crystal structure of CYP199A2 shows that Phe at position 185 is situated directly above, and only 6.35 Å from, the heme iron. This F185 residue was replaced with hydrophobic or hydroxylated amino acids using site-directed mutagenesis to create mutants with novel and improved catalytic properties. In whole-cell assays with the known substrate of CYP199A2, 2-naphthoic acid, only the wild-type enzyme hydroxylated 2-naphthoic acid at the C-7 and C-8 positions, whereas all of the active F185 mutants exhibited a preference for C-5 hydroxylation. Interestingly, several F185 mutants (F185V, F185L, F185I, F185G, and F185A mutants) also acquired the ability to hydroxylate cinnamic acid, which was not hydroxylated by the wild-type enzyme. These results demonstrate that F185 is an important residue that controls the regioselectivity and the substrate specificity of CYP199A2. Furthermore, Escherichia coli cells expressing the F185L mutant exhibited 5.5 times higher hydroxylation activity for p-coumaric acid than those expressing the wild-type enzyme. By using the F185L whole-cell catalyst, the production of caffeic acid reached 15 mM (2.8 g/liter), which is the highest level so far attained in biotechnological production of this compound. PMID:22729547

  4. Molecular cloning, expression and purification of L-amino acid oxidase from the Malayan pit viper Calloselasma rhodostoma.

    PubMed

    Kommoju, Phaneeswara Rao; Macheroux, Peter; Ghisla, Sandro

    2007-03-01

    A cDNA encoding LAAO from the Malayan pit viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma) was cloned into an expression vector of the methylotropic yeast Pichia pastoris. The LAAO open reading frame was inserted after the alpha-MF-signal sequence. Upon induction soluble and active LAAO is produced and exported into the culture supernatant at a concentration of up to 0.4 mg/L. Recombinant LAAO was purified from this by ion exchange and molecular sieve chromatography to yield apparently homogeneous protein in quantities of approximately 0.25 mg/L growth medium. Expressed LAAO exhibits the same electrophoretic mobility as native LAAO (62 kDa) and exhibits approximately the same extent of glycosylation as authentic LAAO from snake venom. Catalytic properties and substrate specificity of recombinant LAAO are similar to those of native enzyme.

  5. New Enzymatic Method of Chiral Amino Acid Synthesis by Dynamic Kinetic Resolution of Amino Acid Amides: Use of Stereoselective Amino Acid Amidases in the Presence of α-Amino-ɛ-Caprolactam Racemase▿

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Shigenori; Komeda, Hidenobu; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2007-01-01

    d- and l-amino acids were produced from l- and d-amino acid amides by d-aminopeptidase from Ochrobactrum anthropi C1-38 and l-amino acid amidase from Pseudomonas azotoformans IAM 1603, respectively, in the presence of α-amino-ɛ-caprolactam racemase from Achromobacter obae as the catalyst by dynamic kinetic resolution of amino acid amides. PMID:17586677

  6. Cyclin A2 and CDK2 as Novel Targets of Aspirin and Salicylic acid: a Potential Role in Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Dachineni, Rakesh; Ai, Guoqiang; Kumar, D. Ramesh; Sadhu, Satya S.; Tummala, Hemachand; Bhat, G. Jayarama

    2015-01-01

    Data emerging from the past 10 years have consolidated the rationale for investigating the use of aspirin as a chemopreventive agent; however, the mechanisms leading to its anti-cancer effects are still being elucidated. We hypothesized that aspirin’s chemopreventive actions may involve cell cycle regulation through modulation of the levels or activity of cyclin A2/cyclin dependent kinase-2 (CDK2). In this study, HT-29 and other diverse panel of cancer cells were used to demonstrate that both aspirin and its primary metabolite, salicylic acid, decreased cyclin A2 (CCNA2) and CDK2 protein and mRNA levels. The down regulatory effect of either drugs on cyclin A2 levels was prevented by pretreatment with lactacystin, an inhibitor of proteasomes, suggesting the involvement of 26S proteasomes. In-vitro kinase assays showed that lysates from cells treated with salicylic acid had lower levels of CDK2 activity. Importantly, three independent experiments revealed that salicylic acid directly binds to CDK2. Firstly, inclusion of salicylic acid in naïve cell lysates, or in recombinant CDK2 preparations, increased the ability of the anti-CDK2 antibody to immunoprecipitate CDK2, suggesting that salicylic acid may directly bind and alter its conformation. Secondly, in 8-anilino-1-naphthalene-sulfonate (ANS)-CDK2 fluorescence assays, pre-incubation of CDK2 with salicylic acid, dose-dependently quenched the fluorescence due to ANS. Thirdly, computational analysis using molecular docking studies identified Asp145 and Lys33 as the potential sites of salicylic acid interactions with CDK2. These results demonstrate that aspirin and salicylic acid down-regulate cyclin A2/CDK2 proteins in multiple cancer cell lines, suggesting a novel target and mechanism of action in chemoprevention. Implications Biochemical and structural studies indicate that the anti-proliferative actions of aspirin are mediated through cyclin A2/CDK2. PMID:26685215

  7. Introduction of antigenic determining 2,4-dinitrophenyl residues into 4-thiouridine, N3-(3-L-amino-3-carboxypropyl) uridine and tRNA-Phe from E. coli.

    PubMed Central

    Seela, F; Hansske, F; Watanabe, K; Cramer, F

    1977-01-01

    The introduction of antigenic determining 2,4-dinitrophenyl residues into the rare ribonucleosides 4-thiouridine (1a), and N3-(3-L-amino-3-carboxypropyl) uridine (2) as well as into tRNA-Phe from E. coli has been investigated. Alkylation of 1a with omega-bromo-2,4-dinitroacetophenone (3b) gives S-(2,4-dinitrophenacyl)-4-thiouridine (5A). Applying the reaction to the 5'-monophosphate of 1a, 5b is formed, but this product decomposes at pH 7. However, acylation of 2 with 2,4-dinitrobenzoic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (4b) leads to N3-[3-carboxy-3-L-(2,4-dinitrobenzamido)propyl]uridine (6) which is stable in aqueous solution. The latter reaction was used for the introduction of an antigenic determining 2,4-dinitrophenyl residue into tRNA-Phe from E. coli. The modified tRNA-Phe was isolated and by degradation of the molecule with RNase T2 and alkaline phosphatase the nucleoside derivative 6 was obtained and found to be identical with the synthetic product. PMID:68463

  8. Validation of a 2 percent lactic acid antimicrobial rinse for mobile poultry slaughter operations.

    PubMed

    Killinger, Karen M; Kannan, Aditi; Bary, Andy I; Cogger, Craig G

    2010-11-01

    Poultry processing antimicrobial interventions are critical for pathogen control, and organic, mobile operations in Washington seek alternatives to chlorine. Laboratory and field studies (three replications each) evaluated lactic acid efficacy as a chlorine alternative. For the laboratory study, retail-purchased, conventionally processed chicken wings inoculated with Salmonella were randomly assigned to the following treatments: Salmonella inoculation followed by no treatment (10 wings) or by 3-min rinses of water, 50 to 100 ppm of chlorine, or 2% lactic acid (20 wings for each rinse treatment). Wings were sampled for Salmonella enumeration on xylose lysine desoxycholate agar. During pastured poultry processing at mobile slaughter units for each field study replication, 20 chicken carcasses were randomly assigned to each treatment: untreated control or 3-min immersion in lactic acid or chlorine. Whole-carcass rinses were examined for aerobic plate count (APC) on tryptic soy agar and coliforms on violet red bile agar. Untreated controls were also examined for Salmonella. In the laboratory study, lactic acid produced a significant (P < 0.01) Salmonella reduction compared with the inoculated no-rinse, water, and chlorine treatments, which were statistically similar to each other. In the field study, no Salmonella was detected on untreated controls. Lactic acid produced significant >2-log (P < 0.01) reductions in APC and coliforms, whereas chlorine resulted in slight, but significant 0.4-log reductions (P < 0.01) and 0.21-log reductions (P < 0.05) in APC and coliforms compared with untreated controls. Considering laboratory and field studies, lactic acid produced greater reductions in Salmonella, APC, and coliforms, validating its effectiveness as a chlorine alternative in mobile poultry slaughter operations.

  9. Boric acid increases the expression levels of human anion exchanger genes SLC4A2 and SLC4A3.

    PubMed

    Akbas, F; Aydin, Z

    2012-04-03

    Boron is an important micronutrient in plants and animals. The role of boron in living systems includes coordinated regulation of gene expression, growth and proliferation of higher plants and animals. There are several well-defined genes associated with boron transportation and tolerance in plants and these genes show close homology with human anion exchanger genes. Mutation of these genes also characterizes some genetic disorders. We investigated the toxic effects of boric acid on HEK293 cells and mRNA expression of anion exchanger (SLC4A1, SLC4A2 and SLC4A3) genes. Cytotoxicity of boric acid at different concentrations was tested by using the methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. Gene expression profiles were examined using quantitative real-time PCR. In the HEK293 cells, the nontoxic upper concentration of boric acid was 250 μM; more than 500 μM caused cytotoxicity. The 250 μM boric acid concentration increased gene expression level of SLC4A2 up to 8.6-fold and SLC4A3 up to 2.6-fold, after 36-h incubation. There was no significant effect of boric acid on SLC4A1 mRNA expression levels.

  10. Slc3a2 Mediates Branched-Chain Amino-Acid-Dependent Maintenance of Regulatory T Cells.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Kayo; Kinoshita, Makoto; Kayama, Hisako; Nagamori, Shushi; Kongpracha, Pornparn; Umemoto, Eiji; Okumura, Ryu; Kurakawa, Takashi; Murakami, Mari; Mikami, Norihisa; Shintani, Yasunori; Ueno, Satoko; Andou, Ayatoshi; Ito, Morihiro; Tsumura, Hideki; Yasutomo, Koji; Ozono, Keiichi; Takashima, Seiji; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2017-11-14

    Foxp3 + regulatory T (Treg) cells, which suppress immune responses, are highly proliferative in vivo. However, it remains unclear how the active replication of Treg cells is maintained in vivo. Here, we show that branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), including isoleucine, are required for maintenance of the proliferative state of Treg cells via the amino acid transporter Slc3a2-dependent metabolic reprogramming. Mice fed BCAA-reduced diets showed decreased numbers of Foxp3 + Treg cells with defective in vivo proliferative capacity. Mice lacking Slc3a2 specifically in Foxp3 + Treg cells showed impaired in vivo replication and decreased numbers of Treg cells. Slc3a2-deficient Treg cells showed impaired isoleucine-induced activation of the mTORC1 pathway and an altered metabolic state. Slc3a2 mutant mice did not show an isoleucine-induced increase of Treg cells in vivo and exhibited multi-organ inflammation. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that BCAA controls Treg cell maintenance via Slc3a2-dependent metabolic regulation. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Rosmarinic acid, a new snake venom phospholipase A2 inhibitor from Cordia verbenacea (Boraginaceae): antiserum action potentiation and molecular interaction.

    PubMed

    Ticli, Fábio K; Hage, Lorane I S; Cambraia, Rafael S; Pereira, Paulo S; Magro, Angelo J; Fontes, Marcos R M; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Giglio, José R; França, Suzelei C; Soares, Andreimar M; Sampaio, Suely V

    2005-09-01

    Many plants are used in traditional medicine as active agents against various effects induced by snakebite. The methanolic extract from Cordia verbenacea (Cv) significantly inhibited paw edema induced by Bothrops jararacussu snake venom and by its main basic phospholipase A2 homologs, namely bothropstoxins I and II (BthTXs). The active component was isolated by chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and by RP-HPLC on a C18 column and identified as rosmarinic acid (Cv-RA). Rosmarinic acid is an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid [2-O-cafeoil-3-(3,4-di-hydroxy-phenyl)-R-lactic acid]. This is the first report of RA in the species C. verbenacea ('baleeira', 'whaler') and of its anti-inflammatory and antimyotoxic properties against snake venoms and isolated toxins. RA inhibited the edema and myotoxic activity induced by the basic PLA2s BthTX-I and BthTX-II. It was, however, less efficient to inhibit the PLA2 activity of BthTX-II and, still less, the PLA2 and edema-inducing activities of the acidic isoform BthA-I-PLA2 from the same venom, showing therefore a higher inhibitory activity upon basic PLA2s. RA also inhibited most of the myotoxic and partially the edema-inducing effects of both basic PLA2s, thus reinforcing the idea of dissociation between the catalytic and pharmacological domains. The pure compound potentiated the ability of the commercial equine polyvalent antivenom in neutralizing lethal and myotoxic effects of the crude venom and of isolated PLA2s in experimental models. CD data presented here suggest that, after binding, no significant conformation changes occur either in the Cv-RA or in the target PLA2. A possible model for the interaction of rosmarinic acid with Lys49-PLA2 BthTX-I is proposed.

  12. Secreted phospholipase A2 inhibitor modulates fatty acid composition and reduces obesity-induced inflammation in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Bourgeois, H; Vandermeulen, E; Vlaeminck, B; Meyer, E; Demeyere, K; Hesta, M

    2015-05-01

    Secreted phospholipase A2 inhibitor (sPLA2i) has been reported to have an anti-inflammatory function by blocking the production of inflammatory mediators. Obesity is characterized by low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of sPLA2i on inflammation, oxidative stress and serum fatty acid profile in dogs. Seven obese and seven lean Beagle dogs were used in a 28-day double blind cross-over design. Dogs were fed a control diet without supplemental sPLA2i or an sPLA2i supplemented diet. The sPLA2i diet decreased plasma fibrinogen levels and increased the protein:fibrinogen ratio in obese dogs to levels similar to those of lean dogs fed the same diet. Obese dogs had a higher plasma concentration of the lipophilic vitamin A with potential antioxidative capacity and a lower ratio of retinol binding protein 4:vitamin A compared to lean dogs, independent of the diets. A higher proportion of myristic acid (C14:0) and a lower proportion of linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) were observed in the dogs fed with the sPLA2i diet compared to dogs fed with the control diet. Furthermore, a higher ratio of n-6 to n-3, a lower proportion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and lower omega-3 index were observed in obese compared to lean dogs. The results indicate that obese dogs are characterized by a more 'proinflammatory' serum fatty acid profile and that diet inclusion of sPLA2i may reduce inflammation and alter fatty acid profile. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Zoledronic acid in children with osteogenesis imperfecta and Bruck syndrome: a 2-year prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Otaify, G A; Aglan, M S; Ibrahim, M M; Elnashar, M; El Banna, R A S; Temtamy, S A

    2016-01-01

    Treatment with zoledronic acid (ZA) over 2 years, among 33 children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and five Bruck syndrome cases, showed reduction in fracture rates, pain, and improvement in bone mineral density (BMD) and motor milestones of development. This is the first study reporting the use of bisphosphonates in patients with Bruck syndrome (BS). OI and BS are genetic disorders that result in bone fragility and reduced BMD. There is little literature describing the efficacy and safety of ZA in this population. In this study, we assess the response to treatment with ZA at six monthly intervals in Egyptian children with OI and BS for a period of 2 years. Thirty-three patients with OI and five patients with BS were treated with 0.1 mg/kg ZA intravenously every 6 months for 2 years during which they were followed up using different parameters. A clinical severity score (CSS) was applied to the patients before and 2 years after the start of therapy. Comparison of disease severity and response to ZA treatment between autosomal-dominant (AD) and autosomal-recessive (AR) OI patients was also done. After 6 months of treatment, OI and BS patients showed a significant increase in BMD Z-scores (P < 0.003 in the spine and P < 0.004 in the hip), together with a significant drop in fracture rate (P < 0.001), relief of pain (P < 0.001), and improvement in ambulation (P < 0.001). CSS was significantly reduced after 2 years of treatment in both OI and BS patients. AR-OI patients were more severely affected than AD-OI patients and showed more significant improvement. Zoledronic acid proved to be safe and effective in the treatment of OI and BS. The biannual infusion protocol was convenient to patients. There was a positive correlation between disease severity and benefits of the treatment. The use of the CSS proved to be of value in the assessment of the degree of severity in OI, and with some modifications, it was a valuable tool for the assessment of

  14. Membrane omega-3 fatty acids modulate the oligomerisation kinetics of adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guixà-González, Ramon; Javanainen, Matti; Gómez-Soler, Maricel; Cordobilla, Begoña; Domingo, Joan Carles; Sanz, Ferran; Pastor, Manuel; Ciruela, Francisco; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Selent, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Membrane levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA), are decreased in common neuropsychiatric disorders. DHA modulates key cell membrane properties like fluidity, thereby affecting the behaviour of transmembrane proteins like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). These receptors, which have special relevance for major neuropsychiatric disorders have recently been shown to form dimers or higher order oligomers, and evidence suggests that DHA levels affect GPCR function by modulating oligomerisation. In this study, we assessed the effect of membrane DHA content on the formation of a class of protein complexes with particular relevance for brain disease: adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptor oligomers. Using extensive multiscale computer modelling, we find a marked propensity of DHA for interaction with both A2A and D2 receptors, which leads to an increased rate of receptor oligomerisation. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) experiments performed on living cells suggest that this DHA effect on the oligomerisation of A2A and D2 receptors is purely kinetic. This work reveals for the first time that membrane ω-3 PUFAs play a key role in GPCR oligomerisation kinetics, which may have important implications for neuropsychiatric conditions like schizophrenia or Parkinson’s disease.

  15. A 2-year in vitro evaluation of a chlorhexidine-containing acid on the durability of resin-dentin interfaces.

    PubMed

    Stanislawczuk, Rodrigo; Reis, Alessandra; Loguercio, Alessandro D

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of 2% chlorhexidine-containing acid (Ac/CHX) and 2% chlorhexidine digluconate solution (CHX) on immediate (IM) and 2-year (2Y) resin-dentin bond strength (BS) and silver nitrate uptake (SNU) for two simplified etch-and-rinse adhesives. Forty-two caries-free extracted molars had a flat dentin surface exposed. In the control groups (groups 1), the surfaces were acid etched with conventional phosphoric acid and the adhesives Prime&Bond NT (PB) or Adper Single Bond 2 (SB) was applied after rinsing, drying and rewetting with water. In groups 2, Ac/CHX groups the adhesives were applied in a similar manner; however a 2% CHX-containing acid was previously applied. In groups 3, the adhesives were applied according to the control group; however the rewetting procedure was performed with an aqueous solution of 2% CHX for 60s. Composite build-ups were constructed incrementally and microtensile specimens (0.8mm(2)) were prepared for microtensile bond strength testing in the IM or 2Y periods at 0.5mm/min. For SNU, 2 bonded sticks from each tooth were coated with nail varnish, placed in the silver nitrate, polished down with SiC papers and analysed by EDX-SEM. The data from each adhesive was submitted to a two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). After 2Y, significant reductions of BS were observed for both adhesives in the control group (p<0.05). In Ac/CHX or CHX groups the BS remained stable for both systems. SNU was more evident in the control than in the experimental groups (p<0.05) both in IM and 2Y periods. The use of CHX in an aqueous solution or associated with the acid conditioner was effective to reduce the degradation of dentin bonds over a 2-year period. The addition of CHX digluconate in the acidic conditioner may be an excellent tool to increase the long-term stability of collagens fibrils within the hybrid layer against host-derived metalloproteinases without the need for additional steps for the bonding protocol

  16. Structure-activity relationships and mechanism of action of Eph-ephrin antagonists: interaction of cholanic acid with the EphA2 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Tognolini, Massimiliano; Incerti, Matteo; Mohamed, Iftiin Hassan; Giorgio, Carmine; Russo, Simonetta; Bruni, Renato; Lelli, Barbara; Bracci, Luisa; Noberini, Roberta; Pasquale, Elena B.; Barocelli, Elisabetta; Vicini, Paola; Mor, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The Eph–ephrin system, including the EphA2 receptor and the ephrin-A1 ligand, plays a critical role in tumor and vascular functions during carcinogenesis. We previously identified (3α,5β)-3-hydroxycholan-24-oic acid (lithocholic acid) as an Eph-ephrin antagonist able to inhibit EphA2 receptor activation and therefore potentially useful as a novel EphA2 receptor targeting agent. Here, we explore the structure-activity relationships of a focused set of lithocholic acid derivatives, based on molecular modelling investigation and displacement binding assays. Our exploration shows that while the 3-α-hydroxyl group of lithocholic acid has a negligible role in the recognition of the EphA2 receptor, its carboxylate group is critical for disrupting the binding of ephrin-A1 to the EphA2. As a result of our investigation, we identified (5β)-cholan-24-oic acid (cholanic acid) as a novel compound that competitively inhibits EphA2-ephrin-A1 interaction with higher potency than lithocholic acid. Surface plasmon resonance analysis indicates that cholanic acid binds specifically and reversibly to the ligand-binding domain of EphA2, with a steady-state dissociation constant (KD) in the low micromolar range. Furthermore, cholanic acid blocks the phosphorylation of EphA2 and cell retraction and rounding in PC3 prostate cancer cells, two effects that depend on EphA2 activation by the ephrin-A1 ligand. These findings suggest that cholanic acid can be used as a template structure to design effective EphA2 antagonists, with potential impact in the elucidation of the role played by this receptor in pathological conditions. PMID:22529030

  17. A 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid analog screened using a maize coleoptile system potentially inhibits indole-3-acetic acid influx in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hiromi; Matano, Naoyuki; Nishimura, Takeshi; Koshiba, Tomokazu

    2014-01-01

    Studies using inhibitors of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) transport, not only for efflux but influx carriers, provide many aspects of auxin physiology in plants. 1-Naphtoxyacetic acid (1-NOA), an analog of the synthetic auxin 1-N-naphtalene acetic acid (NAA), inhibits the IAA influx carrier AUX1. However, 1-NOA also shows auxin activity because of its structural similarity to NAA. In this study, we have identified another candidate inhibitor of the IAA influx carrier. The compound, “7-B3; ethyl 2-[(2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl)thio]acetate,” is a 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) analog. At high concentrations (> 300 µM), 7-B3 slightly reduced IAA transport and tropic curvature of maize coleoptiles, whereas lower concentrations had almost no effect. We have analyzed the effects of 7-B3 on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. 7-B3 rescued the 2,4-D-inhibited root elongation, but not the NAA-inhibited root elongation. The effect of 7-B3 was weaker than that of 1-NOA. Both 1-NOA and 7-B3 inhibited DR5::GUS expression induced by IAA and 2,4-D, but not that induced by NAA. At high concentrations, 1-NOA exhibited auxin activity, but 7-B3 did not. Furthermore, 7-B3 inhibited apical hook formation in etiolated seedlings more effectively than 1-NOA did. These results indicate that 7-B3 is a potential inhibitor of IAA influx that has almost no effect on IAA efflux or auxin signaling. PMID:24800738

  18. Updates on industrial production of amino acids using Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Wendisch, Volker F; Jorge, João M P; Pérez-García, Fernando; Sgobba, Elvira

    2016-06-01

    L-Amino acids find various applications in biotechnology. L-Glutamic acid and its salts are used as flavor enhancers. Other L-amino acids are used as food or feed additives, in parenteral nutrition or as building blocks for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. L-amino acids are synthesized from precursors of central carbon metabolism. Based on the knowledge of the biochemical pathways microbial fermentation processes of food, feed and pharma amino acids have been developed. Production strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum, which has been used safely for more than 50 years in food biotechnology, and Escherichia coli are constantly improved using metabolic engineering approaches. Research towards new processes is ongoing. Fermentative production of L-amino acids in the million-ton-scale has shaped modern biotechnology and its markets continue to grow steadily. This review focusses on recent achievements in strain development for amino acid production including the use of CRISPRi/dCas9, genome-reduced strains, biosensors and synthetic pathways to enable utilization of alternative carbon sources.

  19. Effect of Chlorogenic Acid (5-Caffeoylquinic Acid) Isolated from Baccharis oxyodonta on the Structure and Pharmacological Activities of Secretory Phospholipase A2 from Crotalus durissus terrificus

    PubMed Central

    Toyama, Daniela O.; Ferreira, Marcelo J. P.; Romoff, Paulete; Fávero, Oriana A.; Gaeta, Henrique H.; Toyama, Marcos H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid, 5CQA), isolated from Baccharis oxyodonta, on the structure and pharmacological effect of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) from Crotalus durissus terrificus. All in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted using a purified sPLA2 compared under the same experimental conditions with sPLA2 : 5CQA. 5CQA induced several discrete modifications in the secondary structure and the hydrophobic characteristics of native sPLA2 that induced slight changes in the α-helical content, increase in the random coil structure, and decrease of fluorescence of native sPLA2. Moreover, 5CQA significantly decreased the enzymatic activity and the oedema and myonecrosis induced by native sPLA2. As the catalytic activity of sPLA2 plays an important role in several of its biological and pharmacological properties, antibacterial activity was used to confirm the decrease in its enzymatic activity by 5CQA, which induced massive bacterial cell destruction. We found that 5CQA specifically abolished the enzymatic activity of sPLA2 and induced discrete protein unfolding that mainly involved the pharmacological site of sPLA2. These results showed the potential application of 5CQA in the snake poisoning treatment and modulation of the pathological effect of inflammation induced by secretory PLA2. PMID:25258715

  20. LPA1 receptor-mediated thromboxane A2 release is responsible for lysophosphatidic acid-induced vascular smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Dancs, Péter Tibor; Ruisanchez, Éva; Balogh, Andrea; Panta, Cecília Rita; Miklós, Zsuzsanna; Nüsing, Rolf M; Aoki, Junken; Chun, Jerold; Offermanns, Stefan; Tigyi, Gábor; Benyó, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has been recognized recently as an endothelium-dependent vasodilator, but several lines of evidence indicate that it may also stimulate vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), thereby contributing to vasoregulation and remodeling. In the present study, mRNA expression of all 6 LPA receptor genes was detected in murine aortic VSMCs, with the highest levels of LPA 1 , LPA 2 , LPA 4 , and LPA 6 In endothelium-denuded thoracic aorta (TA) and abdominal aorta (AA) segments, 1-oleoyl-LPA and the LPA 1-3 agonist VPC31143 induced dose-dependent vasoconstriction. VPC31143-induced AA contraction was sensitive to pertussis toxin (PTX), the LPA 1&3 antagonist Ki16425, and genetic deletion of LPA 1 but not that of LPA 2 or inhibition of LPA 3 , by diacylglycerol pyrophosphate. Surprisingly, vasoconstriction was also diminished in vessels lacking cyclooxygenase-1 [COX1 knockout (KO)] or the thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptor (TP KO). VPC31143 increased thromboxane A 2 (TXA 2 ) release from TA of wild-type, TP-KO, and LPA 2 -KO mice but not from LPA 1 -KO or COX1-KO mice, and PTX blocked this effect. Our findings indicate that LPA causes vasoconstriction in VSMCs, mediated by LPA 1 -, G i -, and COX1-dependent autocrine/paracrine TXA 2 release and consequent TP activation. We propose that this new-found interaction between the LPA/LPA 1 and TXA 2 /TP pathways plays significant roles in vasoregulation, hemostasis, thrombosis, and vascular remodeling.-Dancs, P. T., Ruisanchez, E., Balogh, A., Panta, C. R., Miklós, Z., Nüsing, R. M., Aoki, J., Chun, J., Offermanns, S., Tigyi, G., Benyó, Z. LPA 1 receptor-mediated thromboxane A 2 release is responsible for lysophosphatidic acid-induced vascular smooth muscle contraction. © FASEB.

  1. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have different effects on peripheral phospholipase A2 gene expressions in acute depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Su, Kuan-Pin; Yang, Hui-Ting; Chang, Jane Pei-Chen; Shih, Yin-Hua; Guu, Ta-Wei; Kumaran, Satyanarayanan Senthil; Gałecki, Piotr; Walczewska, Anna; Pariante, Carmine M

    2018-01-03

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been proven critical in the development and management of major depressive disorder (MDD) by a number of epidemiological, clinical and preclinical studies, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this therapeutic action are yet to be understood. Although eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) seems to be the active component of omega-3 PUFAs' antidepressant effects, the biological research about the difference of specific genetic regulations between EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the two main components of omega-3 PUFAs, is still lacking in human subjects. We conducted a 12-week randomized-controlled trial comparing the effects of EPA and DHA on gene expressions of phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), serotonin transporter (5HTT), and Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH-2) in 27 MDD patients. In addition, the erythrocyte PUFA compositions and the candidate gene expressions were also compared between these 27 MDD patients and 22 healthy controls. EPA was associated with a significant decrease in HAM-D scores (CI: -13 to -21, p<0.001) and significant increases in erythrocyte levels of EPA (CI: +1.0% to +2.9%, p=0.001) and DHA (CI: +2.9% to +5.6%, p=0.007). DHA treatment was associated with a significant decrease in HAM-D scores (CI: -6 to -14, p<0.001) and a significant increase in DHA levels (CI: +0.2% to +2.3%, p=0.047), but not of EPA levels. The cPLA2 gene expression levels were significantly increased in patients received EPA (1.9 folds, p=0.038), but not DHA (1.08 folds, p=0.92). There was a tendency for both EPA and DHA groups to decrease COX-2 gene expressions. The gene expressions of COX-2, cPLA2, TPH-2 and 5-HTT did not differ between MDD cases and healthy controls. EPA differentiates from DHA in clinical antidepressant efficacy and in upregulating cPLA2 gene regulations, which supports the clinical observation showing the superiority of EPA's antidepressant effects. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT

  2. Ligand-independent activation of EphA2 by arachidonic acid induces metastasis-like behaviour in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Tawadros, T; Brown, M D; Hart, C A; Clarke, N W

    2012-01-01

    Background: High intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has been associated with clinical progression in prostate cancer (CaP). This study investigates the signalling mechanism by which the omega-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA) induces prostatic cellular migration to bone marrow stroma. Methods: Western blot analysis of the PC-3, PC3-GFP, DU 145 and LNCaP cells or their lipid raft (LR) components post AA stimulation was conducted in association with assays for adhesion and invasion through the bone marrow endothelial monolayers. Results: Arachidonic acid increased transendothelial migration of PC3-GFP cells (adhesion 37%±0.08, P=0.0124; transmigration 270%±0.145, P=0.0008). Akt, Src and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) pathways were induced by AA and integrally involved in transendothelial migration. LR were critical in AA uptake and induced Akt activity. Ephrin receptor A2 (EphA2), localised in LR, is expressed in DU 145 and PC-3 cells. Arachidonic acid induced a rapid increase of EphA2 Akt-dependent/ligand-independent activation, while knockdown of the EphrinA1 ligand decreased AA induced transendothelial migration, with an associated decrease in Src and FAK activity. Arachidonic acid activated Akt in EphA2− LNCaP cells but failed to induce BMEC transendothelial invasion. Conclusion: Arachidonic acid induced stimulation of EphA2 in vitro is associated fundamentally with CaP epithelial migration across the endothelial barrier. PMID:23037715

  3. Enantiomer-specific selection of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xueying; Tellez, Luis A; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2013-12-01

    Dietary intake of L-amino acids impacts on several physiological functions, including the control of gastrointestinal motility, pancreatic secretion, and appetite. However, the biological mechanisms regulating behavioral predilections for certain amino acid types remain poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that, in mice, the potency with which a given glucogenic amino acid increases glucose utilization reflects its rewarding properties. We have found that: (1) during long-, but not short-, term preference tests, L-alanine and L-serine were preferred over their D-enantiomer counterparts, while no such effect was observed for L-threonine vs. D-threonine; (2) these behavioral patterns were closely associated with the ability of L-amino acids to promote increases in respiratory exchange ratios such that those, and only those, L-amino acids able to promote increases in respiratory exchange ratios were preferred over their D-isomers; (3) these behavioral preferences were independent of gustatory influences, since taste-deficient Trpm5 knockout mice displayed ingestive responses very similar to those of their wild-type counterparts. We conclude that the ability to promote increases in respiratory exchange ratios enhances the reward value of nutritionally relevant amino acids and suggest a mechanistic link between substrate utilization and amino acid preferences.

  4. Enantiomer-specific selection of amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xueying; Tellez, Luis A; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2013-01-01

    Dietary intake of L-amino acids impacts on several physiological functions, including the control of gastrointestinal motility, pancreatic secretion, and appetite. However, the biological mechanisms regulating behavioral predilections for certain amino acid types remain poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that, in mice, the potency with which a given glucogenic amino acid increases glucose utilization reflects its rewarding properties. We have found that: 1. During long-, but not short-, term preference tests, L-alanine and L-serine were preferred over their D-enantiomer counterparts, while no such effect was observed for L-threonine vs. D-threonine; 2. These behavioral patterns were closely associated with the ability of L-amino acids to promote increases in respiratory exchange ratios such that those, and only those, L-amino acids able to promote increases in respiratory exchange ratios were preferred over their D-isomers; 3. These behavioral preferences were independent of gustatory influences, since taste-deficient Trpm5 knockout mice displayed ingestive responses very similar to those of their wild-type counterparts. We conclude that the ability to promote increases in respiratory exchange ratios enhances the reward value of nutritionally relevant amino acids, and suggest a mechanistic link between substrate utilization and amino acid preferences. PMID:24072505

  5. Definition of the specific roles of lysolecithin and palmitic acid in altering the susceptibility of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers to phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Henshaw, J B; Olsen, C A; Farnbach, A R; Nielson, K H; Bell, J D

    1998-07-28

    Bilayers composed of phosphatidylcholine initially resist catalysis by phospholipase A2. However, after a latency period, they become susceptible when sufficient reaction products (lysolecithin and fatty acid) accumulate in the membrane. Temperature near the main bilayer phase transition and calcium concentration modulate the effectiveness of the reaction products. The purpose of this study was to examine the individual contributions of lysolecithin and palmitic acid to the susceptibility of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles and to rationalize the effects of temperature and calcium. Various fluorescent probes (Prodan, Laurdan, pyrene-labeled fatty acid, and dansyl-labeled phospholipid) were used to assess changes in the ability of the reaction products to perturb the bilayer and to affect the interactions with the enzyme. Un-ionized palmitic acid decreased bilayer polarity and perturbed the membrane surface exposing some of the Prodan to bulk water. Lysolecithin increased bilayer polarity and the rate of dipolar relaxation in response to the excited states of Laurdan and Prodan. A combination of the individual contributions of each product was observed when palmitic acid and lysolecithin were present together at low calcium, and the effects of lysolecithin dominated at high calcium. Palmitic acid, but not lysolecithin, promoted the binding of phospholipase A2 to the bilayer surface in the absence of calcium. Lysolecithin reduced the ability of fatty acid to enhance binding apparently by altering the structure of fatty acid domains in the membrane. Furthermore, increased temperature and ionization of the fatty acid tended to cause segregation of bound phospholipase A2 into domains poor in phospholipid content which presumably impeded bilayer hydrolysis. In contrast, un-ionized palmitic acid and lysolecithin promoted hydrolysis by augmenting a step distal to the adsorption of enzyme to the bilayer. This kinetic response to lysolecithin was calcium-dependent. A

  6. Stereoselective synthesis of functionalized cyclic amino acid derivatives via a [2,3]-Stevens rearrangement and ring-closing metathesis.

    PubMed

    Nash, Aaron; Soheili, Arash; Tambar, Uttam K

    2013-09-20

    Unnatural cyclic amino acids are valuable tools in biomedical research and drug discovery. A two-step stereoselective strategy for converting simple glycine-derived aminoesters into unnatural cyclic amino acid derivatives has been developed. The process includes a palladium-catalyzed tandem allylic amination/[2,3]-Stevens rearrangement followed by a ruthenium-catalyzed ring-closing metathesis. The [2,3]-rearrangement proceeds with high diastereoselectivity through an exo transition state. Oppolzer's chiral auxiliary was utilized to access an enantiopure cyclic amino acid by this approach, which will enable future biological applications.

  7. Inhibition of Intestinal Bile Acid Transporter Slc10a2 Improves Triglyceride Metabolism and Normalizes Elevated Plasma Glucose Levels in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Snaith, Michael; Lindmark, Helena; Lundberg, Johanna; Östlund-Lindqvist, Ann-Margret; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats

    2012-01-01

    Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids increases cholesterol catabolism, thereby stimulating hepatic cholesterol synthesis from acetate. We hypothesized that such treatment should lower the hepatic acetate pool which may alter triglyceride and glucose metabolism. We explored this using mice deficient of the ileal sodium-dependent BA transporter (Slc10a2) and ob/ob mice treated with a specific inhibitor of Slc10a2. Plasma TG levels were reduced in Slc10a2-deficient mice, and when challenged with a sucrose-rich diet, they displayed a reduced response in hepatic TG production as observed from the mRNA levels of several key enzymes in fatty acid synthesis. This effect was paralleled by a diminished induction of mature sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (Srebp1c). Unexpectedly, the SR-diet induced intestinal fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15 mRNA and normalized bile acid synthesis in Slc10a2−/− mice. Pharmacologic inhibition of Slc10a2 in diabetic ob/ob mice reduced serum glucose, insulin and TGs, as well as hepatic mRNA levels of Srebp1c and its target genes. These responses are contrary to those reported following treatment of mice with a bile acid binding resin. Moreover, when key metabolic signal transduction pathways in the liver were investigated, those of Mek1/2 - Erk1/2 and Akt were blunted after treatment of ob/ob mice with the Slc10a2 inhibitor. It is concluded that abrogation of Slc10a2 reduces hepatic Srebp1c activity and serum TGs, and in the diabetic ob/ob model it also reduces glucose and insulin levels. Hence, targeting of Slc10a2 may be a promising strategy to treat hypertriglyceridemia and diabetes. PMID:22662222

  8. Ectopic expression of UGT84A2 delayed flowering by indole-3-butyric acid-mediated transcriptional repression of ARF6 and ARF8 genes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gui-Zhi; Jin, Shang-Hui; Li, Pan; Jiang, Xiao-Yi; Li, Yan-Jie; Hou, Bing-Kai

    2017-12-01

    Ectopic expression of auxin glycosyltransferase UGT84A2 in Arabidopsis can delay flowering through increased indole-3-butyric acid and suppressed transcription of ARF6, ARF8 and flowering-related genes FT, SOC1, AP1 and LFY. Auxins are critical regulators for plant growth and developmental processes. Auxin homeostasis is thus an important issue for plant biology. Here, we identified an indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-specific glycosyltransferase, UGT84A2, and characterized its role in Arabidopsis flowering development. UGT84A2 could catalyze the glycosylation of IBA, but not indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). UGT84A2 transcription expression was clearly induced by IBA. When ectopically expressing in Arabidopsis, UGT84A2 caused obvious delay in flowering. Correspondingly, the increase of IBA level, the down-regulation of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 6 (ARF6) and ARF8, and the down-regulation of flowering-related genes such as FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO1(SOC1), APETALA1 (AP1), and LEAFY(LFY) were observed in transgenic plants. When exogenously applying IBA to wild-type plants, the late flowering phenotype, the down-regulation of ARF6, ARF8 and flowering-related genes recurred. We examined the arf6arf8 double mutants and found that the expression of flowering-related genes was also substantially decreased in these mutants. Together, our results suggest that glycosyltransferase UGT84A2 may be involved in flowering regulation through indole-3-butyric acid-mediated transcriptional repression of ARF6, ARF8 and downstream flowering pathway genes.

  9. Collaborative Teaching Strategies Lead to Retention of Skills in Acid-Base Physiology: A 2-Yr Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, Jacob P.; Toksvang, Linea Natalie; Berg, Ronan M. G.

    2015-01-01

    A basic understanding of acid-base physiology is critical for the correct assessment of arterial blood gases in the clinical setting. In this context, collaborative teaching strategies in the undergraduate classroom setting may be useful, since it has been reported to enhance both transfer and retention of learned material in a time-efficient…

  10. Crystal structure of a 2:1 piroxicam–gentisic acid co-crystal featuring neutral and zwitterionic piroxicam molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Horstman, Elizabeth M.; Bertke, Jeffery A.; Woods, Toby J.

    2016-11-04

    A new 2:1 co-crystal of piroxicam and gentisic acid [systematic name: 4-hydroxy-1,1-dioxo-N-(pyridin-2-yl)-2H-1λ 6,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide–2-(4-oxido-1,1-dioxo-2H-1λ 6,2-benzothiazine-3-amido)pyridin-1-ium–2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2C 15H 13N 3O 4S·C 7H 6O 4] has been synthesized using a microfluidic platform and initially identified using Raman spectroscopy. In the co-crystal, one piroxicam molecule is in its neutral form and an intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond is observed. The other piroxicam molecule is zwitterionic (proton transfer from the OH group to the pyridine N atom) and two intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds occur. The gentisic acid molecule shows whole-molecule disorder over two sets of sites in a 0.809(2):0.191(2) ratio. In the crystal, extensive hydrogenmore » bonding between the components forms layers propagating in theabplane.« less

  11. Enzymatic preparation of. cap alpha. - and. beta. -deuterated or tritiated amino acids with l-methionine. gamma. -lyase

    SciTech Connect

    Esaki, N.; Sawada, S.; Tanaka, H.

    L-Methionine ..gamma..-lyase catalyzes the exchange of ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-hydrogens of L-methionine and S-methyl-L-cysteine with deuterium or tritium of solvents. The rate of ..cap alpha..-hydrogen exchange with deuterium was about 40 times faster than that of the elimination reactions. The deuterium and tritium were exchanged also with the ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-hydrogens of the straight-chain amino acids which do not undergo the elimination: L-alanine, L-..cap alpha..-aminobutyrate, L-norvaline, and L-norleucine. No exchange occurs for the D-isomers, acidic L-amino acids, basic L-amino acids, and branched-chain L-amino acids, although ..cap alpha..-hydrogen of glycine, L-trypotophan, and L-phenylalanine is exchanged slowly. These enzymatic hydrogen-exchange reactionsmore » facilitate specific labeling of the L-amino acids with deuterium and tritium.« less

  12. Chaperone gelator for the chiral self-assembly of all proteinogenic amino acids and their enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Wang, Tianyu; Liu, Minghua

    2016-05-04

    A concept of a chaperone gelator that can assist non-gelator molecules to form gels is proposed. Such a new gelator was developed and found to tune all the proteinogenic l-amino acids, as well as their enantiomers into supramolecular gels.

  13. The interaction between ApoA2 -265T>C polymorphism and dietary fatty acids intake on oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Elham; Sadrzadeh-Yeganeh, Haleh; Sotoudeh, Gity; Keramat, Laleh; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Rafiee, Masoumeh; Koohdani, Fariba

    2017-08-01

    Apolipoprotein A2 (APOA2) -265T>C polymorphism has been studied in relation to oxidative stress and various dietary fatty acids. Since the interaction between APOA2 polymorphism and dietary fatty acids on oxidative stress has not yet discussed, we aimed to investigate the interaction on oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. The subjects were 180 T2DM patients with known APOA2 genotype, either TT, TC or CC. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was determined by colorimetric method. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and serum level of 8-isoprostane F2α were measured by spectrophotometry and ELISA, respectively. Dietary intake was collected through a food frequency questionnaire. Based on the median intake, fatty acids intake was dichotomized into high or low groups. The interaction between APOA2 polymorphism and dietary fatty acids intake was analyzed by ANCOVA multivariate interaction model. Higher than median intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA) was associated with increased serum level of 8-isoprostane F2α in subjects with TT/TC genotype (p = 0.004), and higher than median intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) was associated with increased serum SOD activity in CC genotype (p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant interaction between APOA2 polymorphism and n-6 PUFA intake on 8-isoprostane F2α concentration as well as n-3 PUFA intake on serum SOD activity (p-interaction = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). The current study shows the interaction between APOA2 polymorphism and dietary fatty acids intake on oxidative stress. More investigations on different populations are required to confirm the interaction.

  14. Inhibition of Procarcinogen Activating Enzyme CYP1A2 Activity and Free Radical Formation by Caffeic Acid and its Amide Analogues.

    PubMed

    Narongchai, Paitoon; Niwatananun, Kanokporn; Narongchai, Siripun; Kusirisin, Winthana; Jaikang, Churdsak

    2016-01-01

    Caffeic acid (CAF) and its amide analogues, ethyl 1-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) propen amide (EDPA), phenethyl 1-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) propen amide (PEDPA), phenmethyl 1- (3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) propen amide (PMDPA) and octyl 1-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) propen amide (ODPA) were investigated for the inhibition of procarcinogen activating enzyme. CYP1A2 and scavenging activity on formation of nitric oxide, superoxide anion, DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical. It was found that they inhibited CYP1A2 enzyme by uncompetitive inhibition. Apparent Ki values of CAF, EDPA, PEDPA, PMDPA and ODPA were 0.59, 0.39, 0.45, 0.75 and 0.80 µM, respectively suggesting potent inhibitors of CYP1A2. Moreover, they potentially scavenged nitric oxide radical with IC 50 values of 0.12, 0.22, 0.28, 0.22 and 0.51 mM, respectively. The IC50 values of superoxide anion scavenging were 0.20, 0.22, 0.44, 2.18 and 2.50 mM, respectively. 1, 1- diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging ability, shown as IC50 values, were 0.41, 0.29, 0.30, 0.89 and 0.84 mM, respectively. Moreover, the hydroxyl radical scavenging in vitro model was shown as IC50 values of 23.22, 21.06, 17.10, 17.21 and 15.81 µM, respectively. From our results, caffeic acid and its amide analogues are in vitro inhibitors of human CYP1A2 catalytic activity and free radical formation. They may be useful to be developed as potential chemopreventive agents that block CYP1A2-mediated chemical carcinogenesis.

  15. Carnosic acid prevents COL1A2 transcription through the reduction of Smad3 acetylation via the AMPKα1/SIRT1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Shi, Xue; Ding, Chunchun; Feng, Dongcheng; Li, Yang; Hu, Yan; Wang, Li; Gao, Dongyan; Tian, Xiaofeng; Yao, Jihong

    2018-01-15

    Carnosic acid (CA), a major bioactive component in rosemary extract, has many biological and pharmaceutical activities. Smad3 acetylation can regulate the transcription of type I α2 collagen (COL1A2), which is the major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The aim of the current study was to evaluate whether CA inhibits COL1A2 transcription via the reduction of Smad3 acetylation against liver fibrosis. The results showed that CA treatment significantly suppressed COL1A2 transcription and markedly decreased the deposition of ECM induced by dimethylamine (DMN) in rats. Importantly, the suppression of COL1A2 transcription following CA treatment depended on the reduction of Smad3 acetylation via the activation of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide + (NAD + )-dependent deacetylase. SIRT1 siRNA increased the acetylation of Smad3 and blocked CA-down-regulated Smad3 deacetylation. Notably, CA-mediated AMP-activated protein kinase-α1 (AMPKα1) activation not only increased AMPKα1 phosphorylation but also increased SIRT1 expression, thus leading to a significant reduction in Smad3 acetylation. Furthermore, CA-mediated SIRT1 activation was inhibited by AMPKα1 siRNA. Collectively, CA can inhibit the transcription of COL1A2 through SIRT1-mediated Smad3 deacetylation, and the activation of SIRT1 by CA involves the AMPKα1/SIRT1 pathway in liver fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Next Generation MOD: A Microchip Amino Acid Analyzer for Detecting Extraterrestrial Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathies, R. A.; Hutt, L. D.; Bada, J. L.; Glavin, D.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Grunthaner, P. J.

    2000-01-01

    The MOD (Mars Organic Detector) instrument which has selected for the definition phase of the BEDS package on the 2005 Mars Explorer Program spacecraft is designed to simply detect the presence of amino acids in Martian surface samples at a sensitivity of a few parts per billion (ppb). An additional important aspect of amino acid analyses of Martian samples is identifying and quantifying which compounds are present, and also distinguishing those produced abiotically from those synthesized by either extinct or extant life. Amino acid homochirality provides an unambiguous way of distinguishing between abiotic vs. biotic origins. Proteins made up of mixed D- and L-amino acids would not likely have been efficient catalysts in early organisms because they could not fold into bioactive configurations such as the a-helix. However, enzymes made up of all D-amino acids function just as well as those made up of only L-amino acids, but the two enzymes use the opposite stereoisomeric substrates. There are no biochemical reasons why L-amino acids would be favored over Damino acids. On Earth, the use of only L-amino acids in proteins by life is probably simply a matter of chance. We assume that if proteins and enzymes were a component of extinct or extant life on Mars, then amino acid homochirality would have been a requirement. However, the possibility that Martian life was (or is) based on D-amino acids would be equal to that based on L-amino acids. The detection of a nonracemic mixture of amino acids in a Martian sample would be strong evidence for the presence of an extinct or extant biota on Mars. The finding of an excess of D-amino acids would provide irrefutable evidence of unique Martian life that could not have been derived from seeding the planet with terrestrial life (or the seeding of the Earth with Martian life). In contrast, the presence of racemic amino acids, along with non-protein amino acids such as alpha-aminoisobutyric acid and isovaline, would be indicative

  17. RapA2 Is a Calcium-binding Lectin Composed of Two Highly Conserved Cadherin-like Domains That Specifically Recognize Rhizobium leguminosarum Acidic Exopolysaccharides*

    PubMed Central

    Abdian, Patricia L.; Caramelo, Julio J.; Ausmees, Nora; Zorreguieta, Angeles

    2013-01-01

    In silico analyses have revealed a conserved protein domain (CHDL) widely present in bacteria that has significant structural similarity to eukaryotic cadherins. A CHDL domain was shown to be present in RapA, a protein that is involved in autoaggregation of Rhizobium cells, biofilm formation, and adhesion to plant roots as shown by us and others. Structural similarity to cadherins suggested calcium-dependent oligomerization of CHDL domains as a mechanistic basis for RapA action. Here we show by circular dichroism spectroscopy, light scattering, isothermal titration calorimetry, and other methods that RapA2 from Rhizobium leguminosarum indeed exhibits a cadherin-like β-sheet conformation and that its proper folding and stability are dependent on the binding of one calcium ion per protein molecule. By further in silico analysis we also reveal that RapA2 consists of two CHDL domains and expand the range of CHDL-containing proteins in bacteria and archaea. However, light scattering assays at various concentrations of added calcium revealed that RapA2 formed neither homo-oligomers nor hetero-oligomers with RapB (a distinct CHDL protein), indicating that RapA2 does not mediate cellular interactions through a cadherin-like mechanism. Instead, we demonstrate that RapA2 interacts specifically with the acidic exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by R. leguminosarum in a calcium-dependent manner, sustaining a role of these proteins in the development of the biofilm matrix made of EPS. Because EPS binding by RapA2 can only be attributed to its two CHDL domains, we propose that RapA2 is a calcium-dependent lectin and that CHDL domains in various bacterial and archaeal proteins confer carbohydrate binding activity to these proteins. PMID:23235153

  18. Inhibition of calcium-independent phospholipase A2 prevents arachidonic acid incorporation and phospholipid remodeling in P388D1 macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Balsinde, J; Bianco, I D; Ackermann, E J; Conde-Frieboes, K; Dennis, E A

    1995-01-01

    Cellular levels of free arachidonic acid (AA) are controlled by a deacylation/reacylation cycle whereby the fatty acid is liberated by phospholipases and reincorporated by acyltransferases. We have found that the esterification of AA into membrane phospholipids is a Ca(2+)-independent process and that it is blocked up to 60-70% by a bromoenollactone (BEL) that is a selective inhibitor of a newly discovered Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in macrophages. The observed inhibition correlates with a decreased steady-state level of lysophospholipids as well as with the inhibition of the Ca(2+)-independent PLA2 activity in these cells. This inhibition is specific for the Ca(2+)-independent PLA2 in that neither group IV PLA2, group II PLA2, arachidonoyl-CoA synthetase, lysophospholipid:arachidonoyl-CoA acyltransferase, nor CoA-independent transacylase is affected by treatment with BEL. Moreover, two BEL analogs that are not inhibitors of the Ca(2+)-independent PLA2--namely a bromomethyl ketone and methyl-BEL--do not inhibit AA incorporation into phospholipids. Esterification of palmitic acid is only slightly affected by BEL, indicating that de novo synthetic pathways are not inhibited by BEL. Collectively, the data suggest that the Ca(2+)-independent PLA2 in P388D1 macrophages plays a major role in regulating the incorporation of AA into membrane phospholipids by providing the lysophospholipid acceptor employed in the acylation reaction. PMID:7667324

  19. All-trans retinoic acid attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via downregulating EphA2-EphrinA1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Leem, Ah Young; Shin, Mi Hwa; Douglas, Ivor S; Song, Joo Han; Chung, Kyung Soo; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Ji Ye; Kang, Young Ae; Chang, Joon; Kim, Young Sam; Park, Moo Suk

    2017-09-23

    The role of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in pulmonary fibrosis is relatively unknown, although this metabolite modulates cell differentiation, proliferation, and development. We aimed to evaluate the role of ATRA in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and whether the mechanism involves EphA2-EphrinA1 and PI3K-Akt signaling. We evaluated three groups of mice: a control group (intraperitoneal DMSO injection 3 times weekly after PBS instillation), bleomycin group (intraperitoneal DMSO injection 3 times weekly after bleomycin instillation), and bleomycin + ATRA group (intraperitoneal ATRA injection 3 times weekly after bleomycin instillation). The cell counts and protein concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), changes in histopathology, Ashcroft score, hydroxyproline assay, expression of several signal pathway proteins including EphA2-EphrinA1, and PI3K-Akt, and cytokine levels were compared among the groups. We found that bleomycin significantly increased the protein concentration in the BALF, Ashcroft score in lung tissue, and hydroxyproline contents in lung lysates. Furthermore, bleomycin upregulated EphA2, EphrinA1, PI3K 110γ, Akt, IL-6 and TNF-α. However, administration of ATRA attenuated the upregulation of EphA2-EphrinA1 and PI3K-Akt after bleomycin instillation, and decreased pulmonary fibrosis. In addition, ATRA suppressed IL-6 and TNF-α production induced by bleomycin-induced injury. Collectively, these data suggest that ATRA attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis by regulating EphA2-EphrinA1 and PI3K-Akt signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Apolipoprotein A2 -265 T>C polymorphism interacts with dietary fatty acids intake to modulate inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Keramat, Laleh; Sadrzadeh-Yeganeh, Haleh; Sotoudeh, Gity; Zamani, Elham; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Mansoori, Anahita; Koohdani, Fariba

    2017-05-01

    Several investigations have been conducted regarding the interaction between Apolipoprotein A2 (APOA2) -265 T>C polymorphism and dietary intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) on obesity in healthy individuals or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2 DM) patients. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of this interaction on inflammatory markers in T2 DM patients. This is a comparative cross-sectional study on 180 T2 DM patients with known APOA2 genotype. Dietary intake was assessed by food-frequency questionnaire and serum levels of inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-18, pentraxin 3, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]) were measured. The subjects were dichotomized into "high" and "low" categories, based on the median dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and SFAs. The data were analyzed by analysis of covariance multivariate interaction model. In CC genotype, higher median intake of ω-3 PUFAs and MUFAs was associated with decreased serum levels of IL-18 and hs-CRP (P = 0.014 and 0.008, respectively). In T-allele carriers, higher median intake of SFAs was associated with increased serum hs-CRP level (P < 0.001). There was a significant relationship between APOA2 polymorphism and ω-3 PUFA intake on serum IL-18 level (P interaction = 0.03). Moreover, the relationship between this polymorphism and SFA and MUFA intake on serum hs-CRP level was statistically significant (P interaction = 0.03 and 0.024, respectively). In T2 DM patients, the dietary intake of antiinflammatory fatty acids, such as ω-3 PUFAs and MUFAs, could reduce the inflammatory effects associated with the CC genotype. In addition, proinflammatory fatty acids, such as SFAs, could overcome the antiinflammatory effect of the T-allele. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a Lys49-phospholipase A2 complexed with caffeic acid, a molecule with inhibitory properties against snake venoms

    PubMed Central

    Shimabuku, Patrícia S.; Fernandes, Carlos A. H.; Magro, Angelo J.; Costa, Tássia R.; Soares, Andreimar M.; Fontes, Marcos R. M.

    2011-01-01

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are one of the main components of bothropic venoms; in addition to their phospholipid hydrolysis action, they are involved in a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, including neurotoxicity, myo­toxicity and cardiotoxicity. Caffeic acid is an inhibitor that is present in several plants and is employed for the treatment of ophidian envenomations in the folk medicine of many developing countries; as bothropic snake bites are not efficiently neutralized by conventional serum therapy, it may be useful as an antivenom. In this work, the cocrystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the Lys49-PLA2 piratoxin I from Bothrops pirajai venom in the presence of the inhibitor caffeic acid (CA) are reported. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 1.65 Å resolution and the structure was solved by molecular-replacement techniques. The electron-density map unambiguously indicated the presence of three CA molecules that interact with the C-terminus of the protein. This is the first time a ligand has been observed bound to this region and is in agreement with various experiments previously reported in the literature. PMID:21301098

  2. Postprandial lysophospholipid suppresses hepatic fatty acid oxidation: the molecular link between group 1B phospholipase A2 and diet-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Labonté, Eric D.; Pfluger, Paul T.; Cash, James G.; Kuhel, David G.; Roja, Juan C.; Magness, Daniel P.; Jandacek, Ronald J.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Hui, David Y.

    2010-01-01

    Decrease in fat catabolic rate on consuming a high-fat diet contributes to diet-induced obesity. This study used group 1B phospholipase A2 (Pla2g1b)-deficient mice, which are resistant to hyperglycemia, to test the hypothesis that Pla2g1b and its lipolytic product lysophospholipid suppress hepatic fat utilization and energy metabolism in promoting diet-induced obesity. The metabolic consequences of hypercaloric diet, including body weight gain, energy expenditure, and fatty acid oxidation, were compared between Pla2g1b+/+ and Pla2g1b−/− mice. The Pla2g1b−/− mice displayed normal energy balance when fed chow, but were resistant to obesity when challenged with a hypercaloric diet. Obesity resistance in Pla2g1b−/− mice is due to their ability to maintain elevated energy expenditure and core body temperature when subjected to hypercaloric diet, which was not observed in Pla2g1b+/+ mice. The Pla2g1b−/− mice also displayed increased postprandial hepatic fat utilization due to increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α, PPAR-δ, PPAR-γ, cd36/Fat, and Ucp2, which coincided with reduced postprandial plasma lysophospholipid levels. Lysophospholipids produced by Pla2g1b hydrolysis suppress hepatic fat utilization and down-regulate energy expenditure, thereby preventing metabolically beneficial adaptation to a high-fat diet exposure in promoting diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes.—Labonté, E. D., Pfluger, P. T., Cash, J. G., Kuhel, D. G., Rojas, J. C., Magness, D. P., Jandacek, R. J., Tschöp, M. H., Hui, D. Y. Postprandial lysophospholipid suppresses hepatic fatty acid oxidation: the molecular link between group 1B phospholipase A2 and diet-induced obesity. PMID:20215528

  3. Soy-dairy protein blend and whey protein ingestion after resistance exercise increases amino acid transport and transporter expression in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Reidy, P T; Walker, D K; Dickinson, J M; Gundermann, D M; Drummond, M J; Timmerman, K L; Cope, M B; Mukherjea, R; Jennings, K; Volpi, E; Rasmussen, B B

    2014-06-01

    Increasing amino acid availability (via infusion or ingestion) at rest or postexercise enhances amino acid transport into human skeletal muscle. It is unknown whether alterations in amino acid availability, from ingesting different dietary proteins, can enhance amino acid transport rates and amino acid transporter (AAT) mRNA expression. We hypothesized that the prolonged hyperaminoacidemia from ingesting a blend of proteins with different digestion rates postexercise would enhance amino acid transport into muscle and AAT expression compared with the ingestion of a rapidly digested protein. In a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, we studied 16 young adults at rest and after acute resistance exercise coupled with postexercise (1 h) ingestion of either a (soy-dairy) protein blend or whey protein. Phenylalanine net balance and transport rate into skeletal muscle were measured using stable isotopic methods in combination with femoral arteriovenous blood sampling and muscle biopsies obtained at rest and 3 and 5 h postexercise. Phenylalanine transport into muscle and mRNA expression of select AATs [system L amino acid transporter 1/solute-linked carrier (SLC) 7A5, CD98/SLC3A2, system A amino acid transporter 2/SLC38A2, proton-assisted amino acid transporter 1/SLC36A1, cationic amino acid transporter 1/SLC7A1] increased to a similar extent in both groups (P < 0.05). However, the ingestion of the protein blend resulted in a prolonged and positive net phenylalanine balance during postexercise recovery compared with whey protein (P < 0.05). Postexercise myofibrillar protein synthesis increased similarly between groups. We conclude that, while both protein sources enhanced postexercise AAT expression, transport into muscle, and myofibrillar protein synthesis, postexercise ingestion of a protein blend results in a slightly prolonged net amino acid balance across the leg compared with whey protein. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Soy-dairy protein blend and whey protein ingestion after resistance exercise increases amino acid transport and transporter expression in human skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Reidy, P. T.; Walker, D. K.; Dickinson, J. M.; Gundermann, D. M.; Drummond, M. J.; Timmerman, K. L.; Cope, M. B.; Mukherjea, R.; Jennings, K.; Volpi, E.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing amino acid availability (via infusion or ingestion) at rest or postexercise enhances amino acid transport into human skeletal muscle. It is unknown whether alterations in amino acid availability, from ingesting different dietary proteins, can enhance amino acid transport rates and amino acid transporter (AAT) mRNA expression. We hypothesized that the prolonged hyperaminoacidemia from ingesting a blend of proteins with different digestion rates postexercise would enhance amino acid transport into muscle and AAT expression compared with the ingestion of a rapidly digested protein. In a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, we studied 16 young adults at rest and after acute resistance exercise coupled with postexercise (1 h) ingestion of either a (soy-dairy) protein blend or whey protein. Phenylalanine net balance and transport rate into skeletal muscle were measured using stable isotopic methods in combination with femoral arteriovenous blood sampling and muscle biopsies obtained at rest and 3 and 5 h postexercise. Phenylalanine transport into muscle and mRNA expression of select AATs [system L amino acid transporter 1/solute-linked carrier (SLC) 7A5, CD98/SLC3A2, system A amino acid transporter 2/SLC38A2, proton-assisted amino acid transporter 1/SLC36A1, cationic amino acid transporter 1/SLC7A1] increased to a similar extent in both groups (P < 0.05). However, the ingestion of the protein blend resulted in a prolonged and positive net phenylalanine balance during postexercise recovery compared with whey protein (P < 0.05). Postexercise myofibrillar protein synthesis increased similarly between groups. We conclude that, while both protein sources enhanced postexercise AAT expression, transport into muscle, and myofibrillar protein synthesis, postexercise ingestion of a protein blend results in a slightly prolonged net amino acid balance across the leg compared with whey protein. PMID:24699854

  5. Dietary choline and phospholipid supplementation enhanced docosahexaenoic acid enrichment in egg yolk of laying hens fed a 2% Schizochytrium powder-added diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Zhang, H J; Wang, X C; Wu, S G; Wang, J; Xu, L; Qi, G H

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary phospholipid supplementation on laying hen performance, egg quality, and the fatty acid profile of egg yolks from hens fed a 2% Schizochytrium powder diet. Three-hundred-sixty 28-wk-old Hy-line W-36 laying hens were randomly allocated to one of the 5 dietary treatments, each treatment with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. All diets included 2% Schizochytrium powder (docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], 137.09 mg/g). The control group was not supplemented with any additional phospholipids, whereas the other 4 experimental diets were supplemented with 1,000 mg/kg choline (CHO), 1,000 mg/kg monoethanolamine (MEA), 1,000 mg/kg lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), or 500 mg/kg LPC + 500 mg/kg MEA (LPC + MEA). The experimental diets were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 11.15 MJ/kg) and isonitrogenous (crude protein, 16.60%). The feeding trial lasted 28 days. Laying hen performance and egg quality were not affected (P > 0.05) by the diets used. The monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) level was reduced in the LPC group at d 28 (P < 0.01), whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) level was increased (P < 0.05). The omega-6 (n-6) PUFA level of the egg yolks in the LPC group had a trend to increase in comparison to the control (P = 0.07). The CHO and LPC groups had higher omega-3 (n-3) PUFA and DHA levels and lower n-6/n-3 ratios than the other groups at d 28 (P < 0.01). The DHA content in egg yolk reached a plateau after the laying hens consumed the experimental diets for 14 days, and higher yolk DHA contents were observed in the CHO and LPC groups as compared with the other groups at d 14. It was concluded that dietary choline supplementation for more than 14 d enhanced egg yolk enrichment with n-3 PUFA and DHA when laying hen diets were supplemented with 2% Schizochytrium powder. All the diets had no adverse effect on hen performance, egg quality, or egg components under the experimental condition. © 2017 Poultry Science

  6. Group X secreted phospholipase A2 proenzyme is matured by a furin-like proprotein convertase and releases arachidonic acid inside of human HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Jemel, Ikram; Ii, Hiromi; Oslund, Rob C; Payré, Christine; Dabert-Gay, Anne-Sophie; Douguet, Dominique; Chargui, Khaoula; Scarzello, Sabine; Gelb, Michael H; Lambeau, Gérard

    2011-10-21

    Among mammalian secreted phospholipases A(2) (sPLA(2)s), group X sPLA(2) has the most potent hydrolyzing activity toward phosphatidylcholine and is involved in arachidonic acid (AA) release. Group X sPLA(2) is produced as a proenzyme and contains a short propeptide of 11 amino acids ending with a dibasic motif, suggesting cleavage by proprotein convertases. Although the removal of this propeptide is clearly required for enzymatic activity, the cellular location and the protease(s) involved in proenzyme conversion are unknown. Here we have analyzed the maturation of group X sPLA(2) in HEK293 cells, which have been extensively used to analyze sPLA(2)-induced AA release. Using recombinant mouse (PromGX) and human (ProhGX) proenzymes; HEK293 cells transfected with cDNAs coding for full-length ProhGX, PromGX, and propeptide mutants; and various permeable and non-permeable sPLA(2) inhibitors and protease inhibitors, we demonstrate that group X sPLA(2) is mainly converted intracellularly and releases AA before externalization from the cell. Most strikingly, the exogenous proenzyme does not elicit AA release, whereas the transfected proenzyme does elicit AA release in a way insensitive to non-permeable sPLA(2) inhibitors. In transfected cells, a permeable proprotein convertase inhibitor, but not a non-permeable one, prevents group X sPLA(2) maturation and partially blocks AA release. Mutations at the dibasic motif of the propeptide indicate that the last basic residue is required and sufficient for efficient maturation and AA release. All together, these results argue for the intracellular maturation of group X proenzyme in HEK293 cells by a furin-like proprotein convertase, leading to intracellular release of AA during secretion.

  7. Group X Secreted Phospholipase A2 Proenzyme Is Matured by a Furin-like Proprotein Convertase and Releases Arachidonic Acid inside of Human HEK293 Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Jemel, Ikram; Ii, Hiromi; Oslund, Rob C.; Payré, Christine; Dabert-Gay, Anne-Sophie; Douguet, Dominique; Chargui, Khaoula; Scarzello, Sabine; Gelb, Michael H.; Lambeau, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    Among mammalian secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s), group X sPLA2 has the most potent hydrolyzing activity toward phosphatidylcholine and is involved in arachidonic acid (AA) release. Group X sPLA2 is produced as a proenzyme and contains a short propeptide of 11 amino acids ending with a dibasic motif, suggesting cleavage by proprotein convertases. Although the removal of this propeptide is clearly required for enzymatic activity, the cellular location and the protease(s) involved in proenzyme conversion are unknown. Here we have analyzed the maturation of group X sPLA2 in HEK293 cells, which have been extensively used to analyze sPLA2-induced AA release. Using recombinant mouse (PromGX) and human (ProhGX) proenzymes; HEK293 cells transfected with cDNAs coding for full-length ProhGX, PromGX, and propeptide mutants; and various permeable and non-permeable sPLA2 inhibitors and protease inhibitors, we demonstrate that group X sPLA2 is mainly converted intracellularly and releases AA before externalization from the cell. Most strikingly, the exogenous proenzyme does not elicit AA release, whereas the transfected proenzyme does elicit AA release in a way insensitive to non-permeable sPLA2 inhibitors. In transfected cells, a permeable proprotein convertase inhibitor, but not a non-permeable one, prevents group X sPLA2 maturation and partially blocks AA release. Mutations at the dibasic motif of the propeptide indicate that the last basic residue is required and sufficient for efficient maturation and AA release. All together, these results argue for the intracellular maturation of group X proenzyme in HEK293 cells by a furin-like proprotein convertase, leading to intracellular release of AA during secretion. PMID:21878635

  8. Mammalian target of rapamycin signalling modulates amino acid uptake by regulating transporter cell surface abundance in primary human trophoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Fredrick J; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    Abnormal fetal growth increases the risk for perinatal complications and predisposes for the development of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in life. Emerging evidence suggests that changes in placental amino acid transport directly contribute to altered fetal growth. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating placental amino acid transport are largely unknown. Here we combined small interfering (si) RNA-mediated silencing approaches with protein expression/localization and functional studies in cultured primary human trophoblast cells to test the hypothesis that mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2) regulate amino acid transporters by post-translational mechanisms. Silencing raptor (inhibits mTORC1) or rictor (inhibits mTORC2) markedly decreased basal System A and System L amino acid transport activity but had no effect on growth factor-stimulated amino acid uptake. Simultaneous inhibition of mTORC1 and 2 completely inhibited both basal and growth factor-stimulated amino acid transport activity. In contrast, mTOR inhibition had no effect on serotonin transport. mTORC1 or mTORC2 silencing markedly decreased the plasma membrane expression of specific System A (SNAT2, SLC38A2) and System L (LAT1, SLC7A5) transporter isoforms without affecting global protein expression. In conclusion, mTORC1 and mTORC2 regulate human trophoblast amino acid transporters by modulating the cell surface abundance of specific transporter isoforms. This is the first report showing regulation of amino acid transport by mTORC2. Because placental mTOR activity and amino acid transport are decreased in human intrauterine growth restriction our data are consistent with the possibility that dysregulation of placental mTOR plays an important role in the development of abnormal fetal growth.

  9. The Use of Gel Electrophoresis to Study the Reactions of Activated Amino Acids with Oligonucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zieboll, Gerhard; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1994-01-01

    We have used gel electrophoresis to study the primary covalent addition of amino acids to oligonu-cleotides or their analogs and the subsequent addition of further molecules of the amino acids to generate peptides covalently linked to the oligonucleotides. We have surveyed the reactions of a variety of amino acids with the phosphoramidates derived from oligonucleotide 5 inches phosphates and ethylenediamine. We find that arginine and amino acids can interact with oligonucleotidesl through stacking interactions react most efficiently. D- and L-amino acids give indistinguishable families of products.

  10. IgE binding to peanut allergens is inhibited by combined D-aspartic and D-glutamic acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    D-amino acids (D-aas) are reported to bind to IgE antibodies from people with allergy and asthma. The objectives of this study were to determine if D-aas bind or inhibit IgE binding to peanut allergens, and if they are more effective than L-amino acids (L-aas) in this respect. Several D-aa cocktails...

  11. D-Amino Acids in Living Higher Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Noriko

    2002-04-01

    The homochirality of biological amino acids (L-amino acids) and of the RNA/DNA backbone (D-ribose) might have become established before the origin of life. It has been considered that D-amino acids and L-sugars were eliminated on the primitive Earth. Therefore, the presence and function of D-amino acids in living organisms have not been studied except for D-amino acids in the cell walls of microorganisms. However, D-amino acids were recently found in various living higher organisms in the form of free amino acids, peptides, and proteins. Free D-aspartate and D-serine are present and may have important physiological functions in mammals. D-amino acids in peptides are well known as opioid peptides and neuropeptides. In protein, D-aspartate residues increase during aging. This review deals with recent advances in the study of D-amino acids in higher organisms.

  12. Stereoconversion of amino acids and peptides in uryl-pendant binol schiff bases.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyunjung; Nandhakumar, Raju; Hong, Jooyeon; Ham, Sihyun; Chin, Jik; Kim, Kwan Mook

    2008-01-01

    (S)-2-Hydroxy-2'-(3-phenyluryl-benzyl)-1,1'-binaphthyl-3-carboxaldehyde (1) forms Schiff bases with a wide range of nonderivatized amino acids, including unnatural ones. Multiple hydrogen bonds, including resonance-assisted ones, fix the whole orientation of the imine and provoke structural rigidity around the imine C==N bond. Due to the structural difference and the increase in acidity of the alpha proton of the amino acid, the imine formed with an L-amino acid (1-l-aa) is converted into the imine of the D-amino acid (1-D-aa), with a D/L ratio of more than 10 for most amino acids at equilibrium. N-terminal amino acids in dipeptides are also predominantly epimerized to the D form upon imine formation with 1. Density functional theory calculations show that 1-D-Ala is more stable than 1-L-Ala by 1.64 kcal mol(-1), a value that is in qualitative agreement with the experimental result. Deuterium exchange of the alpha proton of alanine in the imine form was studied by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and the results support a stepwise mechanism in the L-into-D conversion rather than a concerted one; that is, deprotonation and protonation take place in a sequential manner. The deprotonation rate of L-Ala is approximately 16 times faster than that of D-Ala. The protonation step, however, appears to favor L-amino acid production, which prevents a much higher predominance of the D form in the imine. Receptor 1 and the predominantly D-form amino acid can be recovered from the imine by simple extraction under acidic conditions. Hence, 1 is a useful auxiliary to produce D-amino acids of industrial interest by the conversion of naturally occurring L-amino acids or relatively easily obtainable racemic amino acids.

  13. Distinctive Roles of D-Amino Acids in the Homochiral World: Chirality of Amino Acids Modulates Mammalian Physiology and Pathology.

    PubMed

    Sasabe, Jumpei; Suzuki, Masataka

    2018-05-22

    Living organisms enantioselectively employ L-amino acids as the molecular architecture of protein synthesized in the ribosome. Although L-amino acids are dominantly utilized in most biological processes, accumulating evidence points to the distinctive roles of D-amino acids in non-ribosomal physiology. Among the three domains of life, bacteria have the greatest capacity to produce a wide variety of D-amino acids. In contrast, archaea and eukaryotes are thought generally to synthesize only two kinds of D-amino acids: D-serine and D-aspartate. In mammals, D-serine is critical for neurotransmission as an endogenous coagonist of N-methyl D-aspartate receptors. Additionally, D-aspartate is associated with neurogenesis and endocrine systems. Furthermore, recognition of D-amino acids originating in bacteria is linked to systemic and mucosal innate immunity. Among the roles played by D-amino acids in human pathology, the dysfunction of neurotransmission mediated by D-serine is implicated in psychiatric and neurological disorders. Non-enzymatic conversion of L-aspartate or L-serine residues to their D-configurations is involved in age-associated protein degeneration. Moreover, the measurement of plasma or urinary D-/L-serine or D-/L-aspartate levels may have diagnostic or prognostic value in the treatment of kidney diseases. This review aims to summarize current understanding of D-amino-acid-associated biology with a major focus on mammalian physiology and pathology.

  14. Hyperforin induces Ca(2+)-independent arachidonic acid release in human platelets by facilitating cytosolic phospholipase A(2) activation through select phospholipid interactions.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Marika; Lopez, Jakob J; Pergola, Carlo; Feisst, Christian; Pawelczik, Sven; Jakobsson, Per-Johan; Sorg, Bernd L; Glaubitz, Clemens; Steinhilber, Dieter; Werz, Oliver

    2010-04-01

    Here, we investigated the modulation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2))-mediated arachidonic acid (AA) release by the polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol hyperforin. Hyperforin increased AA release from human platelets up to 2.6 fold (maximal effect at 10microM) versus unstimulated cells, which was blocked by cPLA(2)alpha-inhibition, and induced translocation of cPLA(2) to a membrane compartment. Interestingly, these stimulatory effects of hyperforin were even more pronounced after depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) by EDTA plus BAPTA/AM. Hyperforin induced phosphorylation of cPLA(2) at Ser505 and activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and inhibition of p38 MAPK by SB203580 prevented cPLA(2) phosphorylation. However, neither AA release nor translocation of cPLA(2) was abrogated by SB203580. In cell-free assays using liposomes prepared from different lipids, hyperforin failed to stimulate phospholipid hydrolysis by isolated cPLA(2) in the presence of Ca(2+). However, when Ca(2+) was omitted, hyperforin caused a prominent increase in cPLA(2) activity using liposomes composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine but not of 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PAPC) unless the PAPC liposomes were enriched in cholesterol (20 to 50%). Finally, two-dimensional (1)H-MAS-NMR analysis visualized the directed insertion of hyperforin into POPC liposomes. Together, hyperforin, through insertion into phospholipids, may facilitate cPLA(2) activation by enabling its access towards select lipid membranes independent of Ca(2+) ions. Such Ca(2+)- and phosphorylation-independent mechanism of cPLA(2) activation may apply also to other membrane-interfering molecules. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Lipid droplets induced by secreted phospholipase A2 and unsaturated fatty acids protect breast cancer cells from nutrient and lipotoxic stress.

    PubMed

    Jarc, Eva; Kump, Ana; Malavašič, Petra; Eichmann, Thomas O; Zimmermann, Robert; Petan, Toni

    2018-03-01

    Cancer cells driven by the Ras oncogene scavenge unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) from their environment to counter nutrient stress. The human group X secreted phospholipase A 2 (hGX sPLA 2 ) releases FAs from membrane phospholipids, stimulates lipid droplet (LD) biogenesis in Ras-driven triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells and enables their survival during starvation. Here we examined the role of LDs, induced by hGX sPLA 2 and unsaturated FAs, in protection of TNBC cells against nutrient stress. We found that hGX sPLA 2 releases a mixture of unsaturated FAs, including ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), from TNBC cells. Starvation-induced breakdown of LDs induced by low micromolar concentrations of unsaturated FAs, including PUFAs, was associated with protection from cell death. Interestingly, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) contributed to LD breakdown during starvation, but it was not required for the pro-survival effects of hGX sPLA 2 and unsaturated FAs. High micromolar concentrations of PUFAs, but not OA, induced oxidative stress-dependent cell death in TNBC cells. Inhibition of triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis suppressed LD biogenesis and potentiated PUFA-induced cell damage. On the contrary, stimulation of LD biogenesis by hGX sPLA 2 and suppression of LD breakdown by ATGL depletion reduced PUFA-induced oxidative stress and cell death. Finally, lipidomic analyses revealed that sequestration of PUFAs in LDs by sPLA 2 -induced TAG remodelling and retention of PUFAs in LDs by inhibition of ATGL-mediated TAG lipolysis protect from PUFA lipotoxicity. LDs are thus antioxidant and pro-survival organelles that guard TNBC cells against nutrient and lipotoxic stress and emerge as attractive targets for novel therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The anti-inflammatory effects of Yunnan Baiyao are involved in regulation of the phospholipase A2/arachidonic acid metabolites pathways in acute inflammation rat model.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaobin; Zhang, Mingzhu; Chen, Lingxiang; Zhang, Wanli; Huang, Yu; Luo, Huazhen; Li, Ling; He, Hongbing

    2017-10-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine Yunnan Baiyao (YNB) has been reported to possess anti‑inflammatory properties, however its mechanism of action remains unclear. It was previously reported that YNB ameliorated depression of arachidonic acid (AA) levels in a rat model of collagen-induced arthritis. In the current study, the capacity of YNB to ameliorate inflammation was compared in carrageenan‑induced and AA‑induced acute inflammation of the rat paw with celecoxib and mizolastine, respectively (n=24 per group). The capacity of YNB to affect the phospholipase A2 (PLA2)/AA pathway (using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction) and release of inflammatory lipid mediators (by ELISA) were investigated. Celecoxib ameliorated carrageenan‑induced paw edema, and mizolastine ameliorated AA‑induced rat paw edema. YNB alleviated paw edema and inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration in the two models. YNB inhibited production of 5‑LOX AA metabolite leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and suppressed expression of 5‑LOX, cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2), 5‑LOX‑activating protein, and LTB4 receptor mRNA in the AA‑induced inflammation model (P<0.05). YNB Inhibited the production of the COX‑2 AA metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and suppressed expression of COX‑2, cPLA2, PGE2 mRNA in the carrageenan‑induced inflammation mode (P<0.05). Taken together, the data suggest that modulation of COX and LOX pathways in AA metabolism represent a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism of YNB.

  17. Conjugated linoleic acid-enriched butter improved memory and up-regulated phospholipase A2 encoding-genes in rat brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Gama, Marco A S; Raposo, Nádia R B; Mury, Fábio B; Lopes, Fernando C F; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Talib, Leda L; Gattaz, Wagner F

    2015-10-01

    Reduced phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity has been reported in blood cells and in postmortem brains of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), and there is evidence that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) modulates the activity of PLA2 groups in non-brain tissues. As CLA isomers were shown to be actively incorporated and metabolized in the brains of rats, we hypothesized that feeding a diet naturally enriched in CLA would affect the activity and expression of Pla 2 -encoding genes in rat brain tissue, with possible implications for memory. To test this hypothesis, Wistar rats were trained for the inhibitory avoidance task and fed a commercial diet (control) or experimental diets containing either low CLA- or CLA-enriched butter for 4 weeks. After this period, the rats were tested for memory retrieval and killed for tissue collection. Hippocampal expression of 19 Pla 2 genes was evaluated by qPCR, and activities of PLA2 groups (cPLA2, iPLA2, and sPLA2) were determined by radioenzymatic assay. Rats fed the high CLA diet had increased hippocampal mRNA levels for specific PLA2 isoforms (iPla 2 g6γ; cPla 2 g4a, sPla 2 g3, sPla 2 g1b, and sPla 2 g12a) and higher enzymatic activity of all PLA2 groups as compared to those fed the control and the low CLA diet. The increment in PLA2 activities correlated significantly with memory enhancement, as assessed by increased latency in the step-down inhibitory avoidance task after 4 weeks of treatment (rs = 0.69 for iPLA2, P < 0.001; rs = 0.81 for cPLA2, P < 0.001; and rs = 0.69 for sPLA2, P < 0.001). In face of the previous reports showing reduced PLA2 activity in AD brains, the present findings suggest that dairy products enriched in cis-9, trans-11 CLA may be useful in the treatment of this disease.

  18. Role of protein kinase C alpha in endothelin-1 stimulation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and arachidonic acid release in cultured cat iris sphincter smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Husain, S; Abdel-Latif, A A

    1998-05-20

    We have investigated the role and mechanism of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced arachidonic acid (AA) release in cat iris sphincter smooth muscle (CISM) cells. ET-1 increased AA release in a concentration (EC50=8 nM) and time-dependent (t1/2=1.2 min) manner. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), but not phospholipase C (PLC), is involved in the liberation of AA in the stimulated cells. This conclusion is supported by the findings that ET-1-induced AA release is inhibited by AACOCF3, quinacrine and manoalide, PLA2 inhibitors, but not by U-73122, a PLC inhibitor, or by RHC-80267, a diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor. A role for PKC in ET-1-induced AA release is supported by the findings that the phorbol ester, PDBu, increased AA release by 96%, that prolonged treatment of the cells with PDBu resulted in the selective down regulation of PKCalpha and the complete inhibition of ET-1-induced AA release, and that pretreatment of the cells with staurosporine or RO 31-8220, PKC inhibitors, blocked the ET-1-induced AA release. Gö-6976, a compound that inhibits PKCalpha and beta specifically, blocked ET-1-induced AA release in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 8 nM. Thymeatoxin (0.1 microM), a specific activator of PKCalpha, beta, and gamma induced a 150% increase in AA release. Treatment of the cells with ET-1 caused significant translocation of PKCalpha, but not PKCbeta, from cytosol to the particulate fraction. These results suggest that PKCalpha plays a critical role in ET-1-induced AA release in these cells. Immunochemical analysis revealed the presence of cPLA2, p42mapk and p44mapk in the CISM cells. The data presented are consistent with a role for PKCalpha, but not for p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), in cPLA2 activation and AA release in ET-1-stimulated CISM cells since: (i) the PKC inhibitor, RO 31-8220, inhibited ET-1-induced AA release, cPLA2 phosphorylation and cPLA2 activity, but had no inhibitory

  19. Effects of prostaglandin F(2alpha)and carbachol on MAP kinases, cytosolic phospholipase A(2)and arachidonic acid release in cat iris sphincter smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Husain, S; Abdel-Latif, A A

    2001-05-01

    The signal transduction pathways initiated by Ca(2+)-mobilizing agonists, such as prostaglandin F(2alpha)(PGF(2alpha)) and carbachol (CCh), leading to activation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2)(cPLA(2)) and arachidonic acid (AA) release in a wide variety of tissues remain obscure. To further define the role of protein kinases in receptor mediated stimulation of cPLA(2)and consequently AA release we have investigated the role of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and protein kinase C (PKC) in PGF(2alpha)- and CCh-induced cPLA(2)phosphorylation and AA release in cat iris sphincter smooth muscle (CISM) cells. The cells were prelabeled with [(3)H]AA for 24 hr and incubated in the absence or presence of the agonist for 5-10 min as indicated. MAP kinases activities and cPLA(2)phosphorylation were determined in immunoprecipitates obtained by using anti-p38 MAP kinase and anti-cPLA(2)antibodies. We found that: (a) PGF(2alpha)and CCh increased p38 MAP kinase activity by 197 and 215%, respectively, and increased p42/p44 MAP kinase activity by 200 and 125%, respectively. (b) SB202190, a p38 MAP kinase specific inhibitor, inhibited PGF(2alpha)- and CCh-induced cPLA(2)phosphorylation by 92 and 85%, respectively, and AA release by 62 and 78%, respectively. (c) PD98059, a p42/p44 MAP kinase inhibitor, inhibited CCh-induced cPLA(2)phosphorylation by 70% and AA release by 71%, but had no effect on that of PGF(2alpha). (d) Inhibition of PKC activity by RO 31-8220 inhibited both PGF(2alpha)- and CCh-stimulation of p38 MAP kinase, p42/p44 MAP kinases and cPLA(2)phosphorylation. We conclude from these results that in CISM cells PGF(2alpha)-induced cPLA(2)phosphorylation and AA release is mediated through p38 MAP kinase, but not through p42/p44 MAP kinases, whereas that of CCh is mediated through both p38 MAP kinase and p42/p44 MAP kinases. These effects of PGF(2alpha)and CCh are regulated by the MAP kinases in a PKC-dependent manner. Studies aimed at elucidating the role of

  20. Self-Controlled Synthesis of Hyperbranched Poly(etherketone)s from A2 + B3 Approach in Poly(phosphoric acid)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    aromatic keto -band arisen from carboxylic acids, which could be part of terminal groups of HPEKs, ranged from 1708 to 1719 cm1. The carbonyl bands from...1999, 143 , 1–34; (d) Inoue, K. Prog Polym Sci 2000, 25, 453–571; (e) Voit, B. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 2000, 36, 2505–2525; (f) Hult, A

  1. Distribution, industrial applications, and enzymatic synthesis of D-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiuzhen; Ma, Qinyuan; Zhu, Hailiang

    2015-04-01

    D-Amino acids exist widely in microbes, plants, animals, and food and can be applied in pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetics. Because of their widespread applications in industry, D-amino acids have recently received more and more attention. Enzymes including D-hydantoinase, N-acyl-D-amino acid amidohydrolase, D-amino acid amidase, D-aminopeptidase, D-peptidase, L-amino acid oxidase, D-amino acid aminotransferase, and D-amino acid dehydrogenase can be used for D-amino acids synthesis by kinetic resolution or asymmetric amination. In this review, the distribution, industrial applications, and enzymatic synthesis methods are summarized. And, among all the current enzymatic methods, D-amino acid dehydrogenase method not only produces D-amino acid by a one-step reaction but also takes environment and atom economics into consideration; therefore, it is deserved to be paid more attention.

  2. Echinococcus granulosus: specificity of amino acid transport systems in protoscoleces.

    PubMed

    Jeffs, S A; Arme, C

    1987-08-01

    Protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus absorb the L-amino acids proline, methionine, leucine, alanine, serine, phenylalanine, lysine and glutamic acid by a combination of mediated transport and diffusion. All eight amino acids were accumulated against a concentration gradient. Comparison of Kt and Vmax values suggests that a low affinity for a particular compound is compensated for by a relatively larger number of transport sites for that compound. Four systems serve for the transport of the eight substrates studied: 2 for neutral (EgN1, EgN2) and 1 each for acidic (EgA) and basic (EgB) amino acids. All eight amino acids are incorporated into protein to varying degrees and substantial portions of absorbed L-alanine and L-methionine are metabolized into other compounds.

  3. Efficacy of a 2-month dietary supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids in dry eye induced by scopolamine in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Viau, Sabrina; Maire, Marie-Annick; Pasquis, Bruno; Grégoire, Stéphane; Acar, Niyazi; Bron, Alain M; Bretillon, Lionel; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine P; Joffre, Corinne

    2009-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of dietary n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in dry eye in a rat model. Female Lewis rats were fed with diets containing (1) gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), (2) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or (3) GLA + EPA + DHA, for 2 months before the induction of dry eye using a continuous delivery of scopolamine and during scopolamine treatment. Two, 10 and 28 days after dry-eye induction, clinical signs of corneal dryness were evaluated in vivo using fluorescein staining. MHC II expression and mucin rMuc5AC production in the conjunctival epithelium were evaluated by immunostaining. Lipids and prostaglandins (PGs) E(1) and E(2) were analysed from the exorbital lacrimal gland (LG). Dietary PUFAs minimised the occurrence of corneal keratitis 28 days after induction of dry eye. The decrease in mucin production observed on the conjunctival epithelium was partially prevented by EPA + DHA supplementation after 2 days of scopolamine treatment, as well as by GLA and GLA + EPA + DHA diets after 10 days of treatment. The overexpression of MHC II in the conjunctival epithelium caused by dry eye induction was significantly reduced only with the GLA + EPA + DHA diet after 28 days of treatment. Dietary PUFAs were incorporated into phospholipids of the exorbital LG. Induction of dry eye was associated with a significant increase in PGE(1) and PGE(2) levels in the exorbital LG, which was inhibited by dietary EPA + DHA at 10 days (for PGE(2)) and 28 days (for PGE(1)). Dietary GLA, EPA and DHA significantly interfered with lipid homeostasis in the exorbital LG and partially prevented the course of dry eye. In particular, our results demonstrate the efficacy of the combination of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs.

  4. The effect of ω-fatty acids on the expression of phospholipase A2 group 2A in human gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Shariati, Mahboube; Aghaei, Mahmoud; Movahedian, Ahmad; Somi, Mohammad Hosein; Dolatkhah, Homayun; Aghazade, Ahmad Mirza

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may have an inhibitory role in carcinogenesis. It was previously shown that PLA2 group 2A (PLA2G2A) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression is associated with less frequent metastasis and longer survival in gastric adenocarcinoma. This study intends to investigate the effect of PUFAs on the expression of PLA2G2A in patients with gastric cancer. Thirty-four patients with gastric cancer (GC) were randomly divided into two groups. The first group received cisplatin medication. The second group received cisplatin medication and supplements of ω-fatty acids for three courses. The total RNA was extracted from the tissues and cDNA was synthesized. The gene expression of PLA2G2A was evaluated by the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. To confirm the changes in gene expression, frozen section was utilized. The frozen tissue samples were sectioned and stained using the immunohistochemistry technique. After chemotherapy and chemotherapy plus supplement, the relative mean of PLA2G2A gene expression increased 1.5 ± 0.5-fold and 7.4 ± 2.6-fold, respectively ( P = 0.006). The relative mean of gene expression in patients who received cisplatin and ω-fatty acids supplement increased more significantly (7.5 ± 3.3-fold) than in patients who received only cisplatin ( P = 0.016). It was found that PUFAs increased the gene and protein expression of PLA2G2A in gastric cancer. Concerning the fact that studies reveal protective function of PLA2G2A in gastric cancer, it is suggested that increased expression of PLA2G2A is helpful. Furthermore, PUFAs can be considered as a useful therapeutic supplement for patients with gastric cancer.

  5. A 2D Metal-Organic Framework with a Flexible Cyclohexane-1,2,5,6-tetracarboxylic Acid Ligand: Synthesis, Characterization and Photoluminescent Property

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rongming; Zhang, Jian; Li, Lijuan

    2009-01-01

    A novel metal-organic framework, [Zn2(OH)(Hcht)(4,4′-bpy)]n·4nH2O (1) (H4cht = cyclohexane-1,2,4,5-tetracarboxylic acid and 4,4′-bpy = 4,4′-bipyridine), was synthesized by the hydrothermal reaction of Zn(NO3)2.6H2O, 4,4′-bipyridine, and cyclohexane-1,2,4,5-tetracarboxylic acid in the presence of sodium carbonate. The complex was obtained by controlling the ratio of the starting materials and a reaction temperature at 120°C and was characterized by IR, X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, fluorescent spectrum, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Single-crystal X-ray investigation reveals that the structure features a two-dimensional framework with novel coordination mode of Hcht ligand and all Hcht ligands exclusively convert to a sole conformation in the complex. IR spectrum reveals the characteristic absorption peaks of asymmetric stretching vibrations that result from the protonated and deprotonated carboxyl groups,. Thermogravimetric analysis shows four clear courses of weight loss, which corresponds to the decomposition of different ligands. Fluorescent spectrum displays that complex 1 is a potential blue-luminescent material. PMID:20383315

  6. Delivery of extraterrestrial amino acids to the primitive Earth. Exposure experiments in Earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Barbier, B; Bertrand, M; Boillot, F; Chabin, A; Chaput, D; Henin, O; Brack, A

    1998-06-01

    A large collection of micrometeorites has been recently extracted from Antarctic old blue ice. In the 50 to 100 micrometers size range, the carbonaceous micrometeorites represent 80% of the samples and contain 2% of carbon. They might have brought more carbon to the surface of the primitive Earth than that involved in the present surficial biomass. Amino acids such as "-amino isobutyric acid have been identified in these Antarctic micrometeorites. Enantiomeric excesses of L-amino acids have been detected in the Murchison meteorite. A large fraction of homochiral amino acids might have been delivered to the primitive Earth via meteorites and micrometeorites. Space technology in Earth orbit offers a unique opportunity to study the behaviour of amino acids required for the development of primitive life when they are exposed to space conditions, either free or associated with tiny mineral grains mimicking the micrometeorites. Our objectives are to demonstrate that porous mineral material protects amino acids in space from photolysis and racemization (the conversion of L-amino acids into a mixture of L- and D-molecules) and to test whether photosensitive amino acids derivatives can polymerize in mineral grains under space conditions. The results obtained in BIOPAN-1 and BIOPAN-2 exposure experiments on board unmanned satellite FOTON are presented.

  7. Synthesis and Anti-microbial Activity of Novel Phosphatidylethanolamine-N-amino Acid Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Vijeetha, Tadla; Balakrishna, Marrapu; Karuna, Mallampalli Sri Lakshmi; Surya Koppeswara Rao, Bhamidipati Venkata; Prasad, Rachapudi Badari Narayana; Kumar, Koochana Pranay; Surya Narayana Murthy, Upadyaula

    2015-01-01

    The study involved synthesis of five novel amino acid derivatives of phosphatidylethanolamine isolated from egg yolk lecithin employing a three step procedure i) N-protection of L-amino acids with BOC anhydride in alkaline medium ii) condensation of - CO2H group of N-protected amino acid with free -NH2 of PE by a peptide linkage and iii) deprotection of N-protected group of amino acids to obtain phosphatidylethanolamine-N-amino acid derivatives in 60-75% yield. The five L-amino acids used were L glycine, L-valine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine and L-phenylalanine. The amino acid derivatives were screened for anti-baterial activity against B. subtilis, S. aureus, P. aeroginosa and E. coli taking Streptomycin as reference compound and anti-fungal activity against C. albicans, S. cervisiae, A. niger taking AmphotericinB as reference compound. All the amino acid derivatives exhibited extraordinary anti-bacterial activities about 3 folds or comparable to Streptomycin and moderate or no anti-fungal activity against Amphotericin-B.

  8. Computational investigations of physicochemical, pharmacokinetic, toxicological properties and molecular docking of betulinic acid, a constituent of Corypha taliera (Roxb.) with Phospholipase A2 (PLA2).

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Firoz; Nahar, Nusrat; Rashid, Ridwan Bin; Chowdhury, Akhtaruzzaman; Rashid, Mohammad A

    2018-02-02

    Betulinic acid (BA) is a natural triterpenoid compound and exhibits a wide range of biological and medicinal properties including anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, this theoretical investigation is performed to evaluate (a) physicochemical properties such as acid dissociation constant (pKa), distribution coefficient (logD), partition coefficient (logP), aqueous solubility (logS), solvation free energy, dipole moment, polarizability, hyperpolarizability and different reactivity descriptors, (b) pharmacokinetic properties like human intestinal absorption (HIA), cellular permeability, skin permeability (P Skin ), plasma protein binding (PPB), penetration of the blood brain barrier (BBB), (c) toxicological properties including mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, risk of inhibition of hERG gene and (d) molecular mechanism of anti-inflammatory action which will aid the development of analytical method and the synthesis of BA derivatives. The physicochemical properties were calculated using MarvinSketch 15.6.29 and Gaussian 09 software package. The pharmacokinetic and toxicological properties were calculated on online server PreADMET. Further, the molecular docking study was conducted on AutoDock vina in PyRx 0.8. The aqueous solubility increased with increasing pH due to the ionization of BA leading to decrease in distribution coefficient. The solvation energies in water, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), acetonitrile, n-octanol, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride were - 41.74 kJ/mol, - 53.80 kJ/mol, - 66.27 kJ/mol, - 69.64 kJ/mol, - 65.96 kJ/mol and - 60.13 kJ/mol, respectively. From the results of polarizability and softness, it was clear that BA is less stable and hence, kinetically more reactive in water. BA demonstrated good human intestinal absorption (HIA) and moderate cellular permeability. Further, BA also exhibited positive CNS activity due to high permeability through BBB. The toxicological study revealed that BA was a mutagenic compound but

  9. Short-term treatment with a 2-carba analog of cyclic phosphatidic acid induces lowering of plasma cholesterol levels in ApoE-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Tamotsu; Haniu, Hisao; Matsuda, Yoshikazu; Murakmi-Murofushi, Kimiko

    2016-04-22

    Plasma cholesterol levels are associated with an increased risk of developing atherosclerosis. An elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level is a hallmark of hypercholesterolemia in metabolic syndrome. Our previous study suggested that when acetylated LDL (AC-LDL) was co-applied with a PPARγ agonist, rosiglitazone (ROSI), many oil red O-positive macrophages could be observed. However, addition of cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) to ROSI-stimulated macrophages completely abolished oil red O-stained cells, indicating that cPA inhibits PPARγ-regulated AC-LDL uptake. This study aimed to determine whether metabolically stabilized cPA, in the form of a carba-derivative of cPA (2ccPA), could reduce plasma cholesterol levels and affect the expression of genes related to atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice. 2ccPA reduced LDL-C levels in these mice (n = 3) from 460 to 330 mg/ml, from 420 to 350 mg/ml, and 420 to 281 mg/ml under a western-type diet. 2ccPA also reduced expression of lipid metabolism-related genes, cytokines, and chemokines in ApoE-deficient mice on a high-fat diet. Taken together, these results suggest that 2ccPA governs anti-atherogenic activities in the carotid arteries of apoE-deficient mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Modulation of C-reactive protein and plasma omega-6 fatty acid levels by phospholipase A2 gene polymorphisms following a 6-week supplementation with fish oil.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, B L; Rudkowska, I; Couture, P; Lemieux, S; Julien, P; Vohl, M C

    2015-12-01

    This clinical trial investigated the impact of a six-week supplementation with fish oil and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PLA2G4A and PLA2G6 genes on total omega-6 fatty acid (n-6 FA) levels in plasma phospholipids (PL) and plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in 191 subjects. Interaction effects between SNPs and supplementation modulated total n-6 FAs and CRP levels in both men and women. Associations between SNPs and total n-6 FA levels and between SNPs and CRP levels were identified in men, independently of supplementation. Supplementation decreased total n-6 FAs without affecting plasma CRP levels. Changes in CRP levels correlated positively with changes in total n-6 FAs in men (r=0.25 p=0.01), but not in women. In conclusion, total n-6 FA levels in plasma PL and plasma CRP levels are modulated by SNPs within PLA2G4A and PLA2G6 genes alone or in combination with fish oil supplementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Single Amino Acid Residue in the A2 Domain of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Is Involved in the Efficiency of Equine Herpesvirus-1 Entry*

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Michihito; Kim, Eunmi; Igarashi, Manabu; Ito, Kimihito; Hasebe, Rie; Fukushi, Hideto; Sawa, Hirofumi; Kimura, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1), an α-herpesvirus of the family Herpesviridae, causes respiratory disease, abortion, and encephalomyelitis in horses. EHV-1 utilizes equine MHC class I molecules as entry receptors. However, hamster MHC class I molecules on EHV-1-susceptible CHO-K1 cells play no role in EHV-1 entry. To identify the MHC class I molecule region that is responsible for EHV-1 entry, domain exchange and site-directed mutagenesis experiments were performed, in which parts of the extracellular region of hamster MHC class I (clone C5) were replaced with corresponding sequences from equine MHC class I (clone A68). Substitution of alanine for glutamine at position 173 (Q173A) within the α2 domain of the MHC class I molecule enabled hamster MHC class I C5 to mediate EHV-1 entry into cells. Conversely, substitution of glutamine for alanine at position 173 (A173Q) in equine MHC class I A68 resulted in loss of EHV-1 receptor function. Equine MHC class I clone 3.4, which possesses threonine at position 173, was unable to act as an EHV-1 receptor. Substitution of alanine for threonine at position 173 (T173A) enabled MHC class I 3.4 to mediate EHV-1 entry into cells. These results suggest that the amino acid residue at position 173 of the MHC class I molecule is involved in the efficiency of EHV-1 entry. PMID:21949188

  12. A 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid degradation plasmid pM7012 discloses distribution of an unclassified megaplasmid group across bacterial species.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yoriko; Ogawa, Naoto; Shimomura, Yumi; Fujii, Takeshi

    2014-03-01

    Analysis of the complete nucleotide sequence of plasmid pM7012 from 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic-acid (2,4-D)-degrading bacterium Burkholderia sp. M701 revealed that the plasmid had 582 142 bp, with 541 putative protein-coding sequences and 39 putative tRNA genes for the transport of the standard 20 aa. pM7012 contains sequences homologous to the regions involved in conjugal transfer and plasmid maintenance found in plasmids byi_2p from Burkholderia sp. YI23 and pBVIE01 from Burkholderia sp. G4. No relaxase gene was found in any of these plasmids, although genes for a type IV secretion system and type IV coupling proteins were identified. Plasmids with no relaxase gene have been classified as non-mobile plasmids. However, nucleotide sequences with a high level of similarity to the genes for plasmid transfer, plasmid maintenance, 2,4-D degradation and arsenic resistance contained on pM7012 were also detected in eight other megaplasmids (~600 or 900 kb) found in seven Burkholderia strains and a strain of Cupriavidus, which were isolated as 2,4-D-degrading bacteria in Japan and the United States. These results suggested that the 2,4-D degradation megaplasmids related to pM7012 are mobile and distributed across various bacterial species worldwide, and that the plasmid group could be distinguished from known mobile plasmid groups.

  13. The Production of Amino Acids in Interstellar Ices: Implications for Meteoritic Organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, A.; Bernstein, M. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Cooper, G. W.; Allamandola, L. J.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Indigenous amino acids have been detected in a number of meteorites, over 70 in the Murchison meteorite alone. It has been generally accepted that the amino acids in meteorites formed in liquid water on an asteroid or comet parent-body. However, the water in the Murchison meteorite, for example, was depleted of deuterium, making the distribution of deuterium in organic acids in Murchison difficult to explain. Similarly, occasional but consistent meteoritic biases for non-terrestrial L amino acids cannot be reasonably rationalized by liquid water parent-body reactions. We will present the results of a laboratory demonstration showing that the amino acids glycine, alanine, and serine should result from the UV (ultraviolet) photolysis of interstellar ice grains. This suggests that some meteoritic amino acids may be the result of interstellar ice photochemistry, rather than having formed by reactions in liquid water. We will describe some of the potential implications of these findings for the organic materials found in primitive meteorites, in particular how interstellar ice synthesis might more easily accommodate the presence and distribution of deuterium, and the meteoritic bias for L amino acids.

  14. Systems and synthetic metabolic engineering for amino acid production - the heartbeat of industrial strain development.

    PubMed

    Becker, Judith; Wittmann, Christoph

    2012-10-01

    With a world market of more than four million tons per year, l-amino acids are among the most important products in industrial biotechnology. The recent years have seen a tremendous progress in the development of tailor-made strains for such products, intensively driven from systems metabolic engineering, which upgrades strain engineering into a concept of optimization on a global scale. This concept seems especially valuable for efficient amino acid production, demanding for a global modification of pathway fluxes - a challenge with regard to the high complexity of the underlying metabolism, superimposed by various layers of metabolic and transcriptional control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic Ablation of Calcium-independent Phospholipase A2γ Prevents Obesity and Insulin Resistance during High Fat Feeding by Mitochondrial Uncoupling and Increased Adipocyte Fatty Acid Oxidation*

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, David J.; Sims, Harold F.; Yang, Kui; Kiebish, Michael A.; Su, Xiong; Jenkins, Christopher M.; Guan, Shaoping; Moon, Sung Ho; Pietka, Terri; Nassir, Fatiha; Schappe, Timothy; Moore, Kristin; Han, Xianlin; Abumrad, Nada A.; Gross, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    Phospholipases are critical enzyme mediators participating in many aspects of cellular function through modulating the generation of lipid 2nd messengers, membrane physical properties, and cellular bioenergetics. Here, we demonstrate that mice null for calcium-independent phospholipase A2γ (iPLA2γ−/−) are completely resistant to high fat diet-induced weight gain, adipocyte hypertrophy, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance, which occur in iPLA2γ+/+ mice after high fat feeding. Notably, iPLA2γ−/− mice were lean, demonstrated abdominal lipodystrophy, and remained insulin-sensitive despite having a marked impairment in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion after high fat feeding. Respirometry of adipocyte explants from iPLA2γ−/− mice identified increased rates of oxidation of multiple different substrates in comparison with adipocyte explants from wild-type littermates. Shotgun lipidomics of adipose tissue from wild-type mice demonstrated the anticipated 2-fold increase in triglyceride content after high fat feeding. In sharp contrast, the adipocyte triglyceride content was identical in iPLA2γ−/− mice fed either a standard diet or a high fat diet. Respirometry of skeletal muscle mitochondria from iPLA2γ−/− mice demonstrated marked decreases in state 3 respiration using multiple substrates whose metabolism was uncoupled from ATP production. Shotgun lipidomics of skeletal muscle revealed a decreased content of cardiolipin with an altered molecular species composition thereby identifying the mechanism underlying mitochondrial uncoupling in the iPLA2γ−/− mouse. Collectively, these results identify iPLA2γ as an obligatory upstream enzyme that is necessary for efficient electron transport chain coupling and energy production through its participation in the alterations of cellular bioenergetics that promote the development of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:20817734

  16. Cardiac Myocyte-specific Knock-out of Calcium-independent Phospholipase A2γ (iPLA2γ) Decreases Oxidized Fatty Acids during Ischemia/Reperfusion and Reduces Infarct Size *

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sung Ho; Mancuso, David J.; Sims, Harold F.; Liu, Xinping; Nguyen, Annie L.; Yang, Kui; Guan, Shaoping; Dilthey, Beverly Gibson; Jenkins, Christopher M.; Weinheimer, Carla J.; Kovacs, Attila; Abendschein, Dana; Gross, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium-independent phospholipase A2γ (iPLA2γ) is a mitochondrial enzyme that produces lipid second messengers that facilitate opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) and contribute to the production of oxidized fatty acids in myocardium. To specifically identify the roles of iPLA2γ in cardiac myocytes, we generated cardiac myocyte-specific iPLA2γ knock-out (CMiPLA2γKO) mice by removing the exon encoding the active site serine (Ser-477). Hearts of CMiPLA2γKO mice exhibited normal hemodynamic function, glycerophospholipid molecular species composition, and normal rates of mitochondrial respiration and ATP production. In contrast, CMiPLA2γKO mice demonstrated attenuated Ca2+-induced mPTP opening that could be rapidly restored by the addition of palmitate and substantially reduced production of oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Furthermore, myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in CMiPLA2γKO mice (30 min of ischemia followed by 30 min of reperfusion in vivo) dramatically decreased oxidized fatty acid production in the ischemic border zones. Moreover, CMiPLA2γKO mice subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 24 h of reperfusion in vivo developed substantially less cardiac necrosis in the area-at-risk in comparison with their WT littermates. Furthermore, we found that membrane depolarization in murine heart mitochondria was sensitized to Ca2+ by the presence of oxidized PUFAs. Because mitochondrial membrane depolarization and calcium are known to activate iPLA2γ, these results are consistent with salvage of myocardium after I/R by iPLA2γ loss of function through decreasing mPTP opening, diminishing production of proinflammatory oxidized fatty acids, and attenuating the deleterious effects of abrupt increases in calcium ion on membrane potential during reperfusion. PMID:27453526

  17. Discovery and History of Amino Acid Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Shin-Ichi

    There has been a strong demand in Japan and East Asia for L-glutamic acid as a seasoning since monosodium glutamate was found to present umami taste in 1907. The discovery of glutamate fermentation by Corynebacterium glutamicum in 1956 enabled abundant and low-cost production of the amino acid, creating a large market. The discovery also prompted researchers to develop fermentative production processes for other L-amino acids, such as lysine. Currently, the amino acid fermentation industry is so huge that more than 5 million metric tons of amino acids are manufactured annually all over the world, and this number continues to grow. Research on amino acid fermentation fostered the notion and skills of metabolic engineering which has been applied for the production of other compounds from renewable resources. The discovery of glutamate fermentation has had revolutionary impacts on both the industry and science. In this chapter, the history and development of glutamate fermentation, including the very early stage of fermentation of other amino acids, are reviewed.

  18. Amino Acid Isomerization in the Production of l-Phenylalanine from d-Phenylalanine by Bacteria1

    PubMed Central

    Chibata, Ichiro; Tosa, Tetsuya; Sano, Ryujiro

    1965-01-01

    To establish an advantageous method for the production of l-amino acids, microbial isomerization of d- and dl-amino acids to l-amino acids was studied. Screening experiments on a number of microorganisms showed that cell suspensions of Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. miyamizu were capable of isomerizing d- and dl-phenylalanines to l-phenylalanine. Various conditions suitable for isomerization by these organisms were investigated. Cells grown in a medium containing d-phenylalanine showed highest isomerization activity, and almost completely converted d- or dl-phenylalanine into l-phenylalanine within 24 to 48 hr of incubation. Enzymatic studies on this isomerizing system suggested that the isomerization of d- or dl-phenylalanine is not catalyzed by a single enzyme, “amino acid isomerase,” but the conversion proceeds by a two step system as follows: d-pheylalanine is oxidized to phenylpyruvic acid by d-amino acid oxidase, and the acid is converted to l-phenylalanine by transamination or reductive amination. PMID:14339270

  19. Chiral Sugars Drive Enantioenrichment in Prebiotic Amino Acid Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Chiral pentose sugars mediate the enantioselective synthesis of amino acid precursors, with the magnitude of the chiral induction dictated by a subtle cooperativity between sugar hydroxyl groups. Ribose and lyxose give opposite chiral preferences, and theoretical calculations reveal the pseudoenantiomeric nature of transition state structures from the two sugars. Prebiotically plausible mixtures of natural d-sugars lead to enantioenrichment of natural l-amino acid precursors. Temporal monitoring and kinetic modeling of the reaction reveal an unusual dynamic kinetic resolution that shifts toward an enantioselective pathway over time, providing an amplification mechanism for the transfer of chiral information. This work adds to growing evidence for synergy in the etiology of the single chirality of the two most important classes of biological molecules, the sugars that make up DNA and RNA and the amino acids that form proteins. PMID:28470050

  20. Chiral Sugars Drive Enantioenrichment in Prebiotic Amino Acid Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Alexander J; Zubarev, Dmitry Yu; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Blackmond, Donna G

    2017-04-26

    Chiral pentose sugars mediate the enantioselective synthesis of amino acid precursors, with the magnitude of the chiral induction dictated by a subtle cooperativity between sugar hydroxyl groups. Ribose and lyxose give opposite chiral preferences, and theoretical calculations reveal the pseudoenantiomeric nature of transition state structures from the two sugars. Prebiotically plausible mixtures of natural d-sugars lead to enantioenrichment of natural l-amino acid precursors. Temporal monitoring and kinetic modeling of the reaction reveal an unusual dynamic kinetic resolution that shifts toward an enantioselective pathway over time, providing an amplification mechanism for the transfer of chiral information. This work adds to growing evidence for synergy in the etiology of the single chirality of the two most important classes of biological molecules, the sugars that make up DNA and RNA and the amino acids that form proteins.

  1. Use of an Amino Acid Mixture in Treatment of Phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Bentovim, A.; Clayton, Barbara E.; Francis, Dorothy E. M.; Shepherd, Jean; Wolff, O. H.

    1970-01-01

    Twelve children with phenylketonuria diagnosed and treated from the first few weeks of life were grouped into pairs. Before the trial all of them were receiving a commercial preparation containing a protein hydrolysate low in phenylalanine (Cymogran, Allen and Hanburys Ltd.) as a substitute for natural protein. One of each pair was given an amino acid mixture instead of Cymogran for about 6 months. Use of the mixture involved considerable modification of the diet, and in particular the inclusion of greater amounts of phenylalanine-free foods. All six accepted the new mixture without difficulty, food problems were greatly reduced, parents welcomed the new preparation, and the quality of family life improved. Normal growth was maintained and with a mixture of l amino acids the plasma and urinary amino acid levels were normal. Further studies are needed before the mixture can be recommended for children under 20 months of age. PMID:5477678

  2. The Origin of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jamie E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; McLain, Hannah L.; Noble, Sarah K.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the amino acid content of seven lunar regolith samples returned by the Apollo 16 and Apollo 17 missions and stored under NASA curation since collection using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Consistent with results from initial analyses shortly after collection in the 1970s, we observed amino acids at low concentrations in all of the curated samples, ranging from 0.2 parts-per-billion (ppb) to 42.7 ppb in hot-water extracts and 14.5 ppb to 651.1 ppb in 6M HCl acid-vapor-hydrolyzed, hot-water extracts. Amino acids identified in the Apollo soil extracts include glycine, D- and L-alanine, D- and L-aspartic acid, D- and L-glutamic acid, D- and L-serine, L-threonine, and L-valine, all of which had previously been detected in lunar samples, as well as several compounds not previously identified in lunar regoliths: -aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), D-and L-amino-n-butyric acid (-ABA), DL-amino-n-butyric acid, -amino-n-butyric acid, -alanine, and -amino-n-caproic acid. We observed an excess of the L enantiomer in most of the detected proteinogenic amino acids, but racemic alanine and racemic -ABA were present in some samples.

  3. Stereoselective formation of a 2 prime (3 prime)- aminoacyl ester of a nucleotide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, A. L.

    1986-01-01

    Reaction of DL-series and adenosine-5-phosphorimidazolide in the presence of adenosine-5'-(0-methylphosphate) and imidazole resulted in the stereoselective synthesis of the aminoacyl nucleotide ester, 2'(3')-0-seryl-adenosine-5'-(0-methylphosphate). The enantiomeric excess of D-serine incorporated into 2'(3')-0-seryl-adenosine-5'-(0-methylphosphate) was about 9%. Adenylyl-(5->N)-serine and an unknown product also incorporated an excess of D-serine, however, seryl-serine showed an excess of L-serine. The relationship of these results to the origin of the biological pairing of L-amino acids and nucleotides containing D-ribose is discussed.

  4. Variations of L- and D-amino acid levels in the brain of wild-type and mutant mice lacking D-amino acid oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Du, Siqi; Wang, Yadi; Weatherly, Choyce A; Holden, Kylie; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2018-05-01

    D-amino acids are now recognized to be widely present in organisms and play essential roles in biological processes. Some D-amino acids are metabolized by D-amino acid oxidase (DAO), while D-Asp and D-Glu are metabolized by D-aspartate oxidase (DDO). In this study, levels of 22 amino acids and the enantiomeric compositions of the 19 chiral proteogenic entities have been determined in the whole brain of wild-type ddY mice (ddY/DAO +/+ ), mutant mice lacking DAO activity (ddY/DAO -/- ), and the heterozygous mice (ddY/DAO +/- ) using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). No significant differences were observed for L-amino acid levels among the three strains except for L-Trp which was markedly elevated in the DAO +/- and DAO -/- mice. The question arises as to whether this is an unknown effect of DAO inactivity. The three highest levels of L-amino acids were L-Glu, L-Asp, and L-Gln in all the three strains. The lowest L-amino acid level was L-Cys in ddY/DAO +/- and ddY/DAO -/- mice, while L-Trp showed the lowest level in ddY/DAO +/+ mice. The highest concentration of D-amino acid was found to be D-Ser, which also had the highest % D value (~ 25%). D-Glu had the lowest % D value (~ 0.01%) in all the three strains. Significant differences of D-Leu, D-Ala, D-Ser, D-Arg, and D-Ile were observed in ddY/DAO +/- and ddY/DAO -/- mice compared to ddY/DAO +/+ mice. This work provides the most complete baseline analysis of L- and D-amino acids in the brains of ddY/DAO +/+ , ddY/DAO +/- , and ddY/DAO -/- mice yet reported. It also provides the most effective and efficient analytical approach for measuring these analytes in biological samples. This study provides fundamental information on the role of DAO in the brain and may be relevant for future development involving novel drugs for DAO regulation.

  5. Amino acid-dependent cMyc expression is essential for NK cell metabolic and functional responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Róisín M; Assmann, Nadine; Kedia-Mehta, Nidhi; O'Brien, Katie L; Garcia, Arianne; Gillespie, Conor; Hukelmann, Jens L; Oefner, Peter J; Lamond, Angus I; Gardiner, Clair M; Dettmer, Katja; Cantrell, Doreen A; Sinclair, Linda V; Finlay, David K

    2018-06-14

    Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes with important anti-tumour functions. Cytokine activation of NK cell glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) are essential for robust NK cell responses. However, the mechanisms leading to this metabolic phenotype are unclear. Here we show that the transcription factor cMyc is essential for IL-2/IL-12-induced metabolic and functional responses in mice. cMyc protein levels are acutely regulated by amino acids; cMyc protein is lost rapidly when glutamine is withdrawn or when system L-amino acid transport is blocked. We identify SLC7A5 as the predominant system L-amino acid transporter in activated NK cells. Unlike other lymphocyte subsets, glutaminolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle do not sustain OXPHOS in activated NK cells. Glutamine withdrawal, but not the inhibition of glutaminolysis, results in the loss of cMyc protein, reduced cell growth and impaired NK cell responses. These data identify an essential role for amino acid-controlled cMyc for NK cell metabolism and function.

  6. A C. elegans Model for Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Synthase II: The Longevity-Associated Gene W09H1.5/mecr-1 Encodes a 2-trans-Enoyl-Thioester Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Gurvitz, Aner

    2009-01-01

    Our recognition of the mitochondria as being important sites of fatty acid biosynthesis is continuously unfolding, especially in light of new data becoming available on compromised fatty acid synthase type 2 (FASII) in mammals. For example, perturbed regulation of murine 17β-HSD8 encoding a component of the mitochondrial FASII enzyme 3-oxoacyl-thioester reductase is implicated in polycystic kidney disease. In addition, over-expression in mice of the Mecr gene coding for 2-trans-enoyl-thioester reductase, also of mitochondrial FASII, leads to impaired heart function. However, mouse knockouts for mitochondrial FASII have hitherto not been reported and, hence, there is a need to develop alternate metazoan models such as nematodes or fruit flies. Here, the identification of Caenorhabditis elegans W09H1.5/MECR-1 as a 2-trans-enoyl-thioester reductase of mitochondrial FASII is reported. To identify MECR-1, Saccharomyces cerevisiae etr1Δ mutant cells were employed that are devoid of mitochondrial 2-trans-enoyl-thioester reductase Etr1p. These yeast mutants fail to synthesize sufficient levels of lipoic acid or form cytochrome complexes, and cannot respire or grow on non-fermentable carbon sources. A mutant yeast strain ectopically expressing nematode mecr-1 was shown to contain reductase activity and resemble the self-complemented mutant strain for these phenotype characteristics. Since MECR-1 was not intentionally targeted for compartmentalization using a yeast mitochondrial leader sequence, this inferred that the protein represented a physiologically functional mitochondrial 2-trans-enoyl-thioester reductase. In accordance with published findings, RNAi-mediated knockdown of mecr-1 in C. elegans resulted in life span extension, presumably due to mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, old mecr-1(RNAi) worms had better internal organ appearance and were more mobile than control worms, indicating a reduced physiological age. This is the first report on RNAi work dedicated

  7. Human cationic amino acid transporter hCAT-3 is preferentially expressed in peripheral tissues.

    PubMed

    Vékony, N; Wolf, S; Boissel, J P; Gnauert, K; Closs, E I

    2001-10-16

    At least five distinct carrier proteins form the family of mammalian cationic amino acid transporters (CATs). We have cloned a cDNA containing the complete coding region of human CAT-3. hCAT-3 is glycosylated and localized to the plasma membrane. Transport studies in Xenopus laevis oocytes revealed that hCAT-3 is selective for cationic L-amino acids and exhibits a maximal transport activity similar to other CAT proteins. The apparent substrate affinity and sensitivity to trans-stimulation of hCAT-3 resembles most closely hCAT-2B. This is in contrast to rat and murine CAT-3 proteins that have been reported to display a very low activity and to be inhibited by neutral and anionic L-amino acids as well as D-arginine (Hosokawa, H., et al. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 8717-8722; Ito, K., and Groudine, M. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 26780-26786). Also, in adult rat and mouse, CAT-3 has been found exclusively in central neurons. Human CAT-3 expression is not restricted to the brain, in fact, by far the highest expression was found in thymus. Also in other peripheral tissues, hCAT-3 expression was equal to or higher than in most brain regions, suggesting that hCAT-3 is not a neuron-specific transporter.

  8. Concentration variations of amino acids in mammalian fossils: effects of diagenesis and the implications for amino acid racemization analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, B.; Rutter, N.W.

    Detailed amino acid analysis of bones, teeth, and antler from several mammal species have shown that concentrations of several amino acids can be related to three factors: type of material analyzed, diagenetic alteration of the material, and relative age of the fossil. Concentrations of several amino acids are significantly different in enamel compared to those of dentine or cement. This can be used to check that no contamination of one material by another has occurred, which is critical for using the data for amino acid dating, since all three materials have different racemization rates for some acids. With increased inmore » growth of secondary minerals, generally reduced amino acid concentrations are observed. Interacid ratios and concentrations vary significantly the norms expected for the type of material with increasing degrees of alteration. These effects can be linked to abnormal racemization ratios observed in the same samples. Therefore, abnormal concentrations and/or interacid ratios can be used to detect samples in which the D/L amino acid ratios otherwise appear normal, thereby insuring better accuracy of amino acid racemization analysis. For unaltered fossils, with increasing sample age regardless the type of material, some amino acids steadily degrade, while others actually increase in concentration initially due to their generation as by-products of decay. Preliminary studies indicate that this progressive alteration can used to complement racemization data for determining relative stratigraphic sequences.« less

  9. Bi-anchoring organic sensitizers of type D-(π-A)2 comprising thiophene-2-acetonitrile as π-spacer and malonic acid as electron acceptor for dye sensitized solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Gachumale Saritha; Ramkumar, Sekar; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Anandan, Sambandam

    2015-06-01

    Two new bi-anchoring organic sensitizers of type D-(π-A)2 comprising the identical π-spacer (thiophene-2-acetonitrile) and electron acceptor (malonic acid) but different aryl amine as electron donors (diphenylamine and carbazole) were synthesized, characterized and fabricated metal free dye-sensitized solar cell devices. The intra molecular charge transfer property and electrochemical property of these dyes were investigated by molecular absorption, emission, cyclic voltammetric experiments and in addition, quantum chemical calculation studies were performed to provide sufficient driving force for the electron injection into the conduction band of TiO2 which leads to efficient charge collection. Among the fabricated devices, carbazole based device exhibits high current conversion efficiency (η = 4.7%) with a short circuit current density (JSC) 15.3 mA/cm2, an open circuit photo voltage (VOC) of 0.59 V and a fill factor of 0.44 under AM 1.5 illumination (85 mW/cm2) compared to diphenylamine based device.

  10. Selective adsorption of L- and D-amino acids on calcite: Implications for biochemical homochirality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazen, R. M.; Filley, T. R.; Goodfriend, G. A.

    2001-01-01

    The emergence of biochemical homochirality was a key step in the origin of life, yet prebiotic mechanisms for chiral separation are not well constrained. Here we demonstrate a geochemically plausible scenario for chiral separation of amino acids by adsorption on mineral surfaces. Crystals of the common rock-forming mineral calcite (CaCO(3)), when immersed in a racemic aspartic acid solution, display significant adsorption and chiral selectivity of d- and l-enantiomers on pairs of mirror-related crystal-growth surfaces. This selective adsorption is greater on crystals with terraced surface textures, which indicates that d- and l-aspartic acid concentrate along step-like linear growth features. Thus, selective adsorption of linear arrays of d- and l-amino acids on calcite, with subsequent condensation polymerization, represents a plausible geochemical mechanism for the production of homochiral polypeptides on the prebiotic Earth.

  11. New Insights Into the Mechanisms and Biological Roles of D-Amino Acids in Complex Eco-Systems

    PubMed Central

    Aliashkevich, Alena; Alvarez, Laura; Cava, Felipe

    2018-01-01

    In the environment bacteria share their habitat with a great diversity of organisms, from microbes to humans, animals and plants. In these complex communities, the production of extracellular effectors is a common strategy to control the biodiversity by interfering with the growth and/or viability of nearby microbes. One of such effectors relies on the production and release of extracellular D-amino acids which regulate diverse cellular processes such as cell wall biogenesis, biofilm integrity, and spore germination. Non-canonical D-amino acids are mainly produced by broad spectrum racemases (Bsr). Bsr’s promiscuity allows it to generate high concentrations of D-amino acids in environments with variable compositions of L-amino acids. However, it was not clear until recent whether these molecules exhibit divergent functions. Here we review the distinctive biological roles of D-amino acids, their mechanisms of action and their modulatory properties of the biodiversity of complex eco-systems. PMID:29681896

  12. Nutritional and medicinal aspects of D-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mendel; Levin, Carol E

    2012-05-01

    This paper reviews and interprets a method for determining the nutritional value of D-amino acids, D-peptides, and amino acid derivatives using a growth assay in mice fed a synthetic all-amino acid diet. A large number of experiments were carried out in which a molar equivalent of the test compound replaced a nutritionally essential amino acid such as L-lysine (L-Lys), L-methionine (L-Met), L-phenylalanine (L-Phe), and L-tryptophan (L-Trp) as well as the semi-essential amino acids L-cysteine (L-Cys) and L-tyrosine (L-Tyr). The results show wide-ranging variations in the biological utilization of test substances. The method is generally applicable to the determination of the biological utilization and safety of any amino acid derivative as a potential nutritional source of the corresponding L-amino acid. Because the organism is forced to use the D-amino acid or amino acid derivative as the sole source of the essential or semi-essential amino acid being replaced, and because a free amino acid diet allows better control of composition, the use of all-amino-acid diets for such determinations may be preferable to protein-based diets. Also covered are brief summaries of the widely scattered literature on dietary and pharmacological aspects of 27 individual D-amino acids, D-peptides, and isomeric amino acid derivatives and suggested research needs in each of these areas. The described results provide a valuable record and resource for further progress on the multifaceted aspects of D-amino acids in food and biological samples.

  13. Characterization of GdFFD, a d-Amino Acid-containing Neuropeptide That Functions as an Extrinsic Modulator of the Aplysia Feeding Circuit*

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Lu; Livnat, Itamar; Romanova, Elena V.; Alexeeva, Vera; Yau, Peter M.; Vilim, Ferdinand S.; Weiss, Klaudiusz R.; Jing, Jian; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2013-01-01

    During eukaryotic translation, peptides/proteins are created using l-amino acids. However, a d-amino acid-containing peptide (DAACP) can be produced through post-translational modification via an isomerase enzyme. General approaches to identify novel DAACPs and investigate their function, particularly in specific neural circuits, are lacking. This is primarily due to the difficulty in characterizing this modification and due to the limited information on neural circuits in most species. We describe a multipronged approach to overcome these limitations using the sea slug Aplysia californica. Based on bioinformatics and homology to known DAACPs in the land snail Achatina fulica, we targeted two predicted peptides in Aplysia, GFFD, similar to achatin-I (GdFAD versus GFAD, where dF stands for d-phenylalanine), and YAEFLa, identical to fulyal (YdAEFLa versus YAEFLa), using stereoselective analytical methods, i.e. MALDI MS fragmentation analysis and LC-MS/MS. Although YAEFLa in Aplysia was detected only in an all l-form, we found that both GFFD and GdFFD were present in the Aplysia CNS. In situ hybridization and immunolabeling of GFFD/GdFFD-positive neurons and fibers suggested that GFFD/GdFFD might act as an extrinsic modulator of the feeding circuit. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that GdFFD induced robust activity in the feeding circuit and elicited egestive motor patterns. In contrast, the peptide consisting of all l-amino acids, GFFD, was not bioactive. Our data indicate that the modification of an l-amino acid-containing neuropeptide to a DAACP is essential for peptide bioactivity in a motor circuit, and thus it provides a functional significance to this modification. PMID:24078634

  14. Physiological role of D-amino acid-N-acetyltransferase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: detoxification of D-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Yow, Geok-Yong; Uo, Takuma; Yoshimura, Tohru; Esaki, Nobuyoshi

    2006-03-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is sensitive to D-amino acids: those corresponding to almost all proteinous L-amino acids inhibit the growth of yeast even at low concentrations (e.g. 0.1 mM). We have determined that D-amino acid-N-acetyltransferase (DNT) of the yeast is involved in the detoxification of D-amino acids on the basis of the following findings. When the DNT gene was disrupted, the resulting mutant was far less tolerant to D-amino acids than the wild type. However, when the gene was overexpressed with a vector plasmid p426Gal1 in the wild type or the mutant S. cerevisiae as a host, the recombinant yeast, which was found to show more than 100 times higher DNT activity than the wild type, was much more tolerant to D-amino acids than the wild type. We further confirmed that, upon cultivation with D-phenylalanine, N-acetyl-D-phenylalanine was accumulated in the culture but not in the wild type and hpa3Delta cells overproducing DNT cells. Thus, D-amino acids are toxic to S. cerevisiae but are detoxified with DNT by N-acetylation preceding removal from yeast cells.

  15. Effects of synthetic sphingosine-1-phosphate analogs on cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha-independent release of arachidonic acid and cell toxicity in L929 fibrosarcoma cells: the structure-activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Masaya; Muramatsu, Yuki; Tada, Eiko; Kurosawa, Takeshi; Yamaura, Erika; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Fujino, Hiromichi; Houjyo, Yuuya; Miyasaka, Yuri; Koide, Yuuki; Nishida, Atsushi; Murayama, Toshihiko

    2009-03-01

    Sphingolipid metabolites including ceramide, sphingosine, and their phosphorylated products [sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and ceramide-1-phosphate] regulate cell functions including arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism and cell death. The development of analogs of S1P may be useful for regulating these mediator-induced cellular responses. We synthesized new analogs of S1P and examined their effects on the release of AA and cell death in L929 mouse fibrosarcoma cells. Among the analogs tested, several compounds including DMB-mC11S [dimethyl (2S,3R)-2-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-3-hydroxy-3-(3'-undecyl)phenylpropyl phosphate] and DMB-mC9S [dimethyl (2S,3R)-2-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-3-hydroxy-3-(3'-nonyl)phenylpropyl phosphate] released AA within 1 h and caused cell death 6 h after treatment. The release of AA was observed in C12 cells [a L929 variant lacking a type alpha cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)alpha)] and L929-cPLAalpha-siRNA cells (L929 cells treated with small interference RNA for cPLA(2)alpha). Treatment with pharmacological inhibitors of secretory and Ca(2+)-independent PLA(2)s decreased the DMB-mC11S-induced release of AA. The effect of the S1P analogs tested on the release of AA was comparable to that on cell death in L929 cells, and a high correlation coefficient was observed. Two analogs lacking a butoxycarbonyl moiety [DMAc-mC11S (dimethyl (2S,3R)-2-acetamino-3-hydroxy-3-(3'-undecyl)phenylpropyl phosphate] and DMAm-mC11S [dimethyl (2S,3R)-2-amino-3-hydroxy-3-(3'-undecyl)phenylpropyl phosphate)] had inhibitory effects on the release of AA and cell toxicity induced by DMB-mC11S. Synthetic phosphorylated lipid analogs may be useful for studying PLA(2) activity and its toxicity in cells. [Supplementary Fig. 1: available only at http://dx.doi.org/10.1254/jphs.08284FP].

  16. Synthesis of amino acid conjugates to 2-imino-3-methylene-5-carboxypyrrolidine and 2-imino-3-methylene-6-carboxypiperidine.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Robin E

    2010-03-15

    The four stereomers of 2-imino-3-methylene-5-L(carboxy-L-valyl)pyrrolidine, a bacterial metabolite that is inhibitory to the fire blight bacterium Erwinia amylovora, were synthesised and compared for antibacterial activity. Several alternative amino acid conjugates with L,L-stereochemistry were also prepared, and the synthesis was extended to 3-methylenepiperidine-6-L-carboxylic acid and a selection of 2-imino-3-methylenepiperidine-6-L-carboxy-L-amino acid conjugates. All synthetic amino acid conjugates (L,L-stereomers) were inhibitory to the growth of E. amylovora. The likely participation of the conjugated iminomethylene moiety as a Michael acceptor is implicated. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of glutamic acid enantiomers on C-mineralization.

    PubMed

    Formánek, Pavel; Vranová, Valerie; Lojková, Lea

    2015-02-01

    Seasonal dynamics in the mineralization of glutamic acid enantiomers in soils from selected ecosystems was determined and subjected to a range of treatments: ambient x elevated CO2 level and meadow x dense x thinned forest environment. Mineralization of glutamic acid was determined by incubation of the soil with 2 mg L- or D-glutamic acid g(-1) of dry soil to induce the maximum respiration rate. Mineralization of glutamic acid enantiomers in soils fluctuates over the course of a vegetation season, following a similar trend across a range of ecosystems. Mineralization is affected by environmental changes and management practices, including elevated CO2 level and thinning intensity. L-glutamic acid metabolism is more dependent on soil type as compared to metabolism of its D-enantiomer. The results support the hypothesis that the slower rate of D- compared to L- amino acid mineralization is due to different roles in anabolism and catabolism of the soil microbial community. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Mirrors in the PDB: left-handed α-turns guide design with D-amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Annavarapu, Srinivas; Nanda, Vikas

    2009-01-01

    Background Incorporating variable amino acid stereochemistry in molecular design has the potential to improve existing protein stability and create new topologies inaccessible to homochiral molecules. The Protein Data Bank has been a reliable, rich source of information on molecular interactions and their role in protein stability and structure. D-amino acids rarely occur naturally, making it difficult to infer general rules for how they would be tolerated in proteins through an analysis of existing protein structures. However, protein elements containing short left-handed turns and helices turn out to contain useful information. Molecular mechanisms used in proteins to stabilize left-handed elements by L-amino acids are structurally enantiomeric to potential synthetic strategies for stabilizing right-handed elements with D-amino acids. Results Propensities for amino acids to occur in contiguous αL helices correlate with published thermodynamic scales for incorporation of D-amino acids into αR helices. Two backbone rules for terminating a left-handed helix are found: an αR conformation is disfavored at the amino terminus, and a βR conformation is disfavored at the carboxy terminus. Helix capping sidechain-backbone interactions are found which are unique to αL helices including an elevated propensity for L-Asn, and L-Thr at the amino terminus and L-Gln, L-Thr and L-Ser at the carboxy terminus. Conclusion By examining left-handed α-turns containing L-amino acids, new interaction motifs for incorporating D-amino acids into right-handed α-helices are identified. These will provide a basis for de novo design of novel heterochiral protein folds. PMID:19772623

  19. Mirrors in the PDB: left-handed alpha-turns guide design with D-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Annavarapu, Srinivas; Nanda, Vikas

    2009-09-22

    Incorporating variable amino acid stereochemistry in molecular design has the potential to improve existing protein stability and create new topologies inaccessible to homochiral molecules. The Protein Data Bank has been a reliable, rich source of information on molecular interactions and their role in protein stability and structure. D-amino acids rarely occur naturally, making it difficult to infer general rules for how they would be tolerated in proteins through an analysis of existing protein structures. However, protein elements containing short left-handed turns and helices turn out to contain useful information. Molecular mechanisms used in proteins to stabilize left-handed elements by L-amino acids are structurally enantiomeric to potential synthetic strategies for stabilizing right-handed elements with D-amino acids. Propensities for amino acids to occur in contiguous alpha(L) helices correlate with published thermodynamic scales for incorporation of D-amino acids into alpha(R) helices. Two backbone rules for terminating a left-handed helix are found: an alpha(R) conformation is disfavored at the amino terminus, and a beta(R) conformation is disfavored at the carboxy terminus. Helix capping sidechain-backbone interactions are found which are unique to alpha(L) helices including an elevated propensity for L-Asn, and L-Thr at the amino terminus and L-Gln, L-Thr and L-Ser at the carboxy terminus. By examining left-handed alpha-turns containing L-amino acids, new interaction motifs for incorporating D-amino acids into right-handed alpha-helices are identified. These will provide a basis for de novo design of novel heterochiral protein folds.

  20. Integration of computational modeling with membrane transport studies reveals new insights into amino acid exchange transport mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Widdows, Kate L.; Panitchob, Nuttanont; Crocker, Ian P.; Please, Colin P.; Hanson, Mark A.; Sibley, Colin P.; Johnstone, Edward D.; Sengers, Bram G.; Lewis, Rohan M.; Glazier, Jocelyn D.

    2015-01-01

    Uptake of system L amino acid substrates into isolated placental plasma membrane vesicles in the absence of opposing side amino acid (zero-trans uptake) is incompatible with the concept of obligatory exchange, where influx of amino acid is coupled to efflux. We therefore hypothesized that system L amino acid exchange transporters are not fully obligatory and/or that amino acids are initially present inside the vesicles. To address this, we combined computational modeling with vesicle transport assays and transporter localization studies to investigate the mechanisms mediating [14C]l-serine (a system L substrate) transport into human placental microvillous plasma membrane (MVM) vesicles. The carrier model provided a quantitative framework to test the 2 hypotheses that l-serine transport occurs by either obligate exchange or nonobligate exchange coupled with facilitated transport (mixed transport model). The computational model could only account for experimental [14C]l-serine uptake data when the transporter was not exclusively in exchange mode, best described by the mixed transport model. MVM vesicle isolates contained endogenous amino acids allowing for potential contribution to zero-trans uptake. Both L-type amino acid transporter (LAT)1 and LAT2 subtypes of system L were distributed to MVM, with l-serine transport attributed to LAT2. These findings suggest that exchange transporters do not function exclusively as obligate exchangers.—Widdows, K. L., Panitchob, N., Crocker, I. P., Please, C. P., Hanson, M. A., Sibley, C. P., Johnstone, E. D., Sengers, B. G., Lewis, R. M., Glazier, J. D. Integration of computational modeling with membrane transport studies reveals new insights into amino acid exchange transport mechanisms. PMID:25761365

  1. A Reexamination of Amino Acids in Lunar Soils: Implications for the Survival of Exogenous Organic Material During Impact Delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinton, Karen L. F.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    1996-01-01

    Using a sensitive high performance liquid chromatography technique, we have analyzed both the hot water extract and the acid hydrolyzed hot water extract of lunar soil collected during the Apollo 17 mission. Both free amino acids and those derived from acid labile precursors are present at a level of roughly 15 ppb. Based on the D/L amino acid ratios, the free alanine and aspartic acid observed in the hot water extract can be entirely attributed to terrestrial biogenic contamination. However, in the acid labile fraction, precursors which yield amino acids are apparently present in the lunar soil. The amino acid distribution suggests that the precursor is probably solar wind implanted HCN. We have evaluated our results with regard to the meteoritic input of intact organic compounds to the moon based on an upper limit of less than or equal to 0.3 ppb for alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, a non-protein amino acid which does not generally occur in terrestrial organisms and which is not a major amino acid produced from HCN, but which is a predominant amino acid in many carbonaceous chondrites. We find that the survival of exogenous organic compounds during lunar impact is less than or equal to 0.8%. This result represents an example of minimum organic impact survivability. This is an important first step toward a better understanding of similar processes on Earth and on Mars, and their possible contribution to the budget of prebiotic organic compounds on the primitive Earth.

  2. Wet, Carbonaceous Asteroids: Altering Minerals, Changing Amino Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2011-04-01

    , the same processes that produced the L-amino acid excesses in carbonaceous asteroids also operated on the early Earth.

  3. Transport of aspartic acid, arginine, and tyrosine by the opportunistic protist Pneumocystis carinii.

    PubMed

    Basselin, M; Lipscomb, K J; Qiu, Y H; Kaneshiro, E S

    2001-04-02

    In order to improve culture media and to discover potential drug targets, uptake of an acidic, a basic, and an aromatic amino acid were investigated. Current culture systems, axenic or co-cultivation with mammalian cells, do not provide either the quantity or quality of cells needed for biochemical studies of this organism. Insight into nutrient acquisition can be expected to lead to improved culture media and improved culture growth. Aspartic acid uptake was directly related to substrate concentration, Q(10) was 1.10 at pH 7.4. Hence the organism acquired this acidic amino acid by simple diffusion. Uptake of the basic amino acid arginine and the aromatic amino acid tyrosine exhibited saturation kinetics consistent with carrier-mediated mechanisms. Kinetic parameters indicated two carriers (K(m)=22.8+/-2.5 microM and K(m)=3.6+/-0.3 mM) for arginine and a single carrier for tyrosine (K(m)=284+/-23 microM). The effects of other L-amino acids showed that the tyrosine carrier was distinct from the arginine carriers. Tyrosine and arginine transport were independent of sodium and potassium ions, and did not appear to require energy from ATP or a proton motive force. Thus facilitated diffusion was identified as the mechanism of uptake. After 30 min of incubation, these amino acids were incorporated into total lipids and the sedimentable material following lipid extraction; more than 90% was in the cellular soluble fraction.

  4. A 2:1 co-crystal of 2-methyl-benzoic acid and N,N'-bis-(pyridin-4-ylmeth-yl)ethanedi-amide: crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Syed, Sabrina; Jotani, Mukesh M; Halim, Siti Nadiah Abdul; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2016-03-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title 2:1 co-crystal, 2C8H8O2·C14H14N4O2, comprises an acid mol-ecule in a general position and half a di-amide mol-ecule, the latter being located about a centre of inversion. In the acid, the carb-oxy-lic acid group is twisted out of the plane of the benzene ring to which it is attached [dihedral angle = 28.51 (8)°] and the carbonyl O atom and methyl group lie approximately to the same side of the mol-ecule [hy-droxy-O-C-C-C(H) torsion angle = -27.92 (17)°]. In the di-amide, the central C4N2O2 core is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.031 Å), and the pyridyl rings are perpendicular, lying to either side of the central plane [central residue/pyridyl dihedral angle = 88.60 (5)°]. In the mol-ecular packing, three-mol-ecule aggregates are formed via hy-droxy-O-H⋯N(pyrid-yl) hydrogen bonds. These are connected into a supra-molecular layer parallel to (12[Formula: see text]) via amide-N-H⋯O(carbon-yl) hydrogen bonds, as well as methyl-ene-C-H⋯O(amide) inter-actions. Significant π-π inter-actions occur between benzene/benzene, pyrid-yl/benzene and pyrid-yl/pyridyl rings within and between layers to consolidate the three-dimensional packing.

  5. Amino acid sensing in hypothalamic tanycytes via umami taste receptors.

    PubMed

    Lazutkaite, Greta; Soldà, Alice; Lossow, Kristina; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Dale, Nicholas

    2017-11-01

    Hypothalamic tanycytes are glial cells that line the wall of the third ventricle and contact the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). While they are known to detect glucose in the CSF we now show that tanycytes also detect amino acids, important nutrients that signal satiety. Ca 2+ imaging and ATP biosensing were used to detect tanycyte responses to l-amino acids. The downstream pathway of the responses was determined using ATP receptor antagonists and channel blockers. The receptors were characterized using mice lacking the Tas1r1 gene, as well as an mGluR4 receptor antagonist. Amino acids such as Arg, Lys, and Ala evoke Ca 2+ signals in tanycytes and evoke the release of ATP via pannexin 1 and CalHM1, which amplifies the signal via a P2 receptor dependent mechanism. Tanycytes from mice lacking the Tas1r1 gene had diminished responses to lysine and arginine but not alanine. Antagonists of mGluR4 greatly reduced the responses to alanine and lysine. Two receptors previously implicated in taste cells, the Tas1r1/Tas1r3 heterodimer and mGluR4, contribute to the detection of a range of amino acids by tanycytes in CSF. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  6. Sensitization to autoimmune hepatitis in group VIA calcium-independent phospholipase A2-null mice led to duodenal villous atrophy with apoptosis, goblet cell hyperplasia and leaked bile acids.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Li; Gan-Schreier, Hongying; Tuma-Kellner, Sabine; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Chamulitrat, Walee

    2015-08-01

    Chronic bowel disease can co-exist with severe autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in an absence of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Genetic background may contribute to this overlap syndrome. We previously have shown that the deficiency of iPLA2β causes an accumulation of hepatocyte apoptosis, and renders susceptibility for acute liver injury. We here tested whether AIH induction in iPLA2β-null mice could result in intestinal injury, and whether bile acid metabolism was altered. Control wild-type (WT) and female iPLA2β-null (iPLA2β(-/-)) mice were intravenously injected with 10mg/kg concanavalinA (ConA) or saline for 24h. ConA treatment of iPLA2β(-/-) mice caused massive liver injury with increased liver enzymes, fibrosis, and necrosis. While not affecting WT mice, ConA treatment of iPLA2β(-/-) mice caused severe duodenal villous atrophy concomitant with increased apoptosis, cell proliferation, globlet cell hyperplasia, and endotoxin leakage into portal vein indicating a disruption of intestinal barrier. With the greater extent than in WT mice, ConA treatment of iPLA2β(-/-) mice increased jejunal expression of innate response cytokines CD14, TNF-α, IL-6, and SOCS3 as well as chemokines CCL2 and the CCL3 receptor CCR5. iPLA2β deficiency in response to ConA-induced AIH caused a significant decrease in hepatic and biliary bile acids, and this was associated with suppression of hepatic Cyp7A1, Ntcp and ABCB11/Bsep and upregulation of intestinal FXR/FGF15 mRNA expression. The suppression of hepatic Ntcp expression together with the loss of intestinal barrier could account for the observed bile acid leakage into peripheral blood. Thus, enteropathy may result from acute AIH in a susceptible host such as iPLA2β deficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent up-regulation of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter LAT1 (SLC7A5)/CD98hc (SLC3A2) by diesel exhaust particle extract in human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Le Vee, Marc; Jouan, Elodie; Lecureur, Valérie

    The heterodimeric L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) 1/CD98hc is overexpressed in lung cancers with a poor prognosis factor. Factors that contribute to LAT1/CD98hc overexpression in lung cells remain however to be determined, but the implication of atmospheric pollution can be suspected. The present study was therefore designed to analyze the effects of diesel exhaust particle (DEP) extract (DEPe) on LAT1/CD98hc expression in bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. Exposure to DEPe up-regulated LAT1 and CD98hc mRNA levels in a concentration-dependent manner, with DEPe EC{sub 50} values (around 0.2 μg/mL) relevant to environmental situations. DEPe concomitantly induced LAT1/CD98hc protein expression and LAT1-mediated leucinemore » accumulation in BEAS-2B cells. Inhibition of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway through the use of a chemical AhR antagonist or the siRNA-mediated silencing of AhR expression was next found to prevent DEPe-mediated induction of LAT1/CD98hc, indicating that this regulation depends on AhR, known to be activated by major chemical DEP components like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. DEPe exposure was finally shown to induce mRNA expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 in BEAS-2B cells, in a CD98hc/focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) manner, thus suggesting that DEPe-mediated induction of CD98hc triggers activation of the integrin/FAK/ERK signaling pathway known to be involved in MMP-2 regulation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that exposure to DEPe induces functional overexpression of the amino acid transporter LAT1/CD98hc in lung cells. Such a regulation may participate to pulmonary carcinogenic effects of DEPs, owing to the well-documented contribution of LAT1 and CD98hc to cancer development. - Highlights: • The amino acid transporter LAT1/CD98hc is up-regulated in DEPe-treated lung cells. • The aryl hydrocarbon receptor is involved in DEPe-triggered induction of LAT1/CD

  8. A 2:1 co-crystal of p-nitro-benzoic acid and N,N'-bis-(pyridin-3-ylmeth-yl)ethanedi-amide: crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Syed, Sabrina; Halim, Siti Nadiah Abdul; Jotani, Mukesh M; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2016-01-01

    The title 2:1 co-crystal, 2C7H5NO4·C14H14N4O2, in which the complete di-amide mol-ecule is generated by crystallographic inversion symmetry, features a three-mol-ecule aggregate sustained by hydroxyl-O-H⋯N(pyrid-yl) hydrogen bonds. The p-nitro-benzoic acid mol-ecule is non-planar, exhibiting twists of both the carb-oxy-lic acid and nitro groups, which form dihedral angles of 10.16 (9) and 4.24 (4)°, respectively, with the benzene ring. The di-amide mol-ecule has a conformation approximating to a Z shape, with the pyridyl rings lying to either side of the central, almost planar di-amide residue (r.m.s. deviation of the eight atoms being 0.025 Å), and forming dihedral angles of 77.22 (6)° with it. In the crystal, three-mol-ecule aggregates are linked into a linear supra-molecular ladder sustained by amide-N-H⋯O(nitro) hydrogen bonds and orientated along [10-4]. The ladders are connected into a double layer via pyridyl- and benzene-C-H⋯O(amide) inter-actions, which, in turn, are connected into a three-dimensional architecture via π-π stacking inter-actions between pyridyl and benzene rings [inter-centroid distance = 3.6947 (8) Å]. An evaluation of the Hirshfeld surfaces confirm the importance of inter-molecular inter-actions involving oxygen atoms as well as the π-π inter-actions.

  9. d-Amino acids in molecular evolution in space - Absolute asymmetric photolysis and synthesis of amino acids by circularly polarized light.

    PubMed

    Sugahara, Haruna; Meinert, Cornelia; Nahon, Laurent; Jones, Nykola C; Hoffmann, Søren V; Hamase, Kenji; Takano, Yoshinori; Meierhenrich, Uwe J

    2018-07-01

    Living organisms on the Earth almost exclusively use l-amino acids for the molecular architecture of proteins. The biological occurrence of d-amino acids is rare, although their functions in various organisms are being gradually understood. A possible explanation for the origin of biomolecular homochirality is the delivery of enantioenriched molecules via extraterrestrial bodies, such as asteroids and comets on early Earth. For the asymmetric formation of amino acids and their precursor molecules in interstellar environments, the interaction with circularly polarized photons is considered to have played a potential role in causing chiral asymmetry. In this review, we summarize recent progress in the investigation of chirality transfer from chiral photons to amino acids involving the two major processes of asymmetric photolysis and asymmetric synthesis. We will discuss analytical data on cometary and meteoritic amino acids and their potential impact delivery to the early Earth. The ongoing and future ambitious space missions, Hayabusa2, OSIRIS-REx, ExoMars 2020, and MMX, are scheduled to provide new insights into the chirality of extraterrestrial organic molecules and their potential relation to the terrestrial homochirality. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: d-Amino acids: biology in the mirror, edited by Dr. Loredano Pollegioni, Dr. Jean-Pierre Mothet and Dr. Molla Gianluca. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Parent Body Influences on Amino Acids in the Tagish Lake Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, D. P.; Callahan, M. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Elsila, J. E.; Herd, C. D. K.

    2010-01-01

    The Tagish Lake meteorite is a primitive C2 carbonaceous chondrite with a mineralogy, oxygen isotope, and bulk chemical. However, in contrast to many CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites, the Tagish Lake meteorite was reported to have only trace levels of indigenous amino acids, with evidence for terrestrial L-amino acid contamination from the Tagish Lake meltwater. The lack of indigenous amino acids in Tagish Lake suggested that they were either destroyed during parent body alteration processes and/or the Tagish Lake meteorite originated on a chemically distinct parent body from CI and CM meteorites where formation of amino acids was less favorable. We recently measured the amino acid composition of three different lithologies (11h, 5b, and 11i) of pristine Tagish Lake meteorite fragments that represent a range of progressive aqueous alteration in order 11h < 5b < 11i as inferred from the mineralogy, petrology, bulk isotopes, and insoluble organic matter structure. The distribution and enantiomeric abundances of the one- to six-carbon aliphatic amino acids found in hot-water extracts of the Tagish Lake fragments were determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography fluorescence detection and time of flight mass spectrometry coupled with OPA/NAC derivatization. Stable carbon isotope analyses of the most abundant amino acids in 11h were measured with gas chromatography coupled with quadrupole mass spectrometry and isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

  11. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... we eat. Aspartic acid is also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It ... release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: avocado, asparagus, and molasses. Animal sources of ...

  12. Synthesis and amino acids complexation of tripodal hexasubstituted benzene chiral receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choksakulporn, Saowanaporn; Punkvang, Auradee; Sritana-anant, Yongsak

    2015-02-01

    The parent 1,3,5-triacetyl-2,4,6-trihydroxybenzene was prepared in up to 91% yield using a one-pot, one step reaction catalyzed by aluminum chloride. Its alkylations with 1,5-dibromopentane generated a symmetric tripodal hexasubstituted benzene precursor in the alternated conformer predicted by a theoretical calculation. Subsequent substitutions and reductions provided the corresponding tris-amine in 59% yield. Aminations of the tripodal precursor with (R)-(+)-1-phenylethylamine obtained a chiral tris-amine ligand in 44% yield. 1H NMR titrations of this ligand with each of three L-amino acid derivatives as guest molecules confirmed the presence of their complexes, in which the complex with alanine derivative displayed the strongest interactions with the ligand. Job plots suggested that all complexes composed of 1:2 ratios of the ligand and these guests. Theoretical calculations additionally revealed the structures and the associated binding parameters of the complexes.

  13. Adrenic acid as an inflammation enhancer in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Horas H Nababan, Saut; Nishiumi, Shin; Kawano, Yuki; Kobayashi, Takashi; Yoshida, Masaru; Azuma, Takeshi

    2017-06-01

    This study was designed to identify novel links between lipid species and disease progression in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We analyzed lipid species in the liver and plasma of db/db mice fed a choline-deficient l-amino acid-defined, high-fat diet (CDAHFD) using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). An in vitro experiment was performed using HepG2 cells stimulated with recombinant human TNFα or IL1β. The expression of steatosis-, inflammation-, and fibrosis-related genes were analyzed. Plasma samples from NAFLD patients were also analyzed by LC/MS. The CDAHFD-fed db/db mice with hepatic steatosis, inflammation, mild fibrosis, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia displayed significantly higher hepatic and plasma levels of free adrenic acid (p < 0.05). The accumulated adrenic acid in the CDAHFD-fed db/db mice was associated with increased expression of ELOVL2 and 5, and the suppression of the acyl-CoA oxidase 1 gene during peroxisomal β-oxidation. The pretreatment of HepG2 cells with adrenic acid enhanced their cytokine-induced cytokines and chemokines mRNA expression. In NAFLD patients, the group with the highest ALT levels exhibited higher plasma adrenic acid concentrations than the other ALT groups (p-value for trend <0.001). Data obtained demonstrated that adrenic acid accumulation contributes to disease progression in NAFLD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficient optical resolution of amino acid by alanine racemaze chiral analogue supported on mesoporous carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, D.; Kim, K.; Park, D.; Kim, G.

    2012-09-01

    Optically pure D-amino acids are industrially important chiral building blocks for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, food ingredients, and drug intermediates. Chemoenzymatic dynamic kinetic-resolution processes have recently been developed for deracemization of amino acids. S-ARCA would be a good candidate for the selective adsorption of D amino acid through the imine formation reaction. The organic phase containing S-ARCA adsorbent, TPPC or Ionic Liquid (as a phase transfer catalyst) in MC were coated on the surfaces of mesoporous carbon C-SBA-15(CMK). The aqueous solution of racemic D/L-amino acid and NaOH were added to the carbon support coated with ARCA. The D/L ratios on ARCA and in solution were determined with increasing reaction time. S-ARCA has a unique property for the selective adsorption of D- amino acid (up to 90% selcetivity) in the racemic mixture. The fixed bed reactor containing ARCA/carbon support was also adopted successfully for the selective separation of amino acid.

  15. Uptake and conversion of D-amino acids in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Gördes, Dirk; Kolukisaoglu, Üner; Thurow, Kerstin

    2011-02-01

    The D-enantiomers of proteinogenic amino acids fulfill essential functions in bacteria, fungi and animals. Just in the plant kingdom, the metabolism and role of D-amino acids (D-AAs) still remains unclear, although plants have to cope with significant amounts of these compounds from microbial decay in the rhizosphere. To fill this gap of knowledge, we tested the inhibitory effects of D-AAs on plant growth and established a method to quantitate 16 out of 19 proteinogenic amino acids and their D-enantiomers in plant tissue extracts. Therefore, the amino acids in the extracts were derivatized with Marfey's reagent and separated by HPLC-MS. We used two ecotypes (Col-0 and C24) and a mutant (lht1) of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana to determine the influence and fate of exogenously applied D-AAs. All of them were found in high concentrations in the plant extracts after application, even in lht1, which points to additional transporters facilitating the import of D-AAs. The addition of particular amino acids (D-Trp, D-Phe, D-Met and D-His) led to the accumulation of the corresponding L-amino acid. In almost all cases, the application of a D-AA resulted in the accumulation of D-Ala and D-Glu. The presented results indicate that soil borne D-AAs can actively be taken up and metabolized via central metabolic routes.

  16. Neuromuscular paralysis by the basic phospholipase A2 subunit of crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom needs its acid chaperone to concurrently inhibit acetylcholine release and produce muscle blockage.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Walter L G; Noronha-Matos, José B; Timóteo, Maria A; Fontes, Marcos R M; Gallacci, Márcia; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo

    2017-11-01

    Crotoxin (CTX), a heterodimeric phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) neurotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, promotes irreversible blockade of neuromuscular transmission. Indirect electrophysiological evidence suggests that CTX exerts a primary inhibitory action on transmitter exocytosis, yet contribution of a postsynaptic action of the toxin resulting from nicotinic receptor desensitization cannot be excluded. Here, we examined the blocking effect of CTX on nerve-evoked transmitter release measured directly using radioisotope neurochemistry and video microscopy with the FM4-64 fluorescent dye. Experiments were conducted using mice phrenic-diaphragm preparations. Real-time fluorescence video microscopy and liquid scintillation spectrometry techniques were used to detect transmitter exocytosis and nerve-evoked [ 3 H]-acetylcholine ([ 3 H]ACh) release, respectively. Nerve-evoked myographic recordings were also carried out for comparison purposes. Both CTX (5μg/mL) and its basic PLA 2 subunit (CB, 20μg/mL) had biphasic effects on nerve-evoked transmitter exocytosis characterized by a transient initial facilitation followed by a sustained decay. CTX and CB reduced nerve-evoked [ 3 H]ACh release by 60% and 69%, respectively, but only the heterodimer, CTX, decreased the amplitude of nerve-evoked muscle twitches. Data show that CTX exerts a presynaptic inhibitory action on ACh release that is highly dependent on its intrinsic PLA 2 activity. Given the high safety margin of the neuromuscular transmission, one may argue that the presynaptic block caused by the toxin is not enough to produce muscle paralysis unless a concurrent postsynaptic inhibitory action is also exerted by the CTX heterodimer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. A 2-amino quinoline, 5-(3-(2-(7-chloroquinolin-2-yl)ethenyl)phenyl)-8-dimethylcarbamyl-4,6-dithiaoctanoic acid, interacts with PfMDR1 and inhibits its drug transport in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Edaye, Sonia; Reiling, Sarah J; Leimanis, Mara L; Wunderlich, Juliane; Rohrbach, Petra; Georges, Elias

    2014-06-01

    Malaria is a major disease in the tropics where chemotherapy remains the main mode of treatment and as such the rise and spread of drug-resistant malaria can lead to human tragedy. Two membrane transport proteins, PfMDR1 (Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance protein 1) and PfCRT (P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter), have been shown to cause resistance to several antimalarials. Both PfMDR1 and PfCRT are localized to the digestive vacuolar membrane and appear to regulate the transport of drugs and physiological metabolites. In this study we have used MK571, a 2-amino quinoline, to explore its interaction with PfMDR1 and PfCRT in chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant strains of P. falciparum. Our results show that chloroquine-resistant strains (e.g., K1, Dd2, and 7G8) are consistently more sensitive to MK571 than chloroquine-sensitive strains (e.g., 3D7, 106/1 and D10). This association, however, was not maintained with the chloroquine-resistant strain FCB which IC50 value was similar to chloroquine-sensitive strains. Moreover, the susceptibility of chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant strains to MK571 does not correlate with mutated PfCRT, nor is it reversible with verapamil; but correlates with mutations in PfMDR1. Furthermore, MK571 appears to target the parasite's digestive vacuole (DV), as demonstrated by the ability of MK571 to: (1) block the accumulation of the fluorescent dye Fluo-4 AM, a PfMDR1 substrate, into the digestive vacuole; (2) reduce the transvacuolar pH gradient; and (3) inhibit the formation of β-hematin in vitro. Moreover, the presence of non-toxic concentrations of MK571 sensitized both chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant parasites to mefloquine and halofantrine, likely by competing against PfMDR1-mediated sequestering of the drugs into the DV compartment and away from the drugs' cytosolic targets. Our data, nevertheless, found only a minimal decrease in MK571 IC50 value in FCB parasite which second pfmdr1 copy was

  18. Mathematical evaluation of the amino acid and polyphenol content and antioxidant activities of fruits from different apricot cultivars.

    PubMed

    Sochor, Jiri; Skutkova, Helena; Babula, Petr; Zitka, Ondrej; Cernei, Natalia; Rop, Otakar; Krska, Boris; Adam, Vojtech; Provazník, Ivo; Kizek, Rene

    2011-09-01

    Functional foods are of interest because of their significant effects on human health, which can be connected with the presence of some biologically important compounds. In this study, we carried out complex analysis of 239 apricot cultivars (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivated in Lednice (climatic area T4), South Moravia, Czech Republic. Almost all previously published studies have focused only on analysis of certain parameters. However, we focused on detection both primary and secondary metabolites in a selection of apricot cultivars with respect to their biological activity. The contents of thirteen biogenic alpha-L-amino acids (arginine, asparagine, isoleucine, lysine, serine, threonine, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, proline and alanine) were determined using ion exchange chromatography with UV-Vis spectrometry detection. Profile of polyphenols, measured as content of ten polyphenols with significant antioxidant properties (gallic acid, procatechinic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, rutin, ferrulic acid and quercetrin), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrometric/electrochemical detection. Moreover, content of total phenolics was determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was determined using five independent spectrophotometric methods: DPPH assay, DMPD method, ABTS method, FRAP and Free Radicals methods. Considering the complexity of the obtained data, they were processed and correlated using bioinformatics techniques (cluster analysis, principal component analysis). The studied apricot cultivars were clustered according to their common biochemical properties, which has not been done before. The observed similarities and differences were discussed.

  19. Computational studies on non-succinimide-mediated stereoinversion mechanism of aspartic acid residues assisted by phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayoshi, Tomoki; Fukuyoshi, Shuichi; Takahashi, Ohgi; Oda, Akifumi

    2018-03-01

    Although nearly all of the amino acids that constitute proteins are l-amino acids, d-amino acid residues in human proteins have been recently reported. d-amino acid residues cause a change in the three-dimensional structure of proteins, and d-aspartic acid (Asp) residues are considered to be one of the causes of age-related diseases. The stereoinversion of Asp residues in peptides and proteins is thought to proceed via a succinimide intermediate; however, it has been reported that stereoinversion can occur even under conditions where a succinimide intermediate cannot be formed. In order to elucidate the non-succinimide-mediated stereoinversion pathway, we investigated the stereoinversion of l-Asp to d-Asp catalysed by phosphate and estimated the activation barrier using B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) density functional theory (DFT) calculations. For the DFT calculations, a model compound in which the Asp residue is capped with acetyl and methyl-amino groups on the N- and C-termini, respectively, was used. The calculated activation barrier was not excessively high for the stereoinversion to occur in vivo. Therefore, this stereoinversion mechanism may compete with the succinimide-mediated mechanism.

  20. Determining D/L Ratios of Amino Acids Found in Ice Above Lake Vostok Using ESI/CIT Mass Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsapin, A.; Kanik, I.; Beegle, L. W.; Wu, L.; Cooks, R. G.

    2003-01-01

    Astrobiology is an area where longevity of (micro) organisms is of great interest. Cryospheres are common phenomena in the solar system, particularly on satellites, comets and asteroids, as well as at least some of the planets. Recent data from the Mars Global Surveyor mission suggest the possibility of permafrost or perhaps even liquid water under the Martian surface [2]. These environments may be the areas in which the probability of finding life is the highest. This issue is of concern due to the probable evolution of planetary environments such as that of Mars from more hospitable to less hospitable conditions over the history of the solar system. In addition, evaluation of the possible transfer of living organisms between planets via impact ejecta [3] is dependent on knowledge of the maximum time periods over which microorganisms can remain dormant and subsequently revive and reproduce.Amino acid racemization dating, or aminostratigraphy, has been used for many years to date biological systems, and has been examined as a possible biosignature detection technique for Mars. We have suggested using amino acid racemization as one of the most indicative biosignatures [4]. Only life systems produce preferential synthesis of L-amino acids versus D-amino acids. Almost all amino acids in terrestrial organisms can be found only in the L-enantiomeric form.We studied the level of amino acid racemization, specifically of aspartic acid, in permafrost samples from eastern Siberia. Also we analyzed samples of ice from borehole drilled to lake Vostok, Antarctica.

  1. Development of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantitative analysis of trace d-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Yosuke; Konya, Yutaka; Taniguchi, Moyu; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2017-01-01

    d-Amino acids have recently attracted much attention in various research fields including medical, clinical and food industry due to their important biological functions that differ from l-amino acid. Most chiral amino acid separation techniques require complicated derivatization procedures in order to achieve the desirable chromatographic behavior and detectability. Thus, the aim of this research is to develop a highly sensitive analytical method for the enantioseparation of chiral amino acids without any derivatization process using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). By optimizing MS/MS parameters, we established a quantification method that allowed the simultaneous analysis of 18 d-amino acids with high sensitivity and reproducibility. Additionally, we applied the method to food sample (vinegar) for the validation, and successfully quantified trace levels of d-amino acids in samples. These results demonstrated the applicability and feasibility of the LC-MS/MS method as a novel, effective tool for d-amino acid measurement in various biological samples. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Excess of L-Alanine in Amino Acids Synthesized in a Plasma Torch Generated by a Hypervelocity Meteorite Impact Reproduced in the Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Managadze, George G.; Engle, Michael H.; Getty, Stephanie A.; Wurz, Peter; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Shokolov, Anatoly; Sholin, Gennady; Terent'ev, Sergey A.; Chumikov, Alexander E.; Skalkin, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    We present a laboratory reproduction of hypervelocity impacts of a carbon containing meteorite on a mineral substance representative of planetary surfaces. The physical conditions of the resulting impact plasma torch provide favorable conditions for abiogenic synthesis of protein amino acids: We identified glycine and alanine, and in smaller quantities serine, in the produced material. Moreover, we observe breaking of alanine mirror symmetry with L excess, which coincides with the bioorganic world. Therefore the selection of L-amino acids for the formation of proteins for living matter could have been the result from plasma processes occurring during the impact meteorites on the surface. This indicates that the plasma torch from meteorite impacts could play an important role in the formation of biomolecular homochirality. Thus, meteorite impacts possibly were the initial stage of this process and promoted conditions for the emergence of a living matter.

  3. Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1995-01-01

    Although acid rain is fading as a political issue in the United States and funds for research in this area have largely disappeared, the acidity of rain in the Eastern United States has not changed significantly over the last decade, and it continues to be a serious environmental problem. Acid deposition (commonly called acid rain) is a term applied to all forms of atmospheric deposition of acidic substances - rain, snow, fog, acidic dry particulates, aerosols, and acid-forming gases. Water in the atmosphere reacts with certain atmospheric gases to become acidic. For example, water reacts with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to produce a solution with a pH of about 5.6. Gases that produce acids in the presence of water in the atmosphere include carbon dioxide (which converts to carbonic acid), oxides of sulfur and nitrogen (which convert to sulfuric and nitric acids}, and hydrogen chloride (which converts to hydrochloric acid). These acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere through natural processes, such as volcanic emissions, lightning, forest fires, and decay of organic matter. Accordingly, precipitation is slightly acidic, with a pH of 5.0 to 5.7 even in undeveloped areas. In industrialized areas, most of the acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. Major emitters of acid-producing gases include power plants, industrial operations, and motor vehicles. Acid-producing gases can be transported through the atmosphere for hundreds of miles before being converted to acids and deposited as acid rain. Because acids tend to build up in the atmosphere between storms, the most acidic rain falls at the beginning of a storm, and as the rain continues, the acids "wash out" of the atmosphere.

  4. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  5. Growth and acid production of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 in the fermentation of algal carcass.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Zhang, G F; Mao, X; Wang, J Y; Duan, C Y; Wang, Z J; Liu, L B

    2016-06-01

    Algal carcass is a low-value byproduct of algae after its conversion to biodiesel. Dried algal carcass is rich in protein, carbohydrate, and multiple amino acids, and it is typically well suited for growth and acid production of lactic acid bacteria. In this study, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 was used to ferment different algal carcass media (ACM), including 2% ACM, 2% ACM with 1.9% glucose (ACM-G), and 2% ACM with 1.9% glucose and 2g/L amino acid mixture (ACM-GA). Concentrations of organic acids (lactic acid and acetic acid), acetyl-CoA, and ATP were analyzed by HPLC, and activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acetokinase (ACK), pyruvate kinase (PK), and phosphofructokinase (PFK) were determined by using a chemical approach. The growth of L. bulgaricus cells in ACM-GA was close to that in the control medium (de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe). Lactic acid and acetic acid contents were greatly reduced when L. bulgaricus cells were grown in ACM compared with the control medium. Acetyl-CoA content varied with organic acid content and was increased in cells grown in different ACM compared with the control medium. The ATP content of L. bulgaricus cells in ACM was reduced compared with that of cells grown in the control medium. Activities of PFK and ACK of L. bulgaricus cells grown in ACM were higher and those of PK and LDH were lower compared with the control. Thus, ACM rich in nutrients may serve as an excellent substrate for growth by lactic acid bacteria, and addition of appropriate amounts of glucose and amino acids can improve growth and acid production. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Studies of insulin secretory responses and of arachidonic acid incorporation into phospholipids of stably transfected insulinoma cells that overexpress group VIA phospholipase A2 (iPLA2beta ) indicate a signaling rather than a housekeeping role for iPLA2beta.

    PubMed

    Ma, Z; Ramanadham, S; Wohltmann, M; Bohrer, A; Hsu, F F; Turk, J

    2001-04-20

    A cytosolic 84-kDa group VIA phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)beta) that does not require Ca(2+) for catalysis has been cloned from several sources, including rat and human pancreatic islet beta-cells and murine P388D1 cells. Many potential iPLA(2)beta functions have been proposed, including a signaling role in beta-cell insulin secretion and a role in generating lysophosphatidylcholine acceptors for arachidonic acid incorporation into P388D1 cell phosphatidylcholine (PC). Proposals for iPLA(2)beta function rest in part on effects of inhibiting iPLA(2)beta activity with a bromoenol lactone (BEL) suicide substrate, but BEL also inhibits phosphatidate phosphohydrolase-1 and a group VIB phospholipase A(2). Manipulation of iPLA(2)beta expression by molecular biologic means is an alternative approach to study iPLA(2)beta functions, and we have used a retroviral construct containing iPLA(2)beta cDNA to prepare two INS-1 insulinoma cell clonal lines that stably overexpress iPLA(2)beta. Compared with parental INS-1 cells or cells transfected with empty vector, both iPLA(2)beta-overexpressing lines exhibit amplified insulin secretory responses to glucose and cAMP-elevating agents, and BEL substantially attenuates stimulated secretion. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric analyses of arachidonic acid incorporation into INS-1 cell PC indicate that neither overexpression nor inhibition of iPLA(2)beta affects the rate or extent of this process in INS-1 cells. Immunocytofluorescence studies with antibodies directed against iPLA(2)beta indicate that cAMP-elevating agents increase perinuclear fluorescence in INS-1 cells, suggesting that iPLA(2)beta associates with nuclei. These studies are more consistent with a signaling than with a housekeeping role for iPLA(2)beta in insulin-secreting beta-cells.

  7. Molecular cloning and expression of gene encoding aromatic amino acid decarboxylase in 'Vidal blanc' grape berries.

    PubMed

    Pan, Qiu-Hong; Chen, Fang; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Ma, Li-Yan; Li, Li; Li, Jing-Ming

    2012-04-01

    The pleasantly fruity and floral 2-phenylethanol are a dominant aroma compound in post-ripening 'Vidal blanc' grapes. However, to date little has been reported about its synthetic pathway in grapevine. In the present study, a full-length cDNA of VvAADC (encoding aromatic amino acid decarboxylase) was firstly cloned from the berries of 'Vidal blanc', an interspecific hybrid variety of Vitis vinifera × Vitis riparia. This sequence encodes a complete open reading frame of 482 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 54 kDa and isoelectric point value (pI) of 5.73. The amino acid sequence deduced shared about 79% identity with that of aromatic L: -amino acid decarboxylases (AADCs) from tomato. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that VvAADC transcript abundance presented a small peak at 110 days after full bloom and then a continuous increase at the berry post-ripening stage, which was consistent with the accumulation of 2-phenylethanol, but did not correspond to the trends of two potential intermediates, phenethylamine and 2-phenylacetaldehyde. Furthermore, phenylalanine still exhibited a continuous increase even in post-ripening period. It is thus suggested that 2-phenylethanol biosynthetic pathway mediated by AADC exists in grape berries, but it has possibly little contribution to a considerable accumulation of 2-phenylethanol in post-ripening 'Vidal blanc' grapes.

  8. An integrated scheme for the simultaneous determination of biogenic amines, precursor amino acids, and related metabolites by liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Oka, K; Kojima, K; Togari, A; Nagatsu, T; Kiss, B

    1984-06-08

    A new method using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED) for the simultaneous determination of monoamines, their precursor amino acids, and related major metabolites in small samples of brain tissue weighing from 0.5 to 50 mg is described. The method is based on the preliminary isolation of monoamines (dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and serotonin), their precursor amino acids (tyrosine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptophan), and their major metabolites (3-methoxytyramine, normetanephrine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid, vanillylmandelic acid, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid) by chromatography on small columns of Amberlite CG-50 and Dowex 50W, and by ethyl acetate extraction. All the compounds in the four isolated fractions were measured by HPLC-ED on a reversed-phase column under four different conditions. The sensitivity was from 0.1 to 40 pmol, depending on the substances analysed. This newly established method was applied to the study of the effects of an aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor (NSD-1015) and a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (pargyline) on the levels of monoamines, their precursor amino acids and their major metabolites in brain regions of mice.

  9. Acquisition and Assimilation of Nitrogen as Peptide-Bound and D-Enantiomers of Amino Acids by Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Paul W.; Quilliam, Richard S.; DeLuca, Thomas H.; Farrar, John; Farrell, Mark; Roberts, Paula; Newsham, Kevin K.; Hopkins, David W.; Bardgett, Richard D.; Jones, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen is a key regulator of primary productivity in many terrestrial ecosystems. Historically, only inorganic N (NH4 + and NO3 -) and L-amino acids have been considered to be important to the N nutrition of terrestrial plants. However, amino acids are also present in soil as small peptides and in D-enantiomeric form. We compared the uptake and assimilation of N as free amino acid and short homopeptide in both L- and D-enantiomeric forms. Sterile roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants were exposed to solutions containing either 14C-labelled L-alanine, D-alanine, L-trialanine or D-trialanine at a concentration likely to be found in soil solution (10 µM). Over 5 h, plants took up L-alanine, D-alanine and L-trialanine at rates of 0.9±0.3, 0.3±0.06 and 0.3±0.04 µmol g−1 root DW h−1, respectively. The rate of N uptake as L-trialanine was the same as that as L-alanine. Plants lost ca.60% of amino acid C taken up in respiration, regardless of the enantiomeric form, but more (ca.80%) of the L-trialanine C than amino acid C was respired. When supplied in solutions of mixed N form, N uptake as D-alanine was ca.5-fold faster than as NO3 -, but slower than as L-alanine, L-trialanine and NH4 +. Plants showed a limited capacity to take up D-trialanine (0.04±0.03 µmol g−1 root DW h−1), but did not appear to be able to metabolise it. We conclude that wheat is able to utilise L-peptide and D-amino acid N at rates comparable to those of N forms of acknowledged importance, namely L-amino acids and inorganic N. This is true even when solutes are supplied at realistic soil concentrations and when other forms of N are available. We suggest that it may be necessary to reconsider which forms of soil N are important in the terrestrial N cycle. PMID:21541281

  10. Valproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and spinal cord and can also cause lower intelligence in babies exposed to valproic acid before birth. ... acid. Talk to your doctor about birth control methods that will work for you. If you become ...

  11. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... before the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  12. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  13. Ethacrynic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  14. Production and transformation of dissolved neutral sugars and amino acids by bacteria in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, L.; Lechtenfeld, O. J.; Benner, R.; Middelboe, M.; Stedmon, C. A.

    2014-10-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the ocean consists of a heterogeneous mixture of molecules, most of which are of unknown origin. Neutral sugars and amino acids are among the few recognizable biomolecules in DOM, and the molecular composition of these biomolecules is shaped primarily by biological production and degradation processes. This study provides insight into the bioavailability of biomolecules as well as the chemical composition of DOM produced by bacteria. The molecular compositions of combined neutral sugars and amino acids were investigated in DOM produced by bacteria and in DOM remaining after 32 days of bacterial degradation. Results from bioassay incubations with natural seawater (sampled from water masses originating from the surface waters of the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic Ocean) and artificial seawater indicate that the molecular compositions following bacterial degradation are not strongly influenced by the initial substrate or bacterial community. The molecular composition of neutral sugars released by bacteria was characterized by a high glucose content (47 mol %) and heterogeneous contributions from other neutral sugars (3-14 mol %). DOM remaining after bacterial degradation was characterized by a high galactose content (33 mol %), followed by glucose (22 mol %) and the remaining neutral sugars (7-11 mol %). The ratio of D-amino acids to L-amino acids increased during the experiments as a response to bacterial degradation, and after 32 days, the D/L ratios of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine and alanine reached around 0.79, 0.32, 0.30 and 0.51 in all treatments, respectively. The striking similarity in neutral sugar and amino acid compositions between natural (representing marine semi-labile and refractory DOM) and artificial (representing bacterially produced DOM) seawater samples, suggests that microbes transform bioavailable neutral sugars and amino acids into a common, more persistent form.

  15. Transferability of different classical force fields for right and left handed α-helices constructed from enantiomeric amino acids.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Santu; Sarkar, Sujit; Pandey, Prithvi Raj; Roy, Sudip

    2016-02-21

    Amino acids can form d and l enantiomers, of which the l enantiomer is abundant in nature. The naturally occurring l enantiomer has a greater preference for a right handed helical conformation, and the d enantiomer for a left handed helical conformation. The other conformations, that is, left handed helical conformations of the l enantiomers and right handed helical conformations of the d enantiomers, are not common. The energetic differences between left and right handed alpha helical peptide chains constructed from enantiomeric amino acids are investigated using quantum chemical calculations (using the M06/6-311g(d,p) level of theory). Further, the performances of commonly used biomolecular force fields (OPLS/AA, CHARMM27/CMAP and AMBER) to represent the different helical conformations (left and right handed) constructed from enantiomeric (D and L) amino acids are evaluated. 5- and 10-mer chains from d and l enantiomers of alanine, leucine, lysine, and glutamic acid, in right and left handed helical conformations, are considered in the study. Thus, in total, 32 α-helical polypeptides (4 amino acids × 4 conformations of 5-mer and 10-mer) are studied. Conclusions, with regards to the performance of the force fields, are derived keeping the quantum optimized geometry as the benchmark, and on the basis of phi and psi angle calculations, hydrogen bond analysis, and different long range helical order parameters.

  16. Crystal growth and physical characterization of picolinic acid cocrystallized with dicarboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somphon, Weenawan; Haller, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical cocrystals are multicomponent materials containing an active pharmaceutical ingredient with another component in well-defined stoichiometry within the same unit cell. Such cocrystals are important in drug design, particularly for improving physicochemical properties such as solubility, bioavailability, or chemical stability. Picolinic acid is an endogenous metabolite of tryptophan and is widely used for neuroprotective, immunological, and anti-proliferative effects within the body. In this paper we present cocrystallization experiments of a series of dicarboxylic acids, oxalic acid, succinic acid, DL-tartaric acid, pimelic acid, and phthalic acid, with picolinic acid. Characterization by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, DSC and TG/DTG analysis, and X-ray powder diffraction show that new compounds are formed, including a 1:1 picolinium tartrate monohydrate, a 2:1 monohydrate adduct of picolinic acid and oxalic acid, and a 2:1 picolinic acid-succinic acid monohydrate cocrystal.

  17. Sublimation of amino acids with enantiomeric excess amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemin, Jean-Claude; Guillemin, Jean-Claude; Bellec, Aurelien

    The notion of chirality was first reported in 1848 by Pasteur, when he mechanically separated the two enantiomers of tartrate salts.[1] Amino acids are considered as the most important building blocks of life with sugars. On the Earth, the living systems are only composed of L- amino acids and D-sugars. Nowadays, the origin of homochirality on Earth is still unknown, and there are many theories trying to explain this phenomenon. Recently Cooks [2] and Feringa [3] reported that the sublimation of small amounts of L and D amino acid mixtures containing an excess of one of them leads to a huge enantiomeric excess (ee) enhancement of the sublimate. We reinvestigated these experiments to determine the rules leading to this enhancement. Starting from mixtures of L- and DL leucine we observed increasing and decreasing of the ee in function of the starting ratios. By the use of 13C derivatives, the origin of the sublimed enantiomers has been precised. Various parameters (L and D, or L and DL mixtures, dissolution in water before sublimation, . . . ) were studied. We also took into consideration the recently proposed hypothesis of the role played by the eutectic ee in the sublimation. [4] The application of these results to find an explanation of the enantiomeric excess in meteorites or in the Primitive Earth scenarios will be discussed. 1 Pasteur, L. Ann. Phys., 1848, 24, 442. 2 R. H. Perry, C. Wu, M. Nefliu, R. G. Cooks, Chem. Commun., 2007, 1071-1073. 3 S. P. Fletcher, R. B. C. Jagt, B. L. Feringa, Chem. Commun., 2007, 2578-2580. 4 D. G. Blackmond, M. Klussmannb Chem. Commun., 2007, 3990-3996.

  18. Chiral Determination of Amino Acids Using X-Ray Diffraction of Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dragoi, D.; Kulleck, J.; Kanik, I.; Beegle, L. W.

    2003-01-01

    The astrobiological search for life, both extinct and extant, on other solar system bodies will take place via several planned lander missions to Mars Europa and Titan. The detection and identification of organic molecules that have been associated with life is a major technical challenge. Terrestrial life utilizes organic molecules, such as amino acids, as its basic building block. Amino acids can be synthesized by natural processes as is demonstrated by their detection in meteoritic material. In this process, the organic molecules are produced roughly in a even mixture of D and L forms. Biological process, however, can utilize almost uniquely one form or the other. In terrestrial biology, only the L-amino acids is common in biological processes. If signature of life existed elsewhere in the D form it then be concluded that life had evolutionary beginning on that body. Detection of an enantiomeric excess of L over D would also be a powerful sign that life had existed on that body at one time.

  19. Identification and Characterization of Mutations Conferring Resistance to d-Amino Acids in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Leiman, Sara A.; Richardson, Charles; Foulston, Lucy; Elsholz, Alexander K. W.; First, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteria produce d-amino acids for incorporation into the peptidoglycan and certain nonribosomally produced peptides. However, d-amino acids are toxic if mischarged on tRNAs or misincorporated into protein. Common strains of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis are particularly sensitive to the growth-inhibitory effects of d-tyrosine due to the absence of d-aminoacyl-tRNA deacylase, an enzyme that prevents misincorporation of d-tyrosine and other d-amino acids into nascent proteins. We isolated spontaneous mutants of B. subtilis that survive in the presence of a mixture of d-leucine, d-methionine, d-tryptophan, and d-tyrosine. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that these strains harbored mutations affecting tRNATyr charging. Three of the most potent mutations enhanced the expression of the gene (tyrS) for tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase. In particular, resistance was conferred by mutations that destabilized the terminator hairpin of the tyrS riboswitch, as well as by a mutation that transformed a tRNAPhe into a tyrS riboswitch ligand. The most potent mutation, a substitution near the tyrosine recognition site of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase, improved enzyme stereoselectivity. We conclude that these mutations promote the proper charging of tRNATyr, thus facilitating the exclusion of d-tyrosine from protein biosynthesis in cells that lack d-aminoacyl-tRNA deacylase. IMPORTANCE Proteins are composed of l-amino acids. Mischarging of tRNAs with d-amino acids or the misincorporation of d-amino acids into proteins causes toxicity. This work reports on mutations that confer resistance to d-amino acids and their mechanisms of action. PMID:25733611

  20. Branched-chain amino acid interactions with reference to amino acid requirements in adult men: Valine metabolism at different leucine intakes

    SciTech Connect

    Pelletier, V.; Marks, L.; Wagner, D.A.

    1991-08-01

    The authors explored whether the oxidation of valine and by implication the physiological requirement for this amino acid are affected by changes in leucine intake over a physiological range. Six young adult men received, in random order, four L-amino acid-based diets for 5 d supplying either 20 or 10 mg valine.kg body wt-1.d-1, each in combination with 80 or 40 mg leucine.kg-1.d-1. On day 6 subjects were studied with an 8-h continuous intravenous infusion of (1-13C)valine (and (2H3)leucine) to determine valine oxidation in the fasted state (first 3 h) and fed state (last 5 h). Valine oxidation in the fastedmore » state was similar among all diets but was lower (P less than 0.05) in the fed state for the 10 vs 20 mg valine.kg-1.d-1 intake. Leucine intake did not affect valine oxidation. Mean daily valine balance approximated +1.3 mg.kg-1.d-1 for the 20-mg intake and -1.6 mg.kg-1.d-1 for the 10-mg intake. These findings support our previously suggested mean valine requirement estimate of approximately 20 mg.kg-1.d-1.« less

  1. IgE binding to peanut allergens is inhibited by combined D-aspartic and D-glutamic acids.

    PubMed

    Chung, Si-Yin; Reed, Shawndrika

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if D-amino acids (D-aas) bind and inhibit immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to peanut allergens. D-aas such as D-Asp (aspartic acid), D-Glu (glutamic acid), combined D-[Asp/Glu] and others were each prepared in a cocktail of 9 other D-aas, along with L-amino acids (L-aas) and controls. Each sample was mixed with a pooled plasma from peanut-allergic donors, and tested by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and Western blots for IgE binding to peanut allergens. Results showed that D-[Asp/Glu] (4 mg/ml) inhibited IgE binding (75%) while D-Glu, D-Asp and other D-aas had no inhibitory effect. A higher inhibition was seen with D-[Asp/Glu] than with L-[Asp/Glu]. We concluded that IgE was specific for D-[Asp/Glu], not D-Asp or D-Glu, and that D-[Asp/Glu] was more reactive than was L-[Asp/Glu] in IgE inhibition. The finding indicates that D-[Asp/Glu] may have the potential for removing IgE or reducing IgE binding to peanut allergens in vitro. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Enhanced biosynthesis of chiral phenyllactic acid from L-phenylalanine through a new whole-cell biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhaojuan; Xia, Meijuan; Fang, Xuchao; Jiang, Ting; Ouyang, Jia

    2018-06-22

    Phenyllactic acid (PLA) is a high-value compound, which was usually produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as biocatalysts and glucose or phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) as starting materials for PLA synthesis in previous studies. However, the PLA produced using LAB is a racemic mixture. Besides, both glucose and PPA were unsatisfactory substrates, as the former could not produce high concentrations of PLA while the latter is not a renewable and green substrate. To overcome these drawbacks, in this study, a new biotransformation process was developed for chiral PLA production from L-phenylalanine via the intermediate PPA using recombinant Escherichia coli co-expressing L-amino acid deaminase, NAD-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase or NAD-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase, and formate dehydrogenase. After optimization, the recombinant E. coli produced L- and D-PLA at concentrations of 59.9 and 60.3 mM in 6 h, respectively. Hence, this process provides an effective and promising alternative method for chiral PLA production.

  3. Protein-bound D-amino acids, and to a lesser extent lysinoalanine, decrease true ileal protein digestibility in minipigs as determined with (15)N-labeling.

    PubMed

    de Vrese, M; Frik, R; Roos, N; Hagemeister, H

    2000-08-01

    Heat and alkali treatment of food may increase the concentrations of protein-bound D-amino acids and cross-links such as lysinoalanine (LAL). To examine how protein treatment affects digestibility, purified test meals [total protein 150 g/kg dry matter (DM), 0.44 MJ/(kg BW(0.75). d)] were prepared, containing (g/kg DM) casein, 75; beta-lactoglobulin, 50; or wheat protein, 40. Each was (15)N-labeled. Test proteins were used either in their native form or after treatment for 6 or 24 h at 65 degrees C, pH 10.5-11.5. Each meal was fed to nine adult miniature pigs (twofold complete cross-classification). Chyme was collected continuously over 33 h postprandially via T-fistulas in the terminal ileum, and digestibilities of test proteins and individual L- and D-amino acids were calculated on the basis of recovery of (15)N and the respective amino acids in the chyme. Treatment of casein, beta-lactoglobulin or wheat protein for 24 h increased levels of D-amino acid residues. L-Asparagine and aspartate (L-Asx) were particularly susceptible; 14. 7 +/- 0.4, 11.7 +/- 0.2 and 11.0 +/- 0.9%, respectively, underwent racemization. LAL levels increased in parallel; 11.7 +/- 0.3, 13.6 +/- 0 and 14.8 +/- 0.0%, respectively, of total lysine was converted to LAL. At the same time, prececal protein digestibility was decreased by 13.4 +/- 2.3, 15.3 +/- 1.4 and 17.8 +/- 1.2% units, respectively (P < 0.05; mean +/- SEM, n = 9). Digestibility of individual L-amino acids decreased by 10-15%, but L-amino acids prone to peptic cleavage, such as L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine, were not affected. Digestibilities of D-amino acids and LAL were approximately 35%. It seems that mainly D-amino acids, and to a lesser extent LAL, were responsible for lower digestibility by interfering with peptic cleavage.

  4. Usnic acid.

    PubMed

    Ingólfsdóttir, K

    2002-12-01

    Since its first isolation in 1844, usnic acid [2,6-diacetyl-7,9-dihydroxy-8,9b-dimethyl-1,3(2H,9bH)-dibenzo-furandione] has become the most extensively studied lichen metabolite and one of the few that is commercially available. Usnic acid is uniquely found in lichens, and is especially abundant in genera such as Alectoria, Cladonia, Usnea, Lecanora, Ramalina and Evernia. Many lichens and extracts containing usnic acid have been utilized for medicinal, perfumery, cosmetic as well as ecological applications. Usnic acid as a pure substance has been formulated in creams, toothpaste, mouthwash, deodorants and sunscreen products, in some cases as an active principle, in others as a preservative. In addition to antimicrobial activity against human and plant pathogens, usnic acid has been shown to exhibit antiviral, antiprotozoal, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Ecological effects, such as antigrowth, antiherbivore and anti-insect properties, have also been demonstrated. A difference in biological activity has in some cases been observed between the two enantiomeric forms of usnic acid. Recently health food supplements containing usnic acid have been promoted for use in weight reduction, with little scientific support. The emphasis of the current review is on the chemistry and biological activity of usnic acid and its derivatives in addition to rational and ecologically acceptable methods for provision of this natural compound on a large scale.

  5. Acid Precipitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the fact that the acidity of rain and snow falling on parts of the U.S. and Europe has been rising. The reasons are still not entirely clear and the consequences have yet to be well evaluated. (MLH)

  6. A MIDGUT DIGESTIVE PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 IN LARVAL MOSQUITOES, AEDES ALBOPICTUS AND CULEX QUINQUEFASCIATUS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is a secretory digestive enzyme that hydrolyzes ester bond at sn-2 position of dietary phospholipids, creating free fatty acid and lysophopholipid. The free fatty acids (arachidonic acid) are absorbed into midgut cells. Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus digestive PL...

  7. Amino Acids in Asteroids and Comets: Implications for the Origin of Life on Earth and Possibly Elsewhere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Meteorites provide a record of the chemical processes that occurred in the early solar system before life began on Earth. The delivery of organic matter by asteroids, comets, and their fragments to the Earth and other planetary bodies in our solar system could have been an important source of the prebiotic organic inventory needed for the emergence of life. Amino acids are essential components of proteins and enzymes in life on Earth and these prebiotic organic compounds have been detected in a wide variety of carbon-rich meteorites, the majority of which have been determined to be extraterrestrial in origin. In addition, many amino acids are structurally chiral (they possess handedness) and with a few very rare exceptions, only left handed (L) amino acids are found in biology, while all known abiotic syntheses of amino acids result in equal mixtures of left and right handed (LD) amino acids. The discovery of a significant left handed amino acid imbalance of up to 20% in several different carbonaceous meteorites, could point toward a possible prebiotic contribution to the origin of biological homochirality by the exogenous delivery of extraterrestrial organic material to the early Earth. In this talk, I will focus on recent state-of-the-art measurements of the distribution, chirality, and isotopic composition of amino acids in meteorites and cometary samples carried out at the Goddard Astrobiology Analytical Laboratory. Results from the analyses of a variety of Antarctic meteorites, samples from comet Wild 2 returned by the STARDUST mission, and meteorite fragments of asteroid 2008 TC3 called Almahata Sitta recovered from northern Sudan will be discussed

  8. Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1993-01-01

    Acid deposition, or acid rain as it is more commonly referred to, has become a widely publicized environmental issue in the U.S. over the past decade. The term usually conjures up images of fish kills, dying forests, "dead" lakes, and damage to monuments and other historic artifacts. The primary cause of acid deposition is emission of S02 and NOx to the atmosphere during the combustion of fossil fuels. Oxidation of these compounds in the atmosphere forms strong acids - H2SO4 and HNO3 - which are returned to the Earth in rain, snow, fog, cloud water, and as dry deposition.Although acid deposition has only recently been recognized as an environmental problem in the U.S., it is not a new phenomenon (Cogbill & Likens 1974). As early as the middle of the 17th century in England, the deleterious effects of industrial emissions on plants, animals, and humans, and the atmospheric transport of pollutants between England and France had become issues of concern (Evelyn 1661, Graunt 1662). It is interesting that well over three hundred years ago in England, recommendations were made to move industry outside of towns and build higher chimneys to spread the pollution into "distant parts." Increasing the height of smokestacks has helped alleviate local problems, but has exacerbated others. In the U.S. the height of the tallest smokestack has more than doubled, and the average height of smokestacks has tripled since the 1950s (Patrick et al 1981). This trend occurred in most industrialized nations during the 20th century and has had the effect of transforming acid rain from a local urban problem into a problem of global scale.

  9. Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.; Dietrich, W.E.; Sposito, Garrison

    1997-01-01

    Acid deposition, or acid rain as it is more commonly referred to, has become a widely publicized environmental issue in the U.S. over the past decade. The term usually conjures up images of fish kills, dying forests, "dead" lakes, and damage to monuments and other historic artifacts. The primary cause of acid deposition is emission of S02 and NOx to the atmosphere during the combustion of fossil fuels. Oxidation of these compounds in the atmosphere forms strong acids - H2SO4 and HNO3 - which are returned to the Earth in rain, snow, fog, cloud water, and as dry deposition.Although acid deposition has only recently been recognized as an environmental problem in the U.S., it is not a new phenomenon (Cogbill & Likens 1974). As early as the middle of the 17th century in England, the deleterious effects of industrial emissions on plants, animals, and humans, and the atmospheric transport of pollutants between England and France had become issues of concern (Evelyn 1661, Graunt 1662). It is interesting that well over three hundred years ago in England, recommendations were made to move industry outside of towns and build higher chimneys to spread the pollution into "distant parts." Increasing the height of smokestacks has helped alleviate local problems, but has exacerbated others. In the U.S. the height of the tallest smokestack has more than doubled, and the average height of smokestacks has tripled since the 1950s (Patrick et al 1981). This trend occurred in most industrialized nations during the 20th century and has had the effect of transforming acid rain from a local urban problem into a problem of global scale.

  10. Salicylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

  11. The Role of Protein Elongation Factor eEF1A2 in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    serve as regulators of multiple signaling pathways (15-18). PIs are composed of an inositol ring covalently bound to a lipid phosphatidic acid ...mouse model of aristolochic acid nephropathy, and human kidney-proximal tubule cells. Satisfyingly, one of these targets is Dishevelled 2 (DVL2...Rho signaling proteins together. The two human eEF1A isoforms (eEF1A2 and eEF1A2) are very similar proteins (92% amino acid identity). The two

  12. Analysis of Endogenous D-Amino Acid-Containing Peptides in Metazoa

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Lu; Sheeley, Sarah; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2010-01-01

    Peptides are chiral molecules with their structure determined by the composition and configuration of their amino acid building blocks. The naturally occurring amino acids, except glycine, possess two chiral forms. This allows the formation of multiple peptide diastereomers that have the same sequence. Although living organisms use L-amino acids to make proteins, a group of D-amino acid-containing peptides (DAACPs) has been discovered in animals that have at least one of their residues isomerized to the D-form via an enzyme-catalyzed process. In many cases, the biological functions of these peptides are enhanced due to this structural conversion. These DAACPs are different from those known to occur in bacterial cell wall and antibiotic peptides, the latter of which are synthesized in a ribosome-independent manner. DAACPs have now also been identified in a number of distinct groups throughout the Metazoa. Their serendipitous discovery has often resulted from discrepancies observed in bioassays or in chromatographic behavior between natural peptide fractions and peptides synthesized according to a presumed all-L sequence. Because this L-to-D post-translational modification is subtle and not detectable by most sequence determination approaches, it is reasonable to suspect that many studies have overlooked this change; accordingly, DAACPs may be more prevalent than currently thought. Although diastereomer separation techniques developed with synthetic peptides in recent years have greatly aided in the discovery of natural DAACPs, there is a need for new, more robust methods for naturally complex samples. In this review, a brief history of DAACPs in animals is presented, followed by discussion of a variety of analytical methods that have been used for diastereomeric separation and detection of peptides. PMID:20490347

  13. Formic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Formic acid ; CASRN 64 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  14. Dichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dichloroacetic acid ; CASRN 79 - 43 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  15. Acrylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylic acid ( CASRN 79 - 10 - 7 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  16. Trichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 09 / 003F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF TRICHLOROACETIC ACID ( CAS No . 76 - 03 - 9 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2011 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC ii DISCLAIMER This document has

  17. Benzoic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzoic acid ; CASRN 65 - 85 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  18. Phosphoric acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phosphoric acid ; CASRN 7664 - 38 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  19. Cacodylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Cacodylic acid ; CASRN 75 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  20. Selenious acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Selenious acid ; CASRN 7783 - 00 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  1. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Mefenamic acid comes as a capsule to take by mouth. It is usually taken with food every 6 hours as needed for up to 1 week. Follow ... pain vomit that is bloody or looks like coffee grounds black, tarry, or bloody stools slowed breathing ...

  2. Stearic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

  3. Regulation of amino acid transporter trafficking by mTORC1 in primary human trophoblast cells is mediated by the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Fredrick J; Dimasuay, Kris Genelyn; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Changes in placental amino acid transfer directly contribute to altered fetal growth, which increases the risk for perinatal complications and predisposes for the development of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in life. Placental amino acid transfer is critically dependent on the expression of specific transporters in the plasma membrane of the trophoblast, the transporting epithelium of the human placenta. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating this process are largely unknown. Nedd4-2 is an ubiquitin ligase that catalyses the ubiquitination of proteins, resulting in proteasomal degradation. We hypothesized that inhibition of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) decreases amino acid uptake in primary human trophoblast (PHT) cells by activation of Nedd4-2, which increases transporter ubiquitination resulting in decreased transporter expression in the plasma membrane. mTORC 1 inhibition increased the expression of Nedd4-2, promoted ubiquitination and decreased the plasma membrane expression of SNAT2 (an isoform of the System A amino acid transporter) and LAT1 (a System L amino acid transporter isoform), resulting in decreased cellular amino acid uptake. Nedd4-2 silencing markedly increased the trafficking of SNAT2 and LAT1 to the plasma membrane, which stimulated cellular amino acid uptake. mTORC1 inhibition by silencing of raptor failed to decrease amino acid transport following Nedd4-2 silencing. In conclusion, we have identified a novel link between mTORC1 signalling and ubiquitination, a common posttranslational modification. Because placental mTORC1 is inhibited in fetal growth restriction and activated in fetal overgrowth, we propose that regulation of placental amino acid transporter ubiquitination by mTORC1 and Nedd4-2 constitutes a molecular mechanisms underlying abnormal fetal growth. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  4. All-trans retinoic acid regulates hepatic bile acid homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; He, Yuqi; Liu, Hui-Xin; Tsuei, Jessica; Jiang, Xiaoyue; Yang, Li; Wang, Zheng-Tao; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) and bile acids share common roles in regulating lipid homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. In addition, the receptor for RA (retinoid x receptor) is a permissive partner of the receptor for bile acids, farnesoid x receptor (FXR/NR1H4). Thus, RA can activate the FXR-mediated pathway as well. The current study was designed to understand the effect of all-trans RA on bile acid homeostasis. Mice were fed an all-trans RA-supplemented diet and the expression of 46 genes that participate in regulating bile acid homeostasis was studied. The data showed that all-trans RA has a profound effect in regulating genes involved in synthesis and transport of bile acids. All-trans RA treatment reduced the gene expression levels of Cyp7a1, Cyp8b1, and Akr1d1, which are involved in bile acid synthesis. All-trans RA also decreased the hepatic mRNA levels of Lrh-1 (Nr5a2) and Hnf4α (Nr2a1), which positively regulate the gene expression of Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1. Moreover, all-trans RA induced the gene expression levels of negative regulators of bile acid synthesis including hepatic Fgfr4, Fxr, and Shp (Nr0b2) as well as ileal Fgf15. All-trans RA also decreased the expression of Abcb11 and Slc51b, which have a role in bile acid transport. Consistently, all-trans RA reduced hepatic bile acid levels and the ratio of CA/CDCA, as demonstrated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The data suggest that all-trans RA-induced SHP may contribute to the inhibition of CYP7A1 and CYP8B1, which in turn reduces bile acid synthesis and affects lipid absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25175738

  5. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  6. Synergistic Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure, Mild Heating, and Amino Acids on Germination and Inactivation of Clostridium sporogenes Spores

    PubMed Central

    Ishimori, Takateru; Takahashi, Katsutoshi; Goto, Masato; Nakagawa, Suguru; Kasai, Yoshiaki; Konagaya, Yukifumi; Batori, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    The synergistic effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), mild heating, and amino acids on the germination of Clostridium sporogenes spores were examined by determining the number of surviving spores that returned to vegetative growth after pasteurization following these treatments. Pressurization at 200 MPa at a temperature higher than 40°C and treatment with some of the 19 l-amino acids at 10 mM or higher synergistically facilitated germination. When one of these factors was omitted, the level of germination was insignificant. Pressures of 100 and 400 MPa were less effective than 200 MPa. The spores were effectively inactivated by between 1.8 and 4.8 logs by pasteurization at 80°C after pressurization at 200 MPa at 45°C for 120 min with one of the amino acids with moderate hydrophobicity, such as Leu, Phe, Cys Met, Ala, Gly, or Ser. However, other amino acids showed poor inactivation effects of less than 0.9 logs. Spores in solutions containing 80 mM of either Leu, Phe, Cys, Met, Ala, Gly, or Ser were successfully inactivated by pasteurization by more than 5.4 logs after pressurization at 200 MPa at 70°C for 15 to 120 min. Ala and Met reduced the spore viability by 2.8 and 1.8 logs, respectively, by pasteurization at a concentration of 1 mM under 200 MPa at 70°C. These results indicate that germination of the spores is facilitated by a combination of high hydrostatic pressure, mild heating, and amino acids. PMID:22983975

  7. Obeticholic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Susan M.; Pegram, Angela H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To review the pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of obeticholic acid (OCA) and determine its clinical role relative to other agents in the treatment of patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). Data Sources: A PubMed search (1946 to November 2016) was conducted using the terms INT-747, obeticholic acid, OCA, farnesoid X receptor agonists, FXR agonists, primary biliary cirrhosis, and primary biliary cholangitis. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Phase II and III studies evaluating the use of OCA in PBC patients were included in this review. Data Synthesis: OCA, a farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist, is indicated for adult patients with PBC in combination with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) or as monotherapy if unable to tolerate UDCA. Two clinical trials were identified evaluating OCA for the treatment of PBC. Study end points utilized biochemical markers (alkaline phosphatase [ALP] and bilirubin). A phase II study (n = 165) to determine efficacy and safety of OCA at 3 different doses (10 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg) demonstrated statistically significant reductions in ALP (P < .0001 for all OCA groups versus placebo) after 12 weeks. A phase III trial (n = 217) assessed lower OCA doses (5 mg and 10 mg) with a longer study duration (12 months). Statistically significant differences (P < .001) between the 5 to 10 mg group (46%) and the 10 mg group (47%) compared to the placebo group (10%) were found. The primary adverse effect reported in both trials was pruritus. Conclusions: OCA is the first FXR agonist approved for the treatment of PBC. Ongoing research to evaluate clinical outcomes with OCA is currently underway.

  8. Accumulation of 5-Oxoproline in Mouse Tissues After Inhibition of 5-Oxoprolinase and Administration of Amino Acids: Evidence for Function of the γ-Glutamyl Cycle*

    PubMed Central

    Van Der Werf, Paul; Stephani, Ralph A.; Meister, Alton

    1974-01-01

    5-Oxoprolinase catalyzes the conversion of 5-oxo-L-proline (L-pyroglutamate, L-2-pyrrolidone-5-carboxylate) to L-glutamate with concomitant stoichiometric cleavage of ATP to ADP and inorganic orthophosphate. In this reaction, a step in the γ-glutamyl cycle, 5-oxoproline (formed by the action of γ-glutamylcyclotransferase on γ-glutamyl amino acids, which are in turn formed by transpeptidation of amino acids with glutathione), is made available for glutathione synthesis. When mice are injected with L-2-imidazolidone-4-carboxylate, a competitive inhibitor of 5-oxoprolinase, they accumulate 5-oxoproline in their tissues (kidney, liver, brain, and eye) and excrete it in the urine. Mice given the inhibitor together with one of several L-amino acids accumulate and excrete much more 5-oxoproline than when they are given the inhibitor alone. Such augmentation of 5-oxoproline accumulation offers evidence for the function of the γ-glutamyl cycle in vivo and supports the view that 5-oxoproline is a quantitatively significant metabolite. Images PMID:4151516

  9. Trafficking of α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid Receptor (AMPA) Receptor Subunit GluA2 from the Endoplasmic Reticulum Is Stimulated by a Complex Containing Ca2+/Calmodulin-activated Kinase II (CaMKII) and PICK1 Protein and by Release of Ca2+ from Internal Stores*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wei; Khatri, Latika; Ziff, Edward B.

    2014-01-01

    The GluA2 subunit of the AMPA receptor (AMPAR) dominantly blocks AMPAR Ca2+ permeability, and its trafficking to the synapse regulates AMPAR-dependent synapse Ca2+ permeability. Here we show that GluA2 trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the plasma membrane of cultured hippocampal neurons requires Ca2+ release from internal stores, the activity of Ca2+/calmodulin activated kinase II (CaMKII), and GluA2 interaction with the PDZ protein, PICK1. We show that upon Ca2+ release from the ER via the IP3 and ryanodine receptors, CaMKII that is activated enters a complex that contains PICK1, dependent upon the PICK1 BAR (Bin-amphiphysin-Rvs) domain, and that interacts with the GluA2 C-terminal domain and stimulates GluA2 ER exit and surface trafficking. This study reveals a novel mechanism of regulation of trafficking of GluA2-containing receptors to the surface under the control of intracellular Ca2+ dynamics and CaMKII activity. PMID:24831007

  10. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  11. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, R.H.; Boyle, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Acid rain, says Boyle is a chemical leprosy eating into the face of North America and Europe, perhaps the major ecological problem of our time. Boyle describes the causes and scope of the phenomenon; the effects on man, wildlife, water, and our cultural heritage. He probes the delays of politicians and the frequent self-serving arguments advanced by industry in the face of what scientists have proved. The solutions he offers are to strengthen the Clean Air Act and require emission reductions that can be accomplished by establishing emission standards on a regional or bubble basis, burn low-sulfur coal, install scrubbersmore » at critical plants, and invest in alternative energy sources. 73 references, 1 figure.« less

  12. Effects of Mutations and Ligands on the Thermostability of the l-Arginine/Agmatine Antiporter AdiC and Deduced Insights into Ligand-Binding of Human l-Type Amino Acid Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Ilgü, Hüseyin; Jeckelmann, Jean-Marc; Colas, Claire; Ucurum, Zöhre; Schlessinger, Avner; Fotiadis, Dimitrios

    2018-01-01

    The l-arginine/agmatine transporter AdiC is a prokaryotic member of the SLC7 family, which enables pathogenic enterobacteria to survive the extremely acidic gastric environment. Wild-type AdiC from Escherichia coli, as well as its previously reported point mutants N22A and S26A, were overexpressed homologously and purified to homogeneity. A size-exclusion chromatography-based thermostability assay was used to determine the melting temperatures (Tms) of the purified AdiC variants in the absence and presence of the selected ligands l-arginine (Arg), agmatine, l-arginine methyl ester, and l-arginine amide. The resulting Tms indicated stabilization of AdiC variants upon ligand binding, in which Tms and ligand binding affinities correlated positively. Considering results from this and previous studies, we revisited the role of AdiC residue S26 in Arg binding and proposed interactions of the α-carboxylate group of Arg exclusively with amide groups of the AdiC backbone. In the context of substrate binding in the human SLC7 family member l-type amino acid transporter-1 (LAT1; SLC7A5), an analogous role of S66 in LAT1 to S26 in AdiC is discussed based on homology modeling and amino acid sequence analysis. Finally, we propose a binding mechanism for l-amino acid substrates to LATs from the SLC7 family. PMID:29558430

  13. Effects of Mutations and Ligands on the Thermostability of the l-Arginine/Agmatine Antiporter AdiC and Deduced Insights into Ligand-Binding of Human l-Type Amino Acid Transporters.

    PubMed

    Ilgü, Hüseyin; Jeckelmann, Jean-Marc; Colas, Claire; Ucurum, Zöhre; Schlessinger, Avner; Fotiadis, Dimitrios

    2018-03-20

    The l-arginine/agmatine transporter AdiC is a prokaryotic member of the SLC7 family, which enables pathogenic enterobacteria to survive the extremely acidic gastric environment. Wild-type AdiC from Escherichia coli, as well as its previously reported point mutants N22A and S26A, were overexpressed homologously and purified to homogeneity. A size-exclusion chromatography-based thermostability assay was used to determine the melting temperatures ( T m s) of the purified AdiC variants in the absence and presence of the selected ligands l-arginine (Arg), agmatine, l-arginine methyl ester, and l-arginine amide. The resulting T m s indicated stabilization of AdiC variants upon ligand binding, in which T m s and ligand binding affinities correlated positively. Considering results from this and previous studies, we revisited the role of AdiC residue S26 in Arg binding and proposed interactions of the α-carboxylate group of Arg exclusively with amide groups of the AdiC backbone. In the context of substrate binding in the human SLC7 family member l-type amino acid transporter-1 (LAT1; SLC7A5), an analogous role of S66 in LAT1 to S26 in AdiC is discussed based on homology modeling and amino acid sequence analysis. Finally, we propose a binding mechanism for l-amino acid substrates to LATs from the SLC7 family.

  14. Intermolecular Vibrations of Hydrophobic Amino Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Michael Roy Casselman

    Hydrophobic amino acids interact with their chemical environment through a combination of electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, dipole, induced dipole, and dispersion forces. These interactions all have their own characteristic energy scale and distance dependence. The low-frequency (0.1-5 THz, 5-150 cm-1) vibrational modes of amino acids in the solid state are a direct indicator of the interactions between the molecules, which include interactions between an amino acid functional group and its surroundings. This information is central to understanding the dynamics and morphology of proteins. The alpha-carbon is a chiral center for all of the hydrophobic amino acids, meaning that they exist in two forms, traditionally referred to as L- and D-enantiomers. This nomenclature indicates which direction the molecule rotates plane-polarized visible light (levorotory and dextrorotory). Chiral a-amino acids in proteins are exclusively the L-variety In the solid state, the crystal lattice of the pure L-enantiomer is the mirror image of the D-enantiomer crystal lattice. These solids are energetically identical. Enantiomers also have identical spectroscopic properties except when the measurement is polarization sensitive. A mixture of equal amounts D- and L-amino acid enantiomers can crystallize into a racemic (DL-) structure that is different from that of the pure enantiomers. Whether a solution of both enantiomers will crystallize into a racemic form or spontaneously resolve into a mixture of separate D- and L-crystals largely depends on the interactions between molecules available in the various possible configurations. This is an active area of research. Low-frequency vibrations with intermolecular character are very sensitive to changes in lattice geometry, and consequently the vibrational spectra of racemic crystals are usually quite distinct from the spectra of the crystals of the corresponding pure enantiomers in the far-infrared (far-IR). THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz

  15. Maternal protein restriction in the rat inhibits placental insulin, mTOR, and STAT3 signaling and down-regulates placental amino acid transporters.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Fredrick J; Jansson, Nina; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Prasad, Puttur D; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    The mechanisms underlying reduced fetal growth in response to maternal protein restriction are not well established. Maternal levels of insulin, IGF-I, and leptin are decreased in rats fed a low protein (LP) diet. Because these hormones stimulate placental amino acid transporters in vitro, we hypothesized that maternal protein restriction inhibits placental leptin, insulin/IGF-I, and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and down-regulates the expression and activity of placental amino acid transporters. Pregnant rats were fed either an isocaloric low protein (LP, 4% protein) or control diet (18% protein) and studied at gestational day (GD)15, GD19, or GD21 (term 23). At GD19 and GD21, placental expression of phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (Thr-36/46 or Thr-70) and phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein (Ser-235/236) was decreased in the LP group. In addition, placental expression of phosphorylated S6 kinase 1 (Thr-389), phosphorylated Akt (Thr-308), and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Tyr-705) was reduced at GD21. In microvillous plasma membranes (MVM) isolated from placentas of LP animals, protein expression of the sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter (SNAT)2 and the large neutral amino acid transporters 1 and 2 was reduced at GD19 and GD21. MVM SNAT1 protein expression was reduced at GD21 in LP rats. SNAT4 and 4F2 heavy chain expression in MVM was unaltered. System A and L amino acid transporter activity was decreased in MVM from LP animals at GD19 and GD21. In conclusion, maternal protein restriction inhibits placental insulin, mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling, which is associated with a down-regulation of placental amino acid transporters. We speculate that maternal endocrine and metabolic control of placental nutrient transport reduces fetal growth in response to protein restriction.

  16. Peptide design using alpha,beta-dehydro amino acids: from beta-turns to helical hairpins.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Puniti; Ramakumar, S; Chauhan, V S

    2004-01-01

    Incorporation of alpha,beta-dehydrophenylalanine (DeltaPhe) residue in peptides induces folded conformations: beta-turns in short peptides and 3(10)-helices in larger ones. A few exceptions-namely, alpha-helix or flat beta-bend ribbon structures-have also been reported in a few cases. The most favorable conformation of DeltaPhe residues are (phi,psi) approximately (-60 degrees, -30 degrees ), (-60 degrees, 150 degrees ), (80 degrees, 0 degrees ) or their enantiomers. DeltaPhe is an achiral and planar residue. These features have been exploited in designing DeltaPhe zippers and helix-turn-helix motifs. DeltaPhe can be incorporated in both right and left-handed helices. In fact, consecutive occurrence of three or more DeltaPhe amino acids induce left-handed screw sense in peptides containing L-amino acids. Weak interactions involving the DeltaPhe residue play an important role in molecular association. The C--H.O==C hydrogen bond between the DeltaPhe side-chain and backbone carboxyl moiety, pi-pi stacking interactions between DeltaPhe side chains belonging to enantiomeric helices have shown to stabilize folding. The unusual capability of a DeltaPhe ring to form the hub of multicentered interactions namely, a donor in aromatic C--H.pi and C--H.O==C and an acceptor in a CH(3).pi interaction suggests its exploitation in introducing long-range interactions in the folding of supersecondary structures. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci), 2004

  17. Decomposition of Alternative Chirality Amino Acids by Alkaliphilic Anaerobe from Owens Lake, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Alisa; Pikuta, Elena V.; Guisler, Melissa; Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    The study of alkaliphilic microbial communities from anaerobic sediments of Owens and Mono Lakes in California led to the isolation of a bacterial strain capable of metabolizing amino acids with alternative chirality. According to the phylogenetic analysis, the anaerobic strain BK1 belongs to the genus Tindallia; however, despite the characteristics of other described species of this genus, the strain BK1 was able to grow on D-arginine and Dlysine. Cell morphology of this strain showed straight, motile, non-spore-forming rods with sizes 0.45 x 1.2-3 microns. Physiological characteristics of the strain showed that it is catalase negative, obligately anaerobic, mesophilic, and obligately alkaliphilic. This isolate is unable to grow at pH 7 and requires CO3 (2-) ions for growth. The strain has chemo-heterotrophic metabolism and is able to ferment various proteolysis products and some sugars. It plays the role of a primary anaerobe within the trophic chain of an anaerobic microbial community by the degradation of complex protein molecules to smaller and less energetic molecules. The new isolate requires NaCl for growth, and can grow within the range of 0.5-13 %, with the optimum at 1 % NaCl (w/v). The temperature range for the growth of the new isolate is 12-40 C with optimum at 35 C. The pH range for the growth of strain BK1 occurs between 7.8 and 11.0 with optimum at 9.5. This paper presents detailed physiological characteristics of the novel isolate from Owens Lake, a unique relic ecosystem of Astrobiological significance, and makes an accent on the ability of this strain to utilize L-amino acids.

  18. Chemical Cues which Include Amino Acids Mediate Species-Specific Feeding Behavior in Invasive Filter-Feeding Bigheaded Carps.

    PubMed

    Claus, Aaron W; Sorensen, Peter W

    2017-04-01

    This study tested whether and how dissolved chemicals might assist food recognition in two filter-feeding fishes, the silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and the bighead carp (H. nobilis). These species evolved in Asia, are now invasive in the Mississippi River, and feed voraciously on microparticles including plankton. The food habits and biology of these carps are broadly similar to many filter-feeding fish, none of whose chemical ecology has been examined. We conducted five experiments. First, we demonstrated that buccal-pharngeal pumping (BPP), a behavior in which fish pump water into their buccal cavities, is responsible for sampling food: BPP activity in both silver and bighead carps was low and increased nearly 25-fold after exposure to a filtrate of a planktonic food mixture (P < 0.01) and over 35-fold when planktonic food was added (P < 0.001). Next, we showed that of nine food filtrates, the one containing chemicals released by spirulina, a type of cyanobacterium, was the most potent planktonic component for both species. The potency of filtrates varied between species in ways that reflected their different chemical compositions. While L-amino acids could explain about half of the activity of food filtrate, other unknown chemical stimuli were also implicated. Finally, occlusion experiments showed the olfactory sense has a very important, but not exclusive, role in bigheaded carp feeding behaviors and this might be exploited in both their control and culture.

  19. In vitro effect of important herbal active constituents on human cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) activity.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yan; Tiong, Kai Hung; Abd-Rashid, Badrul Amini; Ismail, Zakiah; Ismail, Rusli; Mak, Joon Wah; Ong, Chin Eng

    2014-10-15

    This study was designed to investigate eight herbal active constituents (andrographolide, asiaticoside, asiatic acid, madecassic acid, eupatorin, sinensetin, caffeic acid, and rosmarinic acid) on their potential inhibitory effects on human cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) activity. A fluorescence-based enzyme assay was performed by co-incubating human cDNA-expressed CYP1A2 with its selective probe substrate, 3-cyano-7-ethoxycoumarin (CEC), in the absence or presence of various concentrations of herbal active constituents. The metabolite (cyano-hydroxycoumarin) formed was subsequently measured in order to obtain IC50 values. The results indicated that only eupatorin and sinensetin moderately inhibited CYP1A2 with IC50 values of 50.8 and 40.2 μM, while the other active compounds did not significantly affect CYP1A2 activity with IC50 values more than 100 μM. Ki values further determined for eupatorin and sinensetin were 46.4 and 35.2 μM, respectively. Our data indicated that most of the investigated herbal constituents have negligible CYP1A2 inhibitory effect. In vivo studies however may be warranted to ascertain the inhibitory effect of eupatorin and sinensetin on CYP1A2 activity in clinical situations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Bacterial Utilization of L-sugars and D-amino Acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena; Hoover, Richard B.; Klyce, Brig; Davies, Paul C. W.; Davies, Pauline

    2006-01-01

    The fact that organotrophic organisms on Earth use L-amino acids and D-sugars as an energy source is recognized as one of the universal features of life. The chirality of organic molecules with asymmetric location of group- radicals was described a relatively long time ago. In 1848, Louis Pasteur discovered chiral molecules when he investigated the way that crystals of sodium ammonium paratartrate rotated the plane of polarization of light. He found that the crystal structures represented the underlying asymmetry of molecules that existed in either lea-handed or right-handed forms (enantiomers). Pasteur observed that abiotic (chemical) processes produced mixtures with equal numbers (racemic) of the two forms but that living organisms possessed a molecular asymmetry that included only one of the enantiomers (homochirality). He speculated that the origin of the asymmetry of chiral biomolecules might hold the key to the nature of life. All of the amino acids in proteins (except for Glycine which is symmetrical) exhibit the same absolute steric configuration as L-glyceraldehyde. D-amino acids are never found in proteins, although they do exist in nature and are often found in polypeptide antibiotics. Constitutional sugars of cells, opposite to the amino acids, are the D-enantiomers, and the appearance of L-sugars in Nature is extremely rare. Notwithstanding this fact, the metabolism of some bacteria does have capability to use amino acids and sugars with alternative chirality. This property may be caused by the function of specific enzymes belonging to the class of isomerases (racemases, epimerases, isomerases, tautomerases). In our laboratory, we have investigated several anaerobic bacterial strains, and have found that some of these bacteria are capable of using D-amino acids and L-sugars. Strain BK1 is capable of growth on D-arginine, but its growth characteristics on L-arginine are approximately twice higher. Another alkaliphilic strain SCAT(sup T) (= ATCC BAA-1084

  1. Bacterial utilization of L-sugars and D-amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Klyce, Brig; Davies, Paul C. W.; Davies, Pauline

    2006-08-01

    The fact that organotrophic organisms on Earth use L-amino acids and D-sugars as an energy source is recognized as one of the universal features of life. The chirality of organic molecules with asymmetric location of group-radicals was described a relatively long time ago. Louis Pasteur observed that abiotic (chemical) processes produced mixtures with equal numbers (racemic) of the two forms but that living organisms possessed a molecular asymmetry that included only one of the enantiomers (homochirality). He speculated that the origin of the asymmetry of chiral biomolecules might hold the key to the nature of life. All of the amino acids in proteins (except for Glycine which is symmetrical) exhibit the same absolute steric configuration as L-glyceraldehyde. D-amino acids are never found in proteins, although they do exist in nature and are often found in polypeptide antibiotics. Constitutional sugars of cells, opposite to the amino acids, are the D-enantiomers, and the appearance of L-sugars in Nature is extremely rare. Notwithstanding this fact, the metabolism of some bacteria does have the capability to use amino acids and sugars with alternative chirality. This property may be caused by the function of specific enzymes belonging to the class of isomerases (racemases, epimerases, isomerases, tautomerases). In our laboratory, we have investigated several anaerobic bacterial strains, and have found that some of these bacteria are capable of using D-amino acids and L-sugars. Strain BK1 is capable of growth on D-arginine, but its growth characteristics on L-arginine are approximately twice as high. Another alkaliphilic strain SCA T (= ATCC BAA-1084 T = JCM 12857 T = DSM 17722 T = CIP 107910 T) was found to be capable of growth on L-ribose and L-arabinose. It is interesting that this strain was incapable of growth on D-arabinose, which suggests the involvement of some alternative mechanism of enzyme activity. In this paper, we describe the preliminary results of

  2. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... acid is a substance produced when proteins, called amino acids, in the body break down. The health care ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders Read more B Vitamins Read more ...

  3. Uric acid - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003616.htm Uric acid urine test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The uric acid urine test measures the level of uric acid ...

  4. Uric acid test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... for testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  5. Synthesis, radiolabeling, and biological evaluation of ( R)- and ( S)-2-amino-5-[ 18F]fluoro-2-methylpentanoic acid (( R)-, ( S)-[ 18F]FAMPe) as potential positron emission tomography tracers for brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Bouhlel, Ahlem; Zhou, Dong; Li, Aixiao

    In this paper, a novel 18F-labeled α,α-disubstituted amino acid-based tracer, 2-amino-5-[ 18F]fluoro-2-methylpentanoic acid ([ 18F]FAMPe), has been developed for brain tumor imaging with a longer alkyl side chain than previously reported compounds to increase brain availability via system L amino acid transport. Both enantiomers of [ 18F]FAMPe were obtained in good radiochemical yield (24–52% n = 8) and high radiochemical purity (>99%). In vitro uptake assays in mouse DBT gliomas cells revealed that ( S)-[ 18F]FAMPe enters cells partly via sodium-independent system L transporters and also via other nonsystem A transport systems including transporters that recognize glutamine. Biodistribution and smallmore » animal PET/CT studies in the mouse DBT model of glioblastoma showed that both ( R)- and ( S)-[ 18F]FAMPe have good tumor imaging properties with the ( S)-enantiomer providing higher tumor uptake and tumor to brain ratios. Finally, comparison of the SUVs showed that ( S)-[ 18F]FAMPe had higher tumor to brain ratios compared to ( S)-[ 18F]FET, a well-established system L substrate.« less

  6. Synthesis, radiolabeling, and biological evaluation of ( R)- and ( S)-2-amino-5-[ 18F]fluoro-2-methylpentanoic acid (( R)-, ( S)-[ 18F]FAMPe) as potential positron emission tomography tracers for brain tumors

    DOE PAGES

    Bouhlel, Ahlem; Zhou, Dong; Li, Aixiao; ...

    2015-04-06

    In this paper, a novel 18F-labeled α,α-disubstituted amino acid-based tracer, 2-amino-5-[ 18F]fluoro-2-methylpentanoic acid ([ 18F]FAMPe), has been developed for brain tumor imaging with a longer alkyl side chain than previously reported compounds to increase brain availability via system L amino acid transport. Both enantiomers of [ 18F]FAMPe were obtained in good radiochemical yield (24–52% n = 8) and high radiochemical purity (>99%). In vitro uptake assays in mouse DBT gliomas cells revealed that ( S)-[ 18F]FAMPe enters cells partly via sodium-independent system L transporters and also via other nonsystem A transport systems including transporters that recognize glutamine. Biodistribution and smallmore » animal PET/CT studies in the mouse DBT model of glioblastoma showed that both ( R)- and ( S)-[ 18F]FAMPe have good tumor imaging properties with the ( S)-enantiomer providing higher tumor uptake and tumor to brain ratios. Finally, comparison of the SUVs showed that ( S)-[ 18F]FAMPe had higher tumor to brain ratios compared to ( S)-[ 18F]FET, a well-established system L substrate.« less

  7. Probing phospholipase a(2) with fluorescent phospholipid substrates.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Oliver; Gelb, Michael H; Schultz, Carsten

    2007-09-03

    The Foerster resonance energy transfer-based sensor, PENN, measures intracellular phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activity in living cells and small organisms. In an attempt to modify the probe for the detection of particular isoforms, we altered the sn-2 fatty acid in such a way that either one or three of the Z double bonds in arachidonic acid were present in the sensor molecule. Arachidonic-acid-mimicking fatty acids were prepared by copper-mediated coupling reactions. Probes with a single double bond in the 5-position exhibited favorable substrate properties for secretory PLA(2)s. In vitro experiments with the novel unsaturated doubly labeled phosphatidylethanolamine derivatives showed preferred cleavage of the sensor PENN2 (one double bond) by the physiologically important group V sPLA(2), while the O-methyl-derivative PMNN2 was accepted best by the isoform from hog pancreas. For experiments in living cells, we demonstrated that bioactivation via S-acetylthioethyl (SATE) groups is essential for probe performance. Surprisingly, membrane-permeant versions of the new sensors that contained double bonds, PENN2 and PENN3, were only cleaved to a minor extent in HeLa cells while the saturated form, PENN, was well accepted.

  8. Citric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Urine - citric acid test; Renal tubular acidosis - citric acid test; Kidney stones - citric acid test; Urolithiasis - citric acid test ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. But the results ... test is usually done while you are on a normal diet. Ask your ...

  9. Gas chromatographic determination and mechanism of formation of D-amino acids occurring in fermented and roasted cocoa beans, cocoa powder, chocolate and cocoa shell.

    PubMed

    Pätzold, R; Brückner, H

    2006-07-01

    Fermented cocoa beans of various countries of origin (Ivory Coast, Ghana, Sulawesi), cocoa beans roasted under defined conditions (100-150 degrees C; 30-120 min), low and high fat cocoa powder, various brands of chocolate, and cocoa shells were analyzed for their contents of free L-and D-amino acids. Amino acids were isolated from defatted products using a cation exchanger and converted into volatile N(O)-pentafluoropropionyl amino acid 2-propyl esters which were analyzed by enantioselective gas chromatography mass spectrometry on a Chirasil-L-Val capillary column. Besides common protein L-amino acids low amounts of D-amino acids were detected in fermented cocoa beans. Quantities of D-amino acids increased on heating. On roasting cocoa beans of the Forastero type from the Ivory Coast at 150 degrees C for 2 h, relative quantities of D-amino acids approached 17.0% D-Ala, 11.7% D-Ile, 11.1% D-Asx (Asp + Asn), 7.9% D-Tyr, 5.8% D-Ser, 4.8% D-Leu, 4.3% D-Phe, 37.0% D-Pro, and 1.2% D-Val. In cocoa powder and chocolate relative quantities amounted to 14.5% D-Ala, 10.6% D-Tyr, 9.8% D-Phe, 8.1% L-Asx, and 7.2% D-Ile. Lower quantities of other D-amino acids were also detected. In order to corroborate our hypothesis that D-amino acids are generated from Amadori compounds (fructose amino acids) formed in the course of the Maillard reaction, fructose-L-phenylalanine and fructose-D-phenylalanine were synthesized and heated at 200 degrees C for 5-60 min. Already after 5 min release of 11.7% D-Phe and 11.8% L-Phe in the free form could be analyzed. Based on the data a racemization mechanism is presented founded on the intermediate and reversible formation of an amino acid carbanion in the Amadori compounds.

  10. 42 CFR 5a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability. 5a.2 Section 5a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN... Public Health Service Act. ...

  11. 42 CFR 5a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability. 5a.2 Section 5a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN... Public Health Service Act. ...

  12. 42 CFR 5a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability. 5a.2 Section 5a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN... Public Health Service Act. ...

  13. 42 CFR 5a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability. 5a.2 Section 5a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN... Public Health Service Act. ...

  14. 42 CFR 5a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability. 5a.2 Section 5a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN... Public Health Service Act. ...

  15. Rapid purification method for vitamin A-derived aging pigments A2E and iso-A2E using cation exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Jee, Eun Hye; Kim, So Ra; Jang, Young Pyo

    2012-08-17

    A2E, known to be involved in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), is one of the major compounds that accumulate as fluorescent pigments in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells with age and in some retinal disorders. While the biomimetic synthesis of A2E and its cis-isomer, iso-A2E is as simple as 'one-pot' reaction, the purification of these amphiphillic compounds has been a bottleneck for the mass production of these pathophysiologically important eye pigments. In order to provide a new method of rapid purification of A2E and iso-A2E, we employed a cation exchange resin for the separation of these pigments from crude reaction mixture. The reaction mixture was loaded on a weak acid resin and was eluted with 80% methanol with sodium hydroxide (pH 12), 100% methanol, and 100% methanol with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in sequence. A2E and isoA2E were eluted only with 100% methanol solution containing TFA. Most of unreacted starting materials and intermediates were removed with 80% methanol containing sodium hydroxide. The new method can be used as a relatively simple and economic way to purify A2E and iso-A2E compared to conventional HPLC technique. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 42 CFR 136a.2 - Administrative instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative instructions. 136a.2 Section 136a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Purpose § 136a.2 Administrative instructions. The...

  17. 42 CFR 65a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 65a.2 Section 65a.2 Public Health... § 65a.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the Comprehensive Environmental Response..., or (ii) is an institution whose credits are accepted, on transfer, by not less than three...

  18. 42 CFR 65a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 65a.2 Section 65a.2 Public Health... § 65a.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the Comprehensive Environmental Response..., or (ii) is an institution whose credits are accepted, on transfer, by not less than three...

  19. 42 CFR 65a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 65a.2 Section 65a.2 Public Health... § 65a.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the Comprehensive Environmental Response..., or (ii) is an institution whose credits are accepted, on transfer, by not less than three...

  20. 32 CFR 168a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability. 168a.2 Section 168a.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.2 Applicability. This part applies to the Office of...

  1. 32 CFR 168a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability. 168a.2 Section 168a.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.2 Applicability. This part applies to the Office of...

  2. 32 CFR 168a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability. 168a.2 Section 168a.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.2 Applicability. This part applies to the Office of...

  3. 32 CFR 352a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 352a.2 Section 352a.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTERS DEFENSE FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING SERVICE (DFAS) § 352a.2 Applicability. This part applies to the...

  4. 42 CFR 51a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 51a.2 Section 51a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS PROJECT GRANTS FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH § 51a.2 Definitions. Act means the Social Security Act, as amended. Genetic diseases means...

  5. 42 CFR 51a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 51a.2 Section 51a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS PROJECT GRANTS FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH § 51a.2 Definitions. Act means the Social Security Act, as amended. Genetic diseases means...

  6. 42 CFR 51a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 51a.2 Section 51a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS PROJECT GRANTS FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH § 51a.2 Definitions. Act means the Social Security Act, as amended. Genetic diseases means...

  7. 42 CFR 51a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 51a.2 Section 51a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS PROJECT GRANTS FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH § 51a.2 Definitions. Act means the Social Security Act, as amended. Genetic diseases means...

  8. 18 CFR 3a.2 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority. 3a.2 Section 3a.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.2 Authority. Official information or...

  9. 18 CFR 3a.2 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Authority. 3a.2 Section 3a.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.2 Authority. Official information or...

  10. 18 CFR 3a.2 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Authority. 3a.2 Section 3a.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.2 Authority. Official information or...

  11. 18 CFR 3a.2 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Authority. 3a.2 Section 3a.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.2 Authority. Official information or...

  12. 42 CFR 65a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 65a.2 Section 65a.2 Public Health... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES BASIC RESEARCH AND TRAINING GRANTS § 65a.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

  13. 42 CFR 59a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 59a.2 Section 59a.2 Public Health... Grants for Establishing, Expanding, and Improving Basic Resources § 59a.2 Definitions. Undefined terms... relating to the health sciences. Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services and any other...

  14. 42 CFR 63a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 63a.2 Section 63a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH TRAINING GRANTS § 63a.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the...

  15. 42 CFR 63a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 63a.2 Section 63a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH TRAINING GRANTS § 63a.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the...

  16. 42 CFR 63a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 63a.2 Section 63a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH TRAINING GRANTS § 63a.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the...

  17. 32 CFR 237a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 237a.2 Section 237a.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PUBLIC AFFAIRS LIAISON WITH INDUSTRY § 237a.2 Applicability. The provisions of this part apply to all...

  18. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  19. Interleukin-1β Inhibits Insulin Signaling and Prevents Insulin-Stimulated System A Amino Acid Transport in Primary Human Trophoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Aye, Irving L. M. H.; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L.

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) promotes insulin resistance in tissues such as liver and skeletal muscle; however the influence of IL-1β on placental insulin signaling is unknown. We recently reported increased IL-1β protein expression in placentas of obese mothers, which could contribute to insulin resistance. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that IL-1β inhibits insulin signaling and prevents insulin-stimulated amino acid transport in cultured primary human trophoblast (PHT) cells. Cultured trophoblasts isolated from term placentas were treated with physiological concentrations of IL-1β (10 pg/ml) for 24 hours. IL-1β increased the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) at Ser307 (inhibitory) and decreased total IRS-1 protein abundance but did not affect insulin receptor β expression. Furthermore, IL-1β inhibited insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of IRS-1 (Tyr612, activation site) and Akt (Thr308) and prevented insulin-stimulated increase in PI3K/p85 and Grb2 protein expression. IL-1β alone stimulated cRaf (Ser338), MEK (Ser221) and Erk1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation. The inflammatory pathways nuclear factor kappa B and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, which are involved in insulin resistance, were also activated by IL-1β treatment. Moreover, IL-1β inhibited insulin-stimulated System A, but not System L amino acid uptake, indicating functional impairment of insulin signaling. In conclusion, IL-1β inhibited the insulin signaling pathway by inhibiting IRS-1 signaling and prevented insulin-stimulated System A transport, thereby promoting insulin resistance in cultured PHT cells. These findings indicate that conditions which lead to increased systemic maternal or placental IL-1β levels may attenuate the effects of maternal insulin on placental function and consequently fetal growth. PMID:23891856

  20. Interleukin-1β inhibits insulin signaling and prevents insulin-stimulated system A amino acid transport in primary human trophoblasts.

    PubMed

    Aye, Irving L M H; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2013-12-05

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) promotes insulin resistance in tissues such as liver and skeletal muscle; however the influence of IL-1β on placental insulin signaling is unknown. We recently reported increased IL-1β protein expression in placentas of obese mothers, which could contribute to insulin resistance. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that IL-1β inhibits insulin signaling and prevents insulin-stimulated amino acid transport in cultured primary human trophoblast (PHT) cells. Cultured trophoblasts isolated from term placentas were treated with physiological concentrations of IL-1β (10pg/ml) for 24h. IL-1β increased the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) at Ser307 (inhibitory) and decreased total IRS-1 protein abundance but did not affect insulin receptor β expression. Furthermore, IL-1β inhibited insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of IRS-1 (Tyr612, activation site) and Akt (Thr308) and prevented insulin-stimulated increase in PI3K/p85 and Grb2 protein expression. IL-1β alone stimulated cRaf (Ser338), MEK (Ser221) and Erk1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation. The inflammatory pathways nuclear factor kappa B and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, which are involved in insulin resistance, were also activated by IL-1β treatment. Moreover, IL-1β inhibited insulin-stimulated System A, but not System L amino acid uptake, indicating functional impairment of insulin signaling. In conclusion, IL-1β inhibited the insulin signaling pathway by inhibiting IRS-1 signaling and prevented insulin-stimulated System A transport, thereby promoting insulin resistance in cultured PHT cells. These findings indicate that conditions which lead to increased systemic maternal or placental IL-1β levels may attenuate the effects of maternal insulin on placental function and consequently fetal growth. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Dermatitis toxica faciei after boric acid.

    PubMed

    Jiráková, Anna; Rajská, Lucie; Rob, Filip; Gregorová, Jana; Hercogová, Jana

    2015-01-01

    An adverse toxic reaction to the topical application of a 2% boric acid solution is described in a 2-year-old girl. Topical boric acid is licensed for use in children above the age of 10 in the Czech Republic. However, it can be bought over the counter and it is very often used in younger children. Due to its fast absorption and slow elimination, there is a high risk of systemic side effects. On the other hand, topical side effects are not reported in the present literature. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Synthesis of Copper-Chelates Derived from Amino Acids and Evaluation of Their Efficacy as Copper Source and Growth Stimulator for Lactuca sativa in Nutrient Solution Culture.

    PubMed

    Kaewchangwat, Narongpol; Dueansawang, Sattawat; Tumcharern, Gamolwan; Suttisintong, Khomson

    2017-11-15

    Five tetradentate ligands were synthesized from l-amino acids and utilized for the synthesis of Cu(II)-chelates 1-5. The efficacy of Cu(II)-chelates as copper (Cu) source and growth stimulator in hydroponic cultivation was evaluated with Lactuca sativa. Their stability test was performed at pH 4-10. The results suggested that Cu(II)-chelate 3 is the most pH tolerant complex. Levels of Cu, Zn, and Fe accumulated in plants supplied with Cu(II)-chelates were compared with those supplied with CuSO 4 at the same Cu concentration of 8.0 μM. The results showed that Cu(II)-chelate 3 significantly enhanced Cu, Zn, and Fe content in shoot by 35, 15, and 48%, respectively. Application of Cu(II)-chelate 3 also improved plant dry matter yield by 54%. According to the results, Cu(II)-chelate 3 demonstrated the highest stimulating effect on plant growth and plant mineral accumulation so that it can be used as an alternative to CuSO 4 for supplying Cu in nutrient solutions and enhancing the plant growth.

  3. Quantification of Lewis acid induced Brønsted acidity of protogenic Lewis bases.

    PubMed

    Lathem, A Paige; Heiden, Zachariah M

    2017-05-09

    Proton transfer promoted by the coordination of protogenic Lewis bases to a Lewis acid is a critical step in catalytic transformations. Although the acidification of water upon coordination to a Lewis acid has been known for decades, no attempts have been made to correlate the Brønsted acidity of the coordinated water molecule with Lewis acid strength. To probe this effect, the pK a 's (estimated error of 1.3 pK a units) in acetonitrile of ten protogenic Lewis bases coordinated to seven Lewis acids containing Lewis acidities varying 70 kcal mol -1 , were computed. To quantify Lewis acid strength, the ability to transfer a hydride (hydride donor ability) from the respective main group hydride was used. Coordination of a Lewis acid to water increased the acidity of the bound water molecule between 20 and 50 pK a units. A linear correlation exhibiting a 2.6 pK a unit change of the Lewis acid-water adduct per ten kcal mol -1 change in hydride donor ability of the respective main group hydride was obtained. For the ten protogenic Lewis bases studied, the coordinated protogenic Lewis bases were acidified between 10 and 50 pK a units. On average, a ten kcal mol -1 change in hydride donor ability of the respective main group hydride resulted in about a 2.8 pK a unit change in the Brønsted acidity of the Lewis acid-Lewis base adducts. Since attempts to computationally investigate the pK a of main group dihydrogen complexes were unsuccessful, experimental determination of the first reported pK a of a main group dihydrogen complex is described. The pK a of H 2 -B(C 6 F 5 ) 3 was determined to be 5.8 ± 0.2 in acetonitrile.

  4. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications ...

  5. Acid Lipase Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Neurological Disorders and Stroke conducts and supports research to understand lipid storage diseases such as acid lipase deficiency and ... of Neurological Disorders and Stroke conducts and supports research to understand lipid storage diseases such as acid lipase deficiency and ...

  6. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R.; Livni, Eli

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  7. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and ... Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in men, and to prevent or treat osteoporosis ...

  8. Acid soldering flux poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Acid soldering flux is a chemical used to clean and protect the area where two pieces of metal are ... The harmful substances in soldering fluxes are called hydrocarbons. They include: Ammonium chloride Rosin Hydrochloric acid Zinc chloride

  9. Carbolic acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Phenol poisoning; Phenylic acid poisoning; Hydroxybenzene poisoning; Phenic acid poisoning; Benzenol poisoning ... measure and monitor the person's vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. Tests that ...

  10. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  11. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID

    DOEpatents

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-07-19

    A method is given for the production of improved yields of trifluoroacetic acid. The compound is prepared by oxidizing m-aminobenzotrifluoride with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal permanganate at a temperature in the range of 80 deg C to 100 deg C while dissolved ln a mixture of water with glacial acetic acid and/or trifluoroacetic acid. Preferably a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid ls used as the solvent.

  12. Toxicology of Perfluorodecanoic Acid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    Perfluorodecanoic Acid ( PFOA ) and Thyroid Status. A. Statement of Problem: 1. Toxic doses of PFDA result in reduction of feed intake, body weight, serum...hypophagia and body weight loss). ii. Perfluoroaecanoic Acid ( PFOA ) and Lipid Metabolism in the Rat. A. Statement of Problem: 1. PFDA in a dose... perfluorinated acids are not available commercially. B. Objectives: 1. To synthesize perfluoro -n-decanoic acid ( PFDA ) with 14C-labeling in the C-I position. 2. To

  13. Yeast Derived LysA2 Can Control Bacterial Contamination in Ethanol Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Seob; Daum, M Angela; Jin, Yong-Su; Miller, Michael J

    2018-05-24

    Contamination of fuel-ethanol fermentations continues to be a significant problem for the corn and sugarcane-based ethanol industries. In particular, members of the Lactobacillaceae family are the primary bacteria of concern. Currently, antibiotics and acid washing are two major means of controlling contaminants. However, antibiotic use could lead to increased antibiotic resistance, and the acid wash step stresses the fermenting yeast and has limited effectiveness. Bacteriophage endolysins such as LysA2 are lytic enzymes with the potential to contribute as antimicrobials to the fuel ethanol industries. Our goal was to evaluate the potential of yeast-derived LysA2 as a means of controlling Lactobacillaceae contamination. LysA2 intracellularly produced by Pichia pastoris showed activity comparable to Escherichia coli produced LysA2. Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) with the A4α peptidoglycan chemotype (L-Lys-D-Asp crosslinkage) were the most sensitive to LysA2, though a few from that chemotype were insensitive. Pichia -expressed LysA2, both secreted and intracellularly produced, successfully improved ethanol productivity and yields in glucose (YPD60) and sucrose-based (sugarcane juice) ethanol fermentations in the presence of a LysA2 susceptible LAB contaminant. LysA2 secreting Sacharomyces cerevisiae did not notably improve production in sugarcane juice, but it did control bacterial contamination during fermentation in YPD60. Secretion of LysA2 by the fermenting yeast, or adding it in purified form, are promising alternative tools to control LAB contamination during ethanol fermentation. Endolysins with much broader lytic spectrums than LysA2 could supplement or replace the currently used antibiotics or the acidic wash.

  14. What Is Acid Rain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

  15. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  16. The Acid Rain Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  17. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  18. Crystallization of uric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkura, S. Narayana; Vaidyan, V. K.; Kanakavel, M.; Ramasamy, P.

    1993-09-01

    Crystals of uric acid have been grown in tetra methoxy silane and silica gel medium. Small winged, transparent, platy crystals of uric acid of about 0.5x0.5x0.1 mm were grown and were found to be hydrated uric acid.

  19. Annexin A2 in Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    cells , leading to formation of an epiretinal membrane, retinal detachment, and loss of vision. At present, there are no reliable means of...type versus annexin A2- deficient mice, [2] define the role of A2 in the function of activated macrophages and RPE cells in PVR, and [3] examine the...expression is needed in both macrophages and RPE cells , and that A2 is extensively expressed within cells of epiretinal membranes in human PVR. Our

  20. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  1. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow; Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  2. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  3. Nucleic acid detection assays

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  4. Amino acid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  5. Boric acid and boronic acids inhibition of pigeonpea urease.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Ravi Charan; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2006-08-01

    Urease from the seeds of pigeonpea was competitively inhibited by boric acid, butylboronic acid, phenylboronic acid, and 4-bromophenylboronic acid; 4-bromophenylboronic acid being the strongest inhibitor, followed by boric acid > butylboronic acid > phenylboronic acid, respectively. Urease inhibition by boric acid is maximal at acidic pH (5.0) and minimal at alkaline pH (10.0), i.e., the trigonal planar B(OH)3 form is a more effective inhibitor than the tetrahedral B(OH)4 -anionic form. Similarly, the anionic form of phenylboronic acid was least inhibiting in nature.

  6. 32 CFR 168a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability. 168a.2 Section 168a.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE... the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Military Departments, and the Defense Agencies (hereafter referred...

  7. 32 CFR 168a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 168a.2 Section 168a.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE... the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Military Departments, and the Defense Agencies (hereafter referred...

  8. 42 CFR 63a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Human Services. NIH means the National Institutes of Health and its organizational components that award... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 63a.2 Section 63a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING...

  9. 42 CFR 63a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Human Services. NIH means the National Institutes of Health and its organizational components that award... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 63a.2 Section 63a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING...

  10. 22 CFR 9a.2 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... important element of our national security. The effectiveness of the Agreement depends significantly upon... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General policy. 9a.2 Section 9a.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO CERTAIN INTERNATIONAL...

  11. 42 CFR 54a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... financial assistance under an applicable program. (e) SAMHSA means the Substance Abuse and Mental Health... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 54a.2 Section 54a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS CHARITABLE CHOICE REGULATIONS...

  12. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  13. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-09-30

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain. This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer. Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02500

  14. [Biosynthesis of adipic acid].

    PubMed

    Han, Li; Chen, Wujiu; Yuan, Fei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qinhong; Ma, Yanhe

    2013-10-01

    Adipic acid is a six-carbon dicarboxylic acid, mainly for the production of polymers such as nylon, chemical fiber and engineering plastics. Its annual demand is close to 3 million tons worldwide. Currently, the industrial production of adipic acid is based on the oxidation of aromatics from non-renewable petroleum resources by chemo-catalytic processes. It is heavily polluted and unsustainable, and the possible alternative method for adipic acid production should be developed. In the past years, with the development of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, green and clean biotechnological methods for adipic acid production attracted more attention. In this study, the research advances of adipic acid and its precursor production are reviewed, followed by addressing the perspective of the possible new pathways for adipic acid production.

  15. Nucleic acid detection kits

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  16. Synthesis and properties of a new water-soluble prodrug of the adenosine A 2A receptor antagonist MSX-2.

    PubMed

    Vollmann, Karl; Qurishi, Ramatullah; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E

    2008-02-12

    The compound L-valine-3-{8-[(E)-2-[3-methoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-7-methyl-1-propargylxanthine-3-yl}propyl ester hydrochloride (MSX-4) was synthesized as an amino acid ester prodrug of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-2. It was found to be stable in artificial gastric acid, but readily cleaved by pig liver esterase.

  17. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  18. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  19. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  20. Acid-Base Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3− and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3− is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys. PMID:26597304

  1. Total synthesis of panicein A2

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Lili; Pilkington, Lisa I; Cadelis, Melissa M; Copp, Brent R

    2015-01-01

    Summary The first total synthesis of the unusual aromatic sesquiterpene panicein A2 is reported and the structure of the natural product has been confirmed. When tested by the NCI against a range of human cancer cell lines, it was found that panicein A2 exhibits very little antiproliferative activity at 10 μM – an observation that is at odds with the earlier report that stated panicein A2 exhibits in vitro cytotoxicity against a number of tumour cell lines. PMID:26664619

  2. Annexin A2 in Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    migrate in the presence of macrophages in an in vitro system. In addition, analysis of human retinal tissue from subjects undergoing ocular surgery... tissue from subjects undergoing ocular surgery for PVR reveals the presence of A2- immunoreactive cells that express both macrophage and RPE cell...greatly attenuated in the absence of annexin A2. Task 2: Macrophage depletion and tissue specific knockout. We have completed the characterization

  3. Chlorogenic Acid Inhibits Human Platelet Activation and Thrombus Formation

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Caballero, Julio; Alarcón, Marcelo; Rojas, Armando; Palomo, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlorogenic acid is a potent phenolic antioxidant. However, its effect on platelet aggregation, a critical factor in arterial thrombosis, remains unclear. Consequently, chlorogenic acid-action mechanisms in preventing platelet activation and thrombus formation were examined. Methods and Results Chlorogenic acid in a dose-dependent manner (0.1 to 1 mmol/L) inhibited platelet secretion and aggregation induced by ADP, collagen, arachidonic acid and TRAP-6, and diminished platelet firm adhesion/aggregation and platelet-leukocyte interactions under flow conditions. At these concentrations chlorogenic acid significantly decreased platelet inflammatory mediators (sP-selectin, sCD40L, CCL5 and IL-1β) and increased intraplatelet cAMP levels/PKA activation. Interestingly, SQ22536 (an adenylate cyclase inhibitor) and ZM241385 (a potent A2A receptor antagonist) attenuated the antiplatelet effect of chlorogenic acid. Chlorogenic acid is compatible to the active site of the adenosine A2A receptor as revealed through molecular modeling. In addition, chlorogenic acid had a significantly lower effect on mouse bleeding time when compared to the same dose of aspirin. Conclusions Antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects of chlorogenic acid are associated with the A2A receptor/adenylate cyclase/cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. PMID:24598787

  4. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  5. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  6. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  7. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W [Menlo Park, CA; Eggeman, Timothy J [Lakewood, CO

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  8. UNSATURATED AMINO ACIDS V.

    PubMed Central

    Shapira, Jacob; Dittmer, Karl

    1961-01-01

    Shapira, Jacob (Department of Chemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee) and Karl Dittmer. Unsaturated amino acids. V. Microbiological properties of some halogenated olefinic amino acids. J. Bacteriol. 82:640–647. 1961.—It has been shown previously that several amino acid analogues containing unsaturated linkages were inhibitors of the growth of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This paper reports the results obtained when a series of unsaturated halogen-containing amino acids was examined. The cis isomer of ω-chloroallylglycine showed the greatest toxicity yet found in this series of unsaturated amino acids toward E. coli, whereas the trans-isomer was usually far less toxic. The major effect of cis-ω-chloroallylglycine in E. coli appeared to be to extend the lag phase before the normal rate of growth began. A wide variety of amino acids was capable of partially or completely preventing the toxicity of low levels of these compounds. At higher levels, relatively few amino acids (primarily valine, leucine, and glutamic acid) were effective. In E. coli, cis-ω-chloroallylglycine showed an unusual [Formula: see text] relationship with both glutamic acid and valine over a wide range in concentration. PMID:13911278

  9. Author Correction: EphA2 is an epithelial cell pattern recognition receptor for fungal β-glucans.

    PubMed

    Swidergall, Marc; Solis, Norma V; Lionakis, Michail S; Filler, Scott G

    2018-06-12

    In the version of this Article originally published, the authors described the ANT compound used in their study as 4-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (ANT). The authors now wish to clarify that the ANT compound used was actually a 2,5-dimethylpyrrolyl benzoic acid derivative 1 that has been shown to inhibit not only the enzymatic activity of EphA2, but also several unrelated enzymes 2 . The description of the compound in the Article has now been changed to 4-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-2-hydroxybenzoic acid derivative (ANT) to reflect this.

  10. METSAT: Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A2 (AMSU-A2) structural mathematical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Wayne

    1995-01-01

    This plan describes the Structural Mathematical Model of the METSAT AMSU-A2 instrument. The model is used to verify the structural adequacy of the AMSU-A2 instrument for the specified loading environments.

  11. Nucleic Acid Immunity.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, G

    2017-01-01

    Organisms throughout biology need to maintain the integrity of their genome. From bacteria to vertebrates, life has established sophisticated mechanisms to detect and eliminate foreign genetic material or to restrict its function and replication. Tremendous progress has been made in the understanding of these mechanisms which keep foreign or unwanted nucleic acids from viruses or phages in check. Mechanisms reach from restriction-modification systems and CRISPR/Cas in bacteria and archaea to RNA interference and immune sensing of nucleic acids, altogether integral parts of a system which is now appreciated as nucleic acid immunity. With inherited receptors and acquired sequence information, nucleic acid immunity comprises innate and adaptive components. Effector functions include diverse nuclease systems, intrinsic activities to directly restrict the function of foreign nucleic acids (e.g., PKR, ADAR1, IFIT1), and extrinsic pathways to alert the immune system and to elicit cytotoxic immune responses. These effects act in concert to restrict viral replication and to eliminate virus-infected cells. The principles of nucleic acid immunity are highly relevant for human disease. Besides its essential contribution to antiviral defense and restriction of endogenous retroelements, dysregulation of nucleic acid immunity can also lead to erroneous detection and response to self nucleic acids then causing sterile inflammation and autoimmunity. Even mechanisms of nucleic acid immunity which are not established in vertebrates are relevant for human disease when they are present in pathogens such as bacteria, parasites, or helminths or in pathogen-transmitting organisms such as insects. This review aims to provide an overview of the diverse mechanisms of nucleic acid immunity which mostly have been looked at separately in the past and to integrate them under the framework nucleic acid immunity as a basic principle of life, the understanding of which has great potential to

  12. Efficient 18F-Labeling of Large 37-Amino Acid pHLIP Peptide Analogues and their Biological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Daumar, Pierre; Wanger-Baumann, Cindy A.; Pillarsetty, NagaVaraKishore; Fabrizio, Laura; Carlin, Sean D.; Andreev, Oleg A.; Reshetnyak, Yana K.; Lewis, Jason S.

    2012-01-01

    Solid tumors often develop an acidic microenvironment, which plays a critical role in tumor progression and is associated with increased level of invasion and metastasis. The 37-residue pH (low) insertion peptide (pHLIP®) is under study as an imaging platform because of its unique ability to insert into cell membranes at a low extracellular pH (pHe<7). Labeling of peptides with [18F]-fluorine is usually performed via prosthetic groups using chemoselective coupling reactions. One of the most successful procedures involves the alkyne-azide copper(I) catalyzed cycloaddition (CuAAC). However, none of the known “click” methods have been applied to peptides as large as pHLIP. We designed a novel prosthetic group and extended the use of the CuAAC “click chemistry” for the simple and efficient 18F-labeling of large peptides. For the evaluation of this labeling approach, a D-amino acid analogue of WT-pHLIP and a L-amino acid control peptide K-pHLIP, both functionalized at the N-terminus with 6-azidohexanoic acid, were used. The novel 6-[18F]fluoro-2-ethynylpyridine prosthetic group, was obtained via nucleophilic substitution on the corresponding bromo-precursor after 10 min at 130 °C with a radiochemical yield of 27.5 ± 6.6% (decay corrected) with high radiochemical purity ≥ 98%. The subsequent CuI catalyzed “click” reaction with the azido functionalized pHLIP peptides was quantitative within 5 min at 70 °C in a mixture of water and ethanol using Cu-acetate and sodium L-ascorbate. [18F]-D-WT-pHLIP and [18F]-L-K-pHLIP were obtained with total radiochemical yields of 5–20% after HPLC purification. The total reaction time was only 85 min including formulation. In vitro stability tests revealed high stability of the [18F]-D-WT-pHLIP in human and mouse plasma after 120 min, with the parent tracer remaining intact at 65 and 85%, respectively. PET imaging and biodistribution studies in LNCaP and PC-3 xenografted mice with the [18F]-D-WT-pHLIP and the negative

  13. Role of the Intestinal Bile Acid Transporters in Bile Acid and Drug Disposition

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Membrane transporters expressed by the hepatocyte and enterocyte play critical roles in maintaining the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, an effective recycling and conservation mechanism that largely restricts these potentially cytotoxic detergents to the intestinal and hepatobiliary compartments. In doing so, the hepatic and enterocyte transport systems ensure a continuous supply of bile acids to be used repeatedly during the digestion of multiple meals throughout the day. Absorption of bile acids from the intestinal lumen and export into the portal circulation is mediated by a series of transporters expressed on the enterocyte apical and basolateral membranes. The ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid cotransporter (abbreviated ASBT; gene symbol, SLC10A2) is responsible for the initial uptake of bile acids across the enterocyte brush border membrane. The bile acids are then efficiently shuttled across the cell and exported across the basolateral membrane by the heteromeric Organic Solute Transporter, OSTα-OSTβ. This chapter briefly reviews the tissue expression, physiology, genetics, pathophysiology, and transport properties of the ASBT and OSTα-OSTα. In addition, the chapter discusses the relationship between the intestinal bile acid transporters and drug metabolism, including development of ASBT inhibitors as novel hypocholesterolemic or hepatoprotective agents, prodrug targeting of the ASBT to increase oral bioavailability, and involvement of the intestinal bile acid transporters in drug absorption and drug-drug interactions. PMID:21103970

  14. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl acids

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Perfluoroalkyl acids(PFAAs) area a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perflurinated carbon backbone (4-12in length) and a acidic functional moiety (Carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds have excellent surface-tension reducing properties and have numerous industr...

  15. Analysis of Organic Acids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are the procedures and a discussion of the results for an experiment in which students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol. A table of selected carboxylic acids is included. (CW)

  16. History of fatty acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fatty acids are basic renewable chemical building blocks that can be used as intermediates for a multitude of products. Today the global value of fatty acids exceeds 18 billion dollars and is expected to increase to nearly 26 billion over the period from 2014-2019. From it auspicious beginnings, the...

  17. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  18. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  19. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl Acids*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perfluorinated carbon backbone (4-12 in length) and an acidic functional moiety (carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds are chemically stable, have excellent surface-tension reducing properties...

  20. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... stinging in the area where you applied topical salicylic acid Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of ... of the eyes, face, lips, or tongue Topical salicylic acid may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual ...

  1. Countering A2/AD with Swarming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    to prevent the U.S. from being able to fight such a war. Rather, the adversaries have adopted A2/AD strategies that would force the U.S. to fight an...undesirable war of attrition in order to achieve their objective. The current strategy to counter A2/AD is a strategy that forces the tenets of an...annihilation strategy into the context of an attrition environment. The result is that it weakens the military as an instrument of national power. The

  2. Lewis Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lucy C; Hogg, James M; Swadźba-Kwaśny, Małgorzata

    2017-08-21

    Until very recently, the term Lewis acidic ionic liquids (ILs) was nearly synonymous with halometallate ILs, with a strong focus on chloroaluminate(III) systems. The first part of this review covers the historical context in which these were developed, speciation of a range of halometallate ionic liquids, attempts to quantify their Lewis acidity, and selected recent applications: in industrial alkylation processes, in supported systems (SILPs/SCILLs) and in inorganic synthesis. In the last decade, interesting alternatives to halometallate ILs have emerged, which can be divided into two sub-sections: (1) liquid coordination complexes (LCCs), still based on halometallate species, but less expensive and more diverse than halometallate ionic liquids, and (2) ILs with main-group Lewis acidic cations. The two following sections cover these new liquid Lewis acids, also highlighting speciation studies, Lewis acidity measurements, and applications.

  3. Conjugated Fatty Acid Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Rawat, Richa; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Sweet, Marie; Shanklin, John

    2012-01-01

    Conjugated linolenic acids (CLNs), 18:3 Δ9,11,13, lack the methylene groups found between the double bonds of linolenic acid (18:3 Δ9,12,15). CLNs are produced by conjugase enzymes that are homologs of the oleate desaturases FAD2. The goal of this study was to map the domain(s) within the Momordica charantia conjugase (FADX) responsible for CLN formation. To achieve this, a series of Momordica FADX-Arabidopsis FAD2 chimeras were expressed in the Arabidopsis fad3fae1 mutant, and the transformed seeds were analyzed for the accumulation of CLN. These experiments identified helix 2 and the first histidine box as a determinant of conjugase product partitioning into punicic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13cis) or α-eleostearic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13trans). This was confirmed by analysis of a FADX mutant containing six substitutions in which the sequence of helix 2 and first histidine box was converted to that of FAD2. Each of the six FAD2 substitutions was individually converted back to the FADX equivalent identifying residues 111 and 115, adjacent to the first histidine box, as key determinants of conjugase product partitioning. Additionally, expression of FADX G111V and FADX G111V/D115E resulted in an approximate doubling of eleostearic acid accumulation to 20.4% and 21.2%, respectively, compared with 9.9% upon expression of the native Momordica FADX. Like the Momordica conjugase, FADX G111V and FADX D115E produced predominantly α-eleostearic acid and little punicic acid, but the FADX G111V/D115E double mutant produced approximately equal amounts of α-eleostearic acid and its isomer, punicic acid, implicating an interactive effect of residues 111 and 115 in punicic acid formation. PMID:22451660

  4. D-amino acids reduce Enterococcus faecalis biofilms in vitro and in the presence of antimicrobials used for root canal treatment.

    PubMed

    Zilm, Peter S; Butnejski, Victor; Rossi-Fedele, Giampiero; Kidd, Stephen P; Edwards, Suzanne; Vasilev, Krasimir

    2017-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is the most frequent species present in post-treatment disease and plays a significant role in persistent periapical infections following root canal treatment. Its ability to persist in stressful environments is inter alia, due to its ability to form biofilms. The presence of certain D-amino acids (DAAs) has previously been shown to reduce formation of Bacillus subtilis biofilms. The aims of this investigation were to determine if DAAs disrupt biofilms in early and late growth stages for clinical E. faecalis strains and to test their efficacy in disrupting E. faecalis biofilms grown in sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations of commonly used endodontic biocides. From thirty-seven E. faecalis strains, the ten "best" biofilm producers were used to test the ability of a mixture containing D-leucine, D-methionine, D-tyrosine and D-tryptophan to reduce biofilm growth over a period of 24, 72 and 144 hours and when compared to their cognate L-Amino Acids (LAAs). We have previously shown that sub-MIC levels of tetracycline and sodium hypochlorite promotes biofilm growth in clinical strains of E. faecalis. DAAs were therefore tested for their effectiveness to reduce biofilm growth in the presence of sub-minimal concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl-0.031%) and Odontocide™ (0.25% w/v), and in the presence of Odontopaste™ (0.25% w/v). DAAs significantly reduced biofilm formation for all strains tested in vitro, while DAAs significantly reduced biofilm formation compared to LAAs. The inhibitory effect of DAAs on biofilm formation was concentration dependent. DAAs were also shown to be effective in reducing E. faecalis biofilms in the presence of Odontopaste™ and sub-MIC levels of NaOCl and Odontocide™. The results suggest that the inclusion of DAAs into current endodontic procedures may reduce E. faecalis biofilms.

  5. 12 CFR 261a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGARDING ACCESS TO PERSONAL INFORMATION UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT 1974 General Provisions § 261a.2 Definitions... Saturday, Sunday or a legal Federal holiday. (b) Guardian means the parent of a minor, or the legal... particular assigned to the individual. (h) You means an individual making a request under the Privacy Act. (i...

  6. 42 CFR 85a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH INVESTIGATIONS OF PLACES OF EMPLOYMENT § 85a.2 Definitions. Any term defined in the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 or the Federal Mine Safety and...

  7. 42 CFR 85a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH INVESTIGATIONS OF PLACES OF EMPLOYMENT § 85a.2 Definitions. Any term defined in the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 or the Federal Mine Safety and...

  8. 42 CFR 85a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH INVESTIGATIONS OF PLACES OF EMPLOYMENT § 85a.2 Definitions. Any term defined in the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 or the Federal Mine Safety and...

  9. 42 CFR 85a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH INVESTIGATIONS OF PLACES OF EMPLOYMENT § 85a.2 Definitions. Any term defined in the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 or the Federal Mine Safety and...

  10. 42 CFR 85a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH INVESTIGATIONS OF PLACES OF EMPLOYMENT § 85a.2 Definitions. Any term defined in the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 or the Federal Mine Safety and...

  11. 29 CFR 1912a.2 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.2 Membership. The Committee is a... occupational safety professions, and four members will represent the public. The Secretary of Health, Education...

  12. 29 CFR 1912a.2 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.2 Membership. The Committee is a... occupational safety professions, and four members will represent the public. The Secretary of Health, Education...

  13. 42 CFR 51a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CHILD HEALTH § 51a.2 Definitions. Act means the Social Security Act, as amended. Genetic diseases means... accredited school of medicine and a full-time academic medical staff holding faculty status in such school of medicine. Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services or his or her designee. ...

  14. 42 CFR 2a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.2 Definitions. (a) Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services and... subdivision or agency, business trust, partnership, association, or other legal entity. (c) Research means... includes, but is not limited to, behavioral science studies, surveys, evaluations, and clinical...

  15. 42 CFR 2a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.2 Definitions. (a) Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services and... subdivision or agency, business trust, partnership, association, or other legal entity. (c) Research means... includes, but is not limited to, behavioral science studies, surveys, evaluations, and clinical...

  16. 42 CFR 2a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.2 Definitions. (a) Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services and... subdivision or agency, business trust, partnership, association, or other legal entity. (c) Research means... includes, but is not limited to, behavioral science studies, surveys, evaluations, and clinical...

  17. 42 CFR 2a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.2 Definitions. (a) Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services and... subdivision or agency, business trust, partnership, association, or other legal entity. (c) Research means... includes, but is not limited to, behavioral science studies, surveys, evaluations, and clinical...

  18. 42 CFR 2a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.2 Definitions. (a) Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services and... subdivision or agency, business trust, partnership, association, or other legal entity. (c) Research means... includes, but is not limited to, behavioral science studies, surveys, evaluations, and clinical...

  19. 29 CFR 1912a.2 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.2 Membership. The Committee is a... occupational safety professions, and four members will represent the public. The Secretary of Health, Education...

  20. Fatty Acids of Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Judith C.; Dworkin, Martin

    1973-01-01

    Fatty acids were extracted from saponified vegetative cells and myxospores of Myxococcus xanthus and examined as the methyl esters by gas-liquid chromatography. The acids consisted mainly of C14 to C17 species. Branched acids predominated, and iso-pentadecanoic acid constituted half or more of the mixture. The other leading component (11–28%) was found to be 11-n-hexadecenoic acid. Among the unsaturated acids were two diunsaturated ones, an n-hexadecadienoic acid and an iso-heptadecadienoic acid. No significant differences between the fatty acid compositions of the vegetative cells and myxospores could be detected. The fatty acid composition of M. xanthus was found to be markedly similar to that of Stigmatella aurantiaca. It is suggested that a fatty acid pattern consisting of a large proportion of iso-branched C15 and C17 acids and a substantial amount of an n-16:1 acid is characteristic of myxobacteria. PMID:4197903

  1. Adenosine A2A receptors and depression.

    PubMed

    El Yacoubi, Malika; Costentin, Jean; Vaugeois, Jean-Marie

    2003-12-09

    Adenosine and its analogues have been shown to induce "behavioral despair" in animal models believed to be relevant to depression. Recent data have shown that selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonists (e.g., SCH 58261, ZM241385, and KW6002) or genetic inactivation of the receptor was effective in reversing signs of behavioral despair in the tail suspension and forced swim tests, two screening procedures predictive of antidepressant activity. A2A antagonists were active in the tail suspension test using either mice previously screened for having high immobility scores or mice that were selectively bred for their spontaneous "helplessness" in this test. At stimulant doses, caffeine, a nonselective A1/A2A receptor antagonist, was effective in the forced swim test. The authors have hypothesized that the antidepressant-like effect of selective A2A antagonists is linked to an interaction with dopaminergic transmission, possibly in the frontal cortex. In support of this idea, administration of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol prevented antidepressant-like effects elicited by SCH 58261 in the forced swim test (putatively involving cortex), whereas it had no effect on stimulant motor effects of SCH 58261 (putatively linked to ventral striatum). The interaction profile of caffeine with haloperidol differed markedly from that of SCH 58261 in the forced swim and motor activity tests. Therefore, a clear-cut antidepressant-like effect could not be ascribed to caffeine. In conclusion, available data support the proposition that a selective blockade of the adenosine A2A receptor may be an interesting target for the development of effective antidepressant agents.

  2. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

    This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

    Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

    Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  3. Safety of folic acid

    PubMed Central

    Field, Martha S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract There is a large body of literature demonstrating the efficacy of maternal folic acid intake in preventing birth defects, as well as investigations into potential adverse consequences of consuming folic acid above the upper intake level (UL). Recently, two authoritative bodies convened expert panels to assess risks from high intakes of folic acid: the U.S. National Toxicology Program and the UK Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition. Overall, the totality of the evidence examined by these panels, as well as studies published since the release of their reports, have not established risks for adverse consequences resulting from existing mandatory folic acid fortification programs that have been implemented in many countries. Current folic acid fortification programs have been shown to support public health in populations, and the exposure levels are informed by and adherent to the precautionary principle. Additional research is needed to assess the health effects of folic acid supplement use when the current upper limit for folic acid is exceeded. PMID:29155442

  4. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  5. Strongly Acidic Auxin Indole-3-Methanesulfonic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Bialek, Krystyna

    1985-01-01

    A radiochemical synthesis is described for [14C]indole-3-methanesulfonic acid (IMS), a strongly acidic auxin analog. Techniques were developed for fractionation and purification of IMS using normal and reverse phase chromatography. In addition, the utility of both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for analysis of IMS has been demonstrated. IMS was shown to be an active auxin, stimulating soybean hypocotyl elongation, bean first internode curvature, and ethylene production. IMS uptake by thin sections of soybean hypocotyl was essentially independent of solution pH and, when applied at a 100 micromolar concentration, IMS exhibited a basipetal polarity in its transport in both corn coleoptile and soybean hypocotyl sections. [14C]IMS should, therefore, be a useful compound to study fundamental processes related to the movement of auxins in plant tissues and organelles. PMID:16664007

  6. A-2 Test Stand modification work

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-27

    John C. Stennis Space Center employees install a new master interface tool on the A-2 Test Stand on Oct. 27, 2010. Until July 2009, the stand had been used for testing space shuttle main engines. With that test series complete, employees are preparing the stand for testing the next-generation J-2X rocket engine being developed. Testing of the new engine is scheduled to begin in 2011.

  7. HEOS-A2: Press kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allaway, H. G.; Kukowski, J.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics of the HEOS-A2 satellite and its assigned mission are discussed. The spacecraft carries seven experiments to investigate the strength and direction of the magnetic fields encountered, the energy distribution of protons and electrons, the nature of the solar winds, detection of micrometeorites, and low frequency solar observations. The highly elliptical polar orbit required for this mission will have an apogee of 38 earth radii. The lifetime of the satellite is expected to be one year minimum.

  8. EphA2 Receptor Unliganded Dimers Suppress EphA2 Pro-tumorigenic Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Deo R.; Ahmed, Fozia; King, Christopher; Gupta, Nisha; Salotto, Matt; Pasquale, Elena B.; Hristova, Kalina

    2015-01-01

    The EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase promotes cell migration and cancer malignancy through a ligand- and kinase-independent distinctive mechanism that has been linked to high Ser-897 phosphorylation and low tyrosine phosphorylation. Here, we demonstrate that EphA2 forms dimers in the plasma membrane of HEK293T cells in the absence of ephrin ligand binding, suggesting that the current seeding mechanism model of EphA2 activation is incomplete. We also characterize a dimerization-deficient EphA2 mutant that shows enhanced ability to promote cell migration, concomitant with increased Ser-897 phosphorylation and decreased tyrosine phosphorylation compared with EphA2 wild type. Our data reveal a correlation between unliganded dimerization and tumorigenic signaling and suggest that EphA2 pro-tumorigenic activity is mediated by the EphA2 monomer. Thus, a therapeutic strategy that aims at the stabilization of EphA2 dimers may be beneficial for the treatment of cancers linked to EphA2 overexpression. PMID:26363067

  9. EphA2 Receptor Unliganded Dimers Suppress EphA2 Pro-tumorigenic Signaling.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deo R; Ahmed, Fozia; King, Christopher; Gupta, Nisha; Salotto, Matt; Pasquale, Elena B; Hristova, Kalina

    2015-11-06

    The EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase promotes cell migration and cancer malignancy through a ligand- and kinase-independent distinctive mechanism that has been linked to high Ser-897 phosphorylation and low tyrosine phosphorylation. Here, we demonstrate that EphA2 forms dimers in the plasma membrane of HEK293T cells in the absence of ephrin ligand binding, suggesting that the current seeding mechanism model of EphA2 activation is incomplete. We also characterize a dimerization-deficient EphA2 mutant that shows enhanced ability to promote cell migration, concomitant with increased Ser-897 phosphorylation and decreased tyrosine phosphorylation compared with EphA2 wild type. Our data reveal a correlation between unliganded dimerization and tumorigenic signaling and suggest that EphA2 pro-tumorigenic activity is mediated by the EphA2 monomer. Thus, a therapeutic strategy that aims at the stabilization of EphA2 dimers may be beneficial for the treatment of cancers linked to EphA2 overexpression. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... parts down into sugars and acids, your body's fuel. Your body can use this fuel right away, or it can store the energy ... get screened for many of them, using blood tests. Treatments may include special diets, medicines, and supplements. ...

  11. Nitric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council. Nitric acid: ... Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council. Acute Exposure ...

  12. Valproic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the treatment of epilepsy, and to treat bipolar disorder and migraines. I have been taking valproic acid ... that women with seizure disorders and women with bipolar disorder might have menstrual problems and difficulty getting pregnant. ...

  13. Boric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... effectively treat (adsorb) boric acid. For skin exposure, treatment may include: Surgical removal of burned skin (debridement) Transfer to a hospital that specializes in burn care Washing of the skin (irrigation), possibly every ...

  14. Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

  15. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT; special blue light) to treat actinic keratoses (small crusty or scaly ... photosensitizing agents. When aminolevulinic acid is activated by light, it damages the cells of actinic keratosis lesions.

  16. Folic acid in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... carries genetic information Folate deficiency may cause: Diarrhea Gray hair Mouth ulcers Peptic ulcer Poor growth Swollen ... used at recommended levels. Folic acid dissolves in water. This means that it is regularly removed from ...

  17. Methylmalonic Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Time and International Normalized Ratio (PT/INR) PSEN1 Quantitative Immunoglobulins Red Blood Cell (RBC) Antibody Identification Red ... 1995-2011). Unit Code 80289: Methylmalonic Acid (MMA), Quantitative, Serum. Mayo Clinic Mayo Medical Laboratories [On-line ...

  18. Folic acid - test

    MedlinePlus

    ... 32. Mason JB. Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ... Acid Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more Health Topics A-Z Read more A.D.A. ...

  19. Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Amoxicillin is in a class of medications called penicillin-like antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth ... allergic to amoxicillin (Amoxil, Trimox, Wymox), clavulanic acid, penicillin, cephalosporins, or any other medications.tell your doctor ...

  20. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin or eyes, you may have: Blisters Burns Pain Vision loss Hydrofluoric acid poisoning can have ... urine tests Camera down the throat to see burns in the esophagus and the stomach (endoscopy) Fluids ...

  1. Amino Acids and Chirality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  2. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... measure and monitor the person's vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. The person ... into the stomach to suction (aspirate) any remaining acid if the victim is seen shortly after ingesting ...

  3. Facts about Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surveillance References Birth Defects COUNT Data & Statistics Research Articles & Key Findings About Us Partners Links to Other Websites Information For… Media Policy Makers Folic Acid Basics Language: English (US) ...

  4. Folic Acid Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surveillance References Birth Defects COUNT Data & Statistics Research Articles & Key Findings About Us Partners Links to Other Websites Information For… Media Policy Makers Folic Acid Quiz Language: English (US) ...

  5. Amino acid ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Fukumoto, Kenta

    2007-11-01

    The preparation of ionic liquids derived from amino acids, and their properties, are outlined. Since amino acids have both a carboxylic acid residue and an amino group in a single molecule, they can be used as either anions or cations. These groups are also useful in their ability to introduce functional group(s). Twenty different natural amino acids were used as anions, to couple with the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium cation. The salts obtained were all liquid at room temperature. The properties of the resulting ionic liquids (AAILs) depend on the side groups of the amino acids involved. These AAILs, composed of an amino acid with some functional groups such as a hydrogen bonding group, a charged group, or an aromatic ring, had an increased glass transition (or melting) temperature and/or higher viscosity as a result of additional interactions among the ions. Viscosity is reduced and the decomposition temperature of imidazolium-type salts is improved by using the tetrabutylphosphonium cation. The chirality of AAILs was maintained even upon heating to 150 degrees C after acetylation of the free amino group. The amino group was also modified to introduce a strong acid group so as to form hydrophobic and chiral ionic liquids. Unique phase behavior of the resulting hydrophobic ionic liquids and water mixture is found; the mixture is clearly phase separated at room temperature, but the solubility of water in this IL increases upon cooling, to give a homogeneous solution. This phase change is reversible, and separation occurs again by raising the temperature a few degrees. It is extraordinary for an IL/water mixture to display such behavior with a lower critical solution temperature. Some likely applications are proposed for these amino acid derived ionic liquids.

  6. Portable nucleic acid thermocyclers.

    PubMed

    Almassian, David R; Cockrell, Lisa M; Nelson, William M

    2013-11-21

    A nucleic acid thermal cycler is considered to be portable if it is under ten pounds, easily carried by one individual, and battery powered. Nucleic acid amplification includes both polymerase chain reaction (e.g. PCR, RT-PCR) and isothermal amplification (e.g. RPA, HDA, LAMP, NASBA, RCA, ICAN, SMART, SDA). There are valuable applications for portable nucleic acid thermocyclers in fields that include clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, and veterinary testing. A system that is portable allows for the distributed detection of targets at the point of care and a reduction of the time from sample to answer. The designer of a portable nucleic acid thermocycler must carefully consider both thermal control and the detection of amplification. In addition to thermal control and detection, the designer may consider the integration of a sample preparation subsystem with the nucleic acid thermocycler. There are a variety of technologies that can achieve accurate thermal control and the detection of nucleic acid amplification. Important evaluation criteria for each technology include maturity, power requirements, cost, sensitivity, speed, and manufacturability. Ultimately the needs of a particular market will lead to user requirements that drive the decision between available technologies.

  7. Managing bile acid diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Julian R. F.; Pattni, Sanjeev S.

    2010-01-01

    Bowel symptoms including diarrhoea can be produced when excess bile acids (BA) are present in the colon. This condition, known as bile acid or bile salt malabsorption, has been under recognized, as the best diagnostic method, the 75Se-homocholic acid taurine (SeHCAT) test, is not available in many countries and is not fully utilized in others. Reduced SeHCAT retention establishes that this is a complication of many other gastrointestinal diseases. Repeated studies show SeHCAT tests are abnormal in about 30% of patients otherwise diagnosed as diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome or functional diarrhoea, with an estimated population prevalence of around 1%. Recent work suggests that the condition previously called idiopathic bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is not in fact due to a defect in absorption, but results from an overproduction of BA because of defective feedback inhibition of hepatic bile acid synthesis, a function of the ileal hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19). The approach to treatment currently depends on binding excess BA, to reduce their secretory actions, using colestyramine, colestipol and, most recently, colesevelam. Colesevelam has a number of potential advantages that merit further investigation in trials directed at patients with bile acid diarrhoea. PMID:21180614

  8. Managing bile acid diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Walters, Julian R F; Pattni, Sanjeev S

    2010-11-01

    Bowel symptoms including diarrhoea can be produced when excess bile acids (BA) are present in the colon. This condition, known as bile acid or bile salt malabsorption, has been under recognized, as the best diagnostic method, the (75)Se-homocholic acid taurine (SeHCAT) test, is not available in many countries and is not fully utilized in others. Reduced SeHCAT retention establishes that this is a complication of many other gastrointestinal diseases. Repeated studies show SeHCAT tests are abnormal in about 30% of patients otherwise diagnosed as diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome or functional diarrhoea, with an estimated population prevalence of around 1%. Recent work suggests that the condition previously called idiopathic bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is not in fact due to a defect in absorption, but results from an overproduction of BA because of defective feedback inhibition of hepatic bile acid synthesis, a function of the ileal hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19). The approach to treatment currently depends on binding excess BA, to reduce their secretory actions, using colestyramine, colestipol and, most recently, colesevelam. Colesevelam has a number of potential advantages that merit further investigation in trials directed at patients with bile acid diarrhoea.

  9. Anharmonicity in Amino Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinho, Herculano; Lima, Thamires; Ishikawa, Mariana

    2012-02-01

    Two special dynamical transitions of universal character have been recently observed in macromolecules (lysozyme, myoglobin, bacteriorhodopsin, DNA, and RNA) at T^*˜100 - 150 K and TD˜180 - 220 K. The underlying mechanisms governing these transitions have been subject of debate. In the present work it is reported a survey on the temperature dependence of structural, vibrational and thermodynamical properties of a nearly anhydrous amino acid (orthorhombic polymorph of the amino acids L-cysteine and L-proline at a hydration level of 3.5%). The temperature dependence of X-Ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and specific heat were considered. The data were analyzed considering amino acid-amino acid, amino acid-water, and water-water phonon-phonon interactions, and molecular rotors activation. Our results indicated that the two referred temperatures define the triggering of very simple and specific events that govern all the interactions of the biomolecule: activation of CH2 rigid rotors (Tacid and water dimer vibrational modes (T^*TD).

  10. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination.

  11. The Phospholipase A2 Activity of Peroxiredoxin 6.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Aron B

    2018-05-01

    Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) is a Ca2+-independent intracellular phospholipase A2 (called aiPLA2) that is localized to cytosol and acidic organelles (lysosomes and lysosomal-related organelles). Activity is minimal at cytosolic pH but is increased significantly at acidic pH, in the presence of oxidized phospholipid substrate, with protein oxidation, and with enzyme phosphorylation; maximal activity with phosphorylated aiPLA2 is ~2 μmol/min/mg protein. Prdx6 is a ″moonlighting″ protein that also expresses peroxidase and lysophosphatidylcholine acyl transferase activities.The active site for aiPLA2 activity is Ser32-H26-D140. Activity is inhibited by a serine ″protease″ inhibitor diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate (DENP) ,a transition state analogue 1-hexadecyl-3-(trifluoroethyl)-sn-glycero-2-phosphomethanol (MJ33),and two naturally occurring proteins, surfactant protein A (SP-A) and p67phox. aiPLA2 activity has important physiological roles in the turnover (degradation and synthesis) of lung surfactant phospholipids, in the repair of peroxidized cell membranes, and in the activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX2). The enzyme has been implicated in acute lung injury, carcinogenesis, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, male infertility, and sundry other conditions although its specific roles have not been well defined. Protein mutations and animal models are now available to further investigate the potentially important roles of Prdx6-aiPLA2 activity in normal and pathological physiology. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Acidification and Acid Rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that

  13. Enzymatic Production of Ascorbic Acid-2-phosphate by Recombinant Acid Phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kai; Song, Wei; Sun, Anran; Chen, Xiulai; Liu, Jia; Luo, Qiuling; Wu, Jing

    2017-05-24

    In this study, an environmentally friendly and efficient enzymatic method for the synthesis of l-ascorbic acid-2-phosphate (AsA-2P) from l-ascorbic acid (AsA) was developed. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa acid phosphatase (PaAPase) was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. The optimal temperature, optimal pH, K m , k cat , and catalytic efficiency of recombinant PaAPase were 50 °C, 5.0, 93 mM, 4.2 s -1 , and 2.7 mM -1 min -1 , respectively. The maximal dry cell weight and PaAPase phosphorylating activity reached 8.5 g/L and 1127.7 U/L, respectively. The highest AsA-2P concentration (50.0 g/L) and the maximal conversion (39.2%) were obtained by incubating 75 g/L intact cells with 88 g/L AsA and 160 g/L sodium pyrophosphate under optimal conditions (0.1 mM Ca 2+ , pH 4.0, 30 °C) for 10 h; the average AsA-2P production rate was 5.0 g/L/h, and the AsA-2P production system was successfully scaled up to a 7.5 L fermenter. Therefore, the enzymatic process showed great potential for production of AsA-2P in industry.

  14. Discovery of essential fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid. The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. PMID:25339684

  15. Why is hydrofluoric acid a weak acid?

    PubMed

    Ayotte, Patrick; Hébert, Martin; Marchand, Patrick

    2005-11-08

    The infrared vibrational spectra of amorphous solid water thin films doped with HF at 40 K reveal a strong continuous absorbance in the 1000-3275 cm(-1) range. This so-called Zundel continuum is the spectroscopic hallmark for aqueous protons. The extensive ionic dissociation of HF at such low temperature suggests that the reaction enthalpy remains negative down to 40 K. These observations support the interpretation that dilute HF aqueous solutions behave as weak acids largely due to the large positive reaction entropy resulting from the structure making character of the hydrated fluoride ion.

  16. [Lipid synthesis by an acidic acid tolerant Rhodotorula glutinis].

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhangnan; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an; Wang, Gehua

    2016-03-01

    Acetic acid, as a main by-product generated in the pretreatment process of lignocellulose hydrolysis, significantly affects cell growth and lipid synthesis of oleaginous microorganisms. Therefore, we studied the tolerance of Rhodotorula glutinis to acetic acid and its lipid synthesis from substrate containing acetic acid. In the mixed sugar medium containing 6 g/L glucose and 44 g/L xylose, and supplemented with acetic acid, the cell growth was not:inhibited when the acetic acid concentration was below 10 g/L. Compared with the control, the biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of R. glutinis increased 21.5%, 171% and 122% respectively when acetic acid concentration was 10 g/L. Furthermore, R. glutinis could accumulate lipid with acetate as the sole carbon source. Lipid concentration and lipid yield reached 3.20 g/L and 13% respectively with the initial acetic acid concentration of 25 g/L. The lipid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The main composition of lipid produced with acetic acid was palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, including 40.9% saturated fatty acids and 59.1% unsaturated fatty acids. The lipid composition was similar to that of plant oil, indicating that lipid from oleaginous yeast R. glutinis had potential as the feedstock of biodiesel production. These results demonstrated that a certain concentration of acetic acid need not to be removed in the detoxification process when using lignocelluloses hydrolysate to produce microbial lipid by R. glutinis.

  17. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  18. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Betty S.; Nekimken, Howard L.; Carey, W. Patrick; O'Rourke, Patrick E.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and, a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.

  19. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, B.S.; Nekimken, H.L.; Carey, W.P.; O`Rourke, P.E.

    1997-07-22

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber. 10 figs.

  20. A Demonstration of Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Man Wai

    2004-01-01

    A demonstration showing acid rain formation is described. Oxides of sulfur and nitrogen that result from the burning of fossil fuels are the major pollutants of acid rain. In this demonstration, SO[subscript 2] gas is produced by the burning of matches. An acid-base indicator will show that the dissolved gas turns an aqueous solution acidic.

  1. CINNAMIC ACID HYDROXYLASE IN SPINACH,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An acetone precipitate from an extract of spinach leaves catalysed the hydroxylation of trans- cinnamic acid to p-coumaric acid . The enzyme was...and addition of L-phenylalanine inhibited cinnamic acid hydroxylase activity. (Author)...Tetrahydrofolic acid and a reduced pyridine nucleotide coenzyme were necessary for maximum activity. Aminopterin was a potent inhibitor of the hydroxylating

  2. Cyclopentanoid analogs of phosphatidylcholine: susceptibility to phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Lister, M D; Hancock, A J

    1988-10-01

    Six isomers of dipalmitoylcyclopentanetriol phosphocholine (cyclopentano-lecithin) were tested as potential substrates for phospholipase A2. Since each of these analogs possesses a configuration that mimics a narrow range of conformations of a glycerophospholipid molecule, the analogs were used to assess the enzyme's conformational requirements. Studies showed that all of the analogs containing the phosphocholine at the C-1 (or C-3) position could be hydrolyzed, while only one of the three analogs that contains the polar head group at the C-2 position was susceptible. Kinetic studies, however, revealed that only the all-trans-(1,3/2-1P)-cyclopentano-lecithin gave initial rates of hydrolysis that were measurable by pH-stat. Acyl group specificity of the enzyme towards the all-trans isomer was determined with an analog was acyl groups were distinguishable. The synthesis of this mixed-acid-cyclopentano-PC is described herein. When this analog was enzymatically assayed, results unequivocally showed the enzyme to be specific for C-2 acyl hydrolysis. This specificity, and data showing that the all-trans analog is stereospecifically hydrolyzed, indicate that it is acted on in an analogous manner to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. These studies indicate that although the configuration of the analog is not necessarily a prerequisite for hydrolysis, there does appear to be an optimal spatial orientation for enzymatic activity. The analogy between the susceptibilities of all-trans-(1,3/2-1P)-cyclopentano-lecithin and glycero-lecithin suggests that the conformation of the glycero-lecithin during phospholipase A2-mediated hydrolysis may be best simulated by the all-trans orientation of C-O bonds in the artificial substrate.

  3. Antimycobacterial activity of lecithin-cholesterol liposomes in the presence of phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Kondo, E; Kanai, K

    1978-06-01

    Tubercle bacilli were preincubated with lecithin-cholesterol liposomes to be subsequently exposed to phospholipase A2. After further incubation in the environment of acidic buffer, viable units in the final mixture were enumerated by inoculating the serial dilutions of an aliquot onto Kirchner agar medium containing horse serum in 5%. Another aliquot was used for lipid analyses to confirm hydrolysis of lecithin. In addition to this bactericidal type of experiments, bacteriostatic tests were also conducted with Kirchner semi-solid agar medium, into which liposome-treated bacilli were inoculated with the enzyme at a time. Various natural and synthetic lecithins different in constituent fatty acids were employed. The results indicated that toxic fatty acids released from lecithin acted to kill the bacilli or to inhibit their growth.

  4. X-15A-2 with dummy ramjet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    This photo shows the X-15A-2 (56-6671) on a research flight with a dummy ramjet engine attached to the bottom of its wedge-shaped vertical tail. One of the experiments planned for the X-15A-2 involved tests of a functional ramjet at speeds above Mach 5. This photo was taken with a dummy ramjet. On this research flight, the X-15A-2 did not carry the two drop tanks used on its Mach 6.7 flight. It also had not yet been covered with an ablative coating. The X-15A-2 made several flights with the dummy ramjet, leading to the record Mach 6.7 flight on October 3, 1967. Delays in producing the operational ramjet, aerodynamic heating damage to the aircraft during the record flight (despite the ablative coating), and the end of the X-15 program in 1968 resulted in no flights with the actual ramjet. The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft. The original three aircraft were about 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. The modified #2 aircraft (X-15A-2 was longer.) They were a missile-shaped vehicles with unusual wedge-shaped vertical tails, thin stubby wings, and unique side fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was rated at 57,000 lb of thrust, although there are indications that it actually achieved up to 60,000 lb. North American Aviation built three X-15 aircraft for the program. The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in-flight information and data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow-on program used the aircraft as testbeds to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth's atmosphere on a repeated basis. For flight in the dense air of the usable atmosphere, the X-15 used conventional aerodynamic controls such as rudder surfaces on the vertical stabilizers to control yaw and movable

  5. Role of phospholipase A2 pathway in regulating activation of Bufo arenarum oocytes.

    PubMed

    Ajmat, M T; Bonilla, F; Hermosilla, P C; Zelarayán, L; Bühler, M I

    2013-08-01

    Transient increases in the concentration of cytosolic Ca(2+) are essential for triggering egg activation events. Increased Ca(2+) results from its rapid release from intracellular stores, mainly mediated by one or both intracellular calcium channels: the inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) and the ryanodine receptor (RyR). Several regulatory pathways that tailor the response of these channels to the specific cell type have been proposed. Among its many modulatory actions, calcium can serve as an activator of a cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA2), which releases arachidonic acid from phospholipids of the endoplasmic reticulum as well as from the nuclear envelope. Previous studies have suggested that arachidonic acid and/or its metabolites were able to modulate the activity of several ion channels. Based on these findings, we have studied the participation of the phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) pathway in the process of Bufo arenarum oocyte activation and the interrelation between any of its metabolites and the ion channels involved in the calcium release from the intracellular reservoirs at fertilization. We found that addition of both melittin, a potent PLA(2) activator, and arachidonic acid, the main PLA(2) reaction metabolite, was able to induce activation events in a bell-shaped manner. Differential regulation of IP3Rs and RyRs by arachidonic acid and its products could explain melittin and arachidonic acid behaviour in Bufo arenarum egg activation. The concerted action of arachidonic acid and/or its metabolites could provide controlled mobilization of calcium from intracellular reservoirs and useful tools for understanding calcium homeostasis in eggs that express both types of receptors.

  6. Class specific peptide inhibitors for secretory phospholipases A2.

    PubMed

    Mahalka, Ajay K; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

    2013-06-28

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) catalyze the hydrolytic cleavage of free fatty acids from the sn-2 OH-moiety of glycerophospholipids. These enzymes have a number of functions, from digestion to signaling and toxicity of several venoms. They have also been implicated in inflammation and are connected to diverse diseases, such as cancer, ischemia, atherosclerosis, and schizophrenia. Accordingly, there is a keen interest to develop selective inhibitors for therapeutic use. We recently proposed a novel mechanism for the control of PLA2 activity with highly active protofibrils of PLA2 existing transiently before conversion to inactive amyloid fibrils [19]. In keeping with the above mechanism several algorithms identified (85)KMYFNLI(91) and (17)AALSYGFYG(25) in bee venom (bv) and human lacrimal fluid (Lf) PLA2, respectively, as a regions potentially forming amyloid type aggregates. Interestingly, in keeping with the proposed role of these sequences in the control of the activity of these enzymes, preincubation of 2nM bvPLA2 with (85)KMYFNLI(91) caused complete inhibition of PLA2 activity while the scrambled control peptide YNFLIMK had no effect. Approximately 36% attenuation of the hydrolytic activity of LfPLA2 present in human lacrimal fluid was observed in the presence of 80nM (17)AALSYGFYG(25). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. NITRIC ACID PICKLING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Boller, E.R.; Eubank, L.D.

    1958-08-19

    An improved process is described for the treatment of metallic uranium surfaces preparatory to being given hot dip coatings. The process consists in first pickling the uraniunn surInce with aqueous 50% to 70% nitric acid, at 60 to 70 deg C, for about 5 minutes, rinsing the acid solution from the uranium article, promptly drying and then passing it through a molten alkali-metal halide flux consisting of 42% LiCl, 53% KCla and 5% NaCl into a molten metal bath consisting of 85 parts by weight of zinc and 15 parts by weight of aluminum

  8. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent can bind to metals via four carboxylate and two amine groups. It is a polyamino carboxylic acid and a colorless, water-soluble solid, which is widely used to dissolve lime scale. It is produced as several salts, notably disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA. EDTA reacts with the calcium ions in dentine and forms soluble calcium chelates. A review of the literature and a discussion of the different indications and considerations for its usage are presented. PMID:24966721

  9. Omega-3 fatty acids: new insights into the pharmacology and biology of docosahexaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Michael H

    2013-12-01

    Fish oil contains a complex mixture of omega-3 fatty acids, which are predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Each of these omega-3 fatty acids has distinct biological effects that may have variable clinical effects. In addition, plasma levels of omega-3 fatty acids are affected not only by dietary intake, but also by the polymorphisms of coding genes fatty acid desaturase 1-3 for the desaturase enzymes that convert short-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The clinical significance of this new understanding regarding the complexity of omega-3 fatty acid biology is the purpose of this review. FADS polymorphisms that result in either lower levels of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids or higher levels of long-chain omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid, are associated with dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular risk factors. EPA and DHA have differences in their effects on lipoprotein metabolism, in which EPA, with a more potent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha effect, decreases hepatic lipogenesis, whereas DHA not only enhances VLDL lipolysis, resulting in greater conversion to LDL, but also increases HDL cholesterol and larger, more buoyant LDL particles. Overall, these results emphasize that blood concentrations of individual long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which reflect both dietary intake and metabolic influences, may have independent, but also complementary- biological effects and reinforce the need to potentially provide a complex mixture of omega-3 fatty acids to maximize cardiovascular risk reduction.

  10. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  11. A lipid switch unlocks Parkinson’s disease-associated ATP13A2

    PubMed Central

    Holemans, Tine; Sørensen, Danny Mollerup; van Veen, Sarah; Martin, Shaun; Hermans, Diane; Kemmer, Gerdi Christine; Van den Haute, Chris; Baekelandt, Veerle; Günther Pomorski, Thomas; Agostinis, Patrizia; Wuytack, Frank; Palmgren, Michael; Eggermont, Jan; Vangheluwe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    ATP13A2 is a lysosomal P-type transport ATPase that has been implicated in Kufor–Rakeb syndrome and Parkinson’s disease (PD), providing protection against α-synuclein, Mn2+, and Zn2+ toxicity in various model systems. So far, the molecular function and regulation of ATP13A2 remains undetermined. Here, we demonstrate that ATP13A2 contains a unique N-terminal hydrophobic extension that lies on the cytosolic membrane surface of the lysosome, where it interacts with the lysosomal signaling lipids phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylinositol(3,5)bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2]. We further demonstrate that ATP13A2 accumulates in an inactive autophosphorylated state and that PA and PI(3,5)P2 stimulate the autophosphorylation of ATP13A2. In a cellular model of PD, only catalytically active ATP13A2 offers cellular protection against rotenone-induced mitochondrial stress, which relies on the availability of PA and PI(3,5)P2. Thus, the N-terminal binding of PA and PI(3,5)P2 emerges as a key to unlock the activity of ATP13A2, which may offer a therapeutic strategy to activate ATP13A2 and thereby reduce α-synuclein toxicity or mitochondrial stress in PD or related disorders. PMID:26134396

  12. Hypoallergenic and Physicochemical Properties of the A2 β-Casein Fractionof Goat Milk.

    PubMed

    Jung, Tae-Hwan; Hwang, Hyo-Jeong; Yun, Sung-Seob; Lee, Won-Jae; Kim, Jin-Wook; Ahn, Ji-Yun; Jeon, Woo-Min; Han, Kyoung-Sik

    2017-01-01

    Goat milk has a protein composition similar to that of breast milk and contains abundant nutrients, but its use in functional foods is rather limited in comparison to milk from other sources. The aim of this study was to prepare a goat A2 β-casein fraction with improved digestibility and hypoallergenic properties. We investigated the optimal conditions for the separation of A2 β-casein fraction from goat milk by pH adjustment to pH 4.4 and treating the casein suspension with calcium chloride (0.05 M for 1 h at 25°C). Selective reduction of β-lactoglobulin and α s -casein was confirmed using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The hypoallergenic property of A2 β-casein fraction was examined by measuring the release of histamine and tumor necrosis factor alpha from HMC-1 human mast cells exposed to different proteins, including A2 β-casein fraction. There was no significant difference in levels of both indicators between A2 β-casein treatment and the control (no protein treatment). The A2 β-casein fraction is abundant in essential amino acids, especially, branched-chain amino acids (leucine, valine, and isoleucine). The physicochemical properties of A2 β-casein fraction, including protein solubility and viscosity, are similar to those of bovine whole casein which is widely used as a protein source in various foods. Therefore, the goat A2 β-casein fraction may be useful as a food material with good digestibility and hypoallergenic properties for infants, the elderly, and people with metabolic disorders.

  13. [Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination.

  14. Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

  15. Separation of aliphatic carboxylic acids and benzenecarboxylic acids by ion-exclusion chromatography with various cation-exchange resin columns and sulfuric acid as eluent.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Kazutoku; Ohashi, Masayoshi; Jin, Ji-Ye; Takeuchi, Toyohide; Fujimoto, Chuzo; Choi, Seong-Ho; Ryoo, Jae-Jeong; Lee, Kwang-Pill

    2003-05-16

    The application of various hydrophilic cation-exchange resins for high-performance liquid chromatography (sulfonated silica gel: TSKgel SP-2SW, carboxylated silica gel: TSKgel CM-2SW, sulfonated polymethacrylate resin: TSKgel SP-5PW, carboxylated polymethacrylate resins: TSKgel CM-5PW and TSKgel OA-Pak A) as stationary phases in ion-exclusion chromatography for C1-C7 aliphatic carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, isovaleric, valeric, isocaproic, caproic, 2-methylhexanoic and heptanoic acids) and benzenecarboxylic acids (pyromellitic, trimellitic, hemimellitic, o-phthalic, m-phthalic, p-phthalic, benzoic, salicylic acids and phenol) was carried out using diluted sulfuric acid as the eluent. Silica-based cation-exchange resins (TSKgel SP-2SW and TSKgel CM-2SW) were very suitable for the ion-exclusion chromatographic separation of these benzenecarboxylic acids. Excellent simultaneous separation of these benzenecarboxylic acids was achieved on a TSKgel SP-2SW column (150 x 6 mm I.D.) in 17 min using a 2.5 mM sulfuric acid at pH 2.4 as the eluent. Polymethacrylate-based cation-exchange resins (TSKgel SP-5PW, TSKgel CM-5PW and TSKgel OA-Pak A) acted as advanced stationary phases for the ion-exclusion chromatographic separation of these C1-C7 aliphatic carboxylic acids. Excellent simultaneous separation of these C1-C7 acids was achieved on a TSKgel CM-5PW column (150 x 6 mm I.D.) in 32 min using a 0.05 mM sulfuric acid at pH 4.0 as the eluent.

  16. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, Luc

    2003-06-24

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  17. Acetic acid in aged vinegar affects molecular targets for thrombus disease management.

    PubMed

    Jing, Li; Yanyan, Zhang; Junfeng, Fan

    2015-08-01

    To elucidate the mechanism underlying the action of dietary vinegar on antithrombotic activity, acetic acid, the main acidic component of dietary vinegar, was used to determine antiplatelet and fibrinolytic activity. The results revealed that acetic acid significantly inhibits adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-, collagen-, thrombin-, and arachidonic acid (AA)-induced platelet aggregation. Acetic acid (2.00 mM) reduced AA-induced platelet aggregation to approximately 36.82 ± 1.31%, and vinegar (0.12 mL L(-1)) reduced the platelet aggregation induced by AA to 30.25 ± 1.34%. Further studies revealed that acetic acid exerts its effects by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-1 and the formation of thromboxane-A2. Organic acids including acetic acid, formic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, and malic acid also showed fibrinolytic activity; specifically, the fibrinolytic activity of acetic acid amounted to 1.866 IU urokinase per mL. Acetic acid exerted its fibrinolytic activity by activating plasminogen during fibrin crossing, thus leading to crosslinked fibrin degradation by the activated plasmin. These results suggest that organic acids in dietary vinegar play important roles in the prevention and cure of cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Acid Rain: Science Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.

    1989-01-01

    Presented is a science activity designed to help students monitor the pH of rainfall. Materials, procedures and follow-up activities are listed. A list of domestic and foreign sources of information is provided. Topics which relate to acid precipitation are outlined. (CW)

  19. Spermatotoxicity of dichloroacetic acid

    EPA Science Inventory

    The testicular toxicity of dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a disinfection byproduct of drinking water, was evaluated in adult male rats given both single and multiple (up to 14 d) oral doses. Delayed spermiation and altered resorption of residual bodies were observed in rats given sin...

  20. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  1. Chapter 5: Acid deposition

    Treesearch

    Cliff F. Hunt; Warren E. Heilman

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides information about the atmospheric conditions in and near the national forest in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark and St. Francis in Arkansas. This report includes information about particulate matter, visibility, ozone concentrations, and acid deposition in the Ozark...

  2. Acid Rain Classroom Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demchik, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation. Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. (SAH)

  3. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

  4. The Acid Rain Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

  5. Acid Rain Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugo, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students investigate the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)

  6. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which provides opportunities for role-playing as industrialists, ecologists, and government officials. The activity involves forming an international commission on acid rain, taking testimony, and, based on the testimony, making recommendations to governments on specific ways to solve the problem. Includes suggestions for…

  7. Multifunctional Cinnamic Acid Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Peperidou, Aikaterini; Pontiki, Eleni; Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra; Voulgari, Efstathia; Avgoustakis, Konstantinos

    2017-07-25

    Our research to discover potential new multitarget agents led to the synthesis of 10 novel derivatives of cinnamic acids and propranolol, atenolol, 1-adamantanol, naphth-1-ol, and (benzylamino) ethan-1-ol. The synthesized molecules were evaluated as trypsin, lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation inhibitors and for their cytotoxicity. Compound 2b derived from phenoxyphenyl cinnamic acid and propranolol showed the highest lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition (IC 50 = 6 μΜ) and antiproteolytic activity (IC 50 = 0.425 μΜ). The conjugate 1a of simple cinnamic acid with propranolol showed the higher antiproteolytic activity (IC 50 = 0.315 μΜ) and good LOX inhibitory activity (IC 50 = 66 μΜ). Compounds 3a and 3b , derived from methoxylated caffeic acid present a promising combination of in vitro inhibitory and antioxidative activities. The S isomer of 2b also presented an interesting multitarget biological profile in vitro . Molecular docking studies point to the fact that the theoretical results for LOX-inhibitor binding are identical to those from preliminary in vitro study.

  8. Orphenadrinium picrate picric acid

    PubMed Central

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Hemamalini, Madhukar; Siddaraju, B. P.; Yathirajan, H. S.; Narayana, B.

    2010-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound N,N-dimethyl-2-[(2-methyl­phen­yl)phenyl­meth­oxy]ethanaminium picrate picric acid, C18H24NO+·C6H2N3O7 −·C6H3N3O7, contains one orphenadrinium cation, one picrate anion and one picric acid mol­ecule. In the orphenadrine cation, the two aromatic rings form a dihedral angle of 70.30 (7)°. There is an intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond in the picric acid mol­ecule, which generates an S(6) ring motif. In the crystal structure, the orphenadrine cations, picrate anions and picric acid mol­ecules are connected by strong inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, π⋯π inter­actions between the benzene rings of cations and anions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.5603 (9) Å] and weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:21580426

  9. Orphenadrinium picrate picric acid.

    PubMed

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Hemamalini, Madhukar; Siddaraju, B P; Yathirajan, H S; Narayana, B

    2010-02-24

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound N,N-dimethyl-2-[(2-methyl-phen-yl)phenyl-meth-oxy]ethanaminium picrate picric acid, C(18)H(24)NO(+)·C(6)H(2)N(3)O(7) (-)·C(6)H(3)N(3)O(7), contains one orphenadrinium cation, one picrate anion and one picric acid mol-ecule. In the orphenadrine cation, the two aromatic rings form a dihedral angle of 70.30 (7)°. There is an intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bond in the picric acid mol-ecule, which generates an S(6) ring motif. In the crystal structure, the orphenadrine cations, picrate anions and picric acid mol-ecules are connected by strong inter-molecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, π⋯π inter-actions between the benzene rings of cations and anions [centroid-centroid distance = 3.5603 (9) Å] and weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  10. Fusidic acid in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, J D

    1998-12-01

    Fusidic acid is an antibiotic that belongs to a group of its own, the fusidanes. The molecule has a steroid-like structure but does not possess any steroid activity. The structure is thought to be responsible for the steroid-like high penetration, and for the fact that no cross-resistance or cross-allergy has been seen with other antibiotics in routine clinical use. The anti-microbial activity of fusidic acid is specifically aimed at the most common skin pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus, towards which it is one of the most potent antibiotics. The place of fusidic acid in dermatology is in the treatment of mild to moderately severe skin and soft-tissue infections, e.g. impetigo, folicullitis, erythrasma, furunculosis, abscesses and infected traumatic wounds, whereas it is of less use in conditions such as hidradenitis suppurativa, chronic leg ulcers, burns and pressure sores. The topical combinations of fusidic acid with either betamethasone or hydrocortisone are extremely useful in the treatment of atopic dermatitis/eczema whenever staphylococcal/secondary infection is suspected, and in more persistent cases of eczema where staphylococcal superantigen may be playing an important exacerbating role.

  11. A 2-1-1 Research Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Eddens, Katherine S.; Alcaraz, Kassandra I.; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Rath, Suchitra; Greer, Regina

    2012-01-01

    Background 2-1-1 serves as a lifeline in times of crises. These crises often cause a spike in call volume that can challenge 2-1-1’s ability to meet their service quality standards. For researchers gathering data through 2-1-1s, a sudden increase in call volume might reduce accrual as 2-1-1 has less time to administer study protocols. Research activities imbedded in 2-1-1 systems may directly affect 2-1-1 service quality indicators. Purpose Using data from a 2-1-1 research collaboration, this paper examines the impact of crises on call volume to 2-1-1, how call volume affects research participant accrual through 2-1-1, and how research recruitment efforts affect 2-1-1 service quality indicators. Methods t-tests were used to examine the effect of call volume on research participant accrual. Linear and logistic regressions were used to examine the effect of research participant accrual on 2-1-1 service quality indicators. Data were collected June 2010–December 2011; data were analyzed in 2012. Results Findings from this collaboration suggest that crises causing spikes in call volume adversely affect 2-1-1 service quality indicators as well as accrual of research participants. Administering a brief (2–3 minute) health risk assessment did not negatively affect service quality, but administering a longer (15–18 minute) survey had a modest adverse effect on these indicators. Conclusions In 2-1-1 research collaborations, both partners need to understand the dynamic relationship between call volume, research accrual, and service quality, and adjust expectations accordingly. If research goals include administering a longer survey, increased staffing of 2-1-1 call centers may be needed to avoid compromising service quality. PMID:23157769

  12. Photostabilization of ascorbic acid with citric acid, tartaric acid and boric acid in cream formulations.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, I; Ali Sheraz, M; Ahmed, S; Shad, Z; Vaid, F H M

    2012-06-01

    This study involves the evaluation of the effect of certain stabilizers, that is, citric acid (CT), tartaric acid (TA) and boric acid (BA) on the degradation of ascorbic acid (AH(2) ) in oil-in-water cream formulations exposed to the UV light and stored in the dark. The apparent first-order rate constants (0.34-0.95 × 10(-3) min(-1) in light, 0.38-1.24 × 10(-2) day(-1) in dark) for the degradation reactions in the presence of the stabilizers have been determined. These rate constants have been used to derive the second-order rate constants (0.26-1.45 × 10(-2) M(-1) min(-1) in light, 3.75-8.50 × 10(-3) M(-1) day(-1) in dark) for the interaction of AH(2) and the individual stabilizers. These stabilizers are effective in causing the inhibition of the rate of degradation of AH(2) both in the light and in the dark. The inhibitory effect of the stabilizers is in the order of CT > TA > BA. The rate of degradation of AH(2) in the presence of these stabilizers in the light is about 120 times higher than that in the dark. This could be explained on the basis of the deactivation of AH(2) -excited triplet state by CT and TA and by the inhibition of AH(2) degradation through complex formation with BA. AH(2) leads to the formation of dehydroascorbic acid (A) by chemical and photooxidation in cream formulations. © 2012 The Authors. ICS © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  13. Specific bile acids inhibit hepatic fatty acid uptake

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Biao; Park, Hyo Min; Kazantzis, Melissa; Lin, Min; Henkin, Amy; Ng, Stephanie; Song, Sujin; Chen, Yuli; Tran, Heather; Lai, Robin; Her, Chris; Maher, Jacquelyn J.; Forman, Barry M.; Stahl, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Bile acids are known to play important roles as detergents in the absorption of hydrophobic nutrients and as signaling molecules in the regulation of metabolism. Here we tested the novel hypothesis that naturally occurring bile acids interfere with protein-mediated hepatic long chain free fatty acid (LCFA) uptake. To this end stable cell lines expressing fatty acid transporters as well as primary hepatocytes from mouse and human livers were incubated with primary and secondary bile acids to determine their effects on LCFA uptake rates. We identified ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) as the two most potent inhibitors of the liver-specific fatty acid transport protein 5 (FATP5). Both UDCA and DCA were able to inhibit LCFA uptake by primary hepatocytes in a FATP5-dependent manner. Subsequently, mice were treated with these secondary bile acids in vivo to assess their ability to inhibit diet-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Administration of DCA in vivo via injection or as part of a high-fat diet significantly inhibited hepatic fatty acid uptake and reduced liver triglycerides by more than 50%. In summary, the data demonstrate a novel role for specific bile acids, and the secondary bile acid DCA in particular, in the regulation of hepatic LCFA uptake. The results illuminate a previously unappreciated means by which specific bile acids, such as UDCA and DCA, can impact hepatic triglyceride metabolism and may lead to novel approaches to combat obesity-associated fatty liver disease. PMID:22531947

  14. Site-specific epsilon-NH2 monoacylation of pancreatic phospholipase A2. 2. Transformation of soluble phospholipase A2 into a highly penetrating "membrane-bound" form.

    PubMed

    Van der Wiele, F C; Atsma, W; Roelofsen, B; van Linde, M; Van Binsbergen, J; Radvanyi, F; Raykova, D; Slotboom, A J; De Haas, G H

    1988-03-08

    Long-chain lecithins present in bilayer structures like vesicles or membranes are only very poor substrates for pancreatic phospholipases A2. This is probably due to the fact that pancreatic phospholipases A2 cannot penetrate into the densely packed bilayer structures. To improve the weak penetrating properties of pancreatic phospholipases A2, we prepared and characterized a number of pancreatic phospholipase A2 mutants that have various long acyl chains linked covalently to Lys116 in porcine and to Lys10 in bovine phospholipase A2 [Van der Wiele, F.C., Atsma, W., Dijkman, R., Schreurs, A.M.M., Slotboom, A.J., & De Haas, G.H. (1988) Biochemistry (preceding paper in this issue)]. When monomolecular surface layers of L- and D-didecanoyllecithin were used, it was found that the introduction of caprinic, lauric, palmitic, and oleic acid at Lys116 in the porcine enzyme increases its penetrating power from 13 to about 17, 20, 32, and 22 dyn/cm, respectively, before long lag periods were obtained. Incorporation of a palmitoyl moiety at Lys10 in the bovine enzyme shifted the penetrating power from 11 to about 25 dyn/cm. Only the best penetrating mutant, viz., porcine phospholipase A2 having a palmitoyl moiety at Lys116, was able to cause complete leakage of 6-carboxyfluorescein entrapped in small unilamellar vesicles of egg lecithin under nonhydrolytic conditions. Similarly, only this latter palmitoylphospholipase A2 completely hydrolyzed all lecithin in the outer monolayer of the human erythrocyte at a rate much faster than Naja naja phospholipase A2, the most powerful penetrating snake venom enzyme presently known.

  15. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  16. Short chain fatty acids (butyric acid) and intestinal diseases

    PubMed

    Manrique Vergara, David; González Sánchez, María Eugenia

    2017-10-15

    Short chain fatty acids contain up to 6 carbon atoms. Among them, butyric acid stands out for its key role in pathologies with intestinal affectation. Butyric acid is the main energetic substrate of the colonocyte, it stimulates the absorption of sodium and water in the colon, and presents trophic action on the intestinal cells. To review the clinical use of formulations for the oral use of butyric acid. Review of published articles on oral supplementation with butyric acid in intestinal pathologies. The publications mainly deal with the use of oral butyric acid in pathologies involving inflammation and / or alterations of intestinal motility. Highlighting the clinical potential in inflammatory bowel diseases and irritable bowel syndrome. The use of oral supplementation with butyric acid is a promising strategy in pathologies such as inflammatory bowel diseases and irritable bowel syndrome. Bio-available butyric acid formulations with acceptable organoleptic characteristics are being advanced.

  17. Multitarget molecular hybrids of cinnamic acids.

    PubMed

    Peperidou, Aikaterini; Kapoukranidou, Dorothea; Kontogiorgis, Christos; Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra

    2014-12-02

    In an attempt to synthesize potential new multitarget agents, 11 novel hybrids incorporating cinnamic acids and paracetamol, 4-/7-hydroxycoumarin, benzocaine, p-aminophenol and m-aminophenol were synthesized. Three hybrids-2e, 2a, 2g-and 3b were found to be multifunctional agents. The hybrid 2e derived from the phenoxyphenyl cinnamic acid and m-acetamidophenol showed the highest lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition and analgesic activity (IC50 = 0.34 μΜ and 98.1%, whereas the hybrid 3b of bromobenzyloxycinnamic acid and hymechromone exhibited simultaneously good LOX inhibitory activity (IC50 = 50 μΜ) and the highest anti-proteolytic activity (IC50= 5 μΜ). The hybrid 2a of phenyloxyphenyl acid with paracetamol showed a high analgesic activity (91%) and appears to be a promising agent for treating peripheral nerve injuries. Hybrid 2g which has an ester and an amide bond presents an interesting combination of anti-LOX and anti-proteolytic activity. The esters were found very potent and especially those derived from paracetamol and m-acetamidophenol. The amides follow. Based on 2D-structure-activity relationships it was observed that both steric and electronic parameters play major roles in the activity of these compounds. Molecular docking studies point to the fact that allosteric interactions might govern the LOX-inhibitor binding.

  18. Scutellarin inhibits cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 1A2 (CYP1A2) in rats.

    PubMed

    Jian, Tun-Yu; He, Jian-Chang; He, Gong-Hao; Feng, En-Fu; Li, Hong-Liang; Bai, Min; Xu, Gui-Li

    2012-08-01

    Scutellarin is the most important flavone glycoside in the herbal drug Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz. It is used frequently in the clinic to treat ischemic vascular diseases in China. However, the direct relationship between scutellarin and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) is unclear. The present study investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of scutellarin on cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP 1A2) metabolism. According to in vitro experiments, scutellarin (10-250 µM) decreased the formation of 4-acetamidophenol in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC₅₀ value of 108.20 ± 0.657 µM. Furthermore, scutellarin exhibited a weak mixed-type inhibition against the activity of CYP1A2 in rat liver microsomes, with a K(i) value of 95.2 µM. Whereas in whole animal studies, scutellarin treatment for 7 days (at 5, 15, 30 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased the clearance (CL), and increased the T(1/2) (at 15, 30 mg/kg, i.p.), it did not affect the V(d) of phenacetin. Scutellarin treatment (at 5, 15, 30 mg/kg, i.p.) increased the AUC(0-∞) by 14.3%, 67.3% and 159.2%, respectively. Scutellarin at 30 mg/kg also weakly inhibited CYP1A2 activity, in accordance with our in vitro study. Thus, the results indicate that CYP1A2 is inhibited directly, but weakly, by scutellarin in vivo, and provide useful information on the safe and effective use of scutellarin in clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. College Chemistry Students' Mental Models of Acids and Acid Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClary, LaKeisha; Talanquer, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize the mental models of acids and acid strength expressed by advanced college chemistry students when engaged in prediction, explanation, and justification tasks that asked them to rank chemical compounds based on their relative acid strength. For that purpose we completed a qualitative research…

  20. Acid Earth--The Global Threat of Acid Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, John

    Acid pollution is a major international problem, but the debate it has elicited has often clouded the distinction between myth and facts. This publication attempts to concerning the acid pollution situation. This publication attempts to identify available facts. It is the first global review of the problem of acid pollution and the first to…

  1. Industrial ecotoxicology "acid rain".

    PubMed

    Astolfi, E; Gotelli, C; Higa, J

    1986-01-01

    The acid rain phenomenon was studied in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. This study, based on a previously outlined framework, determined the anthropogenic origin of the low pH due to the presence of industrial hydrochloric acid wastage. This industrial ecotoxicological phenomenon seriously affected the forest wealth, causing a great defoliation of trees and shrubs, with a lower effect on crops. A survey on its effects on human beings has not been carried out, but considering the corrosion caused to different metals and its denouncing biocide effect on plants and animals, we should expect to find some kind of harm to the health of the workers involved or others engaged in farming, and even to those who are far away from the polluting agent.

  2. Method for isolating nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.

    The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids formore » a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.« less

  3. Perfluorooctanoic acid and environmental risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a member of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) family of chemicals, which consist of a carbon backbone typically four to fourteen carbons in length and a charged functional moiety.

  4. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  5. Itaconic acid production in microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meilin; Lu, Xinyao; Zong, Hong; Li, Jinyang; Zhuge, Bin

    2018-03-01

    Itaconic acid, 2-methylidenebutanedioic acid, is a precursor of polymers, chemicals, and fuels. Many fungi can synthesize itaconic acid; Aspergillus terreus and Ustilago maydis produce up to 85 and 53 g l -1 , respectively. Other organisms, including Aspergillus niger and yeasts, have been engineered to produce itaconic acid. However, the titer of itaconic acid is low compared with the analogous major fermentation product, citric acid, for which the yield is > 200 g l -1 . Here, we review two types of pathway for itaconic acid biosynthesis as well as recent advances by metabolic engineering strategies and process optimization to enhance itaconic acid productivity in native producers and heterologous hosts. We also propose further improvements to overcome existing problems.

  6. Lipoic acid biosynthesis defects.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Johannes A; Feichtinger, René G; Tort, Frederic; Ribes, Antonia; Sperl, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    Lipoate is a covalently bound cofactor essential for five redox reactions in humans: in four 2-oxoacid dehydrogenases and the glycine cleavage system (GCS). Two enzymes are from the energy metabolism, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase; and three are from the amino acid metabolism, branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase, 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenase, and the GCS. All these enzymes consist of multiple subunits and share a similar architecture. Lipoate synthesis in mitochondria involves mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis up to octanoyl-acyl-carrier protein; and three lipoate-specific steps, including octanoic acid transfer to glycine cleavage H protein by lipoyl(octanoyl) transferase 2 (putative) (LIPT2), lipoate synthesis by lipoic acid synthetase (LIAS), and lipoate transfer by lipoyltransferase 1 (LIPT1), which is necessary to lipoylate the E2 subunits of the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenases. The reduced form dihydrolipoate is reactivated by dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD). Mutations in LIAS have been identified that result in a variant form of nonketotic hyperglycinemia with early-onset convulsions combined with a defect in mitochondrial energy metabolism with encephalopathy and cardiomyopathy. LIPT1 deficiency spares the GCS, and resulted in a combined 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase deficiency and early death in one patient and in a less severely affected individual with a Leigh-like phenotype. As LIAS is an iron-sulphur-cluster-dependent enzyme, a number of recently identified defects in mitochondrial iron-sulphur cluster synthesis, including NFU1, BOLA3, IBA57, GLRX5 presented with deficiency of LIAS and a LIAS-like phenotype. As in DLD deficiency, a broader clinical spectrum can be anticipated for lipoate synthesis defects depending on which of the affected enzymes is most rate limiting.

  7. Imidazoline phosphonic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Redmore, D.

    1972-07-04

    Nitrogen-heterocyclic phosphonic acids and derivatives are characterized by aminomethyl (or substituted methyl) phosphonic acids or derivatives thereof bonded directly or indirectly, i.e., through a N-side chain to the nitrogen atom in the heterocyclic ring, for example those containing in the molecule at least one of the following units: ..pi..Equation/sup -/ where represents a heterocyclic ring having a nitrogen atom on the ring; -R'N- represents an amino- terminated side chain attached directly to the ring nitrogen (which side chain may or may not be present); and ..pi..Equation/sup -/ represents a methyl (or substituted methyl) phosphonic acid group where M is hydrogen,more » an alcohol or a salt moiety, and X and Y are hydrogen or a substituted group such as alkyl, aryl, etc., of which one or 2 units may be present depending on the available nitrogen bonded by hydrogens, and to uses for these compounds, for example, as scale inhibitors, corrosion inhibitors, etc. (5 claims)« less

  8. Hepatic Toxicity of Perfluorocarboxylic Acids.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-07-01

    1995). 3. N. V. Reo, C. M. Goecke, L. Narayanan, and B. M. Jarnot. "Effects of Perfluoro-n-octanoic Acid , Perfluoro-n-decanoic Acid , and Clofibrate ...Artz, and B. M. Jarnot: "ILiver Phosphorous Metabolic Response to Perfluorocarboxylic Acids and Clofibrate in Rats and Guinea Pigs: A 31 P NMR Study...Peroxisome Induction by Perfluoro-n-decanoic Acid and Clofibrate in the Rat: Proliferation Versus Activity." International Society for the Study of

  9. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wilensky, Robert L; Macphee, Colin H

    2009-10-01

    There is substantial data from over 50 000 patients that increased lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) mass or activity is associated with an increased risk of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndromes and ischemic stroke. However, only recently have data emerged demonstrating a role of Lp-PLA2 in development of advanced coronary artery disease. Indeed, Lp-PLA2 may be an important link between lipid homeostasis and the vascular inflammatory response. Lp-PLA2, also known as platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, rapidly cleaves oxidized phosphatidylcholine molecules produced during the oxidation of LDL and atherogenic lipoprotein Lp(a), generating the soluble proinflammatory and proapoptotic lipid mediators, lyso-phosphatidylcholine and oxidized nonesterified fatty acids. These proinflammatory lipids play an important role in the development of atherosclerotic necrotic cores, the substrate for acute unstable coronary disease by recruiting and activating leukocytes/macrophages, inducing apoptosis and impairing the subsequent removal of dead cells. Selective inhibition of Lp-PLA2 reduces development of necrotic cores and may result in stabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. Recent data have shown that immune pathways play a major role in the development and progression of high-risk atherosclerosis, which leads to ischemic sudden death, myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndromes and ischemic strokes. Persistent and sustained macrophage apoptosis appears to play a major role in the resulting local inflammatory response in part by effects elicited by Lp-PLA2. Selective inhibition of Lp-PLA2 has been postulated to reduce necrotic core progression and the clinical sequelae of advanced, unstable atherosclerosis.

  10. Sequential injection redox or acid-base titration for determination of ascorbic acid or acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Lenghor, Narong; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Vilen, Michael; Sara, Rolf; Christian, Gary D; Grudpan, Kate

    2002-12-06

    Two sequential injection titration systems with spectrophotometric detection have been developed. The first system for determination of ascorbic acid was based on redox reaction between ascorbic acid and permanganate in an acidic medium and lead to a decrease in color intensity of permanganate, monitored at 525 nm. A linear dependence of peak area obtained with ascorbic acid concentration up to 1200 mg l(-1) was achieved. The relative standard deviation for 11 replicate determinations of 400 mg l(-1) ascorbic acid was 2.9%. The second system, for acetic acid determination, was based on acid-base titration of acetic acid with sodium hydroxide using phenolphthalein as an indicator. The decrease in color intensity of the indicator was proportional to the acid content. A linear calibration graph in the range of 2-8% w v(-1) of acetic acid with a relative standard deviation of 4.8% (5.0% w v(-1) acetic acid, n=11) was obtained. Sample throughputs of 60 h(-1) were achieved for both systems. The systems were successfully applied for the assays of ascorbic acid in vitamin C tablets and acetic acid content in vinegars, respectively.

  11. Scientists Puzzle Over Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Reports on a growing concern over increased acidity in atmospheric percipitation. Explores possible causes of the increased acidity, identifies chemical components of precipitation in various parts of the world, and presents environmental changes that might be attributed to the acidity. (GS)

  12. Acid precipitation and forest soils

    Treesearch

    C. O. Tamm

    1976-01-01

    Many soil processes and properties may be affected by a change in chemical climate such as that caused by acidification of precipitation. The effect of additions of acid precipitation depends at first on the extent to which this acid is really absorbed by the soil and on the changes in substances with actual or potential acidity leaving the soil. There is for instance...

  13. An Umbrella for Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randal, Judith

    1979-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has awarded several grants to study effects of and possible solutions to the problem of "acid rain"; pollution from atmospheric nitric and sulfuric acids. The research program is administered through North Carolina State University at Raleigh and will focus on biological effects of acid rain. (JMF)

  14. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    DOEpatents

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  15. Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process

    DOEpatents

    King, C. Judson; Poole, Loree J.

    1995-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

  16. Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process

    DOEpatents

    King, C.J.; Poole, L.J.

    1995-05-02

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. 10 figs.

  17. Oleanolic acid alters bile acid metabolism and produces cholestatic liver injury in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jie, E-mail: JLiu@kumc.edu; Zunyi Medical College, Zunyi 563003; Lu, Yuan-Fu

    2013-11-01

    Oleanolic acid (OA) is a triterpenoids that exists widely in plants. OA is effective in protecting against hepatotoxicants. Whereas a low dose of OA is hepatoprotective, higher doses and longer-term use of OA produce liver injury. This study characterized OA-induced liver injury in mice. Adult C57BL/6 mice were given OA at doses of 0, 22.5, 45, 90, and 135 mg/kg, s.c., daily for 5 days, and liver injury was observed at doses of 90 mg/kg and above, as evidenced by increases in serum activities of alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, increases in serum total bilirubin, as well as by livermore » histopathology. OA-induced cholestatic liver injury was further evidenced by marked increases of both unconjugated and conjugated bile acids (BAs) in serum. Gene and protein expression analysis suggested that livers of OA-treated mice had adaptive responses to prevent BA accumulation by suppressing BA biosynthetic enzyme genes (Cyp7a1, 8b1, 27a1, and 7b1); lowering BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2); and increasing a BA efflux transporter (Ostβ). OA increased the expression of Nrf2 and its target gene, Nqo1, but decreased the expression of AhR, CAR and PPARα along with their target genes, Cyp1a2, Cyp2b10 and Cyp4a10. OA had minimal effects on PXR and Cyp3a11. Taken together, the present study characterized OA-induced liver injury, which is associated with altered BA homeostasis, and alerts its toxicity potential. - Highlights: • Oleanolic acid at higher doses and long-term use may produce liver injury. • Oleanolic acid increased serum ALT, ALP, bilirubin and bile acid concentrations. • OA produced feathery degeneration, inflammation and cell death in the liver. • OA altered bile acid homeostasis, affecting bile acid synthesis and transport.« less

  18. Vasculogenic Mimicry in Prostate Cancer: The Roles of EphA2 and PI3K.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Lin, Hao; Pan, Jincheng; Mo, Chengqiang; Zhang, Faming; Huang, Bin; Wang, Zongren; Chen, Xu; Zhuang, Jintao; Wang, Daohu; Qiu, Shaopeng

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive tumor cells can form perfusable networks that mimic normal vasculature and enhance tumor growth and metastasis. A number of molecular players have been implicated in such vasculogenic mimicry, among them the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2, which is aberrantly expressed in aggressive tumors. Here we study the role and regulation of EphA2 in vasculogenic mimicry in prostate cancer where this phenomenon is still poorly understood. Vasculogenic mimicry was characterized by tubules whose cellular lining was negative for the endothelial cell marker CD34 but positive for periodic acid-Schiff staining, and/or contained red blood cells. Vasculogenic mimicry was assessed in 92 clinical samples of prostate cancer and analyzed in more detail in three prostate cancer cell lines kept in three-dimensional culture. Tissue samples and cell lines were also assessed for total and phosphorylated levels of EphA2 and its potential regulator, Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase (PI3K). In addition, the role of EphA2 in vasculogenic mimicry and in cell migration and invasion were investigated by manipulating the levels of EphA2 through specific siRNAs. Furthermore, the role of PI3K in vasculogenic mimicry and in regulating EphA2 was tested by application of an inhibitor, LY294002. Immunohistochemistry of prostate cancers showed a significant correlation between vasculogenic mimicry and high expression levels of EphA2, high Gleason scores, advanced TNM stage, and the presence of lymph node and distant metastases. Likewise, two prostate cancer cell lines (PC3 and DU-145) formed vasculogenic networks on Matrigel and expressed high EphA2 levels, while one line (LNCaP) showed no vasculogenic networks and lower EphA2 levels. Specific silencing of EphA2 in PC3 and DU-145 cells decreased vasculogenic mimicry as well as cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, high expression levels of PI3K and EphA2 phosphorylation at Ser897 significantly correlated with the presence of vasculogenic mimicry and

  19. Vasculogenic Mimicry in Prostate Cancer: The Roles of EphA2 and PI3K

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Lin, Hao; Pan, Jincheng; Mo, Chengqiang; Zhang, Faming; Huang, Bin; Wang, Zongren; Chen, Xu; Zhuang, Jintao; Wang, Daohu; Qiu, Shaopeng

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Aggressive tumor cells can form perfusable networks that mimic normal vasculature and enhance tumor growth and metastasis. A number of molecular players have been implicated in such vasculogenic mimicry, among them the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2, which is aberrantly expressed in aggressive tumors. Here we study the role and regulation of EphA2 in vasculogenic mimicry in prostate cancer where this phenomenon is still poorly understood. METHODS. Vasculogenic mimicry was characterized by tubules whose cellular lining was negative for the endothelial cell marker CD34 but positive for periodic acid-Schiff staining, and/or contained red blood cells. Vasculogenic mimicry was assessed in 92 clinical samples of prostate cancer and analyzed in more detail in three prostate cancer cell lines kept in three-dimensional culture. Tissue samples and cell lines were also assessed for total and phosphorylated levels of EphA2 and its potential regulator, Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase (PI3K). In addition, the role of EphA2 in vasculogenic mimicry and in cell migration and invasion were investigated by manipulating the levels of EphA2 through specific siRNAs. Furthermore, the role of PI3K in vasculogenic mimicry and in regulating EphA2 was tested by application of an inhibitor, LY294002. RESULTS. Immunohistochemistry of prostate cancers showed a significant correlation between vasculogenic mimicry and high expression levels of EphA2, high Gleason scores, advanced TNM stage, and the presence of lymph node and distant metastases. Likewise, two prostate cancer cell lines (PC3 and DU-145) formed vasculogenic networks on Matrigel and expressed high EphA2 levels, while one line (LNCaP) showed no vasculogenic networks and lower EphA2 levels. Specific silencing of EphA2 in PC3 and DU-145 cells decreased vasculogenic mimicry as well as cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, high expression levels of PI3K and EphA2 phosphorylation at Ser897 significantly correlated with the

  20. Microbial degradation of poly(amino acid)s.

    PubMed

    Obst, Martin; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Natural poly(amino acid)s are a group of poly(ionic) molecules (ionomers) with various biological functions and putative technical applications and play, therefore, an important role both in nature and in human life. Because of their biocompatibility and their synthesis from renewable resources, poly(amino acid)s may be employed for many different purposes covering a broad spectrum of medical, pharmaceutical, and personal care applications as well as the domains of agriculture and of environmental applications. Biodegradability is one important advantage of naturally occurring poly(amino acid)s over many synthetic polymers. The intention of this review is to give an overview about the enzyme systems catalyzing the initial steps in poly(amino acid) degradation. The focus is on the naturally occurring poly(amino acid)s cyanophycin, poly(epsilon-L-lysine) and poly(gamma-glutamic acid); but biodegradation of structurally related synthetic polyamides such as poly(aspartic acid) and nylons, which are known from various technical applications, is also included.

  1. Determination of Proanthocyanidin A2 Content in Phenolic Polymer Isolates by Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This article summarizes the development of an analytical method for the determination of proanthocyanidin (PAC) A2 in phenolic polymer isolates following acid-catalyzed degradation in the presence of excess phloroglucinol. Isolates from cranberry juice concentrate (CJC) were extensively characterize...

  2. Apolipoprotein A2 polymorphism interacts with intakes of dairy foods to influence body weight in 2 U.S. populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The interaction between a functional apolipoprotein A2 gene (APOA2) variant and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) for the outcome of body mass index (BMI) is among the most widely replicated gene-nutrient interactions. Whether this interaction can be extrapolated to food-based sources of SFAs, specifical...

  3. Evolution of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Maike; Abdullah, Yana; Benner, Johannes; Eberle, David; Gehlen, Katja; Hücherig, Stephanie; Janiak, Verena; Kim, Kyung Hee; Sander, Marion; Weitzel, Corinna; Wolters, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid and chlorogenic acid are caffeic acid esters widely found in the plant kingdom and presumably accumulated as defense compounds. In a survey, more than 240 plant species have been screened for the presence of rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids. Several rosmarinic acid-containing species have been detected. The rosmarinic acid accumulation in species of the Marantaceae has not been known before. Rosmarinic acid is found in hornworts, in the fern family Blechnaceae and in species of several orders of mono- and dicotyledonous angiosperms. The biosyntheses of caffeoylshikimate, chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid use 4-coumaroyl-CoA from the general phenylpropanoid pathway as hydroxycinnamoyl donor. The hydroxycinnamoyl acceptor substrate comes from the shikimate pathway: shikimic acid, quinic acid and hydroxyphenyllactic acid derived from l-tyrosine. Similar steps are involved in the biosyntheses of rosmarinic, chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acids: the transfer of the 4-coumaroyl moiety to an acceptor molecule by a hydroxycinnamoyltransferase from the BAHD acyltransferase family and the meta-hydroxylation of the 4-coumaroyl moiety in the ester by a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from the CYP98A family. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferases as well as the meta-hydroxylases show high sequence similarities and thus seem to be closely related. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and CYP98A14 from Coleus blumei (Lamiaceae) are nevertheless specific for substrates involved in RA biosynthesis showing an evolutionary diversification in phenolic ester metabolism. Our current view is that only a few enzymes had to be "invented" for rosmarinic acid biosynthesis probably on the basis of genes needed for the formation of chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acid while further biosynthetic steps might have been recruited from phenylpropanoid metabolism, tocopherol/plastoquinone biosynthesis and photorespiration.

  4. Composition for nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas [Ithaca, NY; Webb, Watt W [Ithaca, NY; Levene, Michael [Ithaca, NY; Turner, Stephen [Ithaca, NY; Craighead, Harold G [Ithaca, NY; Foquet, Mathieu [Ithaca, NY

    2008-08-26

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  5. E. coli derived Von Willebrand Factor-A2 domain FRET proteins that quantify ADAMTS13 activity

    PubMed Central

    Dayananda, Kannayakanahalli M.; Gogia, Shobhit; Neelamegham, Sriram

    2010-01-01

    The cleavage of the A2-domain of Von Willebrand Factor (VWF) by the metalloprotease ADAMTS13 regulates VWF size and platelet thrombosis rates. Reduction or inhibition of this enzyme activity leads to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). We generated a set of novel molecules called VWF-A2 FRET proteins’, where variants of YFP (Venus) and CFP (Cerulean) flank either the entire VWF-A2 domain (175 amino acids) or truncated fragments (141, 113, 77 amino acids) of this domain. These proteins were expressed in E. coli in soluble form, and they exhibited Fluorescence/Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) properties. Results show that introduction of Venus/Cerulean itself did not alter the ability of VWF-A2 to undergo ADAMTS13 mediated cleavage. The smallest FRET protein, XS-VWF, detected plasma ADAMTS13 activity down to 10% of normal levels. Tests of acquired and inherited TTP could be completed within 30 min. VWF-A2 conformation changed progressively, and not abruptly, upon increasing urea concentration. While proteins with 77 and 113 VWF-A2 residues were cleaved in the absence of denaturant, 4M urea was required for the efficient cleavage of larger constructs. Overall, VWF-A2 FRET proteins can be applied both for the rapid diagnosis of plasma ADAMTS13 activity, and as a tool to study VWF-A2 conformation dynamics. PMID:21146487

  6. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  7. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  8. Evolution of substrate specificity for the bile salt transporter ASBT (SLC10A2)[S

    PubMed Central

    Lionarons, Daniël A.; Boyer, James L.; Cai, Shi-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The apical Na+-dependent bile salt transporter (ASBT/SLC10A2) is essential for maintaining the enterohepatic circulation of bile salts. It is not known when Slc10a2 evolved as a bile salt transporter or how it adapted to substantial changes in bile salt structure during evolution. We characterized ASBT orthologs from two primitive vertebrates, the lamprey that utilizes early 5α-bile alcohols and the skate that utilizes structurally different 5β-bile alcohols, and compared substrate specificity with ASBT from humans who utilize modern 5β-bile acids. Everted gut sacs of skate but not the more primitive lamprey transported 3H-taurocholic acid (TCA), a modern 5β-bile acid. However, molecular cloning identified ASBT orthologs from both species. Cell-based assays using recombinant ASBT/Asbt's indicate that lamprey Asbt has high affinity for 5α-bile alcohols, low affinity for 5β-bile alcohols, and lacks affinity for TCA, whereas skate Asbt showed high affinity for 5α- and 5β-bile alcohols but low affinity for TCA. In contrast, human ASBT demonstrated high affinity for all three bile salt types. These findings suggest that ASBT evolved from the earliest vertebrates by gaining affinity for modern bile salts while retaining affinity for older bile salts. Also, our results indicate that the bile salt enterohepatic circulation is conserved throughout vertebrate evolution. PMID:22669917

  9. Comparison of CYP1A2 and NAT2 Phenotypes between Black and White Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Muscat, Joshua E.; Pittman, Brian; Kleinman, Wayne; Lazarus, Philip; Stellman, Steven D.; Richie, John P.

    2008-01-01

    The lower incidence rate of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in blacks than in whites may be due to racial differences in the catalytic activity of enzymes that metabolize carcinogenic arylamines in tobacco smoke. To examine this, we compared cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) and N-acetyltransferase-2 activities (NAT2) in black and white smokers using urinary caffeine metabolites as a probe for enzyme activity in a community-based study of 165 black and 183 white cigarette smokers. The paraxanthine (1,7-dimethylxanthine, 17X)/caffeine (trimethylxanthine, 137X) ratio or [17X + 1,7-dimethyluric acid (17U)]/137X ratio was used as an indicator of CYP1A2 activity. The 5-acetyl-amino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil (AFMU)/1-methylxanthine (1X) ratio indicated NAT2 activity. The odds ratio for the slow NAT2 phenotype associated with black race was 0.4; 95% confidence intervals 0.2–0.7. The putative combined low risk phenotype (slow CYP1A2/rapid NAT2) was more common in blacks than in whites (25% vs. 15%, P<0.02). There were no significant racial differences in slow and rapid CYP1A2 phenotypes, and in the combined slow NAT2/rapid CYP1A2 phenotype. Age, education, cigarette smoking amount, body mass index, GSTM1 and GSTM3 genotypes were unrelated to CYP1A2 and NAT2 activity. Intake of cruciferous vegetables (primarily broccoli), red meat, carrots, grapefruit and onions predicted CYP1A2 activity either for all subjects or in race-specific analyses. Carrot and grapefruit consumption was related to NAT2 activity. Collectively, these results indicated that phenotypic differences in NAT2 alone or in combination with CYP1A2 might help explain the higher incidence rates of transitional cell bladder cancer in whites. PMID:18703023

  10. 21 CFR 864.7400 - Hemoglobin A2 assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hemoglobin A2 assay. 864.7400 Section 864.7400...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7400 Hemoglobin A2 assay. (a) Identification. A hemoglobin A2 assay is a device used to determine the hemoglobin A2 content...

  11. 21 CFR 864.7400 - Hemoglobin A2 assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin A2 assay. 864.7400 Section 864.7400...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7400 Hemoglobin A2 assay. (a) Identification. A hemoglobin A2 assay is a device used to determine the hemoglobin A2 content...

  12. Differential Effects of Methoxylated p-Coumaric Acids on Melanoma in B16/F10 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hoon Seok; Lee, Nam-Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu; Shin, Dong-Bum

    2015-01-01

    As an approach to search for chemopreventive agents, we tested p-coumaric acid, 3-methoxy-p-coumaric acid (ferulic acid), and 3,5-dimethoxy-p-coumaric acid (sinapic acid) in B16/F10 melanoma cells. Intracellular melanin contents were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and cytotoxicity of the compounds were examined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. p-Coumaric acid showed inhibitory effect on melanogenesis, but ferulic acid increased melanin content, and sinapic acid had almost no effect on melanogenesis. Treatment with ferulic acid resulted in a 2 to 3 fold elevation in the production of melanin. Correlatively, cell viability decreased in a dose-dependent manner when treated with ferulic acid. However, ferulic acid did not affect the LDH release from the cells. Treatment with sinapic acid resulted in a 50~60% elevation in the release of LDH when treated with a 200 μg/mL concentration and showed neither cytostasis nor increase of melanin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, p-coumaric acid inhibits melanogenesis, ferulic acid induces melanogenesis, and sinapic acid exerts cytotoxic effects in B16/F10 murine melanoma cells. The results indicate that the addition of methoxy groups to p-coumaric acid shows the melanogenic or cytotoxic effects in melanoma cells compared to the original compound. Therefore, this study suggests the possibility that methoxylated p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid can be used as a chemopreventive agent. PMID:25866753

  13. Twinning of dodecanedicarboxylic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, R.; Wilcox, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    Twinning of 1,10-dodecanedicarboxyl acid (DDA) was observed in 0.1 mm thick films with a polarizing microscope. Twins originated from polycrystalline regions which tended to nucleate on twin faces, and terminated by intersection gone another. Twinning increased dramatically with addition of organic compounds with a similar molecular size and shape. Increasing the freezing rate, increasing the temperature gradient, and addition of silica particles increased twinning. It is proposed that twins nucleate with polycrystals and sometimes anneal out before they become observable. The impurities may enhance twinning either by lowering the twin energy or by adsorbing on growing faces.

  14. Synthesis of amino acids

    DOEpatents

    Davis, J.W. Jr.

    1979-09-21

    A method is described for synthesizing amino acids preceding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(OSOC1)CN, R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(C1)CN and (R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(CN)O)/sub 2/SO wherein R/sub 1/ and R/sub 2/ are each selected from hydrogen and monovalent hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 10 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the synthesis methods of the prior art.

  15. Preparation of the 3-monosulphates of cholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid and deoxycholic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Haslewood, E S; Haslewood, G A

    1976-01-01

    1. The 3-sulphates of cholic, chenodeoxycholic and deoxycholic acids were prepared as crystalline disodium salts. 2. The method described shows that it is possible to prepare specific sulphate esters of polyhydroxy bile acids and to remove protecting acyl groups without removing the sulphate. 3. A study of bile acid sulphate solvolysis showed that none of the usual methods give the original bile acid in major yield in a single step. 4. An understanding of the preparation, properties and methods of solvolysis of bile acid sulphates is basic for investigations of cholestasis and liver disease. PMID:938488

  16. Vibrational structure of the polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid studied by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Johannes; Noack, Kristina; Bartelmess, Juergen; Walter, Christian; Dörnenburg, Heike; Leipertz, Alfred

    2010-02-01

    The spectroscopic discrimination of the two structurally similar polyunsaturated C 20 fatty acids (PUFAs) 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) is shown. For this purpose their vibrational structures are studied by means of attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The fingerprint regions of the recorded spectra are found to be almost identical, while the C-H stretching mode regions around 3000 cm -1 show such significant differences as results of electronic and molecular structure alterations based on the different degree of saturation that both fatty acids can be clearly distinguished from each other.

  17. Solid-phase extraction of acidic herbicides.

    PubMed

    Wells, M J; Yu, L Z

    2000-07-14

    A discussion of solid-phase extraction method development for acidic herbicides is presented that reviews sample matrix modification, extraction sorbent selection, derivatization procedures for gas chromatographic analysis, and clean-up procedures for high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. Acidic herbicides are families of compounds that include derivatives of phenol (dinoseb, dinoterb and pentachlorophenol), benzoic acid (acifluorfen, chloramben, dicamba, 3,5-dichlorobenzoic acid and dacthal--a dibenzoic acid derivative), acetic acid [2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T)], propanoic acid [dichlorprop, fluazifop, haloxyfop, 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propanoic acid (MCPP) and silvex], butanoic acid [4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)butanoic acid (2,4-DB) and 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)butanoic acid (MCPB)], and other miscellaneous acids such as pyridinecarboxylic acid (picloram) and thiadiazine dioxide (bentazon).

  18. Kinetics of acid-catalyzed cleavage of procyanindins

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Hemingway; Gerald W. McGraw

    1983-01-01

    Comparison of the rates of cleavage of isomeric procyanidin dimers in the presence of excess phenylmethane thiol and acetic acid showed that compounds with a C(4)-C(8) interflavanoid bond were cleaved more rapidly than their C(4)-C(6) linked isomers, that 2,3-cis isomers with an axial flavan substituent were cleaved more-rapidly than a 2,3-...

  19. Nucleic Acid Detection Methods

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Cassandra L.; Yaar, Ron; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Cantor, Charles R.

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3'-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated.

  20. Nucleic acid detection methods

    DOEpatents

    Smith, C.L.; Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3{prime}-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated. 18 figs.