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Sample records for a2 lp-pla2 activity

  1. Lp-PLA2 activity is associated with increased risk of diabetic retinopathy: a longitudinal disease progression study.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Moneeza K; Kennedy, Gwen; Carr, Fiona; Doney, Alexander S F; Pearson, Ewan R; Morris, Andrew D; Johnson, Toby; McLaughlin, Megan M; Williams, Rachel E; Palmer, Colin N A

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the association between lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 (Lp-PLA 2 ) activity levels and incident diabetic retinopathy and change in retinopathy grade. This was a cohort study of diabetic participants with serum collected at baseline and routinely collected diabetic retinal screening data. Participants with type 2 diabetes from the GoDARTS (Genetics of Diabetes Audit and Research in Tayside Scotland) cohort were used. This cohort is composed of individuals of white Scottish ancestry from the Tayside region of Scotland. Survival analysis accounting for informative censoring by modelling death as a competing risk was performed for the development of incident diabetic retinopathy from a disease-free state in a 3 year follow-up period (n = 1364) by stratified Lp-PLA 2 activity levels (in quartiles). The same analysis was performed for transitions to more severe grades. The hazard of developing incident diabetic retinopathy was 2.08 times higher (95% CI 1.64, 2.63) for the highest quartile of Lp-PLA 2 activity compared with the lowest. Higher Lp-PLA 2 activity levels were associated with a significantly increased risk for transitions to all grades. The hazards of developing observable (or more severe) and referable (or more severe) retinopathy were 2.82 (95% CI 1.71, 4.65) and 1.87 (95% CI 1.26, 2.77) times higher for the highest quartile of Lp-PLA 2 activity compared with the lowest, respectively. Higher Lp-PLA 2 levels are associated with increased risk of death and the development of incident diabetic retinopathy, as well as transitions to more severe grades of diabetic retinopathy. These associations are independent of calculated LDL-cholesterol and other traditional risk factors. Further, this biomarker study shows that the association is temporally sensitive to the proximity of the event to measurement of Lp-PLA 2.

  2. Replacing with whole grains and legumes reduces Lp-PLA2 activities in plasma and PBMCs in patients with prediabetes or T2D1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minjoo; Jeung, Se Ri; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-01-01

    To determine dietary effects on circulating lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity and enzyme activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), 99 patients with impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or newly-diagnosed T2D were randomly assigned to either a control group (usual diet with refined rice) or the whole grain and legume group. Substitution of whole grains and legumes for refined rice was associated with the replacement of 7% of energy from carbohydrates with energy from protein (about 4%) and fat. After 12 weeks, the whole grain and legume group showed a significant decrease in fasting glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, hemoglobin A1c, malondialdehyde, plasma Lp-PLA2 activity, and oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), and an increase in LDL particle size. The changes (Δs) in these variables in the whole grain and legume group were significantly different from those in controls after adjustment for the baseline levels. When all subjects were considered, Δ plasma Lp-PLA2 positively correlated with Δ glucose, Δ PBMC Lp-PLA2, Δ ox-LDL, and Δ urinary 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α after being adjusted for confounding factors. The Δ PBMC Lp-PLA2 correlated positively with Δ glucose and Δ ox-LDL, and negatively with Δ LDL particle size and baseline PBMC Lp-PLA2. The substitution of whole grains and legumes for refined rice resulted in a reduction in Lp-PLA2 activities in plasma and PBMCs partly through improved glycemic control, increased consumption of protein relative to carbohydrate, and reduced lipid peroxides. PMID:24904022

  3. PLA2G7 genotype, Lp-PLA2 activity and coronary heart disease risk in 10,494 cases and 15,624 controls of European ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Juan P.; Ninio, Ewa; Panayiotou, Andrie; Palmen, Jutta; Cooper, Jackie A; Ricketts, Sally L; Sofat, Reecha; Nicolaides, Andrew N; Corsetti, James P; Fowkes, F Gerry R; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Kumari, Meena; Brunner, Eric J; Kivimaki, Mika; Marmot, Michael G; Hoffmann, Michael M; Winkler, Karl; März, Winfred; Ye, Shu; Stirnadel, Heide A; MBBChir, Kay-Tee Khaw; Humphries, Steve E; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Hingorani, Aroon D; Talmud, Philippa J

    2012-01-01

    Background Higher Lp-PLA2 activity is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), making Lp-PLA2 a potential therapeutic target. PLA2G7 variants associated with Lp-PLA2 activity could evaluate whether this relationship is causal. Methods and Results A meta-analysis including a total of 12 studies (5 prospective, 4 case-control, 1 case-only and 2 cross-sectional, n=26,118) was undertaken to examine the association of: (i) LpPLA2 activity vs. cardiovascular biomarkers and risk factors and CHD events (two prospective studies; n=4884); ii) PLA2G7 SNPs and Lp-PLA2 activity (3 prospective, 2 case-control, 2 cross-sectional studies; up to n=6094); and iii) PLA2G7 SNPs and angiographic coronary artery disease (2 case-control, 1 case-only study; n=4971 cases) and CHD events (5 prospective, 2 case-control studies; n=5523). Lp-PLA2 activity correlated with several CHD risk markers. Hazard ratio for CHD events top vs. bottom quartile of Lp-PLA2 activity was 1.61 (95%CI: 1.31, 1.99) and 1.17 (95%CI: 0.91, 1.51) after adjustment for baseline traits. Of seven SNPs, rs1051931 (A379V) showed the strongest association with Lp-PLA2 activity, VV subjects having 7.2% higher activity than AAs. Genotype was not associated with risk markers, angiographic coronary disease (OR 1.03 (95%CI 0.80, 1.32), or CHD events (OR 0.98 (95%CI 0.82, 1.17). Conclusions Unlike Lp-PLA2 activity, PLA2G7 variants associated with modest effects on Lp-PLA2 activity were not associated with cardiovascular risk markers, coronary atheroma or CHD. Larger association studies, identification of SNPs with larger effects, or randomised trials of specific Lp-PLA2 inhibitors are needed to confirm/refute a contributory role for Lp-PLA2 in CHD. PMID:20479152

  4. Novel enzymatic method for assaying Lp-PLA2 in serum.

    PubMed

    Yamaura, Saki; Sakasegawa, Shin-Ichi; Koguma, Emisa; Ueda, Shigeru; Kayamori, Yuzo; Sugimori, Daisuke; Karasawa, Ken

    2018-06-01

    Measurement of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 (Lp-PLA 2 ) can be used as an adjunct to traditional cardiovascular risk factors for identifying individuals at higher risk of cardiovascular events. This can be performed by quantification of the protein concentration using an ELISA platform or by measuring Lp-PLA 2 activity using platelet-activating factor (PAF) analog as substrate. Here, an enzymatic Lp-PLA 2 activity assay method using 1-O-Hexadecyl-2-acetyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine (rac C 16 PAF) was developed. The newly revealed substrate specificity of lysoplasmalogen-specific phospholipase D (lysophospholipase D (LysoPLD)) was exploited. Lp-PLA 2 hydrolyzes 1-O-Hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (C 16 PAF) to 1-O-Hexadecyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (LysoPAF). LysoPLD acted on LysoPAF, and the hydrolytically released choline was detected by choline oxidase. Regression analysis of Lp-PLA 2 activity measured by the enzymatic Lp-PLA 2 activity assay vs. two chemical Lp-PLA 2 activity assays, i.e. LpPLA 2 FS and PLAC® test, and ELISA, gave the following correlation coefficients: 0.990, 0.893 and 0.785, respectively (n = 30). Advantages of this enzymatic Lp-PLA 2 activity assay compared with chemical Lp-PLA 2 methods include the following; (i) only requires two reagents enabling a simple two-point linear calibration method with one calibrator (ii) no need for inhibitors of esterase-like activity in serum. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigation of the Brain Biodistribution of the Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) Inhibitor [18F]GSK2647544 in Healthy Male Subjects.

    PubMed

    Huiban, Mickael; Coello, Christopher; Wu, Kai; Xu, Yanmei; Lewis, Yvonne; Brown, Andrew P; Buraglio, Mauro; Guan, Chenbing; Shabbir, Shaila; Fong, Regan; Passchier, Jan; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Lockhart, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    GSK2647544 is a potent and specific inhibitor of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 (Lp-PLA 2 ), which was in development as a potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to refine therapeutic dose predictions and confirm brain penetration, a radiolabelled form of the inhibitor, [ 18 F]GSK2647544, was manufactured for use in a positron emission tomography (PET) biodistribution study. [ 18 F]GSK2647544 was produced using a novel, copper iodide (Cu(I)) mediated, [ 18 F]trifluoromethylation methodology. Healthy male subjects (n = 4, age range 34-42) received an oral dose of unlabelled GSK2647544 (100 mg) and after 2 h an intravenous (iv) injection of [ 18 F]GSK2647544 (average injected activity and mass were 106 ± 47 MBq and 179 ± 55 μg, respectively) followed by dynamic PET scans for 120 min. Defined regions of interest (ROI) throughout the brain were used to obtain regional time-activity curves (TACs) and compartmental modelling analysis used to estimate the primary outcome measure, whole brain volume of distribution (V T ). Secondary PK and safety endpoints were also recorded. PET dynamic data were successfully obtained from all four subjects and there were no clinically significant variations of the safety endpoints. Inspection of the TACs indicated a relatively homogenous uptake of [ 18 F]GSK2647544 across all the ROIs examined. The mean whole brain V T was 0.56 (95 % CI, 0.41-0.72). Secondary PK parameters, C max (geometric mean) and T max (median), were 354 ng/ml and 1.4 h, respectively. Metabolism of GSK2647544 was relatively consistent across subjects, with 20-40 % of the parent compound [ 18 F]GSK2647544 present after 120 min. The study provides evidence that GSK2647544 is able to cross the blood brain barrier in healthy male subjects leading to a measurable brain exposure. The administered doses of GSK2647544 were well tolerated. Exploratory modelling suggested that a twice-daily dose of 102 mg, at steady state

  6. Short-term fenofibrate treatment reduces elevated plasma Lp-PLA2 mass and sVCAM-1 levels in a subcohort of hypertriglyceridemic GOLDN participants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High levels of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) are associated with inflammation, atherosclerosis, and coronary heart disease events. In addition, Lp-PLA(2) has been linked to classical markers of endothelial activation, including soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM...

  7. Association of Lp-PLA2-A and early recurrence of vascular events after TIA and minor stroke.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jinxi; Zheng, Hongwei; Cucchiara, Brett L; Li, Jiejie; Zhao, Xingquan; Liang, Xianhong; Wang, Chunxue; Li, Hao; Mullen, Michael T; Johnston, S Claiborne; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Yongjun

    2015-11-03

    To determine the association of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) measured in the acute period and the short-term risk of recurrent vascular events in patients with TIA or minor stroke. We measured Lp-PLA2 activity (Lp-PLA2-A) in a subset of 3,201 participants enrolled in the CHANCE (Clopidogrel in High-Risk Patients with Acute Non-disabling Cerebrovascular Events) trial. Participants with TIA or minor stroke were enrolled within 24 hours of symptom onset and randomized to single or dual antiplatelet therapy. In the current analysis, the primary outcome was defined as the composite of ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, or death within 90 days. The composite endpoint occurred in 299 of 3,021 participants (9.9%). The population average Lp-PLA2-A level was 209 ± 59 nmol/min/mL (95% confidence interval [CI] 207-211). Older age, male sex, and current smoking were associated with higher Lp-PLA2-A levels. Lp-PLA2-A was significantly associated with the primary endpoint (adjusted hazard ratio 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.13 for every 30 nmol/min/mL increase). Similar results were seen for ischemic stroke alone. Adjustment for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol attenuated the association between Lp-PLA2-A and the primary endpoint (adjusted hazard ratio 1.04, 95% CI 0.97-1.11 for every 30 nmol/min/mL increase). Higher levels of Lp-PLA2-A in the acute period are associated with increased short-term risk of recurrent vascular events. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  8. Differential expression of Lp-PLA2 in obesity and type 2 diabetes and the influence of lipids.

    PubMed

    Jackisch, Laura; Kumsaiyai, Warunee; Moore, Jonathan D; Al-Daghri, Nasser; Kyrou, Ioannis; Barber, Thomas M; Randeva, Harpal; Kumar, Sudhesh; Tripathi, Gyanendra; McTernan, Philip G

    2018-05-01

    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a circulatory macrophage-derived factor that increases with obesity and leads to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite this, its role in adipose tissue and the adipocyte is unknown. Therefore, the aims of this study were to clarify the expression of Lp-PLA2 in relation to different adipose tissue depots and type 2 diabetes, and ascertain whether markers of obesity and type 2 diabetes correlate with circulating Lp-PLA2. A final aim was to evaluate the effect of cholesterol on cellular Lp-PLA2 in an in vitro adipocyte model. Analysis of anthropometric and biochemical variables from a cohort of lean (age 44.4 ± 6.2 years; BMI 22.15 ± 1.8 kg/m 2 , n = 23), overweight (age 45.4 ± 12.3 years; BMI 26.99 ± 1.5 kg/m 2 , n = 24), obese (age 49.0 ± 9.1 years; BMI 33.74 ± 3.3 kg/m 2 , n = 32) and type 2 diabetic women (age 53.0 ± 6.13 years; BMI 35.08 ± 8.6 kg/m 2 , n = 35), as part of an ethically approved study. Gene and protein expression of PLA2 and its isoforms were assessed in adipose tissue samples, with serum analysis undertaken to assess circulating Lp-PLA2 and its association with cardiometabolic risk markers. A human adipocyte cell model, Chub-S7, was used to address the intracellular change in Lp-PLA2 in adipocytes. Lp-PLA2 and calcium-independent PLA2 (iPLA2) isoforms were altered by adiposity, as shown by microarray analysis (p < 0.05). Type 2 diabetes status was also observed to significantly alter gene and protein levels of Lp-PLA2 in abdominal subcutaneous (AbdSc) (p < 0.01), but not omental, adipose tissue. Furthermore, multivariate stepwise regression analysis of circulating Lp-PLA2 and metabolic markers revealed that the greatest predictor of Lp-PLA2 in non-diabetic individuals was LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.004). Additionally, in people with type 2 diabetes, oxidised LDL (oxLDL), triacylglycerols and HDL

  9. Serum Lp-PLA2: as a novel viewpoint in periodontal treatment of hyperlipidaemics.

    PubMed

    Fentoğlu, Özlem; Kirzioğlu, Fatma Yeşim; Tözüm Bulut, Memduha; Kurgan, Şivge; Koçak, Havva; Sütcü, Recep; Kale Köroğlu, Banu; Günhan, Meral

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of periodontal treatment on serum lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in hyperlipidaemic patients with periodontitis. The study included 52 hyperlipidaemics and 28 systemically healthy controls (C) with periodontitis. Of the 52 hyperlipidaemics, 29 received a suggested diet (HD), and 23 of them were prescribed statin (HS). Clinical periodontal parameters, serum lipids, Lp-PLA2, and CRP levels were assessed at the baseline and 2 months after the completion of the nonsurgical periodontal treatment (2MPT). Serum parameters were also evaluated 1 week following the periodontal treatment (1WPT). At the baseline, patients in the HS group had a higher percentage of bleeding on probing than those in the C and HD groups. Hyperlipidaemics had higher serum triglyceride levels than the control group at 2MPT compared to the baseline. At 2MPT, the levels of Lp-PLA2 in the HS group were significantly higher compared to the baseline and 1WPT. There were no statistically significant differences in CRP levels between study periods for all groups. The periodontal treatment may affect the inflammatory control of hyperlipidaemic patients with periodontitis via increased Lp-PLA2 levels and severity of the impaired lipid metabolism. These findings may be important regarding the therapeutic strategies for hyperlipidaemics with periodontitis.

  10. The importance of age and statin therapy in the interpretation of Lp-PLA(2) in ACS patients, and relation to CRP.

    PubMed

    Franeková, J; Kettner, J; Kubíček, Z; Jabor, A

    2015-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a marker of arterial inflammation while lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) is related to plaque instability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the risk of unstable plaque presenting as acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and Lp-PLA(2), and to assess the influence of statins on interpretation of Lp-PLA(2). A total of 362 consecutive patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute chest pain suggestive of ACS were evaluated by cardiologists as STEMI, NSTEMI, or unstable angina, and non-ACS. Serum biomarkers measured on admission: troponin I, C-reactive protein (Abbott), and Lp-PLA(2) (DiaDexus). Four groups were defined according to the final diagnosis and history of statin medication: ACS/statin-; ACS/statin+; non-ACS/statin-; non-ACS/statin+. Lp-PLA(2) was highest in ACS/statin- group; statins decreased Lp-PLA(2) both in ACS and non-ACS of about 20 %. Lp-PLA(2) was higher in ACS patients in comparison with non-ACS patients group without respect to statin therapy (p<0.001). Lp-PLA(2) predicted worse outcome (in terms of acute coronary syndrome) effectively in patients up to 62 years; limited prediction was found in older patients. C-reactive protein (CRP) failed to discriminate four groups of patients. Statin therapy and age should be taken into consideration while interpreting Lp-PLA(2) concentrations and lower cut-off values should be used for statin-treated persons.

  11. Oxidatively modified phosphatidylserines on the surface of apoptotic cells are essential phagocytic ‘eat-me' signals: cleavage and inhibition of phagocytosis by Lp-PLA2

    PubMed Central

    Tyurin, V A; Balasubramanian, K; Winnica, D; Tyurina, Y Y; Vikulina, A S; He, R R; Kapralov, A A; Macphee, C H; Kagan, V E

    2014-01-01

    Diversified anionic phospholipids, phosphatidylserines (PS), externalized to the surface of apoptotic cells are universal phagocytic signals. However, the role of major PS metabolites, such as peroxidized species of PS (PSox) and lyso-PS, in the clearance of apoptotic cells has not been rigorously evaluated. Here, we demonstrate that H2O2 was equally effective in inducing apoptosis and externalization of PS in naive HL60 cells and in cells enriched with oxidizable polyunsaturated species of PS (supplemented with linoleic acid (LA)). Despite this, the uptake of LA-supplemented cells by RAW264.7 and THP-1 macrophages was more than an order of magnitude more effective than that of naive cells. A similar stimulation of phagocytosis was observed with LA-enriched HL60 cells and Jurkat cells triggered to apoptosis with staurosporine. This was due to the presence of PSox on the surface of apoptotic LA-supplemented cells (but not of naive cells). This enhanced phagocytosis was dependent on activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, as no stimulation of phagocytosis occurred in LA-enriched cells challenged with Fas antibody. Incubation of apoptotic cells with lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), a secreted enzyme with high specificity towards PSox, hydrolyzed peroxidized PS species in LA-supplemented cells resulting in the suppression of phagocytosis to the levels observed for naive cells. This suppression of phagocytosis by Lp-PLA2 was blocked by a selective inhibitor of Lp-PLA2, SB-435495. Screening of possible receptor candidates revealed the ability of several PS receptors and bridging proteins to recognize both PS and PSox, albeit with diverse selectivity. We conclude that PSox is an effective phagocytic ‘eat-me' signal that participates in the engulfment of cells undergoing intrinsic apoptosis. PMID:24464221

  12. Lp-PLA2 silencing protects against ox-LDL-induced oxidative stress and cell apoptosis via Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in human THP1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zheng, HuaDong; Cui, DaJiang; Quan, XiaoJuan; Yang, WeiLin; Li, YingNa; Zhang, Lin; Liu, EnQi

    2016-09-02

    Atherosclerosis is a disease of the large- and medium-size arteries that is characterized by the formation of atherosclerotic plaques, in which foam cells are the characteristic pathological cells. However, the key underlying pathomechanisms are still not fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) in ox-LDL-induced oxidative stress and cell apoptosis, and further, elucidated the potential machanisms in human THP1 macrophages. Flow cytometry and western blot analyses showed that both cell apoptosis and Lp-PLA2 expression were dose-dependently elevated after ox-LDL treatment for 24 h and also time-dependently increased after 50 mg/L ox-LDL incubation in THP1 macrophages. In addition, Lp-PLA2 silencing decreased ox-LDL-induced Lp-PLA2 and CD36 expression in THP1 macrophages. We also found that the levels of oil red O-staining, triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) were significantly upregulated in ox-LDL-treated THP1 cells, but inhibited by Lp-PLA2 silencing. Furthermore, ox-LDL treatment resulted in significant increases of ROS and MDA but a marked decrease of SOD, effects that were reversed by Lp-PLA2 silencing in THP1 cells. Lp-PLA2 silencing reduced ox-LDL-induced cell apoptosis and caspase-3 expression in THP1 cells. Moreover, Lp-PLA2 siRNA transfection dramatically lowered the elevated levels of p-Akt and p-mTOR proteins in ox-LDL-treated THP1 cells. Both PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and mTOR inhibitor rapamycin decreased the augmented caspase-3 expression and TC content induced by ox-LDL, respectively. Taken together, these results revealed that Lp-PLA2 silencing protected against ox-LDL-induced oxidative stress and cell apoptosis via Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in human THP1 macrophages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2), platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, is expressed by macrophages in human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, T; Luoma, J S; Hiltunen, M O; Macphee, C H; Milliner, K J; Patel, L; Rice, S Q; Tew, D G; Karkola, K; Ylä-Herttuala, S

    1999-12-01

    We studied the expression of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)), an enzyme capable of hydrolyzing platelet-activating factor (PAF), PAF-like phospholipids, and polar-modified phosphatidylcholines, in human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions. Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein, which plays an important role in atherogenesis, generates biologically active PAF-like modified phospholipid derivatives with polar fatty acid chains. PAF is known to have a potent proinflammatory activity and is inactivated by its hydrolysis. On the other hand, lysophosphatidylcholine and oxidized fatty acids released from oxidized low-density lipoprotein as a result of Lp-PLA(2) activity are thought to be involved in the progression of atherosclerosis. Using combined in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry, we detected Lp-PLA(2) mRNA and protein in macrophages in both human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated an increased expression of Lp-PLA(2) mRNA in human atherosclerotic lesions. In addition, approximately 6-fold higher Lp-PLA(2) activity was detected in atherosclerotic aortas of Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits compared with normal aortas from control rabbits. It is concluded that (1) macrophages in both human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions express Lp-PLA(2), which could cleave any oxidatively modified phosphatidylcholine present in the lesion area, and (2) modulation of Lp-PLA(2) activity could lead to antiatherogenic effects in the vessel wall.

  14. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 mass and activity in children with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia and unaffected siblings: effect of pravastatin.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Sung Kee; Hutten, Barbara A; Vissers, Maud N; Wiegman, Albert; Kastelein, John J P; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2011-01-01

    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease and a target of treatment. Lp-PLA(2) levels in children have not been previously reported. The effect of statin therapy on Lp-PLA(2) mass and activity in children with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is also not known. Lp-PLA(2) mass and activity levels were measured at baseline and after 2 years in 178 children with FH randomized to pravastatin or placebo and in 78 unaffected and untreated siblings. At the end of the randomized period, all FH children were then placed on pravastatin for an additional 2 years, and Lp-PLA(2) mass and activity levels were correlated with changes in carotid intima-media thickness during 4 years of follow-up. Baseline levels of Lp-PLA(2) mass and activity were significantly greater in children with FH compared with unaffected siblings (mass: 240.3 ± 41.6 vs 222.1 ± 36.5 ng/mL, P = .002; activity: 205.7 ± 41.6 vs 124.3±23.0 nmol/min/mL, P < .0001). In the randomized FH cohort, after 2 years treatment, Lp-PLA(2) mass (217.8 ± 35.0 vs 231.5 ± 34.8 ng/mL, P = .001) and activity (178.8 ± 37.3 vs 206.2 ± 33.5 nmol/min/mL, P < .0001) were significantly reduced by pravastatin compared with placebo. Change in Lp-PLA(2) activity was related to change in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (pravastatin: r = 0.53, P < .0001, placebo: r = 0.23, P < .001) but change in Lp-PLA(2) mass was not related to change in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Baseline levels of Lp-PLA(2) mass and activity were not significantly associated with carotid intima-media thickness at baseline or at 4 years. Lp-PLA(2) mass and activity are significantly elevated in children with heterozygous FH compared with unaffected siblings and are significantly reduced by pravastatin therapy. Copyright © 2011 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Unexpected inverse relationship between impaired glucose metabolism and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity in patients with stable vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Otto; Seidlerová, Jitka; Filipovský, Jan; Timoracká, Katarina; Bruthans, Jan; Vaněk, Jiří; Cerná, Lenka; Wohlfahrt, Peter; Renata, Cífková; Trefil, Ladislav

    2014-07-01

    Elevated lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity (aLp-PLA2) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. In patients with stable atherovascular disease, we aimed to investigate whether impaired glucose metabolism might be associated with higher risk of elevated aLp-PLA2. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 825 stable patients after acute coronary syndrome, coronary revascularization or after first ischemic stroke (Czech part of EUROASPIRE III surveys). We measured aLp-PLA2 using diaDexus commercial kit. In multiple step-wise regression analysis, the aLp-PLA2 was significantly positively associated with male gender, current smoking, LDL cholesterol and metabolic syndrome and negatively with statin treatment, body mass index and LDL/apoB ratio. After adjustment for these confounders, we observed an inverse relationship between aLp-PLA2 and fasting glycemia [β coefficient -2.18 (p<0.0001)] or glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) [β coefficient -5.89 (p<0.0001)]. Moreover, we found a positive association between aLp-PLA2 and pancreatic β cell function [β coefficient +0.10 (p<0.0001)], but not with an insulin sensitivity. In present study, we cannot confirm any additive risk of impaired glucose metabolism in terms of increased activity of Lp-PLA2. On the contrary, presence of inadequately controlled diabetes mellitus was independently associated with lower risk of elevated aLp-PLA2 . Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Elevated inflammatory Lp-PLA2 and IL-6 link e-waste Pb toxicity to cardiovascular risk factors in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xueling; Xu, Xijin; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yuling; Wang, Chenyang; Huo, Xia

    2018-03-01

    Cardiovascular toxicity of lead (Pb) manifests primarily as an effect on blood pressure and eventual increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Therefore, we investigated vascular inflammatory biomarkers and cardiovascular effects of Pb-exposed children. A total of 590 children (3-7 years old) were recruited from Guiyu (n = 337), an electronic waste (e-waste)-exposed group, and Haojiang (n = 253), a reference group, from November to December 2016. We measured child blood Pb levels (BPbs), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Pulse pressure was calculated for the latter two. Serum biomarkers including lipid profiles and inflammatory cytokines, and plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) were detected. Unadjusted regression analysis illustrated that higher ln-transformed BPb associated with lower systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. After adjustment for various confounders, the relational degree of lnBPb and blood pressure measures became slightly attenuated or not significant. Elevated BPb was associated with higher Lp-PLA2, interleukin (IL)-6, triglycerides (TG) and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Lp-PLA2 remained inversely associated with pulse pressure and HDL, but positively with ratios of total cholesterol to HDL (Tc/HDL) and low-density lipoprotein to HDL (LDL/HDL). IL-6 was associated negatively with systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and HDL, and positively associated with TG, Tc/HDL and LDL/HDL. The mediation effect of biomarkers on the association of BPb with pulse pressure was insignificant except for Lp-PLA2. Available data supports the conclusion that e-waste-exposed children with higher BPbs and concomitant abnormal measures of cardiovascular physiology have an augmented prevalence of vascular inflammation, as well as lipid disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Endothelial Dysfunction in Children With Obstructive Sleep Apnea Is Associated With Elevated Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 Plasma Activity Levels.

    PubMed

    Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Philby, Mona F; Qiao, Zhuanghong; Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Gozal, David

    2017-02-09

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent condition, especially in obese children, and has been associated with increased risk for endothelial dysfunction and dislipidemia, which are precursors of atherosclerosis. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular risk and atheromatous plaque activity. We hypothesized that Lp-PLA2 levels would be elevated in children with OSA, particularly among obese children who also manifest evidence of endothelial dysfunction. One hundred sixty children (mean age 7.1±2.3 years), either nonobese with (n=40) and without OSA (n=40) or obese with (n=40) and without OSA (n=40) underwent overnight polysomnographic and postocclusive reperfusion evaluation and a fasting blood draw the morning after the sleep study. In addition to lipid profile, Lp-PLA2 plasma activity was assessed using a commercial kit. Obese children and OSA children had significantly elevated plasma Lp-PLA2 activity levels compared to controls. Furthermore, when both obesity and OSA were concurrently present or when endothelial function was present, Lp-PLA2 activity was higher. Treatment of OSA by adenotonsillectomy resulted in reductions of Lp-PLA2 activity (n=37; P <0.001). Lp-PLA2 plasma activity is increased in pediatric OSA and obesity, particularly when endothelial dysfunction is present, and exhibits decreases on OSA treatment. The short-term and long-term significance of these findings in relation to cardiovascular risk remain undefined. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  18. Racial variation in lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in older adults

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a predictor of cardiovascular events that has been shown to vary with race. The objective of this study was to examine factors associated with this racial variation. Methods We measured Lp-PLA2 mass and activity in 714 healthy older adults with no clinical coronary heart disease and not taking dyslipidemia medication. We evaluated the association between race and Lp-PLA2 mass and activity levels after adjustment for various covariates using multivariable linear regression. These covariates included age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, body mass index, lipid measurements, C-reactive protein, smoking status, physical activity, diet, income, and education level. We further examined genetic covariates that included three single nucleotide polymorphisms shown to be associated with Lp-PLA2 activity levels. Results The mean age was 66 years. Whites had the highest Lp-PLA2 mass and activity levels, followed by Hispanics and Asians, and then African-Americans; in age and sex adjusted analyses, these differences were significant for each non-White race as compared to Whites (p < 0.0001). For example, African-Americans were predicted to have a 55.0 ng/ml lower Lp-PLA2 mass and 24.7 nmol/ml-min lower activity, compared with Whites, independent of age and sex (p < 0.0001). After adjustment for all covariates, race remained significantly correlated with Lp-PLA2 mass and activity levels (p < 0.001) with African-Americans having 44.8 ng/ml lower Lp-PLA2 mass and 17.3 nmol/ml-min lower activity compared with Whites (p < 0.0001). Conclusion Biological, lifestyle, demographic, and select genetic factors do not appear to explain variations in Lp-PLA2 mass and activity levels between Whites and non-Whites, suggesting that Lp-PLA2 mass and activity levels may need to be interpreted differently for various races. PMID:21714927

  19. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wilensky, Robert L; Macphee, Colin H

    2009-10-01

    There is substantial data from over 50 000 patients that increased lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) mass or activity is associated with an increased risk of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndromes and ischemic stroke. However, only recently have data emerged demonstrating a role of Lp-PLA2 in development of advanced coronary artery disease. Indeed, Lp-PLA2 may be an important link between lipid homeostasis and the vascular inflammatory response. Lp-PLA2, also known as platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, rapidly cleaves oxidized phosphatidylcholine molecules produced during the oxidation of LDL and atherogenic lipoprotein Lp(a), generating the soluble proinflammatory and proapoptotic lipid mediators, lyso-phosphatidylcholine and oxidized nonesterified fatty acids. These proinflammatory lipids play an important role in the development of atherosclerotic necrotic cores, the substrate for acute unstable coronary disease by recruiting and activating leukocytes/macrophages, inducing apoptosis and impairing the subsequent removal of dead cells. Selective inhibition of Lp-PLA2 reduces development of necrotic cores and may result in stabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. Recent data have shown that immune pathways play a major role in the development and progression of high-risk atherosclerosis, which leads to ischemic sudden death, myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndromes and ischemic strokes. Persistent and sustained macrophage apoptosis appears to play a major role in the resulting local inflammatory response in part by effects elicited by Lp-PLA2. Selective inhibition of Lp-PLA2 has been postulated to reduce necrotic core progression and the clinical sequelae of advanced, unstable atherosclerosis.

  20. Overexpression of porcine lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in swine.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaochun; Wang, Gangqi; Liu, Xingxing; Han, Xiaolei; Li, Zhuang; Ran, Guangyao; Li, Zhanjun; Song, Qi; Ji, Yuan; Wang, Haijun; Wang, Yuhui; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Pang, Daxin

    2015-09-25

    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 (Lp-PLA2) is associated with the risk of vascular disease. It circulates in human blood predominantly in association with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and hydrolyses oxidized phospholipids into pro-inflammatory products. However, in the mouse circulation, it predominantly binds to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and exhibits anti-inflammatory properties. To further investigate the effects of Lp-PLA2 in the circulation, we generated over-expressed Lp-PLA2 transgenic swine. The eukaryotic expression plasmid of porcine Lp-PLA2 which driven by EF1α promoter was constructed and generate transgenic swine via SCNT. The expression and activity of Lp-PLA2 in transgenic swine were evaluated, and the total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-C and triglyceride (TG) levels in the fasting and fed states were also assessed. Compared with wild-type swine controls, the transgenic swine exhibited elevated Lp-PLA2 mRNA levels and activities, and the activity did not depend on the feeding state. The TC, HDL-C and LDL-C levels were not significantly increased. There was no change in the TG levels in the fasting state between transgenic and control pigs. However, in the fed state, the TG levels of transgenic swine were slightly increased compared with the control pigs and were significantly elevated compared with the fasting state. In addition, inflammatory gene (interleukin [IL]-6, monocyte chemotactic protein [MCP]-1 and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were significantly increased. The results demonstrated that Lp-PLA2 is associated with triglycerides which may be helpful for understanding the relationship of this protein with cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Biochemical differences in the mass and activity tests of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 explain the discordance in results between the two assay methods.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Shaoqiu; Wolfert, Robert L; Yuan, Chong

    2017-12-01

    There are two platforms for the detection of Lp-PLA 2 in sera or plasmas: by its enzymatic activity (PLAC® activity test) and by its mass concentration (PLAC® mass test). It has been long recognized that these two platforms are not correlated well. The underlying cause for this is therefore investigated by the biochemical characterization of the two PLAC tests. Human sera with and without the treatment by detergent were fractionated by using a Superose-6 column in phosphate buffered saline and the phospholipid associated Lp-PLA 2 was assessed by both PLAC mass and activity tests. The Lp-PLA 2 values of the two PLAC tests were compared under such conditions. Fractionation of sera and plasmas indicates that the association of Lp-PLA 2 with phospholipids, especially LDL and other large size phospholipid vesicles, may block the detection of the enzyme by antibodies in the immunoassay format under the conditions of the PLAC mass test. Inclusion of high concentration (>CMC, critical micelle concentration) of detergents in the assay buffer of PLAC mass test dissociates Lp-PLA 2 from phospholipid vesicles and results in the full detection of all Lp-PLA 2 in sera or plasmas for concentration. Such assay modification significantly improves the correlation between the PLAC mass and PLAC activity tests. PLAC mass test only detects a small portion of the total Lp-PLA 2 , mainly the Lp-PLA 2 associated with HDL. This is the main cause of the discordance and poor correlation between the PLAC mass and activity tests. Our results demonstrate the PLAC activity test is more accurate in assessing the total level of circulating Lp-PLA 2 . Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Structure-Guided Discovery of Novel, Potent, and Orally Bioavailable Inhibitors of Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiufeng; Huang, Fubao; Yuan, Xiaojing; Wang, Kai; Zou, Yi; Shen, Jianhua; Xu, Yechun

    2017-12-28

    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a promising therapeutic target for atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and diabetic macular edema. Here we report the identification of novel sulfonamide scaffold Lp-PLA2 inhibitors derived from a relatively weak fragment. Similarity searching on this fragment followed by molecular docking leads to the discovery of a micromolar inhibitor with a 300-fold potency improvement. Subsequently, by the application of a structure-guided design strategy, a successful hit-to-lead optimization was achieved and a number of Lp-PLA2 inhibitors with single-digit nanomolar potency were obtained. After preliminary evaluation of the properties of drug-likeness in vitro and in vivo, compound 37 stands out from this congeneric series of inhibitors for good inhibitory activity and favorable oral bioavailability in male Sprague-Dawley rats, providing a quality candidate for further development. The present study thus clearly demonstrates the power and advantage of integrally employing fragment screening, crystal structures determination, virtual screening, and medicinal chemistry in an efficient lead discovery project, providing a good example for structure-based drug design.

  3. Genotype × Adiposity Interaction Linkage Analyses Reveal a Locus on Chromosome 1 for Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2, a Marker of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Diego, Vincent P.; Rainwater, David L.; Wang, Xing-Li; Cole, Shelley A.; Curran, Joanne E.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Jowett, Jeremy B. M.; Dyer, Thomas D.; Williams, Jeff T.; Moses, Eric K.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; MacCluer, Jean W.; Mahaney, Michael C.; Blangero, John

    2007-01-01

    Because obesity leads to a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress, we hypothesized that the contribution of genes to variation in a biomarker of these two processes may be influenced by the degree of adiposity. We tested this hypothesis using samples from the San Antonio Family Heart Study that were assayed for activity of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), a marker of inflammation and oxidative stress. Using an approach to model discrete genotype×environment (G×E) interaction, we assigned individuals to one of two discrete diagnostic states (or “adiposity environments”): nonobese or obese, according to criteria suggested by the World Health Organization. We found a genomewide maximum LOD of 3.39 at 153 cM on chromosome 1 for Lp-PLA2. Significant G×E interaction for Lp-PLA2 at the genomewide maximum (P=1.16×10-4) was also found. Microarray gene-expression data were analyzed within the 1-LOD interval of the linkage signal on chromosome 1. We found two transcripts—namely, for Fc gamma receptor IIA and heat-shock protein (70 kDa)—that were significantly associated with Lp-PLA2 (P<.001 for both) and showed evidence of cis-regulation with nominal LOD scores of 2.75 and 13.82, respectively. It would seem that there is a significant genetic response to the adiposity environment in this marker of inflammation and oxidative stress. Additionally, we conclude that G×E interaction analyses can improve our ability to identify and localize quantitative-trait loci. PMID:17160904

  4. Association between lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 mass and subclinical coronary and carotid atherosclerosis in Retired National Football League players.

    PubMed

    Pokharel, Yashashwi; Nambi, Vijay; Martin, Seth S; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Nasir, Khurram; Khera, Amit; Wong, Nathan D; Jones, Peter H; Boone, Jeffrey; Roberts, Arthur J; Ballantyne, Christie M; Virani, Salim S

    2014-10-01

    Retired National Football League (NFL) players were reported to have high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Lipoprotein Associated Phospholipase A2 (LpPLA2) has shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease in the general population, but it is unknown whether such an association exists in retired NFL players. Our objective was to assess whether LpPLA2 mass was associated with coronary artery calcium (CAC) and carotid artery plaque (CAP) in retired NFL players. LpPLA2 mass was assessed using a dual monoclonal antibody immunoassay. CAC presence was defined as CAC score>0. CAP was defined as focal thickening ≥50% than that of the surrounding vessel wall with a minimal thickness of 1.2 mm on carotid ultrasound. In 832 NFL players, the median (IQR) age and LpPLA2 levels were 54 (45-63) years and 142 (109-181) ng/mL respectively. LpPLA2 mass was positively correlated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; negatively correlated with LDL particle concentration and body mass index; and not correlated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. CAC was present in 659 (79%) and CAP in 544 (65%) players. In a fully adjusted model, LpPLA2 was not associated with CAC (OR per 1-SD increase, 0.85; 95% CI 0.71-1.02) or CAP (0.90, 0.75-1.08). LpPLA2 was also not associated with CAC burden in those with CAC>0. Results were similar when highest and lowest LpPLA2 tertiles were compared, and also in various subgroups. LpPLA2 mass was not associated with coronary or carotid subclinical atherosclerosis in retired NFL players. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Taiwanese female vegetarians have lower lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 compared with omnivores.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Wei; Lin, Chih-Ta; Lin, Ying-Lung; Lin, Tin-Kwang; Lin, Chin-Lon

    2011-01-01

    Many studies supported that vegetarians have a lower risk of cardiac diseases and mortality, partly due to better blood pressure and serum cholesterol profiles. However, the inflammatory markers, especially lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), have not been well-studied. This study aimed to compare inflammatory markers and conventional risk factors between vegetarians and omnivores. One hundred and seventy-three vegetarians and 190 omnivores were studied. Fasting blood samples were obtained to compare levels of glucose, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, homocysteine, Lp-PLA2 activity, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Vegetarians had higher serum levels of the following markers: hs-CRP (1.8 ± 3.4 vs. 1.2 1.8 mg/L, respectively; p = 0.05), homocysteine (9.39 ± 3.22 vs. 7.62 ± 2.41 μmol/L, respectively; p < 0.01), and triacylglycerol (96.91 ± 59.56 vs. 84.66 ± 43.24 mg/dL, respectively; p < 0.05). Vegetarians also had lower levels of Lp-PLA2 (18.32 ± 7.19 10-3 μmol/min/mL vs. 20.22 8.13 10-3 μmol/min/mL; p < 0.05), total cholesterol (180.62 ± 36.55 mg/dL vs. 192.73 ± 36.57 mg/dL; p < 0.01), LDL cholesterol (118.15 ± 32.8 vs. 126.41 ± 34.28 mg/dL; p < 0.05), and HDL cholesterol (55.59 ± 13.30 vs. 62.09 ± 14.52 mg/dL, p < 0.01). Multivariate analyses demonstrated that a vegetarian diet increases the chances for high serum hs-CRP and low Lp-PLA2 activity. In addition to lower total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol, Taiwanese female vegetarians have lower serum Lp-PLA2 activity but higher levels of hs-CRP, homocysteine, and triacylglyerol. It might be due to geographic differences of vegetarian diets, and further studies are needed.

  6. The association among lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 levels, total antioxidant capacity and arousal in male patients with OSA.

    PubMed

    Bekci, Taha T; Kayrak, Mehmet; Kiyici, Aysel; Maden, Emin; Ari, Hatem; Kaya, Zeynettin; Teke, Turgut; Akilli, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms of the increased cardiac and vascular events in patients with OSA are not well understood. Arousal which is an important component of OSA was associated with increased sympathetic activation and electrocardiographic changes which prone to arrhythmias. We planned to examine the association among arousal, circulating Lp-PLA2 and total antioxidant capacity in male patients with OSA. Fifty male patients with newly diagnosed OSA were enrolled the study. A full-night polysomnography was performed and arousal index was obtained. Lp-PLA2 concentrations were measured in serum samples with the PLAC Test. Total antioxidant capacity in patients was determined with Antioxidant Assay Kit. Arousal was positively correlated with LP-PLA2 levels (r=0.43, p=0.002) and was negatively correlated with total antioxidant capacity (r= -0.29, p=0.04). Elevated LP-PLA2 levels and decreased total antioxidant activities were found in the highest arousal quartile compared with the lowest and 2nd quartiles (p=0.02, p=0.05, respectively). LP-PLA2 was an independently predictor of arousal index in regression model (β=0.357, p=0.002) This study demonstrated a moderate linear relationship between arousal and LP-PLA2 levels. Also, total antioxidant capacities were decreased in the higher arousal index. Based on the study result, the patients with higher arousal index may be prone to vascular events.

  7. Retinal pathology is associated with increased blood-retina barrier permeability in a diabetic and hypercholesterolaemic pig model: Beneficial effects of the LpPLA2 inhibitor Darapladib.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Nimish K; Qi, Xin; Goldwaser, Eric L; Godsey, George A; Wu, Hao; Kosciuk, Mary C; Freeman, Theresa A; Macphee, Colin H; Wilensky, Robert L; Venkataraman, Venkat; Nagele, Robert G

    2017-05-01

    Using a porcine model of diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia, we previously showed that diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia is associated with a chronic increase in blood-brain barrier permeability in the cerebral cortex, leading to selective binding of immunoglobulin G and deposition of amyloid-beta 1-42 peptide in pyramidal neurons. Treatment with Darapladib (GlaxoSmithKline, SB480848), an inhibitor of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase-A2, alleviated these effects. Here, investigation of the effects of chronic diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia on the pig retina revealed a corresponding increased permeability of the blood-retina barrier coupled with a leak of plasma components into the retina, alterations in retinal architecture, selective IgG binding to neurons in the ganglion cell layer, thinning of retinal layers due to cell loss and increased glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in Müller cells, all of which were curtailed by treatment with Darapladib. These findings suggest that chronic diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia induces increased blood-retina barrier permeability that may be linked to altered expression of blood-retina barrier-associated tight junction proteins, claudin and occludin, leading to structural changes in the retina consistent with diabetic retinopathy. Additionally, results suggest that drugs with vascular anti-inflammatory properties, such as Darapladib, may have beneficial effects on eye diseases strongly linked to vascular abnormalities such as diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration.

  8. A phenome-wide association study of a lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 loss-of-function variant in 90 000 Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Millwood, Iona Y; Bennett, Derrick A; Walters, Robin G; Clarke, Robert; Waterworth, Dawn; Johnson, Toby; Chen, Yiping; Yang, Ling; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Hacker, Alex; Yeo, Astrid; Parish, Sarah; Hill, Michael R; Chissoe, Stephanie; Peto, Richard; Cardon, Lon; Collins, Rory; Li, Liming; Chen, Zhengming

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) has been implicated in development of atherosclerosis; however, recent randomized trials of Lp-PLA2 inhibition reported no beneficial effects on vascular diseases. In East Asians, a loss-of-function variant in the PLA2G7 gene can be used to assess the effects of genetically determined lower Lp-PLA2. Methods: PLA2G7 V279F (rs76863441) was genotyped in 91 428 individuals randomly selected from the China Kadoorie Biobank of 0.5 M participants recruited in 2004–08 from 10 regions of China, with 7 years’ follow-up. Linear regression was used to assess effects of V279F on baseline traits. Logistic regression was conducted for a range of vascular and non-vascular diseases, including 41 ICD-10 coded disease categories. Results: PLA2G7 V279F frequency was 5% overall (range 3–7% by region), and 9691 (11%) participants had at least one loss-of-function variant. V279F was not associated with baseline blood pressure, adiposity, blood glucose or lung function. V279F was not associated with major vascular events [7141 events; odds ratio (OR) = 0.98 per F variant, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90-1.06] or other vascular outcomes, including major coronary events (922 events; 0.96, 0.79-1.18) and stroke (5967 events; 1.00, 0.92-1.09). Individuals with V279F had lower risks of diabetes (7031 events; 0.91, 0.84-0.98) and asthma (182 events; 0.53, 0.28-0.98), but there was no association after adjustment for multiple testing. Conclusions: Lifelong lower Lp-PLA2 activity was not associated with major risks of vascular or non-vascular diseases in Chinese adults. Using functional genetic variants in large-scale prospective studies with linkage to a range of health outcomes is a valuable approach to inform drug development and repositioning. PMID:27301456

  9. Lipoprotein profile, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and cardiovascular risk in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Rolla, Roberta; De Mauri, Andreana; Valsesia, Ambra; Vidali, Matteo; Chiarinotti, Doriana; Bellomo, Giorgio

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients; the increased risk of cardiovascular disease is due to accelerated atherosclerosis, inflammation and impaired lipoprotein metabolism. We aimed to evaluate lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) and some pro-inflammatory aspects of the lipoprotein profile in dialyzed patients in order to evaluate the relationship with the accelerated atherosclerosis and vascular accidents. In 102 dialysis patients and 40 non-uremic controls, we investigated the lipoprotein plasma profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), ceruloplasmin and serum amyloid A protein (SAA), and followed patients for 1 year to analyze the risk of acute cardiovascular events. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein plasma levels were significantly lower in uremic patients than controls, whereas CRP, SAA, ceruloplasmin, Lp-PLA2 and their ratio with apolipoprotein A1 were significantly higher. Patients with Lp-PLA2 levels >194 nmol/min/ml had more acute cardiovascular events than patients with lower values. Our results show that in dialysis subjects: (1) low-density lipoproteins show a more atherogenic phenotype than in the general population; (2) high-density lipoproteins are less anti-inflammatory; (3) Lp-PLA2 could potentially be used to evaluate cardiovascular risk.

  10. Effect of intensive insulin treatment on plasma levels of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and secretory phospholipase A2 in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiu-Hong; Xu, Ming-Tong; Tang, Jv-Ying; Mai, Li-Fang; Wang, Xiao-Yi; Ren, Meng; Yan, Li

    2016-11-23

    China has the highest absolute disease burden of diabetes worldwide. For diabetic patients, diabetes-related vascular complications are major causes of morbidity and mortality. The roles of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 (Lp-PLA 2 ) and secretory phospholipase A 2 (sPLA 2 ) as inflammatory markers have been recently evaluated in the pathogenesis of both diabetes and atherosclerosis. We aimed to determine the mechanism through which patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes gain long-term vascular benefit from intensive insulin therapy by evaluating the change in Lp-PLA 2 and sPLA 2 levels after early intensive insulin treatment and its relevance with insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell function. In total, 90 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled. All patients received continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) for approximately 2 weeks. Intravenous glucose-tolerance test (IVGTT) and oral glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) were performed, and plasma concentrations of Lp-PLA 2 and sPLA 2 were measured before and after CSII. Levels of Lp-PLA 2 and sPLA 2 were significantly higher in diabetic patients with macroangiopathy than in those without (P < 0.05). After CSII, the sPLA 2 level decreased significantly in all diabetic patients (P < 0.05), while the Lp-PLA2 level changed only in those with macroangiopathy (P < 0.05). The area under the curve of insulin in IVGTT and OGTT, the acute insulin response (AIR 3-5 ), early phase of insulin secretion (ΔIns30/ΔG30), modified β-cell function index, and homeostatic model assessment for β-cell function (HOMA-β) increased after treatment even when adjusted for the influence of insulin resistance (IR; P < 0.001). The HOMA-IR was lower after treatment, and the three other indicators adopted to estimate insulin sensitivity (ISI ced , IAI, and QUICKI) were higher after treatment (P < 0.05). Correlation analysis showed that the decrease in the Lp-PLA 2 and s

  11. Simvastatin but not bezafibrate decreases plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A₂ mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus: relevance of high sensitive C-reactive protein, lipoprotein profile and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) electronegativity.

    PubMed

    Constantinides, Alexander; de Vries, Rindert; van Leeuwen, Jeroen J J; Gautier, Thomas; van Pelt, L Joost; Tselepis, Alexandros D; Lagrost, Laurent; Dullaart, Robin P F

    2012-10-01

    Plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) levels predict incident cardiovascular disease, impacting Lp-PLA(2) as an emerging therapeutic target. We determined Lp-PLA(2) responses to statin and fibrate administration in type 2 diabetes mellitus, and assessed relationships of changes in Lp-PLA(2) with subclinical inflammation and lipoprotein characteristics. A placebo-controlled cross-over study (three 8-week treatment periods with simvastatin (40 mg daily), bezafibrate (400mg daily) and their combination) was carried out in 14 male type 2 diabetic patients. Plasma Lp-PLA(2) mass was measured by turbidimetric immunoassay. Plasma Lp-PLA(2) decreased (-21 ± 4%) in response to simvastatin (p<0.05 from baseline and placebo), but was unaffected by bezafibrate (1 ± 5%). The drop in Lp-PLA(2) during combined treatment (-17 ± 3%, p<0.05) was similar compared to that during simvastatin alone. The Lp-PLA(2) changes during the 3 active lipid lowering treatment periods were related positively to baseline levels of high sensitive C-reactive protein, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, the total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio and less LDL electronegativity (p<0.02 to p<0.01), and inversely to baseline Lp-PLA(2) (p<0.01). LpPLA(2) responses correlated inversely with changes in non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and the total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio during treatment (p<0.05 to p<0.02). In type 2 diabetes mellitus, plasma Lp-PLA(2) is likely to be lowered by statin treatment only. Enhanced subclinical inflammation and more severe dyslipidemia may predict diminished LpPLA(2) responses during lipid lowering treatment, which in turn appear to be quantitatively dissociated from decreases in apolipoprotein B lipoproteins. Conventional lipid lowering treatment may be insufficient for optimal LpPLA(2) lowering in diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2012 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Specificity of Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 Towards Oxidized Phosphatidylserines: LC-ESI-MS Characterization of Products and Computer Modeling of Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tyurin, Vladimir A.; Yanamala, Naveena; Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Macphee, Colin H.; Kagan, Valerian E.

    2013-01-01

    Ca2+ independent lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a member of the phospholipase A2 superfamily with a distinguishing characteristic of high specificity for oxidatively modified sn-2 fatty acid residues in phospholipids which has been especially well characterized for peroxidized species of phosphatidylcholines (PC). The ability of Lp-PLA2 to hydrolyze peroxidized species of phosphatidylserine (PS) – acting as a recognition signal for clearance of apoptotic cells by professional phagocytes - as well as the products of the reaction have not been investigated. We performed LC-MS-ESI-based structural characterization of oxygenated/hydrolyzed molecular species of PS - containing linoleic acid in either sn-2 position (C18:0/C18:2) or in both sn-1 and sn-2 positions (C18:2/C18:2) - formed in cytochrome c/ H2O2 driven enzymatic oxidation reaction. Cytochrome c has been chosen as a catalyst of peroxidation reactions due to its likely involvement in PS oxidation in apoptotic cells. We found that Lp-PLA2 catalyzed the hydrolysis of both non-truncated and truncated (oxidatively fragmented) species of oxidized PS species albeit with different efficiencies and performed detailed characterization of the major reaction products – oxygenated derivatives of linoleic acid as well as non-oxygenated and oxygenated species of lyso-PS. Among linoleic acid products, derivatives oxygenated at the C9 position, including 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9-HODE) – a potent ligand of G protein-coupled receptor G2A - were the most abundant. Computer modeling of interactions of Lp-PLA2 with different PS oxidized species indicated that they are able to bind in proximity (<5Å) to Ser273 and His351 of the catalytic triad. For 9-hydroxy- and 9-hydroperoxy- derivatives of oxidized PS, the sn-2 ester bond was positioned within the very close proximity (<3Å) from the Ser273 residue - a nucleophile directly attacking the sn-2 bond – thus favoring the hydrolysis reaction. We

  13. The effect of Danshen extract on lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 levels in patients with stable angina pectoris: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial - the DOLPHIN study.

    PubMed

    Chen, A-Di; Wang, Chun-Ling; Qin, Yang; Tian, Liang; Chen, Li-Bin; Yuan, Xiao-Ming; Ma, Lin-Xiu; Wang, Yu-Feng; Sun, Ji-Rong; Wang, Hao-Sen; Dai, Neng

    2017-12-20

    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 (Lp-PLA 2 ), a biomarker of oxidation and inflammation, has been associated with increased coronary artery disease risk. To date, very few studies have examined the Chinese herbal drug Danshen or its extract on Lp-PLA 2 in patients with stable angina pectoris. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of Danshen extract on Lp-PLA 2 level in patients with stable angina. This is a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, adaptive clinical trial. A total of 156 patients meeting the eligibility criteria will be randomly assigned to either the Danshen extract (DanshenDuofensuanyan injection and Danshen drop spill) group or the placebo group in a 1:1 ratio. Participants will then undergo treatment with DanshenDuofensuanyan injection or placebo (glucose) during hospitalization, followed by open-label Danshen drop spill (30 pills/day) in Danshen extract group for 60 days after discharge. Because this is an adaptive trial, two interim analyses are prospectively planned. These will be performed after one-third and two-thirds of the patients, respectively, have completed the trial. On the basis of the results of these interim analyses, a data monitoring committee will determine how to modify aspects of the study without undermining the validity and integrity of the trial. The primary outcome measure is the serum level of Lp-PLA 2 in the Danshen extract group and the placebo group. The secondary outcomes include the proportion of patients who show a clinically significant change, which is defined as at least a 20-point improvement in angina frequency score on the Seattle Angina Questionnaire and the carotid intima-media thickness, which will be measured using ultrasound. Other secondary efficacy and safety outcomes will also be assessed. This study will provide evidence that Danshen extract is beneficial for stable angina and may establish a possible mechanism of Danshen treatment effects on cardiovascular disease. This

  14. Effect of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 inhibitor on insulin resistance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Hua; Jin, Jun; Sun, Li-Zhou

    2018-06-21

    This paper aims to investigate the influence of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) inhibitor, darapladib, on insulin resistance (IR) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic pregnant rats. The rat models were divided into Control (normal pregnancy), STZ + saline (STZ-induced diabetic pregnant rats), STZ + Low-dose and STZ + High-dose darapladib (STZ-induced diabetic pregnant rats treated with low-/high-dose darapladib) groups. Pathological changes were observed by Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Immunohistochemistry staining. Lp-PLA2 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). An automatic biochemical analyzer was used to measure the serum levels of biochemical indicators, and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were calculated. Western blot was applied to determine levels of inflammatory cytokines. Compared with Control group, rats in the STZ + saline group were significantly decreased in body weight, the number of embryo implantation, the number of insulin positive cells and pancreatic islet size as well as the islet endocrine cells, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) level, but substantially increased in Lp-PLA2, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), fatty acids (FFA), serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) levels. Moreover, the increased fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HOMA-IR and inflammatory cytokines but decreased fasting insulin (FINS) and ISI were also found in diabetic pregnant rats. On the contrary, rats in the darapladib-treated groups were just opposite to the STZ + saline group, and STZ + High-dose group improved better than STZ + Low-dose group. Thus, darapladib can improve lipid metabolism, and enhance insulin sensitivity of diabetic pregnant rats by regulating inflammatory cytokines.

  15. Pharmacogenetic meta-analysis of baseline risk factors, pharmacodynamic, efficacy and tolerability endpoints from two large global cardiovascular outcomes trials for darapladib

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Astrid; Warren, Liling; Aponte, Jennifer; Johansson, Kelley; Barnes, Allison; MacPhee, Colin; Davies, Richard; Chissoe, Stephanie; O’Donoghue, Michelle L.; White, Harvey D.

    2017-01-01

    Darapladib, a lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) inhibitor, failed to demonstrate efficacy for the primary endpoints in two large phase III cardiovascular outcomes trials, one in stable coronary heart disease patients (STABILITY) and one in acute coronary syndrome (SOLID-TIMI 52). No major safety signals were observed but tolerability issues of diarrhea and odor were common (up to 13%). We hypothesized that genetic variants associated with Lp-PLA2 activity may influence efficacy and tolerability and therefore performed a comprehensive pharmacogenetic analysis of both trials. We genotyped patients within the STABILITY and SOLID-TIMI 52 trials who provided a DNA sample and consent (n = 13,577 and 10,404 respectively, representing 86% and 82% of the trial participants) using genome-wide arrays with exome content and performed imputation using a 1000 Genomes reference panel. We investigated baseline and change from baseline in Lp-PLA2 activity, two efficacy endpoints (major coronary events and myocardial infarction) as well as tolerability parameters at genome-wide and candidate gene level using a meta-analytic approach. We replicated associations of published loci on baseline Lp-PLA2 activity (APOE, CELSR2, LPA, PLA2G7, LDLR and SCARB1) and identified three novel loci (TOMM5, FRMD5 and LPL) using the GWAS-significance threshold P≤5E-08. Review of the PLA2G7 gene (encoding Lp-PLA2) within these datasets identified V279F null allele carriers as well as three other rare exonic null alleles within various ethnic groups, however none of these variants nor any other loci associated with Lp-PLA2 activity at baseline were associated with any of the drug response endpoints. The analysis of darapladib efficacy endpoints, despite low power, identified six low frequency loci with main genotype effect (though with borderline imputation scores) and one common locus (minor allele frequency 0.24) with genotype by treatment interaction effect passing the GWAS

  16. Pharmacogenetic meta-analysis of baseline risk factors, pharmacodynamic, efficacy and tolerability endpoints from two large global cardiovascular outcomes trials for darapladib.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Astrid; Li, Li; Warren, Liling; Aponte, Jennifer; Fraser, Dana; King, Karen; Johansson, Kelley; Barnes, Allison; MacPhee, Colin; Davies, Richard; Chissoe, Stephanie; Tarka, Elizabeth; O'Donoghue, Michelle L; White, Harvey D; Wallentin, Lars; Waterworth, Dawn

    2017-01-01

    Darapladib, a lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) inhibitor, failed to demonstrate efficacy for the primary endpoints in two large phase III cardiovascular outcomes trials, one in stable coronary heart disease patients (STABILITY) and one in acute coronary syndrome (SOLID-TIMI 52). No major safety signals were observed but tolerability issues of diarrhea and odor were common (up to 13%). We hypothesized that genetic variants associated with Lp-PLA2 activity may influence efficacy and tolerability and therefore performed a comprehensive pharmacogenetic analysis of both trials. We genotyped patients within the STABILITY and SOLID-TIMI 52 trials who provided a DNA sample and consent (n = 13,577 and 10,404 respectively, representing 86% and 82% of the trial participants) using genome-wide arrays with exome content and performed imputation using a 1000 Genomes reference panel. We investigated baseline and change from baseline in Lp-PLA2 activity, two efficacy endpoints (major coronary events and myocardial infarction) as well as tolerability parameters at genome-wide and candidate gene level using a meta-analytic approach. We replicated associations of published loci on baseline Lp-PLA2 activity (APOE, CELSR2, LPA, PLA2G7, LDLR and SCARB1) and identified three novel loci (TOMM5, FRMD5 and LPL) using the GWAS-significance threshold P≤5E-08. Review of the PLA2G7 gene (encoding Lp-PLA2) within these datasets identified V279F null allele carriers as well as three other rare exonic null alleles within various ethnic groups, however none of these variants nor any other loci associated with Lp-PLA2 activity at baseline were associated with any of the drug response endpoints. The analysis of darapladib efficacy endpoints, despite low power, identified six low frequency loci with main genotype effect (though with borderline imputation scores) and one common locus (minor allele frequency 0.24) with genotype by treatment interaction effect passing the GWAS

  17. Atherogenic properties of LDL particles after switching from Truvada or Kivexa plus lopinavir/r to lamivudine plus lopinavir/r: OLE-MET substudy.

    PubMed

    Saumoy, Maria; Tiraboschi, Juan M; Ordoñez-Llanos, Jordi; Ribera, Esteban; Domingo, Pere; Mallolas, Josep; Curto, Jordi; Gatell, Josep M; Podzamczer, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of tenofovir or abacavir discontinuation on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) phenotype and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity in HIV-infected patients treated with lopinavir/ritonavir plus 2 nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI). Multicenter, open-label study. Patients were randomized to continue with lopinavir/ritonavir plus 2 NRTI (triple therapy) or to switch to lopinavir/ritonavir plus lamivudine (dual therapy). LDL phenotype (by gradient gel electrophoresis) and Lp-PLA2 (by 2-thio-PAF) were determined at baseline and week 48. Forty-four patients included (triple therapy n = 19, dual therapy n = 25): men 63.6%, age 41.5 years (25-61), Framingham score 4.9% (0.2-22). Tenofovir was part of the regimen in 28 (63.6%) patients. Dual therapy patients were younger (p = 0.013) and had lower baseline apolipoprotein A1 (p = 0.029). At week 48, there were no changes in standard lipid measurements, except ApoA1/Apo B, which increased in dual therapy (p = 0.038) with no differences between arms. At week 48, no change in LDL phenotype was found in either arm. No changes in total Lp-PLA2 activity or the relative distribution of LDL and HDL particles were found at week 48 in either arm. Discontinuing the third nucleos(t)ide, mainly tenofovir and abacavir, in a lopinavir/ritonavir-containing regimen was not associated with a deleterious effect on LDL phenotype nor in Lp-PLA2 activity.

  18. Associations of MDR1, TBXA2R, PLA2G7, and PEAR1 genetic polymorphisms with the platelet activity in Chinese ischemic stroke patients receiving aspirin therapy.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ling-Ling; Zhao, Yuan-Qi; Zhou, Zi-Yi; Jin, Jing; Zhao, Min; Chen, Xin-Meng; Chen, Ling-Yan; Cai, Ye-Feng; Li, Jia-Li; Huang, Min

    2016-11-01

    Aspirin resistance has an incidence of 5%-65% in patients with ischemic stroke, who receive the standard dose of aspirin, but the platelet function is inadequately inhibited, thereby leading to thrombotic events. Numerous evidence shows that thromboxane A 2 receptor (TXA 2 receptor, encoded by TBXA2R), lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 (Lp-PLA 2 , encoded by PLA2G7) and platelet endothelial aggregation receptor-1 (PEAR1, encoded by PEAR1) are crucial in regulating platelet activation, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp, encoded by MDR1) influences the absorption of aspirin in the intestine. In this study we examined the correlation between MDR1, TBXA2R, PLA2G7, PEAR1 genetic polymorphisms and platelet activity in Chinese ischemic stroke patients receiving aspirin therapy. A total of 283 ischemic stroke patients receiving 100 mg aspirin for 7 d were genotyped for polymorphisms in MDR1 C3435T, TBXA2R (rs1131882), PLA2G7 (rs1051931, rs7756935), and PEAR1 (rs12566888, rs12041331). The platelet aggregation response was measured using an automatic platelet aggregation analyzer and a commercially available TXB 2 ELISA kit. Thirty-three patients (11.66%) were insensitive to aspirin treatment. MDR1 3435TT genotype carriers, whose arachidonic acid (AA) or adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation was lower than that of CC+CT genotype carriers, were less likely to suffer from aspirin resistance (odds ratio=0.421, 95% CI: 0.233-0.759). The TBXA2R rs1131882 CC genotype, which was found more frequently in the aspirin-insensitive group (81.8% vs 62.4%) than in the sensitive group, was identified as a risk factor for aspirin resistance (odds ratio=2.712, 95% CI: 1.080-6.810) with a higher level of AA-induced platelet aggregation. Due to the combined effects of PLA2G7 rs1051931 and rs7756935, carriers of the AA-CC haplotype had a higher level of ADP-induced platelet aggregation, and were at considerably higher risk of aspirin resistance than noncarriers (odds ratio=8

  19. Association of inflammatory, lipid and mineral markers with cardiac calcification in older adults.

    PubMed

    Bortnick, Anna E; Bartz, Traci M; Ix, Joachim H; Chonchol, Michel; Reiner, Alexander; Cushman, Mary; Owens, David; Barasch, Eddy; Siscovick, David S; Gottdiener, John S; Kizer, Jorge R

    2016-07-13

    Calcification of the aortic valve and adjacent structures involves inflammatory, lipid and mineral metabolism pathways. We hypothesised that circulating biomarkers reflecting these pathways are associated with cardiac calcification in older adults. We investigated the associations of various biomarkers with valvular and annular calcification in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Of the 5888 participants, up to 3585 were eligible after exclusions for missing biomarker, covariate or echocardiographic data. We evaluated analytes reflecting lipid (lipoprotein (Lp) (a), Lp-associated phospholipase A 2 (LpPLA 2 ) mass and activity), inflammatory (interleukin-6, soluble (s) CD14) and mineral metabolism (fetuin-A, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23) pathways that were measured within 5 years of echocardiography. The relationships of plasma biomarkers with aortic valve calcification (AVC), aortic annular calcification (AAC) and mitral annular calcification (MAC) were assessed with relative risk (RR) regression. Calcification was prevalent: AVC 59%, AAC 45% and MAC 41%. After adjustment, Lp(a), LpPLA 2 mass and activity and sCD14 were positively associated with AVC. RRs for AVC per SD (95% CI) were as follows: Lp(a), 1.051 (1.022 to 1.081); LpPLA 2 mass, 1.036 (1.006 to 1.066) and LpPLA 2 activity, 1.037 (1.004 to 1.071); sCD14, 1.039 (1.005 to 1.073). FGF-23 was positively associated with MAC, 1.040 (1.004 to 1.078) and fetuin-A was negatively associated, 0.949 (0.911 to 0.989). No biomarkers were significantly associated with AAC. This study shows novel associations of circulating FGF-23 and fetuin-A with MAC, and LpPLA 2 and sCD14 with AVC, confirming that previously reported for Lp(a). Further investigation of Lp and inflammatory pathways may provide added insight into the aetiology of AVC, while study of phosphate regulation may illuminate the pathogenesis of MAC. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  20. Effects of atorvastatin on biomarkers of immune activation, inflammation, and lipids in virologically suppressed, HIV-1 infected individuals with LDL cholesterol <130mg/dl (AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5275)

    PubMed Central

    NIXON, Daniel E.; BOSCH, Ronald J.; S.CHAN, Ellen; FUNDERBURG, Nicholas T.; HODDER, Sally; LAKE, Jordan E.; LEDERMAN, Michael M.; KLINGMAN, Karin L.; ABERG, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Persistent immune activation and inflammation in virologically suppressed HIV infection are linked to excess cardiovascular risk. Objective To evaluate atorvastatin as a strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk. Methods A5275 was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over pilot study of atorvastatin (10mg/day for 4 weeks then 20mg/day for 16 weeks) with a planned enrollment of 97 HIV-infected participants ≥18 years old, receiving boosted protease inhibitor-based ART for ≥6 months, with plasma HIV-1 RNAs below limits of quantification ≥180 days, and fasting LDL-C ≥70 mg/dL and <130 mg/dL. Primary endpoints were differences of changes ([week 44 – week 24] - [week 20 - baseline]) in CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte activation (% CD38+/DR+) and plasma levels of IL-6 and D-dimer. Arms were compared using Wilcoxon rank sum tests and also summarized changes pre-to-post atorvastatin treatment. Analyses were as-treated. Results Ninety-eight participants were enrolled at 31 U.S. sites and 73 completed study treatment. Atorvastatin treatment did not decrease T-lymphocyte or monocyte activation, circulating biomarker levels (interleukin-6, D-dimer, soluble CD14, soluble CD163, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon-γ-induced protein-10, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, CD40L, P-selectin) or white blood cell Krüppel-like Factor 2/4 mRNA levels. Pre-to-post atorvastatin reductions in calculated LDL (−38%), oxidized-LDL (−33%), and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (−31%) were significant (p<0.01). Conclusion In virologically suppressed individuals with HIV infection, atorvastatin did not significantly decrease levels of soluble or cellular biomarkers of immune activation and inflammation, but resulted in robust reductions in LDL-C, oxLDL, and LpPLA2, biomarkers associated with cardiovascular risk. PMID:28391912

  1. Altered Monocyte and Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule Expression Is Linked to Vascular Inflammation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Manjusha; Bowman, Emily; Gabriel, Janelle; Amburgy, Taylor; Mayne, Elizabeth; Zidar, David A; Maierhofer, Courtney; Turner, Abigail Norris; Bazan, Jose A; Koletar, Susan L; Lederman, Michael M; Sieg, Scott F; Funderburg, Nicholas T

    2016-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have increased risk for vascular thrombosis, potentially driven by interactions between activated leukocytes and the endothelium. Monocyte subsets (CD14 + CD16 - , CD14 + CD16 + , CD14 Dim CD16 + ) from HIV negative (HIV - ) and antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV positive (HIV + ) participants (N = 19 and 49) were analyzed by flow cytometry for adhesion molecule expression (lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 [LFA-1], macrophage-1 antigen [Mac-1], CD11c/CD18, very late antigen [VLA]-4) and the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1); these receptors recognize ligands (intercellular adhesion molecules [ICAMs], vascular cell adhesion molecule [VCAM]-1, fractalkine) on activated endothelial cells (ECs) and promote vascular migration. Plasma markers of monocyte (soluble [s]CD14, sCD163) and EC (VCAM-1, ICAM-1,2, fractalkine) activation and systemic (tumor necrosis factor receptor [TNFR-I], TNFR-II) and vascular (lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 [Lp-PLA 2 ]) inflammation were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Proportions of CD16 + monocyte subsets were increased in HIV + participants. Among all monocyte subsets, levels of LFA-1 were increased and CX3CR1 levels were decreased in HIV + participants ( P < .01). Levels of sCD163, sCD14, fractalkine, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, TNFR-II, and Lp-PLA 2 were also increased in HIV + participants ( P < .05), and levels of sCD14, TNFR-I, and TNFR-II were directly related to ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels in HIV + participants. Expression of CX3CR1 on monocyte subsets was inversely related to plasma Lp-PLA 2 ( P < .05 for all). Increased proportions of CD16 + monocytes, cells with altered adhesion molecule expression, combined with elevated levels of their ligands, may promote vascular inflammation in HIV infection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  2. Association of Inflammatory, Lipid, and Mineral Markers with Cardiac Calcification in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bortnick, Anna E.; Bartz, Traci M.; Ix, Joachim H.; Chonchol, Michel; Reiner, Alexander; Cushman, Mary; Owens, David; Barasch, Eddy; Siscovick, David S.; Gottdiener, John S.; Kizer, Jorge R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Calcification of the aortic valve and adjacent structures involves inflammatory, lipid, and mineral metabolism pathways. We hypothesized that circulating biomarkers reflecting these pathways are associated with cardiac calcification in older adults. Methods We investigated the associations of various biomarkers with valvular and annular calcification in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Of 5888 participants, up to 3585 were eligible after exclusions for missing biomarker, covariate, or echocardiographic data. We evaluated analytes reflecting lipid (lipoprotein [Lp] (a), lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 [LpPLA2] mass and activity), inflammatory (interleukin-6, soluble [s] CD14), and mineral metabolism (fetuin-A, fibroblast growth factor [FGF]-23) that were measured within 5 years of echocardiography. The relationships of plasma biomarkers with aortic valve calcium (AVC), aortic annular calcium (AAC) and mitral annular calcium (MAC) were assessed with relative risk (RR) regression. Results Calcification was prevalent: AVC 59%, AAC 45% and MAC 41%. After adjustment, Lp(a), LpPLA2 mass and activity, and sCD14 were positively associated with AVC. RRs for AVC per SD (95% CI) were: Lp(a), 1.051 (1.022–1.081); LpPLA2 mass, 1.036 (1.006–1.066), and activity, 1.037 (1.004–1.071); sCD14, 1.039 (1.005–1.073). FGF-23 was positively associated with MAC, 1.040 (1.004–1.078), and fetuin-A was negatively associated, 0.949 (0.911–0.989). No biomarkers were significantly associated with AAC. Conclusions This study shows novel associations of circulating FGF-23 and fetuin-A with MAC, and LpPLA2 and sCD14 with AVC, confirming that previously reported for Lp(a). Further investigation of lipoprotein and inflammatory pathways may provide added insight into the etiology AVC, while study of phosphate regulation may illuminate the pathogenesis of MAC. PMID:27411840

  3. Adenosine A2A receptor agonists with potent antiplatelet activity.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Fuentes, Manuel; Caballero, Julio; Palomo, Iván; Hinz, Sonja; El-Tayeb, Ali; Müller, Christa E

    2018-05-01

    Selected adenosine A 2A receptor agonists (PSB-15826, PSB-12404, and PSB-16301) have been evaluated as new antiplatelet agents. In addition, radioligand-binding studies and receptor-docking experiments were performed in order to explain their differential biological effects on a molecular level. Among the tested adenosine derivatives, PSB-15826 was the most potent compound to inhibit platelet aggregation (EC 50 0.32 ± 0.05 µmol/L) and platelet P-selectin cell-surface localization (EC 50 0.062 ± 0.2 µmol/L), and to increase intraplatelets cAMP levels (EC 50 0.24 ± 0.01 µmol/L). The compound was more active than CGS21680 (EC 50 0.97±0.07 µmol/L) and equipotent to NECA (EC 50 0.31 ± 0.05 µmol/L) in platelet aggregation induced by ADP. In contrast to the results from cAMP assays, K i values determined in radioligand-binding studies were not predictive of the A 2A agonists' antiplatelet activity. Docking studies revealed the key molecular determinants of this new family of adenosine A 2A receptor agonists: differences in activities are related to π-stacking interactions between the ligands and the residue His264 in the extracellular loop of the adenosine A 2A receptor which may result in increased residence times. In conclusion, these results provide an improved understanding of the requirements of antiplatelet adenosine A 2A receptor agonists.

  4. The Phospholipase A2 Activity of Peroxiredoxin 6.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Aron B

    2018-05-01

    Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) is a Ca2+-independent intracellular phospholipase A2 (called aiPLA2) that is localized to cytosol and acidic organelles (lysosomes and lysosomal-related organelles). Activity is minimal at cytosolic pH but is increased significantly at acidic pH, in the presence of oxidized phospholipid substrate, with protein oxidation, and with enzyme phosphorylation; maximal activity with phosphorylated aiPLA2 is ~2 μmol/min/mg protein. Prdx6 is a ″moonlighting″ protein that also expresses peroxidase and lysophosphatidylcholine acyl transferase activities.The active site for aiPLA2 activity is Ser32-H26-D140. Activity is inhibited by a serine ″protease″ inhibitor diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate (DENP) ,a transition state analogue 1-hexadecyl-3-(trifluoroethyl)-sn-glycero-2-phosphomethanol (MJ33),and two naturally occurring proteins, surfactant protein A (SP-A) and p67phox. aiPLA2 activity has important physiological roles in the turnover (degradation and synthesis) of lung surfactant phospholipids, in the repair of peroxidized cell membranes, and in the activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX2). The enzyme has been implicated in acute lung injury, carcinogenesis, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, male infertility, and sundry other conditions although its specific roles have not been well defined. Protein mutations and animal models are now available to further investigate the potentially important roles of Prdx6-aiPLA2 activity in normal and pathological physiology. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Multiphysics of bone remodeling: A 2D mesoscale activation simulation.

    PubMed

    Spingarn, C; Wagner, D; Rémond, Y; George, D

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present an evolutive trabecular model for bone remodeling based on a boundary detection algorithm accounting for both biology and applied mechanical forces, known to be an important factor in bone evolution. A finite element (FE) numerical model using the Abaqus/Standard® software was used with a UMAT subroutine to solve the governing coupled mechanical-biological non-linear differential equations of the bone evolution model. The simulations present cell activation on a simplified trabeculae configuration organization with trabecular thickness of 200µm. For this activation process, the results confirm that the trabeculae are mainly oriented in the active direction of the principal mechanical stresses and according to the principal applied mechanical load directions. The trabeculae surface activation is clearly identified and can provide understanding of the different bone cell activations in more complex geometries and load conditions.

  6. In vitro effect of important herbal active constituents on human cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) activity.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yan; Tiong, Kai Hung; Abd-Rashid, Badrul Amini; Ismail, Zakiah; Ismail, Rusli; Mak, Joon Wah; Ong, Chin Eng

    2014-10-15

    This study was designed to investigate eight herbal active constituents (andrographolide, asiaticoside, asiatic acid, madecassic acid, eupatorin, sinensetin, caffeic acid, and rosmarinic acid) on their potential inhibitory effects on human cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) activity. A fluorescence-based enzyme assay was performed by co-incubating human cDNA-expressed CYP1A2 with its selective probe substrate, 3-cyano-7-ethoxycoumarin (CEC), in the absence or presence of various concentrations of herbal active constituents. The metabolite (cyano-hydroxycoumarin) formed was subsequently measured in order to obtain IC50 values. The results indicated that only eupatorin and sinensetin moderately inhibited CYP1A2 with IC50 values of 50.8 and 40.2 μM, while the other active compounds did not significantly affect CYP1A2 activity with IC50 values more than 100 μM. Ki values further determined for eupatorin and sinensetin were 46.4 and 35.2 μM, respectively. Our data indicated that most of the investigated herbal constituents have negligible CYP1A2 inhibitory effect. In vivo studies however may be warranted to ascertain the inhibitory effect of eupatorin and sinensetin on CYP1A2 activity in clinical situations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Measuring temperature-dependent activation energy in thermally activated processes: a 2D Arrhenius plot method.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian V; Johnston, Steven W; Yan, Yanfa; Levi, Dean H

    2010-03-01

    Thermally activated processes are characterized by two key quantities, activation energy (E(a)) and pre-exponential factor (nu(0)), which may be temperature dependent. The accurate measurement of E(a), nu(0), and their temperature dependence is critical for understanding the thermal activation mechanisms of non-Arrhenius processes. However, the classic 1D Arrhenius plot-based methods cannot unambiguously measure E(a), nu(0), and their temperature dependence due to the mathematical impossibility of resolving two unknown 1D arrays from one 1D experimental data array. Here, we propose a 2D Arrhenius plot method to solve this fundamental problem. Our approach measures E(a) at any temperature from matching the first and second moments of the data calculated with respect to temperature and rate in the 2D temperature-rate plane, and therefore is able to unambiguously solve E(a), nu(0), and their temperature dependence. The case study of deep level emission in a Cu(In,Ga)Se(2) solar cell using the 2D Arrhenius plot method reveals clear temperature dependent behavior of E(a) and nu(0), which has not been observable by its 1D predecessors.

  8. Adenosine A2A Receptor Activation and Macrophage-mediated Experimental Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Gabriela E.; Truong, Luan D.; Li, Ping; Zhang, Ping; Du, Jie; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Feng, Lili

    2010-01-01

    In immune-induced inflammation, leukocytes are key mediators of tissue damage. Since A2A adenosine receptors (A2AR) are endogenous suppressors of inflammation, we examined cellular and molecular mechanisms of kidney damage to determine whether selective activation of A2AR will suppress inflammation in a rat model of glomerulonephritis. Activation of A2AR reduced the degree of kidney injury in both the acute inflammatory phase and the progressive phase of glomerulonephritis. This protection against acute and chronic inflammation was associated with suppression of the glomerular expression of the MDC/CCL22 chemokine and down-regulation of MIP-1α/CCL3, RANTES/CCL5, MIP-1β/CCL4, and MCP-1/CCL2 chemokines. The expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-4 and IL-10, also increased. The mechanism for these anti-inflammatory responses to the A2AR agonist was suppression of macrophages function. A2AR expression was increased in macrophages, macrophage-derived chemokines were reduced in response to the A2AR agonist, and chemokines not expressed in macrophages did not respond to A2AR activation. Thus, activation of the A2AR on macrophages inhibits immune-associated inflammation. In glomerulonephritis, A2AR activation modulates inflammation and tissue damage even in the progressive phase of glomerulonephritis. Accordingly, pharmacological activation of A2AR could be developed into a novel treatment for glomerulonephritis and other macrophage-related inflammatory diseases. PMID:17898087

  9. A role of the SAM domain in EphA2 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaojun; Hapiak, Vera; Zheng, Ji; Muller-Greven, Jeannine; Bowman, Deanna; Lingerak, Ryan; Buck, Matthias; Wang, Bing-Cheng; Smith, Adam W

    2017-03-24

    Among the 20 subfamilies of protein receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), Eph receptors are unique in possessing a sterile alpha motif (SAM domain) at their C-terminal ends. However, the functions of SAM domains in Eph receptors remain elusive. Here we report on a combined cell biology and quantitative fluorescence study to investigate the role of the SAM domain in EphA2 function. We observed elevated tyrosine autophosphorylation levels upon deletion of the EphA2 SAM domain (EphA2ΔS) in DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cells and a skin tumor cell line derived from EphA1/A2 knockout mice. These results suggest that SAM domain deletion induced constitutive activation of EphA2 kinase activity. In order to explain these effects, we applied fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to investigate the lateral molecular organization of EphA2. Our results indicate that SAM domain deletion (EphA2ΔS-GFP) increases oligomerization compared to the full length receptor (EphA2FL-GFP). Stimulation with ephrinA1, a ligand for EphA2, induced further oligomerization and activation of EphA2FL-GFP. The SAM domain deletion mutant, EphA2ΔS-GFP, also underwent further oligomerization upon ephrinA1 stimulation, but the oligomers were larger than those observed for EphA2FL-GFP. Based on these results, we conclude that the EphA2 SAM domain inhibits kinase activity by reducing receptor oligomerization.

  10. Pharmacogenetics of CYP1A2 activity and inducibility in smokers and exsmokers.

    PubMed

    Dobrinas, Maria; Cornuz, Jacques; Eap, Chin B

    2013-05-01

    There is a high interindividual variability in cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) activity and in its inducibility by smoking, only poorly explained by known CYP1A2 polymorphisms. We aimed to study the contribution of other regulatory pathways, including transcription factors and nuclear receptors, toward this variability. CYP1A2 activity was determined by the paraxanthine/caffeine ratio in 184 smokers and in 113 of them who were abstinent for 4 weeks. Participants were genotyped for 22 polymorphisms in 12 genes. A significant influence on CYP1A2 inducibility was observed for the NR1I3 rs2502815 (P=0.0026), rs4073054 (P=0.029), NR2B1 rs3818740 (P=0.0045), rs3132297 (P=0.036), AhR rs2282885 (P=0.040), rs2066853 (P=0.019), NR1I1 rs2228570 (P=0.037), and NR1I2 rs1523130 (P=0.044) polymorphisms. Among these, the NR1I3 rs2502815 (P=0.0045), rs4073054 (P=0.048), and NR2B1 rs3818740 (P=0.031) also influenced CYP1A2 basal activity. This is the first in-vivo demonstration of the influence of genes involved in CYP1A2 regulatory pathways on its basal activity and inducibility by smoking. These results need to be confirmed by other studies.

  11. Dual regulatory switch confers tighter control on HtrA2 proteolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nitu; D'Souza, Areetha; Cholleti, Anuradha; Sastry, G Madhavi; Bose, Kakoli

    2014-05-01

    High-temperature requirement protease A2 (HtrA2), a multitasking serine protease that is involved in critical biological functions and pathogenicity, such as apoptosis and cancer, is a potent therapeutic target. It is established that the C-terminal post-synaptic density protein, Drosophila disc large tumor suppressor, zonula occludens-1 protein (PDZ) domain of HtrA2 plays pivotal role in allosteric modulation, substrate binding and activation, as commonly reported in other members of this family. Interestingly, HtrA2 exhibits an additional level of functional modulation through its unique N-terminus, as is evident from 'inhibitor of apoptosis proteins' binding and cleavage. This phenomenon emphasizes multiple activation mechanisms, which so far remain elusive. Using conformational dynamics, binding kinetics and enzymology studies, we addressed this complex behavior with respect to defining its global mode of regulation and activity. Our findings distinctly demonstrate a novel N-terminal ligand-mediated triggering of an allosteric switch essential for transforming HtrA2 to a proteolytically competent state in a PDZ-independent yet synergistic activation process. Dynamic analyses suggested that it occurs through a series of coordinated structural reorganizations at distal regulatory loops (L3, LD, L1), leading to a population shift towards the relaxed conformer. This precise synergistic coordination among different domains might be physiologically relevant to enable tighter control upon HtrA2 activation for fostering its diverse cellular functions. Understanding this complex rheostatic dual switch mechanism offers an opportunity for targeting various disease conditions with tailored site-specific effector molecules. © 2014 FEBS.

  12. Undiscovered role of endogenous thromboxane A2 in activation of cardiac sympathetic afferents during ischaemia

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Liang-Wu; Guo, Zhi-Ling; Longhurst, John C

    2008-01-01

    Myocardial ischaemia activates blood platelets, which in turn stimulate cardiac sympathetic afferents, leading to chest pain and sympathoexcitatory reflex cardiovascular responses. Previous studies have shown that activated platelets stimulate ischaemically sensitive cardiac sympathetic afferents, and that thromboxane A2 (TxA2) is one of the mediators released from activated platelets during myocardial ischaemia. The present study tested the hypothesis that endogenous TxA2 stimulates cardiac afferents during ischaemia through direct activation of TxA2 (TP) receptors coupled with the phospholipase C–protein kinase C (PLC–PKC) cellular pathway. Nerve activity of single unit cardiac sympathetic afferents was recorded from the left sympathetic chain or rami communicantes (T2–T5) in anaesthetized cats. Single fields of 39 afferents (conduction velocity = 0.27–3.65 m s−1) were identified in the left or right ventricle initially with mechanical stimulation and confirmed with a stimulating electrode. Five minutes of myocardial ischaemia stimulated all 39 cardiac afferents (8 Aδ-, 31 C-fibres) and the responses of these 39 afferents to chemical stimuli were further studied in the following four protocols. In the first protocol, 2.5, 5 and 10 μg of the TxA2 mimetic, U46619, injected into the left atrium (LA), stimulated seven ischaemically sensitive cardiac afferents in a dose-dependent manner. Second, BM13,177, a selective TxA2 receptor antagonist, abolished the responses of six afferents to 5 μg of U46619 injected into the left atrium and attenuated the ischaemia-related increase in activity of seven other afferents by 44%. In contrast, cardiac afferents, in the absence of TP receptor blockade responded consistently to repeated administration of U46619 (n = 6) and to recurrent myocardial ischaemia (n = 7). In the fourth protocol, administration of PKC-(19–36), a selective PKC inhibitor, attenuated the responses of six other cardiac afferents to U46619 by 38

  13. Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) activity, mammographic density, and oxidative stress: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Chi-Chen; Tang, Bing-Kou; Rao, Venketeshwer; Agarwal, Sanjiv; Martin, Lisa; Tritchler, David; Yaffe, Martin; Boyd, Norman F

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Mammographically dense breast tissue is a strong predictor of breast cancer risk, and is influenced by both mitogens and mutagens. One enzyme that is able to affect both the mitogenic and mutagenic characteristics of estrogens is cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), which is principally responsible for the metabolism of 17β-estradiol. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 146 premenopausal and 149 postmenopausal women, we examined the relationships between CYP1A2 activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and mammographic density. In vivo CYP1A2 activity was assessed by measuring caffeine metabolites in urine. Levels of serum and urinary MDA, and MDA–deoxyguanosine adducts in DNA were measured. Mammograms were digitized and measured using a computer-assisted method. Results CYP1A2 activity in postmenopausal women, but not in premenopausal women, was positively associated with mammographic density, suggesting that increased CYP1A2 activity after the menopause is a risk factor for breast cancer. In premenopausal women, but not in postmenopausal women, CYP1A2 activity was positively associated with serum and urinary MDA levels; there was also some evidence that CYP1A2 activity was more positively associated with percentage breast density when MDA levels were high, and more negatively associated with percentage breast density when MDA levels were low. Conclusion These findings provide further evidence that variation in the activity level of enzymes involved in estrogen metabolism is related to levels of mammographic density and potentially to breast cancer risk. PMID:15217501

  14. Adenosine A2A Receptor Activation Prevents Wear Particle-Induced Osteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Mediero, Aránzazu; Frenkel, Sally R.; Wilder, Tuere; He, Wenjie; Mazumder, Amitabha; Cronstein, Bruce N.

    2012-01-01

    Prosthesis loosening, associated with wear-particle–induced inflammation and osteoclast-mediated bone destruction, is a common cause for joint implant failure, leading to revision surgery. Adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) mediate potent anti-inflammatory effects in many tissues and prevent osteoclast differentiation. We tested the hypothesis that an A2AR agonist could reduce osteoclast-mediated bone resorption in a murine calvaria model of wear-particle–induced bone resorption. C57Bl/6 and A2A knockout (A2ARKO) mice received ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene particles (UHMWPE) and were treated daily with either saline or the A2AR agonist CGS21680. After 2 weeks, micro-computed tomography of calvaria demonstrated that CGS21680 reduced particle-induced bone pitting and porosity in a dose-dependent manner, increasing cortical bone and bone volume compared to control mice. Histological examination demonstrated diminished inflammation after treatment with CGS21680. In A2AKO mice, CGS21680 did not affect osteoclast-mediated bone resorption or inflammation. Levels of bone-resorption markers receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB (RANK), RANK ligand (RANKL), cathepsin K, CD163, and osteopontin were reduced following CGS21680 treatment, together with a reduction in osteoclasts. Secretion of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and TNFα was significantly decreased, whereas IL-10 was markedly increased in bone by CGS21680. These results in mice suggest that site-specific delivery of an adenosine A2AR agonist could enhance implant survival, delaying or eliminating the need for revision arthroplastic surgery. PMID:22623741

  15. Excess Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk is not Manifested in all Phenotypes of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Implications for Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Daskalopoulos, Georgios; Karkanaki, Artemis; Piouka, Athanasia; Prapas, Nikolaos; Panidis, Dimitrios; Gkeleris, Paraschos; Athyros, Vasilios G

    2015-01-01

    To assess the potential differences in the metabolic and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk between the distinct phenotypes of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) according to the Rotterdam definition regardless of body mass index (BMI). The study included 300 women; 240 women with PCOS, according to the Rotterdam criteria and 60 controls without PCOS. All women were further subdivided, according to their BMI, into normal-weight and overweight/obese and PCOS women were furthermore subdivided to the 4 phenotypes of the syndrome. A complete hormonal and metabolic profile as well as the levels of high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) were measured. Levels of surrogate markers of subclinical atherosclerosis (hsCRP and Lp-PLA2), levels of evaluated CVD risk score using risk engines, and several correlations of CVD risk factors. hsCRP levels were higher but not significantly so in PCOS women compared with controls. In lean PCOS patients, Lp-PLA2 levels were significantly higher, compared with lean controls, mainly in the 2 classic phenotypes. Overweight/obese patients in all 4 phenotypes had significantly higher Lp-PLA2 levels compared with overweight/obese controls. Evaluated CVD risk according to 4 risk engines was not different among phenotypes and between PCOS patients and controls. There were several correlations of risk factors with metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease requiring appropriate treatment. Only 2 of 4 Rotterdam phenotypes, identical with those of the classic PCOS definition, have excess cardiometabolic risk. These need to be treated to prevent CVD events.

  16. Synergistic effects of colchicine combined with atorvastatin in rats with hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Congwu; Cen, Chuan; Wang, ChengXu; Zhan, Haiyong; Ding, Xin

    2014-04-17

    Inflammation and endothelial dysfunction is implicated in the atherosclerosis initiation and progression in the setting of hyperlipidemia. Colchicine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent and whether colchicine combined with atorvastatin has synergistic effects on inflammation amelioration and endothelial function improvement is unknown. Hyperlipidemic rat model was produced by high-fat and high-cholesterol diet for 6 weeks. Rats with normal diet were served as shame group. In hyperlipidemic group, normal saline, atorvastatin (10 mg/kg body weight/day), colchicines (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day), or atorvastatin combined with colchicines (same dosages) were prescribed for 2 weeks. Serum levels of lipid profile, C-reactive protein (CRP), liver enzyme, lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) and nitric oxide (NO) production were serially assessed. Before the beginning of the study, all laboratory variables were comparable among each group. After 6 weeks of hyperlipidemic model production, serum levels of cholesterols, CRP and Lp-PLA2 were significantly increased when compared to sham group, whereas NO production was reduced. With 2 weeks of colchicine therapy, serum levels of CRP and Lp-PLA2 were decreased and NO production was enhanced in the colchicine group in a lipid-lowering independent manner. Added colchicine into atorvastatin therapy further improved NO production and decreased CRP and Lp-PLA2 levels, indicating a potential synergism of colchicine and atorvastatin. Colchicine combined with atorvastatin may have stronger protective effects on improving endothelial function and ameliorating inflammation in rats with hyperlipidemia.

  17. Activation of Adenosine A2A Receptors Inhibits Neutrophil Transuroepithelial Migration ▿

    PubMed Central

    Säve, Susanne; Mohlin, Camilla; Vumma, Ravi; Persson, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine has been identified as a significant inhibitor of inflammation by acting on adenosine A2A receptors. In this study, we examined the role of adenosine and A2A receptors in the transmigration of human neutrophils across an in vitro model of the transitional bladder urothelium. Human uroepithelial cells (UROtsa) were grown on transwell inserts; uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and neutrophils were added to the transwell system; and the number of migrating neutrophils was evaluated. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry were used to investigate the expression of adenosine receptors, the epithelial adhesion molecule ICAM-1, and the neutrophil integrin CD11b. Levels of proinflammatory interleukin-8 (IL-8) and phosphorylated IκBα were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and Luminex assays, respectively. The neutrophils expressed all four adenosine receptor subtypes (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 receptors), but A3 receptors were not expressed by UROtsa cells. UPEC stimulated neutrophil transuroepithelial migration, which was significantly decreased in response to the specific A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680. The inhibitory effect of CGS 21680 on neutrophil migration was reversed by the A2A receptor antagonist SCH 58261. The production of chemotactic IL-8 and the expression of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1 or CD11b were not significantly affected by CGS 21680. However, a significant decrease in the level of phosporylated IκBα was revealed in response to CGS 21680. In conclusion, UPEC infection in vitro evoked neutrophil migration through a multilayered human uroepithelium. The UPEC-evoked neutrophil transmigration decreased in response to A2A receptor activation, possibly through inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:21646447

  18. Cadmium exposure is associated with soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, a circulating marker of inflammation and future cardiovascular disease

    SciTech Connect

    Fagerberg, Björn, E-mail: bjorn.fagerberg@wlab.gu.

    Background: Diet and smoking are the main sources of cadmium exposure in the general population. Cadmium increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases, and experimental studies show that it induces inflammation. Blood cadmium levels are associated with macrophages in human atherosclerotic plaques. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is an emerging biomarker for cardiovascular events related to inflammation and atherosclerotic plaques. The aim was to examine whether blood cadmium levels are associated with circulating suPAR and other markers of inflammation. Methods: A population sample of 4648 Swedish middle-aged women and men was examined cross-sectionally in 1991–1994. Plasma suPAR was assessed bymore » ELISA, leukocytes were measured by standard methods, and blood cadmium was analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Prevalent cardiovascular disease, ultrasound-assessed carotid plaque occurrence, and several possible confounding factors were recorded. Results: After full adjustment for risk factors and confounding variables, a 3-fold increase in blood cadmium was associated with an 10.9% increase in suPAR concentration (p<0.001). In never-smokers, a 3-fold increase in blood cadmium was associated with a 3.7% increase in suPAR concentration (p<0.01) after full adjustment. Blood cadmium was not associated with C-reactive protein, white blood cell count and Lp-PLA2 but with neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in one of two statistical models. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium was associated with increased plasma suPAR in the general population, independently of smoking and cardiovascular disease. These results imply that cadmium is a possible cause for raised levels of this inflammatory marker. - Highlights: • Cadmium is a toxic proinflammatory, proatherosclerotic metal. • Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in plasma is a promising proinflammatory marker of atherosclerosis. • Blood cadmium and

  19. Role of phospholipase A2 pathway in regulating activation of Bufo arenarum oocytes.

    PubMed

    Ajmat, M T; Bonilla, F; Hermosilla, P C; Zelarayán, L; Bühler, M I

    2013-08-01

    Transient increases in the concentration of cytosolic Ca(2+) are essential for triggering egg activation events. Increased Ca(2+) results from its rapid release from intracellular stores, mainly mediated by one or both intracellular calcium channels: the inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) and the ryanodine receptor (RyR). Several regulatory pathways that tailor the response of these channels to the specific cell type have been proposed. Among its many modulatory actions, calcium can serve as an activator of a cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA2), which releases arachidonic acid from phospholipids of the endoplasmic reticulum as well as from the nuclear envelope. Previous studies have suggested that arachidonic acid and/or its metabolites were able to modulate the activity of several ion channels. Based on these findings, we have studied the participation of the phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) pathway in the process of Bufo arenarum oocyte activation and the interrelation between any of its metabolites and the ion channels involved in the calcium release from the intracellular reservoirs at fertilization. We found that addition of both melittin, a potent PLA(2) activator, and arachidonic acid, the main PLA(2) reaction metabolite, was able to induce activation events in a bell-shaped manner. Differential regulation of IP3Rs and RyRs by arachidonic acid and its products could explain melittin and arachidonic acid behaviour in Bufo arenarum egg activation. The concerted action of arachidonic acid and/or its metabolites could provide controlled mobilization of calcium from intracellular reservoirs and useful tools for understanding calcium homeostasis in eggs that express both types of receptors.

  20. Phospholipase A2-activating protein is associated with a novel form of leukoencephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Falik Zaccai, Tzipora C; Savitzki, David; Zivony-Elboum, Yifat; Vilboux, Thierry; Fitts, Eric C; Shoval, Yishay; Kalfon, Limor; Samra, Nadra; Keren, Zohar; Gross, Bella; Chasnyk, Natalia; Straussberg, Rachel; Mullikin, James C; Teer, Jamie K; Geiger, Dan; Kornitzer, Daniel; Bitterman-Deutsch, Ora; Samson, Abraham O; Wakamiya, Maki; Peterson, Johnny W; Kirtley, Michelle L; Pinchuk, Iryna V; Baze, Wallace B; Gahl, William A; Kleta, Robert; Anikster, Yair; Chopra, Ashok K

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Leukoencephalopathies are a group of white matter disorders related to abnormal formation, maintenance, and turnover of myelin in the central nervous system. These disorders of the brain are categorized according to neuroradiological and pathophysiological criteria. Herein, we have identified a unique form of leukoencephalopathy in seven patients presenting at ages 2 to 4 months with progressive microcephaly, spastic quadriparesis, and global developmental delay. Clinical, metabolic, and imaging characterization of seven patients followed by homozygosity mapping and linkage analysis were performed. Next generation sequencing, bioinformatics, and segregation analyses followed, to determine a loss of function sequence variation in the phospholipase A2-activating protein encoding gene (PLAA). Expression and functional studies of the encoded protein were performed and included measurement of prostaglandin E2 and cytosolic phospholipase A2 activity in membrane fractions of fibroblasts derived from patients and healthy controls. Plaa-null mice were generated and prostaglandin E2 levels were measured in different tissues. The novel phenotype of our patients segregated with a homozygous loss-of-function sequence variant, causing the substitution of leucine at position 752 to phenylalanine, in PLAA, which causes disruption of the protein’s ability to induce prostaglandin E2 and cytosolic phospholipase A2 synthesis in patients’ fibroblasts. Plaa-null mice were perinatal lethal with reduced brain levels of prostaglandin E2. The non-functional phospholipase A2-activating protein and the associated neurological phenotype, reported herein for the first time, join other complex phospholipid defects that cause leukoencephalopathies in humans, emphasizing the importance of this axis in white matter development and maintenance. PMID:28007986

  1. Tacrine is not an ideal probe drug for measuring CYP1A2 activity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, J T; Hansen, L L; Brøsen, K

    1999-01-01

    Aims The aim of the present study was to examine the CYP1A2 substrate tacrine as a possible alternative to caffeine for assessing CYP1A2 activity in vivo. Methods Eighteen, healthy, nonsmoking men participated. Each volunteer was tested by caffeine (200 mg orally), and caffeine metabolic ratios were calculated. Subsequently, on two occasions, separated by at least 4 weeks, each volunteer was tested with tacrine (40 mg orally). The apparent oral clearance, partial clearances and different metabolic ratios of tacrine were determined. Results The median oral clearances of tacrine in the two study periods were 1893 l h−1 (range: 736–3098) and 1890 l h−1 (range: 438–4175), respectively. The interindividual coefficient of variation was 42% and 49%, respectively. The intraindividual coefficients of variation ranged from 0.28% to 64% (median: 13%). In both study periods, the oral clearance of tacrine correlated with the caffeine urinary metabolic ratio. However, only modest magnitudes of correlation were observed (rs: 0.64–0.66, P < 0.01). No tacrine metabolic ratio correlating with the oral clearance of tacrine was found. Conclusion The applicability of tacrine as a probe drug for measuring CYP1A2 activity in vivo appears limited. PMID:10594467

  2. Ligand-Dependent Activation and Deactivation of the Human Adenosine A2A Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianing; Jonsson, Amanda L.; Beuming, Thijs; Shelley, John C.; Voth, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are membrane proteins with critical functions in cellular signal transduction, representing a primary class of drug targets. Acting by direct binding, many drugs modulate GPCR activity and influence the signaling pathways associated with numerous diseases. However, complete details of ligand-dependent GPCR activation/deactivation are difficult to obtain from experiments. Therefore, it remains unclear how ligands modulate a GPCR’s activity. To elucidate the ligand-dependent activation/deactivation mechanism of the human adenosine A2A receptor (AA2AR), a member of the class A GPCRs, we performed large-scale unbiased molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations of the receptor embedded in a membrane. At the atomic level, we have observed distinct structural states that resemble the active and inactive states. In particular we noted key structural elements changing in a highly concerted fashion during the conformational transitions, including six conformational states of a tryptophan (Trp2466.48). Our findings agree with a previously proposed view, that during activation, this tryptophan residue undergoes a rotameric transition that may be coupled to a series of coherent conformational changes, resulting in the opening of the G protein-binding site. Further, metadynamics simulations provide quantitative evidence for this mechanism, suggesting how ligand binding shifts the equilibrium between the active and inactive states. Our analysis also proposes that a few specific residues are associated with agonism/antagonism, affinity and selectivity, and suggests that the ligand-binding pocket can be thought of as having three distinct regions, providing dynamic features for structure-based design. Additional simulations with AA2AR bound to a novel ligand are consistent with our proposed mechanism. Generally, our study provides insights into the ligand-dependent AA2AR activation/deactivation in addition to what has been found in crystal

  3. Ligand-dependent activation and deactivation of the human adenosine A(2A) receptor.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianing; Jonsson, Amanda L; Beuming, Thijs; Shelley, John C; Voth, Gregory A

    2013-06-12

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are membrane proteins with critical functions in cellular signal transduction, representing a primary class of drug targets. Acting by direct binding, many drugs modulate GPCR activity and influence the signaling pathways associated with numerous diseases. However, complete details of ligand-dependent GPCR activation/deactivation are difficult to obtain from experiments. Therefore, it remains unclear how ligands modulate a GPCR's activity. To elucidate the ligand-dependent activation/deactivation mechanism of the human adenosine A2A receptor (AA2AR), a member of the class A GPCRs, we performed large-scale unbiased molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations of the receptor embedded in a membrane. At the atomic level, we have observed distinct structural states that resemble the active and inactive states. In particular, we noted key structural elements changing in a highly concerted fashion during the conformational transitions, including six conformational states of a tryptophan (Trp246(6.48)). Our findings agree with a previously proposed view that, during activation, this tryptophan residue undergoes a rotameric transition that may be coupled to a series of coherent conformational changes, resulting in the opening of the G-protein binding site. Further, metadynamics simulations provide quantitative evidence for this mechanism, suggesting how ligand binding shifts the equilibrium between the active and inactive states. Our analysis also proposes that a few specific residues are associated with agonism/antagonism, affinity, and selectivity, and suggests that the ligand-binding pocket can be thought of as having three distinct regions, providing dynamic features for structure-based design. Additional simulations with AA2AR bound to a novel ligand are consistent with our proposed mechanism. Generally, our study provides insights into the ligand-dependent AA2AR activation/deactivation in addition to what has been found in

  4. Antiplatelet activity of L-sulforaphane by regulation of platelet activation factors, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and thromboxane A2.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chung-Hun; Shin, Jang-In; Mo, Sang Joon; Yun, Sung-Jo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Rhee, Yun-Hee

    2013-07-01

    L-sulforaphane was identified as an anticarcinogen that could produce quinine reductase and a phase II detoxification enzyme. In recent decades, multi-effects of L-sulforaphane may have been investigated, but, to the authors' knowledge, the antiplatelet activation of L-sulforaphane has not been studied yet.In this study, 2 μg/ml of collagen, 50 μg/ml of ADP and 5 μg/ml of thrombin were used for platelet aggregations with or without L-sulforaphane. L-sulforaphane inhibited the platelet aggregation dose-dependently. Among these platelet activators, collagen was most inhibited by L-sulforaphane, which markedly decreased collagen-induced glycoprotein IIb/IIIa activation and thromboxane A2 (TxA2) formation in vitro. L-sulforaphane also reduced the collagen and epinephrine-induced pulmonary embolism, but did not affect prothrombin time (PT) in vivo. This finding demonstrated that L-sulforaphane inhibited the platelet activation through an intrinsic pathway.L-sulforaphane had a beneficial effect on various pathophysiological pathways of the collagen-induced platelet aggregation and thrombus formation as a selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist. Thus, we recommend L-sulforaphane as a potential antithrombotic drug.

  5. NMR solution structure of the activation domain of human procarboxypeptidase A2

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, M. Angeles; Villegas, Virtudes; Santoro, Jorge; Serrano, Luis; Vendrell, Josep; Avilés, Francesc X.; Rico, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    The activation domain of human procarboxypeptidase A2, ADA2h, is an 81-residue globular domain released during the proteolytic activation of the proenzyme. The role of this and other similar domains as assistants of the correct folding of the enzyme is not fully understood. The folding pathway of ADA2h was characterized previously, and it was also observed that under certain conditions it may convert into amyloid fibrils in vitro. To gain insight into these processes, a detailed description of its three-dimensional structure in aqueous solution is required so that eventual changes could be properly monitored. A complete assignment of the 1H and 15N resonances of ADA2h was performed, and the solution structure, as derived from a set of 1688 nonredundant constraints, is very well defined (pairwise backbone RMSD = 0.67 ± 0.17 Å for residues 10–80). The structure is composed of two antiparallel α-helices comprising residues 19–32 and 58–69 packed on the same side of a three-stranded β-sheet spanning residues 10–15, 50–55, and 73–75. The global fold for the isolated human A2 activation domain is very similar to that of porcine carboxypeptidase B, as well as to the structure of the domain in the crystal of the intact human proenzyme. The observed structural differences relative to the intact human proenzyme are located at the interface between the activation domain and the enzyme and can be related with the activation mechanism. The backbone amide proton exchange behavior of ADA2h was also examined. The global free energy of unfolding obtained from exchange data of the most protected amide protons at pH 7.0 and 298K is 4.9 ± 0.3 kcal.mole−1, in good agreement with the values determined by thermal or denaturant unfolding studies. PMID:12538893

  6. Lithium activates brain phospholipase A2 and improves memory in rats: implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mury, Fábio B; da Silva, Weber C; Barbosa, Nádia R; Mendes, Camila T; Bonini, Juliana S; Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo Souza; Cammarota, Martin; Izquierdo, Ivan; Gattaz, Wagner F; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel

    2016-10-01

    Phospholipase A2 (Pla2) is required for memory retrieval, and its inhibition in the hippocampus has been reported to impair memory acquisition in rats. Moreover, cognitive decline and memory deficits showed to be reduced in animal models after lithium treatment, prompting us to evaluate possible links between Pla2, lithium and memory. Here, we evaluated the possible modulation of Pla2 activity by a long-term treatment of rats with low doses of lithium and its impact in memory. Wistar rats were trained for the inhibitory avoidance task, treated with lithium for 100 days and tested for perdurability of long-term memory. Hippocampal samples were used for quantifying the expression of 19 brain-expressed Pla2 genes and for evaluating the enzymatic activity of Pla2 using group-specific radio-enzymatic assays. Our data pointed to a significant perdurability of long-term memory, which correlated with increased transcriptional and enzymatic activities of certain members of the Pla2 family (iPla2 and sPla2) after the chronic lithium treatment. Our data suggest new possible targets of lithium, add more information on its pharmacological activity and reinforce the possible use of low doses of lithium for the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions such as the Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Phospholipase A2 activation regulates cytotoxicity of methylmercury in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mazerik, Jessica N; Hagele, Thomas; Sherwani, Shariq; Ciapala, Valorie; Butler, Susan; Kuppusamy, M Lakshmi; Hunter, Melissa; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Marsh, Clay B; Parinandi, Narasimham L

    2007-01-01

    Mercury has been identified as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease among humans. Through diet, mainly fish consumption, humans are exposed to methylmercury, the biomethylated organic form of environmental mercury. As the endothelium is an important player in homeostasis of the cardiovascular system, here, the authors tested their hypothesis that methylmercury activates the lipid signaling enzyme phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) in vascular endothelial cells (ECs), causing upstream regulation of cytotoxicity. To test this hypothesis, the authors used bovine pulmonary artery ECs (BPAECs) cultured in monolayers, following labeling of their membrane phospholipids with [(3)H]arachidonic acid (AA). The cells were exposed to methylmercury chloride (MMC) and then the release of free AA (index of PLA(2) activity) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; index of cytotoxicity) were determined by liquid scintillation counting and spectrophotometry, respectively. MMC significantly activated PLA(2) in a dose-dependent (5 to 15 microM) and time-dependent (0 to 60 min) fashion. Sulfhydryl (thiol-protective) agents, calcium chelators, antioxidants, and PLA(2)-specific inhibitors attenuated the MMC-induced PLA(2) activation, suggesting the role of thiols, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and calcium in the activation of PLA(2) in BPAECs. MMC also induced the loss of thiols and increase of lipid peroxidation in BPAECs. MMC induced cytotoxicity in BPAECs as observed by the altered cell morphology and LDH leak, which was significantly attenuated by PLA(2) inhibitors. This study established that PLA(2) activation through thiols, calcium, and oxidative stress was associated with the cytotoxicity of MMC in BPAECs, drawing attention to the involvement of PLA(2) signaling in the methylmercury-induced vascular endothelial dysfunctions.

  8. Secretory phospholipase A2 activity in blood serum: the challenge to sense.

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, A S; Korotaeva, A A; Samoilova, E V; Volynsky, P E; Vodovozova, E L; Boldyrev, I A

    2014-11-07

    Excess levels of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) is known to contribute to several inflammatory diseases including vascular inflammation correlating with coronary events in coronary artery disease. Thus a method to monitor sPLA2 activity in blood serum is urgently needed. Such method is still a challenge since existing fluorescent probes do not allow to monitor sPLA2 activity directly in blood serum. Here we analyze and overcome barriers in sPLA2 sensing methodology and report a fluorescent probe and a kinetic model of its hydrolysis by sPLA2. New probe is designed with a fluorophore and a quencher not interfering binding to the enzyme. At the same time phospholipid matrix bearing the probe promotes efficient initial quenching of the fluorophore. Kinetic model of probe hydrolysis takes into account signal change due to the side processes. The probe and the kinetic model applied together prove the concept that the activity of sPLA can be measured directly in blood serum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Structural determinants of the hyperalgesic activity of myotoxic Lys49-phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Zambelli, Vanessa Olzon; Chioato, Lucimara; Gutierrez, Vanessa Pacciari; Ward, Richard John; Cury, Yara

    2017-01-01

    Bothropstoxin-I (BthTx-I) is a Lys49-phospholipase A 2 (Lys49-PLA 2 ) from the venom of Bothrops jararacussu, which despite of the lack of catalytic activity induces myotoxicity, inflammation and pain. The C-terminal region of the Lys49-PLA 2 s is important for these effects; however, the amino acid residues that determine hyperalgesia and edema are unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the structural determinants for the Lys49-PLA 2 -induced nociception and inflammation. Scanning alanine mutagenesis in the active-site and C-terminal regions of BthTx-I has been used to study the structural determinants of toxin activities. The R118A mutant was employed as this substitution decreases PLA 2 myotoxicity. In addition, K115A and K116A mutants - which contribute to decrease cytotoxicity - and the K122A mutant - which decreases both myotoxicity and cytotoxicity - were also used. The H48Q mutant - which does not interfere with membrane damage or myotoxic activity - was used to evaluate if the PLA 2 catalytic site is relevant for the non-catalytic PLA 2 -induced pain and inflammation. Wistar male rats received intraplantar injections with mutant PLA 2 . Subsequently, hyperalgesia and edema were evaluated by the paw pressure test and by a plethysmometer. Native and recombinant BthTx-I were used as controls. Native and recombinant BthTx-I induced hyperalgesia and edema, which peaked at 2 h. The R118A mutant did not induce nociception or edema. The mutations K115A and K116A abolished hyperalgesia without interfering with edema. Finally, the K122A mutant did not induce hyperalgesia and presented a decreased inflammatory response. The results obtained with the BthTx-I mutants suggest, for the first time, that there are distinct residues responsible for the hyperalgesia and edema induced by BthTx-I. In addition, we also showed that cytolytic activity is essential for the hyperalgesic effect but not for edematogenic activity, corroborating previous data showing that

  10. Interleukin 1 amplifies receptor-mediated activation of phospholipase A2 in 3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Burch, R M; Connor, J R; Axelrod, J

    1988-01-01

    Human recombinant interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) and IL-1 beta stimulated prostaglandin E2 synthesis in 3T3 fibroblasts in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Enhanced prostaglandin E2 synthesis after IL-1 treatment was apparent by 1 hr and continued to increase for at least 2 days. Half-maximal stimulation occurred at 0.5 pM IL-1 alpha or IL-1 beta, and both interleukins were equally effective, with maximal stimulation occurring in response to 5-10 pM IL-1. In contrast to IL-1, bradykinin stimulation of prostaglandin E2 synthesis is rapid; its effect is maximal by 5 min. In cells that had been pretreated with IL-1 for 24 hr, prostaglandin E2 synthesis in response to bradykinin was amplified more than 10-fold. IL-1 also amplified the receptor-mediated formation of prostaglandin E2 by bombesin and thrombin. The lymphokine did not affect bradykinin receptor number or affinity. IL-1 treatment induced phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase but not phospholipase C or prostaglandin E isomerase. It also enhanced bradykinin-stimulated GTPase activity, suggesting possible induction of the GTP-binding regulatory protein coupled to the bradykinin receptor. Thus, IL-1 enhanced receptor-mediated release of prostaglandin E2 in response to bradykinin, bombesin, and thrombin by increasing the cellular levels of phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase, and GTP-binding regulatory protein(s). PMID:2901097

  11. New Observational Evidence of Active Asteroid P/2010 A2: Slow Rotation of the Largest Fragment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoonyoung; Ishiguro, Masateru; Lee, Myung Gyoon

    2017-06-01

    We report new observations of the active asteroid P/2010 A2 taken when it made its closest approach to Earth (1.06 au in 2017 January) after its first discovery in 2010. Despite a crucial role of the rotational period in clarifying its ejection mechanism, the rotational property of P/2010 A2 has not yet been studied due to the extreme faintness of this tiny object (∼120 m in diameter). Taking advantage of the best observing geometry since the discovery, we succeed in obtaining the rotational light curve of the largest fragment with Gemini/GMOS-N. We find that (1) the largest fragment has a double-peaked period of 11.36 ± 0.02 hr spinning much slower than its critical spin period; (2) the largest fragment is a highly elongated object (a/b ≥ 1.94) with an effective radius of {61.9}-9.2+16.8 m; (3) the size distribution of the ejecta follows a broken power law (the power indices of the cumulative size distributions of the dust and fragments are 2.5 ± 0.1 and 5.2 ± 0.1, respectively); (4) the mass ratio of the largest fragment to the total ejecta is around 0.8; and (5) the dust cloud morphology is in agreement with the anisotropic ejection model in Kim et al. These new characteristics of the ejecta obtained in this work are favorable to the impact shattering hypothesis.

  12. Dysfunction of annexin A2 contributes to hyperglycaemia-induced loss of human endothelial cell surface fibrinolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Dai, Haibin; Yu, Zhanyang; Fan, Xiang; Liu, Ning; Yan, Min; Chen, Zhong; Lo, Eng H; Hajjar, Katherine A; Wang, Xiaoying

    2013-06-01

    Hyperglycaemia impairs fibrinolytic activity on the surface of endothelial cells, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that hyperglycaemia causes dysfunction of the endothelial membrane protein annexin A2, thereby leading to an overall reduction of fibrinolytic activity. Hyperglycaemia for 7 days significantly reduced cell surface fibrinolytic activity in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). Hyperglycaemia also decreased tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA), plasminogen, and annexin A2 mRNA and protein expression, while increasing plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). No changes in p11 mRNA or protein expression were detected. Hyperglycaemia significantly increased AGE-modified forms of total cellular and membrane annexin A2. The hyperglycemia-associated reduction in fibrinolytic activity was fully restored upon incubation with recombinant annexin A2 (rA2), but not AGE-modified annexin A2 or exogenous t-PA. Hyperglycaemia decreased t-PA, upregulated PAI-1 and induced AGE-related disruption of annexin A2 function, all of which contributed to the overall reduction in endothelial cell surface fibrinolytic activity. Further investigations to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms and pathophysiological implications of A2 derivatisation might ultimately lead to a better understanding of mechanisms of impaired vascular fibrinolysis, and to development of new interventional strategies for the thrombotic vascular complications in diabetes.

  13. Dysfunction of annexin A2 contributes to hyperglycaemia-induced loss of human endothelial cell surface fibrinolytic activity

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Haibin; Yu, Zhanyang; Fan, Xiang; Liu, Ning; Yan, Min; Chen, Zhong; Lo, Eng H.; Hajjar, Katherine A.; Wang, Xiaoying

    2014-01-01

    Summary Hyperglycaemia impairs fibrinolytic activity on the surface of endothelial cells, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that hyperglycaemia causes dysfunction of the endothelial membrane protein annexin A2, thereby leading to an overall reduction of fibrinolytic activity. Hyperglycaemia for 7 days significantly reduced cell surface fibrinolytic activity in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). Hyperglycaemia also decreased tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA), plasminogen, and annexin A2 mRNA and protein expression, while increasing plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). No changes in p11 mRNA or protein expression were detected. Hyperglycaemia significantly increased AGE-modified forms of total cellular and membrane annexin A2. The hyperglycemia-associated reduction in fibrinolytic activity was fully restored upon incubation with recombinant annexin A2 (rA2), but not AGE-modified annexin A2 or exogenous t-PA. Hyperglycaemia decreased t-PA, upregulated PAI-1 and induced AGE-related disruption of annexin A2 function, all of which contributed to the overall reduction in endothelial cell surface fibrinolytic activity. Further investigations to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms and pathophysiological implications of A2 derivatisation might ultimately lead to a better understanding of mechanisms of impaired vascular fibrinolysis, and to development of new interventional strategies for the thrombotic vascular complications in diabetes. PMID:23572070

  14. Tyrosine kinase activity of EphA2 promotes its S897 phosphorylation and glioblastoma cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Hamaoka, Yuho; Negishi, Manabu; Katoh, Hironori

    2018-05-23

    EphA2, a member of the Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases, has been reported to promote tumor malignancy through phosphorylation of serine 897 (S897). Here, we found that overexpression of wild-type EphA2 induced S897 phosphorylation through ERK activation without growth factors or cytokines and promoted glioblastoma cell proliferation. However, overexpression of a kinase-inactive mutant of EphA2 failed to induce ERK activation, S897 phosphorylation, and promotion of glioblastoma cell proliferation. These data suggest that when overexpressed, EphA2 induces ERK activation through its tyrosine kinase activity, leading to S897 phosphorylation and promotion of glioblastoma cell proliferation. Our findings provide a new insight into how EphA2 mediates glioblastoma progression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Contributions of residues of pancreatic phospholipase A2 to interfacial binding, catalysis, and activation.

    PubMed

    Yu, B Z; Rogers, J; Tsai, M D; Pidgeon, C; Jain, M K

    1999-04-13

    Primary rate and equilibrium parameters for 60 site-directed mutants of bovine pancreatic phospholipase A2 (PLA2) are analyzed so incremental contributions of the substitution of specific residues can be evaluated. The magnitude of the change is evaluated so a functional role in the context of the N- and C-domains of PLA2 can be assigned, and their relationship to the catalytic residues and to the i-face that makes contact with the interface. The effect of substitutions and interfacial charge is characterized by the equilibrium dissociation constant for dissociation of the bound enzyme from the interface (Kd), the dissociation constant for dissociation of a substrate mimic from the active site of the bound enzyme (KL), and the interfacial Michaelis constants, KM and kcat. Activity is lost (>99.9%) on the substitution of H48 and D49, the catalytic residues. A more than 95% decrease in kcat is seen with the substitution of F5, I9, D99, A102, or F106, which form the substrate binding pocket. Certain residues, which are not part of the catalytic site or the substrate binding pocket, also modulate kcat. Interfacial anionic charge lowers Kd, and induces kcat activation through K56, K53, K119, or K120. Significant changes in KL are seen by the substitution of N6, I9, F22, Y52, K53, N71, Y73, A102, or A103. Changes in KM [=(k2+k-1)/k1] are attributed to kcat (=k2) and KL (=k-1/k1). Some substitutions change more than one parameter, implying an allosteric effect of the binding to the interface on KS, and the effect of the interfacial anionic charge on kcat. Interpreted in the context of the overall structure, results provide insights into the role of segments and domains in the microscopic events of catalytic turnover and processivity, and their allosteric regulation. We suggest that the interfacial recognition region (i-face) of PLA2, due to the plasticity of certain segments and domains, exercises an allosteric control on the substrate binding and chemical step.

  16. Pancreatic and snake venom presynaptically active phospholipases A2 inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Vulfius, Catherine A; Kasheverov, Igor E; Kryukova, Elena V; Spirova, Ekaterina N; Shelukhina, Irina V; Starkov, Vladislav G; Andreeva, Tatyana V; Faure, Grazyna; Zouridakis, Marios; Tsetlin, Victor I; Utkin, Yuri N

    2017-01-01

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are enzymes found throughout the animal kingdom. They hydrolyze phospholipids in the sn-2 position producing lysophospholipids and unsaturated fatty acids, agents that can damage membranes. PLA2s from snake venoms have numerous toxic effects, not all of which can be explained by phospholipid hydrolysis, and each enzyme has a specific effect. We have earlier demonstrated the capability of several snake venom PLA2s with different enzymatic, cytotoxic, anticoagulant and antiproliferative properties, to decrease acetylcholine-induced currents in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons, and to compete with α-bungarotoxin for binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and acetylcholine binding protein. Since nAChRs are implicated in postsynaptic and presynaptic activities, in this work we probe those PLA2s known to have strong presynaptic effects, namely β-bungarotoxin from Bungarus multicinctus and crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus. We also wished to explore whether mammalian PLA2s interact with nAChRs, and have examined non-toxic PLA2 from porcine pancreas. It was found that porcine pancreatic PLA2 and presynaptic β-bungarotoxin blocked currents mediated by nAChRs in Lymnaea neurons with IC50s of 2.5 and 4.8 μM, respectively. Crotoxin competed with radioactive α-bungarotoxin for binding to Torpedo and human α7 nAChRs and to the acetylcholine binding protein. Pancreatic PLA2 interacted similarly with these targets; moreover, it inhibited radioactive α-bungarotoxin binding to the water-soluble extracellular domain of human α9 nAChR, and blocked acetylcholine induced currents in human α9α10 nAChRs heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. These and our earlier results show that all snake PLA2s, including presynaptically active crotoxin and β-bungarotoxin, as well as mammalian pancreatic PLA2, interact with nAChRs. The data obtained suggest that this interaction may be a general property of all PLA2s, which should be proved by

  17. Influence of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase genetic polymorphisms on CYP1A2 activity and inducibility by smoking.

    PubMed

    Dobrinas, Maria; Cornuz, Jacques; Pedrido, Leticia; Eap, Chin B

    2012-02-01

    Cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) presents a high interindividual variability in its activity and also in its inducibility by smoking. Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is an electron transfer protein that catalyzes the activity of several cytochromes P450. We aimed to study the influence of POR genetic polymorphisms on CYP1A2 activity while smoking and after smoking cessation, as well as on CYP1A2 inducibility. CYP1A2 activity was determined by the paraxanthine/caffeine ratio in 184 smokers and in 113 of these smokers who were abstinent during a 4-week period. Participants were genotyped for POR rs17148944G>A, rs10239977C>T, rs3815455C>T, rs2286823G>A, rs2302429G>A, and rs1057868C>T (POR*28) polymorphisms. While smoking, none of the tested POR polymorphisms showed a significant influence on CYP1A2 activity. After smoking cessation, significantly higher CYP1A2 activity was found in POR rs2302429A carriers (P=0.038) and in carriers of rs17148944G-rs10239977C-rs3815455T-rs2286823G-rs2302429A-rs1057868T haplotype (P=0.038), whereas carriers of POR rs2286823A (P=0.031) and of the rs17148944G-rs10239977C-rs3815455C-rs2286823A-rs2302429G-rs1057868C haplotype (P=0.031) had decreased CYP1A2 activity. In the complete regression model, only POR rs2302429G>A showed a significant effect (P=0.017). No influence of POR genotypes or haplotypes was observed on the inducibility of CYP1A2. POR genetic polymorphisms influence CYP1A2 basal but not induced activity and do not seem to influence CYP1A2 inducibility. Future work is warranted to identify other clinical and genetic factors that may explain the variability in CYP1A2 activity and inducibility by smoking.

  18. Group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 (GIIA) mediates apoptotic death during NMDA receptor activation in rat primary cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Chiricozzi, Elena; Fernandez-Fernandez, Seila; Nardicchi, Vincenza; Almeida, Angeles; Bolaños, Juan Pedro; Goracci, Gianfrancesco

    2010-03-01

    Phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)) participate in neuronal death signalling pathways because of their ability to release lipid mediators, although the contribution of each isoform and mechanism of neurotoxicity are still elusive. Using a novel fluorogenic method to assess changes in a PLA(2) activity by flow cytometry, here we show that the group IIA secretory phospholipase A(2) isoform (GIIA) was specifically activated in cortical neurons following stimulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor subtype (NMDAR). For activation, GIIA required Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, and inhibition of its activity fully prevented NMDAR-mediated neuronal apoptotic death. Superoxide, nitric oxide or peroxynitrite donors stimulated GIIA activity, which mediated neuronal death. Intriguingly, we also found that GIIA activity induced mitochondrial superoxide production after NMDAR stimulation. These results reveal a novel role for GIIA in excitotoxicity both as target and producer of superoxide in a positive-loop of activation that may contribute to the propagation of neurodegeneration.

  19. E. coli derived Von Willebrand Factor-A2 domain FRET proteins that quantify ADAMTS13 activity

    PubMed Central

    Dayananda, Kannayakanahalli M.; Gogia, Shobhit; Neelamegham, Sriram

    2010-01-01

    The cleavage of the A2-domain of Von Willebrand Factor (VWF) by the metalloprotease ADAMTS13 regulates VWF size and platelet thrombosis rates. Reduction or inhibition of this enzyme activity leads to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). We generated a set of novel molecules called VWF-A2 FRET proteins’, where variants of YFP (Venus) and CFP (Cerulean) flank either the entire VWF-A2 domain (175 amino acids) or truncated fragments (141, 113, 77 amino acids) of this domain. These proteins were expressed in E. coli in soluble form, and they exhibited Fluorescence/Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) properties. Results show that introduction of Venus/Cerulean itself did not alter the ability of VWF-A2 to undergo ADAMTS13 mediated cleavage. The smallest FRET protein, XS-VWF, detected plasma ADAMTS13 activity down to 10% of normal levels. Tests of acquired and inherited TTP could be completed within 30 min. VWF-A2 conformation changed progressively, and not abruptly, upon increasing urea concentration. While proteins with 77 and 113 VWF-A2 residues were cleaved in the absence of denaturant, 4M urea was required for the efficient cleavage of larger constructs. Overall, VWF-A2 FRET proteins can be applied both for the rapid diagnosis of plasma ADAMTS13 activity, and as a tool to study VWF-A2 conformation dynamics. PMID:21146487

  20. The first report on coagulation and phospholipase A2 activities of Persian Gulf lionfish, Pterois russelli, an Iranian venomous fish.

    PubMed

    Memar, Bahareh; Jamili, Shahla; Shahbazzadeh, Delavar; Bagheri, Kamran Pooshang

    2016-04-01

    Pterois russelli is a venomous fish belonging to scorpionidae family. Regarding to high significance value for tracing potential therapeutic molecules and special agents from venomous marine creatures, the present study was aimed to characterization of the Persian Gulf lionfish venom. Proteolytic, phospholipase, hemolytic, coagulation, edematogenic and dermonecrotic activities were determined for extracted venom. The LD50 of P. russelli venom was determined by intravenous injection in white Balb/c mice. Phospholipase A2 activity was recorded at 20 μg of total venom. Coagulation activity on human plasma was shown by Prothrombin Time (PT) and activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) assays and coagulation visualized after 7 and 14 s respectively for 60 μg of crude venom. LD50 was calculated as 10.5 mg/kg. SDS-PAGE revealed the presence of major and minor protein bands between 6 and 205 kDa. Different amounts of crude venom ranged from 1.87 to 30 μg showed proteolytic activity on casein. The highest edematic activity was detected at 20 μg. Our findings showed that the edematic activity was dose dependent and persisted for 48 h after injection. The crude venom did not induce dermonecrotic activity on rabbit skin and showed no hemolytic activity on human, mouse and rabbit erythrocytes. This is the first report for phospholipase A2 and coagulation activity in venomous fish and venomous marine animals respectively. Proteolytic activity of P. russelli venom is in accordance with the other genara of scorpionidae family. According to venom activity on intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways, lionfish venom would be contained an interesting pharmaceutical agent. This study is pending to further characterization of phospholipase A2, coagulation, and protease activities and also in vivo activity on animal model of surface and internal bleeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of environmental and genetic factors on CYP1A2 activity in individuals of South Asian and European ancestry.

    PubMed

    Perera, V; Gross, A S; McLachlan, A J

    2012-10-01

    The drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP1A2 contributes to the metabolism of a number of commonly used medicines and displays wide interindividual variability. The aim of this study was to investigate CYP1A2 activity in a population of South Asian ancestry and compare it with a population of European ancestry. CYP1A2 activity was determined using the 4 h paraxanthine/caffeine saliva concentration ratio following a 100-mg oral dose of caffeine in healthy individuals of South Asian (n = 166) and European (n = 166) ancestry. Participants were surveyed for extrinsic ethnic factors and genotyped for polymorphisms in CYP1A2 and related genes. Significantly lower CYP1A2 activity was observed in South Asian participants (median: 0.42; range: 0.10-1.06) as compared with European participants (0.54; 0.12-1.64) (P < 0.01). Multiple linear regression indicated that 41% of the variability in CYP1A2 activity could be explained by the diet, lifestyle, and genetic factors studied.

  2. Equol is more active than soy isoflavone itself to compete for binding to thromboxane A(2) receptor in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Yenny; Garrido, Argelia; Valladares, Luis

    2009-03-01

    Several dietary intervention studies examining the health effect of soy isoflavones allude to the importance of equol in establishing the cardiovascular response to soy protein. Although, the specific mechanism by which this action occurs has not been established. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of soy-isoflavones and the metabolite of daidzein, equol, on agonist-induced platelet responses dependent on thromboxane A(2) (TxA(2)) receptor. Competitive radioligand binding assay was used to screen for affinity of these compounds to the TxA(2) receptor. The effect of equol on platelet activation, evaluate through of release of the ATP, by analogs of TxA(2) was analyzed. The effect of equol on platelet aggregation was investigated with ADP, U46619 (a TxA(2) mimic) and the calcium ionophore A23187. The data showed that aglycone isoflavones and equol bind to TxA(2) receptor in the micromol/L range, whereas their glucoside derivates had very low binding activity for this receptor. Under equilibrium conditions, the following order of the relative affinity in inhibiting [(3)H]-SQ29585 binding was: equol>genistein>daidzein>glycitein>genistin, daidzin, glycitin. Equol interaction was reversible and competitive for labeled-SQ29548 with not apparent decrease in the number of TxA(2) binding sites. In addition, from platelet activation studies, equol effectively inhibited ATP secretion elicited by the TxA(2) analog U46619. On the other hand, equol inhibited the platelet aggregation induced by U46619 and A23187, while it failed to inhibit that induced by ADP. The aglycone isoflavones from soy, and particularly equol, have been found to have biological effects attributable to thromboxane A(2) receptor antagonism. These findings may help elucidate how dietary isoflavone modulate platelet function and explain why soy-rich foods are claimed to have beneficial effects in the prevention of thrombotic events.

  3. Paradoxical Role of DNA Methylation in Activation of FoxA2 Gene Expression during Endoderm Development*

    PubMed Central

    Bahar Halpern, Keren; Vana, Tal; Walker, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor FoxA2 is a master regulator of endoderm development and pancreatic beta cell gene expression. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the activation of the FoxA2 gene during differentiation, we have compared the epigenetic status of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), hESC-derived early endoderm stage cells (CXCR4+ cells), and pancreatic islet cells. Unexpectedly, a CpG island in the promoter region of the FoxA2 gene displayed paradoxically high levels of DNA methylation in expressing tissues (CXCR4+, islets) and low levels in nonexpressing tissues. This CpG island region was found to repress reporter gene expression and bind the Polycomb group protein SUZ12 and the DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)3b preferentially in undifferentiated hESCs as compared with CXCR4+ or islets cells. Consistent with this, activation of FoxA2 gene expression, but not CXCR4 or SOX17, was strongly inhibited by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine and by knockdown of DNMT3b. We hypothesize that in nonexpressing tissues, the lack of DNA methylation allows the binding of DNA methyltransferases and repressing proteins, such as Polycomb group proteins; upon differentiation, DNMT activation leads to CpG island methylation, causing loss of repressor protein binding. These results suggest a novel and unexpected role for DNA methylation in the activation of FoxA2 gene expression during differentiation. PMID:25016019

  4. Efficacy predictors of a 2-month exclusive enteral nutrition for inducing remission of active Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Xue, Meng; Zhang, Hanyun; Wang, Xiaoying; Xu, Dingting; Jin, Dan; Li, Peiwei; Ye, Jun; Yu, Qiao; Chen, Yan

    2018-05-30

    In order to identify the factors that could predict the efficacy of exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) in inducing remission of active CD. Baseline clinical and laboratory covariates were correlated with the outcome (clinical remission) of EEN in active CD (CDAI ≥150) by both univariable and multivariable analyses. A total of 67 from a consecutive of 136 active CD patients were enrolled. L4b (from treitz ligament to distal 1/3 ileum) involvement was negatively and high serum albumin (≥35 g/L) was positively associated with clinical remission (OR: 0.14, OR: 14.71). In conclusion, L4b sparing and high serum albumin might predict a favorable outcome of EEN in active CD (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT 02942511).

  5. Effect of physical activity counseling on disability in older people: a 2-year randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Leinonen, Raija; Kujala, Urho M; Heikkinen, Eino; Törmäkangas, Timo; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Rasinaho, Minna; Karhula, Sirkka; Mänty, Minna; Rantanen, Taina

    2008-12-01

    To study the effect of a physical activity counseling intervention on instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) disability. Primary care-based, single-blind, randomized controlled trial. City of Jyväskylä, central Finland. Six hundred thirty-two people aged 75 to 81 who were able to walk 500 meters without assistance, were at most moderately physically active, had a Mini-Mental State Examination score greater than 21, had no medical contraindications for physical activity, and gave informed consent for participation. A single individualized physical activity counseling session with supportive phone calls from a physiotherapist every 4 months for 2 years and annual lectures on physical activity. Control group received no intervention. The outcome was IADL disability defined as having difficulties in or inability to perform IADL tasks. Analyses were carried out according to baseline IADL disability, mobility limitation, and cognitive status. At the end of the follow-up, IADL disability had increased in both groups (P<.001) and was lower in the intervention group, but the group-by-time interaction effect did not reach statistical significance. Subgroup analyses revealed that the intervention prevented incident disability in subjects without disability at baseline (risk ratio=0.68, 95% confidence interval=0.47-0.97) but had no effect on recovery from disability. The physical activity counseling intervention had no effect on older sedentary community-dwelling persons with a wide range of IADL disability, although it prevented incident IADL disability. The results warrant further investigation to explore the benefits of a primary care-based physical activity counseling program on decreasing and postponing IADL disability.

  6. Molecular modeling and snake venom phospholipase A2 inhibition by phenolic compounds: Structure-activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Iqbal; Alam, Mohammed A; Alam, Ozair; Nargotra, Amit; Taneja, Subhash Chandra; Koul, Surrinder

    2016-05-23

    In our earlier study, we have reported that a phenolic compound 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde from Janakia arayalpatra root extract was active against Viper and Cobra envenomations. Based on the structure of this natural product, libraries of synthetic structurally variant phenolic compounds were studied through molecular docking on the venom protein. To validate the activity of eight selected compounds, we have tested them in in vivo and in vitro models. The compound 21 (2-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzaldehyde), 22 (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde) and 35 (2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylalcohol) were found to be active against venom-induced pathophysiological changes. The compounds 20, 15 and 35 displayed maximum anti-hemorrhagic, anti-lethal and PLA2 inhibitory activity respectively. In terms of SAR, the presence of a formyl group in conjunction with a phenolic group was seen as a significant contributor towards increasing the antivenom activity. The above observations confirmed the anti-venom activity of the phenolic compounds which needs to be further investigated for the development of new anti-snake venom leads. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. 5′-AMP impacts lymphocyte recirculation through activation of A2B receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bouma, Hjalmar R.; Mandl, Judith N.; Strijkstra, Arjen M.; Boerema, Ate S.; Kok, Jan-Willem; van Dam, Annie; IJzerman, Ad; Kroese, Frans G. M.; Henning, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Natural hibernation consists of torpid phases with metabolic suppression alternating with euthermic periods. Induction of torpor holds substantial promise in various medical conditions, including trauma, major surgery, and transplantation. Torpor in mice can be induced pharmacologically by 5′-AMP. Previously, we showed that during natural torpor, the reduction in body temperature results in lymphopenia via a reduction in plasma S1P. Here, we show that during torpor induced by 5′-AMP, there is a similar reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes that is a result of their retention in secondary lymphoid organs. This lymphopenia could be mimicked by engagement of A2BRs by a selective A2BR agonist (LUF6210) in the absence of changes in temperature and prevented by A2BR antagonists during 5′-AMP-induced torpor. In addition, forced cooling of mice led to peripheral blood lymphopenia, independent of A2BR signaling. The induction of torpor using 5′-AMP impacted the migration of lymphocytes within and between secondary lymphoid organs. During torpor, the homing into LNs was impaired, and two-photon intravital microscopy revealed that cell motility was decreased significantly and rapidly upon 5′-AMP administration. Furthermore, the S1P plasma concentration was reduced by 5′-AMP but not by LUF6210. S1P plasma levels restored upon arousal. Likely, the reduced migration in LNs combined with the reduced S1P plasma level substantially reduces lymphocyte egress after injection of 5′-AMP. In conclusion, 5′-AMP induces a state of pharmacological torpor in mice, during which, lymphopenia is governed primarily by body temperature-independent suppression of lymphocyte egress from LNs. PMID:23682128

  8. Activation of nuclear receptor NR5A2 increases Glut4 expression and glucose metabolism in muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bolado-Carrancio, A.; Riancho, J.A.; Sainz, J.

    Highlights: • NR5A2 expression in C2C12 is associated with myotube differentiation. • DLPC induces an increase in GLUT4 levels and glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. • In high glucose conditions the activation of NR5A2 inhibits fatty acids oxidation. - Abstract: NR5A2 is a nuclear receptor which regulates the expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, pluripotency maintenance and cell differentiation. It has been recently shown that DLPC, a NR5A2 ligand, prevents liver steatosis and improves insulin sensitivity in mouse models of insulin resistance, an effect that has been associated with changes in glucose and fatty acids metabolism in liver. Becausemore » skeletal muscle is a major tissue in clearing glucose from blood, we studied the effect of the activation of NR5A2 on muscle metabolism by using cultures of C2C12, a mouse-derived cell line widely used as a model of skeletal muscle. Treatment of C2C12 with DLPC resulted in increased levels of expression of GLUT4 and also of several genes related to glycolysis and glycogen metabolism. These changes were accompanied by an increased glucose uptake. In addition, the activation of NR5A2 produced a reduction in the oxidation of fatty acids, an effect which disappeared in low-glucose conditions. Our results suggest that NR5A2, mostly by enhancing glucose uptake, switches muscle cells into a state of glucose preference. The increased use of glucose by muscle might constitute another mechanism by which NR5A2 improves blood glucose levels and restores insulin sensitivity.« less

  9. Evaluation of a 2-Year Physical Activity and Healthy Eating Intervention in Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haerens, Leen; Deforche, Benedicte; Maes, Lea; Cardon, Greet; Stevens, Veerle; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a middle school physical activity and healthy eating intervention, including an environmental and computer-tailored component, and to investigate the effects of parental involvement. A random sample of 15 schools with seventh and eight graders was randomly assigned to one of three…

  10. Antibody production of wild-type and enzyme V279F variants of PAF-AH as a risk factor for Cardiovascular disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadhani, Anggia N.; Puspitarini, Sapti; Sari, Anissa N.; Widodo

    2017-11-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) has emerged as a leading cause of death in Indonesia nowadays. WHO data in 2012 revealed that 37% of the Indonesian population died from this disease. CAD occurs because of endothelial dysfunction in the arteries. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), also known as platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), is a phospholipase A2 enzyme, encoded by the PLA2G7 gene. This protein is predicted to be involved in inflammatory phospholipid metabolism so it can be used as a biomarker of CAD in the early phase. Thus, the purpose of this research is to discover the difference in antibody production between wild-type and mutant V279F. The PAF-AH enzyme was isolated from mice lymphocyte cells in order to develop this enzyme as a biomarker of cardiovascular disease. PAF-AH migrates at 55kDa according to SDS-PAGE analysis. Flow cytometry analysis showed that mutant PAF-AH (V279F) is more antigenic than wild-type PAF-AH. The missense mutation of V279F PAF-AH means this enzyme cannot catabolize the acetyl group at the sn-2 position of PAF.

  11. Impact of purification conditions and history on A 2A adenosine receptor activity: The role of CHAPS and lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Naranjo, Andrea N.; McNeely, Patrick M.; Katsaras, John

    The adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2AR) is a much-studied class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). For biophysical studies, A 2AR is commonly purified in a detergent mixture of dodecylmaltoside (DDM), 3-(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammoniopropane sulfonate (CHAPS), and cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHS). Here we studied the effects of CHAPS on the ligand binding activity and stability of wild type, full-length human A 2AR. We also tested the cholesterol requirement for maintaining the active conformation of the receptor when solubilized in detergent micelles. To this end, the receptor was purified using DDM, DDM/CHAPS, or the short hydrocarbon chain lipid 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC, di-6:0PC). After solubilizationmore » in DDM, DDM/CHAPS, or DHPC micelles, although A 2AR was found to retain its native-like fold, its binding ability was significantly compromised compared to DDM or DDM/CHAPS with CHS. It therefore appears that although cholesterol is not needed for A 2AR to retain a native-like, α-helical conformation, it may be a critical component for high affinity ligand binding. Further, this result suggests that the conformational differences between the active and inactive protein may be so subtle that commonly used spectroscopic methods are unable to differentiate between the two forms, highlighting the need for activity measurements. Furthermore, the studies presented in this paper also underline the importance of the protein’s purification history; i.e., detergents that interact with the protein during purification affect the ligand binding properties of the receptor in an irreversible manner.« less

  12. Impact of purification conditions and history on A 2A adenosine receptor activity: The role of CHAPS and lipids

    DOE PAGES

    Naranjo, Andrea N.; McNeely, Patrick M.; Katsaras, John; ...

    2016-05-27

    The adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2AR) is a much-studied class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). For biophysical studies, A 2AR is commonly purified in a detergent mixture of dodecylmaltoside (DDM), 3-(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammoniopropane sulfonate (CHAPS), and cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHS). Here we studied the effects of CHAPS on the ligand binding activity and stability of wild type, full-length human A 2AR. We also tested the cholesterol requirement for maintaining the active conformation of the receptor when solubilized in detergent micelles. To this end, the receptor was purified using DDM, DDM/CHAPS, or the short hydrocarbon chain lipid 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC, di-6:0PC). After solubilizationmore » in DDM, DDM/CHAPS, or DHPC micelles, although A 2AR was found to retain its native-like fold, its binding ability was significantly compromised compared to DDM or DDM/CHAPS with CHS. It therefore appears that although cholesterol is not needed for A 2AR to retain a native-like, α-helical conformation, it may be a critical component for high affinity ligand binding. Further, this result suggests that the conformational differences between the active and inactive protein may be so subtle that commonly used spectroscopic methods are unable to differentiate between the two forms, highlighting the need for activity measurements. Furthermore, the studies presented in this paper also underline the importance of the protein’s purification history; i.e., detergents that interact with the protein during purification affect the ligand binding properties of the receptor in an irreversible manner.« less

  13. Deletion of striatal adenosine A2A receptor spares latent inhibition and prepulse inhibition but impairs active avoidance learning

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Philipp; Wei, Catherine J.; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Boison, Detlev; Yee, Benjamin K.

    2013-01-01

    Following early clinical leads, the adenosine A2AR receptor (A2AR) has continued to attract attention as a potential novel target for treating schizophrenia; especially against the negative and cognitive symptoms of the disease because of A2AR’s unique modulatory action over glutamatergic in addition to dopaminergic signaling. Through the antagonistic interaction with the dopamine D2 receptor, and by regulating glutamate release and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor function, striatal A2AR is ideally positioned to fine-tune the dopamine-glutamate balance whose disturbance is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, the precise function of striatal A2ARsin the regulation of schizophrenia-relevant behavior is poorly understood. Here, we tested the impact of conditional striatum-specific A2AR knockout (st-A2AR-KO) on latent inhibition (LI) and prepulse inhibition (PPI) – behavior that is tightly regulated by striatal dopamine and glutamate. These are two common cross-species translational tests for the assessment of selective attention and sensorimotor gating deficits reported in schizophrenia patients; and enhanced performance in these tests is associated with antipsychotic drug action. We found that neither LI nor PPI was significantly affected in st-A2AR-KO mice; although a deficit in active avoidance learning was identified in these animals. The latter phenotype, however, was not replicated in another form of aversive conditioning – conditioned taste aversion. Hence, the present study shows that neither learned inattention (as measured by LI) nor sensory gating (as indexed by PPI) requires the integrity of striatal A2ARs– a finding that may undermine the hypothesized importance of A2AR in the genesis and/or treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:23276608

  14. Influence of Marriage and Parenthood on Physical Activity: A 2-Year Prospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Ethan Edward; Rofey, Dana L.; Robertson, Robert J.; Nagle, Elizabeth F.; Otto, Amy D.; Aaron, Deborah J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) tends to decrease from adolescence to young adulthood, and factors that have been proposed to contribute to this decrease are life transitions. The focus of this study is to examine life transitions, such as marriage and parenthood, and the impact they may have on the physical activity levels of young adults. Methods This 2-year prospective analysis assessed physical activity (hrs/wk) and sociodemographics in young adults (n = 638, 48% male, 15% nonwhite, 24 ± 1.1 years old) via questionnaire. PA data were normalized through log transformations and examined using ANCOVAs, controlling for appropriate covariates. Results ANCOVA results showed that becoming married did not significantly change PA compared with individuals who stayed single [F(1,338) = 0.38, P = .54, d = 0.06]. Conversely, PA was significantly lower [F(1,517) = 6.7, P = .01, d = 0.41] after having a child, compared with individuals who stayed childless. Conclusions These results suggest that marriage does not impact PA in young adults, but having a child significantly decreases PA in parents, and may offer an optimal period of intervention. PMID:20864752

  15. Secreted phospholipase A2 of Clonorchis sinensis activates hepatic stellate cells through a pathway involving JNK signalling.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yinjuan; Li, Ye; Shang, Mei; Jian, Yu; Wang, Caiqin; Bardeesi, Adham Sameer A; Li, Zhaolei; Chen, Tingjin; Zhao, Lu; Zhou, Lina; He, Ai; Huang, Yan; Lv, Zhiyue; Yu, Xinbing; Li, Xuerong

    2017-03-16

    Secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) is a protein secreted by Clonorchis sinensis and is a component of excretory and secretory products (CsESPs). Phospholipase A2 is well known for its role in liver fibrosis and inhibition of tumour cells. The JNK signalling pathway is involved in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation. Blocking JNK activity with SP600125 inhibits HSCs activation. In a previous study, the protein CssPLA2 was expressed in insoluble inclusion bodies. Therefore, it's necessary to express CssPLA2 in water-soluble form and determine whether the enzymatic activity of CssPLA2 or cell signalling pathways is involved in liver fibrosis caused by clonorchiasis. Balb/C mice were given an abdominal injection of MBP-CssPLA2. Liver sections with HE and Masson staining were observed to detect accumulation of collagen. Western blot of mouse liver was done to detect the activation of JNK signalling pathway. In vitro, HSCs were incubated with MBP-CssPLA2 to detect the activation of HSCs as well as the activation of JNK signalling pathway. The mutant of MBP-CssPLA2 without enzymatic activity was constructed and was also incubated with HSCs to check whether activation of the HSCs was related to the enzymatic activity of MBP-CssPLA2. The recombinant protein MBP-CssPLA2 was expressed soluble and of good enzymatic activity. A mutant of CssPLA2, without enzymatic activity, was also constructed. In vivo liver sections of Balb/C mice that were given an abdominal injection of 50 μg/ml MBP-CssPLA2 showed an obvious accumulation of collagen and a clear band of P-JNK1 could be seen by western blot of the liver tissue. In vitro, MBP-CssPLA2, as well as the mutant, was incubated with HSCs and it was proved that activation of HSCs was related to activation of the JNK signalling pathway instead of the enzymatic activity of MBP-CssPLA2. Activation of HSCs by CssPLA2 is related to the activation of the JNK signalling pathway instead of the enzymatic activity of CssPLA2. This finding

  16. Antimycobacterial activity of lecithin-cholesterol liposomes in the presence of phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Kondo, E; Kanai, K

    1978-06-01

    Tubercle bacilli were preincubated with lecithin-cholesterol liposomes to be subsequently exposed to phospholipase A2. After further incubation in the environment of acidic buffer, viable units in the final mixture were enumerated by inoculating the serial dilutions of an aliquot onto Kirchner agar medium containing horse serum in 5%. Another aliquot was used for lipid analyses to confirm hydrolysis of lecithin. In addition to this bactericidal type of experiments, bacteriostatic tests were also conducted with Kirchner semi-solid agar medium, into which liposome-treated bacilli were inoculated with the enzyme at a time. Various natural and synthetic lecithins different in constituent fatty acids were employed. The results indicated that toxic fatty acids released from lecithin acted to kill the bacilli or to inhibit their growth.

  17. Piperine Inhibits the Activities of Platelet Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 and Thromboxane A2 Synthase without Affecting Cyclooxygenase-1 Activity: Different Mechanisms of Action Are Involved in the Inhibition of Platelet Aggregation and Macrophage Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Son, Dong Ju; Akiba, Satoshi; Hong, Jin Tae; Yun, Yeo Pyo; Hwang, Seock Yeon; Park, Young Hyun; Lee, Sung Eun

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Piperine, a major alkaloid of black pepper (Piper nigrum) and long pepper (Piper longum), was shown to have anti-inflammatory activity through the suppression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 gene expression and enzyme activity. It is also reported to exhibit anti-platelet activity, but the mechanism underlying this action remains unknown. In this study, we investigated a putative anti-platelet aggregation mechanism involving arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism and how this compares with the mechanism by which it inhibits macrophage inflammatory responses; METHODS: Rabbit platelets and murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were treated with piperine, and the effect of piperine on the activity of AA-metabolizing enzymes, including cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), COX-1, COX-2, and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) synthase, as well as its effect on AA liberation from the plasma membrane components, were assessed using isotopic labeling methods and enzyme immunoassay kit; RESULTS: Piperine significantly suppressed AA liberation by attenuating cPLA2 activity in collagen-stimulated platelets. It also significantly inhibited the activity of TXA2 synthase, but not of COX-1, in platelets. These results suggest that piperine inhibits platelet aggregation by attenuating cPLA2 and TXA2 synthase activities, rather than through the inhibition of COX-1 activity. On the other hand, piperine significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced generation of prostaglandin (PG)E2 and PGD2 in RAW264.7 cells by suppressing the activity of COX-2, without effect on cPLA2; CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that piperine inhibits platelet aggregation and macrophage inflammatory response by different mechanisms. PMID:25153972

  18. Activity for Diabetic Polyneuropathy (ADAPT): Study Design and Protocol for a 2-Site Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kluding, Patricia M; Singleton, J Robinson; Pasnoor, Mamatha; Dimachkie, Mazen M; Barohn, Richard J; Smith, A Gordon; Marcus, Robin L

    2017-01-01

    Half of all patients with diabetes develop diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), a complication leading to reduced mobility and quality of life. Although there are no proven pharmacologic approaches to reduce DPN risk or slow its progression, evidence suggests that physical activity may improve symptoms and enhance peripheral nerve regeneration. The aim of the study will be to determine the impact of an intense lifestyle intervention on neuropathy progression and quality of life in individuals with DPN. The study will be a randomized controlled trial. The study will be conducted at 2 academic medical centers. The participants will be 140 individuals with type 2 diabetes and mild to moderate DPN. The intervention group will receive 18 months of supervised exercise training, actigraphy-based counseling to reduce sedentary behavior, and individualized dietary counseling. Control group participants will receive diet and activity counseling at baseline and at 9 months. The primary outcomes are neuropathy progression as measured by intraepidermal nerve fiber density in a distal thigh skin biopsy and the Norfolk Quality of Life-Diabetic Neuropathy score. Secondary outcomes include pain, gait, balance, and mobility measures. Due to the combined intervention approach, this protocol will not be able to determine which intervention components influence outcomes. There also may be difficulty with participant attrition during the 18-month study intervention. The Activity for Diabetic Polyneuropathy (ADAPT) protocol resulted from a collaboration between physical therapists and neurologist researchers that includes as primary outcomes both a quality-of-life measure (NQOL-DN) and a physiologic biomarker (IENFD). It has the potential to demonstrate that an intensive lifestyle intervention may be a sustainable, clinically effective approach for people with DPN that improves patient outcomes and can have an immediate impact on patient care and future clinical trials. © 2017 American

  19. Introducing a 2-His-1-Glu Nonheme Iron Center into Myoglobin Confers Nitric Oxide Reductase Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Y Lin; N Yeung; Y Gao

    2011-12-31

    A conserved 2-His-1-Glu metal center, as found in natural nonheme iron-containing enzymes, was engineered into sperm whale myoglobin by replacing Leu29 and Phe43 with Glu and His, respectively (swMb L29E, F43H, H64, called Fe{sub B}Mb(-His)). A high resolution (1.65 {angstrom}) crystal structure of Cu(II)-CN{sup -}-Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) was determined, demonstrating that the unique 2-His-1-Glu metal center was successfully created within swMb. The Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) can bind Cu, Fe, or Zn ions, with both Cu(I)-Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) and Fe(II)-Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) exhibiting nitric oxide reductase (NOR) activities. Cu dependent NOR activity was significantly higher than that of Fe in the same metal binding site.more » EPR studies showed that the reduction of NO to N{sub 2}O catalyzed by these two enzymes resulted in different intermediates; a five-coordinate heme-NO species was observed for Cu(I)-Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) due to the cleavage of the proximal heme Fe-His bond, while Fe(II)-Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) remained six-coordinate. Therefore, both the metal ligand, Glu29, and the metal itself, Cu or Fe, play crucial roles in NOR activity. This study presents a novel protein model of NOR and provides insights into a newly discovered member of the NOR family, gNOR.« less

  20. Introducing a 2-His-1-Glu Nonheme Iron Center into Myoglobin Confers Nitric Oxide Reductase Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y.W.; Robinson, H.; Yeung, N.

    2010-07-28

    A conserved 2-His-1-Glu metal center, as found in natural nonheme iron-containing enzymes, was engineered into sperm whale myoglobin by replacing Leu29 and Phe43 with Glu and His, respectively (swMb L29E, F43H, H64, called Fe{sub B}Mb(-His)). A high resolution (1.65 {angstrom}) crystal structure of Cu(II)-CN?-Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) was determined, demonstrating that the unique 2-His-1-Glu metal center was successfully created within swMb. The Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) can bind Cu, Fe, or Zn ions, with both Cu(I)-Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) and Fe(II)-Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) exhibiting nitric oxide reductase (NOR) activities. Cu dependent NOR activity was significantly higher than that of Fe in the same metal binding site. EPRmore » studies showed that the reduction of NO to N{sub 2}O catalyzed by these two enzymes resulted in different intermediates; a five-coordinate heme-NO species was observed for Cu(I)-Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) due to the cleavage of the proximal heme Fe-His bond, while Fe(II)-Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) remained six-coordinate. Therefore, both the metal ligand, Glu29, and the metal itself, Cu or Fe, play crucial roles in NOR activity. This study presents a novel protein model of NOR and provides insights into a newly discovered member of the NOR family, gNOR.« less

  1. Promotion of Wound Healing by an Agonist of Adenosine A2A Receptor Is Dependent on Tissue Plasminogen Activator.

    PubMed

    Montesinos, M Carmen; Desai-Merchant, Avani; Cronstein, Bruce N

    2015-12-01

    Impaired wound healing, as it occurs in diabetes mellitus or long-term corticoid treatment, is commonly associated with disability, diminished quality of life, and high economic costs. Selective agonists of the A2A receptor subtype of adenosine, an endogenous regulator of inflammation, promote tissue repair in animal models, both healthy and with impaired healing. Plasmin-mediated proteolysis of fibrin and other matrix proteins is essential for cell migration at sites of injury. Since adenosine A2A receptor activation increases plasminogen activator release from macrophages and mast cells, we studied the effect of a selective agonist, CGS-21680, on full-thickness excisional wound closure in wild-type, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)-deficient, and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-deficient mice. Wound closure was impaired in tPA- and uPA-deficient mice as compared with wild-type mice, and topical application of CGS-21680 significantly increased the rate at which wounds closed in wild-type mice and uPA-deficient mice, but not in tPA-deficient mice. Immunostaining of tissue sections showed that tPA was present in endothelial cells and histiocytes by day 3 post-wound and also by day 6. In contrast, uPA was more prominent in these cell types only by day 6 post-wound. Our results confirm that plasminogen activation contributes to wound repair and are consistent with the hypothesis that adenosine A2A receptor activation promotes wound closure by a mechanism that depends upon tPA, but not uPA. Moreover, our results suggest that topical adenosine A2A receptor agonists may be useful in promotion of wound closure in patients with impaired wound healing.

  2. Insulin-Increased L-Arginine Transport Requires A2A Adenosine Receptors Activation in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Gutiérrez, Enrique; Westermeier, Francisco; Salomón, Carlos; González, Marcelo; Pardo, Fabián; Leiva, Andrea; Sobrevia, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine causes vasodilation of human placenta vasculature by increasing the transport of arginine via cationic amino acid transporters 1 (hCAT-1). This process involves the activation of A2A adenosine receptors (A2AAR) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Insulin increases hCAT-1 activity and expression in HUVECs, and A2AAR stimulation increases insulin sensitivity in subjects with insulin resistance. However, whether A2AAR plays a role in insulin-mediated increase in L-arginine transport in HUVECs is unknown. To determine this, we first assayed the kinetics of saturable L-arginine transport (1 minute, 37°C) in the absence or presence of nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI, 10 µmol/L, adenosine transport inhibitor) and/or adenosine receptors agonist/antagonists. We also determined hCAT-1 protein and mRNA expression levels (Western blots and quantitative PCR), and SLC7A1 (for hCAT-1) reporter promoter activity. Insulin and NBTI increased the extracellular adenosine concentration, the maximal velocity for L-arginine transport without altering the apparent K m for L-arginine transport, hCAT-1 protein and mRNA expression levels, and SLC7A1 transcriptional activity. An A2AAR antagonist ZM-241385 blocked these effects. ZM241385 inhibited SLC7A1 reporter transcriptional activity to the same extent in cells transfected with pGL3-hCAT-1−1606 or pGL3-hCAT-1−650 constructs in the presence of NBTI + insulin. However, SLC7A1 reporter activity was increased by NBTI only in cells transfected with pGL3-hCAT-1−1606, and the ZM-241385 sensitive fraction of the NBTI response was similar in the absence or in the presence of insulin. Thus, insulin modulation of hCAT-1 expression and activity requires functional A2AAR in HUVECs, a mechanism that may be applicable to diseases associated with fetal insulin resistance, such as gestational diabetes. PMID:22844517

  3. Trend of academic publication activity in anesthesiology: A 2-decade bibliographic perspective.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sy-Yuan; Wei, Ling-Fang; Ho, Chiu-Ming

    2017-03-01

    The publication of anesthesiology papers presents the importance of understanding the corresponding research activity. This research used the bibliographic method to investigate the publication trend in anesthesiology using Science Citation Index Expanded over the period 1995-2014. The journals listed in the subject category of anesthesiology in the 2014 Journal Citation Reports were selected, and bibliographic information was collected from Science Citation Index Expanded, with 128,003 papers published from 1995 to 2014. Only the document type "article" was analyzed. The productivity and impact of various journals, countries, and institutions are discussed. A total of 64,199 articles published from 1995 to 2014, with 1,084,491 cited times, were examined. The total number of articles published by journals showed a slight increase in the 2 nd decade. More than 45% of these articles were published by the top five journals, which have maintained their ranking over 2 decades. Most publications originated from North America and European countries, of which the United States had the highest number of publications and citations. Most of the institutions are academic universities and hospitals. More than half of the top 25 institutions (in rankings) are located in the United States, and Harvard University accounted the highest number of articles and citations among all institutions. The results reported here may aid clinicians and researchers to better understand the worldwide contribution of anesthesiology research activities over 2 decades. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Effect of thalidomide on endotoxin-induced decreases in activity and expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 3A2.

    PubMed

    Ueyama, Jun; Nadai, Masayuki; Zhao, Ying Lan; Kanazawa, Hiroaki; Takagi, Kenji; Kondo, Takaaki; Takagi, Kenzo; Wakusawa, Shinya; Abe, Fumie; Saito, Hiroko; Miyamoto, Ken-Ichi; Hasegawa, Takaaki

    2008-08-01

    Thalidomide has been reported to inhibit the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and nitric oxide (NO) that are involved in the down-regulation of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) induced by endotoxin. In the present study, we investigated the effects of thalidomide on endotoxin-induced decreases in the activity and expression of hepatic CYP3A2 in rats. Thalidomide (50 mg/kg) was administered orally 22 h and 2 h before intraperitoneal injection of endotoxin (1 mg/kg). Twenty-four hours after the injection of endotoxin, antipyrine clearance experiments were conducted, in which the rats were sacrificed and protein levels of hepatic CYP3A2 were measured. There were no significant differences in the histopathological changes in the liver between the endotoxin-treated and endotoxin plus thalidomide-treated rats. Thalidomide had no effect on the systemic clearance of antipyrine, which is a proper indicator for hepatic CYP3A2 activity, whereas it enhanced endotoxin-induced decrease in the systemic clearance of antipyrine. Western blot analysis revealed that thalidomide had no effect on the protein levels of hepatic CYP3A2, whereas it enhanced the down-regulation of hepatic CYP3A2 by endotoxin. However, there were no significant differences in the concentrations of TNF-alpha and NO in plasma between the endotoxin-treated and endotoxin plus thalidomide-treated rats. The present findings suggest that thalidomide enhances endotoxin-induced decreases in the activity and expression of hepatic CYP3A2.

  5. Prevention of adenosine A2A receptor activation diminishes beat-to-beat alternation in human atrial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Molina, Cristina E; Llach, Anna; Herraiz-Martínez, Adela; Tarifa, Carmen; Barriga, Montserrat; Wiegerinck, Rob F; Fernandes, Jacqueline; Cabello, Nuria; Vallmitjana, Alex; Benitéz, Raúl; Montiel, José; Cinca, Juan; Hove-Madsen, Leif

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) has been associated with increased spontaneous calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and linked to increased adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) expression and activation. Here we tested whether this may favor atrial arrhythmogenesis by promoting beat-to-beat alternation and irregularity. Patch-clamp and confocal calcium imaging was used to measure the beat-to-beat response of the calcium current and transient in human atrial myocytes. Responses were classified as uniform, alternating or irregular and stimulation of Gs-protein coupled receptors decreased the frequency where a uniform response could be maintained from 1.0 ± 0.1 to 0.6 ± 0.1 Hz; p < 0.01 for beta-adrenergic receptors and from 1.4 ± 0.1 to 0.5 ± 0.1 Hz; p < 0.05 for A2ARs. The latter was linked to increased spontaneous calcium release and after-depolarizations. Moreover, A2AR activation increased the fraction of non-uniformly responding cells in HL-1 myocyte cultures from 19 ± 3 to 51 ± 9 %; p < 0.02, and electrical mapping in perfused porcine atria revealed that adenosine induced electrical alternans at longer cycle lengths, doubled the fraction of electrodes showing alternation, and increased the amplitude of alternations. Importantly, protein kinase A inhibition increased the highest frequency where uniform responses could be maintained from 0.84 ± 0.12 to 1.86 ± 0.11 Hz; p < 0.001 and prevention of A2AR-activation with exogenous adenosine deaminase selectively increased the threshold from 0.8 ± 0.1 to 1.2 ± 0.1 Hz; p = 0.001 in myocytes from patients with AF. In conclusion, A2AR-activation promotes beat-to-beat irregularities in the calcium transient in human atrial myocytes, and prevention of A2AR activation may be a novel means to maintain uniform beat-to-beat responses at higher beating frequencies in patients with atrial fibrillation.

  6. Essential role of protein kinase C delta in platelet signaling, alpha IIb beta 3 activation, and thromboxane A2 release.

    PubMed

    Yacoub, Daniel; Théorêt, Jean-François; Villeneuve, Louis; Abou-Saleh, Haissam; Mourad, Walid; Allen, Bruce G; Merhi, Yahye

    2006-10-06

    The protein kinase C (PKC) family is an essential signaling mediator in platelet activation and aggregation. However, the relative importance of the major platelet PKC isoforms and their downstream effectors in platelet signaling and function remain unclear. Using isolated human platelets, we report that PKCdelta, but not PKCalpha or PKCbeta, is required for collagen-induced phospholipase C-dependent signaling, activation of alpha(IIb)beta(3), and platelet aggregation. Analysis of PKCdelta phosphorylation and translocation to the membrane following activation by both collagen and thrombin indicates that it is positively regulated by alpha(IIb)beta(3) outside-in signaling. Moreover, PKCdelta triggers activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase-kinase (MEK)/extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) and the p38 MAPK signaling. This leads to the subsequent release of thromboxane A(2), which is essential for collagen-induced but not thrombin-induced platelet activation and aggregation. This study adds new insight to the role of PKCs in platelet function, where PKCdelta signaling, via the MEK/ERK and p38 MAPK pathways, is required for the secretion of thromboxane A(2).

  7. The MATROSHKA experiment: results and comparison from extravehicular activity (MTR-1) and intravehicular activity (MTR-2A/2B) exposure.

    PubMed

    Berger, Thomas; Bilski, Paweł; Hajek, Michael; Puchalska, Monika; Reitz, Günther

    2013-12-01

    Astronauts working and living in space are exposed to considerably higher doses and different qualities of ionizing radiation than people on Earth. The multilateral MATROSHKA (MTR) experiment, coordinated by the German Aerospace Center, represents the most comprehensive effort to date in radiation protection dosimetry in space using an anthropomorphic upper-torso phantom used for radiotherapy treatment planning. The anthropomorphic upper-torso phantom maps the radiation distribution as a simulated human body installed outside (MTR-1) and inside different compartments (MTR-2A: Pirs; MTR-2B: Zvezda) of the Russian Segment of the International Space Station. Thermoluminescence dosimeters arranged in a 2.54 cm orthogonal grid, at the site of vital organs and on the surface of the phantom allow for visualization of the absorbed dose distribution with superior spatial resolution. These results should help improve the estimation of radiation risks for long-term human space exploration and support benchmarking of radiation transport codes.

  8. Inhibition of HDACs-EphA2 Signaling Axis with WW437 Demonstrates Promising Preclinical Antitumor Activity in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Jingjie; Ma, Xiaojun; Yang, Yang; Sun, Wei; Jin, Wangrui; Wang, Lei; He, Yuan; Yang, Feifei; Yi, Zhengfang; Hua, Yingqi; Liu, Mingyao; Chen, Yihua; Cai, Zhengdong

    2018-05-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are small molecules targeting epigenetic enzymes approved for hematologic neoplasms, which have also demonstrated clinical activities in solid tumors. In our present study, we screened our internal compound library and discovered a novel HDACi, WW437, with potent anti-breast cancer ability in vitro and in vivo. WW437 significantly inhibited phosphorylated EphA2 and EphA2 expression. Further study demonstrated WW437 blocked HDACs-EphA2 signaling axis in breast cancer. In parallel, we found that EphA2 expression positively correlates with breast cancer progression; and combined use of WW437 and an EphA2 inhibitor (ALW-II-41-27) exerted more remarkable effect on breast cancer growth than either drug alone. Our findings suggested inhibition of HDACs-EphA2 signaling axis with WW437 alone or in combination with other agents may be a promising therapeutic strategy for advanced breast cancer. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sport activities differentiating match-play improvement in elite youth footballers - a 2-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Güllich, Arne; Kovar, Peter; Zart, Sebastian; Reimann, Ansgar

    2017-02-01

    This study examined contributions of different types of sport activities to the development of elite youth soccer performance. Match-play performance of 44 German male players was assessed by expert coaches twice, 24 months apart (age 11.1-13.1 years), based on videotaped 5v5 matches. Player pairs were matched by identical age and initial performance at t 1 . Each player was assigned to a group of either "Strong" or "Weak Responders" based on a higher or lower subsequent performance improvement at t 2 within each pair (mean Δperformance 29% vs. 7%). A questionnaire recorded current and earlier amounts of organised practice/training and non-organised sporting play, in soccer and other sports, respectively. Group comparison revealed that "Strong Responders" accumulated more non-organised soccer play and organised practice/training in other sports, but not more organised soccer practice/training. Subsequent multivariate analyses (multiple linear regression analyses (MLR)) highlighted that higher resultant match-play performance at t 2 was accounted for R 2 adj  = 0.65 by performance at t 1 , together with more non-organised soccer play and organised engagement in other sports, respectively, and greater current, but less earlier volume of organised soccer. The findings suggest that variable early sporting experience facilitates subsequent soccer performance development in German elite youth footballers.

  10. p67phox terminates the phospholipase A2-derived signal for activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX2)

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaiah, Saikumari Y.; Dodia, Chandra; Feinstein, Sheldon I.; Fisher, Aron B.

    2013-01-01

    The phospholipase A2 (PLA2)activity of phosphorylated peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) is required for activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX2). We investigated the interaction of Prdx6 with p67phox and its effect on NOX2 activity. With the use of specific antibodies, coimmunoprecipitation of p67phox and phosphorylated Prdx6 was demonstrated with lysates of mouse pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (MPMVECs) that were stimulated with angiotensin II; the interaction of p67phox with nonphosphorylated Prdx6 was relatively weak. Association of p67phox and phosphoPrdx6 in intact MPMVECs after angiotensin II stimulation was demonstrated by proximity ligation assay and was abolished by U0126, a MAP kinase inhibitor. By isothermal titration calorimetry, p67phox bound strongly to phosphoPrdx6 but bound poorly to Prdx6; phosphorylated p67phox did not bind to either Prdx6 or phosphoPrdx6. PLA2 activity of recombinant phosphoPrdx6 was decreased by >98% in the presence of p67phox; the calculated dissociation constant (Kd) of the p67phox: phosphoPrdx6 complex was 65 nM. PLA2 activity (MJ33 sensitive) in cell lysates following angiotensin II treatment of MPMVECs was increased by 85% following knockdown of p67phox with siRNA. These data indicate that p67phox binds to phosphoPrdx6 and inhibits its PLA2 activity, an interaction that could function to terminate the PLA2-mediated NOX2 activation signal.—Krishnaiah, S. Y., Dodia, C., Feinstein, S. I., and Fisher, A. B. p67phox terminates the phospholipase A2-derived signal for activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX2). PMID:23401562

  11. p67(phox) terminates the phospholipase A(2)-derived signal for activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX2).

    PubMed

    Krishnaiah, Saikumari Y; Dodia, Chandra; Feinstein, Sheldon I; Fisher, Aron B

    2013-05-01

    The phospholipase A2 (PLA2)activity of phosphorylated peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) is required for activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX2). We investigated the interaction of Prdx6 with p67(phox) and its effect on NOX2 activity. With the use of specific antibodies, coimmunoprecipitation of p67(phox) and phosphorylated Prdx6 was demonstrated with lysates of mouse pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (MPMVECs) that were stimulated with angiotensin II; the interaction of p67(phox) with nonphosphorylated Prdx6 was relatively weak. Association of p67(phox) and phosphoPrdx6 in intact MPMVECs after angiotensin II stimulation was demonstrated by proximity ligation assay and was abolished by U0126, a MAP kinase inhibitor. By isothermal titration calorimetry, p67(phox) bound strongly to phosphoPrdx6 but bound poorly to Prdx6; phosphorylated p67(phox) did not bind to either Prdx6 or phosphoPrdx6. PLA2 activity of recombinant phosphoPrdx6 was decreased by >98% in the presence of p67(phox); the calculated dissociation constant (Kd) of the p67(phox): phosphoPrdx6 complex was 65 nM. PLA2 activity (MJ33 sensitive) in cell lysates following angiotensin II treatment of MPMVECs was increased by 85% following knockdown of p67(phox) with siRNA. These data indicate that p67(phox) binds to phosphoPrdx6 and inhibits its PLA2 activity, an interaction that could function to terminate the PLA2-mediated NOX2 activation signal.-Krishnaiah, S. Y., Dodia, C., Feinstein, S. I., and Fisher, A. B. p67(phox) terminates the phospholipase A2-derived signal for activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX2).

  12. Antidepressant activity of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, istradefylline (KW-6002) on learned helplessness in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Koji; Kobayashi, Minoru; Shiozaki, Shizuo; Ohta, Teruko; Mori, Akihisa; Jenner, Peter; Kanda, Tomoyuki

    2014-07-01

    Istradefylline, an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, improves motor function in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) and in patients with PD. In addition, some A2A antagonists exert antidepressant-like activity in rodent models of depression, such as the forced swim and the tail suspension tests. We have investigated the effect of istradefylline on depression-like behaviors using the rat learned helplessness (LH) model. Acute, as well as chronic, oral administration of istradefylline significantly improved the inescapable shock (IES)-induced escape deficit with a degree of efficacy comparable to chronic treatment with the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine and the selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. Both the A1/A2A receptor nonspecific antagonist theophylline and the moderately selective antagonist CGS15943, but not the A1 selective antagonist DPCPX, ameliorated the IES-induced escape deficit. The enhancement of escape response by istradefylline was reversed by a local injection of the A2A specific agonist CGS21680 either into the nucleus accumbens, the caudate-putamen, or the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, but not by the A1 specific agonist R-PIA into the nucleus accumbens. Moreover, neither the 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist methysergide or the adrenergic α 2 antagonist yohimbine, nor the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol, affected the improvement of escape response induced by istradefylline. Istradefylline exerts antidepressant-like effects via modulation of A2A receptor activity which is independent of monoaminergic transmission in the brain. Istradefylline may represent a novel treatment option for depression in PD as well as for the motor symptoms.

  13. Synthesis and pharmacological characterization of novel xanthine carboxylate amides as A2A adenosine receptor ligands exhibiting bronchospasmolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rakesh; Bansal, Ranju; Rohilla, Suman; Kachler, Sonja; Klotz, Karl-Norbert

    2016-04-01

    The carboxylate amides of 8-phenyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine described herein represent a new series of selective ligands of the adenosine A2A receptors exhibiting bronchospasmolytic activity. The effects of location of 8-phenyl substitutions on the adenosine receptor (AR) binding affinities of the newly synthesized xanthines have also been studied. The compounds displayed moderate to potent binding affinities toward various adenosine receptor subtypes when evaluated through radioligand binding studies. However, most of the compounds showed the maximum affinity for the A2A subtype, some with high selectivity versus all other subtypes. Xanthine carboxylate amide 13b with a diethylaminoethylamino moiety at the para-position of the 8-phenylxanthine scaffold was identified as the most potent A2A adenosine receptor ligand with Ki=0.06μM. Similarly potent and highly A2A-selective are the isovanillin derivatives 16a and 16d. In addition, the newly synthesized xanthine derivatives showed good in vivo bronchospasmolytic activity when tested in guinea pigs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Differences among allelic variants of human glutathione transferase A2-2 in the activation of azathioprine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Modén, Olof; Mannervik, Bengt

    2010-07-30

    Azathioprine has been clinically used for decades in connection with organ transplantation, autoimmune disease, and treatment of cancer. Toxic side-reactions are common and have been linked to the liberation of excessively high concentrations of 6-mercaptopurine and corresponding toxic metabolites. An allelic variant of thiopurine methyltransferase with low activity is associated with elevated concentrations of 6-mercaptopurine. However, other genetic markers remain to be identified in order to fully account for adverse reactions and efficacy failure. In the present study, we studied the five known allelic variants of human glutathione transferase A2-2 (GST A2-2) (EC 2.5.1.18), abundantly expressed in liver and efficiently catalyzing the bioactivation of azathioprine to release 6-mercaptopurine. All five variants exhibited high activity with azathioprine, but allelic variant E of GST A2-2 displayed a 3-4-fold elevated catalytic efficiency compared to the other variants. High GST activity can lead to overproduction of 6-mercaptopurine, and the nature of the multiple forms of GSTs in a patient will obviously affect the metabolism of azathioprine. In addition to GST A2-2, the polymorphic GST M1-1 is also highly active with azathioprine. Considering our findings, it appears that the genotypic and phenotypic variations in the GST complement may influence the presentation of adverse reactions in patients treated with azathioprine. Clinical trials will be required to clarify the impact of the GST expression in comparison with the established biomarker thiopurine methyltransferase as predictors of adverse reactions. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. NcoA2-Dependent Inhibition of HIF-1α Activation Is Regulated via AhR.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chi-Hao; Li, Ching-Hao; Liao, Po-Lin; Cheng, Yu-Wen; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Huang, Shih-Hsuan; Kang, Jaw-Jou

    2015-12-01

    High endogenous levels of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) contribute to hypoxia signaling pathway inhibition following exposure to the potent AhR ligand benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and could alter cellular homeostasis and disease condition. Increasing evidence indicates that AhR might compete with AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) for complex formation with hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) for transactivation, which could alter several physiological variables. Nuclear receptor coactivator 2 (NcoA2) is a transcription coactivator that regulates transcription factor activation and inhibition of basic helix-loop-helix Per (Period)-ARNT-SIM (single-minded) (bHLH-PAS) family proteins, such as HIF-1α, ARNT, and AhR, through protein-protein interactions. In this study, we demonstrated that both hypoxia and hypoxia-mimic conditions decreased NcoA2 protein expression in HEK293T cells. Hypoxia response element (HRE) and xenobiotic-responsive element (XRE) transactivation also were downregulated with NcoA2 knockdown under hypoxic conditions. In addition, B[a]P significantly decreased NcoA2 protein expression be accompanied with AhR degradation. We next evaluated whether the absence of AhR could affect NcoA2 protein function under hypoxia-mimetic conditions. NcoA2 and HIF-1α nuclear localization decreased in both B[a]P-pretreated and AhR-knockdown HepG2 cells under hypoxia-mimic conditions. Interestingly, NcoA2 overexpression downregulated HRE transactivation by competing with HIF-1α and AhR to form protein complexes with ARNT. Both NcoA2 knockdown and overexpression inhibited endothelial cell tube formation in vitro. We also demonstrated using the in vivo plug assay that NcoA2-regulated vascularization decreased in mice. Taken together, these results revealed a biphasic role of NcoA2 between AhR and hypoxic conditions, thus providing a novel mechanism underlying the cross talk between AhR and hypoxia that affects disease development and progression. © The Author 2015

  16. Activities of native and tyrosine-69 mutant phospholipases A2 on phospholipid analogues. A reevaluation of the minimal substrate requirements.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, O P; Dekker, N; Verheij, H M; de Haas, G H

    1990-06-26

    The role of Tyr-69 of porcine pancreatic phospholipase A2 in substrate binding was studied with the help of proteins modified by site-directed mutagenesis and phospholipid analogues with a changed head-group geometry. Two mutants were used containing Phe and Lys, respectively, at position 69. Modifications in the phospholipids included introduction of a sulfur at the phosphorus (thionophospholipids), removal of the negative charge at phosphorus (phosphatidic acid dimethyl ester), and reduction (phosphonolipids) or extension (diacylbutanetriol choline phosphate) of the distance between the phosphorus and the acyl ester bond. Replacement of Tyr-69 by Lys reduces enzymatic activity, but the mutant enzyme retains both the stereospecificity and positional specificity of native phospholipase A2. The Phe-69 mutant not only hydrolyzes the Rp isomer of thionophospholipids more efficiently than the wild-type enzyme, but the Sp thiono isomer is hydrolyzed too, although at a low (approximately 4%) rate. Phosphonolipids are hydrolyzed by native phospholipase A2 about 7 times more slowly than natural phospholipids, with retention of positional specificity and a (partial) loss of stereospecificity. The dimethyl ester of phosphatidic acid is degraded efficiently in a calcium-dependent and positional-specific way by native phospholipase A2 and by the mutants, indicating that a negative charge at phosphorus is not an absolute substrate requirement. The activities on the phosphatidic acid dimethyl ester of native enzyme and the Lys-69 mutant are lower than those on the corresponding lecithin, in contrast to the Phe-69 mutant, which has equal activities on both substrates.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Contrasting respirable quartz and kaolin retention of lecithin surfactant and expression of membranolytic activity following phospholipase A2 digestion.

    PubMed

    Wallace, W E; Keane, M J; Mike, P S; Hill, C A; Vallyathan, V; Regad, E D

    1992-11-01

    Respirable-sized quartz, a well-established fibrogenic mineral dust, is compared with kaolin in erythrocyte hemolysis assays after treatment with saline dispersion of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, a primary phospholipid component of pulmonary surfactant. Both dusts are rendered inactive after treatment, but the membranolytic activity is partly to fully restored after treatment with phospholipase A2, an enzyme normally associated with cellular plasma membranes and lysosomes. Phospholipid-coated dusts were incubated for periods of 2-72 h at a series of applied enzyme concentrations, and the adsorbed lipid species and hemolytic activity were quantitated at each time for both dusts. Surfactant was lost more readily from quartz than from kaolin, with consequent more rapid restoration of mineral surface hemolytic activity for quartz. Interactions of surfactant and mineral surface functional groups responsible for the mineral-specific rate differences, and implications for determining the mineral surface bioavailability of silica and silicate dusts, are discussed.

  18. Presynaptic facilitatory adenosine A2A receptors mediate fade induced by neuromuscular relaxants that exhibit anticholinesterase activity.

    PubMed

    Bornia, Elaine Cs; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo; Alves-Do-Prado, Wilson

    2011-03-01

    1. Pancuronium, cisatracurium and vecuronium are antinicotinic agents that, in contrast with d-tubocurarine and hexamethonium, exhibit anticholinesterase activity. Pancuronium-, cisatracurium- and vecuronium-induced fade results from blockade of facilitatory nicotinic receptors on motor nerves, but fade produced by such agents also depends on the presynaptic activation of inhibitory muscarinic M2 receptors by acetylcholine released from motor nerve terminals and activation of inhibitory adenosine A1 receptors by adenosine released from motor nerves and muscles. The participation of presynaptic facilitatory A2A receptors in fade caused by pancuronium, cisatracurium and vecuronium has not yet been investigated. In the present study, we determined the effects of ZM241385, an antagonist of presynaptic facilitatory A2A receptors, on fade produced by these neuromuscular relaxants in the rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND) preparation. 2. The muscles were stimulated indirectly at 75±3Hz to induce a sustained tetanizing muscular contraction. The lowest concentration at which each antinicotinic agent produced fade without modifying initial tetanic tension (presynaptic action) was determined. 3. d-Tubocurarine-induced fade occurred only at 55 nmol/L, a concentration that also reduced maximal tetanic tension (post-synaptic action). At 10 nmol/L, ZM 241385 alone did not produce fade, but it did attenuate pancuronium (0.32 μmol/L)-, cisatracurium (0.32 μmol/L)- and vecuronium (0.36 μmol/L)-induced fade. 4. The fade induced by the 'pure' antinicotinic agents d-tubocurarine (55 nmol/L) and hexamethonium (413 μmol/L) was not altered by 10 nmol/L ZM 241385, indicating that presynaptic adenosine A2A receptors play a significant role in the fade produced by antinicotinic agents when such agents have anticholinesterase activity. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Three enzymatically active neurotoxins of Clostridium botulinum strain Af84: BoNT/A2, /F4, and /F5.

    PubMed

    Kalb, Suzanne R; Baudys, Jakub; Smith, Theresa J; Smith, Leonard A; Barr, John R

    2014-04-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are produced by various species of clostridia and are potent neurotoxins which cause the disease botulism, by cleaving proteins needed for successful nerve transmission. There are currently seven confirmed serotypes of BoNTs, labeled A-G, and toxin-producing clostridia typically only produce one serotype of BoNT. There are a few strains (bivalent strains) which are known to produce more than one serotype of BoNT, producing either both BoNT/A and /B, BoNT/A and /F, or BoNT/B and /F, designated as Ab, Ba, Af, or Bf. Recently, it was reported that Clostridium botulinum strain Af84 has three neurotoxin gene clusters: bont/A2, bont/F4, and bont/F5. This was the first report of a clostridial organism containing more than two neurotoxin gene clusters. Using a mass spectrometry based proteomics approach, we report here that all three neurotoxins, BoNT/A2, /F4, and /F5, are produced by C. botulinum Af84. Label free MS(E) quantification of the three toxins indicated that toxin composition is 88% BoNT/A2, 1% BoNT/F4, and 11% BoNT/F5. The enzymatic activity of all three neurotoxins was assessed by examining the enzymatic activity of the neurotoxins upon peptide substrates, which mimic the toxins' natural targets, and monitoring cleavage of the substrates by mass spectrometry. We determined that all three neurotoxins are enzymatically active. This is the first report of three enzymatically active neurotoxins produced in a single strain of Clostridium botulinum.

  20. Transmutation of human glutathione transferase A2-2 with peroxidase activity into an efficient steroid isomerase.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Par L; Johansson, Ann-Sofie; Mannervik, Bengt

    2002-08-16

    A major goal in protein engineering is the tailor-making of enzymes for specified chemical reactions. Successful attempts have frequently been based on directed molecular evolution involving libraries of random mutants in which variants with desired properties were identified. For the engineering of enzymes with novel functions, it would be of great value if the necessary changes of the active site could be predicted and implemented. Such attempts based on the comparison of similar structures with different substrate selectivities have previously met with limited success. However, the present work shows that the knowledge-based redesign restricted to substrate-binding residues in human glutathione transferase A2-2 can introduce high steroid double-bond isomerase activity into the enzyme originally characterized by glutathione peroxidase activity. Both the catalytic center activity (k(cat)) and catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) match the values of the naturally evolved glutathione transferase A3-3, the most active steroid isomerase known in human tissues. The substrate selectivity of the mutated glutathione transferase was changed 7000-fold by five point mutations. This example demonstrates the functional plasticity of the glutathione transferase scaffold as well as the potential of rational active-site directed mutagenesis as a complement to DNA shuffling and other stochastic methods for the redesign of proteins with novel functions.

  1. Ionic liquid and deep eutectic solvent-activated CelA2 variants generated by directed evolution.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Christian; Bocola, Marco; Streit, Wolfgang R; Martinez, Ronny; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2014-06-01

    Chemoenzymatic cellulose degradation is one of the key steps for the production of biomass-based fuels under mild conditions. An effective cellulose degradation process requires diverse physico-chemical dissolution of the biomass prior to enzymatic degradation. In recent years, "green" solvents, such as ionic liquids and, more recently, deep eutectic liquids, have been proposed as suitable alternatives for biomass dissolution by homogenous catalysis. In this manuscript, a directed evolution campaign of an ionic liquid tolerant β-1,4-endoglucanase (CelA2) was performed in order to increase its performance in the presence of choline chloride/glycerol (ChCl:Gly) or 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl), as a first step to identify residues which govern ionic strength resistance and obtaining insights for employing cellulases on the long run in homogenous catalysis of lignocellulose degradation. After mutant library screening, variant M4 (His288Phe, Ser300Arg) was identified, showing a dramatically reduced activity in potassium phosphate buffer and an increased activity in the presence of ChCl:Gly or [BMIM]Cl. Further characterization showed that the CelA2 variant M4 is activated in the presence of these solvents, representing a first report of an engineered enzyme with an ionic strength activity switch. Structural analysis revealed that Arg300 could be a key residue for the ionic strength activation through a salt bridge with the neighboring Asp287. Experimental and computational results suggest that the salt bridge Asp287-Arg300 generates a nearly inactive CelA2 variant and activity is regained when ChCl:Gly or [BMIM]Cl are supplemented (~5-fold increase from 0.64 to 3.37 μM 4-MU/h with the addition ChCl:Gly and ~23-fold increase from 3.84 to 89.21 μM 4-pNP/h with the addition of [BMIM]Cl). Molecular dynamic simulations further suggest that the salt bridge between Asp287 and Arg300 in variant M4 (His288Phe, Ser300Arg) modulates the observed salt

  2. Pathophysiology of isoprostanes in the cardiovascular system: implications of isoprostane-mediated thromboxane A2 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Jochen; Ripperger, Anne; Frantz, Stefan; Ergün, Süleyman; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Benndorf, Ralf A

    2014-07-01

    Isoprostanes are free radical-catalysed PG-like products of unsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid, which are widely recognized as reliable markers of systemic lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in vivo. Moreover, activation of enzymes, such as COX-2, may contribute to isoprostane formation. Indeed, formation of isoprostanes is considerably increased in various diseases which have been linked to oxidative stress, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), and may predict the atherosclerotic burden and the risk of cardiovascular complications in the latter patients. In addition, several isoprostanes may directly contribute to the functional consequences of oxidant stress via activation of the TxA2 prostanoid receptor (TP), for example, by affecting endothelial cell function and regeneration, vascular tone, haemostasis and ischaemia/reperfusion injury. In this context, experimental and clinical data suggest that selected isoprostanes may represent important alternative activators of the TP receptor when endogenous TxA2 levels are low, for example, in aspirin-treated individuals with CVD. In this review, we will summarize the current understanding of isoprostane formation, biochemistry and (patho) physiology in the cardiovascular context. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Pathophysiology of isoprostanes in the cardiovascular system: implications of isoprostane-mediated thromboxane A2 receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Jochen; Ripperger, Anne; Frantz, Stefan; Ergün, Süleyman; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Benndorf, Ralf A

    2014-01-01

    Isoprostanes are free radical-catalysed PG-like products of unsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid, which are widely recognized as reliable markers of systemic lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in vivo. Moreover, activation of enzymes, such as COX-2, may contribute to isoprostane formation. Indeed, formation of isoprostanes is considerably increased in various diseases which have been linked to oxidative stress, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), and may predict the atherosclerotic burden and the risk of cardiovascular complications in the latter patients. In addition, several isoprostanes may directly contribute to the functional consequences of oxidant stress via activation of the TxA2 prostanoid receptor (TP), for example, by affecting endothelial cell function and regeneration, vascular tone, haemostasis and ischaemia/reperfusion injury. In this context, experimental and clinical data suggest that selected isoprostanes may represent important alternative activators of the TP receptor when endogenous TxA2 levels are low, for example, in aspirin-treated individuals with CVD. In this review, we will summarize the current understanding of isoprostane formation, biochemistry and (patho) physiology in the cardiovascular context. PMID:24646155

  4. Structure-based activity prediction of CYP21A2 stability variants: A survey of available gene variations.

    PubMed

    Bruque, Carlos D; Delea, Marisol; Fernández, Cecilia S; Orza, Juan V; Taboas, Melisa; Buzzalino, Noemí; Espeche, Lucía D; Solari, Andrea; Luccerini, Verónica; Alba, Liliana; Nadra, Alejandro D; Dain, Liliana

    2016-12-14

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency accounts for 90-95% of CAH cases. In this work we performed an extensive survey of mutations and SNPs modifying the coding sequence of the CYP21A2 gene. Using bioinformatic tools and two plausible CYP21A2 structures as templates, we initially classified all known mutants (n = 343) according to their putative functional impacts, which were either reported in the literature or inferred from structural models. We then performed a detailed analysis on the subset of mutations believed to exclusively impact protein stability. For those mutants, the predicted stability was calculated and correlated with the variant's expected activity. A high concordance was obtained when comparing our predictions with available in vitro residual activities and/or the patient's phenotype. The predicted stability and derived activity of all reported mutations and SNPs lacking functional assays (n = 108) were assessed. As expected, most of the SNPs (52/76) showed no biological implications. Moreover, this approach was applied to evaluate the putative synergy that could emerge when two mutations occurred in cis. In addition, we propose a putative pathogenic effect of five novel mutations, p.L107Q, p.L122R, p.R132H, p.P335L and p.H466fs, found in 21-hydroxylase deficient patients of our cohort.

  5. Structure-based activity prediction of CYP21A2 stability variants: A survey of available gene variations

    PubMed Central

    Bruque, Carlos D.; Delea, Marisol; Fernández, Cecilia S.; Orza, Juan V.; Taboas, Melisa; Buzzalino, Noemí; Espeche, Lucía D.; Solari, Andrea; Luccerini, Verónica; Alba, Liliana; Nadra, Alejandro D.; Dain, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency accounts for 90–95% of CAH cases. In this work we performed an extensive survey of mutations and SNPs modifying the coding sequence of the CYP21A2 gene. Using bioinformatic tools and two plausible CYP21A2 structures as templates, we initially classified all known mutants (n = 343) according to their putative functional impacts, which were either reported in the literature or inferred from structural models. We then performed a detailed analysis on the subset of mutations believed to exclusively impact protein stability. For those mutants, the predicted stability was calculated and correlated with the variant’s expected activity. A high concordance was obtained when comparing our predictions with available in vitro residual activities and/or the patient’s phenotype. The predicted stability and derived activity of all reported mutations and SNPs lacking functional assays (n = 108) were assessed. As expected, most of the SNPs (52/76) showed no biological implications. Moreover, this approach was applied to evaluate the putative synergy that could emerge when two mutations occurred in cis. In addition, we propose a putative pathogenic effect of five novel mutations, p.L107Q, p.L122R, p.R132H, p.P335L and p.H466fs, found in 21-hydroxylase deficient patients of our cohort. PMID:27966633

  6. Generation of thromboxane A2 and aorta-contracting activity from platelets stimulated with modified C-reactive protein.

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, R M; Prancan, A; Izzi, J M; Fiedel, B A

    1982-01-01

    The classical acute phase reactant, C-reactive protein (CRP), appears in markedly elevated concentration in the sera of individuals undergoing reactions of acute inflammation and tissue degradation. We previously demonstrated that like IgG, appropriately purified CRP could be thermally modified (H-CRP) such that it enhanced platelet activation in plasma and initiated platelet responses in isolated systems. We now report that this direct platelet activation by modified CRP results in the secretion of both platelet dense body and alpha-granule constituents, and is sensitive to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as well as the adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-removing enzyme system creatine phosphate/creatine phosphokinase. Thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) analysis of prostanoate endproducts following platelet activation with H-CRP revealed the formation of thromboxane B2 (the hydrated endproduct of thromboxane A2), an important endogenous platelet activator and contractor of vascular tissue; bioassay on rabbit aorta strips of supernatants obtained from platelets undergoing challenge with H-CRP supported the TLC analysis. Complexes formed between CRP and one major ligand, the polycation, were found to share certain platelet activating properties with H-CRP, as does latex-aggregated CRP. These data imply a potential agonist role for this acute phase reactant in platelet physiology and suggest that the interaction of modified forms of CRP with the platelet at sites of vascular damage could have pathological significance. PMID:7118160

  7. Influence of the urine flow rate on some caffeine metabolite ratios used to assess CYP1A2 activity.

    PubMed

    Sinués, Blanca; Fanlo, Ana; Bernal, María Luisa; Mayayo, Esteban; Soriano, María Antonia; Martínez-Ballarin, Enrique

    2002-12-01

    Five established metabolite ratios (MRs) to measure P450 CYP1A2 activity--MR1 (17X + 17U)/137X, MR2 (AFMU + 1X + 1U)/17U, MR3 (17X/137X), MR4 (AFMU + 1X + 1U + 17X + 17U)/137X, and MR5 (AFMU + 1X + 1U)/17X--were calculated in urine 4-5 hours after caffeine intake. First, to assess the potential of omeprazole to induce CYP1A2 activity, a caffeine test was performed in 27 subjects on two occasions: before and after 14 days on omeprazole (20 mg/day). Samples of urine were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify caffeine and metabolites used to calculate the different caffeine MRs. MR1, MR3, and MR4 were enhanced after treatment; the percentage of change was inversely associated with that of the urine flow, with r values of -0.48, -0.49, and -0.47, respectively. However, MR2 or MR5 were not modified. To determine the reason for these contradictory results, the authors analyzed data of metabolites, ratios, and their components (numerators and denominators) from 152 subjects (who underwent one caffeine test) and their relationship with the urinary flow. Caffeine concentration in urine was the only compound nondependent on the urine flow. Consistently, ratios containing caffeine (MR1, MR3, and MR4) were highly influenced by the rate of urine excretion, since the flow dependence of their numerators is not canceled out by that of caffeine in their denominators. The dependency of the caffeine excretion on renal factors may explain the opposite results found with the different ratios in the aforementioned prospective study of drug interaction, the absence of closer correlations of the five MRs to each other, the discrepancies about the type of frequency distribution of the different MRs (either normal or multimodal), and the higher sensitivity of MR2 to detect gender differences in CYP1A2 activity found in this study. In summary, the data clearly emphasize the need for a strict control of the liquid intake to avoid high urine flows when MRs

  8. Effects of the propeptide of group X secreted phospholipase A(2) on substrate specificity and interfacial activity on phospholipid monolayers.

    PubMed

    Point, Vanessa; Bénarouche, Anaïs; Jemel, Ikram; Parsiegla, Goetz; Lambeau, Gérard; Carrière, Frédéric; Cavalier, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Group X secreted phospholipase A(2) (GX sPLA(2)) plays important physiological roles in the gastrointestinal tract, in immune and sperm cells and is involved in several types of inflammatory diseases. It is secreted either as a mature enzyme or as a mixture of proenzyme (with a basic 11 amino acid propeptide) and mature enzyme. The role of the propeptide in the repression of sPLA(2) activity has been studied extensively using liposomes and micelles as model interfaces. These substrates are however not always suitable for detecting some fine tuning of lipolytic enzymes. In the present study, the monolayer technique is used to compare PLA(2) activity of recombinant mouse GX sPLA(2) (mGX) and its pro-form (PromGX) on monomolecular films of dilauroyl-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (DLPE), -choline (DLPC) and -glycerol (DLPG). The PLA(2) activity and substrate specificity of mGX (PE ≈ PG > PC) were found to be surface pressure-dependent. mGX displayed a high activity on DLPE and DLPG but not on DLPC monolayers up to surface pressures corresponding to the lateral pressure of biological membranes (30-35 mN/m). Overall, the propeptide impaired the enzyme activity, particularly on DLPE whatever the surface pressure. However some conditions could be found where the propeptide had little effects on the repression of PLA(2) activity. In particular, both PromGX and mGX had similar activities on DLPG at a surface pressure of 30 mN/m. These findings show that PromGX can be potentially active depending on the presentation of the substrate (i.e., lipid packing) and one cannot exclude such an activity in a physiological context. A structural model of PromGX was built to investigate how the propeptide controls the activity of GX sPLA(2). This model shows that the propeptide is located within the interfacial binding site (i-face) and could disrupt both the interfacial binding of the enzyme and the access to the active site by steric hindrance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS

  9. Dietary effect on mixed function P450 1A2 activity assayed by estimation of caffeine metabolism in man.

    PubMed

    Kall, M A; Clausen, J

    1995-10-01

    Two studies were performed in order to evaluate cytochrome P450 1A2 mediated caffeine metabolism during different nutritional conditions. 1. In the first study, 23 healthy male non-smokers, mean age 25, changed from a customary mixed diet to a standard diet in 6 days. The 6 day's standard diet was based on bread, potatoes, rice and boiled meat. Thus, broccoli, cabbage and other cruciferous vegetables, spinach, leeks, onion, parsley, grapefruit, toasted bread, fried and charcoal grilled food, smoked fish and meat, ham and sausages were avoided. 2. In the second study, 33 healthy non-smoking subjects, 24 men and nine women mean age 25 years, volunteered. The study was designed to compare a customary home dietary period with the 6 day period of low dietary P450 induction and with a 5 day supplementary dietary period, i.e. ingestion of known dietary inducers. None of the women were using oral contraceptives or were pregnant during the experimental period. In the period of diet supplementation, the volunteers received charcoal grilled hamburger as a supplement to the standard low induction diet for lunch for 5 days. The hamburgers were made with 150 g beef (18-20% fat) and were grilled on charcoal for 10 min on each side until they were 'well done'. In the present study P450 1A2 activity was estimated from the caffeine metabolic ratio, the so-called CYP 1A2 index:(AFMU + 1-MX + 1-MU/ 17 -DMU) of the caffeine metabolites formed after oral ingestion of 200 mg caffeine. Urine was collected 4-8 h after caffeine ingestion in study 1 and 5 h after caffeine ingestion in study 2. In study 1 the CYP 1A2 index decreased from 4.28 +/- 0.98 in the customary home dietary period to 3.87 +/- 0.69 in the standard dietary period corresponding to 10.6% (P < 0.06) decrease in the CYP 1A2 index. In study 2 the CYP 1A2 index decreased from 4.47 +/- 1.76 in the customary home dietary period to 3.90 +/- 1.12 in the standard dietary period corresponding to a 14.6% decrease (P < 0.2) in P450 1A

  10. Inhibition of Procarcinogen Activating Enzyme CYP1A2 Activity and Free Radical Formation by Caffeic Acid and its Amide Analogues.

    PubMed

    Narongchai, Paitoon; Niwatananun, Kanokporn; Narongchai, Siripun; Kusirisin, Winthana; Jaikang, Churdsak

    2016-01-01

    Caffeic acid (CAF) and its amide analogues, ethyl 1-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) propen amide (EDPA), phenethyl 1-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) propen amide (PEDPA), phenmethyl 1- (3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) propen amide (PMDPA) and octyl 1-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) propen amide (ODPA) were investigated for the inhibition of procarcinogen activating enzyme. CYP1A2 and scavenging activity on formation of nitric oxide, superoxide anion, DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical. It was found that they inhibited CYP1A2 enzyme by uncompetitive inhibition. Apparent Ki values of CAF, EDPA, PEDPA, PMDPA and ODPA were 0.59, 0.39, 0.45, 0.75 and 0.80 µM, respectively suggesting potent inhibitors of CYP1A2. Moreover, they potentially scavenged nitric oxide radical with IC 50 values of 0.12, 0.22, 0.28, 0.22 and 0.51 mM, respectively. The IC50 values of superoxide anion scavenging were 0.20, 0.22, 0.44, 2.18 and 2.50 mM, respectively. 1, 1- diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging ability, shown as IC50 values, were 0.41, 0.29, 0.30, 0.89 and 0.84 mM, respectively. Moreover, the hydroxyl radical scavenging in vitro model was shown as IC50 values of 23.22, 21.06, 17.10, 17.21 and 15.81 µM, respectively. From our results, caffeic acid and its amide analogues are in vitro inhibitors of human CYP1A2 catalytic activity and free radical formation. They may be useful to be developed as potential chemopreventive agents that block CYP1A2-mediated chemical carcinogenesis.

  11. Dimethyl ester of bilirubin exhibits anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of secretory phospholipase A2, lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Vikram; Umashankara, M; Ramakrishnan, Chandrasekaran; Nanjaraj Urs, Ankanahalli N; Suvilesh, Kanve Nagaraj; Velmurugan, Devadasan; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S; Vishwanath, Bannikuppe Sannanaik

    2016-05-15

    Overproduction of arachidonic acid (AA) mediated by secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (sPLA2IIA) is a hallmark of many inflammatory disorders. AA is subsequently converted into pro-inflammatory eicosanoids through 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and cyclooxygenase-1/2 (COX-1/2) activities. Hence, inhibition of sPLA2IIA, 5-LOX and COX-1/2 activities is critical in regulating inflammation. We have previously reported unconjugated bilirubin (UCB), an endogenous antioxidant, as sPLA2IIA inhibitor. However, lipophilic UCB gets conjugated in liver with glucuronic acid into hydrophilic conjugated bilirubin (CB). Since hydrophobicity is pre-requisite for sPLA2IIA inhibition, conjugation reduces the efficacy of UCB. In this regard, UCB was chemically modified and derivatives were evaluated for sPLA2IIA, 5-LOX and COX-1/2 inhibition. Among the derivatives, BD1 (dimethyl ester of bilirubin) exhibited ∼ 3 fold greater inhibitory potency towards sPLA2IIA compared to UCB. Both UCB and BD1 inhibited human 5-LOX and COX-2 activities; however only BD1 inhibited AA induced platelet aggregation. Molecular docking studies demonstrated BD1 as better inhibitor of aforesaid enzymes than UCB and other endogenous antioxidants. These data suggest that BD1 exhibits strong anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of AA cascade enzymes which is of great therapeutic importance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Endothelin-1 activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and cytosolic phospholipase A2 in cat iris sphincter smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Husain, S; Abdel-Latif, A A

    1999-08-15

    We have shown previously that cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) is responsible for endothelin-1-induced release of arachidonic acid for prostaglandin synthesis in cat iris sphincter smooth muscle (CISM) cells [Husain and Abdel-Latif (1998) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1392, 127-144]. Here we show that p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, but not p42/p44 MAP kinases, plays an important role in the phosphorylation and activation of cPLA(2) in endothelin-1-stimulated CISM cells. This conclusion is supported by the following findings. Both p38 MAP kinase and p42/p44 MAP kinases were present in the CISM cells and both were activated by endothelin-1. SB203580, a potent specific inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, but not the p42/p44 MAP kinases specific inhibitor, PD98059, markedly suppressed endothelin-1-enhanced cPLA(2) phosphorylation, cPLA(2) activity and arachidonic acid release. The addition of endothelin-1 resulted in the phosphorylation and activation of cPLA(2). Endothelin-1 stimulated p38 MAP kinase activity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, and these effects were mediated through the endothelin-A receptor subtype. The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, RO 31-8220, had no inhibitory effect on endothelin-1-induced p38 MAP kinase activation, suggesting that endothelin-1 activation of p38 MAP kinase is independent of PKC. Pertussis toxin inhibited both endothelin-1 and mastoparan stimulation of p38 MAP kinase activity and arachidonic acid release. The inhibitory effects of pertussis toxin are not mediated through cAMP formation. Mastoparan-stimulated [(3)H]arachidonic acid release and cPLA(2) activation was inhibited by SB203580, but not by RO 31-8220. These data suggest that endothelin-1 binds to the endothelin-A receptor to activate the Gi-protein which, through a series of kinases, leads to the activation of p38 MAP kinase and subsequently to phosphorylation and activation of cPLA(2). Activation of cPLA(2) leads to the liberation of arachidonic acid

  13. Endothelin-1 activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and cytosolic phospholipase A2 in cat iris sphincter smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Husain, S; Abdel-Latif, A A

    1999-01-01

    We have shown previously that cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) is responsible for endothelin-1-induced release of arachidonic acid for prostaglandin synthesis in cat iris sphincter smooth muscle (CISM) cells [Husain and Abdel-Latif (1998) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1392, 127-144]. Here we show that p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, but not p42/p44 MAP kinases, plays an important role in the phosphorylation and activation of cPLA(2) in endothelin-1-stimulated CISM cells. This conclusion is supported by the following findings. Both p38 MAP kinase and p42/p44 MAP kinases were present in the CISM cells and both were activated by endothelin-1. SB203580, a potent specific inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, but not the p42/p44 MAP kinases specific inhibitor, PD98059, markedly suppressed endothelin-1-enhanced cPLA(2) phosphorylation, cPLA(2) activity and arachidonic acid release. The addition of endothelin-1 resulted in the phosphorylation and activation of cPLA(2). Endothelin-1 stimulated p38 MAP kinase activity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, and these effects were mediated through the endothelin-A receptor subtype. The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, RO 31-8220, had no inhibitory effect on endothelin-1-induced p38 MAP kinase activation, suggesting that endothelin-1 activation of p38 MAP kinase is independent of PKC. Pertussis toxin inhibited both endothelin-1 and mastoparan stimulation of p38 MAP kinase activity and arachidonic acid release. The inhibitory effects of pertussis toxin are not mediated through cAMP formation. Mastoparan-stimulated [(3)H]arachidonic acid release and cPLA(2) activation was inhibited by SB203580, but not by RO 31-8220. These data suggest that endothelin-1 binds to the endothelin-A receptor to activate the Gi-protein which, through a series of kinases, leads to the activation of p38 MAP kinase and subsequently to phosphorylation and activation of cPLA(2). Activation of cPLA(2) leads to the liberation of arachidonic acid

  14. Beneficial Role of Erythrocyte Adenosine A2B Receptor-Mediated AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Activation in High-Altitude Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Zhang, Yujin; Wu, Hongyu; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Yegutkin, Gennady G; Song, Anren; Sun, Kaiqi; Li, Jessica; Cheng, Ning-Yuan; Huang, Aji; Edward Wen, Yuan; Weng, Ting Ting; Luo, Fayong; Nemkov, Travis; Sun, Hong; Kellems, Rodney E; Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Hansen, Kirk C; Zhao, Bihong; Subudhi, Andrew W; Jameson-Van Houten, Sonja; Julian, Colleen G; Lovering, Andrew T; Eltzschig, Holger K; Blackburn, Michael R; Roach, Robert C; Xia, Yang

    2016-08-02

    High altitude is a challenging condition caused by insufficient oxygen supply. Inability to adjust to hypoxia may lead to pulmonary edema, stroke, cardiovascular dysfunction, and even death. Thus, understanding the molecular basis of adaptation to high altitude may reveal novel therapeutics to counteract the detrimental consequences of hypoxia. Using high-throughput, unbiased metabolomic profiling, we report that the metabolic pathway responsible for production of erythrocyte 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG), a negative allosteric regulator of hemoglobin-O2 binding affinity, was significantly induced in 21 healthy humans within 2 hours of arrival at 5260 m and further increased after 16 days at 5260 m. This finding led us to discover that plasma adenosine concentrations and soluble CD73 activity rapidly increased at high altitude and were associated with elevated erythrocyte 2,3-BPG levels and O2 releasing capacity. Mouse genetic studies demonstrated that elevated CD73 contributed to hypoxia-induced adenosine accumulation and that elevated adenosine-mediated erythrocyte A2B adenosine receptor activation was beneficial by inducing 2,3-BPG production and triggering O2 release to prevent multiple tissue hypoxia, inflammation, and pulmonary vascular leakage. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that erythrocyte AMP-activated protein kinase was activated in humans at high altitude and that AMP-activated protein kinase is a key protein functioning downstream of the A2B adenosine receptor, phosphorylating and activating BPG mutase and thus inducing 2,3-BPG production and O2 release from erythrocytes. Significantly, preclinical studies demonstrated that activation of AMP-activated protein kinase enhanced BPG mutase activation, 2,3-BPG production, and O2 release capacity in CD73-deficient mice, in erythrocyte-specific A2B adenosine receptor knockouts, and in wild-type mice and in turn reduced tissue hypoxia and inflammation. Together, human and mouse studies reveal novel

  15. ASYMMETRIC DIMETHYLARGININE LEVELS AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS MARKERS IN CUSHING SYNDROME.

    PubMed

    Ozsurekci, Cemile Gulbas; Akturk, Mujde; Ozkan, Cigdem; Gulbahar, Ozlem; Altinova, Alev Eroglu; Yalcin, Muhittin; Arslan, Emre; Toruner, Fusun

    2016-09-01

    As a consequence of hypercortisolism, Cushing syndrome (CS) is frequently observed with other diseases that are associated with atherosclerosis, including diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the primary cause of mortality and morbidity in CS. We investigate CVD risk markers such as asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), highsensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), homocysteine, lipid levels, ankle-brachial index (ABI), and carotid intimamedia thickness (CIMT) in CS. Our study included 27 patients with CS and 27 age-, sex-, body mass index (BMI)-, and comorbid disease-matched control subjects. Plasma ADMA levels were significantly lower in the CS group than the control group (P = .013). Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein A1 and apolipoprotein B levels were higher in patients with CS than the control group (P<.05). We did not find any statistically significant differences in levels of hsCRP, Lp-PLA2, or homocysteine or CIMT and ABI measurements between the CS group and comorbidity-matched control group (P>.05). We found that ADMA levels were lower in CS, the finding that should be further investigated. Levels of hsCRP, Lp-PLA2, and homocysteine levels and CIMT and ABI measurements were similar between the CS group and comorbidity-matched control group. None of these markers was prominent to show an increased risk of CVD in CS, independent of the comorbidities of CS. ABI = ankle-brachial index Apo = apolipoprotein ADMA = asymmetric dimethylarginine BMI = body mass index CVD = cardiovascular disease CIMT = carotid intima-media thickness CS = Cushing syndrome DM = diabetes mellitus DDAH = dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase ELISA = enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay HDL = high-density lipoprotein hsCRP = high-sensitive C-reactive protein HOMA-IR = homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance HT

  16. Activation of Akt is essential for the propagation of mitochondrial respiratory stress signaling and activation of the transcriptional coactivator heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein A2.

    PubMed

    Guha, Manti; Fang, Ji-Kang; Monks, Robert; Birnbaum, Morris J; Avadhani, Narayan G

    2010-10-15

    Mitochondrial respiratory stress (also called mitochondrial retrograde signaling) activates a Ca(2+)/calcineurin-mediated signal that culminates in transcription activation/repression of a large number of nuclear genes. This signal is propagated through activation of the regulatory proteins NFκB c-Rel/p50, C/EBPδ, CREB, and NFAT. Additionally, the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein A2 (hnRNPA2) functions as a coactivator in up-regulating the transcription of Cathepsin L, RyR1, and Glut-4, the target genes of stress signaling. Activation of IGF1R, which causes a metabolic switch to glycolysis, cell invasiveness, and resistance to apoptosis, is a phenotypic hallmark of C2C12 myoblasts subjected to mitochondrial stress. In this study, we report that mitochondrial stress leads to increased expression, activation, and nuclear localization of Akt1. Mitochondrial respiratory stress also activates Akt1-gene expression, which involves hnRNPA2 as a coactivator, indicating a complex interdependency of these two factors. Using Akt1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts and Akt1 mRNA-silenced C2C12 cells, we show that Akt1-mediated phosphorylation is crucial for the activation and recruitment of hnRNPA2 to the enhanceosome complex. Akt1 mRNA silencing in mtDNA-depleted cells resulted in reversal of the invasive phenotype, accompanied by sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli. These results show that Akt1 is an important regulator of the nuclear transcriptional response to mitochondrial stress.

  17. Activation of farnesoid X receptor promotes triglycerides lowering by suppressing phospholipase A2 G12B expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingli; Yang, Meng; Fu, Xuekun; Liu, Renzhong; Sun, Caijun; Pan, Haobo; Wong, Chi-Wai; Guan, Min

    2016-11-15

    As a novel mediator of hepatic very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) secretion, phospholipase A2 G12B (PLA2G12B) is transcriptionally regulated by hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 alpha (HNF-4α). Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays a critical role in maintaining bile acids and triglycerides (TG) homeostasis. Here we report that FXR regulates serum TG level in part through PLA2G12B. Activation of FXR by chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) or GW4064 significantly decreased PLA2G12B expression in HepG2 cells. PLA2G12B expression was transcriptionally repressed due to an FXR-mediated up-regulation of small heterodimer partner (SHP) which functionally suppresses HNF-4α activity. We found that hepatic PLA2G12B expression was suppressed and serum TG level reduced in high fat diet mice treated with CDCA. Concurrently, CDCA treatment lowered hepatic VLDL-TG secretion. Our data demonstrate that activation of FXR promotes TG lowering, not only by decreasing de novo lipogenesis but also reducing hepatic secretion of TG-rich VLDL particles in part through suppressing PLA2G12B expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Neurotoxicity and other pharmacological activities of the snake venom phospholipase A2 OS2: The N-terminal region is more important than enzymatic activity

    PubMed Central

    Rouault, Morgane; Rash, Lachlan D.; Escoubas, Pierre; Boilard, Eric; Bollinger, James; Lomonte, Bruno; Maurin, Thomas; Guillaume, Carole; Canaan, Stéphane; Deregnaucourt, Christiane; Schrével, Joseph; Doglio, Alain; Gutiérrez, José María; Lazdunski, Michel; Gelb, Michael H.; Lambeau, Gérard

    2009-01-01

    Several snake venom secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) including OS2 exert a variety of pharmacological effects ranging from central neurotoxicity to anti-HIV activity by mechanisms that are not yet fully understood. To conclusively address the role of enzymatic activity and map the key structural elements of OS2 responsible for its pharmacological properties, we have prepared single point OS2 mutants at the catalytic site and large chimeras between OS2 and OS1, an homologous but non toxic sPLA2. Most importantly, we found that the enzymatic activity of the active site mutant H48Q is 500-fold lower than that of the wild-type protein, while central neurotoxicity is only 16-fold lower, providing convincing evidence that catalytic activity is at most a minor factor that determines central neurotoxicity. The chimera approach has identified the N-terminal region (residues 1–22) of OS2, but not the central one (residues 58–89), as crucial for both enzymatic activity and pharmacological effects. The C-terminal region of OS2 (residues 102–119) was found to be critical for enzymatic activity, but not for central neurotoxicity and anti-HIV activity, allowing us to further dissociate enzymatic activity and pharmacological effects. Finally, direct binding studies with the C-terminal chimera which poorly binds to phospholipids while it is still neurotoxic, led to the identification of a subset of brain N-type receptors which may be directly involved in central neurotoxicity. PMID:16669624

  19. Caffeine based measures of CYP1A2 activity correlate with oral clearance of tacrine in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Robert J; deVries, Tina M; Woolf, Thomas F; Knapp, Margaret J; Brown, AS; Kaminsky, Laurence S; Tang, Bing-Kuo; Foster, Norman L; Brown, Richard R; Watkins, Paul B

    1998-01-01

    Aims To study the potential utility of caffeine based probes of CYP1A2 enzyme activity in predicting the pharmokinetics of tacrine in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Methods The pharmokinetics of a single 40 mg oral dose of tacrine were measured in 19 patients with Alzheimer's disease. Each patient also received 2 mg kg−1 [13C-3-methyl] caffeine orally and had breath and urine samples collected. Results Tacrine oral clearance (CL F−1 kg−1 ), which varied 15-fold among the patients, correlated significantly with the 2 h total production of 13CO2 in breath (r=0.56, P=0.01), and with each of two commonly used urinary caffeine metabolite ratios: the raxanthine/caffeine ratio’ (1,7X+1, 7U)/1,3,7X) (r=0.76, P=0.0002) and the ‘caffeine metabolic ratio’ (AFMU+1X+1U)/1, 7U)(r=0.76, P=0.0001). Conclusions These observations support a central role for CYP1A2 in the in vivo disposition of tacrine and the potential for drug interactions when tacrine treated patients receive known inducers or inhibitors of this enzyme. The magnitude of the correlations we observed, however, are probably not suffcient to be clinically useful in individualizing tacrine therapy. PMID:9764962

  20. Phospholipase A2 activation as a therapeutic approach for cognitive enhancement in early-stage Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Evelin L; Forlenza, Orestes V; Gattaz, Wagner F

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly and has no known cure. Evidence suggests that reduced activity of specific subtypes of intracellular phospholipases A2 (cPLA2 and iPLA2) is an early event in AD and may contribute to memory impairment and neuropathology in the disease. The objective of this study was to review the literature focusing on the therapeutic role of PLA2 stimulation by cognitive training and positive modulators, or of supplementation with arachidonic acid (PLA2 product) in facilitating memory function and synaptic transmission and plasticity in either research animals or human subjects. MEDLINE database was searched (no date restrictions) for published articles using the keywords Alzheimer disease (mild, moderate, severe), mild cognitive impairment, healthy elderly, rats, mice, phospholipase A(2), phospholipid metabolism, phosphatidylcholine, arachidonic acid, cognitive training, learning, memory, long-term potentiation, protein kinases, dietary lipid compounds, cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and neuritogenesis. Reference lists of the identified articles were checked to select additional studies of interest. Overall, the data suggest that PLA2 activation is induced in the healthy brain during learning and memory. Furthermore, learning seems to regulate endogenous neurogenesis, which has been observed in AD brains. Finally, PLA2 appears to be implicated in homeostatic processes related to neurite outgrowth and differentiation in both neurodevelopmental processes and response to neuronal injury. The use of positive modulators of PLA2 (especially of cPLA2 and iPLA2) or supplementation with dietary lipid compounds (e.g., arachidonic acid) in combination with cognitive training could be a valuable therapeutic strategy for cognitive enhancement in early-stage AD.

  1. Impact of Assay conditions on activity estimate and kinetics comparison of Aspergillus niger PhyA and Escherichia coli AppA2 phytases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was to compare three phytase activity assays and kinetics of Aspergillus niger PhyA and Escherichia coli AppA2 phytases expressed in Pichia pastoris at the observed stomach pH of 3.5. In Experiment 1, equivalent phytase activities in the crude preparations of PhyA and AppA2 were tested ...

  2. 26 CFR 1.367(a)-2 - Exception for transfers of property for use in the active conduct of a trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exception for transfers of property for use in the active conduct of a trade or business. 1.367(a)-2 Section 1.367(a)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Effects on Corporation § 1.367(a)-2 Exception for transfers of property for use in the active conduct of a...

  3. Phospholipase A2 activity-dependent and -independent fusogenic activity of Naja nigricollis CMS-9 on zwitterionic and anionic phospholipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Yi-Ling; Chen, Ying-Jung; Lin, Shinne-Ren; Chang, Long-Sen

    2011-11-01

    CMS-9, a phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) from Naja nigricollis venom, induced the death of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells accompanied with the formation of cell clumps without clear boundaries between cells. Annexin V-FITC staining indicated that abundant phosphatidylserine appeared on the outer membrane of MCF-7 cell clumps, implying the possibility that CMS-9 may promote membrane fusion via anionic phospholipids. To validate this proposition, fusogenic activity of CMS-9 on vesicles composed of zwitterionic phospholipid alone or a combination of zwitterionic and anionic phospholipids was examined. Although CMS-9-induced fusion of zwitterionic phospholipid vesicles depended on PLA(2) activity, CMS-9-induced fusion of vesicles containing anionic phospholipids could occur without the involvement of PLA(2) activity. Membrane-damaging activity of CMS-9 was associated with its fusogenicity. Moreover, CMS-9 induced differently membrane leakage and membrane fusion of vesicles with different compositions. Membrane fluidity and binding capability with phospholipid vesicles were not related to the fusogenicity of CMS-9. However, membrane-bound conformation and mode of CMS-9 depended on phospholipid compositions. Collectively, our data suggest that PLA(2) activity-dependent and -independent fusogenicity of CMS-9 are closely related to its membrane-bound modes and targeted membrane compositions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Activation of microglial cells triggers a release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) inducing their proliferation in an adenosine A2A receptor-dependent manner: A2A receptor blockade prevents BDNF release and proliferation of microglia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to control microglial responses in neuropathic pain. Since adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) control neuroinflammation, as well as the production and function of BDNF, we tested to see if A2AR controls the microglia-dependent secretion of BDNF and the proliferation of microglial cells, a crucial event in neuroinflammation. Methods Murine N9 microglial cells were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 ng/mL) in the absence or in the presence of the A2AR antagonist, SCH58261 (50 nM), as well as other modulators of A2AR signaling. The BDNF cellular content and secretion were quantified by Western blotting and ELISA, A2AR density was probed by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry and cell proliferation was assessed by BrdU incorporation. Additionally, the A2AR modulation of LPS-driven cell proliferation was also tested in primary cultures of mouse microglia. Results LPS induced time-dependent changes of the intra- and extracellular levels of BDNF and increased microglial proliferation. The maximal LPS-induced BDNF release was time-coincident with an LPS-induced increase of the A2AR density. Notably, removing endogenous extracellular adenosine or blocking A2AR prevented the LPS-mediated increase of both BDNF secretion and proliferation, as well as exogenous BDNF-induced proliferation. Conclusions We conclude that A2AR activation plays a mandatory role controlling the release of BDNF from activated microglia, as well as the autocrine/paracrine proliferative role of BDNF. PMID:23363775

  5. Pressure Modulation of the Enzymatic Activity of Phospholipase A2, A Putative Membrane-Associated Pressure Sensor.

    PubMed

    Suladze, Saba; Cinar, Suleyman; Sperlich, Benjamin; Winter, Roland

    2015-10-07

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) catalyze the hydrolysis reaction of sn-2 fatty acids of membrane phospholipids and are also involved in receptor signaling and transcriptional pathways. Here, we used pressure modulation of the PLA2 activity and of the membrane's physical-chemical properties to reveal new mechanistic information about the membrane association and subsequent enzymatic reaction of PLA2. Although the effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on aqueous soluble and integral membrane proteins has been investigated to some extent, its effect on enzymatic reactions operating at the water/lipid interface has not been explored, yet. This study focuses on the effect of HHP on the structure, membrane binding and enzymatic activity of membrane-associated bee venom PLA2, covering a pressure range up to 2 kbar. To this end, high-pressure Fourier-transform infrared and high-pressure stopped-flow fluorescence spectroscopies were applied. The results show that PLA2 binding to model biomembranes is not significantly affected by pressure and occurs in at least two kinetically distinct steps. Followed by fast initial membrane association, structural reorganization of α-helical segments of PLA2 takes place at the lipid water interface. FRET-based activity measurements reveal that pressure has a marked inhibitory effect on the lipid hydrolysis rate, which decreases by 75% upon compression up to 2 kbar. Lipid hydrolysis under extreme environmental conditions, such as those encountered in the deep sea where pressures up to the kbar-level are encountered, is hence markedly affected by HHP, rendering PLA2, next to being a primary osmosensor, a good candidate for a sensitive pressure sensor in vivo.

  6. The secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA: a missing link between inflammation, activated renin-angiotensin system, and atherogenesis?

    PubMed

    Divchev, Dimitar; Schieffer, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    Inflammation, lipid peroxidation and chronic activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are hallmarks of the development of atherosclerosis. Recent studies have suggested the involvement of the pro-inflammatory secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2))-IIA in atherogenesis. This enzyme is produced by different cell types through stimulation by pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is detectable in the intima and in media smooth muscle cells, not only in atherosclerotic lesions but also in the very early stages of atherogenesis. sPLA(2)-IIA can hydrolyse the phospholipid monolayers of low density lipoproteins (LDL). Such modified LDL show increased affinity to proteoglycans. The modified particles have a greater tendency to aggregate and an enhanced ability to insert cholesterol into cells. This modification may promote macrophage LDL uptake leading to the formation of foam cells. Furthermore, sPLA(2)-IIA is not only a mediator for localized inflammation but may be also used as an independent predictor of adverse outcomes in patients with stable coronary artery disease or acute coronary syndromes. An interaction between activated RAS and phospholipases has been indicated by observations showing that inhibitors of sPLA(2) decrease angiotensin (Ang) II-induced macrophage lipid peroxidation. Meanwhile, various interactions between Ang II and oxLDL have been demonstrated suggesting a central role of sPLA(2)-IIA in these processes and offering a possible target for treatment. The role of sPLA(2)-IIA in the perpetuation of atherosclerosis appears to be the missing link between inflammation, activated RAS and lipid peroxidation.

  7. Neutralizing properties of Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) juice on phospholipase A2, myotoxic, hemorrhagic and lethal activities of crotalidae venoms.

    PubMed

    Borges, M H; Alves, D L F; Raslan, D S; Piló-Veloso, D; Rodrigues, V M; Homsi-Brandeburgo, M I; de Lima, M E

    2005-04-08

    The use of plants as medicine has been referred to since ancient peoples, perhaps as early as Neanderthal man. Plants are a source of many biologically active products and nowadays they are of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry. The study of how people of different culture use plants in particular ways has led to the discovery of important new medicines. In this work, we verify the possible activity of Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) against the toxicity of snake venoms. Musa paradisiaca, an important source of food in the world, has also been reported to be popularly used as an anti-venom. Interaction of Musa paradisiaca extract (MsE) with snake venom proteins has been examined in this study. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2), myotoxic and hemorrhagic activities, including lethality in mice, induced by crotalidae venoms were significantly inhibited when different amounts of MsE were mixed with these venoms before assays. On the other hand, mice that received MsE and venoms without previous mixture or by separated routes were not protected against venom toxicity. Partial chemical characterization of MsE showed the presence of polyphenols and tannins and they are known to non-specifically inactivate proteins. We suggest that these compounds can be responsible for the in vitro inhibition of the toxic effects of snake venoms. In conclusion, according to our results, using mice as experimental model, MsE does not show protection against the toxic effects of snake venoms in vivo, but if was very effective when the experiments were done in vitro.

  8. Correlations between endotoxin, interferon-gamma, biopterin and serum phospholipase A2-activities during lethal gram negative sepsis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hunsicker, A; Kullich, W; Weissenhofer, W; Lorenz, D; Petermann, J; Rokos, H; Schwesinger, G

    1997-05-01

    To establish a standardised reproducible animal model of intraperitoneal sepsis, and to investigate early immunoserological responses to find a mediator-based system for evaluation and grading of diffuse peritonitis in patients Prospective experimental study 4 Teaching hospitals, Germany and Austria 42 LEW. 1W rats, 12 of which acted as controls Gram negative sepsis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 6 ml of a mixture of Escherichia coli (K1:H+) 10(10) organisms/ml, autogenous haemoglobin 2.9 ml (haemoglobin concentration 3%), 0.9% sodium chloride 3 ml, and suspension 0.1 ml. Control rats were given physiological saline 6 ml alone. Concentrations of endotoxin, interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), and biopterin, and serum phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity. There were significant differences between the septic and control rats in concentrations of endotoxin (EU/ml) (median (interquartile range) 21.85 (2.02-159.5) compared with 0, p < 0.0001; IFN-gamma (pg/ml) 1263.0 (271.0-7575.0) compared with 101.0 (89.0-141.0), p < 0.0001; biopterin (nmol/L) 111.0 (66.4-156.3) compared with 53.7 (38.3-67.6), p < 0.001; and PLA2 (U/L) 163.0 (125.8-209.0) compared with 112.5 (88.5-126.5) p < 0.01. Measurements of concentrations of endotoxin, IFN-gamma, pteridines, and PLA2 activity may well be adequate markers for early recognition of sepsis, and perhaps for grading it during the first 6 hours after induction. The allow a clear distinction to be made between septic and non-septic disorders in 87% of cases.

  9. Release of carrot plasma membrane-associated phosphatidylinositol kinase by phospholipase A2 and activation by a 70 kDa protein.

    PubMed

    Gross, W; Yang, W; Boss, W F

    1992-02-19

    Plasma membranes were isolated from carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells grown in suspension culture and treated with phospholipase A2 from snake or bee venom for 10 min. As a result of this treatment, phosphatidylinositol kinase activity was recovered in the soluble fraction. There was no detectable diacylglycerol kinase or phosphatidylinositol monophosphate kinase activity released from the membranes after the phospholipase A2 treatment. Treating the plasma membranes with phospholipase C or D did not release PI kinase activity. The phospholipase A2-released PI kinase was activated over 2-fold by a heat stable, soluble 70 kDa protein. The partially purified 70 kDa activator increases the Vmax but does not affect the Km of the phospholipase A2-released PI kinase.

  10. Ceruleotoxin: identification in the venom of Bungarus fasciatus, molecular properties and importance of phospholipase A2 activity for neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bon, C; Saliou, B

    1983-01-01

    Ceruleotoxin is a potent neurotoxin which was originally purified from a batch of venom labelled Bungarus caeruleus, from the Pasteur Institute. Since NOBLE et al. have shown that this batch differs in its protein composition from that of B. caeruleus provided by Miami Serpentarium, we decided to clarify this point by comparing the composition of venoms from various Bungarus species of several origins. Although individual variations exist between samples of the same species, the venom from B. multicinctus, B. caeruleus and B. fasciatus possess characteristic protein compositions which allowed us to identify the batch used to purify ceruleotoxin as a B. fasciatus venom. We identified and purified ceruleotoxin from each of the five samples of B. fasciatus venoms tested. We failed to find this neurotoxin in either B. multicinctus or B. caeruleus venoms. Purified ceruleotoxin is a slightly basic protein with an isoelectric point of 7.4 which possesses a significant phospholipase A2 activity (200 mumoles lecithin hydrolyzed per min per mg) and a high lethal potency (i.v. LD50 in mice 0.03-0.07 mg/kg). It is composed of two identical subunits of 13,000 mol. wt. which resemble pancreas and snake venom phospholipases in their amino acid composition. Like crotoxin, ceruleotoxin irreversibly blocks the postsynaptic response of Torpedo and Electrophorus electroplaques to cholinergic agonists without preventing the binding of acetylcholine to its receptor. By hydrolyzing critical lipids of the postsynaptic membrane, it stabilizes the acetylcholine receptor - ionophore assembly in a desensitized state.

  11. Trichomonas vaginalis: identification of soluble and membrane-associated phospholipase A1 and A2 activities with direct and indirect hemolytic effects.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito David; Palacios-Corona, Rebeca; González-Salazar, Francisco; Cortes-Gutierrez, Elva I; Martínez-Rodríguez, Herminia G; Said-Fernández, Salvador

    2005-02-01

    A direct hemolytic activity, dependent on phospholipase A (PLA) activity, was located in the particulate subcellular fraction (P30) of Trichomonas vaginalis. We identified soluble direct and indirect hemolytic activities in the spent medium and soluble fraction (S30) of T. vaginalis strain GT-13. Spent medium showed the highest specific indirect hemolytic activity (SIHA) at pH 6.0 (91 indirect hemolytic units [HU]/mg/hr). Spent medium and P30, but not S30, showed direct hemolytic activity. PLA activity was protein dose dependent and time dependent. The highest PLA activity was observed at pH 6.0. All trichomonad preparations showed phospholipase A1 (PLA A1) and phospholipase A2 (PLA A2) activities. Indirect and direct hemolytic activity and PLA A1 and PLA A2 diminished at pH 6.0 and 8.0 with increasing concentrations of Rosenthal's inhibitor. The greatest effect was observed with 80 microM at pH 6.0 on the SIHA of S30 (83% reduction) and the lowest at pH 8.0, also on the SIHA of S30 (26% reduction). In conclusion, T. vaginalis contains particulate and soluble acidic, and alkaline direct and indirect hemolytic activities, which are partially dependent on alkaline or acidic PLA A1 and PLA A2 enzymes. These could be responsible for the contact-dependent and -independent hemolytic and cytolytic activities of T. vaginalis.

  12. Guanosine may increase absence epileptic activity by means of A2A adenosine receptors in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk rats.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Renáta Krisztina; Dobolyi, Árpád; Todorov, Mihail Ivilinov; Kékesi, Katalin A; Juhász, Gábor; Aleksza, Magdolna; Kovács, Zsolt

    2016-06-01

    The non-adenosine nucleoside guanosine (Guo) was demonstrated to decrease quinolinic acid(QA)-induced seizures, spontaneously emerged absence epileptic seizures and lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-evoked induction of absence epileptic seizures suggesting its antiepileptic potential. It was also described previously that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 20 and 50mg/kg Guo decreased the number of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in a well investigated model of human absence epilepsy, the Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats during 4th (20mg/kg Guo) and 3rd as well as 4th (50mg/kg Guo) measuring hours. Guanosine can potentially decrease SWD number by means of its putative receptors but absence epileptic activity changing effects of Guo by means of increased extracellular adenosine (Ado) cannot be excluded. An increase in the dose of i.p. injected Guo is limited by its low solubility in saline, therefore, we addressed in the present study whether higher doses of Guo, diluted in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution, have more potent antiepileptic effect in WAG/Rij rats. We confirmed that i.p. 50mg/kg Guo decreased but, surprisingly, i.p. 100mg/kg Guo enhanced the number of SWDs in WAG/Rij rats. Combined i.p. injection of a non-selective Ado receptor antagonist theophylline (5mg/kg) or a selective Ado A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonist SCH 58261 (7-(2-phenylethyl)-5-amino-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo-[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine) (1mg/kg) and a cyclooxygenase 1 and 2/COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitor indomethacin (10mg/kg) with 100mg/kg Guo decreased the SWD number compared to i.p. 100mg/kg Guo alone. The results suggest that i.p. 100mg/kg Guo can increase SWD number by means of the adenosinergic system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity Effector-Enhanced EphA2 Agonist Monoclonal Antibody Demonstrates Potent Activity against Human Tumors1

    PubMed Central

    Bruckheimer, Elizabeth M; Fazenbaker, Christine A; Gallagher, Sandra; Mulgrew, Kathy; Fuhrmann, Stacy; Coffman, Karen T; Walsh, William; Ready, Shannon; Cook, Kim; Damschroder, Melissa; Kinch, Michael; Kiener, Peter A; Woods, Rob; Gao, Changshou; Dall'Acqua, William; Wu, Herren; Coats, Steven

    2009-01-01

    EphA2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase that has been shown to be overexpressed in a variety of human tumor types. Previous studies demonstrated that agonist monoclonal antibodies targeting EphA2 induced the internalization and degradation of the receptor, thereby abolishing its oncogenic effects. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity of EphA2 effector-enhanced agonist monoclonal antibodies was evaluated. With tumor cell lines and healthy human peripheral blood monocytes, the EphA2 antibodies demonstrated ∼80% tumor cell killing. In a dose-dependent manner, natural killer (NK) cells were required for the in vitro ADCC activity and became activated as demonstrated by the induction of cell surface expression of CD107a. To assess the role of NK cells on antitumor efficacy in vivo, the EphA2 antibodies were evaluated in xenograft models in severe compromised immunodeficient (SCID) mice (which have functional NK cells and monocytes) and SCID nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice (which largely lack functional NK cells and monocytes). Dosing of EphA2 antibody in the SCID murine tumor model resulted in a 6.2-fold reduction in tumor volume, whereas the SCID/nonobese diabetic model showed a 1.6-fold reduction over the isotype controls. Together, these results demonstrate that the anti-EphA2 monoclonal antibodies may function through at least two mechanisms of action: EphA2 receptor activation and ADCC-mediated activity. These novel EphA2 monoclonal antibodies provide additional means by which host effector mechanisms can be activated for selective destruction of EphA2-expressing tumor cells. PMID:19484140

  14. 26 CFR 1.367(a)-2 - Exception for transfers of property for use in the active conduct of a trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exception for transfers of property for use in the active conduct of a trade or business. 1.367(a)-2 Section 1.367(a)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (Continued) Effects on Corporation § 1.367(a)-2 Exception...

  15. 26 CFR 1.367(a)-2T - Exception for transfers of property for use in the active conduct of a trade or business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exception for transfers of property for use in the active conduct of a trade or business (temporary). 1.367(a)-2T Section 1.367(a)-2T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Corporation § 1.367(a)-2T Exceptio...

  16. 26 CFR 1.367(a)-2 - Exception for transfers of property for use in the active conduct of a trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exception for transfers of property for use in the active conduct of a trade or business. 1.367(a)-2 Section 1.367(a)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Effects on Corporation § 1.367(a)-2 Exception...

  17. The phzA2-G2 Transcript Exhibits Direct RsmA-Mediated Activation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa M18

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Bin; Shen, Huifeng; Lu, Zhi John; Liu, Haiming; Xu, Yuquan

    2014-01-01

    In bacteria, RNA-binding proteins of the RsmA/CsrA family act as post-transcriptional regulators that modulate translation initiation at target transcripts. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa genome contains two phenazine biosynthetic (phz) gene clusters, phzA1-G1 (phz1) and phzA2-G2 (phz2), each of which is responsible for phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) biosynthesis. In the present study, we show that RsmA exhibits differential gene regulation on two phz clusters in P. aeruginosa M18 at the post-transcriptional level. Based on the sequence analysis, four GGA motifs, the potential RsmA binding sites, are found on the 5′-untranslated region (UTR) of the phz2 transcript. Studies with a series of lacZ reporter fusions, and gel mobility shift assays suggest that the third GGA motif (S3), located 21 nucleotides upstream of the Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence, is involved in direct RsmA-mediated activation of phz2 expression. We therefore propose a novel model in which the binding of RsmA to the target S3 results in the destabilization of the stem-loop structure and the enhancement of ribosome access. This model could be fully supported by RNA structure prediction, free energy calculations, and nucleotide replacement studies. In contrast, various RsmA-mediated translation repression mechanisms have been identified in which RsmA binds near the SD sequence of target transcripts, thereby blocking ribosome access. Similarly, RsmA is shown to negatively regulate phz1 expression. Our new findings suggest that the differential regulation exerted by RsmA on the two phz clusters may confer an advantage to P. aeruginosa over other pseudomonads containing only a single phz cluster in their genomes. PMID:24586939

  18. The effects of two phospholipase A2 inhibitors on the neuromuscular blocking activities of homologous phospholipases A2 from the venom of Pseudechis australis, the Australian king brown snake.

    PubMed

    Fatehi, M; Rowan, E G; Harvey, A L

    1995-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that homologous phospholipases A2 (PLA2) (Pa-3, Pa-9C, Pa-10F and Pa-11) from the venom of the Australian king brown snake, Pseudechis australis, significantly reduce the resting membrane potentials and quantal contents of endplate potentials recorded from endplate regions of mouse triangularis sterni nerve-muscle preparations. It is not clear whether PLA2 activity is essential for their neuromuscular activities. Therefore, pharmacological studies were carried out to determine whether neuromuscular activity of the toxins changed after treatment with the phospholipase A2 inhibitors 7,7-dimethyl-eicosadienoic acid (DEDA) and manoalide. After incubation of the toxins with manoalide (120 nM), or DEDA (50 microM), no PLA2 activity against 1-stearoyl 2-[3H]arachidonoylglycerophosphocholine was detected. After incubation with manoalide and/or DEDA, the toxins did not depolarize muscle fibre membranes up to 60 min after administration. However, manoalide and DEDA had different influences on the inhibitory effect of these toxic enzymes on acetylcholine release from nerve terminals. Manoalide abolished the inhibitory effect of the toxins on evoked release of acetylcholine. In contrast, DEDA was not able to prevent the reduction of quantal content of endplate potentials induced by the toxins. This study provides evidence that the depolarizing action and the inhibitory effect on release of acetylcholine exerted by these toxic PLA2 from king brown snake are independent phenomena. The evidence for this conclusion was that inhibition of enzymatic activity with an arachidonic acid analogue (DEDA) abolished the depolarizing effect of the toxins but not the effects on the quantal release of acetylcholine from mouse motor nerve terminals. The data suggest that the depolarizing effect of these toxins is probably due to the enzymatic activity. Since manoalide interacts with lysine residues of PLA2 polypeptides, and, as shown here, manoalide prevented

  19. Partnerships for Active Elementary Schools: Physical Education Outcomes after 4 Months of a 2-Year Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Webster, Collin; Egan, Catherine; Campos, Carolina; Michael, Robert D.; Crimarco, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the impact of Partnerships for Active Children in Elementary Schools (PACES) on children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during physical education (PE) and teachers' incorporation of physical activity promotion strategies after one academic semester (i.e. 4 months) of the intervention. Design: Single…

  20. An Anti-Parkinson’s Disease Drug via Targeting Adenosine A2A Receptor Enhances Amyloid-β Generation and γ-Secretase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohang; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Yue; Yang, Wenjuan; Chen, Ming; Zhao, Jian; Pei, Gang

    2016-01-01

    γ-secretase mediates the intramembranous proteolysis of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and determines the generation of Aβ which is associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here we identified that an anti-Parkinson’s disease drug, Istradefylline, could enhance Aβ generation in various cell lines and primary neuronal cells of APP/PS1 mouse. Moreover, the increased generation of Aβ42 was detected in the cortex of APP/PS1 mouse after chronic treatment with Istradefylline. Istradefylline promoted the activity of γ-secretase which could lead to increased Aβ production. These effects of Istradefylline were reduced by the knockdown of A2AR but independent of A2AR-mediated G protein- or β-arrestin-dependent signal pathway. We further observed that A2AR colocalized with γ-secretase in endosomes and physically interacted with the catalytic subunit presenilin-1 (PS1). Interestingly, Istradefylline attenuated the interaction in time- and dosage-dependent manners. Moreover the knockdown of A2AR which in theory would release PS1 potentiated both Aβ generation and γ-secretase activity. Thus, our study implies that the association of A2AR could modulate γ-secretase activity. Istradefylline enhance Aβ generation and γ-secretase activity possibly via modulating the interaction between A2AR and γ-secretase, which may bring some undesired effects in the central nervous system (CNS). PMID:27835671

  1. Relationship between two blood stasis syndromes and inflammatory factors in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cai-Yun; Liu, Jing-Hua; Liu, Jian-Xun; Shi, Da-Zhuo; Xu, Zhen-Ye; Wang, Shao-Ping; Jia, Min; Zhao, Fu-Hai; Jiang, Yue-Rong; Ma, Qin; Peng, Hong-Yu; Lu, Yuan; Zheng, Ze; Ren, Feng-Xue

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between inflammatory factors and two Chinese medicine (CM) syndrome types of qi stagnation and blood stasis (QSBS) and qi deficiency and blood stasis (QDBS) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Sixty subjects with ACS, whose pathogenesis changes belongs to qi disturbance blood stasis syndrome, were divided into 2 groups: 30 in the QSBS group and 30 in the QDBS group. The comparative analysis on them was carried out through comparing general information, coronary angiography and inflammatory factors including intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40) and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2). Compared with the QSBS group, Lp-PLA2 and YKL-40 levels in the QDBS group showed no-significant difference (P>0.05); ICAM-1 was significantly higher in the QDBS group than in the QSBS group in the pathological processes of qi disturbance and blood stasis syndrome of ACS (P<0.05). Inflammatory factor ICAM-1 may be an objective basis for syndrome typing of QSBS and QDBS, which provides a research direction for standardization research of CM syndrome types.

  2. Structure-activity relationships and mechanism of action of Eph-ephrin antagonists: interaction of cholanic acid with the EphA2 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Tognolini, Massimiliano; Incerti, Matteo; Mohamed, Iftiin Hassan; Giorgio, Carmine; Russo, Simonetta; Bruni, Renato; Lelli, Barbara; Bracci, Luisa; Noberini, Roberta; Pasquale, Elena B.; Barocelli, Elisabetta; Vicini, Paola; Mor, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The Eph–ephrin system, including the EphA2 receptor and the ephrin-A1 ligand, plays a critical role in tumor and vascular functions during carcinogenesis. We previously identified (3α,5β)-3-hydroxycholan-24-oic acid (lithocholic acid) as an Eph-ephrin antagonist able to inhibit EphA2 receptor activation and therefore potentially useful as a novel EphA2 receptor targeting agent. Here, we explore the structure-activity relationships of a focused set of lithocholic acid derivatives, based on molecular modelling investigation and displacement binding assays. Our exploration shows that while the 3-α-hydroxyl group of lithocholic acid has a negligible role in the recognition of the EphA2 receptor, its carboxylate group is critical for disrupting the binding of ephrin-A1 to the EphA2. As a result of our investigation, we identified (5β)-cholan-24-oic acid (cholanic acid) as a novel compound that competitively inhibits EphA2-ephrin-A1 interaction with higher potency than lithocholic acid. Surface plasmon resonance analysis indicates that cholanic acid binds specifically and reversibly to the ligand-binding domain of EphA2, with a steady-state dissociation constant (KD) in the low micromolar range. Furthermore, cholanic acid blocks the phosphorylation of EphA2 and cell retraction and rounding in PC3 prostate cancer cells, two effects that depend on EphA2 activation by the ephrin-A1 ligand. These findings suggest that cholanic acid can be used as a template structure to design effective EphA2 antagonists, with potential impact in the elucidation of the role played by this receptor in pathological conditions. PMID:22529030

  3. Effect of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) and ticlopidine on CYP1A2 activity and caffeine metabolism: an in vitro comparative study with human cDNA-expressed CYP1A2 and liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Kot, Marta; Daniel, Władysława A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the effect of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), which is regarded as a cytochrome P450 (CYP) CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 inhibitor, and ticlopidine, an efficient CYP2B6, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 inhibitor, on the activity of human CYP1A2 and the metabolism of caffeine (1-N-, 3-N- and 7-N-demethylation, and C-8-hydroxylation). The experiment was carried out in vitro using human cDNA-expressed CYP1A2 (Supersomes) and human pooled liver microsomes. The effects of DDC and ticlopidine were compared to those of furafylline (a strong CYP1A2 inhibitor). A comparative in vitro study provides clear evidence that ticlopidine and DDC, applied at concentrations that inhibit the above-mentioned CYP isoforms, potently (as compared to furafylline) inhibit human CYP1A2 and caffeine metabolism, in particular 1-N- and 3-N-demethylation.

  4. Fun with Foodella: A Pilot Study for Determining the Efficacy of a 2nd Grade Nutrition and Physical Activity Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Elizabeth M.; Stluka, Suzanne; Wells, Karlys; Wey, Howard; Kemmer, Teresa M.

    2012-01-01

    Fun with Foodella is a nutrition and physical activity workbook designed for elementary-aged youth. The objective was to determine if the Fun with Foodella program increased participant preference for fruit, vegetables, low-fat dairy products, and physical activity. Four intervention (53 students) and four control (68 students) schools…

  5. Clonal Evolution and Blast Crisis Correlate with Enhanced Proteolytic Activity of Separase in BCR-ABL b3a2 Fusion Type CML under Imatinib Therapy.

    PubMed

    Haaß, Wiltrud; Kleiner, Helga; Weiß, Christel; Haferlach, Claudia; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Müller, Martin C; Hehlmann, Rüdiger; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Fabarius, Alice; Seifarth, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Unbalanced (major route) additional cytogenetic aberrations (ACA) at diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) indicate an increased risk of progression and shorter survival. Moreover, newly arising ACA under imatinib treatment and clonal evolution are considered features of acceleration and define failure of therapy according to the European LeukemiaNet (ELN) recommendations. On the basis of 1151 Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic phase patients of the randomized CML-study IV, we examined the incidence of newly arising ACA under imatinib treatment with regard to the p210BCR-ABL breakpoint variants b2a2 and b3a2. We found a preferential acquisition of unbalanced ACA in patients with b3a2 vs. b2a2 fusion type (ratio: 6.3 vs. 1.6, p = 0.0246) concurring with a faster progress to blast crisis for b3a2 patients (p = 0.0124). ESPL1/Separase, a cysteine endopeptidase, is a key player in chromosomal segregation during mitosis. Separase overexpression and/or hyperactivity has been reported from a wide range of cancers and cause defective mitotic spindles, chromosome missegregation and aneuploidy. We investigated the influence of p210BCR-ABL breakpoint variants and imatinib treatment on expression and proteolytic activity of Separase as measured with a specific fluorogenic assay on CML cell lines (b2a2: KCL-22, BV-173; b3a2: K562, LAMA-84). Despite a drop in Separase protein levels an up to 5.4-fold increase of Separase activity under imatinib treatment was observed exclusively in b3a2 but not in b2a2 cell lines. Mimicking the influence of imatinib on BV-173 and LAMA-84 cells by ESPL1 silencing stimulated Separase proteolytic activity in both b3a2 and b2a2 cell lines. Our data suggest the existence of a fusion type-related feedback mechanism that posttranslationally stimulates Separase proteolytic activity after therapy-induced decreases in Separase protein levels. This could render b3a2 CML cells more prone to aneuploidy and clonal evolution than b2a2 progenitors

  6. Evaluation of antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like activity of purinedione-derivatives with affinity for adenosine A2A receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Dziubina, Anna; Szmyd, Karina; Zygmunt, Małgorzata; Sapa, Jacek; Dudek, Magdalena; Filipek, Barbara; Drabczyńska, Anna; Załuski, Michał; Pytka, Karolina; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-12-01

    It has recently been suggested that the adenosine A 2A receptor plays a role in several animal models of depression. Additionally, A 2A antagonists have reversed behavioral deficits and exhibited a profile similar to classical antidepressants. In the present study, imidazo- and pyrimido[2,1-f]purinedione derivatives (KD 66, KD 167, KD 206) with affinity to A 2A receptors but poor A 1 affinity were evaluated for their antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activity. The activity of these derivatives was tested using a tail suspension and forced swim test, two widely-used behavioral paradigms for the evaluation of antidepressant-like activity. In turn, the anxiolytic activity was evaluated using the four-plate test. The results showed the antidepressant-like activity of pyrimido- and imidazopurinedione derivatives (i.e. KD 66, KD 167 and KD 206) in acute and chronic behavioral tests in mice. KD 66 revealed an anxiolytic-like effect, while KD 167 increased anxiety behaviors. KD 206 had no effect on anxiety. Furthermore, none of the tested compounds increased locomotor activity. Available data support the proposition that the examined compounds with adenosine A 2A receptor affinity may be an interesting target for the development of antidepressant and/or anxiolytic agents. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  7. Polymorphisms of CYP1A2 and CYP2A6 activity: phenotypes and the effect of age and sex in a Nigerian population.

    PubMed

    Adehin, Ayorinde; Bolaji, Oluseye O

    2015-09-01

    CYP1A2 and CYP2A6 are polymorphic enzymes that metabolise several compounds of clinical importance. This study investigated the prevalent phenotypes of these enzymes and the influence of age and sex on enzyme activity in a Nigerian population. Caffeine (110 mg) was administered to each of 129 healthy, unrelated subjects (85 males and 44 females) who were non-smokers. Urine voided within 7 h after caffeine administration was collected for a high performance liquid chromatographic assay of caffeine (137X), 1,7-dimethyluric acid (17U) and 1,7-dimethylxanthine (17X). CYP1A2 activity was measured as a ratio of (17U+17X) to 137X, while 17U/17X served as marker for CYP2A6. Transformed data were analysed and the influences of age and sex on activity were also determined. Distribution of CYP1A2 activity in the population was bimodal with a mean±SD of 0.82±0.41, while that of CYP2A6 was trimodal with a mean±SD activity of 0.27±0.42 of the log-transformed urinary molar ratio of metabolites. The influences of age and sex on enzyme activity for both CYP1A2 and CYP2A6 were not significant (p>0.05). The study established the prevalence of polymorphism in phenotypes of CYP1A2 and CYP2A6 activity in the Nigerian population, but no influence of age and sex on enzyme activity was observed in this population.

  8. 26 CFR 1.367(a)-2T - Exception for transfers of property for use in the active conduct of a trade or business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exception for transfers of property for use in the active conduct of a trade or business (temporary). 1.367(a)-2T Section 1.367(a)-2T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (Continued) Effects on Corporation § 1.367(a)...

  9. 26 CFR 1.367(a)-2T - Exception for transfers of property for use in the active conduct of a trade or business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exception for transfers of property for use in the active conduct of a trade or business (temporary). 1.367(a)-2T Section 1.367(a)-2T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Effects on Corporation § 1.367(a)...

  10. Differential effects of triterpene glycosides, frondoside A and cucumarioside A2-2 isolated from sea cucumbers on caspase activation and apoptosis of human leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jun-O; Shastina, Valeria V; Shin, Sung-Won; Xu, Qi; Park, Joo-In; Rasskazov, Valery A; Avilov, Sergey A; Fedorov, Sergey N; Stonik, Valentin A; Kwak, Jong-Young

    2009-02-18

    Frondoside A is a pentaoside having an acetyl moiety at the aglycon ring and xylose as a third monosaccharide residue. Cucumarioside A(2)-2 is a pentaoside having glucose as a third monosaccahride unit. We compared the effects of frondoside A and A(2)-2 for cell death-inducing capability with close attention paid to structure-activity relationships. Both frondoside A and A(2)-2 strongly induced apoptosis of leukemic cells. Frondoside A-induced apoptosis was more potent and rapid than A(2)-2-induced apoptosis. A(2)-2-induced but not frondoside A-induced apoptosis was caspase-dependent. This suggests that holothurians may induce apoptosis of leukemic cells caspase-dependently or -independently, depending on the holothurian structure.

  11. Ligand-independent activation of EphA2 by arachidonic acid induces metastasis-like behaviour in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Tawadros, T; Brown, M D; Hart, C A; Clarke, N W

    2012-01-01

    Background: High intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has been associated with clinical progression in prostate cancer (CaP). This study investigates the signalling mechanism by which the omega-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA) induces prostatic cellular migration to bone marrow stroma. Methods: Western blot analysis of the PC-3, PC3-GFP, DU 145 and LNCaP cells or their lipid raft (LR) components post AA stimulation was conducted in association with assays for adhesion and invasion through the bone marrow endothelial monolayers. Results: Arachidonic acid increased transendothelial migration of PC3-GFP cells (adhesion 37%±0.08, P=0.0124; transmigration 270%±0.145, P=0.0008). Akt, Src and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) pathways were induced by AA and integrally involved in transendothelial migration. LR were critical in AA uptake and induced Akt activity. Ephrin receptor A2 (EphA2), localised in LR, is expressed in DU 145 and PC-3 cells. Arachidonic acid induced a rapid increase of EphA2 Akt-dependent/ligand-independent activation, while knockdown of the EphrinA1 ligand decreased AA induced transendothelial migration, with an associated decrease in Src and FAK activity. Arachidonic acid activated Akt in EphA2− LNCaP cells but failed to induce BMEC transendothelial invasion. Conclusion: Arachidonic acid induced stimulation of EphA2 in vitro is associated fundamentally with CaP epithelial migration across the endothelial barrier. PMID:23037715

  12. [Changes in physical activity are not reflected in physical fitness of older teenagers. A 2-year follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Andersen, L B

    1996-04-08

    The study describes changes over two years in different physical fitness measures and the relationship between these changes and changes in physical activity. Maximal aerobic work capacity (watt(max)), functional strength, muscle endurance, agility and flexibility were measured in 259 randomly selected high school boys and girls 16.5 years of age and followed-up two years later, while they still attended school. Most physical fitness measures increased over time in boys, and in girls an increase was found in arm extensor strength and trunk extensor endurance, but watt(max) per kg body mass decreased. Changes in physical performance between 16 and 18 years of age seem to be very similar in different countries, despite differences in physical activity patterns and absolute level of performance. No change was found in time spent participating in physical activity or sports activity in either gender, but fewer girls participated in leisure-time sports at the second test (p < 0.001). Change in physical activity or sports activity did not relate to change in physical fitness level. The relationships between level of sports participation (competition, for health or none) and physical fitness measures at baseline and at the second test were weak or non-significant. Three explanations for the weak relationship between physical activity and fitness are suggested: a) part of the variability in fitness is explained by genetics, b) growth and hormonal changes, especially in boys, override the stimulus of training, and c) the physical fitness level in adolescents is so high that only physical activity at high relative intensity is supposed to have an effect on the fitness level.

  13. Chromosome territory repositioning induced by PHA-activation of lymphocytes: A 2D and 3D appraisal.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Dimitrios; Kandukuri, Lakshmi; Simpson, Joe Leigh; Tempest, Helen Ghislaine

    2015-01-01

    Genomes and by extension chromosome territories (CTs) in a variety of organisms exhibit nonrandom organization within interphase nuclei. CTs are susceptible to movement upon induction by a variety of stimuli, including: cell differentiation, growth factors, genotoxic agents, proliferating status, and stimulants that induce novel transcription profiles. These findings suggest nuclear architecture can undergo reorganization, providing support for a functional significance of CT organization. The effect of the initiation of transcription on global scale chromatin architecture has been underexplored. This study investigates the organization of all 24 human chromosomes in lymphocytes from two individuals in resting and phytohaemagglutinin activated lymphocytes using 2D and 3D approaches. The radial organization of CTs in lymphocytes in both resting and activated lymphocytes follows a gene-density pattern. However, CT organization in activated nuclei appears less constrained exhibiting a more random organization. We report differences in the spatial relationship between homologous and heterologous CTs in activated nuclei. In addition, a reproducible radial hierarchy of CTs was identified and evidence of a CT repositioning was observed in activated nuclei using both 2D and 3D approaches. Alterations between resting and activated lymphocytes could be adaptation of CTs to the new transcription profile and possibly the formation of new neighborhoods of interest or interaction of CTs with nuclear landmarks. The increased distances between homologous and heterologous CTs in activated lymphocytes could be a reflection of a defensive mechanism to reduce potential interaction to prevent any structural chromosome abnormalities (e.g. translocations) as a result of DNA damage that increases during lymphocyte activation.

  14. The influence of CYP1A2 genotype in the blood pressure response to caffeine ingestion is affected by physical activity status and caffeine consumption level.

    PubMed

    Soares, Rogerio Nogueira; Schneider, Augusto; Valle, Sandra Costa; Schenkel, Paulo Cavalheiro

    2018-03-06

    This study aimed to investigate whether the influence of CYP1A2 genotype in the blood pressure (BP) response to caffeine ingestion was affected by physical activity status and habitual caffeine consumption. Thirty-seven participants (19-50 years old) took place in the study and were categorized according to i) genotype: CYP1A2 (AA) "fast metabolizer", and CYP1A2 (AC) "slow metabolizer"; ii) physical activity level: sedentary (S) and physically active (A); and iii) caffeine consumption level: non-habitual caffeine consumer (NC) and habitual heavy caffeine consumer (C). All groups had BP assessed before (basal) and 1 hourh after (post) caffeine ingestion (6 mg·kg -1 ). It was observed that AC genotype individuals had increased basal-DBP and post-caffeine SBP when compared to AA individuals. Additionally, acute caffeine ingestion increased SBP only in the AC group. It was also found that physical activity only modulated the BP responses to acute caffeine ingestion in AC individuals. Furthermore, the results indicated that the habitual heavy caffeine consumers AC individuals had increased basal-DBP when compared to the AA ones. Our results suggest that the influence of CYP1A2 genotype in the basal and post-caffeine BP response to caffeine ingestion is modified by physical activity status and caffeine consumption level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. HPLC Determination of Caffeine and Paraxanthine in Urine: An Assay for Cytochrome P450 1A2 Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furge, Laura Lowe; Fletke, Kyle J.

    2007-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes are a family of heme-containing proteins located throughout the body with roles in metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds. Among exogenous compounds, clinically relevant pharmaceutical agents are nearly all metabolized by P450 enzymes. However, the activity of the different cytochrome P450 enzymes varies among…

  16. Male hormones activate EphA2 to facilitate Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection: Implications for gender disparity in Kaposi’s sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zhaohui; Liang, Deguang; Zhou, Xin; Sun, Rui

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing consensus that males are more vulnerable than females to infection by several pathogens. However, the underlying mechanism needs further investigation. Here, it was showed that knockdown of androgen receptor (AR) expression or pre-treatment with 5α-dihydrotestosterone, the AR agonist, led to a considerably dysregulated Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection. In endothelial cells, membrane-localized AR promoted the endocytosis and nuclear trafficking of KSHV. The AR interacted with ephrin receptor A2 (EphA2) and increased its phosphorylation at residue Ser897, which was specifically upregulated upon KSHV infection. This phosphorylation resulted from the AR-mediated recruitment of Src, which resulted in the activation of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1), which directly phosphorylates EphA2 at Ser897. Finally, the EphA2-mediated entry of KSHV was abolished in a Ser897Asn EphA2 mutant. Taken together, membrane-localized AR was identified as a KSHV entry factor that cooperatively activates Src/RSK1/EphA2 signaling, which subsequently promotes KSHV infection of both endothelial and epithelial cells. PMID:28957431

  17. [Effects of acute exposure to high altitude on hepatic function and CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 activities in rats].

    PubMed

    Li, Wenbin; Jia, Zhengping; Xie, Hua; Zhang, Juanhong; Wang, Yanling; Hao, Ying; Wang, Rong

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the changes in hepatic functions and activities of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in rats after acute exposure to high altitude. Twelve healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group and exposure group for acute exposure to normal and high altitude (4010 m) environment. Blood samples were collected from the vena orbitalis posterior for detection of the hepatic function. Hepatic pathologies of the rats were examined microscopically with HE staining. Liver microsomes were extracted by differential centrifugation to assess the activities of CYP1A2 and 3A4 using P450-GloTM kit. In rats with acute exposure to high altitude, AST, ALT, and ALP all increased significantly by 48.50%, 47.90%, and 103.02%, respectively, and TP decreased significantly by 17.80% as compared with those in rats maintained in normal altitude environment (P<0.05). Pathological examination of the liver revealed edema of the central vein of the liver and hepatocyte karyopyknosis in rats after acute exposure to high altitude, which also resulted in significantly lowered activities of CYP1A2 and 3A4 in the liver (by 96.56% and 43.53%, respectively). Acute exposure to high altitude can cause obvious liver injuries and lowered activities of CYP1A2 and 3A4 in rats to severely affect drug metabolism in the liver and result in increased concentration, prolonged half-life and reduced clearance of drugs.

  18. Limited Effects of a 2-Year School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Kristjan Thor; Hrafnkelsson, Hannes; Sigurgeirsson, Ingvar; Johannsson, Erlingur; Sveinsson, Thorarinn

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 2-year cluster-randomized physical activity and dietary intervention program among 7-year-old (at baseline) elementary school participants on body composition and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness. Three pairs of schools were selected and matched, then randomly selected as either an…

  19. 26 CFR 1.367(a)-2T - Exception for transfers of property for use in the active conduct of a trade or business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Procedure 68-23 that tax avoidance was not one of the principal purposes of the transaction. (e) Special... Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Corporation § 1.367(a)-2T Exception for transfers of property for use in the active...

  20. EphA2 receptor activation with ephrin-A1 ligand restores cetuximab efficacy in NRAS-mutant colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cuyàs, Elisabet; Queralt, Bernardo; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim; Menendez, Javier A

    2017-07-01

    Patients with wild-type KRAS metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) that harbors NRAS activating mutations do not benefit from anti-EGFR therapies. Very little is known about oncogenic NRAS signaling driving mCRC unresponsiveness to the EGFR-directed antibody cetuximab. Using a system of paired NRAS-mutant and wild-type isogenic mCRC cell lines to explore signaling pathways engaged by the common oncogenic NRAS Q61K variant upon challenge with cetuximab, we uncovered an unexpected mechanism of resistance to cetuximab involving dysregulation of the ephrin-A1/EphA2 signaling axis. Parental NRAS+/+ cells, but not NRASQ61K/+ cells, activated the ephrin receptor ephA1 in response to cetuximab treatment. Moreover, whereas cetuximab treatment significantly downregulated EPHA2 gene expression in NRAS+/+ cells, EPHA2 expression in NRASQ61K/+ cells was refractory to cetuximab. Remarkably, pharmacologically mimicked ephrin-A1 engagement to ephA2 converted NRAS-mutant into RAS wild-type mCRC cells in terms of cetuximab efficacy. Accordingly, activation of the ephA2 receptor by bioactive recombinant human ephrin-A1/Fc-fusion protein suppressed the cetuximab-unresponsive hyperactivation of MAPK and AKT and fully restored cetuximab activity in NRAS-mutant colorectal cells. Collectively, these findings reveal that the clinical benefit of cetuximab in mCRC might necessarily involve the suppression of the ligandless oncogenic signaling of the ephA2 receptor. Hence, ligand-dependent tumor suppressor signaling using therapeutic ephA2 agonists might offer new therapeutic opportunities to clinically widen the use of cetuximab in NRAS-mutated and/or ephA2-dependent mCRC tumors.

  1. The receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2 promotes glutamine metabolism in tumors by activating the transcriptional coactivators YAP and TAZ.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Deanna N; Ngwa, Verra M; Wang, Shan; Shiuan, Eileen; Brantley-Sieders, Dana M; Kim, Laura C; Reynolds, Albert B; Chen, Jin

    2017-12-05

    Malignant tumors reprogram cellular metabolism to support cancer cell proliferation and survival. Although most cancers depend on a high rate of aerobic glycolysis, many cancer cells also display addiction to glutamine. Glutamine transporters and glutaminase activity are critical for glutamine metabolism in tumor cells. We found that the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2 activated the TEAD family transcriptional coactivators YAP and TAZ (YAP/TAZ), likely in a ligand-independent manner, to promote glutamine metabolism in cells and mouse models of HER2-positive breast cancer. Overexpression of EphA2 induced the nuclear accumulation of YAP and TAZ and increased the expression of YAP/TAZ target genes. Inhibition of the GTPase Rho or the kinase ROCK abolished EphA2-dependent YAP/TAZ nuclear localization. Silencing YAP or TAZ substantially reduced the amount of intracellular glutamate through decreased expression of SLC1A5 and GLS , respectively, genes that encode proteins that promote glutamine uptake and metabolism. The regulatory DNA elements of both SLC1A5 and GLS contain TEAD binding sites and were bound by TEAD4 in an EphA2-dependent manner. In patient breast cancer tissues, EphA2 expression positively correlated with that of YAP and TAZ , as well as that of GLS and SLC1A5 Although high expression of EphA2 predicted enhanced metastatic potential and poor patient survival, it also rendered HER2-positive breast cancer cells more sensitive to glutaminase inhibition. The findings define a previously unknown mechanism of EphA2-mediated glutaminolysis through YAP/TAZ activation in HER2-positive breast cancer and identify potential therapeutic targets in patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  2. Synthesis and Structure–Activity Relationships of N-Benzyl Phenethylamines as 5-HT2A/2C Agonists

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    N-Benzyl substitution of 5-HT2A receptor agonists of the phenethylamine structural class of psychedelics (such as 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine, often referred to as 2C-B) confer a significant increase in binding affinity as well as functional activity of the receptor. We have prepared a series of 48 compounds with structural variations in both the phenethylamine and N-benzyl part of the molecule to determine the effects on receptor binding affinity and functional activity at 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. The compounds generally had high affinity for the 5-HT2A receptor with 8b having the highest affinity at 0.29 nM but with several other compounds also exhibiting subnanomolar binding affinities. The functional activity of the compounds was distributed over a wider range with 1b being the most potent at 0.074 nM. Most of the compounds exhibited low to moderate selectivity (1- to 40-fold) for the 5-HT2A receptor in the binding assays, although one compound 6b showed an impressive 100-fold selectivity for the 5-HT2A receptor. In the functional assay, selectivity was generally higher with 1b being more than 400-fold selective for the 5-HT2A receptor. PMID:24397362

  3. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of N-benzyl phenethylamines as 5-HT2A/2C agonists.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Martin; Phonekeo, Karina; Paine, James S; Leth-Petersen, Sebastian; Begtrup, Mikael; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Kristensen, Jesper L

    2014-03-19

    N-Benzyl substitution of 5-HT2A receptor agonists of the phenethylamine structural class of psychedelics (such as 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine, often referred to as 2C-B) confer a significant increase in binding affinity as well as functional activity of the receptor. We have prepared a series of 48 compounds with structural variations in both the phenethylamine and N-benzyl part of the molecule to determine the effects on receptor binding affinity and functional activity at 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. The compounds generally had high affinity for the 5-HT2A receptor with 8b having the highest affinity at 0.29 nM but with several other compounds also exhibiting subnanomolar binding affinities. The functional activity of the compounds was distributed over a wider range with 1b being the most potent at 0.074 nM. Most of the compounds exhibited low to moderate selectivity (1- to 40-fold) for the 5-HT2A receptor in the binding assays, although one compound 6b showed an impressive 100-fold selectivity for the 5-HT2A receptor. In the functional assay, selectivity was generally higher with 1b being more than 400-fold selective for the 5-HT2A receptor.

  4. Synthesis, crystal structures and antitumor activities of copper(II) complexes with a 2-acetylpyrazine isonicotinoyl hydrazone ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jun; Zhou, Tao; Xu, Zhou-Qing; Gu, Xin-Nan; Wu, Wei-Na; Chen, Hong; Wang, Yuan; Jia, Lei; Zhu, Tao-Feng; Chen, Ru-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Five complexes, [Cu(L)2]·4.5H2O (1), [Cu(HL)2](NO3)2·CH3OH (2) {[Cu2(L)2(NO3)(H2O)2]·(NO3)}n (3), [Cu2(HL)2(SO4)2]·2CH3OH (4) and [Cu4(L)4Cl4]·5H2O (5) based on HL (where HL = 2-acetylpyrazine isonicotinoyl hydrazone) have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction analyses. The counter anion and organic base during the synthesis procedure influence the structures of the complexes efficiently, which generate five complexes as mono-, bi-, tetra-nuclear and one-dimensional structures. The antitumor activities of the complexes 1-5 (except for complex 3 with the poor solubility) against the Patu8988 human pancreatic cancer, ECA109 human esophagus cancer and SGC7901 human gastric cancer cell lines are screened by MTT assay. The results indicate that the chelation of Cu(II) with the ligand is responsible for the observed high cytotoxicity of the copper(II) complexes and the 1:2 copper species 1 and 2 demonstrate lower antitumor activities than that of the 1:1 copper species 4 and 5. In addition, the in vitro apoptosis inducing activity of the copper(II) complex 5 against SGC7901 cell line is determined. And the results show that the complex can bring about apoptosis of the cancerous cells in vitro.

  5. Structural differences between bovine A(1) and A(2) β-casein alter micelle self-assembly and influence molecular chaperone activity.

    PubMed

    Raynes, J K; Day, L; Augustin, M A; Carver, J A

    2015-04-01

    Within each milk protein there are many individual protein variants and marked alterations to milk functionality can occur depending on the genetic variants of each protein present. Bovine A(1) and A(2) β-casein (β-CN) are 2 variants that contribute to differences in the gelation performance of milk. The A(1) and A(2) β-CN variants differ by a single AA, the substitution of histidine for proline at position 67. β-Casein not only participates in formation of the casein micelle but also forms an oligomeric micelle itself and functions as a molecular chaperone to prevent the aggregation of a wide range of proteins, including the other caseins. Micelle assembly of A(1) and A(2) β-CN was investigated using dynamic light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering, whereas protein functionality was assessed using fluorescence techniques and molecular chaperone assays. The A(2) β-CN variant formed smaller micelles than A(1) β-CN, with the monomer-micelle equilibrium of A(2) β-CN being shifted toward the monomer. This shift most likely arose from structural differences between the 2 β-CN variants associated with the adoption of greater polyproline-II helix in A(2) β-CN and most likely led to enhanced chaperone activity of A(2) β-CN compared with A(1) β-CN. The difference in micelle assembly, and hence chaperone activity, may provide explain differences in the functionality of homozygous A(1) and A(2) milk. The results of this study highlight that substitution of even a single AA can significantly alter the properties of an intrinsically unstructured protein such as β-CN and, in this case, may have an effect on the functionality of milk. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Activation of phospholipase A2 by 1-palmitoyl-2-(9'-oxo-nonanoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine in vitro.

    PubMed

    Code, Christian; Mahalka, Ajay K; Bry, Kristian; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

    2010-08-01

    Oxidative stress leads to drastic modifications of both the biophysical properties of biomembranes and their associated chemistry imparted upon the formation of oxidatively modified lipids. To this end, oxidized phospholipid derivatives bearing an aldehyde function, such as 1-palmitoyl-2-(9'-oxo-nonanoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PoxnoPC) can covalently react with proteins that come into direct contact. Intriguingly, we observed PoxnoPC in a 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) matrix to shorten and abolish the lag time in the action of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) on this composite substrate, with concomitant augmented decrement in pH, indicating more extensive hydrolysis, which was in keeping with enhanced 90 degrees light scattering. The latter was abolished by the aldehyde scavenger methoxyamine, thus suggesting the involvement of Schiff base. Enhanced hydrolysis of a fluorescent phospholipid analogue was seen for PLA2 preincubated with PoxnoPC. Mixing PLA2 with submicellar (22 microM) PoxnoPC caused a pronounced increase in Thioflavin T fluorescence, in keeping with the formation of amyloid-type fibers, which were seen also by electron microscopy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. EphA2 modulates radiosensitive of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated signal pathways.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qiao; Li, Xiangjun; Cao, Peiguo

    2015-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the role of EPH receptor A2 (EphA2) in the modulation of radiosensitivity of hepatic cellular cancer (HCC) cells and to determine whether p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) signaling mediated EphA2 function in this respect. The protein expressions of EphA2 and phosphorylated p38MAPK were tested in HCC and normal hepatic tissues. In HCC 97H cells, EphA2 was overexpressed and knocked out by transfection with EphA2 expression vector and EphA2-ShRNA, respectively, prior to cell exposure to low-dose irradiation. Significantly upregulated EphA2 and phosphorylated p38MAPK were observed in HCC tissues, compared with those in normal hepatic tissues. Low-dose irradiation (1 Gy) only caused minor damage to HCC 97H cells, as assessed by alterations in cell viability, apoptosis rate, and cell healing capacity (p = 0.072, p = 0.078, and p = 0.069 respectively). However, EphA2 knock-out in HCC 97H cells induced significant reduction in cell viability and cell healing capacity after these cells were subjected to low-dose irradiation. Apoptosis rate underwent dramatic increase (p < 0.01). By contrast, EphA2 overexpression in HCC 97H cells reversed these effects and enhanced cell colony formation rate, thus displaying remarkable attenuation of radiosensitivity of HCC 97H cells. Further, SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38MAPK, was added to HCC 97H cells over-expressing EphA2. The effect of EphA2 overexpression on the radiosensitivity of HCC 97H cells was abrogated. Thus, the present study indicates that EphA2 have the ability to negatively regulate the radiosensitivity of HCC 97H cells, which mainly depends on 38MAPK-mediated signal pathways. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  8. Role of protein kinase C alpha and mitogen-activated protein kinases in endothelin-1-stimulation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 in iris sphincter smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Latif, A A; Husain, S; Yousufzai, S Y

    2000-11-01

    We have investigated the roles of protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in the phosphorylation and activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) in endothelin-1- (ET-1) stimulated cat iris sphincter smooth muscle (CISM) cells. We found that in these cells both PKC and p38 MAP kinases play a critical role in ET-1-induced cPLA, phosphorylation and arachidonic acid (AA) release. Our findings indicate that stimulation of the endothelin-A- (ET(A)) receptor leads to: (1) activation of Gq protein which stimulates phospholipase C to hydrolyze the polyphosphoinositide PIP, into diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol trisphosphate (IP3), the DAG may then activate PKC to phosphorylate and activate cPLA2; and (2) activation of Gi protein, which, through a series of kinases, leads to the stimulation of p38 MAPK and subsequently to phosphorylation and activation of cPLA2. The ability of the activated ET(A)-receptor, which is coupled to both Gq and Gi proteins, to recruit and activate this complex signal transduction mechanism remains to be clarified.

  9. Dlg-1 Interacts With and Regulates the Activities of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors and EphA2 in the Mouse Lens.

    PubMed

    Lee, SungKyoung; Shatadal, Shalini; Griep, Anne E

    2016-02-01

    We previously showed that Discs large-1 (Dlg-1) regulates lens fiber cell structure and the fibroblast growth factor receptor (Fgfr) signaling pathway, a pathway required for fiber cell differentiation. Herein, we investigated the mechanism through which Dlg-1 regulates Fgfr signaling. Immunofluorescence was used to measure levels of Fgfr1, Fgfr2, and activated Fgfr signaling intermediates, pErk and pAkt, in control and Dlg-1-deficient lenses that were haplodeficient for Fgfr1 or Fgfr2. Immunoblotting was used to measure levels of N-cadherin, EphA2, β-catenin, and tyrosine-phosphorylated EphA2, Fgfr1, Fgfr2, and Fgfr3 in cytoskeletal-associated and cytosolic fractions of control and Dlg-1-deficient lenses. Complex formation between Dlg-1, N-cadherin, β-catenin, Fgfr1, Fgfr2, Fgfr3, and EphA2 was assessed by coimmunoprecipitation. Lenses deficient for Dlg-1 and haplodeficient for Fgfr1 or Fgfr2 showed increased levels of Fgfr2 or Fgfr1, respectively. Levels of pErk and pAkt correlated with the level of Fgfr2. N-cadherin was reduced in the cytoskeletal-associated fraction and increased in the cytosolic fraction of Dlg-1-deficient lenses. Dlg-1 complexed with β-catenin, EphA2, Fgfr1, Fgfr2, and Fgfr3. EphA2 complexed with N-cadherin, β-catenin, Fgfr1, Fgfr2, and Fgfr3. Levels of these interactions were altered in Dlg-1-deficient lenses. Loss of Dlg-1 led to changes in Fgfr1, Fgfr2, Fgfr3, and EphA2 levels and to greater changes in the levels of their activation. Dlg-1 complexes with and regulates the activities of EphA2, Fgfr1, Fgfr2, and Fgfr3. As EphA2 contains a Psd95/Dlg/ZO-1 (PDZ) binding motif, whereas Fgfrs do not, we propose that the PDZ protein, Dlg-1, modulates Fgfr signaling through regulation of EphA2.

  10. Attenuation of nicotine's discriminative stimulus effects in rats and its locomotor activity effects in mice by serotonergic 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Batman, Angela M; Munzar, Patrik; Beardsley, Patrick M

    2005-05-01

    Reports have indicated that administration of nicotine inhibits, while withdrawal of chronically administered nicotine augments effects of serotonergic 5HT2A/2C agonists. It was our objective to determine whether 5HT2A/2C agonists can modulate the discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine in rats or its locomotor activity effects in mice. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 0.3 mg/kg nicotine base from saline in a two-lever, fixed-ratio (FR10), food-reinforced, operant-conditioning task during daily (Monday-Friday) 15-min experimental sessions. After characterizing a dose-response curve for nicotine, we tested the ability of the 5HT(2A/2C) agonists (+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane HCL (DOI; 0.18-1.0 mg/kg) and 1-(4-bromo-2, 5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOB; 0.1-1.0 mg/kg), the 5HT2C agonist 6-chloro-2-(1-piperazinyl)pyrazine hydrochloride (MK 212; 0.1 mg/kg-1.0 mg/kg), and the 5HT1A agonist (+/-)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT; 0.01 mg/kg-1.0 mg/kg) to modulate nicotine's discriminative stimulus effects. After finding that DOI was able to attenuate the percentage nicotine lever responding (%NLR), we tested for it to also reverse nicotine's effects on locomotor activity in mice. The 5HT2A/2C agonists-in particular DOI-dose dependently attenuated %NLR. The effects of DOI were reversed by the 5HT2A/2C antagonist ketanserin. MK 212 and 8-OH-DPAT had irregular effects among rats and only reduced %NLR to below 50% levels at doses markedly suppressing responding. DOI also dose dependently blocked nicotine's acute rate-lowering locomotor activity effects. These results indicate that activation of serotonin 5HT2A/2C receptors can blunt the discriminative stimulus and locomotor activity effects of nicotine and presents the possibility that activation of these receptors might also be able to attenuate other effects of nicotine.

  11. Purinergic A2b Receptor Activation by Extracellular Cues Affects Positioning of the Centrosome and Nucleus and Causes Reduced Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Ou, Young; Chan, Gordon; Zuo, Jeremy; Rattner, Jerome B; van der Hoorn, Frans A

    2016-07-15

    The tight, relative positioning of the nucleus and centrosome in mammalian cells is important for the regulation of cell migration. Under pathophysiological conditions, the purinergic A2b receptor can regulate cell motility, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Expression of A2b, normally low, is increased in tissues experiencing adverse physiological conditions, including hypoxia and inflammation. ATP is released from such cells. We investigated whether extracellular cues can regulate centrosome-nucleus positioning and cell migration. We discovered that hypoxia as well as extracellular ATP cause a reversible increase in the distance between the centrosome and nucleus and reduced cell motility. We uncovered the underlying pathway: both treatments act through the A2b receptor and specifically activate the Epac1/RapGef3 pathway. We show that cells lacking A2b do not respond in this manner to hypoxia or ATP but transfection of A2b restores this response, that Epac1 is critically involved, and that Rap1B is important for the relative positioning of the centrosome and nucleus. Our results represent, to our knowledge, the first report demonstrating that pathophysiological conditions can impact the distance between the centrosome and nucleus. Furthermore, we identify the A2b receptor as a central player in this process. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Purinergic A2b Receptor Activation by Extracellular Cues Affects Positioning of the Centrosome and Nucleus and Causes Reduced Cell Migration*

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Young; Chan, Gordon; Zuo, Jeremy; Rattner, Jerome B.; van der Hoorn, Frans A.

    2016-01-01

    The tight, relative positioning of the nucleus and centrosome in mammalian cells is important for the regulation of cell migration. Under pathophysiological conditions, the purinergic A2b receptor can regulate cell motility, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Expression of A2b, normally low, is increased in tissues experiencing adverse physiological conditions, including hypoxia and inflammation. ATP is released from such cells. We investigated whether extracellular cues can regulate centrosome-nucleus positioning and cell migration. We discovered that hypoxia as well as extracellular ATP cause a reversible increase in the distance between the centrosome and nucleus and reduced cell motility. We uncovered the underlying pathway: both treatments act through the A2b receptor and specifically activate the Epac1/RapGef3 pathway. We show that cells lacking A2b do not respond in this manner to hypoxia or ATP but transfection of A2b restores this response, that Epac1 is critically involved, and that Rap1B is important for the relative positioning of the centrosome and nucleus. Our results represent, to our knowledge, the first report demonstrating that pathophysiological conditions can impact the distance between the centrosome and nucleus. Furthermore, we identify the A2b receptor as a central player in this process. PMID:27226580

  13. Modulation of CYP1A2 and CYP3A6 catalytic activities by serum from rabbits with a turpentine-induced inflammatory reaction and interleukin 6.

    PubMed

    Kourylko, Oksana; Fradette, Caroline; Arcand, Mathieu; du Souich, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Inflammatory reactions reduce the activity of cytochrome P450 isoforms. The aim of the study was to determine the mechanisms underlying the decrease in CYP1A2 and CYP3A6 catalytic activities produced by serum from rabbits with a turpentine-induced inflammatory reaction (S(TIIR)) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). S(TIIR) and IL-6 were incubated with cultured primary hepatocytes from control rabbits (H(CONT)), and from rabbits with a turpentine-induced inflammatory reaction (H(TIIR)) in the absence or presence of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), an antioxidant and inhibitor of nuclear factor kappaB transcription; 2'-amino-3'-methoxyflavone (PD98059), an inhibitor of extracellular signal-related kinase (Erk1/2); 4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)1H-imidazole (SB203580), an inhibitor of p38MAPK; Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, an inhibitor of nitric-oxide synthase 2 (NOS2); the combination of PDTC, PD98059, and SB203580; and genistein, an inhibitor of Janus-associated protein tyrosine kinase (JAK). After 4 and 24 h of incubation of H(CONT) with S(TIIR) and IL-6, CYP1A2 activity was reduced without changes in expression; the reduction in activity was partially prevented by the inhibition of JAK, Erk1/2, and NOS2. In H(CONT), S(TIIR) and IL-6 did not affect CYP3A6 activity; however, PDTC reduced CYP3A6 activity by 40 and 80% after 4 and 24 h of incubation. In H(TIIR), S(TIIR) and IL-6 reduced both CYP1A2 and CYP3A6 activities; this decrease is partially prevented by inhibitors of protein tyrosine kinases, Erk1/2, and NOS2. In H(TIIR), SB203580 increased CYP3A6 activity in a dose-dependent manner without changes in protein expression. These results show that the signal transduction pathways mediating the decrease in CYP1A2 and 3A6 activity, produced by S(TIIR) and IL-6, involve JAK, Erk1/2, and NOS2.

  14. A 2-year follow-up of a lifestyle physical activity versus a structured exercise intervention in older adults.

    PubMed

    Opdenacker, Joke; Delecluse, Christophe; Boen, Filip

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the long-term effects of a lifestyle intervention and a structured exercise intervention on physical fitness and cardiovascular risk factors in older adults. Controlled trial with randomization between the intervention groups. Belgium, Vlaams-Brabant. One hundred eighty-six sedentary but healthy men and women aged 60 to 83. Participants in the lifestyle intervention were stimulated to integrate physical activity into their daily routines and received an individualized home-based program supported by telephone calls. The structured intervention consisted of three weekly supervised sessions in a fitness center. Both interventions lasted 11 months and focused on endurance, strength, flexibility, and postural and balance exercises. Cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, functional performance, blood pressure, and body composition were measured before (pretest), at the end (11 months, posttest), and 1 year after the end (23 months, follow-up) of the interventions. The results from pretest to posttest have already been published. The current study analyzed the results from posttest to follow-up. There was a decrease in cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness, and functional performance from posttest to follow-up in the structured intervention group but not in the control group or the lifestyle intervention group. At 23 months, participants in both groups still showed improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness. In addition, the structured group showed long-term improvements in muscular fitness, whereas the lifestyle group showed long-term improvements in functional performance. No long-term effects were found for blood pressure or body composition. These results highlight the potential of a structured fitness center-based intervention and a home-based lifestyle intervention in the battle against inactivity in older adults. Lifestyle programs are especially valuable because they require fewer resources and less time from health institutions and health

  15. In Vitro Antiplasmodial Activity of Phospholipases A2 and a Phospholipase Homologue Isolated from the Venom of the Snake Bothrops asper

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Juan Carlos Quintana; Vargas, Leidy Johana; Segura, Cesar; Gutiérrez, José María; Pérez, Juan Carlos Alarcón

    2012-01-01

    The antimicrobial and antiparasite activity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from snakes and bees has been extensively explored. We studied the antiplasmodial effect of the whole venom of the snake Bothrops asper and of two fractions purified by ion-exchange chromatography: one containing catalytically-active phospholipases A2 (PLA2) (fraction V) and another containing a PLA2 homologue devoid of enzymatic activity (fraction VI). The antiplasmodial effect was assessed on in vitro cultures of Plasmodium falciparum. The whole venom of B. asper, as well as its fractions V and VI, were active against the parasite at 0.13 ± 0.01 µg/mL, 1.42 ± 0.56 µg/mL and 22.89 ± 1.22 µg/mL, respectively. Differences in the cytotoxic activity on peripheral blood mononuclear cells between the whole venom and fractions V and VI were observed, fraction V showing higher toxicity than total venom and fraction VI. Regarding toxicity in mice, the whole venom showed the highest lethal effect in comparison to fractions V and VI. These results suggest that B. asper PLA2 and its homologue have antiplasmodial potential. PMID:23242318

  16. A pharmacophore model specific to active site of CYP1A2 with a novel molecular modeling explorer and CoMFA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Wei, Dong-Qing; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2012-03-01

    Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) is a widely used 3D-QSAR method by which we can investigate the potential relation between biological activity of compounds and their structural features. In this study, a new application of this approach is presented by combining the molecular modeling with a new developed pharmacophore model specific to CYP1A2 active site. During constructing the model, we used the molecular dynamics simulation and molecular docking method to select the sensible binding conformations for 17 CYP1A2 substrates based on the experimental data. Subsequently, the results obtained via the alignment of binding conformations of substrates were projected onto the active- site residues, upon which a simple blueprint of active site was produced. It was validated by the experimental and computational results that the model did exhibit the high degree of rationality and provide useful insights into the substrate binding. It is anticipated that our approach can be extended to investigate the protein-ligand interactions for many other enzyme-catalyzed systems as well.

  17. The A2A adenosine receptor rescues the urea cycle deficiency of Huntington's disease by enhancing the activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Ming-Chang; Chen, Hui-Mei; Lai, Hsing-Lin; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Chou, Szu-Yi; Chen, Chiung-Mei; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chern, Yijuang

    2009-08-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by a CAG trinucleotide expansion in the Huntingtin (Htt) gene. The resultant mutant Htt protein (mHtt) forms aggregates in the brain and several peripheral tissues (e.g. the liver) and causes devastating neuronal degeneration. Metabolic defects resulting from Htt aggregates in peripheral tissues also contribute to HD pathogenesis. Simultaneous improvement of defects in both the CNS and peripheral tissues is thus the most effective therapeutic strategy and is highly desirable. We earlier showed that an agonist of the A(2A) adenosine receptor (A(2A) receptor), CGS21680 (CGS), attenuates neuronal symptoms of HD. We found herein that the A(2A) receptor also exists in the liver, and that CGS ameliorated the urea cycle deficiency by reducing mHtt aggregates in the liver. By suppressing aggregate formation, CGS slowed the hijacking of a crucial transcription factor (HSF1) and two protein chaperons (Hsp27 and Hsp70) into hepatic Htt aggregates. Moreover, the abnormally high levels of high-molecular-mass ubiquitin conjugates in the liver of an HD mouse model (R6/2) were also ameliorated by CGS. The protective effect of CGS against mHtt-induced aggregate formation was reproduced in two cells lines and was prevented by an antagonist of the A(2A) receptor and a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. Most importantly, the mHtt-induced suppression of proteasome activity was also normalized by CGS through PKA. Our findings reveal a novel therapeutic pathway of A(2A) receptors in HD and further strengthen the concept that the A(2A) receptor can be a drug target in treating HD.

  18. Lesion of the commissural nucleus of the solitary tract/A2 noradrenergic neurons facilitates the activation of angiotensinergic mechanisms in response to hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Freiria-Oliveira, A H; Blanch, G T; De Paula, P M; Menani, J V; Colombari, D S A

    2013-12-19

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of lesions of A2 neurons of the commissural nucleus of the solitary tract (cNTS) alone or combined with the blockade of angiotensinergic mechanisms on the recovery of arterial pressure (AP) to hemorrhage in conscious rats. Male Holtzman rats (280-320g) received an injection of anti-dopamine-beta-hydroxylase-saporin (12.6ng/60nl; cNTS/A2-lesion, n=28) or immunoglobulin G (IgG)-saporin (12.6ng/60nl, sham, n=24) into the cNTS and 15-21days later had a stainless steel cannula implanted in the lateral ventricle. After 6days, rats were submitted to hemorrhage (four blood withdrawals, 2ml/300g of body weight every 10min). Both cNTS/A2-lesioned and sham rats had similar hypotension to hemorrhage (-62±7 and -73±7mmHg, respectively), however cNTS/A2-lesioned rats rapidly recovered from hypotension (-5±3mmHg at 30min), whereas sham rats did not completely recover until the end of the recording (-20±3mmHg at 60min). Losartan (angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist) injected intracerebroventricularly (100μg/1μl) or intravenously (i.v.) (10mg/kg of body weight) impaired the recovery of AP in cNTS/A2-lesioned rats (-24±6 and -35±7mmHg at 30min, respectively). In sham rats, only i.v. losartan affected the recovery of AP (-39±6mmHg at 60min). The results suggest that lesion of the A2 neurons in the cNTS facilitates the activation of the angiotensinergic pressor mechanisms in response to hemorrhage. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic modification of potato against microbial diseases: in vitro and in planta activity of a dermaseptin B1 derivative, MsrA2.

    PubMed

    Osusky, Milan; Osuska, Lubica; Kay, William; Misra, Santosh

    2005-08-01

    Dermaseptin B1 is a potent cationic antimicrobial peptide found in skin secretions of the arboreal frog Phyllomedusa bicolor. A synthetic derivative of dermaseptin B1, MsrA2 (N-Met-dermaseptin B1), elicited strong antimicrobial activities against various phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria in vitro. To assess its potential for plant protection, MsrA2 was expressed at low levels (1-5 microg/g of fresh tissue) in the transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Desiree. Stringent challenges of these transgenic potato plants with a variety of highly virulent fungal phytopathogens--Alternaria, Cercospora, Fusarium, Phytophthora, Pythium, Rhizoctonia and Verticillium species--and with the bacterial pathogen Erwinia carotovora demonstrated that the plants had an unusually broad-spectrum and powerful resistance to infection. MsrA2 profoundly protected both plants and tubers from diseases such as late blight, dry rot and pink rot and markedly extended the storage life of tubers. Due to these properties in planta, MsrA2 is proposed as an ideal antimicrobial peptide candidate to significantly increase resistance to phytopathogens and improve quality in a variety of crops worldwide with the potential to obviate fungicides and facilitate storage under difficult conditions.

  20. STAT1 is Constitutively Activated in the T/C28a2 Immortalized Juvenile Human Chondrocyte Line and Stimulated by IL-6 Plus Soluble IL-6R.

    PubMed

    Meszaros, Evan C; Malemud, Charles J

    2015-04-01

    T/C28a2 immortalized juvenile human chondrocytes were employed to determine the extent to which activation of Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription-1 (STAT1) occurred in response to recombinant human interleukin-6 (rhIL-6) or rhIL-6 in combination with the soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R). Two forms of STAT1, STAT1A and STAT1B, were identified on SDS-PAGE and western blotting with anti-STAT1 antibody. Western blotting revealed that STAT1 was constitutively phosphorylated (p-STAT1). Although incubation of T/C28a2 chondrocytes with rhIL-6 (50 ng/ml) increased p-STAT1A by Δ=22.3% after 30 min, this percent difference failed to reach significance by Chi-square analysis. Similarly, no effect of rhIL-6 (Δ=+10.7%) on p-STAT1B was seen at 30 min. In contrast, although the combination of rhIL-6 plus sIL-6R had no effect on p-STAT1A, rhIL-6 plus sIL-6R increased p-STAT1B by Δ=73.3% (p<0.0001) after 30 min compared to the control group and by Δ=56.7% (p<0.0001) compared to rhIL-6 alone. Janex-1, a Janus kinase-3-specific inhibitor (100 μM) partially reduced the effect of rhIL-6 on p-STAT1B by Δ=27.7% (p<0.05). The results of this study showed that STAT1A/STAT1B was constitutively activated in T/C28a2 chondrocytes. Although rhIL-6 increased p-STAT1B to a small extent, the combination of rhIL-6 plus sIL-6R was far more effective in stimulating STAT1B phosphorylation compared to controls or rhIL-6 alone. These data support the likelihood that although JAK3-mediated activation of STAT1 in T/C28a2 chondrocytes may involve the IL-6/IL-6R/gp130 pathway, these results indicated that STAT1 activation in response to IL-6 preferentially involved IL-6 trans -signaling via sIL-6R.

  1. Anti-Adhesion Activity of A2-type Proanthocyanidins (a Cranberry Major Component) on Uropathogenic E. coli and P. mirabilis Strains

    PubMed Central

    Nicolosi, Daria; Tempera, Gianna; Genovese, Carlo; Furneri, Pio M.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are relatively common in women and may be classified as uncomplicated or complicated, depending upon the urinary tract anatomy and physiology. Acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) occurs when urinary pathogens from the bowel or vagina colonize the periurethral mucosa and reach the bladder. The vast majority of episodes in healthy women involving the same bacterial strain that caused the initial infection are thought to be reinfections. About 90% of AUC are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), but Proteus mirabilis also plays an important role. Several studies support the importance of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) proanthocyanidins in preventing adhesion of P-fimbriated UPEC to uroepithelial cells. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro anti-adhesion activity of A2-linked proanthocyanidins from cranberry on a UPEC and Proteus mirabilis strains and their possible influence on urease activity of the latter. A significant reduction of UPEC adhesion (up to 75%) on the HT1376 cell line was observed vs. control. For the strains of P. mirabilis there was also a reduction of adhesion (up to 75%) compared to controls, as well as a reduction in motility and urease activity. These results suggest that A2-type cranberry proanthocyanidins could aid in maintaining urinary tract health. PMID:27025740

  2. Hindbrain A2 noradrenergic neuron adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation, upstream kinase/phosphorylase protein expression, and receptivity to hormone and fuel reporters of short-term food deprivation are regulated by estradiol.

    PubMed

    Briski, Karen P; Alenazi, Fahaad S H; Shakya, Manita; Sylvester, Paul W

    2017-07-01

    Estradiol (E) mitigates acute and postacute adverse effects of 12 hr-food deprivation (FD) on energy balance. Hindbrain 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates hyperphagic and hypothalamic metabolic neuropeptide and norepinephrine responses to FD in an E-dependent manner. Energy-state information from AMPK-expressing hindbrain A2 noradrenergic neurons shapes neural responses to metabolic imbalance. Here we investigate the hypothesis that FD causes divergent changes in A2 AMPK activity in E- vs. oil (O)-implanted ovariectomized female rats, alongside dissimilar adjustments in circulating metabolic fuel (glucose, free fatty acids [FFA]) and energy deficit-sensitive hormone (corticosterone, glucagon, leptin) levels. FD decreased blood glucose in oil (O)- but not E-implanted ovariectomized female rats and elevated and reduced glucagon levels in O and E, respectively. FD decreased circulating leptin in O and E, but increased corticosterone and FFA concentrations in E only. Western blot analysis of laser-microdissected A2 neurons showed that glucocorticoid receptor type II and very-long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 3 protein profiles were amplified in FD/E vs. FD/O. A2 total AMPK protein was elevated without change in activity in FD/O, whereas FD/E exhibited increased AMPK activation along with decreased upstream phosphatase expression. The catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH) was increased in FD/O but not FD/E A2 cells. The data show discordance between A2 AMPK activation and glycemic responses to FD; sensor activity was refractory to glucose decrements in FD/O but augmented in FD/E despite stabilized glucose and elevated FFA levels. E-dependent amplification of AMPK activity may reflect adaptive conversion to fatty acid oxidation and/or glucocorticoid stimulation. FD augmentation of A2 DβH protein profiles in FD/O but not FD/E animals suggests that FD may correspondingly regulate NE synthesis vs. metabolism/release in the

  3. Effect of Chlorogenic Acid (5-Caffeoylquinic Acid) Isolated from Baccharis oxyodonta on the Structure and Pharmacological Activities of Secretory Phospholipase A2 from Crotalus durissus terrificus

    PubMed Central

    Toyama, Daniela O.; Ferreira, Marcelo J. P.; Romoff, Paulete; Fávero, Oriana A.; Gaeta, Henrique H.; Toyama, Marcos H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid, 5CQA), isolated from Baccharis oxyodonta, on the structure and pharmacological effect of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) from Crotalus durissus terrificus. All in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted using a purified sPLA2 compared under the same experimental conditions with sPLA2 : 5CQA. 5CQA induced several discrete modifications in the secondary structure and the hydrophobic characteristics of native sPLA2 that induced slight changes in the α-helical content, increase in the random coil structure, and decrease of fluorescence of native sPLA2. Moreover, 5CQA significantly decreased the enzymatic activity and the oedema and myonecrosis induced by native sPLA2. As the catalytic activity of sPLA2 plays an important role in several of its biological and pharmacological properties, antibacterial activity was used to confirm the decrease in its enzymatic activity by 5CQA, which induced massive bacterial cell destruction. We found that 5CQA specifically abolished the enzymatic activity of sPLA2 and induced discrete protein unfolding that mainly involved the pharmacological site of sPLA2. These results showed the potential application of 5CQA in the snake poisoning treatment and modulation of the pathological effect of inflammation induced by secretory PLA2. PMID:25258715

  4. ABA Renewal Involves Enhancements in Both GluA2-Lacking AMPA Receptor Activity and GluA1 Phosphorylation in the Lateral Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sungmo; Kim, Jihye; An, Bobae; Lee, Hyun Woo; Lee, Seungbok; Kim, Hyun; Lee, Justin C.; Lee, Sukwon; Choi, Sukwoo

    2014-01-01

    Fear renewal, the context-specific relapse of fear following fear extinction, is a leading animal model of post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) and fear-related disorders. Although fear extinction can diminish fear responses, this effect is restricted to the context where the extinction is carried out, and the extinguished fear strongly relapses when assessed in the original acquisition context (ABA renewal) or in a context distinct from the conditioning and extinction contexts (ABC renewal). We have previously identified Ser831 phosphorylation of GluA1 subunit in the lateral amygdala (LA) as a key molecular mechanism for ABC renewal. However, molecular mechanisms underlying ABA renewal remain to be elucidated. Here, we found that both the excitatory synaptic efficacy and GluA2-lacking AMPAR activity at thalamic input synapses onto the LA (T-LA synapses) were enhanced upon ABA renewal. GluA2-lacking AMPAR activity was also increased during low-threshold potentiation, a potential cellular substrate of renewal, at T-LA synapses. The microinjection of 1-naphtylacetyl-spermine (NASPM), a selective blocker of GluA2-lacking AMPARs, into the LA attenuated ABA renewal, suggesting a critical role of GluA2-lacking AMPARs in ABA renewal. We also found that Ser831 phosphorylation of GluA1 in the LA was increased upon ABA renewal. We developed a short peptide mimicking the Ser831-containing C-tail region of GluA1, which can be phosphorylated upon renewal (GluA1S); thus, the phosphorylated GluA1S may compete with Ser831-phosphorylated GluA1. This GluA1S peptide blocked the low-threshold potentiation when dialyzed into a recorded neuron. The microinjection of a cell-permeable form of GluA1S peptide into the LA attenuated ABA renewal. In support of the GluA1S experiments, a GluA1D peptide (in which the serine at 831 is replaced with a phosphomimetic amino acid, aspartate) attenuated ABA renewal when microinjected into the LA. These findings suggest that enhancements in both the

  5. ABA renewal involves enhancements in both GluA2-lacking AMPA receptor activity and GluA1 phosphorylation in the lateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyungjoon; Song, Beomjong; Kim, Jeongyeon; Hong, Ingie; Song, Sangho; Lee, Junuk; Park, Sungmo; Kim, Jihye; An, Bobae; Lee, Hyun Woo; Lee, Seungbok; Kim, Hyun; Lee, Justin C; Lee, Sukwon; Choi, Sukwoo

    2014-01-01

    Fear renewal, the context-specific relapse of fear following fear extinction, is a leading animal model of post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) and fear-related disorders. Although fear extinction can diminish fear responses, this effect is restricted to the context where the extinction is carried out, and the extinguished fear strongly relapses when assessed in the original acquisition context (ABA renewal) or in a context distinct from the conditioning and extinction contexts (ABC renewal). We have previously identified Ser831 phosphorylation of GluA1 subunit in the lateral amygdala (LA) as a key molecular mechanism for ABC renewal. However, molecular mechanisms underlying ABA renewal remain to be elucidated. Here, we found that both the excitatory synaptic efficacy and GluA2-lacking AMPAR activity at thalamic input synapses onto the LA (T-LA synapses) were enhanced upon ABA renewal. GluA2-lacking AMPAR activity was also increased during low-threshold potentiation, a potential cellular substrate of renewal, at T-LA synapses. The microinjection of 1-naphtylacetyl-spermine (NASPM), a selective blocker of GluA2-lacking AMPARs, into the LA attenuated ABA renewal, suggesting a critical role of GluA2-lacking AMPARs in ABA renewal. We also found that Ser831 phosphorylation of GluA1 in the LA was increased upon ABA renewal. We developed a short peptide mimicking the Ser831-containing C-tail region of GluA1, which can be phosphorylated upon renewal (GluA1S); thus, the phosphorylated GluA1S may compete with Ser831-phosphorylated GluA1. This GluA1S peptide blocked the low-threshold potentiation when dialyzed into a recorded neuron. The microinjection of a cell-permeable form of GluA1S peptide into the LA attenuated ABA renewal. In support of the GluA1S experiments, a GluA1D peptide (in which the serine at 831 is replaced with a phosphomimetic amino acid, aspartate) attenuated ABA renewal when microinjected into the LA. These findings suggest that enhancements in both the

  6. Hyaluronidase, phospholipase A2 and protease inhibitory activity of plants used in traditional treatment of snakebite-induced tissue necrosis in Mali, DR Congo and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Molander, Marianne; Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Søren; Staerk, Dan; Rønsted, Nina; Diallo, Drissa; Chifundera, Kusamba Zacharie; van Staden, Johannes; Jäger, Anna K

    2014-11-18

    Snakebite envenomation, every year, causes estimated 5-10,000 mortalities and results in more than 5-15,000 amputations in sub-Saharan Africa alone. Antiserum is not easily accessible in these regions or doctors are simply not available, thus more than 80% of all patients seek traditional practitioners as first-choice. Therefore it is important to investigate whether the plants used in traditional medicine systems contain compounds against the necrosis-inducing enzymes of snake venom. Extracts from traditionally used plants from DR Congo, Mali and South Africa were tested in hyaluronidase, phospholipase A2 and protease enzyme bioassays using Bitis arietans and Naja nigricollis as enzyme source. A total of 226 extracts from 94 different plant species from the three countries, Mali, Democratic Republic of Congo and South Africa were tested in phospholipase A2, proteases and hyaluronidase enzyme assays. Forty plant species showed more than 90% inhibition in one or more assay. Fabaceae, Anacardiaceae and Malvaceae were the families with the highest number of active species, and the active compounds were distributed in different plant parts depending on plant species. Polyphenols were removed in the search for specific enzyme inhibitors against hyaluronidase, phospholipase A2 or proteases from extracts with IC50 values below 100µg/ml. Water extracts of Pupalia lappacea, Combretum molle, Strychnos innocua and Grewia mollis and ethanol extract of Lannea acida and Bauhinia thonningii still showed IC50 values below 100µg/ml in either the hyaluronidase or protease bioassay after removal of polyphenols. As four of the active plants are widely distributed in the areas where the snake species Bitis arietans and Naja nigricollis occur a potential inhibitor of the necrotic enzymes is accessible for many people in sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Adenosine A2A receptor blockade prevents synaptotoxicity and memory dysfunction caused by beta-amyloid peptides via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Canas, Paula M; Porciúncula, Lisiane O; Cunha, Geanne M A; Silva, Carla G; Machado, Nuno J; Oliveira, Jorge M A; Oliveira, Catarina R; Cunha, Rodrigo A

    2009-11-25

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by memory impairment, neurochemically by accumulation of beta-amyloid peptide (namely Abeta(1-42)) and morphologically by an initial loss of nerve terminals. Caffeine consumption prevents memory dysfunction in different models, which is mimicked by antagonists of adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs), which are located in synapses. Thus, we now tested whether A(2A)R blockade prevents the early Abeta(1-42)-induced synaptotoxicity and memory dysfunction and what are the underlying signaling pathways. The intracerebral administration of soluble Abeta(1-42) (2 nmol) in rats or mice caused, 2 weeks later, memory impairment (decreased performance in the Y-maze and object recognition tests) and a loss of nerve terminal markers (synaptophysin, SNAP-25) without overt neuronal loss, astrogliosis, or microgliosis. These were prevented by pharmacological blockade [5-amino-7-(2-phenylethyl)-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine (SCH58261); 0.05 mg . kg(-1) . d(-1), i.p.; for 15 d] in rats, and genetic inactivation of A(2A)Rs in mice. Moreover, these were synaptic events since purified nerve terminals acutely exposed to Abeta(1-42) (500 nm) displayed mitochondrial dysfunction, which was prevented by A(2A)R blockade. SCH58261 (50 nm) also prevented the initial synaptotoxicity (loss of MAP-2, synaptophysin, and SNAP-25 immunoreactivity) and subsequent loss of viability of cultured hippocampal neurons exposed to Abeta(1-42) (500 nm). This A(2A)R-mediated control of neurotoxicity involved the control of Abeta(1-42)-induced p38 phosphorylation and was independent from cAMP/PKA (protein kinase A) pathway. Together, these results show that A(2A)Rs play a crucial role in the development of Abeta-induced synaptotoxicity leading to memory dysfunction through a p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)-dependent pathway and provide a molecular basis for the benefits of caffeine consumption in AD.

  8. Activation of bradykinin B2 receptor induced the inflammatory responses of cytosolic phospholipase A2 after the early traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Chao, Honglu; Liu, Yinlong; Lin, Chao; Xu, Xiupeng; Li, Zheng; Bao, Zhongyuan; Fan, Liang; Tao, Chao; Zhao, Lin; Liu, Yan; Wang, Xiaoming; You, Yongping; Liu, Ning; Ji, Jing

    2018-06-09

    Phospholipase A 2 is a known aggravator of inflammation and deteriorates neurological outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI), however the exact inflammatory mechanisms remain unknown. This study investigated the role of bradykinin and its receptor, which are known initial mediators within inflammation activation, as well as the mechanisms of the cytosolic phospholipase A 2 (cPLA 2 )-related inflammatory responses after TBI. We found that cPLA 2 and bradykinin B2 receptor were upregulated after a TBI. Rats treated with the bradykinin B2 receptor inhibitor LF 16-0687 exhibited significantly less cPLA 2 expression and related inflammatory responses in the brain cortex after sustaining a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury. Both the cPLA 2 inhibitor and the LF16-0687 improved CCI rat outcomes by decreasing neuron death and reducing brain edema. The following TBI model utilized both primary astrocytes and primary neurons in order to gain further understanding of the inflammation mechanisms of the B2 bradykinin receptor and the cPLA 2 in the central nervous system. There was a stronger reaction from the astrocytes as well as a protective effect of LF16-0687 after the stretch injury and bradykinin treatment. The protein kinase C pathway was thought to be involved in the B2 bradykinin receptor as well as the cPLA 2 -related inflammatory responses. Rottlerin, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) δ inhibitor, decreased the activity of the cPLA 2 activity post-injury, and LF16-0687 suppressed both the PKC pathway and the cPLA 2 activity within the astrocytes. These results indicated that the bradykinin B2 receptor-mediated pathway is involved in the cPLA 2 -related inflammatory response from the PKC pathway. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Daboxin P, a Major Phospholipase A2 Enzyme from the Indian Daboia russelii russelii Venom Targets Factor X and Factor Xa for Its Anticoagulant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Janaki Krishnamurthy; Shih, Norrapat; Majumder, Munmi; Mattaparthi, Venkata Satish Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Rupak; Doley, Robin

    2016-01-01

    In the present study a major protein has been purified from the venom of Indian Daboia russelii russelii using gel filtration, ion exchange and Rp-HPLC techniques. The purified protein, named daboxin P accounts for ~24% of the total protein of the crude venom and has a molecular mass of 13.597 kDa. It exhibits strong anticoagulant and phospholipase A2 activity but is devoid of any cytotoxic effect on the tested normal or cancerous cell lines. Its primary structure was deduced by N-terminal sequencing and chemical cleavage using Edman degradation and tandem mass spectrometry. It is composed of 121 amino acids with 14 cysteine residues and catalytically active His48 -Asp49 pair. The secondary structure of daboxin P constitutes 42.73% of α-helix and 12.36% of β-sheet. It is found to be stable at acidic (pH 3.0) and neutral pH (pH 7.0) and has a Tm value of 71.59 ± 0.46°C. Daboxin P exhibits anticoagulant effect under in-vitro and in-vivo conditions. It does not inhibit the catalytic activity of the serine proteases but inhibits the activation of factor X to factor Xa by the tenase complexes both in the presence and absence of phospholipids. It also inhibits the tenase complexes when active site residue (His48) was alkylated suggesting its non-enzymatic mode of anticoagulant activity. Moreover, it also inhibits prothrombinase complex when pre-incubated with factor Xa prior to factor Va addition. Fluorescence emission spectroscopy and affinity chromatography suggest the probable interaction of daboxin P with factor X and factor Xa. Molecular docking analysis reveals the interaction of the Ca+2 binding loop; helix C; anticoagulant region and C-terminal region of daboxin P with the heavy chain of factor Xa. This is the first report of a phospholipase A2 enzyme from Indian viper venom which targets both factor X and factor Xa for its anticoagulant activity. PMID:27089306

  10. Isolation, X location and activity of the marsupial homologue of SLC16A2, an XIST-flanking gene in eutherian mammals

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Matthew J.; Walcher, Cristina; Disteche, Christine M.; Whitehead, Siobhan; Ross, Mark; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    X chromosome inactivation (XCI) achieves dosage compensation between males and females for most X-linked genes in eutherian mammals. It is a whole-chromosome effect under the control of the XIST locus, although some genes escape inactivation. Marsupial XCI differs from the eutherian process, implying fundamental changes in the XCI mechanism during the evolution of the two lineages. There is no direct evidence for the existence of a marsupial XIST homologue. XCI has been studied for only a handful of genes in any marsupial, and none in the model kangaroo Macropus eugenii (the tammar wallaby). We have therefore studied the sequence, location and activity of a gene SLC16A2 (solute carrier, family 16, class A, member 2) that flanks XIST on the human and mouse X chromosomes. A BAC clone containing the marsupial SLC16A2 was mapped to the end of the long arm of the tammar X chromosome and used in RNA FISH experiments to determine whether one or both loci are transcribed in female cells. In male and female cells, only a single signal was found, indicating that the marsupial SLC16A2 gene is silenced on the inactivated X. PMID:16235118

  11. Impaired dacarbazine activation and 7-ethoxyresorufin deethylation in vitro by polymorphic variants of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2: implications for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Benjamin C; Korprasertthaworn, Porntipa; Miners, John O

    2016-10-01

    To extend our understanding of how interindividual variability mediates the efficacy of cancer treatment. The kinetics of dacarbazine (DTIC) N-demethylation by the most frequent polymorphic variants of CYP1A1 (T461N, I462V) and CYP1A2 (F186L, D348N, I386F, R431W, R456H) were characterized, along with kinetic parameters for the O-deethylation of the prototypic CYP1A substrate 7-ethoxyresorufin, using recombinant protein expression and high-performance liquid chromatographic techniques. A reduction of ∼30% in the catalytic efficiencies (measured as in-vitro intrinsic clearance, CLint) was observed for DTIC N-demethylation by the two CYP1A1 variants relative to wild type. Although a modest increase in the CLint value for DTIC N-demethylation was observed for the CYP1A2 D348N variant relative to the wild type, the CLint for the F186L variant was reduced and the I386F, R431W, and R456H variants all showed loss of catalytic function. Comparison of the kinetic data for DTIC N-demethylation and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation indicated that alterations in the kinetic parameters (Km, Vmax, CLint) observed with each of the CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 polymorphic variants were substrate dependent. These data indicate that cancer patients treated with DTIC who possess any of the CYP1A1-T461N and I462V variants or the CYP1A2-F186L, D348N, I386F, R431W, and R456H variants are likely to have decreased prodrug activation, and hence may respond less favorably to DTIC treatment compared with individuals with wild-type CYP1A alleles.

  12. A novel protein from the serum of Python sebae, structurally homologous with type-γ phospholipase A(2) inhibitor, displays antitumour activity.

    PubMed

    Donnini, Sandra; Finetti, Federica; Francese, Simona; Boscaro, Francesca; Dani, Francesca R; Maset, Fabio; Frasson, Roberta; Palmieri, Michele; Pazzagli, Mario; De Filippis, Vincenzo; Garaci, Enrico; Ziche, Marina

    2011-12-01

    Cytotoxic and antitumour factors have been documented in the venom of snakes, although little information is available on the identification of cytotoxic products in snake serum. In the present study, we purified and characterized a new cytotoxic factor from serum of the non-venomous African rock python (Python sebae), endowed with antitumour activity. PSS (P. sebae serum) exerted a cytotoxic activity and reduced dose-dependently the viability of several different tumour cell lines. In a model of human squamous cell carcinoma xenograft (A431), subcutaneous injection of PSS in proximity of the tumour mass reduced the tumour volume by 20%. Fractionation of PSS by ion-exchange chromatography yielded an active protein fraction, F5, which significantly reduced tumour cell viability in vitro and, strikingly, tumour growth in vivo. F5 is composed of P1 (peak 1) and P2 subunits interacting in a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio to form a heterotetramer in equilibrium with a hexameric form, which retained biological activity only when assembled. The two peptides share sequence similarity with PIP {PLI-γ [type-γ PLA(2) (phospholipase A(2)) inhibitor] from Python reticulatus}, existing as a homohexamer. More importantly, although PIP inhibits the hydrolytic activity of PLA(2), the anti-PLA(2) function of F5 is negligible. Using high-resolution MS, we covered 87 and 97% of the sequences of P1 and P2 respectively. In conclusion, in the present study we have identified and thoroughly characterized a novel protein displaying high sequence similarity to PLI-γ and possessing remarkable cytotoxic and antitumour effects that can be exploited for potential pharmacological applications.

  13. Peroxiredoxin 6 homodimerization and heterodimerization with glutathione S-transferase pi are required for its peroxidase but not phospholipase A2 activity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Suiping; Sorokina, Elena M; Harper, Sandra; Li, Haitao; Ralat, Luis; Dodia, Chandra; Speicher, David W; Feinstein, Sheldon I; Fisher, Aron B

    2016-05-01

    Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) is a unique 1-Cys member of the peroxiredoxin family with both GSH peroxidase and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activities. It is highly expressed in the lung where it plays an important role in antioxidant defense and lung surfactant metabolism. Glutathionylation of Prdx6 mediated by its heterodimerization with GSH S-transferase π (πGST) is required for its peroxidatic catalytic cycle. Recombinant human Prdx6 crystallizes as a homodimer and sedimentation equilibrium analysis confirmed that this protein exists as a high affinity dimer in solution. Based on measurement of molecular mass, dimeric Prdx6 that was oxidized to the sulfenic acid formed a sulfenylamide during storage. After examination of the dimer interface in the crystal structure, we postulated that the hydrophobic amino acids L145 and L148 play an important role in homodimerization of Prdx6 as well as in its heterodimerization with πGST. Oxidation of Prdx6 also was required for its heterodimerization. Sedimentation equilibrium analysis and the Duolink proximity ligation assay following mutation of the L145 and L148 residues of Prdx6 to Glu indicated greatly decreased dimerization propensity reflecting the loss of hydrophobic interactions between the protein monomers. Peroxidase activity was markedly reduced by mutation at either of the Leu sites and was essentially abolished by the double mutation, while PLA2 activity was unaffected. Decreased peroxidase activity following mutation of the interfacial leucines presumably is mediated via impaired heterodimerization of Prdx6 with πGST that is required for reduction and re-activation of the oxidized enzyme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neutrophil-derived 5′-Adenosine Monophosphate Promotes Endothelial Barrier Function via CD73-mediated Conversion to Adenosine and Endothelial A2B Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, Paul F.; Taylor, Cormac T.; Stahl, Gregory L.; Colgan, Sean P.

    1998-01-01

    During episodes of inflammation, polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) transendothelial migration has the potential to disturb vascular barrier function and give rise to intravascular fluid extravasation and edema. However, little is known regarding innate mechanisms that dampen fluid loss during PMN-endothelial interactions. Using an in vitro endothelial paracellular permeability model, we observed a PMN-mediated decrease in endothelial paracellular permeability. A similar decrease was elicited by cell-free supernatants from activated PMN (FMLP 10−6 M), suggesting the presence of a PMN-derived soluble mediator(s). Biophysical and biochemical analysis of PMN supernatants revealed a role for PMN-derived 5′-adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and its metabolite, adenosine, in modulation of endothelial paracellular permeability. Supernatants from activated PMN contained micromolar concentrations of bioactive 5′-AMP and adenosine. Furthermore, exposure of endothelial monolayers to authentic 5′-AMP and adenosine increased endothelial barrier function more than twofold in both human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human microvascular endothelial cells. 5′-AMP bioactivity required endothelial CD73-mediated conversion of 5′-AMP to adenosine via its 5′-ectonucleotidase activity. Decreased endothelial paracellular permeability occurred through adenosine A2B receptor activation and was accompanied by a parallel increase in intracellular cAMP. We conclude that activated PMN release soluble mediators, such as 5′-AMP and adenosine, that promote endothelial barrier function. During inflammation, this pathway may limit potentially deleterious increases in endothelial paracellular permeability and could serve as a basic mechanism of endothelial resealing during PMN transendothelial migration. PMID:9782120

  15. Hyperforin induces Ca(2+)-independent arachidonic acid release in human platelets by facilitating cytosolic phospholipase A(2) activation through select phospholipid interactions.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Marika; Lopez, Jakob J; Pergola, Carlo; Feisst, Christian; Pawelczik, Sven; Jakobsson, Per-Johan; Sorg, Bernd L; Glaubitz, Clemens; Steinhilber, Dieter; Werz, Oliver

    2010-04-01

    Here, we investigated the modulation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2))-mediated arachidonic acid (AA) release by the polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol hyperforin. Hyperforin increased AA release from human platelets up to 2.6 fold (maximal effect at 10microM) versus unstimulated cells, which was blocked by cPLA(2)alpha-inhibition, and induced translocation of cPLA(2) to a membrane compartment. Interestingly, these stimulatory effects of hyperforin were even more pronounced after depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) by EDTA plus BAPTA/AM. Hyperforin induced phosphorylation of cPLA(2) at Ser505 and activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and inhibition of p38 MAPK by SB203580 prevented cPLA(2) phosphorylation. However, neither AA release nor translocation of cPLA(2) was abrogated by SB203580. In cell-free assays using liposomes prepared from different lipids, hyperforin failed to stimulate phospholipid hydrolysis by isolated cPLA(2) in the presence of Ca(2+). However, when Ca(2+) was omitted, hyperforin caused a prominent increase in cPLA(2) activity using liposomes composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine but not of 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PAPC) unless the PAPC liposomes were enriched in cholesterol (20 to 50%). Finally, two-dimensional (1)H-MAS-NMR analysis visualized the directed insertion of hyperforin into POPC liposomes. Together, hyperforin, through insertion into phospholipids, may facilitate cPLA(2) activation by enabling its access towards select lipid membranes independent of Ca(2+) ions. Such Ca(2+)- and phosphorylation-independent mechanism of cPLA(2) activation may apply also to other membrane-interfering molecules. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of a modified hair strand test to assess the antifungal activity kinetics of dog hair after a 2% climbazole shampoo application.

    PubMed

    Petit, Jean Yanique; Cavana, Paola; Thoumire, Sandra; Guillot, Jacques; Perrot, Sébastien

    2016-06-01

    The "hair strand test" was first developed as a model to evaluate the antifungal activity of antidandruff shampoos. To assess the residual activity of an antifungal shampoo on the hair shafts of dogs after a single application, followed by bathing with a physiological shampoo one month later. Six beagles (two males and four females) from a research colony. Dogs were bathed with a 2% climbazole shampoo. Hairs were collected before application of the shampoo and at scheduled intervals for 30 days after treatment. A physiological shampoo was then applied to all dogs and hairs were collected following the same schedule. The inhibition zone around the hair shafts was measured after incubation on Sabouraud's dextrose agar plates streaked with three Malassezia pachydermatis strains. Inhibition zones around hairs collected from dogs bathed with 2% climbazole shampoo were significantly larger than those around hairs collected before shampooing at all time points (P = 0.003). An increase in the width of the inhibition zones around climbazole treated hairs was observed following physiological shampoo on Day 30 (P = 0.005). No significant differences were observed between Malassezia pachydermatis isolates (P = 0.571). No inhibition zones were seen around the hairs of dogs bathed with physiological shampoo only. The modified hair strand test is useful for the assessment of residual antifungal activity on animal hairs. Use of a physiological shampoo following antifungal shampoo therapy may increase the efficacy of the antifungal product for the control of Malassezia overgrowth. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  17. Mitochondria-localized phospholipase A2, AoPlaA, in Aspergillus oryzae displays phosphatidylethanolamine-specific activity and is involved in the maintenance of mitochondrial phospholipid composition.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Shohei; Izawa, Sho; Komai, Noriyuki; Takayanagi, Ayumi; Arioka, Manabu

    2016-11-01

    In mammals, cytosolic phospholipases A 2 (cPLA 2 s) play important physiological roles by releasing arachidonic acid, a precursor for bioactive lipid mediators, from the biological membranes. In contrast, fungal cPLA 2 -like proteins are much less characterized and their roles have remained elusive. AoPlaA is a cPLA 2 -like protein in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae which, unlike mammalian cPLA 2 , localizes to mitochondria. In this study, we investigated the biochemical and physiological functions of AoPlaA. Recombinant AoPlaA produced in E. coli displayed Ca 2+ -independent lipolytic activity. Mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that AoPlaA displayed PLA 2 activity to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), but not to other phospholipids, and generated 1-acylated lysoPE. Catalytic site mutants of AoPlaA displayed almost no or largely reduced activity to PE. Consistent with PE-specific activity of AoPlaA, AoplaA-overexpressing strain showed decreased PE content in the mitochondrial fraction. In contrast, AoplaA-disruption strain displayed increased content of cardiolipin. AoplaA-overexpressing strain, but not its counterparts overexpressing the catalytic site mutants, exhibited retarded growth at low temperature, possibly because of the impairment of the mitochondrial function caused by excess degradation of PE. These results suggest that AoPlaA is a novel PE-specific PLA 2 that plays a regulatory role in the maintenance of mitochondrial phospholipid composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel chromium doped perovskites A2ZnTiO6 (A = Pr, Gd): Synthesis, crystal structure and photocatalytic activity under simulated solar light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hekai; Fang, Minghao; Huang, Zhaohui; Liu, Yan'gai; Chen, Kai; Guan, Ming; Tang, Chao; Zhang, Lina; Wang, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Double perovskite related oxides A2ZnTiO6 (A = Pr, Gd) have been successfully synthesized by solid state reaction and investigated as photocatalysts for the first time. The two layered titanates mainly demonstrate absorbances under UV irradiation, except for several sharp absorption bands above 400 nm for Pr2ZnTiO6. Therefore, a series of photocatalysts by doping A2ZnTiO6 (A = Pr, Gd) with Cr have been developed in the hope to improve their absorption in the visible light region. The successful incorporation of Cr was detected by XRD and XPS, and the prepared samples have also been characteriazed by SEM, UV-vis DRS and PL. The characterization results suggested that Cr was present mainly in the form of Cr3+, with only a small amount of Cr6+ species. It served as an efficient dopant for the extension of visible light absorbance and improved photocatalytic activities under solar light irradiation. For both Pr2ZnTiO6 and Gd2ZnTiO6, the valence band (VB) was composed of hybridized states of the Zn 3d, O 2p and the conduction band (CB) has major contribution from Zn 4s, Ti 3d orbitals. For Cr doped samples, the newly formed spin-polarized valence band in the middle of the band gap that primarily arises from Cr 3d orbitals was responsible for the improved optical and photocatalytic properties.

  19. Effect of darapladib on major coronary events after an acute coronary syndrome: the SOLID-TIMI 52 randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Michelle L; Braunwald, Eugene; White, Harvey D; Steen, Dylan P; Lukas, Mary Ann; Tarka, Elizabeth; Steg, P Gabriel; Hochman, Judith S; Bode, Christoph; Maggioni, Aldo P; Im, KyungAh; Shannon, Jennifer B; Davies, Richard Y; Murphy, Sabina A; Crugnale, Sharon E; Wiviott, Stephen D; Bonaca, Marc P; Watson, David F; Weaver, W Douglas; Serruys, Patrick W; Cannon, Christopher P; Steen, Dylan L

    2014-09-10

    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) has been hypothesized to be involved in atherogenesis through pathways related to inflammation. Darapladib is an oral, selective inhibitor of the Lp-PLA2 enzyme. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of darapladib in patients after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) event. SOLID-TIMI 52 was a multinational, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that randomized 13,026 participants within 30 days of hospitalization with an ACS (non-ST-elevation or ST-elevation myocardial infarction [MI]) at 868 sites in 36 countries. Patients were randomized to either once-daily darapladib (160 mg) or placebo on a background of guideline-recommended therapy. Patients were followed up for a median of 2.5 years between December 7, 2009, and December 6, 2013. The primary end point (major coronary events) was the composite of coronary heart disease (CHD) death, MI, or urgent coronary revascularization for myocardial ischemia. Kaplan-Meier event rates are reported at 3 years. During a median duration of 2.5 years, the primary end point occurred in 903 patients in the darapladib group and 910 in the placebo group (16.3% vs 15.6% at 3 years; hazard ratio [HR], 1.00 [95% CI, 0.91-1.09]; P = .93). The composite of cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke occurred in 824 in the darapladib group and 838 in the placebo group (15.0% vs 15.0% at 3 years; HR, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.90-1.09]; P = .78). There were no differences between the treatment groups for additional secondary end points, for individual components of the primary end point, or in all-cause mortality (371 events in the darapladib group and 395 in the placebo group [7.3% vs 7.1% at 3 years; HR, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.82-1.08]; P = .40). Patients were more likely to report an odor-related concern in the darapladib group vs the placebo group (11.5% vs 2.5%) and also more likely to report diarrhea (10.6% vs 5.6%). In patients who experienced an ACS event, direct inhibition of Lp-PLA2 with

  20. Expression, purification and refolding of active durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) secretory phospholipase A2 from inclusion bodies of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Verlotta, Angelo; Trono, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    Recently, a durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) secretory phospholipase A2 (TdsPLA2III) was identified in leaves as potentially involved in plant responses to conditions of limiting water supply. Therefore, to allow future functional studies on TdsPLA2III and shed further light on the involvement of sPLA2 isoforms in specific plant functions, here we report a protocol for the overexpression of TdsPLA2III in Escherichia coli in the form of inclusion bodies, and for its purification and refolding. The use of the Gateway system (Invitrogen) allows the expression of a large quantity of the mature form (without the signal peptide) of TdsPLA2III with an N-terminal 6×His-tag, for purification using Ni-affinity chromatography. The purified recombinant 6×His-TdsPLA2III fusion protein is then refolded using a step-wise dialysis approach. About 40mg purified and active protein was obtained from 1L of cell culture. This recombinant 6×His-TdsPLA2III protein shows PLA2 activity, as it can hydrolyze linoleate from the sn-2 position of 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. Moreover, it has some features that are typical of other known plant sPLA2s: Ca(2+)-dependence, inhibition by the disulfide bond reducing agent dithiothreitol, and resistance to high temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibition of serine-peptidase activity enhances the generation of a survivin-derived HLA-A2-presented CTL epitope in colon-carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Preta, G; Marescotti, D; Fortini, C; Carcoforo, P; Castelli, C; Masucci, M; Gavioli, R

    2008-12-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes eliminate tumor cells expressing antigenic peptides in the context of MHC-I molecules. Peptides are generated during protein degradation by the proteasome and resulting products, surviving cytosolic amino-peptidases activity, may be presented by MHC-I molecules. The MHC-I processing pathway is altered in a large number of malignancies and modulation of antigen generation is one strategy employed by cells to evade immune control. In this study we analyzed the generation and presentation of a survivin-derived CTL epitope in HLA-A2-positive colon-carcinoma cells. Although all cell lines expressed the anti-apoptotic protein survivin, some tumors were poorly recognized by ELTLGEFLKL (ELT)-specific CTL cultures. The expression of MHC-I or TAP molecules was similar in all cell lines suggesting that tumors not recognized by CTLs may present defects in the generation of the ELT-epitope which could be due either to lack of generation or to subsequent degradation of the epitope. The cells were analyzed for the expression and the activity of extra-proteasomal peptidases. A significant overexpression and higher activity of TPPII was observed in colon-carcinoma cells which are not killed by ELT-specific CTLs, suggesting a possible role of TPPII in the degradation of the ELT-epitope. To confirm the role of TPPII in the degradation of the ELT-peptide, we showed that treatment of colon-carcinoma cells with a TPPII inhibitor resulted in a dose-dependent increased sensitivity to ELT-specific CTLs. These results suggest that TPPII is involved in degradation of the ELT-peptide, and its overexpression may contribute to the immune escape of colon-carcinoma cells.

  2. The effects of a 2-year individualized and family-based lifestyle intervention on physical activity, sedentary behavior and diet in children.

    PubMed

    Viitasalo, Anna; Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Lintu, Niina; Väistö, Juuso; Venäläinen, Taisa; Kiiskinen, Sanna; Karjalainen, Panu; Peltola, Jaana; Lampinen, Eeva-Kaarina; Haapala, Eero A; Paananen, Jussi; Schwab, Ursula; Lindi, Virpi; Lakka, Timo A

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of a long-term, individualized and family-based lifestyle intervention on physical activity, sedentary behavior and diet quality in children. We carried out a 2-year intervention study in a population sample of 506 children aged 6-8years in Finland in 2007-2012. We allocated the participants at baseline in the intervention and control group. We assessed physical activity and sedentary behavior by questionnaires and diet by food records. Total physical activity (+9min/d in intervention group vs. -5min/d in control group, p=0.001 for time*group interaction), unsupervised physical activity (+7min/d vs. -9min/d, p<0.001) and organized sports (+8min/d vs. +3min/d, p=0.001) increased in the intervention group but not in the control group. Using computer and playing video games increased less in the intervention group than in the control group (+9min/d vs. +19min/d, p=0.003). Consumption of vegetables (+12g/d vs. -12g/d, p=0.001), high-fat vegetable-oil based margarine (+10g/d vs. +3g/d, p<0.001) and low-fat milk (+69g/d vs. +11g/d, p=0.042) and intake of dietary fiber (+1.3g/d vs. +0.2g/d, p=0.023), vitamin C (+4.5mg/d vs. -7.2mg/d, p=0.042) and vitamin E (+1.4mg/d vs. +0.5mg/d, p=0.002) increased in the intervention group but not in the control group. Consumption of butter-based spreads increased in the control group but not in the intervention group (+2g/d vs. -1g/d, p=0.002). Individualized and family-based lifestyle intervention increased physical activity, attenuated increase in sedentary behavior and enhanced diet quality in children. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01803776. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Release inhibitory receptors activation favours the A2A-adenosine receptor-mediated facilitation of noradrenaline release in isolated rat tail artery

    PubMed Central

    Fresco, Paula; Diniz, Carmen; Queiroz, Glória; Gonçalves, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    Interactions between A2A-adenosine receptors and α2-, A1- and P2- release-inhibitory receptors, on the modulation of noradrenaline release were studied in isolated rat tail artery. Preparations were labelled with [3H]-noradrenaline, superfused with desipramine-containing medium, and stimulated electrically (100 pulses at 5 Hz or 20 pulses at 50 Hz).Blockade of α2-autoreceptors with yohimbine (1 μM) increased tritium overflow elicited by 100 pulses at 5 Hz but not by 20 pulses at 50 Hz.The selective A2A-receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680; 1 – 100 nM) enhanced tritium overflow elicited by 100 pulses at 5 Hz. Yohimbine prevented the effect of CGS 21680, which was restored by the A1-receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA; 100 nM) or by the P2-receptor agonist 2-methylthioadenosine triphosphate (2-MeSATP; 80 μM).CGS 21680 (100 nM) failed to increase tritium overflow elicited by 20 pulses at 50 Hz. The α2-adrenoceptor agonist 5-bromo-6-(2-imidazolin-2-ylamino)-quinoxaline (UK 14304; 30 nM), the A1-receptor agonist CPA (100 nM) or the P2-receptor agonist 2-MeSATP (80 μM) reduced tritium overflow. In the presence of these agonists CGS 21680 elicited a facilitation of tritium overflow.Blockade of potassium channels with tetraethylammonium (TEA; 5 mM) increased tritium overflow elicited by 100 pulses at 5 Hz to values similar to those obtained in the presence of yohimbine but did not prevent the effect of CGS 21680 (100 nM) on tritium overflow.It is concluded that, in isolated rat tail artery, the facilitation of noradrenaline release mediated by A2A-adenosine receptors is favoured by activation of release inhibitory receptors. PMID:12010771

  4. A High-Throughput Cell-Based Screen Identified a 2-[(E)-2-Phenylvinyl]-8-Quinolinol Core Structure That Activates p53

    PubMed Central

    Bechill, John; Zhong, Rong; Zhang, Chen; Solomaha, Elena

    2016-01-01

    p53 function is frequently inhibited in cancer either through mutations or by increased degradation via MDM2 and/or E6AP E3-ubiquitin ligases. Most agents that restore p53 expression act by binding MDM2 or E6AP to prevent p53 degradation. However, fewer compounds directly bind to and activate p53. Here, we identified compounds that shared a core structure that bound p53, caused nuclear localization of p53 and caused cell death. To identify these compounds, we developed a novel cell-based screen to redirect p53 degradation to the Skip-Cullin-F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complex in cells expressing high levels of p53. In a multiplexed assay, we coupled p53 targeted degradation with Rb1 targeted degradation in order to identify compounds that prevented p53 degradation while not inhibiting degradation through the SCF complex or other proteolytic machinery. High-throughput screening identified several leads that shared a common 2-[(E)-2-phenylvinyl]-8-quinolinol core structure that stabilized p53. Surface plasmon resonance analysis indicated that these compounds bound p53 with a KD of 200 ± 52 nM. Furthermore, these compounds increased p53 nuclear localization and transcription of the p53 target genes PUMA, BAX, p21 and FAS in cancer cells. Although p53-null cells had a 2.5±0.5-fold greater viability compared to p53 wild type cells after treatment with core compounds, loss of p53 did not completely rescue cell viability suggesting that compounds may target both p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways to inhibit cell proliferation. Thus, we present a novel, cell-based high-throughput screen to identify a 2-[(E)-2-phenylvinyl]-8-quinolinol core structure that bound to p53 and increased p53 activity in cancer cells. These compounds may serve as anti-neoplastic agents in part by targeting p53 as well as other potential pathways. PMID:27124407

  5. Pathogenic LRRK2 mutations, through increased kinase activity, produce enlarged lysosomes with reduced degradative capacity and increase ATP13A2 expression.

    PubMed

    Henry, Anastasia G; Aghamohammadzadeh, Soheil; Samaroo, Harry; Chen, Yi; Mou, Kewa; Needle, Elie; Hirst, Warren D

    2015-11-01

    Lysosomal dysfunction plays a central role in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Several genes linked to genetic forms of PD, including leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), functionally converge on the lysosomal system. While mutations in LRRK2 are commonly associated with autosomal-dominant PD, the physiological and pathological functions of this kinase remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that LRRK2 regulates lysosome size, number and function in astrocytes, which endogenously express high levels of LRRK2. Expression of LRRK2 G2019S, the most common pathological mutation, produces enlarged lysosomes and diminishes the lysosomal capacity of these cells. Enlarged lysosomes appears to be a common phenotype associated with pathogenic LRRK2 mutations, as we also observed this effect in cells expressing other LRRK2 mutations; R1441C or Y1699C. The lysosomal defects associated with these mutations are dependent on both the catalytic activity of the kinase and autophosphorylation of LRRK2 at serine 1292. Further, we demonstrate that blocking LRRK2's kinase activity, with the potent and selective inhibitor PF-06447475, rescues the observed defects in lysosomal morphology and function. The present study also establishes that G2019S mutation leads to a reduction in lysosomal pH and increased expression of the lysosomal ATPase ATP13A2, a gene linked to a parkinsonian syndrome (Kufor-Rakeb syndrome), in brain samples from mouse and human LRRK2 G2019S carriers. Together, these results demonstrate that PD-associated LRRK2 mutations perturb lysosome function in a kinase-dependent manner, highlighting the therapeutic promise of LRRK2 kinase inhibitors in the treatment of PD. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. HsfA2 Controls the Activity of Developmentally and Stress-Regulated Heat Stress Protection Mechanisms in Tomato Male Reproductive Tissues1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Simm, Stefan; Paupière, Marine Josephine; Theres, Klaus; Bovy, Arnaud; Schleiff, Enrico; Scharf, Klaus-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Male reproductive tissues are more sensitive to heat stress (HS) compared to vegetative tissues, but the basis of this phenomenon is poorly understood. Heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) regulate the transcriptional changes required for protection from HS. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), HsfA2 acts as coactivator of HsfA1a and is one of the major Hsfs accumulating in response to elevated temperatures. The contribution of HsfA2 in heat stress response (HSR) and thermotolerance was investigated in different tissues of transgenic tomato plants with suppressed HsfA2 levels (A2AS). Global transcriptome analysis and immunodetection of two major Hsps in vegetative and reproductive tissues showed that HsfA2 regulates subsets of HS-induced genes in a tissue-specific manner. Accumulation of HsfA2 by a moderate HS treatment enhances the capacity of seedlings to cope with a subsequent severe HS, suggesting an important role for HsfA2 in regulating acquired thermotolerance. In pollen, HsfA2 is an important coactivator of HsfA1a during HSR. HsfA2 suppression reduces the viability and germination rate of pollen that received the stress during the stages of meiosis and microspore formation but had no effect on more advanced stages. In general, pollen meiocytes and microspores are characterized by increased susceptibility to HS due to their lower capacity to induce a strong HSR. This sensitivity is partially mitigated by the developmentally regulated expression of HsfA2 and several HS-responsive genes mediated by HsfA1a under nonstress conditions. Thereby, HsfA2 is an important factor for the priming process that sustains pollen thermotolerance during microsporogenesis. PMID:26917685

  7. Structure-Activity Relationships of Truncated C2- or C8-Substituted Adenosine Derivatives as Dual Acting A2A and A3 Adenosine Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xiyan; Majik, Mahesh S.; Kim, Kyunglim; Pyee, Yuna; Lee, Yoonji; Alexander, Varughese; Chung, Hwa-Jin; Lee, Hyuk Woo; Chandra, Girish; Lee, Jin Hee; Park, Seul-gi; Choi, Won Jun; Kim, Hea Ok; Phan, Khai; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Choi, Sun; Lee, Sang Kook; Jeong, Lak Shin

    2011-01-01

    Truncated N6-substituted-4′-oxo- and 4′-thioadenosine derivatives with C2 or C8 substitution were studied as dual acting A2A and A3 adenosine receptor (AR) ligands. The lithiation-mediated stannyl transfer and palladium-catalyzed cross coupling reactions were utilized for functionalization of the C2 position of 6-chloropurine nucleosides. An unsubstituted 6-amino group and a hydrophobic C2 substituent were required for high affinity at the hA2AAR, but hydrophobic C8 substitution abolished binding at the hA2AAR. However, most of synthesized compounds displayed medium to high binding affinity at the hA3AR, regardless of C2 or C8 substitution, and low efficacy in a functional cAMP assay. Several compounds tended to be full hA2AAR agonists. C2 substitution probed geometrically through hA2AAR-docking, was important for binding in order of hexynyl > hexenyl > hexanyl. Compound 4g was the most potent ligand acting dually as hA2AAR agonist and hA3AR antagonist, which might be useful for treatment of asthma or other inflammatory diseases. PMID:22142423

  8. Caffeine Inhibits the Activation of Hepatic Stellate Cells Induced by Acetaldehyde via Adenosine A2A Receptor Mediated by the cAMP/PKA/SRC/ERK1/2/P38 MAPK Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wanzhi; Wang, Qi; Zhao, Han; Yang, Feng; Lv, Xiongwen; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation is an essential event during alcoholic liver fibrosis. Evidence suggests that adenosine aggravates liver fibrosis via the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR). Caffeine, which is being widely consumed during daily life, inhibits the action of adenosine. In this study, we attempted to validate the hypothesis that caffeine influences acetaldehyde-induced HSC activation by acting on A2AR. Acetaldehyde at 50, 100, 200, and 400 μM significantly increased HSC-T6 cells proliferation, and cell proliferation reached a maximum at 48 h after exposure to 200 μM acetaldehyde. Caffeine and the A2AR antagonist ZM241385 decreased the cell viability and inhibited the expression of procollagen type I and type III in acetaldehyde-induced HSC-T6 cells. In addition, the inhibitory effect of caffeine on the expression of procollagen type I was regulated by A2AR-mediated signal pathway involving cAMP, PKA, SRC, and ERK1/2. Interestingly, caffeine’s inhibitory effect on the expression of procollagen type III may depend upon the A2AR-mediated P38 MAPK-dependent pathway. Conclusions: Caffeine significantly inhibited acetaldehyde-induced HSC-T6 cells activation by distinct A2AR mediated signal pathway via inhibition of cAMP-PKA-SRC-ERK1/2 for procollagen type I and via P38 MAPK for procollagen type III. PMID:24682220

  9. Thrombin Time

    MedlinePlus

    ... Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase Lipid Panel Lipoprotein (a) Lithium Liver Panel Lp-PLA2 Lupus Anticoagulant Testing Luteinizing ... thrombin time is just one component of the battery of tests typically required to evaluate a bleeding ...

  10. Overexpression of SLC34A2 is an independent prognostic indicator in bladder cancer and its depletion suppresses tumor growth via decreasing c-Myc expression and transcriptional activity

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Wen; Chen, Cui; Gao, Ying; Zheng, Zou-Shan; Xu, Yi; Yun, Miao; Weng, Hui-Wen; Xie, Dan; Ye, Sheng; Zhang, Jia-Xing

    2017-01-01

    Solute carrier family 34 member 2 (SLC34A2), a pH-sensitive sodium-dependent phosphate transporter, is associated with several human cancers. In this study, we investigate the clinical significance of SLC34A2 and its function in human bladder cancer (BC). The expression dynamics of SLC34A2 were examined in two independent cohorts of BC samples by quantitative PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. In the training cohort (156 cases), we applied the X-tile program software to assess the optimal cutoff points for biomarkers in order to accurately classify patients according to clinical outcome. In the validation cohort (130 cases), the cutoff score derived from X-title analysis was investigated to determine the association of SLC34A2 expression with survival outcome. A series of in vitro and in vivo assays were then performed to elucidate the function of SLC34A2 in BC and its underlying mechanisms. Results showed that SLC34A2 was significantly upregulated in BC cell lines and clinical samples. In both two cohorts of BC samples, high expression of SLC34A2 was associated with large tumor size, advanced T status and poor patients' survival. The depletion of SLC34A2 in BC suppressed cellular viability, colony formation and anchorage-independent growth in vitro, and inhibited xenograft tumor growth in vivo, whereas overexpression of SLC34A2 had the converse effect. Simultaneously, downregulation of SLC34A2 decreased the transcriptional activity and protein expression level of c-Myc in BC cells, whereas restoration of c-Myc expression could compromise the anti-proliferation effect of SLC34A2 depletion. Furthermore, miR-214 was proved as a negative regulator of SLC34A2. Our present study illustrated that SLC34A2 has an important role in promoting proliferation and tumorigenicity of BC, and may represent a novel therapeutic target for this disease. PMID:28151475

  11. Chronic and acute adenosine A2A receptor blockade prevents long-term episodic memory disruption caused by acute cannabinoid CB1 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Mouro, Francisco M; Batalha, Vânia L; Ferreira, Diana G; Coelho, Joana E; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Lopes, Luísa V; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Sebastião, Ana M

    2017-05-01

    Cannabinoid-mediated memory impairment is a concern in cannabinoid-based therapies. Caffeine exacerbates cannabinoid CB 1 receptor (CB 1 R)-induced memory deficits through an adenosine A 1 receptor-mediated mechanism. We now evaluated how chronic or acute blockade of adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A Rs) affects long-term episodic memory deficits induced by a single injection of a selective CB 1 R agonist. Long-term episodic memory was assessed by the novel object recognition (NOR) test. Mice received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of the CB 1 /CB 2 receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 (1 mg/kg) immediately after the NOR training, being tested for novelty recognition 24 h later. Anxiety levels were assessed by the Elevated Plus Maze test, immediately after the NOR. Mice were also tested for exploratory behaviour at the Open Field. For chronic A 2A R blockade, KW-6002 (istradefylline) (3 mg/kg/day) was administered orally for 30 days; acute blockade of A 2A Rs was assessed by i.p. injection of SCH 58261 (1 mg/kg) administered either together with WIN 55,212-2 or only 30 min before the NOR test phase. The involvement of CB 1 Rs was assessed by using the CB 1 R antagonist, AM251 (3 mg/kg, i.p.). WIN 55,212-2 caused a disruption in NOR, an action absent in mice also receiving AM251, KW-6002 or SCH 58261 during the encoding/consolidation phase; SCH 58251 was ineffective if present during retrieval only. No effects were detected in the Elevated Plus maze or Open Field Test. The finding that CB 1 R-mediated memory disruption is prevented by antagonism of adenosine A 2A Rs, highlights a possibility to prevent cognitive side effects when therapeutic application of CB 1 R drugs is desired. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pyranoflavones: a group of small-molecule probes for exploring the active site cavities of cytochrome P450 enzymes 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiawang; Taylor, Shannon F; Dupart, Patrick S; Arnold, Corey L; Sridhar, Jayalakshmi; Jiang, Quan; Wang, Yuji; Skripnikova, Elena V; Zhao, Ming; Foroozesh, Maryam

    2013-05-23

    Selective inhibition of P450 enzymes is the key to block the conversion of environmental procarcinogens to their carcinogenic metabolites in both animals and humans. To discover highly potent and selective inhibitors of P450s 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1, as well as to investigate active site cavities of these enzymes, 14 novel flavone derivatives were prepared as chemical probes. Fluorimetric enzyme inhibition assays were used to determine the inhibitory activities of these probes toward P450s 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, and 2B1. A highly selective P450 1B1 inhibitor 5-hydroxy-4'-propargyloxyflavone (5H4'FPE) was discovered. Some tested compounds also showed selectivity between P450s 1A1 and 1A2. α-Naphthoflavone-like and 5-hydroxyflavone derivatives preferentially inhibited P450 1A2, while β-naphthoflavone-like flavone derivatives showed selective inhibition of P450 1A1. On the basis of structural analysis, the active site cavity models of P450 enzymes 1A1 and 1A2 were generated, demonstrating a planar long strip cavity and a planar triangular cavity, respectively.

  13. The A2B Adenosine Receptor Modulates the Epithelial– Mesenchymal Transition through the Balance of cAMP/PKA and MAPK/ERK Pathway Activation in Human Epithelial Lung Cells

    PubMed Central

    Giacomelli, Chiara; Daniele, Simona; Romei, Chiara; Tavanti, Laura; Neri, Tommaso; Piano, Ilaria; Celi, Alessandro; Martini, Claudia; Trincavelli, Maria L.

    2018-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex process in which cell phenotype switches from the epithelial to mesenchymal one. The deregulations of this process have been related with the occurrence of different diseases such as lung cancer and fibrosis. In the last decade, several efforts have been devoted in understanding the mechanisms that trigger and sustain this transition process. Adenosine is a purinergic signaling molecule that has been involved in the onset and progression of chronic lung diseases and cancer through the A2B adenosine receptor subtype activation, too. However, the relationship between A2BAR and EMT has not been investigated, yet. Herein, the A2BAR characterization was carried out in human epithelial lung cells. Moreover, the effects of receptor activation on EMT were investigated in the absence and presence of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1), which has been known to promote the transition. The A2BAR activation alone decreased and increased the expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin) and the mesenchymal one (Vimentin, N-cadherin), respectively, nevertheless a complete EMT was not observed. Surprisingly, the receptor activation counteracted the EMT induced by TGF-β1. Several intracellular pathways regulate the EMT: high levels of cAMP and ERK1/2 phosphorylation has been demonstrated to counteract and promote the transition, respectively. The A2BAR stimulation was able to modulated these two pathways, cAMP/PKA and MAPK/ERK, shifting the fine balance toward activation or inhibition of EMT. In fact, using a selective PKA inhibitor, which blocks the cAMP pathway, the A2BAR-mediated EMT promotion were exacerbated, and conversely the selective inhibition of MAPK/ERK counteracted the receptor-induced transition. These results highlighted the A2BAR as one of the receptors involved in the modulation of EMT process. Nevertheless, its activation is not enough to trigger a complete transition, its ability to affect different

  14. The mitochondrial proteins AtHscB and AtIsu1 involved in Fe-S cluster assembly interact with the Hsp70-type chaperon AtHscA2 and modulate its catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Leaden, Laura; Busi, Maria V; Gomez-Casati, Diego F

    2014-11-01

    Arabidopsis plants contain two genes coding for mitochondrial Hsp70-type chaperon-like proteins, AtHscA1 (At4g37910) and AtHscA2 (At5g09590). Both genes are homologs of the Ssq1 gene involved in Fe-S cluster assembly in yeast. Protein-protein interaction studies showed that AtHscA2 interacts with AtIsu1 and AtHscB, two Arabidopsis homologs of the Isu1 protein and the Jac1 yeast co-chaperone. Moreover, this interaction could modulate the activity of AtHscA2. In the presence of a 1:5:5 molar ratio of AtHscA2:AtIsu1:AtHscB we observed an increase in the V(max) and a decrease in the S(0.5) for ATP of AtHscA2. Furthermore, an increase of about 28-fold in the catalytic efficiency of AtHscA2 was also observed. Results suggest that AtHscA2 in cooperation with AtIsu1 and AtHscB play an important role in the regulation of the Fe-S assembly pathway in plant mitochondria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  15. A 2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid–Gelatin Conjugate: The Synthesis, Antiviral Activity and Mechanism of Antiviral Action Against Two Alphaherpesviruses

    PubMed Central

    Lisov, Alexander; Vrublevskaya, Veronika; Lisova, Zoy; Leontievsky, Alexey; Morenkov, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    Various natural and synthetic polyanionic polymers with different chemical structures are known to exhibit potent antiviral activity in vitro toward a variety of enveloped viruses and may be considered as promising therapeutic agents. A water-soluble conjugate of 2,5-dihydroxybezoic acid (2,5-DHBA) with gelatin was synthesized by laccase-catalyzed oxidation of 2,5-DHBA in the presence of gelatin, and its antiviral activity against pseudorabies virus (PRV) and bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1), two members of the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily, was studied. The conjugate produced no direct cytotoxic effect on cells, and did not inhibit cell growth at concentrations up to 1000 µg/mL. It exhibited potent antiviral activity against PRV (IC50, 1.5–15 µg/mL for different virus strains) and BoHV-1 (IC50, 0.5–0.7 µg/mL). When present during virus adsorption, the conjugate strongly inhibited the attachment of PRV and BoHV-1 to cells. The 2,5-DHBA–gelatin conjugate had no direct virucidal effect on the viruses and did not influence their penetration into cells, cell-to-cell spread, production of infectious virus particles in cells, and expression of PRV glycoproteins E and B. The results indicated that the 2,5-DHBA–gelatin conjugate strongly inhibits the adsorption of alphaherpesviruses to cells and can be a promising synthetic polymer for the development of antiviral formulations against alphaherpesvirus infections. PMID:26501311

  16. Physical workload, leisure-time physical activity, obesity and smoking as predictors of multisite musculoskeletal pain. A 2-year prospective study of kitchen workers.

    PubMed

    Haukka, Eija; Ojajärvi, Anneli; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Leino-Arjas, Päivi

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to examine the role of physical workload, leisure-time physical activity, obesity and smoking in predicting the occurrence and course of multisite musculoskeletal pain (MSP). Data on physical and psychosocial workload, lifestyle factors and MSP were based on questionnaire surveys of 385 Finnish female kitchen workers. MSP (defined as pain at three or more of seven sites) during the past 3 months was measured repeatedly at 3-month intervals over 2 years. Four different patterns (trajectories) in the course of MSP were identified. The authors analysed whether the determinants at baseline predicted the occurrence of MSP (1) at the 2-year follow-up and (2) over the total of nine measurements during the 2 years by exploiting the MSP trajectories. Logistic regression was used. High physical workload at baseline was an independent predictor of MSP at the 2-year follow-up (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.7 to 8.5) in a model allowing for age, psychosocial factors at work and lifestyle. High physical workload (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0 to 4.0) and moderate (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.9) or low (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.7) physical activity predicted persistent MSP. Obesity (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.0 to 7.8) predicted an increased, and not being obese (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.1 to 12.7) a decreased, prevalence of MSP in models similarly including all covariates. Smoking had no effect. The results emphasise the importance of high physical workload, low to moderate physical activity and obesity as potential modifiable risk factors for the occurrence and course of MSP over time.

  17. In Vitro Activity of Voriconazole against Prototheca wickerhamii: Comparative Evaluation of Sensititre and NCCLS M27-A2 Methods of Detection

    PubMed Central

    Linares, Maria José; Solís, Francisco; Casal, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    A total of 104 Prototheca wickerhamii isolates and two control strains were tested for susceptibility to voriconazole using the Sensititre YeastOne colorimetric antifungal plate and NCCLS reference method. Voriconazole was highly active against all isolates, with an MIC at which 90% of isolates were inhibited of ≤0.5 μg/ml. Comparison of MICs obtained with the Sensititre product and the NCCLS method demonstrated agreement (100% ± 2 log2 dilutions) between the two methods. Voriconazole may offer an option for the treatment of Prototheca sp. infections, and its efficacy should be established through clinical experience. PMID:15872301

  18. Extraction and Inhibition of Enzymatic Activity of Botulinum Neurotoxins/A1, /A2, and /A3 by a Panel of Monoclonal Anti-BoNT/A Antibodies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    triplicate and results were averaged. MS Detection A master mix was created consisting of 9 parts matrix solution (alpha-cyano-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid ...thus, do not inhibit the catalytic activity. Another feature of BoNT/A is that it exhibits genetic and amino acid variance within the toxin type, or...less amino acid variance [23] and this variance has been reported to affect binding of the toxin to anti-BoNT/A mAbs [24]. For these reasons, it is

  19. Semen characteristics after overnight shipping: preservation of sperm concentrations, HspA2 ratios, CK activity, cytoplasmic retention, chromatin maturity, DNA integrity, and sperm shape.

    PubMed

    Huszar, Gabor; Celik-Ozenci, Ciler; Cayli, Sevil; Kovacs, Tamas; Vigue, Lynne; Kovanci, Ertug

    2004-01-01

    We tested several approaches that can be used to preserve sperm attributes and the objective biochemical markers of sperm maturity and function for assessment in a remote centralized laboratory after overnight shipping of semen samples. Addition of phenyl-methyl-sulfonyl-fluoride (PMSF) to a final concentration of 20 microg/mL semen at 4 degrees C has preserved sperm concentrations and HspA2 isoform ratios, even at room temperature, simulating a shipping delay in moderate ambient temperatures. Regarding the attributes of individual spermatozoa, the patterns of CK-immunocytochemistry (demonstrates cytoplasmic retention in diminished-maturity spermatozoa); aniline blue staining pattern (tests chromatin maturity); sperm shape assessed by both Kruger strict morphology and computer assisted morphometry; and sperm DNA integrity, as tested by DNA nick translation, all remained unchanged. Thus, the PMSF-4 degrees C conditions preserved sperm concentrations and the cytoplasmic and nuclear biomarkers of sperm cellular maturity and function for next-day analysis. This shipping method will facilitate the early detection of subtle changes in semen quality that can affect sperm function, even when there has been no decline in sperm concentrations to signal possible toxic effects. Furthermore, sample preservation will enable investigators to evaluate semen for toxicology studies and for diagnosis of male infertility from remote locations. Home collection of semen should enhance study participation, and semen assessment in centralized laboratories will address concerns regarding interlaboratory variations and quality control.

  20. Results of a 2-year randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial: Effects on diet, activity and sleep behaviors in an at-risk young adult population.

    PubMed

    Laska, Melissa N; Lytle, Leslie A; Nanney, Marilyn S; Moe, Stacey G; Linde, Jennifer A; Hannan, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Excess weight gain tends to occur in young adulthood. However, research examining effective weight-related interventions for this age group has been limited. As one of seven trials in the EARLY Trials consortium (Early Adult Reduction of weight through LifestYle intervention), the CHOICES Study (Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings) tested effects of a technology-integrated, young adult weight gain prevention intervention. It was a randomized controlled trial with assessments at baseline (2011) and 4-, 12- and 24-months post-intervention initiation and included 441 participants (ages 18-35) who were students at three Minnesota community colleges. The 24-month intervention included a 1-credit academic course and social networking and support online intervention. This analysis examined effects on 12 secondary behavioral outcomes across three domains: diet (fast food, sugary beverages, breakfast, at-home meal preparation), physical activity/screen time (minutes and energy expenditure in leisure time physical activity, television viewing, leisure time computer use) and sleep (hours of sleep, time required to fall asleep, days not getting enough rest, difficulty staying awake). The intervention resulted in significant reductions in fast food (p=0.007) but increases in difficulty staying awake (p=0.015). There was limited evidence of other behavior changes at 4months (0.05

  1. Attenuation of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer with Cochinchina momordica seed extract through inhibiting cytoplasmic phospholipase A2/5-lipoxygenase and activating γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ki-Seok; Kim, Eun-Hee; Hong, Hua; Ock, Chan Young; Lee, Jeong Sang; Kim, Joo-Hyun; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2012-04-01

    Cysteamine is a reducing aminothiol used for inducing duodenal ulcer through mechanisms of oxidative stress related to thiol-derived H(2)O(2) reaction. Cochinchina momordica saponins have been suggested to be protective against various gastric diseases based on their cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. This study was aimed to document the preventive effects of Cochinchina momordica seed extract against cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer as well as the elucidation of its pharmacological mechanisms. Cochinchina momordica seed extract (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) was administrated intragastrically before cysteamine administration, after which the incidence of the duodenal ulcer, ulcer size, serum gastrin level, and the ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione disulfide (GSSG) as well as biochemical and molecular measurements of cytoplasmic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), 5-lipoxygenase and the expression of proinflammatory genes including IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2 were measured in rat model. Additional experiments of electron spin resonance measurement and the changes of glutathione were performed. Cochinchina momordica seed extract effectively prevented cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer in a dose-dependent manner as reflected with significant decreases in either duodenal ulcerogenesis or perforation accompanied with significantly decreased in serum gastrin in addition to inflammatory mediators including cPLA(2), COX-2, and 5-lipoxygenase. Cochinchina momordica seed extract induced the expression of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS)-related glutathione synthesis as well as significantly reduced the expression of cPLA(2). Cochinchina momordica seed extract preserved reduced glutathione through increased expressions of γ-GCS. Cochinchina momordica seed extracts exerted significantly protective effect against cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer by either cPLA2 inhibition or glutathione preservation. © 2012 Journal of

  2. A novel synthetic peptide inspired on Lys49 phospholipase A2 from Crotalus oreganus abyssus snake venom active against multidrug-resistant clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Almeida, José R; Mendes, Bruno; Lancellotti, Marcelo; Marangoni, Sergio; Vale, Nuno; Passos, Óscar; Ramos, Maria J; Fernandes, Pedro A; Gomes, Paula; Da Silva, Saulo L

    2018-04-10

    Currently, the evolving and complex mechanisms of bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics are increasing, while alternative medicines are drying up, which urges the need to discover novel agents able to kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Lys49 phospholipase A 2 s (PLA 2 s) from snake venoms are multifunctional toxins able to induce a huge variety of therapeutic effects and consequently serve as templates for new drug leads. Hence, the present study was aimed at the synthesis of oligopeptides mimicking regions of the antibacterial Lys49 PLA 2 toxin (CoaTx-II), recently isolated from Crotalus oreganus abyssus snake venom, to identify small peptides able to reproduce the therapeutic action of the toxin. Five peptides, representing major regions of interest within CoaTx-II, were synthesized and screened for their antibacterial properties. The 13-mer peptide pC-CoaTxII, corresponding to residues 115-129 of CoaTx-II, was able to reproduce the promising bactericidal effect of the toxin against multi-resistant clinical isolates. Peptide pC-CoaTxII is mainly composed by positively charged and hydrophobic amino acids, a typical trait in most antimicrobial peptides, and presented no defined secondary structure in aqueous environment. The physicochemical properties of pC-CoaTxII are favorable towards a strong interaction with anionic lipid membranes as those in bacteria. Additional in silico studies suggest formation of a water channel across the membrane upon peptide insertion, eventually leading to bacterial cell disruption and death. Overall, our findings confirm the valuable potential of snake venom toxins towards design and synthesis of novel antimicrobials, thus representing key insights towards development of alternative efficient antimicrobials to fight bacterial resistance to current antibiotics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Adaptive goal setting and financial incentives: a 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial to increase adults' physical activity.

    PubMed

    Adams, Marc A; Hurley, Jane C; Todd, Michael; Bhuiyan, Nishat; Jarrett, Catherine L; Tucker, Wesley J; Hollingshead, Kevin E; Angadi, Siddhartha S

    2017-03-29

    Emerging interventions that rely on and harness variability in behavior to adapt to individual performance over time may outperform interventions that prescribe static goals (e.g., 10,000 steps/day). The purpose of this factorial trial was to compare adaptive vs. static goal setting and immediate vs. delayed, non-contingent financial rewards for increasing free-living physical activity (PA). A 4-month 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial tested main effects for goal setting (adaptive vs. static goals) and rewards (immediate vs. delayed) and interactions between factors to increase steps/day as measured by a Fitbit Zip. Moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) minutes/day was examined as a secondary outcome. Participants (N = 96) were mainly female (77%), aged 41 ± 9.5 years, and all were insufficiently active and overweight/obese (mean BMI = 34.1 ± 6.2). Participants across all groups increased by 2389 steps/day on average from baseline to intervention phase (p < .001). Participants receiving static goals showed a stronger increase in steps per day from baseline phase to intervention phase (2630 steps/day) than those receiving adaptive goals (2149 steps/day; difference = 482 steps/day, p = .095). Participants receiving immediate rewards showed stronger improvement (2762 step/day increase) from baseline to intervention phase than those receiving delayed rewards (2016 steps/day increase; difference = 746 steps/day, p = .009). However, the adaptive goals group showed a slower decrease in steps/day from the beginning of the intervention phase to the end of the intervention phase (i.e. less than half the rate) compared to the static goals group (-7.7 steps vs. -18.3 steps each day; difference = 10.7 steps/day, p < .001) resulting in better improvements for the adaptive goals group by study end. Rate of change over the intervention phase did not differ between reward groups. Significant goal phase x goal setting x reward interactions were

  4. A participatory and capacity-building approach to healthy eating and physical activity – SCIP-school: a 2-year controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Schools can be effective settings for improving eating habits and physical activity, whereas it is more difficult to prevent obesity. A key challenge is the “implementation gap”. Trade-off must be made between expert-driven programmes on the one hand and contextual relevance, flexibility, participation and capacity building on the other. The aim of the Stockholm County Implementation Programme was to improve eating habits, physical activity, self-esteem, and promote a healthy body weight in children aged 6–16 years. We describe the programme, intervention fidelity, impacts and outcomes after two years of intervention. Methods Nine out of 18 schools in a middle-class municipality in Sweden agreed to participate whereas the other nine schools served as the comparison group (quasi-experimental study). Tailored action plans were developed by school health teams on the basis of a self-assessment questionnaire called KEY assessing strengths and weaknesses of each school’s health practices and environments. Process evaluation was carried out by the research staff. Impacts at school level were assessed yearly by the KEY. Outcome measures at student level were anthropometry (measured), and health behaviours assessed by a questionnaire, at baseline and after 2 years. All children in grade 2, 4 and 7 were invited to participate (n=1359) of which 59.8% consented. The effect of the intervention on health behaviours, self-esteem, weight status and BMIsds was evaluated by unilevel and multilevel regression analysis adjusted for gender and baseline values. Results Programme fidelity was high demonstrating feasibility, but fidelity to school action plans was only 48% after two years. Positive and significant (p<.05) impacts were noted in school health practices and environments after 2 years. At student level no significant intervention effects were seen for the main outcomes. Conclusions School staff has the capacity to create their own solutions and make

  5. Lysobacter capsici AZ78 produces cyclo(L-Pro-L-Tyr), a 2,5-diketopiperazine with toxic activity against sporangia of Phytophthora infestans and Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Puopolo, G; Cimmino, A; Palmieri, M C; Giovannini, O; Evidente, A; Pertot, I

    2014-10-01

    To investigate low molecular weight compounds produced in vitro by Lysobacter capsici AZ78 and their toxic activity against sporangia of plant pathogenic oomycetes. Assays carried out in vitro showed that L. capsici AZ78 drastically inhibits the growth of plant pathogenic oomycetes. Accordingly, the preventive application of culture filtrates of L. capsici AZ78 on grapevine and tomato plants reduced the infections, respectively, caused by Plasmopara (Pl.) viticola and Phytophthora infestans. The subsequent chemical analysis of the culture filtrates of L. capsici AZ78 by spectroscopic (essentially 1D and 2D (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR and ESI MS spectra) and optical methods led to the identification of the 2,5-diketopiperazine cyclo(L-Pro-L-Tyr) that inhibited the development of P. infestans sporangia in vitro and on tomato leaves. Furthermore, a genomic region with high sequence identity with genes coding for a hybrid polyketide synthase and nonribosomal peptide synthetase was detected in L. capsici AZ78. Lysobacter capsici AZ78 produces cyclo(L-Pro-L-Tyr) in vitro that was effective in killing the sporangia of P. infestans and Pl. viticola in vitro. Moreover, this low molecular weight compound prevents the occurrence of late blight lesions when applied on tomato leaves. The application of L. capsici AZ78 cells or its own culture filtrates effectively controls both P. infestans and Pl. viticola. Cyclo(L-Pro-L-Tyr) produced by L. capsici AZ78 is toxic against sporangia of both these oomycetes. These data enforce the potential in the use of Lysobacter members for the control of plant pathogenic oomycetes and provide the basis for the development of new low-impact fungicides based on cyclo(L-Pro-L-Tyr). © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. GluA2 trafficking is involved in apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells induced by activation of EphB/EphrinB reverse signaling in a rat chronic ocular hypertension model.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ling-Dan; Gao, Feng; Wang, Xiao-Han; Miao, Yanying; Wang, Shu-Yue; Wu, Yi; Li, Fang; Wu, Jihong; Cheng, Xiang-Lin; Sun, Xing-Huai; Yang, Xiong-Li; Wang, Zhongfeng

    2015-04-01

    EphB1, expressed in Müller cells, and ephrinB2, expressed in both Müller cells and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), constitute an EphB/ephrinB reverse signaling in RGCs. Whether and how this reverse signaling is involved in RGC apoptosis in a rat chronic ocular hypertension (COH) model was investigated. In the COH model, both EphB1 and ephrinB2 were significantly increased and the reverse signaling was activated, which was accompanied by increased protein levels of phosphorylated (p) src, GluA2, and p-GluA2. Intravitreal injection of EphB2-Fc, an activator of ephrinB2, induced an increase in TUNEL-positive signals in normal retinae. A coimmunoprecipitation assay demonstrated direct interactions among ephrinB2, p-src, and GluA2. Moreover, in COH rats the expression of GluA2 proteins on the surface of retinal cells was decreased. Such GluA2 endocytosis could be prevented by preoperational intravitreal injection of 4-amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(t-butyl)-1H-pyrazolo [3,4-d] pyrimidine (PP2), an inhibitor of src family tyrosine kinases, and possibly involved the protein interacting with C kinase 1 and phosphorylation of GluA2. In normal rats, intravitreal injection of EphB2-Fc caused changes in these protein levels similar to those observed in COH rats, which all could be avoided by preinjection of PP2. Patch-clamp experiments further showed that the current-voltage relationship of AMPA receptor-mediated EPSCs of RGCs exhibited stronger inward rectification in EphB2-Fc-injected rats. Furthermore, preinjection of PP2 or N-[3-[[4-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]butyl]amino]propyl]-1-naphthaleneacetamide trihydrochloride) (Naspm), a Ca(2+)-permeable GluA2-lacking AMPA receptor inhibitor, remarkably inhibited RGC apoptosis in either EphB2-Fc-injected or COH rats. Together, elevated GluA2 trafficking induced by activated EphB2/ephrinB2 reverse signaling likely contributes to RGC apoptosis in COH rats. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355409-13$15.00/0.

  7. Structural and Kinetic Basis of Steroid 17α,20-Lyase Activity in Teleost Fish Cytochrome P450 17A1 and Its Absence in Cytochrome P450 17A2*

    PubMed Central

    Pallan, Pradeep S.; Nagy, Leslie D.; Lei, Li; Gonzalez, Eric; Kramlinger, Valerie M.; Azumaya, Caleigh M.; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Waterman, Michael R.; Guengerich, F. Peter; Egli, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) 17A enzymes play a critical role in the oxidation of the steroids progesterone (Prog) and pregnenolone (Preg) to glucocorticoids and androgens. In mammals, a single enzyme, P450 17A1, catalyzes both 17α-hydroxylation and a subsequent 17α,20-lyase reaction with both Prog and Preg. Teleost fish contain two 17A P450s; zebrafish P450 17A1 catalyzes both 17α-hydroxylation and lyase reactions with Prog and Preg, and P450 17A2 is more efficient in pregnenolone 17α-hydroxylation but does not catalyze the lyase reaction, even in the presence of cytochrome b5. P450 17A2 binds all substrates and products, although more loosely than P450 17A1. Pulse-chase and kinetic spectral experiments and modeling established that the two-step P450 17A1 Prog oxidation is more distributive than the Preg reaction, i.e. 17α-OH product dissociates more prior to the lyase step. The drug orteronel selectively blocked the lyase reaction of P450 17A1 but only in the case of Prog. X-ray crystal structures of zebrafish P450 17A1 and 17A2 were obtained with the ligand abiraterone and with Prog for P450 17A2. Comparison of the two fish P450 17A-abiraterone structures with human P450 17A1 (DeVore, N. M., and Scott, E. E. (2013) Nature 482, 116–119) showed only a few differences near the active site, despite only ∼50% identity among the three proteins. The P450 17A2 structure differed in four residues near the heme periphery. These residues may allow the proposed alternative ferric peroxide mechanism for the lyase reaction, or residues removed from the active site may allow conformations that lead to the lyase activity. PMID:25533464

  8. The neuromuscular activity of Bothriopsis bilineata smaragdina (forest viper) venom and its toxin Bbil-TX (Asp49 phospholipase A2) on isolated mouse nerve-muscle preparations.

    PubMed

    Floriano, Rafael Stuani; Rocha, Thalita; Carregari, Victor Corasolla; Marangoni, Sergio; da Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice; Hyslop, Stephen; Rodrigues-Simioni, Léa; Rowan, Edward G

    2015-03-01

    ; Bbil-TX did not change the calcium fluorescence in TSn-m preparations. Immunohistochemical analysis of toxin-treated PND preparations revealed labeling of junctional ACh receptors but a loss of the presynaptic proteins synaptophysin and SNAP25. Together, these data confirm the presynaptic action of Bbil-TX and show that it involves modulation of K(+) channel activity and presynaptic protein expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 2',3'-cAMP, 3'-AMP, 2'-AMP and adenosine inhibit TNF-α and CXCL10 production from activated primary murine microglia via A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Newell, Elizabeth A; Exo, Jennifer L; Verrier, Jonathan D; Jackson, Travis C; Gillespie, Delbert G; Janesko-Feldman, Keri; Kochanek, Patrick M; Jackson, Edwin K

    2015-01-12

    Some cells, tissues and organs release 2',3'-cAMP (a positional isomer of 3',5'-cAMP) and convert extracellular 2',3'-cAMP to 2'-AMP plus 3'-AMP and convert these AMPs to adenosine (called the extracellular 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway). Recent studies show that microglia have an extracellular 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether the extracellular 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway could have functional consequences on the production of cytokines/chemokines by activated microglia. Experiments were conducted in cultures of primary murine microglia. In the first experiment, the effect of 2',3'-cAMP, 3'-AMP, 2'-AMP and adenosine on LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production was determined. In the next experiment, the first protocol was replicated but with the addition of 1,3-dipropyl-8-p-sulfophenylxanthine (DPSPX) (0.1 μM; antagonist of adenosine receptors). The last experiment compared the ability of 2-chloro-N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) (10 μM; selective A1 agonist), 5'-N-ethylcarboxamide adenosine (NECA) (10 μM; agonist for all adenosine receptor subtypes) and CGS21680 (10 μM; selective A2A agonist) to inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production. (1) 2',3'-cAMP, 3'-AMP, 2'-AMP and adenosine similarly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production; (2) DPSPX nearly eliminated the inhibitory effects of 2',3'-cAMP, 3'-AMP, 2'-AMP and adenosine on LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production; (3) CCPA did not affect LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10; (4) NECA and CGS21680 similarly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production. 2',3'-cAMP and its metabolites (3'-AMP, 2'-AMP and adenosine) inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production via A2A-receptor activation. Adenosine and its precursors, via A2A receptors, likely suppress TNF-α and CXCL10 production by activated microglia in brain diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 2’,3’-cAMP, 3’-AMP, 2’-AMP and Adenosine Inhibit TNF-α and CXCL10 Production From Activated Primary Murine Microglia via A2A Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Newell, Elizabeth A.; Exo, Jennifer L.; Verrier, Jonathan D.; Jackson, Travis C.; Gillespie, Delbert G.; Janesko-Feldman, Keri; Kochanek, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Some cells, tissues and organs release 2’,3’-cAMP (a positional isomer of 3’,5’-cAMP) and convert extracellular 2’,3’-cAMP to 2’-AMP plus 3’-AMP and convert these AMPs to adenosine (called the extracellular 2’,3’-cAMP-adenosine pathway). Recent studies show that microglia have an extracellular 2’,3’-cAMP-adenosine pathway. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether the extracellular 2’,3’-cAMP-adenosine pathway could have functional consequences on the production of cytokines/chemokines by activated microglia. Methods Experiments were conducted in cultures of primary murine microglia. In the first experiment, the effect of 2’,3’-cAMP, 3’-AMP, 2’-AMP and adenosine on LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production was determined. In the next experiment, the first protocol was replicated but with the addition of 1,3-dipropyl-8-p-sulfophenylxanthine (DPSPX) (0.1 µM; antagonist of adenosine receptors). The last experiment compared the ability of 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) (10 µM; selective A1 agonist), 5’-N-ethylcarboxamide adenosine (NECA) (10 µM; agonist for all adenosine receptor subtypes) and CGS21680 (10 µM; selective A2A agonist) to inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production. Results 1) 2’,3’-cAMP, 3’-AMP, 2’-AMP and adenosine similarly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production; 2) DPSPX nearly eliminated the inhibitory effects of 2’,3’-cAMP, 3’-AMP, 2’-AMP and adenosine on LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production; 3) CCPA did not affect LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10; 4) NECA and CGS21680 similarly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production. Conclusions 2’,3’-cAMP and its metabolites (3’-AMP, 2’-AMP and adenosine) inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production via A2A-receptor activation. Adenosine and its precursors, via A2A receptors, likely suppress TNF-α and CXCL10 production by activated microglia in brain diseases. PMID:25451117

  11. Thyrotropin-induced hydrogen peroxide production in FRTL-5 thyroid cells is mediated not by adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate, but by Ca2+ signaling followed by phospholipase-A2 activation and potentiated by an adenosine derivative.

    PubMed

    Kimura, T; Okajima, F; Sho, K; Kobayashi, I; Kondo, Y

    1995-01-01

    The production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an essential process for iodide organification is a key reaction in TSH-induced thyroid hormone synthesis. Here we characterize the signal transduction pathway involved in TSH-induced H2O2 production in FRTL-5 thyroid cells. At higher than 1 nM TSH, N6-(L-2-phenylisopropyl)adenosine (PIA), an adenosine receptor agonist having, by itself, no influence on H2O2 generation, potentiated this TSH action, whereas the TSH increase and PIA addition reduced cAMP accumulation. RO 20-1724, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, amplified the TSH-induced cAMP accumulation, but did not change H2O2 generation in the whole range of TSH used. Ca(2+)-mobilizing agonists, GTP and ATP, also induced H2O2 production without stimulating cAMP accumulation. Chelation of intracellular Ca2+ markedly inhibited the TSH action, but intracellular Ca2+ increases by either thapsigargin or ionomycin mimicking it. All of the findings show the participation of Ca2+, but not cAMP, in the action of TSH. Desensitization of protein kinase-C (PKC) did not influence the receptor-mediated H2O2 production, suggesting the reduced importance of PKC activation compared to Ca2+ signaling to the reaction. A rise in intracellular Ca2+ independent of receptor activation also induced H2O2 production as well as arachidonate release, and both were potentiated by PIA. In addition, inhibitors of phospholipase-A2 and the arachidonate metabolic pathway depressed H2O2 generation, suggesting the participation of an arachidonate cascade in the Ca(2+)-dependent H2O2 production. Lipoxygenase inhibitors depressed the Ca2+ action without influencing arachidonate release, suggesting the involvement of a lipoxygenase product(s) of arachidonate in the Ca(2+)-signaling mechanism. In conclusion, in FRTL-5 cells, TSH-induced H2O2 production is mediated not by cAMP, but by the phospholipase-C/Ca2+ cascade, possibly followed by the Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipase-A2/arachidonate cascade. PIA

  12. Inhibitory activities of the heterotrimers formed from two α-type phospholipase A2 inhibitory proteins with different enzyme affinities and importance of the intersubunit electrostatic interaction in trimer formation.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Masanori; Okamoto, Masataka; Ohno, Ai; Okumura, Kohji; Hayashi, Kyozo; Ikeda, Kiyoshi; Inoue, Seiji

    2010-11-01

    α-type phospholipase A2 inhibitory protein (PLIα) isolated from the serum of the venomous snake Glyoidius brevicaudus, GbPLIα, is a homotrimer of subunits having a C-type lectin-like domain. The serum protein from nonvenomous snake Elaphe quadrivirgata, EqPLIα-LP, is homologous to GbPLIα, but it does not show any inhibitory activity against PLA2s. When a mixture of denaturant-treated monomeric forms of GbPLIα and EqPLIα-LP was used to reconstitute their trimers, no significant amounts of heterotrimers composed of GbPLIα and EqPLIα-LP subunits could be formed. On the other hand, when a mixture of denaturant-treated monomeric forms of GbPLIα and the recombinant chimeric EqPLIα-LP, Eq13Gb37Eq, in which the residues 13-36 were replaced by those of GbPLIα, was used to reconstitute their trimers, significant amounts of their heterotrimers were observed. Furthermore, when a mixture of denaturant-treated monomeric forms of EqPLIα-LP and the recombinant chimeric GbPLIα, Gb13Eq37Gb, in which the residues 13-36 were replaced by those of EqPLIα-LP, was used, significant amounts of their heterotrimers were observed. By comparison of the respective inhibitory activities of the heterotrimeric subspecies, it was suggested that the inhibitory activity of the trimer was governed by one subunit with the highest activity, and not affected by the number of these subunits. The intermolecular electrostatic interactions between Glu23 and Lys28 of GbPLIα were also suggested to be important in stabilizing the trimeric structure. The importance of the electrostatic interaction was supported by the less stability of the homotrimeric structure of a mutant GbPLIα with a single amino acid substitution, GbPLIα(K28E). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative Photoluminescence Properties and Judd-Ofelt Analysis of Eu3+ Ion-Activated Metal Molybdate Phosphors A2MoO6:Eu3+ (A = La, Y, Gd and Bi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bing; Liu, Bingkun; Zhang, Jie; Li, Pengju; Shi, Hengzhen

    2017-07-01

    A class of red-emitting Eu3+ ion-activated metal molybdate A2MoO6:Eu3+ (A = La, Y, Gd and Bi) phosphors were synthesized by a conventional high-temperature solid-state reaction method. The x-ray diffraction patterns, scanning electron microscope images, Fourier transform infrared spectra, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectra as well as photoluminescence properties were measured to characterize the as-prepared samples. The photoluminescence properties including excitation/emission spectra, decay curves, Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates and quantum efficiency were comparatively investigated in detail. The Judd-Ofelt theory was also applied to understand the radiative properties of f-f transitions of Eu3+ ions in this system for the first time. The as-prepared phosphors can be effectively excited with near-ultraviolet and/or blue light, and exhibit red emission belonging to the prevailing 5D0 → 7F2 transitions of Eu3+ with short decay time (millisecond level). The results demonstrated that A2MoO6:Eu3+ (A = La, Y, Gd and Bi) phosphors could have potential application as red-emitting phosphors in white light-emitting diodes based on near-ultraviolet and/or blue light-emitting diode chips.

  14. Transcriptional profiling of striatal neurons in response to single or concurrent activation of dopamine D2, adenosine A(2A) and metabotropic glutamate type 5 receptors: focus on beta-synuclein expression.

    PubMed

    Canela, Laia; Selga, Elisabet; García-Martínez, Juan Manuel; Amaral, Olavo B; Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Alberch, Jordi; Canela, Enric I; Franco, Rafael; Noé, Véronique; Lluís, Carme; Ciudad, Carlos J; Ciruela, Francisco

    2012-10-25

    G protein-coupled receptor oligomerization is a concept which is changing the understanding of classical pharmacology. Both, oligomerization and functional interaction between adenosine A(2A,) dopamine D(2) and metabotropic glutamate type 5 receptors have been demonstrated in the striatum. However, the transcriptional consequences of receptors co-activation are still unexplored. We aim here to determine the changes in gene expression of striatal primary cultured neurons upon isolated or simultaneous receptor activation. Interestingly, we found that 95 genes of the total analyzed (15,866 transcripts and variants) changed their expression in response to simultaneous stimulation of all three receptors. Among these genes, we focused on the β-synuclein (β-Syn) gene (SCNB). Quantitative PCR verified the magnitude and direction of change in expression of SCNB. Since β-Syn belongs to the homologous synuclein family and may be considered a natural regulator of α-synuclein (α-Syn), it has been proposed that β-Syn might act protectively against α-Syn neuropathology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Lopinavir/ritonavir induces the hepatic activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP1A2 but inhibits the hepatic and intestinal activity of CYP3A as measured by a phenotyping drug cocktail in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Rosa F; Gaver, Vincent E; Patterson, Kristine B; Rezk, Naser L; Baxter-Meheux, Faustina; Blake, Michael J; Eron, Joseph J; Klein, Cheri E; Rublein, John C; Kashuba, Angela D M

    2006-05-01

    The effect of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) administration on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activity was quantified using a phenotyping biomarker cocktail. Changes in CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A, CYP1A2, N-acetyltransferase-2 (NAT-2), and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities were evaluated using warfarin (WARF) + vitamin K, omeprazole (OMP), intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) midazolam (MDZ), and caffeine (CAF). : Open-label, multiple-dose, pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers. Subjects (n = 14) simultaneously received PO WARF 10 mg, vitamin K 10 mg, OMP 40 mg, CAF 2 mg/kg, and IV MDZ 0.025 mg/kg on days (D) 1 and 14, and PO MDZ 5 mg on D2 and D15. LPV/r (400/100 mg twice daily) was administered on D4-17. CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 activities were quantified by S-WARF AUC0-inf and OMP/5-hydroxy OMP ratio, respectively. CYP1A2, NAT-2, and XO activities were quantified by urinary CAF metabolite ratios. Hepatic and intestinal + hepatic CYP3A activities were quantified by IV (CL) and PO (CL/F) MDZ clearance, respectively. After LPV/r therapy, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP1A2 activity increased by 29%, 100%, and 43% (P = 0.001, 0.046, and 0.001), respectively. No changes were seen in NAT-2 or XO activity. Hepatic and intestinal + hepatic CYP3A activity decreased by 77% (P < 0.001) and 92% (P = 0.001), respectively. LPV/r therapy results in modest induction of CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 and potent induction of CYP2C19 activity. Increasing doses of concomitant medications metabolized by these enzymes may be necessary. LPV/r inhibited intestinal CYP3A to a greater extent than hepatic CYP3A activity. Doses of concomitant CYP3A substrates should be reduced when combined with LPV/r, although intravenously administered compounds may require less of a relative dose reduction than orally administered compounds.

  16. Annexin A2 in Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    cells , leading to formation of an epiretinal membrane, retinal detachment, and loss of vision. At present, there are no reliable means of...type versus annexin A2- deficient mice, [2] define the role of A2 in the function of activated macrophages and RPE cells in PVR, and [3] examine the...expression is needed in both macrophages and RPE cells , and that A2 is extensively expressed within cells of epiretinal membranes in human PVR. Our

  17. Glycoengineered Monoclonal Antibodies with Homogeneous Glycan (M3, G0, G2, and A2) Using a Chemoenzymatic Approach Have Different Affinities for FcγRIIIa and Variable Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Activities.

    PubMed

    Kurogochi, Masaki; Mori, Masako; Osumi, Kenji; Tojino, Mami; Sugawara, Shu-Ichi; Takashima, Shou; Hirose, Yuriko; Tsukimura, Wataru; Mizuno, Mamoru; Amano, Junko; Matsuda, Akio; Tomita, Masahiro; Takayanagi, Atsushi; Shoda, Shin-Ichiro; Shirai, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Many therapeutic antibodies have been developed, and IgG antibodies have been extensively generated in various cell expression systems. IgG antibodies contain N-glycans at the constant region of the heavy chain (Fc domain), and their N-glycosylation patterns differ during various processes or among cell expression systems. The Fc N-glycan can modulate the effector functions of IgG antibodies, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). To control Fc N-glycans, we performed a rearrangement of Fc N-glycans from a heterogeneous N-glycosylation pattern to homogeneous N-glycans using chemoenzymatic approaches with two types of endo-β-N-acetyl glucosaminidases (ENG'ases), one that works as a hydrolase to cleave all heterogeneous N-glycans, another that is used as a glycosynthase to generate homogeneous N-glycans. As starting materials, we used an anti-Her2 antibody produced in transgenic silkworm cocoon, which consists of non-fucosylated pauci-mannose type (Man2-3GlcNAc2), high-mannose type (Man4-9GlcNAc2), and complex type (Man3GlcNAc3-4) N-glycans. As a result of the cleavage of several ENG'ases (endoS, endoM, endoD, endoH, and endoLL), the heterogeneous glycans on antibodies were fully transformed into homogeneous-GlcNAc by a combination of endoS, endoD, and endoLL. Next, the desired N-glycans (M3; Man3GlcNAc1, G0; GlcNAc2Man3GlcNAc1, G2; Gal2GlcNAc2Man3GlcNAc1, A2; NeuAc2Gal2GlcNAc2Man3GlcNAc1) were transferred from the corresponding oxazolines to the GlcNAc residue on the intact anti-Her2 antibody with an ENG'ase mutant (endoS-D233Q), and the glycoengineered anti-Her2 antibody was obtained. The binding assay of anti-Her2 antibody with homogenous N-glycans with FcγRIIIa-V158 showed that the glycoform influenced the affinity for FcγRIIIa-V158. In addition, the ADCC assay for the glycoengineered anti-Her2 antibody (mAb-M3, mAb-G0, mAb-G2, and mAb-A2) was performed using SKBR-3 and BT-474 as target cells, and

  18. Relationship between plasma bilirubin level and oxidative stress markers in HIV-infected patients on atazanavir- vs. efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Estrada, V; Monge, S; Gómez-Garre, M D; Sobrino, P; Masiá, M; Berenguer, J; Portilla, J; Viladés, C; Martínez, E; Blanco, J R

    2016-10-01

    Chronic oxidative stress (OS) may play a role in cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients, and increased bilirubin levels may have a beneficial role in counteracting OS. Atazanavir (ATV) inhibits UDP-glucuronosyl-transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1), thus increasing unconjugated bilirubin levels. We aimed to compare changes in OS markers in patients on ATV/ritonavir (ATV/r)- vs. efavirenz (EFV)-based first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART). A multicentre, prospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients who started first-line ART with either ATV/r or EFV was conducted. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) were measured for 145 patients in samples obtained at baseline and after at least 9 months of ART during which the initial regimen was maintained and the patient was virologically suppressed. The change in OS markers was modelled using multiple linear regressions adjusting for baseline values and confounders. After adjustment for baseline variables, patients on ATV/r had a significantly greater decrease in Lp-PLA2 [estimated difference -16.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) -31.4, -1.25; P = 0.03] and a significantly smaller increase in OxLDL (estimated difference -21.8; 95% CI -38.0, -5.6; P < 0.01) relative to those on EFV, whereas changes in MPO were not significantly different (estimated difference 1.2; 95% CI -14.3, 16.7; P = 0.88). Adjusted changes in bilirubin were significantly greater for the ATV/r group than for the EFV group (estimated difference 1.33 mg/dL; 95% CI 1.03, 1.52 mg/dL; P < 0.01). Changes in bilirubin and changes in OS markers were significantly correlated. When compared with EFV, ATV/r-based therapy was associated with lower levels of oxidative stress biomarkers, which was in part attributable to increased bilirubin levels. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  19. n-3 PUFA esterified to glycerol or as ethyl esters reduce non-fasting plasma triacylglycerol in subjects with hypertriglyceridemia: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Hedengran, Anne; Szecsi, Pal B; Dyerberg, Jørn; Harris, William S; Stender, Steen

    2015-02-01

    To date, treatment of hypertriglyceridemia with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) has been investigated solely in fasting and postprandial subjects. However, non-fasting triacylglycerols are more strongly associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of long-chain n-3 PUFA on non-fasting triacylglycerol levels and to compare the effects of n-3 PUFA formulated as acylglycerol (AG-PUFA) or ethyl esters (EE-PUFA). The study was a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled interventional trial, and included 120 subjects with non-fasting plasma triacylglycerol levels of 1.7-5.65 mmol/L (150-500 mg/dL). The participants received approximately 3 g/day of AG-PUFA, EE-PUFA, or placebo for a period of eight weeks. The levels of non-fasting plasma triacylglycerols decreased 28% in the AG-PUFA group and 22% in the EE-PUFA group (P < 0.001 vs. placebo), with no significant difference between the two groups. The triacylglycerol lowering effect was evident after four weeks, and was inversely correlated with the omega-3 index (EPA + DHA content in erythrocyte membranes). The omega-3 index increased 63.2% in the AG-PUFA group and 58.5% in the EE-PUFA group (P < 0.001). Overall, the heart rate in the AG-PUFA group decreased by three beats per minute (P = 0.045). High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol increased in the AG-PUFA group (P < 0.001). Neither total nor non-HDL cholesterol changed in any group. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (LpPLA2) decreased in the EE-PUFA group (P = 0.001). No serious adverse events were observed. Supplementation with long-chain n-3 PUFA lowered non-fasting triacylglycerol levels, suggestive of a reduction in cardiovascular risk. Regardless of the different effects on heart rate, HDL, and LpPLA2 that were observed, compared to placebo, AG-PUFA, and EE-PUFA are equally effective in reducing non-fasting triacylglycerol levels.

  20. Effects of synthetic sphingosine-1-phosphate analogs on cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha-independent release of arachidonic acid and cell toxicity in L929 fibrosarcoma cells: the structure-activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Masaya; Muramatsu, Yuki; Tada, Eiko; Kurosawa, Takeshi; Yamaura, Erika; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Fujino, Hiromichi; Houjyo, Yuuya; Miyasaka, Yuri; Koide, Yuuki; Nishida, Atsushi; Murayama, Toshihiko

    2009-03-01

    Sphingolipid metabolites including ceramide, sphingosine, and their phosphorylated products [sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and ceramide-1-phosphate] regulate cell functions including arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism and cell death. The development of analogs of S1P may be useful for regulating these mediator-induced cellular responses. We synthesized new analogs of S1P and examined their effects on the release of AA and cell death in L929 mouse fibrosarcoma cells. Among the analogs tested, several compounds including DMB-mC11S [dimethyl (2S,3R)-2-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-3-hydroxy-3-(3'-undecyl)phenylpropyl phosphate] and DMB-mC9S [dimethyl (2S,3R)-2-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-3-hydroxy-3-(3'-nonyl)phenylpropyl phosphate] released AA within 1 h and caused cell death 6 h after treatment. The release of AA was observed in C12 cells [a L929 variant lacking a type alpha cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)alpha)] and L929-cPLAalpha-siRNA cells (L929 cells treated with small interference RNA for cPLA(2)alpha). Treatment with pharmacological inhibitors of secretory and Ca(2+)-independent PLA(2)s decreased the DMB-mC11S-induced release of AA. The effect of the S1P analogs tested on the release of AA was comparable to that on cell death in L929 cells, and a high correlation coefficient was observed. Two analogs lacking a butoxycarbonyl moiety [DMAc-mC11S (dimethyl (2S,3R)-2-acetamino-3-hydroxy-3-(3'-undecyl)phenylpropyl phosphate] and DMAm-mC11S [dimethyl (2S,3R)-2-amino-3-hydroxy-3-(3'-undecyl)phenylpropyl phosphate)] had inhibitory effects on the release of AA and cell toxicity induced by DMB-mC11S. Synthetic phosphorylated lipid analogs may be useful for studying PLA(2) activity and its toxicity in cells. [Supplementary Fig. 1: available only at http://dx.doi.org/10.1254/jphs.08284FP].

  1. Total synthesis of panicein A2

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Lili; Pilkington, Lisa I; Cadelis, Melissa M; Copp, Brent R

    2015-01-01

    Summary The first total synthesis of the unusual aromatic sesquiterpene panicein A2 is reported and the structure of the natural product has been confirmed. When tested by the NCI against a range of human cancer cell lines, it was found that panicein A2 exhibits very little antiproliferative activity at 10 μM – an observation that is at odds with the earlier report that stated panicein A2 exhibits in vitro cytotoxicity against a number of tumour cell lines. PMID:26664619

  2. Trafficking of α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid Receptor (AMPA) Receptor Subunit GluA2 from the Endoplasmic Reticulum Is Stimulated by a Complex Containing Ca2+/Calmodulin-activated Kinase II (CaMKII) and PICK1 Protein and by Release of Ca2+ from Internal Stores*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wei; Khatri, Latika; Ziff, Edward B.

    2014-01-01

    The GluA2 subunit of the AMPA receptor (AMPAR) dominantly blocks AMPAR Ca2+ permeability, and its trafficking to the synapse regulates AMPAR-dependent synapse Ca2+ permeability. Here we show that GluA2 trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the plasma membrane of cultured hippocampal neurons requires Ca2+ release from internal stores, the activity of Ca2+/calmodulin activated kinase II (CaMKII), and GluA2 interaction with the PDZ protein, PICK1. We show that upon Ca2+ release from the ER via the IP3 and ryanodine receptors, CaMKII that is activated enters a complex that contains PICK1, dependent upon the PICK1 BAR (Bin-amphiphysin-Rvs) domain, and that interacts with the GluA2 C-terminal domain and stimulates GluA2 ER exit and surface trafficking. This study reveals a novel mechanism of regulation of trafficking of GluA2-containing receptors to the surface under the control of intracellular Ca2+ dynamics and CaMKII activity. PMID:24831007

  3. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teacher, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The material presented is designed to help students explore geometric patterns involving Fibonnaci numbers and the golden ratio, and to aid in review of basic geometry skills. Worksheet masters intended for duplication are provided. Suggestions are made of possible classroom extensions to the initial activities. (MP)

  4. 42 CFR 85a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH INVESTIGATIONS OF PLACES OF EMPLOYMENT § 85a.2 Definitions. Any term defined in the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 or the Federal Mine Safety and...

  5. 42 CFR 85a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH INVESTIGATIONS OF PLACES OF EMPLOYMENT § 85a.2 Definitions. Any term defined in the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 or the Federal Mine Safety and...

  6. 42 CFR 85a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH INVESTIGATIONS OF PLACES OF EMPLOYMENT § 85a.2 Definitions. Any term defined in the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 or the Federal Mine Safety and...

  7. 42 CFR 85a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH INVESTIGATIONS OF PLACES OF EMPLOYMENT § 85a.2 Definitions. Any term defined in the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 or the Federal Mine Safety and...

  8. 42 CFR 85a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH INVESTIGATIONS OF PLACES OF EMPLOYMENT § 85a.2 Definitions. Any term defined in the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 or the Federal Mine Safety and...

  9. EphA2 Receptor Unliganded Dimers Suppress EphA2 Pro-tumorigenic Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Deo R.; Ahmed, Fozia; King, Christopher; Gupta, Nisha; Salotto, Matt; Pasquale, Elena B.; Hristova, Kalina

    2015-01-01

    The EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase promotes cell migration and cancer malignancy through a ligand- and kinase-independent distinctive mechanism that has been linked to high Ser-897 phosphorylation and low tyrosine phosphorylation. Here, we demonstrate that EphA2 forms dimers in the plasma membrane of HEK293T cells in the absence of ephrin ligand binding, suggesting that the current seeding mechanism model of EphA2 activation is incomplete. We also characterize a dimerization-deficient EphA2 mutant that shows enhanced ability to promote cell migration, concomitant with increased Ser-897 phosphorylation and decreased tyrosine phosphorylation compared with EphA2 wild type. Our data reveal a correlation between unliganded dimerization and tumorigenic signaling and suggest that EphA2 pro-tumorigenic activity is mediated by the EphA2 monomer. Thus, a therapeutic strategy that aims at the stabilization of EphA2 dimers may be beneficial for the treatment of cancers linked to EphA2 overexpression. PMID:26363067

  10. EphA2 Receptor Unliganded Dimers Suppress EphA2 Pro-tumorigenic Signaling.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deo R; Ahmed, Fozia; King, Christopher; Gupta, Nisha; Salotto, Matt; Pasquale, Elena B; Hristova, Kalina

    2015-11-06

    The EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase promotes cell migration and cancer malignancy through a ligand- and kinase-independent distinctive mechanism that has been linked to high Ser-897 phosphorylation and low tyrosine phosphorylation. Here, we demonstrate that EphA2 forms dimers in the plasma membrane of HEK293T cells in the absence of ephrin ligand binding, suggesting that the current seeding mechanism model of EphA2 activation is incomplete. We also characterize a dimerization-deficient EphA2 mutant that shows enhanced ability to promote cell migration, concomitant with increased Ser-897 phosphorylation and decreased tyrosine phosphorylation compared with EphA2 wild type. Our data reveal a correlation between unliganded dimerization and tumorigenic signaling and suggest that EphA2 pro-tumorigenic activity is mediated by the EphA2 monomer. Thus, a therapeutic strategy that aims at the stabilization of EphA2 dimers may be beneficial for the treatment of cancers linked to EphA2 overexpression. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Rare Autosomal Recessive Cardiac Valvular Form of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Results from Mutations in the COL1A2 Gene That Activate the Nonsense-Mediated RNA Decay Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Schwarze, Ulrike; Hata, Ryu-Ichiro; McKusick, Victor A.; Shinkai, Hiroshi; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Pyeritz, Reed E.; Byers, Peter H.

    2004-01-01

    Splice site mutations in the COL1A2 gene of type I collagen can give rise to forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) because of partial or complete skipping of exon 6, as well as to mild, moderate, or lethal forms of osteogenesis imperfecta as a consequence of skipping of other exons. We identified three unrelated individuals with a rare recessively inherited form of EDS (characterized by joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility, and cardiac valvular defects); in two of them, COL1A2 messenger RNA (mRNA) instability results from compound heterozygosity for splice site mutations in the COL1A2 gene, and, in the third, it results from homozygosity for a nonsense codon. The splice site mutations led to use of cryptic splice donor sites, creation of a downstream premature termination codon, and extremely unstable mRNA. In the wild-type allele, the two introns (IVS11 and IVS24) in which these mutations occurred were usually spliced slowly in relation to their respective immediate upstream introns. In the mutant alleles, the upstream intron was removed, so that exon skipping could not occur. In the context of the mutation in IVS24, computer-generated folding of a short stretch of mRNA surrounding the mutation site demonstrated realignment of the relationships between the donor and acceptor sites that could facilitate use of a cryptic donor site. These findings suggest that the order of intron removal is an important variable in prediction of mutation outcome at splice sites and that folding of the nascent mRNA could be one element that contributes to determination of order of splicing. The complete absence of proα2(I) chains has the surprising effect of producing cardiac valvular disease without bone involvement. PMID:15077201

  12. Rare autosomal recessive cardiac valvular form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome results from mutations in the COL1A2 gene that activate the nonsense-mediated RNA decay pathway.

    PubMed

    Schwarze, Ulrike; Hata, Ryu-Ichiro; McKusick, Victor A; Shinkai, Hiroshi; Hoyme, H Eugene; Pyeritz, Reed E; Byers, Peter H

    2004-05-01

    Splice site mutations in the COL1A2 gene of type I collagen can give rise to forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) because of partial or complete skipping of exon 6, as well as to mild, moderate, or lethal forms of osteogenesis imperfecta as a consequence of skipping of other exons. We identified three unrelated individuals with a rare recessively inherited form of EDS (characterized by joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility, and cardiac valvular defects); in two of them, COL1A2 messenger RNA (mRNA) instability results from compound heterozygosity for splice site mutations in the COL1A2 gene, and, in the third, it results from homozygosity for a nonsense codon. The splice site mutations led to use of cryptic splice donor sites, creation of a downstream premature termination codon, and extremely unstable mRNA. In the wild-type allele, the two introns (IVS11 and IVS24) in which these mutations occurred were usually spliced slowly in relation to their respective immediate upstream introns. In the mutant alleles, the upstream intron was removed, so that exon skipping could not occur. In the context of the mutation in IVS24, computer-generated folding of a short stretch of mRNA surrounding the mutation site demonstrated realignment of the relationships between the donor and acceptor sites that could facilitate use of a cryptic donor site. These findings suggest that the order of intron removal is an important variable in prediction of mutation outcome at splice sites and that folding of the nascent mRNA could be one element that contributes to determination of order of splicing. The complete absence of pro alpha 2(I) chains has the surprising effect of producing cardiac valvular disease without bone involvement.

  13. Shared care or nurse consultations as an alternative to rheumatologist follow-up for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) outpatients with stable low disease-activity RA: cost-effectiveness based on a 2-year randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, J; Primdahl, J; Horn, H C; Hørslev-Petersen, K

    2015-01-01

    To compare the cost-effectiveness of three types of follow-up for outpatients with stable low-activity rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In total, 287 patients were randomized to either planned rheumatologist consultations, shared care without planned consultations, or planned nurse consultations. Effectiveness measures included disease activity (Disease Activity Score based on 28 joint counts and C-reactive protein, DAS28-CRP), functional status (Health Assessment Questionnaire, HAQ), and health-related quality of life (EuroQol EQ-5D). Cost measures included activities in outpatient clinics and general practice, prescription and non-prescription medicine, dietary supplements, other health-care resources, and complementary and alternative care. Measures of effectiveness and costs were collected by self-reported questionnaires at inclusion and after 12 and 24 months. Incremental cost-effectiveness rates (ICERs) were estimated in comparison with rheumatologist consultations. Changes in disease activity, functional status, and health-related quality of life were not statistically significantly different for the three groups, although the mean scores were better for the shared care and nurse care groups compared with the rheumatologist group. Shared care and nurse care were non-significantly less costly than rheumatologist care. As both shared care and nurse care were associated with slightly better EQ-5D improvements and lower costs, they dominated rheumatologist care. At EUR 10,000 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) threshold, shared care and nurse care were cost-effective with more than 90% probability. Nurse care was cost-effective in comparison with shared care with 75% probability. Shared care and nurse care seem to cost less but provide broadly similar health outcomes compared with rheumatologist outpatient care. However, it is still uncertain whether nurse care and shared care are cost-effective in comparison with rheumatologist outpatient care.

  14. Adenosine A2A receptors and depression.

    PubMed

    El Yacoubi, Malika; Costentin, Jean; Vaugeois, Jean-Marie

    2003-12-09

    Adenosine and its analogues have been shown to induce "behavioral despair" in animal models believed to be relevant to depression. Recent data have shown that selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonists (e.g., SCH 58261, ZM241385, and KW6002) or genetic inactivation of the receptor was effective in reversing signs of behavioral despair in the tail suspension and forced swim tests, two screening procedures predictive of antidepressant activity. A2A antagonists were active in the tail suspension test using either mice previously screened for having high immobility scores or mice that were selectively bred for their spontaneous "helplessness" in this test. At stimulant doses, caffeine, a nonselective A1/A2A receptor antagonist, was effective in the forced swim test. The authors have hypothesized that the antidepressant-like effect of selective A2A antagonists is linked to an interaction with dopaminergic transmission, possibly in the frontal cortex. In support of this idea, administration of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol prevented antidepressant-like effects elicited by SCH 58261 in the forced swim test (putatively involving cortex), whereas it had no effect on stimulant motor effects of SCH 58261 (putatively linked to ventral striatum). The interaction profile of caffeine with haloperidol differed markedly from that of SCH 58261 in the forced swim and motor activity tests. Therefore, a clear-cut antidepressant-like effect could not be ascribed to caffeine. In conclusion, available data support the proposition that a selective blockade of the adenosine A2A receptor may be an interesting target for the development of effective antidepressant agents.

  15. The Role of Thoracic Medial Branch Blocks in Managing Chronic Mid and Upper Back Pain: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Active-Control Trial with a 2-Year Followup

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Singh, Vijay; Falco, Frank J. E.; Cash, Kimberly A.; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Fellows, Bert

    2012-01-01

    Study Design. A randomized, double-blind, active-control trial. Objective. To determine the clinical effectiveness of therapeutic thoracic facet joint nerve blocks with or without steroids in managing chronic mid back and upper back pain. Summary of Background Data. The prevalence of thoracic facet joint pain has been established as 34% to 42%. Multiple therapeutic techniques utilized in managing chronic thoracic pain of facet joint origin include medial branch blocks, radiofrequency neurotomy, and intraarticular injections. Methods. This randomized double-blind active controlled trial was performed in 100 patients with 50 patients in each group who received medial branch blocks with local anesthetic alone or local anesthetic and steroids. Outcome measures included the numeric rating scale (NRS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), opioid intake, and work status, at baseline, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Results. Significant improvement with significant pain relief and functional status improvement of 50% or more were observed in 80% of the patients in Group I and 84% of the patients in Group II at 2-year followup. Conclusions. Therapeutic medial branch blocks of thoracic facets with or without steroids may provide a management option for chronic function-limiting thoracic pain of facet joint origin. PMID:22851967

  16. Modulation of Phospholipase A2 Activity by Actin and Myosin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-15

    cord vein. Thromb. Res. 18:787-795. 11. Knull. H.R.. W.F. Taylor. and W.W. Wells. 1974. Insulin effects on brain energy metabolism and the related...cells. Nature 271:549-551. I 14. Martin. T.W.. R.B. Wysolmerski. and D. Lagunoff. 1987. Phosphatidylcholine metabolism in endothelial cells: evidence for

  17. A small peptide promotes EphA2 kinase-dependent signaling by stabilizing EphA2 dimers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deo R; Pasquale, Elena B; Hristova, Kalina

    2016-09-01

    The EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase is known to promote cancer cell malignancy in the absence of activation by ephrin ligands. This behavior depends on high EphA2 phosphorylation on Ser897 and low tyrosine phosphorylation, resulting in increased cell migration and invasiveness. We have previously shown that EphA2 forms dimers in the absence of ephrin ligand binding, and that dimerization of unliganded EphA2 can decrease EphA2 Ser897 phosphorylation. We have also identified a small peptide called YSA, which binds EphA2 and competes with the naturally occurring ephrin ligands. Here, we investigate the effect of YSA on EphA2 dimer stability and EphA2 function using quantitative FRET techniques, Western blotting, and cell motility assays. We find that the YSA peptide stabilizes the EphA2 dimer, increases EphA2 Tyr phosphorylation, and decreases both Ser897 phosphorylation and cell migration. The experiments demonstrate that the small peptide ligand YSA reduces EphA2 Ser897 pro-tumorigenic signaling by stabilizing the EphA2 dimer. This work is a proof-of-principle demonstration that EphA2 homointeractions in the plasma membrane can be pharmacologically modulated to decrease the pro-tumorigenic signaling of the receptor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Scutellarin inhibits cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 1A2 (CYP1A2) in rats.

    PubMed

    Jian, Tun-Yu; He, Jian-Chang; He, Gong-Hao; Feng, En-Fu; Li, Hong-Liang; Bai, Min; Xu, Gui-Li

    2012-08-01

    Scutellarin is the most important flavone glycoside in the herbal drug Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz. It is used frequently in the clinic to treat ischemic vascular diseases in China. However, the direct relationship between scutellarin and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) is unclear. The present study investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of scutellarin on cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP 1A2) metabolism. According to in vitro experiments, scutellarin (10-250 µM) decreased the formation of 4-acetamidophenol in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC₅₀ value of 108.20 ± 0.657 µM. Furthermore, scutellarin exhibited a weak mixed-type inhibition against the activity of CYP1A2 in rat liver microsomes, with a K(i) value of 95.2 µM. Whereas in whole animal studies, scutellarin treatment for 7 days (at 5, 15, 30 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased the clearance (CL), and increased the T(1/2) (at 15, 30 mg/kg, i.p.), it did not affect the V(d) of phenacetin. Scutellarin treatment (at 5, 15, 30 mg/kg, i.p.) increased the AUC(0-∞) by 14.3%, 67.3% and 159.2%, respectively. Scutellarin at 30 mg/kg also weakly inhibited CYP1A2 activity, in accordance with our in vitro study. Thus, the results indicate that CYP1A2 is inhibited directly, but weakly, by scutellarin in vivo, and provide useful information on the safe and effective use of scutellarin in clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. EphrinA2 Receptor (EphA2) Is an Invasion and Intracellular Signaling Receptor for Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Subbarayal, Prema; Karunakaran, Karthika; Winkler, Ann-Cathrin; Rother, Marion; Gonzalez, Erik; Meyer, Thomas F.; Rudel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis invades into host cells to replicate inside a membrane-bound vacuole called inclusion. Multiple different host proteins are recruited to the inclusion and are functionally modulated to support chlamydial development. Invaded and replicating Chlamydia induces a long-lasting activation of the PI3 kinase signaling pathway that is required for efficient replication. We identified the cell surface tyrosine kinase EphrinA2 receptor (EphA2) as a chlamydial adherence and invasion receptor that induces PI3 kinase (PI3K) activation, promoting chlamydial replication. Interfering with binding of C. trachomatis serovar L2 (Ctr) to EphA2, downregulation of EphA2 expression or inhibition of EphA2 activity significantly reduced Ctr infection. Ctr interacts with and activates EphA2 on the cell surface resulting in Ctr and receptor internalization. During chlamydial replication, EphA2 remains active accumulating around the inclusion and interacts with the p85 regulatory subunit of PI3K to support the activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway that is required for normal chlamydial development. Overexpression of full length EphA2, but not the mutant form lacking the intracellular cytoplasmic domain, enhanced PI3K activation and Ctr infection. Despite the depletion of EphA2 from the cell surface, Ctr infection induces upregulation of EphA2 through the activation of the ERK pathway, which keeps the infected cell in an apoptosis-resistant state. The significance of EphA2 as an entry and intracellular signaling receptor was also observed with the urogenital C. trachomatis-serovar D. Our findings provide the first evidence for a host cell surface receptor that is exploited for invasion as well as for receptor-mediated intracellular signaling to facilitate chlamydial replication. In addition, the engagement of a cell surface receptor at the inclusion membrane is a new mechanism by which Chlamydia subverts the host cell and

  20. EphrinA2 receptor (EphA2) is an invasion and intracellular signaling receptor for Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Subbarayal, Prema; Karunakaran, Karthika; Winkler, Ann-Cathrin; Rother, Marion; Gonzalez, Erik; Meyer, Thomas F; Rudel, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis invades into host cells to replicate inside a membrane-bound vacuole called inclusion. Multiple different host proteins are recruited to the inclusion and are functionally modulated to support chlamydial development. Invaded and replicating Chlamydia induces a long-lasting activation of the PI3 kinase signaling pathway that is required for efficient replication. We identified the cell surface tyrosine kinase EphrinA2 receptor (EphA2) as a chlamydial adherence and invasion receptor that induces PI3 kinase (PI3K) activation, promoting chlamydial replication. Interfering with binding of C. trachomatis serovar L2 (Ctr) to EphA2, downregulation of EphA2 expression or inhibition of EphA2 activity significantly reduced Ctr infection. Ctr interacts with and activates EphA2 on the cell surface resulting in Ctr and receptor internalization. During chlamydial replication, EphA2 remains active accumulating around the inclusion and interacts with the p85 regulatory subunit of PI3K to support the activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway that is required for normal chlamydial development. Overexpression of full length EphA2, but not the mutant form lacking the intracellular cytoplasmic domain, enhanced PI3K activation and Ctr infection. Despite the depletion of EphA2 from the cell surface, Ctr infection induces upregulation of EphA2 through the activation of the ERK pathway, which keeps the infected cell in an apoptosis-resistant state. The significance of EphA2 as an entry and intracellular signaling receptor was also observed with the urogenital C. trachomatis-serovar D. Our findings provide the first evidence for a host cell surface receptor that is exploited for invasion as well as for receptor-mediated intracellular signaling to facilitate chlamydial replication. In addition, the engagement of a cell surface receptor at the inclusion membrane is a new mechanism by which Chlamydia subverts the host cell and

  1. 42 CFR 5a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability. 5a.2 Section 5a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN... Public Health Service Act. ...

  2. 42 CFR 5a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability. 5a.2 Section 5a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN... Public Health Service Act. ...

  3. 42 CFR 5a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability. 5a.2 Section 5a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN... Public Health Service Act. ...

  4. 42 CFR 5a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability. 5a.2 Section 5a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN... Public Health Service Act. ...

  5. 42 CFR 5a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability. 5a.2 Section 5a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN... Public Health Service Act. ...

  6. 42 CFR 136a.2 - Administrative instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative instructions. 136a.2 Section 136a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Purpose § 136a.2 Administrative instructions. The...

  7. 42 CFR 65a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 65a.2 Section 65a.2 Public Health... § 65a.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the Comprehensive Environmental Response..., or (ii) is an institution whose credits are accepted, on transfer, by not less than three...

  8. 42 CFR 65a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 65a.2 Section 65a.2 Public Health... § 65a.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the Comprehensive Environmental Response..., or (ii) is an institution whose credits are accepted, on transfer, by not less than three...

  9. 42 CFR 65a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 65a.2 Section 65a.2 Public Health... § 65a.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the Comprehensive Environmental Response..., or (ii) is an institution whose credits are accepted, on transfer, by not less than three...

  10. 32 CFR 168a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability. 168a.2 Section 168a.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.2 Applicability. This part applies to the Office of...

  11. 32 CFR 168a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability. 168a.2 Section 168a.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.2 Applicability. This part applies to the Office of...

  12. 32 CFR 168a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability. 168a.2 Section 168a.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.2 Applicability. This part applies to the Office of...

  13. 32 CFR 352a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 352a.2 Section 352a.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTERS DEFENSE FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING SERVICE (DFAS) § 352a.2 Applicability. This part applies to the...

  14. 42 CFR 51a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 51a.2 Section 51a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS PROJECT GRANTS FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH § 51a.2 Definitions. Act means the Social Security Act, as amended. Genetic diseases means...

  15. 42 CFR 51a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 51a.2 Section 51a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS PROJECT GRANTS FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH § 51a.2 Definitions. Act means the Social Security Act, as amended. Genetic diseases means...

  16. 42 CFR 51a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 51a.2 Section 51a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS PROJECT GRANTS FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH § 51a.2 Definitions. Act means the Social Security Act, as amended. Genetic diseases means...

  17. 42 CFR 51a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 51a.2 Section 51a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS PROJECT GRANTS FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH § 51a.2 Definitions. Act means the Social Security Act, as amended. Genetic diseases means...

  18. 18 CFR 3a.2 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority. 3a.2 Section 3a.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.2 Authority. Official information or...

  19. 18 CFR 3a.2 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Authority. 3a.2 Section 3a.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.2 Authority. Official information or...

  20. 18 CFR 3a.2 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Authority. 3a.2 Section 3a.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.2 Authority. Official information or...

  1. 18 CFR 3a.2 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Authority. 3a.2 Section 3a.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.2 Authority. Official information or...

  2. 42 CFR 65a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 65a.2 Section 65a.2 Public Health... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES BASIC RESEARCH AND TRAINING GRANTS § 65a.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

  3. 42 CFR 59a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 59a.2 Section 59a.2 Public Health... Grants for Establishing, Expanding, and Improving Basic Resources § 59a.2 Definitions. Undefined terms... relating to the health sciences. Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services and any other...

  4. 42 CFR 63a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 63a.2 Section 63a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH TRAINING GRANTS § 63a.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the...

  5. 42 CFR 63a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 63a.2 Section 63a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH TRAINING GRANTS § 63a.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the...

  6. 42 CFR 63a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 63a.2 Section 63a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH TRAINING GRANTS § 63a.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the...

  7. 32 CFR 237a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 237a.2 Section 237a.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PUBLIC AFFAIRS LIAISON WITH INDUSTRY § 237a.2 Applicability. The provisions of this part apply to all...

  8. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on arterial stiffness in patients with hypertension: a randomized pilot study.

    PubMed

    Krantz, Mori J; Havranek, Edward P; Pereira, Rocio I; Beaty, Brenda; Mehler, Philip S; Long, Carlin S

    2015-12-02

    Omega-3 fatty acids prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in patients with myocardial infarction or heart failure. Benefits in patients without overt CVD have not been demonstrated, though most studies did not use treatment doses (3.36 g) of omega-3 fatty acids. Arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) predicts CVD events independent of standard risk factors. However, no therapy has been shown to reduce PWV in a blood pressure-independent manner. We assessed the effects of esterified omega-3 fatty acids on PWV and serum markers of inflammation among patients with hypertension. We performed a prospective, randomized; double-blinded pilot study of omega-3 fatty acids among 62 patients in an urban, safety net hospital. Patients received 3.36 g of omega-3 fatty acids vs. matched placebo daily for 3-months. The principal outcome measure was change in brachial-ankle PWV. Serum inflammatory markers associated with CVD risk were also assessed. The majority (71 %) were of Latino ethnicity. After 3-months, mean change in arterial PWV among omega-3 and placebo groups was -97 cm/s vs. -33 cm/s respectively (p = 0.36 for difference, after multivariate adjustment for baseline age, systolic blood pressure, and serum adiponectin). Non-significant reductions in lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (LpPLA2) mass and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) relative to placebo were also observed (p = 0.08, and 0.21, respectively). High-dose omega-3 fatty acids did not reduce arterial PWV or markers of inflammation among patients within a Latino-predominant population with hypertension. NCT00935766 , registered July 8 2009.

  9. A 2-1-1 Research Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Eddens, Katherine S.; Alcaraz, Kassandra I.; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Rath, Suchitra; Greer, Regina

    2012-01-01

    Background 2-1-1 serves as a lifeline in times of crises. These crises often cause a spike in call volume that can challenge 2-1-1’s ability to meet their service quality standards. For researchers gathering data through 2-1-1s, a sudden increase in call volume might reduce accrual as 2-1-1 has less time to administer study protocols. Research activities imbedded in 2-1-1 systems may directly affect 2-1-1 service quality indicators. Purpose Using data from a 2-1-1 research collaboration, this paper examines the impact of crises on call volume to 2-1-1, how call volume affects research participant accrual through 2-1-1, and how research recruitment efforts affect 2-1-1 service quality indicators. Methods t-tests were used to examine the effect of call volume on research participant accrual. Linear and logistic regressions were used to examine the effect of research participant accrual on 2-1-1 service quality indicators. Data were collected June 2010–December 2011; data were analyzed in 2012. Results Findings from this collaboration suggest that crises causing spikes in call volume adversely affect 2-1-1 service quality indicators as well as accrual of research participants. Administering a brief (2–3 minute) health risk assessment did not negatively affect service quality, but administering a longer (15–18 minute) survey had a modest adverse effect on these indicators. Conclusions In 2-1-1 research collaborations, both partners need to understand the dynamic relationship between call volume, research accrual, and service quality, and adjust expectations accordingly. If research goals include administering a longer survey, increased staffing of 2-1-1 call centers may be needed to avoid compromising service quality. PMID:23157769

  10. Foci of cyclin A2 interact with actin and RhoA in mitosis.

    PubMed

    Loukil, Abdelhalim; Izard, Fanny; Georgieva, Mariya; Mashayekhan, Shaereh; Blanchard, Jean-Marie; Parmeggiani, Andrea; Peter, Marion

    2016-06-09

    Cyclin A2 is a key player in the regulation of the cell cycle. Its degradation in mid-mitosis depends primarily on the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), while autophagy also contributes. However, a fraction of cyclin A2 persists beyond metaphase. In this work, we focus on cyclin A2-rich foci detected in mitosis by high resolution imaging and analyse their movements. We demonstrate that cyclin A2 interacts with actin and RhoA during mitosis, and that cyclin A2 depletion induces a dramatic decrease in active RhoA in mitosis. Our data suggest cyclin A2 participation in RhoA activation in late mitosis.

  11. 32 CFR 168a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability. 168a.2 Section 168a.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE... the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Military Departments, and the Defense Agencies (hereafter referred...

  12. 32 CFR 168a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 168a.2 Section 168a.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE... the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Military Departments, and the Defense Agencies (hereafter referred...

  13. 42 CFR 63a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Human Services. NIH means the National Institutes of Health and its organizational components that award... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 63a.2 Section 63a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING...

  14. 42 CFR 63a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Human Services. NIH means the National Institutes of Health and its organizational components that award... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 63a.2 Section 63a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING...

  15. 22 CFR 9a.2 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... important element of our national security. The effectiveness of the Agreement depends significantly upon... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General policy. 9a.2 Section 9a.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO CERTAIN INTERNATIONAL...

  16. 42 CFR 54a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... financial assistance under an applicable program. (e) SAMHSA means the Substance Abuse and Mental Health... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 54a.2 Section 54a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS CHARITABLE CHOICE REGULATIONS...

  17. Annexin A2 in Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    migrate in the presence of macrophages in an in vitro system. In addition, analysis of human retinal tissue from subjects undergoing ocular surgery... tissue from subjects undergoing ocular surgery for PVR reveals the presence of A2- immunoreactive cells that express both macrophage and RPE cell...greatly attenuated in the absence of annexin A2. Task 2: Macrophage depletion and tissue specific knockout. We have completed the characterization

  18. Enzymatic Comparisons of Aspergillus niger PhyA and Escherichia coli AppA2 Phytases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was to compare three phytase activity assays and kinetics of Aspergillus niger PhyA and Escherichia coli AppA2 phytases expressed in Pichia pastoris at the observed stomach pH of 3.5. In Experiment 1, equivalent phytase activities in the crude preparations of PhyA and AppA2 were tested ...

  19. METSAT: Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A2 (AMSU-A2) structural mathematical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Wayne

    1995-01-01

    This plan describes the Structural Mathematical Model of the METSAT AMSU-A2 instrument. The model is used to verify the structural adequacy of the AMSU-A2 instrument for the specified loading environments.

  20. ST 1535: a preferential A2A adenosine receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Stasi, Maria Antonietta; Borsini, Franco; Varani, Katia; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Di Cesare, Maria Assunta; Minetti, Patrizia; Ghirardi, Orlando; Carminati, Paolo

    2006-10-01

    Antagonism of the A2A adenosine function has proved beneficial in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, in that it increases L-dopa therapeutical effects without concomitant worsening of its side-effects. In this paper we describe a preferential A2A adenosine antagonist, ST 1535, with long-lasting pharmacodynamic effects. It competitively antagonizes the effects of the A2A adenosine agonist NECA on cAMP in cells cloned with the human A2A adenosine receptor (IC50=353+/-30 nM), and the effects of the A1 adenosine agonist CHA on cAMP in cells cloned with the human A1 adenosine receptor (IC50=510+/-38 nM). ST 1535, at oral doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg, antagonizes catalepsy induced by intracerebroventricular administration of the A2A adenosine agonist CGS 21680 (10 microg/5 microl) in mice. At oral doses ranging between 5 and 20 mg/kg, ST 1535 induces hypermotility and antagonizes haloperidol-induced catalepsy in mice up to 7 h. Oral ST 1535, at 1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg, potentiates L-dopa effects in reducing haloperidol-induced catalepsy. ST 1535 represents a potential new compound, with long-lasting activity, for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  1. Countering A2/AD with Swarming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    to prevent the U.S. from being able to fight such a war. Rather, the adversaries have adopted A2/AD strategies that would force the U.S. to fight an...undesirable war of attrition in order to achieve their objective. The current strategy to counter A2/AD is a strategy that forces the tenets of an...annihilation strategy into the context of an attrition environment. The result is that it weakens the military as an instrument of national power. The

  2. 12 CFR 261a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGARDING ACCESS TO PERSONAL INFORMATION UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT 1974 General Provisions § 261a.2 Definitions... Saturday, Sunday or a legal Federal holiday. (b) Guardian means the parent of a minor, or the legal... particular assigned to the individual. (h) You means an individual making a request under the Privacy Act. (i...

  3. 29 CFR 1912a.2 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.2 Membership. The Committee is a... occupational safety professions, and four members will represent the public. The Secretary of Health, Education...

  4. 29 CFR 1912a.2 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.2 Membership. The Committee is a... occupational safety professions, and four members will represent the public. The Secretary of Health, Education...

  5. 42 CFR 51a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CHILD HEALTH § 51a.2 Definitions. Act means the Social Security Act, as amended. Genetic diseases means... accredited school of medicine and a full-time academic medical staff holding faculty status in such school of medicine. Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services or his or her designee. ...

  6. 42 CFR 2a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.2 Definitions. (a) Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services and... subdivision or agency, business trust, partnership, association, or other legal entity. (c) Research means... includes, but is not limited to, behavioral science studies, surveys, evaluations, and clinical...

  7. 42 CFR 2a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.2 Definitions. (a) Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services and... subdivision or agency, business trust, partnership, association, or other legal entity. (c) Research means... includes, but is not limited to, behavioral science studies, surveys, evaluations, and clinical...

  8. 42 CFR 2a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.2 Definitions. (a) Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services and... subdivision or agency, business trust, partnership, association, or other legal entity. (c) Research means... includes, but is not limited to, behavioral science studies, surveys, evaluations, and clinical...

  9. 42 CFR 2a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.2 Definitions. (a) Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services and... subdivision or agency, business trust, partnership, association, or other legal entity. (c) Research means... includes, but is not limited to, behavioral science studies, surveys, evaluations, and clinical...

  10. 42 CFR 2a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.2 Definitions. (a) Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services and... subdivision or agency, business trust, partnership, association, or other legal entity. (c) Research means... includes, but is not limited to, behavioral science studies, surveys, evaluations, and clinical...

  11. 29 CFR 1912a.2 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.2 Membership. The Committee is a... occupational safety professions, and four members will represent the public. The Secretary of Health, Education...

  12. A-2 Test Stand modification work

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-27

    John C. Stennis Space Center employees install a new master interface tool on the A-2 Test Stand on Oct. 27, 2010. Until July 2009, the stand had been used for testing space shuttle main engines. With that test series complete, employees are preparing the stand for testing the next-generation J-2X rocket engine being developed. Testing of the new engine is scheduled to begin in 2011.

  13. HEOS-A2: Press kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allaway, H. G.; Kukowski, J.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics of the HEOS-A2 satellite and its assigned mission are discussed. The spacecraft carries seven experiments to investigate the strength and direction of the magnetic fields encountered, the energy distribution of protons and electrons, the nature of the solar winds, detection of micrometeorites, and low frequency solar observations. The highly elliptical polar orbit required for this mission will have an apogee of 38 earth radii. The lifetime of the satellite is expected to be one year minimum.

  14. Design and synthesis of small molecule agonists of EphA2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Petty, Aaron; Idippily, Nethrie; Bobba, Viharika; Geldenhuys, Werner J; Zhong, Bo; Su, Bin; Wang, Bingcheng

    2018-01-01

    Ligand-independent activation of EphA2 receptor kinase promotes cancer metastasis and invasion. Activating EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase with small molecule agonist is a novel strategy to treat EphA2 overexpressing cancer. In this study, we performed a lead optimization of a small molecule Doxazosin that was identified as an EphA2 receptor agonist. 33 new analogs were developed and evaluated; a structure-activity relationship was summarized based on the EphA2 activation of these derivatives. Two new derivative compounds 24 and 27 showed much improved activity compared to Doxazosin. Compound 24 possesses a bulky amide moiety, and compound 27 has a dimeric structure that is very different to the parental compound. Compound 27 with a twelve-carbon linker of the dimer activated the kinase and induced receptor internalization and cell death with the best potency. Another dimer with a six-carbon linker has significantly reduced potency compared to the dimer with a longer linker, suggesting that the length of the linker is critical for the activity of the dimeric agonist. To explore the receptor binding characteristics of the new molecules, we applied a docking study to examine how the small molecule binds to the EphA2 receptor. The results reveal that compounds 24 and 27 form more hydrogen bonds to EphA2 than Doxazosin, suggesting that they may have higher binding affinity to the receptor. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Structure-activity relationship studies and pharmacological characterization of N5-heteroarylalkyl-substituted-2-(2-furanyl)thiazolo[5,4-d]pyrimidine-5,7-diamine-based derivatives as inverse agonists at human A2A adenosine receptor.

    PubMed

    Varano, Flavia; Catarzi, Daniela; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Falsini, Matteo; Pasquini, Silvia; Borea, Pier Andrea; Colotta, Vittoria; Varani, Katia

    2018-06-09

    This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of N 5 -(hetero)arylalkyl-substituted-thiazolo [5,4-d]pyrimidine-5,7-diamine derivatives (4-19) as novel human (h) A 2A adenosine receptor (AR) inverse agonists. Competition binding and cyclic AMP assays indicate that the examined compounds behave as hA 2A AR inverse agonists showing binding affinity values in the nanomolar or subnanomolar range. Notably, compounds 4, 5, 6 and 11 showed two affinity values for the hA 2A ARs with the highest (KH) falling in the femtomolar range and the lowest (KL) of the nanomolar order. In addition, in cyclic AMP assays, compounds 4, 5, 6 and 11 exhibited potency (IC 50 ) values in the picomolar range. This study has confirmed that 2-(2-furanyl)thiazolo [5,4-d]pyrimidine-5,7-diamine-based derivatives represent a unique new class of hA 2A AR inverse agonists. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Class specific peptide inhibitors for secretory phospholipases A2.

    PubMed

    Mahalka, Ajay K; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

    2013-06-28

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) catalyze the hydrolytic cleavage of free fatty acids from the sn-2 OH-moiety of glycerophospholipids. These enzymes have a number of functions, from digestion to signaling and toxicity of several venoms. They have also been implicated in inflammation and are connected to diverse diseases, such as cancer, ischemia, atherosclerosis, and schizophrenia. Accordingly, there is a keen interest to develop selective inhibitors for therapeutic use. We recently proposed a novel mechanism for the control of PLA2 activity with highly active protofibrils of PLA2 existing transiently before conversion to inactive amyloid fibrils [19]. In keeping with the above mechanism several algorithms identified (85)KMYFNLI(91) and (17)AALSYGFYG(25) in bee venom (bv) and human lacrimal fluid (Lf) PLA2, respectively, as a regions potentially forming amyloid type aggregates. Interestingly, in keeping with the proposed role of these sequences in the control of the activity of these enzymes, preincubation of 2nM bvPLA2 with (85)KMYFNLI(91) caused complete inhibition of PLA2 activity while the scrambled control peptide YNFLIMK had no effect. Approximately 36% attenuation of the hydrolytic activity of LfPLA2 present in human lacrimal fluid was observed in the presence of 80nM (17)AALSYGFYG(25). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 42 CFR 52a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... clinical research into the cause, diagnosis, early detection, prevention, control, and treatment of autism... conducting basic and clinical research into, training in, and demonstration of advanced diagnostic, control..., psychological, prevention and treatment research and related activities on breast cancer; (d) For purposes of...

  18. 42 CFR 52a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... clinical research into the cause, diagnosis, early detection, prevention, control, and treatment of autism... conducting basic and clinical research into, training in, and demonstration of advanced diagnostic, control..., psychological, prevention and treatment research and related activities on breast cancer; (d) For purposes of...

  19. 42 CFR 52a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... clinical research into the cause, diagnosis, early detection, prevention, control, and treatment of autism... conducting basic and clinical research into, training in, and demonstration of advanced diagnostic, control..., psychological, prevention and treatment research and related activities on breast cancer; (d) For purposes of...

  20. 42 CFR 52a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... clinical research into the cause, diagnosis, early detection, prevention, control, and treatment of autism... conducting basic and clinical research into, training in, and demonstration of advanced diagnostic, control..., psychological, prevention and treatment research and related activities on breast cancer; (d) For purposes of...

  1. 42 CFR 52a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... clinical research into the cause, diagnosis, early detection, prevention, control, and treatment of autism... conducting basic and clinical research into, training in, and demonstration of advanced diagnostic, control..., psychological, prevention and treatment research and related activities on breast cancer; (d) For purposes of...

  2. 7 CFR 15a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Education. (k) Institution of vocational education means a school or institution (except an institution of... the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL... title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, Public Law 92-318, as amended by section 3 of Public Law...

  3. 7 CFR 15a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL... title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, Public Law 92-318, as amended by section 3 of Public Law..., agreement, or arrangement which has as one of its purposes the provision of assistance to any education...

  4. Comparison of CYP1A2 and NAT2 Phenotypes between Black and White Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Muscat, Joshua E.; Pittman, Brian; Kleinman, Wayne; Lazarus, Philip; Stellman, Steven D.; Richie, John P.

    2008-01-01

    The lower incidence rate of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in blacks than in whites may be due to racial differences in the catalytic activity of enzymes that metabolize carcinogenic arylamines in tobacco smoke. To examine this, we compared cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) and N-acetyltransferase-2 activities (NAT2) in black and white smokers using urinary caffeine metabolites as a probe for enzyme activity in a community-based study of 165 black and 183 white cigarette smokers. The paraxanthine (1,7-dimethylxanthine, 17X)/caffeine (trimethylxanthine, 137X) ratio or [17X + 1,7-dimethyluric acid (17U)]/137X ratio was used as an indicator of CYP1A2 activity. The 5-acetyl-amino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil (AFMU)/1-methylxanthine (1X) ratio indicated NAT2 activity. The odds ratio for the slow NAT2 phenotype associated with black race was 0.4; 95% confidence intervals 0.2–0.7. The putative combined low risk phenotype (slow CYP1A2/rapid NAT2) was more common in blacks than in whites (25% vs. 15%, P<0.02). There were no significant racial differences in slow and rapid CYP1A2 phenotypes, and in the combined slow NAT2/rapid CYP1A2 phenotype. Age, education, cigarette smoking amount, body mass index, GSTM1 and GSTM3 genotypes were unrelated to CYP1A2 and NAT2 activity. Intake of cruciferous vegetables (primarily broccoli), red meat, carrots, grapefruit and onions predicted CYP1A2 activity either for all subjects or in race-specific analyses. Carrot and grapefruit consumption was related to NAT2 activity. Collectively, these results indicated that phenotypic differences in NAT2 alone or in combination with CYP1A2 might help explain the higher incidence rates of transitional cell bladder cancer in whites. PMID:18703023

  5. X-15A-2 with dummy ramjet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    This photo shows the X-15A-2 (56-6671) on a research flight with a dummy ramjet engine attached to the bottom of its wedge-shaped vertical tail. One of the experiments planned for the X-15A-2 involved tests of a functional ramjet at speeds above Mach 5. This photo was taken with a dummy ramjet. On this research flight, the X-15A-2 did not carry the two drop tanks used on its Mach 6.7 flight. It also had not yet been covered with an ablative coating. The X-15A-2 made several flights with the dummy ramjet, leading to the record Mach 6.7 flight on October 3, 1967. Delays in producing the operational ramjet, aerodynamic heating damage to the aircraft during the record flight (despite the ablative coating), and the end of the X-15 program in 1968 resulted in no flights with the actual ramjet. The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft. The original three aircraft were about 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. The modified #2 aircraft (X-15A-2 was longer.) They were a missile-shaped vehicles with unusual wedge-shaped vertical tails, thin stubby wings, and unique side fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was rated at 57,000 lb of thrust, although there are indications that it actually achieved up to 60,000 lb. North American Aviation built three X-15 aircraft for the program. The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in-flight information and data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow-on program used the aircraft as testbeds to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth's atmosphere on a repeated basis. For flight in the dense air of the usable atmosphere, the X-15 used conventional aerodynamic controls such as rudder surfaces on the vertical stabilizers to control yaw and movable

  6. Protein kinase A can block EphA2 receptor-mediated cell repulsion by increasing EphA2 S897 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Barquilla, Antonio; Lamberto, Ilaria; Noberini, Roberta; Heynen-Genel, Susanne; Brill, Laurence M; Pasquale, Elena B

    2016-09-01

    The EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase plays key roles in tissue homeostasis and disease processes such as cancer, pathological angiogenesis, and inflammation through two distinct signaling mechanisms. EphA2 "canonical" signaling involves ephrin-A ligand binding, tyrosine autophosphorylation, and kinase activity; EphA2 "noncanonical" signaling involves phosphorylation of serine 897 (S897) by AKT and RSK kinases. To identify small molecules counteracting EphA2 canonical signaling, we developed a high-content screening platform measuring inhibition of ephrin-A1-induced PC3 prostate cancer cell retraction. Surprisingly, most hits from a screened collection of pharmacologically active compounds are agents that elevate intracellular cAMP by activating G protein-coupled receptors such as the β2-adrenoceptor. We found that cAMP promotes phosphorylation of S897 by protein kinase A (PKA) as well as increases the phosphorylation of several nearby serine/threonine residues, which constitute a phosphorylation hotspot. Whereas EphA2 canonical and noncanonical signaling have been viewed as mutually exclusive, we show that S897 phosphorylation by PKA can coexist with EphA2 tyrosine phosphorylation and block cell retraction induced by EphA2 kinase activity. Our findings reveal a novel paradigm in EphA2 function involving the interplay of canonical and noncanonical signaling and highlight the ability of the β2-adrenoceptor/cAMP/PKA axis to rewire EphA2 signaling in a subset of cancer cells. © 2016 Barquilla et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  7. Protein kinase A can block EphA2 receptor–mediated cell repulsion by increasing EphA2 S897 phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Barquilla, Antonio; Lamberto, Ilaria; Noberini, Roberta; Heynen-Genel, Susanne; Brill, Laurence M.; Pasquale, Elena B.

    2016-01-01

    The EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase plays key roles in tissue homeostasis and disease processes such as cancer, pathological angiogenesis, and inflammation through two distinct signaling mechanisms. EphA2 “canonical” signaling involves ephrin-A ligand binding, tyrosine autophosphorylation, and kinase activity; EphA2 “noncanonical” signaling involves phosphorylation of serine 897 (S897) by AKT and RSK kinases. To identify small molecules counteracting EphA2 canonical signaling, we developed a high-content screening platform measuring inhibition of ephrin-A1–induced PC3 prostate cancer cell retraction. Surprisingly, most hits from a screened collection of pharmacologically active compounds are agents that elevate intracellular cAMP by activating G protein–coupled receptors such as the β2-adrenoceptor. We found that cAMP promotes phosphorylation of S897 by protein kinase A (PKA) as well as increases the phosphorylation of several nearby serine/threonine residues, which constitute a phosphorylation hotspot. Whereas EphA2 canonical and noncanonical signaling have been viewed as mutually exclusive, we show that S897 phosphorylation by PKA can coexist with EphA2 tyrosine phosphorylation and block cell retraction induced by EphA2 kinase activity. Our findings reveal a novel paradigm in EphA2 function involving the interplay of canonical and noncanonical signaling and highlight the ability of the β2-adrenoceptor/cAMP/PKA axis to rewire EphA2 signaling in a subset of cancer cells. PMID:27385333

  8. Proteolysis of EphA2 Converts It from a Tumor Suppressor to an Oncoprotein.

    PubMed

    Koshikawa, Naohiko; Hoshino, Daisuke; Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Minegishi, Tomoko; Tomari, Taizo; Nam, Sung-Ouk; Aoki, Mikiko; Sueta, Takayuki; Nakagawa, Takashi; Miyamoto, Shingo; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Weaver, Alissa M; Seiki, Motoharu

    2015-08-15

    Eph receptor tyrosine kinases are considered candidate therapeutic targets in cancer, but they can exert opposing effects on cell growth. In the presence of its ligands, Eph receptor EphA2 suppresses signaling by other growth factor receptors, including ErbB, whereas ligand-independent activation of EphA2 augments ErbB signaling. To deploy EphA2-targeting drugs effectively in tumors, the anti-oncogenic ligand-dependent activation state of EphA2 must be discriminated from its oncogenic ligand-independent state. Because the molecular basis for the latter is little understood, we investigated how the activation state of EphA2 can be switched in tumor tissue. We found that ligand-binding domain of EphA2 is cleaved frequently by the membrane metalloproteinase MT1-MMP, a powerful modulator of the pericellular environment in tumor cells. EphA2 immunostaining revealed a significant loss of the N-terminal portion of EphA2 in areas of tumor tissue that expressed MT1-MMP. Moreover, EphA2 phosphorylation patterns that signify ligand-independent activation were observed specifically in these areas of tumor tissue. Mechanistic experiments revealed that processing of EphA2 by MT1-MMP promoted ErbB signaling, anchorage-independent growth, and cell migration. Conversely, expression of a proteolysis-resistant mutant of EphA2 prevented tumorigenesis and metastasis of human tumor xenografts in mice. Overall, our results showed how the proteolytic state of EphA2 in tumors determines its effector function and influences its status as a candidate biomarker for targeted therapy. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Proteolysis of EphA2 converts it from a tumor suppressor to an oncoprotein

    PubMed Central

    KOSHIKAWA, Naohiko; HOSHINO, Daisuke; TANIGUCHI, Hiroaki; MINEGISHI, Tomoko; TOMARI, Taizo; NAM, Sung-Ouk; AOKI, Mikiko; SUETA, Takayuki; NAKAGAWA, Takashi; MIYAMOTO, Shingo; NABESHIMA, Kazuki; WEAVER, Alissa M.; SEIKI, Motoharu

    2015-01-01

    Eph receptor tyrosine kinases are considered candidate therapeutic targets in cancer, but they can exert opposing effects on cell growth. In presence of its ligands, Eph receptor EphA2 suppresses signaling by other growth factor receptors, including ErbB, whereas ligand-independent activation of EphA2 augments ErbB signaling. To deploy EphA2-targeting drugs effectively in tumors, the anti-oncogenic ligand-dependent activation state of EphA2 must be discriminated from its oncogenic ligand-independent state. Since the molecular basis for the latter is little understood, we investigated how the activation state of EphA2 can be switched in tumor tissue. We found that ligand-binding domain of EphA2 is cleaved frequently by the membrane metalloproteinase MT1-MMP, a powerful modulator of the pericellular environment in tumor cells. EphA2 immunostaining revealed a significant loss of the N-terminal portion of EphA2 in areas of tumor tissue that expressed MT1-MMP. Moreover, EphA2 phosphorylation patterns that signify ligand-independent activation were observed specifically in these areas of tumor tissue. Mechanistic experiments revealed that processing of EphA2 by MT1-MMP promoted ErbB signaling, anchorage-independent growth, and cell migration. Conversely, expression of a proteolysis-resistant mutant of EphA2 prevented tumorigenesis and metastasis of human tumor xenografts in mice. Overall, our results showed how the proteolytic state of EphA2 in tumors determines its effector function and influences its status as a candidate biomarker for targeted therapy. PMID:26130649

  10. INHIBITION OF HUMAN AND RAT CYP1A2 BY TCDD AND DIOXIN-LIKE CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dioxins have been shown to bind and induce rodent CYP1A2, producing a dose-dependent hepatic sequestration in vivo. The induction of CYP1A2 activity has been used as a noninvasive biomarker for human exposure to dioxins; while there is a consistent relationship between exposure ...

  11. EphA2 signalling following endocytosis: role of Tiam1

    PubMed Central

    Boissier, Pomme; Chen, Jin; Huynh-Do, Uyen

    2013-01-01

    Eph receptors and their membrane-bound ligands, the ephrins, represent a complex subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Eph/ephrin binding can lead to various and opposite cellular behaviours such as adhesion versus repulsion, or cell migration versus cell adhesion. Recently, Eph endocytosis has been identified as one of the critical steps responsible for such diversity. Eph receptors, as many RTKs, are rapidly endocytosed following ligand-mediated activation and traffic through endocytic compartments prior to degradation. However, it is becoming obvious that endocytosis controls signalling in many different manners. Here we showed that activated EphA2 are degraded in the lysosomes and that about 35% of internalized receptors are recycled back to the plasma membrane. Our study is also the first to demonstrate that EphA2 retains the capacity to signal in endosomes. In particular, activated EphA2 interacted with the Rho family GEF Tiam1 in endosomes. This association led to Tiam1 activation, which in turn increased Rac1 activity and facilitated Eph/ephrin endocytosis. Disrupting Tiam1 function with RNA interference impaired both ephrinA1-dependent Rac1 activation and ephrinA1-induced EphA2 endocytosis. In summary, our findings shed new light on the regulation of EphA2 endocytosis, intracellular trafficking and signal termination and establish Tiam1 as an important modulator of EphA2 signalling. PMID:24112471

  12. The adenosine A2A receptor — Myocardial protectant and coronary target in endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Reichelt, Melissa E.; Ashton, Kevin J.; Tan, Xing Lin; Mustafa, S. Jamal; Ledent, Catherine; Delbridge, Lea M.D.; Hofmann, Polly A.; Headrick, John P.; Morrison, R. Ray

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiac injury and dysfunction are contributors to disease progression and mortality in sepsis. This study evaluated the cardiovascular role of intrinsic A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR) activity during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Methods We assessed the impact of 24 h of LPS challenge (20 mg/kg, IP) on cardiac injury, coronary function and inflammatory mediator levels in Wild-Type (WT) mice and mice lacking functional A2AARs (A2AAR KO). Results Cardiac injury was evident in LPS-treated WTs, with ∼7-fold elevation in serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI), and significant ventricular and coronary dysfunction. Absence of A2AARs increased LPS-provoked cTnI release at 24 h by 3-fold without additional demise of contraction function. Importantly, A2AAR deletion per se emulated detrimental effects of LPS on coronary function, and LPS was without effect in coronary vessels lacking A2AARs. Effects of A2AAR KO were independent of major shifts in circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and haptoglobin. Cytokine responses were largely insensitive to A2AAR deletion; substantial LPS-induced elevations (up to 100-fold) in IFN-γ and IL-10 were unaltered in A2AAR KO mice, as were levels of IL-4 and TNF-α. However, late elevations in IL-2 and IL-5 were differentially modulated by A2AAR KO (IL-2 reduced, IL-5 increased). Data demonstrate that in the context of LPS-triggered cardiac and coronary injury, A2AAR activity protects myocardial viability without modifying contractile dysfunction, and selectively modulates cytokine (IL-2, IL-5) release. A2AARs also appear to be targeted by LPS in the coronary vasculature. Conclusions These experimental data suggest that preservation of A2AAR functionality might provide therapeutic benefit in human sepsis. PMID:22192288

  13. Conformational change of cytochrome P450 1A2 induced by phospholipids and detergents.

    PubMed

    Yun, C H; Song, M; Kim, H

    1997-08-08

    Recently, it was reported that the activity of rabbit P450 1A2 is markedly increased at elevated salt concentration (Yun, C-H., Song, M., Ahn, T., and Kim, H. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 31312-31316). The activity increase of P450 1A2 coincides with the raised alpha-helix content and decreased beta-sheet content. The presence of phospholipid magnified this effect. Here, possible structural change of rabbit P450 1A2 accompanying the phospholipid-induced increase in its enzyme activity was investigated by circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy, and absorption spectroscopy. Studies with the reconstituted system supported by cumene hydroperoxide or NADPH showed that the P450 1A2 activities were found to be dependent on the head group and hydrocarbon chain length of phospholipid. Phosphatidylcholines having short hydrocarbon chains with a carbon number of 8-12 were very efficient for reconstitution of the P450-catalyzed reactions supported by both cumene hydroperoxide and NADPH. It was found that the phospholipid increased the alpha-helix content and lowered the beta-sheet content of P450. Intrinsic fluorescence intensity is also increased in the presence of phospholipid. The low spin iron configuration of P450 1A2 shifted toward the high spin configuration by most of the phospholipids in the endoplasmic reticulum. Some synthetic phospholipids having short hydrocarbon chains with a carbon number of 10-12 caused a shift in the spin equilibrium of P450 1A2 toward low spin. The effect of detergents on the activity and conformation of P450 1A2 was also studied. It was found that the addition of detergents to P450 1A2 solution increased the enzyme activity of P450 1A2. Detergents also increased the alpha-helix content and lowered the beta-sheet content of P450 1A2. Intrinsic fluorescence emissions also increased with the presence of detergents. Octyl glucoside and deoxycholate caused a shift toward high spin. On the other hand, cholate caused a shift toward low spin

  14. Casein Kinase 2 Is a Novel Regulator of the Human Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2) Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ting; Cheung, Florence Shin Gee; Zheng, Jian; Lu, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Ling; Grewal, Thomas; Murray, Michael; Zhou, Fanfan

    2016-01-04

    Human organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) mediate the influx of many important drugs into cells. Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a critical protein kinase that phosphorylates >300 protein substrates and is dysregulated in a number of disease states. Among the CK2 substrates are several transporters, although whether this includes human OATPs has not been evaluated. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the regulation of human OATP1A2 by CK2. HEK-239T cells in which OATP1A2 was overexpressed were treated with CK2 specific inhibitors or transfected with CK2 specific siRNA, and the activity, expression, and subcellular trafficking of OATP1A2 was evaluated. CK2 inhibition decreased the uptake of the prototypic OATP1A2 substrate estrone-3-sulfate (E3S). Kinetic studies revealed that this was due to a decrease in the maximum velocity (Vmax) of E3S uptake, while the Michaelis constant was unchanged. The cell surface expression, but not the total cellular expression of OATP1A2, was impaired by CK2 inhibition and knockdown of the catalytic α-subunits of CK2. CK2 inhibition decreased the internalization of OATP1A2 via a clathrin-dependent pathway, decreased OATP1A2 recycling, and likely impaired OATP1A2 targeting to the cell surface. Consistent with these findings, CK2 inhibition also disrupted the colocalization of OATP1A2 and Rab GTPase (Rab)4-, Rab8-, and Rab9-positive endosomal and secretory vesicles. Taken together, CK2 has emerged as a novel regulator of the subcellular trafficking and stability of OATP1A2. Because OATP1A2 transports many molecules of physiological and pharmacological importance, the present data may inform drug selection in patients with diseases in which CK2 and OATP1A2 are dysregulated.

  15. A lipid switch unlocks Parkinson’s disease-associated ATP13A2

    PubMed Central

    Holemans, Tine; Sørensen, Danny Mollerup; van Veen, Sarah; Martin, Shaun; Hermans, Diane; Kemmer, Gerdi Christine; Van den Haute, Chris; Baekelandt, Veerle; Günther Pomorski, Thomas; Agostinis, Patrizia; Wuytack, Frank; Palmgren, Michael; Eggermont, Jan; Vangheluwe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    ATP13A2 is a lysosomal P-type transport ATPase that has been implicated in Kufor–Rakeb syndrome and Parkinson’s disease (PD), providing protection against α-synuclein, Mn2+, and Zn2+ toxicity in various model systems. So far, the molecular function and regulation of ATP13A2 remains undetermined. Here, we demonstrate that ATP13A2 contains a unique N-terminal hydrophobic extension that lies on the cytosolic membrane surface of the lysosome, where it interacts with the lysosomal signaling lipids phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylinositol(3,5)bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2]. We further demonstrate that ATP13A2 accumulates in an inactive autophosphorylated state and that PA and PI(3,5)P2 stimulate the autophosphorylation of ATP13A2. In a cellular model of PD, only catalytically active ATP13A2 offers cellular protection against rotenone-induced mitochondrial stress, which relies on the availability of PA and PI(3,5)P2. Thus, the N-terminal binding of PA and PI(3,5)P2 emerges as a key to unlock the activity of ATP13A2, which may offer a therapeutic strategy to activate ATP13A2 and thereby reduce α-synuclein toxicity or mitochondrial stress in PD or related disorders. PMID:26134396

  16. Estimation of crop gross primary production (GPP): fAPAR_chl versus MOD15A2 FPAR

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Within leaf chloroplasts chlorophylls absorb photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for photosynthesis (PSN). The MOD15A2 FPAR (fraction of PAR absorbed by canopy, i.e., fAPARcanopy) product has been widely used to compute absorbed PAR for PSN (APARPSN). The MOD17A2 algorithm uses MOD15A2 FPAR i...

  17. Stabilization of EphA2 dimers as a novel anti-cancer strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Deo; Ahmed, Fozia; Salloto, Matt; Hristova, Kalina

    We have recently shown that EphA2 receptors exist in a monomer-dimer equilibrium in the absence of ligand. The monomers promote tumorigenic activity and thus a therapeutic strategy that minimizes the monomer population may be beneficial in the clinic. The YSA peptide is an EphA2-targeting peptide that effectively delivers anticancer agents to cancer tumors. The quantitative measurements of the dimerization of EphA2 receptors in the presence of these peptides using quantitative spectral Forster resonance transfer (QS-FRET) methodology in conjunction with two-photon microscopy that has been developed recently in our lab suggests that this peptide stabilizes the EphA2 dimers. Thus, such peptides that stabilize the EphA2 dimers may be used for the treatment of some cancers that overexpress EphA2.

  18. DNA Methyl Transferase 1 Reduces Expression of SRD5A2 in the Aging Adult Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Rongbin; Wang, Zongwei; Bechis, Seth K.; Otsetov, Alexander G.; Hua, Shengyu; Wu, Shulin; Wu, Chin-Lee; Tabatabaei, Shahin; Olumi, Aria F.

    2016-01-01

    5-α Reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) is a critical enzyme for prostatic development and growth. Inhibition of SRD5A2 by finasteride is used commonly for the management of urinary obstruction caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia. Contrary to common belief, we have found that expression of SRD5A2 is variable and absent in one third of benign adult prostates. In human samples, absent SRD5A2 expression is associated with hypermethylation of the SRD5A2 promoter, and in vitro SRD5A2 promoter activity is suppressed by methylation. We show that methylation of SRD5A2 is regulated by DNA methyltransferase 1, and inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor α, NF-κB, and IL-6 regulate DNA methyltransferase 1 expression and thereby affect SRD5A2 promoter methylation and gene expression. Furthermore, we show that increasing age in mice and humans is associated with increased methylation of the SRD5A2 promoter and concomitantly decreased protein expression. Artificial induction of inflammation in prostate primary epithelial cells leads to hypermethylation of the SRD5A2 promoter and silencing of SRD5A2, whereas inhibition with tumor necrosis factor α inhibitor reactivates SRD5A2 expression. Therefore, expression of SRD5A2 is not static and ubiquitous in benign adult prostate tissues. Methylation and expression of SRD5A2 may be used as a gene signature to tailor therapies for more effective treatment of prostatic diseases. PMID:25700986

  19. Emerging strategies for EphA2 receptor targeting for cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Manish; Vemula, Sai Vikram; Mittal, Suresh K

    2011-01-01

    High mortality rates with cancers warrant further development of earlier diagnostics and better treatment strategies. Membrane-bound erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular receptor tyrosine kinase class A2 (EphA2) is overexpressed in breast, prostate, urinary bladder, skin, lung, ovary and brain cancers. EphA2 overexpression in cancers, its signaling mechanisms and strategies to target its deregulation. High EphA2 expression in cancer cells is correlated with a poor prognosis associated with recurrence due to enhanced metastasis. Interaction of the EphA2 receptor with its ligand (e.g., ephrinA1) triggers events that are deregulated and implicated in carcinogenesis. EphrinA1-independent oncogenic activity and ephrinA1-dependent tumor suppressor roles for EphA2 are described. Molecular interactions of EphA2 with signaling proteins are associated with the modulation of cytoskeleton dynamics, cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and metastasis. The deregulated signaling by EphA2 and its involvement in oncogenesis provide multiple avenues for the rational design of intervention approaches. EphA2 has been tested as a drug target using multiple approaches such as agonist antibodies, RNA interference, immunotherapy, virus vector-mediated gene transfer, small-molecule inhibitors and nanoparticles. With over a decade of research, encouraging results with targeting of EphA2 expression in various pre-clinical cancer models necessitate further studies.

  20. 21 CFR 864.7400 - Hemoglobin A2 assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hemoglobin A2 assay. 864.7400 Section 864.7400...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7400 Hemoglobin A2 assay. (a) Identification. A hemoglobin A2 assay is a device used to determine the hemoglobin A2 content...

  1. 21 CFR 864.7400 - Hemoglobin A2 assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin A2 assay. 864.7400 Section 864.7400...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7400 Hemoglobin A2 assay. (a) Identification. A hemoglobin A2 assay is a device used to determine the hemoglobin A2 content...

  2. Adenosine A2a receptors and O2 sensing in development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Reduced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, via activation of adenylate kinase and the resulting exponential rise in the cellular AMP/ATP ratio, appears to be a critical factor underlying O2 sensing in many chemoreceptive tissues in mammals. The elevated AMP/ATP ratio, in turn, activates key enzymes that are involved in physiologic adjustments that tend to balance ATP supply and demand. An example is the conversion of AMP to adenosine via 5′-nucleotidase and the resulting activation of adenosine A2A receptors, which are involved in acute oxygen sensing by both carotid bodies and the brain. In fetal sheep, A2A receptors associated with carotid bodies trigger hypoxic cardiovascular chemoreflexes, while central A2A receptors mediate hypoxic inhibition of breathing and rapid eye movements. A2A receptors are also involved in hypoxic regulation of fetal endocrine systems, metabolism, and vascular tone. In developing lambs, A2A receptors play virtually no role in O2 sensing by the carotid bodies, but brain A2A receptors remain critically involved in the roll-off ventilatory response to hypoxia. In adult mammals, A2A receptors have been implicated in O2 sensing by carotid glomus cells, while central A2A receptors likely blunt hypoxic hyperventilation. In conclusion, A2A receptors are crucially involved in the transduction mechanisms of O2 sensing in fetal carotid bodies and brains. Postnatally, central A2A receptors remain key mediators of hypoxic respiratory depression, but they are less critical for O2 sensing in carotid chemoreceptors, particularly in developing lambs. PMID:21677265

  3. Cell Surface Translocation of Annexin A2 Facilitates Glutamate-induced Extracellular Proteolysis*

    PubMed Central

    Valapala, Mallika; Maji, Sayantan; Borejdo, Julian; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K.

    2014-01-01

    Glutamate-induced elevation in intracellular Ca2+ has been implicated in excitotoxic cell death. Neurons respond to increased glutamate levels by activating an extracellular proteolytic cascade involving the components of the plasmin-plasminogen system. AnxA2 is a Ca2+-dependent phospholipid binding protein and serves as an extracellular proteolytic center by recruiting the tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen and mediating the localized generation of plasmin. Ratiometric Ca2+ imaging and time-lapse confocal microscopy demonstrated glutamate-induced Ca2+ influx. We showed that glutamate translocated both endogenous and AnxA2-GFP to the cell surface in a process dependent on the activity of the NMDA receptor. Glutamate-induced translocation of AnxA2 is dependent on the phosphorylation of tyrosine 23 at the N terminus, and mutation of tyrosine 23 to a non-phosphomimetic variant inhibits the translocation process. The cell surface-translocated AnxA2 forms an active plasmin-generating complex, and this activity can be neutralized by a hexapeptide directed against the N terminus. These results suggest an involvement of AnxA2 in potentiating glutamate-induced cell death processes. PMID:24742684

  4. A2BR adenosine receptor modulates sweet taste in circumvallate taste buds.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Shinji; Baquero, Arian; Yang, Dan; Shultz, Nicole; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Ravid, Katya; Kinnamon, Sue C; Finger, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3) on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR) is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate), but not anterior (fungiform, palate) taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields.

  5. A2BR Adenosine Receptor Modulates Sweet Taste in Circumvallate Taste Buds

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dan; Shultz, Nicole; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Ravid, Katya; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3) on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR) is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate), but not anterior (fungiform, palate) taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields. PMID:22253866

  6. Influence of the genetic polymorphism in the 5'-noncoding region of the CYP1A2 gene on CYP1A2 phenotype and urinary mutagenicity in smokers.

    PubMed

    Pavanello, Sofia; Pulliero, Alessandra; Lupi, Silvia; Gregorio, Pasquale; Clonfero, Erminio

    2005-11-10

    The functional significance of genetic polymorphisms on tobacco smoke-induced CYP1A2 activity was examined. The influence of three polymorphisms of the cytochrome P450 1A2 gene (CYP1A2) (-3860 G-->A (allele *1C), -2467 T-->delT (allele *1D), -163C-->A (allele *1F)), located in the 5'-noncoding promoter region of the gene, on CYP1A2 activity (measured as caffeine metabolic ratio, CMR), was studied in Caucasian current smokers (n=95). Tobacco smoke intake was calculated from the number of cigarettes/day. Also, studied was the influence of these CYP1A2 genotypes on smoking-associated urinary mutagenicity, detected in Salmonella typhimurium strain YG1024 with S9 mix, considering the urinary excretion of nicotine plus its metabolites as an internal indicator of tobacco smoke exposure. Smokers with at least one of the variant alleles CYP1A2 -3860A and -2467 delT showed a significantly increased CYP1A2 CMR (-3860 G/A versus G/G, p<0.05; -2467 delT/delT versus T/delT and T/T, p<0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that the increase in CYP1A2 CMR (ln values) was again significantly related to the presence of CYP1A2 variants -2467delT and also to variant -163A (p<0.05), but moderately to -3860A (p=0.084). No influence of the number of cigarettes smoked per day by each subject was found. Heavy smokers (n=48, with urinary nicotine plus its metabolites>or=0.69 mg/mmol creatinine) with variant allele -2467delT or -163A had significantly increased urinary mutagenicity (p<0.01 and <0.05). CYP1A2 genetic polymorphisms are shown to influence the CYP1A2 phenotype in smokers, -2467 T-->delT having the main effect. This information is of interest for future studies assessing the possible role of tobacco smoke-inducible CYP1A2 genotypes as individual susceptibility factors in exposure to carcinogens.

  7. EphA2 is a functional receptor for the growth factor progranulin.

    PubMed

    Neill, Thomas; Buraschi, Simone; Goyal, Atul; Sharpe, Catherine; Natkanski, Elizabeth; Schaefer, Liliana; Morrione, Andrea; Iozzo, Renato V

    2016-12-05

    Although the growth factor progranulin was discovered more than two decades ago, the functional receptor remains elusive. Here, we discovered that EphA2, a member of the large family of Ephrin receptor tyrosine kinases, is a functional signaling receptor for progranulin. Recombinant progranulin bound with high affinity to EphA2 in both solid phase and solution. Interaction of progranulin with EphA2 caused prolonged activation of the receptor, downstream stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt, and promotion of capillary morphogenesis. Furthermore, we found an autoregulatory mechanism of progranulin whereby a feed-forward loop occurred in an EphA2-dependent manner that was independent of the endocytic receptor sortilin. The discovery of a functional signaling receptor for progranulin offers a new avenue for understanding the underlying mode of action of progranulin in cancer progression, tumor angiogenesis, and perhaps neurodegenerative diseases. © 2016 Neill et al.

  8. EphA2 is a functional receptor for the growth factor progranulin

    PubMed Central

    Neill, Thomas; Goyal, Atul; Sharpe, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Although the growth factor progranulin was discovered more than two decades ago, the functional receptor remains elusive. Here, we discovered that EphA2, a member of the large family of Ephrin receptor tyrosine kinases, is a functional signaling receptor for progranulin. Recombinant progranulin bound with high affinity to EphA2 in both solid phase and solution. Interaction of progranulin with EphA2 caused prolonged activation of the receptor, downstream stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt, and promotion of capillary morphogenesis. Furthermore, we found an autoregulatory mechanism of progranulin whereby a feed-forward loop occurred in an EphA2-dependent manner that was independent of the endocytic receptor sortilin. The discovery of a functional signaling receptor for progranulin offers a new avenue for understanding the underlying mode of action of progranulin in cancer progression, tumor angiogenesis, and perhaps neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27903606

  9. Cyclopentanoid analogs of phosphatidylcholine: susceptibility to phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Lister, M D; Hancock, A J

    1988-10-01

    Six isomers of dipalmitoylcyclopentanetriol phosphocholine (cyclopentano-lecithin) were tested as potential substrates for phospholipase A2. Since each of these analogs possesses a configuration that mimics a narrow range of conformations of a glycerophospholipid molecule, the analogs were used to assess the enzyme's conformational requirements. Studies showed that all of the analogs containing the phosphocholine at the C-1 (or C-3) position could be hydrolyzed, while only one of the three analogs that contains the polar head group at the C-2 position was susceptible. Kinetic studies, however, revealed that only the all-trans-(1,3/2-1P)-cyclopentano-lecithin gave initial rates of hydrolysis that were measurable by pH-stat. Acyl group specificity of the enzyme towards the all-trans isomer was determined with an analog was acyl groups were distinguishable. The synthesis of this mixed-acid-cyclopentano-PC is described herein. When this analog was enzymatically assayed, results unequivocally showed the enzyme to be specific for C-2 acyl hydrolysis. This specificity, and data showing that the all-trans analog is stereospecifically hydrolyzed, indicate that it is acted on in an analogous manner to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. These studies indicate that although the configuration of the analog is not necessarily a prerequisite for hydrolysis, there does appear to be an optimal spatial orientation for enzymatic activity. The analogy between the susceptibilities of all-trans-(1,3/2-1P)-cyclopentano-lecithin and glycero-lecithin suggests that the conformation of the glycero-lecithin during phospholipase A2-mediated hydrolysis may be best simulated by the all-trans orientation of C-O bonds in the artificial substrate.

  10. Adenosine A2B Receptor Deficiency Promotes Host Defenses against Gram-Negative Bacterial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Barletta, Kathryn E.; Cagnina, R. Elaine; Burdick, Marie D.; Linden, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Activation of the adenosine A2B receptor (A2BR) promotes antiinflammatory effects in diverse biological settings, but the role of this receptor in antimicrobial host defense in the lung has not been established. Gram-negative bacillary pneumonia is a common and serious illness associated with high morbidity and mortality, the treatment of which is complicated by increasing rates of antibiotic resistance. Objectives: To test the hypothesis that absence of adenosine A2B receptor signaling promotes host defense against bacterial pneumonia. Methods: We used a model of Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia in wild-type mice and mice with targeted deletion of the A2BR. Host responses were compared in vivo and leukocyte responses to the bacteria were examined in vitro. Measurements and Main Results: A2BR–/– mice demonstrated enhanced bacterial clearance from the lung and improved survival after infection with K. pneumoniae compared with wild-type controls, an effect that was mediated by bone marrow–derived cells. Leukocyte recruitment to the lungs and expression of inflammatory cytokines did not differ between A2BR–/– and wild-type mice, but A2BR–/– neutrophils exhibited sixfold greater bactericidal activity and enhanced production of neutrophil extracellular traps compared with wild-type neutrophils when incubated with K. pneumoniae. Consistent with this finding, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from A2BR–/– mice with Klebsiella pneumonia contained more extracellular DNA compared with wild-type mice with pneumonia. Conclusions: These data suggest that the absence of A2BR signaling enhances antimicrobial activity in gram-negative bacterial pneumonia. PMID:22997203

  11. Functional interaction of TRPV4 channel protein with annexin A2 in DRG.

    PubMed

    Ning, Liping; Wang, Chuanwei; Ding, Xinli; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Xuping; Yue, Shouwei

    2012-09-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is a Ca(2+)-permeable, non-selective cation channel that is involved in the transmission of pain signals mediated by dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Annexin A2 belongs to a class of membrane-binding proteins that plays an important role in the regulation of ion channels. Nevertheless, little is known about the interaction between them in DRG. In this paper, we evaluated the functional interaction of TRPV4 with annexin A2 in DRG. We have used immunocytochemistry and co-immunoprecipitation assays to investigate the interaction between annexin A2 and TRPV4 in DRG. The role of annexin A2 in the regulation of TRPV4 activity in DRG was further verified by measurement of intracellular free calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)) and substance P (SP) release. First, annexin A2 was showed partial co-localization with TRPV4 in DRG neurons. Then, annexin A2 and TRPV4 were co-precipitated with each other in DRG lysates. Furthermore, the downregulation of annexin A2 using specific small interfering RNA significantly inhibited Ca(2+) influx and SP mediated by TRPV4. Our results provide evidence that annexin A2 is associated with TRPV4 and regulates TRPV4-mediated Ca(2+) influx and SP release in DRG neurons. The objective of this work is to determine the influence of annexin A2 on TRPV4 in DRG neurons, which may be the basis for treatment of pain relief.

  12. Dendritic cells tolerized with adenosine A2AR agonist attenuate acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Huang, Liping; Ye, Hong; Song, Steven P.; Bajwa, Amandeep; Lee, Sang Ju; Moser, Emily K.; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Kinsey, Gilbert R.; Day, Yuan J.; Linden, Joel; Lobo, Peter I.; Rosin, Diane L.; Okusa, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    DC-mediated NKT cell activation is critical in initiating the immune response following kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), which mimics human acute kidney injury (AKI). Adenosine is an important antiinflammatory molecule in tissue inflammation, and adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR) agonists protect kidneys from IRI through their actions on leukocytes. In this study, we showed that mice with A2AR-deficient DCs are more susceptible to kidney IRI and are not protected from injury by A2AR agonists. In addition, administration of DCs treated ex vivo with an A2AR agonist protected the kidneys of WT mice from IRI by suppressing NKT production of IFN-γ and by regulating DC costimulatory molecules that are important for NKT cell activation. A2AR agonists had no effect on DC antigen presentation or on Tregs. We conclude that ex vivo A2AR–induced tolerized DCs suppress NKT cell activation in vivo and provide a unique and potent cell-based strategy to attenuate organ IRI. PMID:23093781

  13. The A2a adenosine receptor modulates the reinforcement efficacy and neurotoxicity of MDMA.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Medina, Jessica; Ledent, Catherine; Carretón, Olga; Valverde, Olga

    2011-04-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that plays a neuromodulatory role in the central nervous system. A2a adenosine receptors have been involved in reward-related processes, inflammatory phenomena and neurotoxicity reactions. In the present study, we investigated the role of A2a adenosine receptors on the acute pharmacological effects, reinforcement and neuroinflammation induced by MDMA administration. First, the acute effects of MDMA on body temperature, locomotor activity and anxiety-like responses were measured in A2a knockout mice and wild-type littermates. Second, MDMA reinforcing properties were evaluated using the intravenous self-administration paradigm. Finally, we assessed striatal astrogliosis and microgliosis as markers of MDMA neurotoxicity. Our results showed that acute MDMA produced a biphasic effect on body temperature and increased locomotor activity and anxiogenic-like responses in both genotypes. However, MDMA reinforcing properties were dramatically affected by the lack of A2a adenosine receptors. Thus, wild-type mice maintained MDMA self-administration under a fixed ratio 1 reinforcement schedule, whereas the operant response appeared completely abolished in A2a knockout mice. In addition, the MDMA neurotoxic regime produced an enhanced inflammatory response in striatum of wild-type mice, revealed by a significant increase in glial expression, whereas such activation was attenuated in mutant mice. This is the first report indicating that A2a adenosine receptors play a key role in reinforcement and neuroinflammation induced by the widely used psychostimulant.

  14. Vaccination with EphA2-derived T cell-epitopes promotes immunity against both EphA2-expressing and EphA2-negative tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, Manabu; Kuwashima, Naruo; Tatsumi, Tomohide; Dusak, Jill E; Nishimura, Fumihiko; Reilly, Karlyne M; Storkus, Walter J; Okada, Hideho

    2004-01-01

    Background A novel tyrosine kinase receptor EphA2 is expressed at high levels in advanced and metastatic cancers. We examined whether vaccinations with synthetic mouse EphA2 (mEphA2)-derived peptides that serve as T cell epitopes could induce protective and therapeutic anti-tumor immunity. Methods C57BL/6 mice received subcutaneous (s.c.) vaccinations with bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with synthetic peptides recognized by CD8+ (mEphA2671–679, mEphA2682–689) and CD4+ (mEphA230–44) T cells. Splenocytes (SPCs) were harvested from primed mice to assess the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses against syngeneic glioma, sarcoma and melanoma cell lines. The ability of these vaccines to prevent or treat tumor (s.c. injected MCA205 sarcoma or B16 melanoma; i.v. injected B16-BL6) establishment/progression was then assessed. Results Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with mEphA2-derived peptides induced specific CTL responses in SPCs. Vaccination with mEPhA2 peptides, but not control ovalbumin (OVA) peptides, prevented the establishment or prevented the growth of EphA2+ or EphA2-negative syngeneic tumors in both s.c. and lung metastasis models. Conclusions These data indicate that mEphA2 can serve as an attractive target against which to direct anti-tumor immunity. The ability of mEphA2 vaccines to impact EphA2-negative tumors such as the B16 melanoma may suggest that such beneficial immunity may be directed against alternative EphA2+ target cells, such as the tumor-associated vascular endothelial cells. PMID:15563374

  15. Serum apolipoprotein A2 isoforms in autoimmune pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takashi; Sato, Yu; Nishiumi, Shin; Yagi, Yosuke; Sakai, Arata; Shiomi, Hideyuki; Masuda, Atsuhiro; Okaya, Shinobu; Kutsumi, Hiromu; Yoshida, Masaru; Honda, Kazufumi

    2018-03-11

    Recently, apolipoprotein A2 (apoA2) isoforms have been reported as candidate serum/plasma biomarkers of pancreatic cancer. However, the distribution of apoA2 isoforms in patients with autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has not been investigated yet. In this study, we evaluated the distribution of serum apoA2 isoforms; i.e., homodimer apoA2-ATQ/ATQ, heterodimer apoA2-ATQ/AT, and homodimer apoA2-AT/AT, in AIP patients and healthy volunteers (HV) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and the clinical characteristics and serum levels of each apoA2 isoform in 32 AIP patients and 38 HV were investigated. The calculated apoA2-ATQ/AT levels of the AIP patients were significantly lower than those of the HV, which agreed with results obtained for patients with pancreatic cancer. Interestingly, most of the AIP patients exhibited high levels of apoA2-ATQ along with low levels of apoA2-AT, indicating that the processing of the C-terminal regions of apoA2 dimer was inhibited in the AIP patients. This specific distribution of serum apoA2 isoforms might provide important information about the disease states of AIP patients and aid the differential diagnosis of AIP versus pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. EphA2 receptor is a key player in the metastatic onset of Ewing sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Monclús, Silvia; López-Alemany, Roser; Almacellas-Rabaiget, Olga; Herrero-Martín, David; Huertas-Martinez, Juan; Lagares-Tena, Laura; Alba-Pavón, Piedad; Hontecillas-Prieto, Lourdes; Mora, Jaume; de Álava, Enrique; Rello-Varona, Santi; Giangrande, Paloma H; Tirado, Oscar M

    2018-03-26

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) is the second most common bone malignancy affecting children and young adults with poor prognosis due to high metastasis incidence. Our group previously described that EphA2, a tyrosine kinase receptor, promotes angiogenesis in Ewing sarcoma (ES) cells via ligand-dependent signaling. Now we wanted to explore EphA2 ligand-independent activity, controlled upon phosphorylation at S897 (p-EphA2 S897 ), as it has been linked to metastasis in several malignancies. By reverse genetic engineering we explored the phenotypic changes after EphA2 removal or reintroduction. Gene expression microarray was used to identify key players in EphA2 signaling. Mice were employed to reproduce metastatic processes from orthotopically implanted engineered cells. We established a correlation between ES cells aggressiveness and p-EphA2 S897 . Moreover, stable overexpression of EphA2 in low EphA2 expression ES cells enhanced proliferation and migration, but not a non-phosphorylable mutant (S987A). Consistently, silencing of EphA2 reduced tumorigenicity, migration and invasion in vitro, and lung metastasis incidence in experimental and spontaneous metastasis assays in vivo. A gene expression microarray revealed the implication of EphA2 in cell signaling, cellular movement and survival. ADAM19 knockdown by siRNA technology strongly reproduced the negative effects on cell migration observed after EphA2 silencing. Altogether, our results suggest that p-EphA2 S897 correlates with aggressiveness in ES, so blocking its function may be a promising treatment. © 2018 UICC.

  17. Probing phospholipase a(2) with fluorescent phospholipid substrates.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Oliver; Gelb, Michael H; Schultz, Carsten

    2007-09-03

    The Foerster resonance energy transfer-based sensor, PENN, measures intracellular phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activity in living cells and small organisms. In an attempt to modify the probe for the detection of particular isoforms, we altered the sn-2 fatty acid in such a way that either one or three of the Z double bonds in arachidonic acid were present in the sensor molecule. Arachidonic-acid-mimicking fatty acids were prepared by copper-mediated coupling reactions. Probes with a single double bond in the 5-position exhibited favorable substrate properties for secretory PLA(2)s. In vitro experiments with the novel unsaturated doubly labeled phosphatidylethanolamine derivatives showed preferred cleavage of the sensor PENN2 (one double bond) by the physiologically important group V sPLA(2), while the O-methyl-derivative PMNN2 was accepted best by the isoform from hog pancreas. For experiments in living cells, we demonstrated that bioactivation via S-acetylthioethyl (SATE) groups is essential for probe performance. Surprisingly, membrane-permeant versions of the new sensors that contained double bonds, PENN2 and PENN3, were only cleaved to a minor extent in HeLa cells while the saturated form, PENN, was well accepted.

  18. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)-2 - Exclusions from wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusions from wages. 31.3401(a)-2 Section 31... Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3401(a)-2 Exclusions from wages. (a) In general. (1) The term “wages... specifically excepted from wages under section 3401(a). (2) The exception attaches to the remuneration for...

  19. Multi-Inhibitory Effects of A2A Adenosine Receptor Signaling on Neutrophil Adhesion Under Flow.

    PubMed

    Yago, Tadayuki; Tsukamoto, Hiroki; Liu, Zhenghui; Wang, Ying; Thompson, Linda F; McEver, Rodger P

    2015-10-15

    A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR) signaling negatively regulates inflammatory responses in many disease models, but the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. We used the selective A2AAR agonist, ATL313, to examine how A2AAR signaling affects human and murine neutrophil adhesion under flow. Treating neutrophils with ATL313 inhibited selectin-induced, β2 integrin-dependent slow rolling and chemokine-induced, β2 integrin-dependent arrest on ICAM-1. ATL313 inhibited selectin-induced β2 integrin extension, which supports slow rolling, and chemokine-induced hybrid domain "swing-out," which supports arrest. Furthermore, ATL313 inhibited integrin outside-in signaling as revealed by reduced neutrophil superoxide production and spreading on immobilized anti-β2 integrin Ab. ATL313 suppressed selectin-triggered activation of Src family kinases (SFKs) and p38 MAPK, chemokine-triggered activation of Ras-related protein 1, and β2 integrin-triggered activation of SFKs and Vav cytoskeletal regulatory proteins. ATL313 activated protein kinase A and its substrate C-terminal Src kinase, an inhibitor of SFKs. Treating neutrophils with a protein kinase A inhibitor blocked the actions of ATL313. In vivo, ATL313-treated neutrophils rolled faster and arrested much less frequently in postcapillary venules of the murine cremaster muscle after TNF-α challenge. Furthermore, ATL313 markedly suppressed neutrophil migration into the peritoneum challenged with thioglycollate. ATL313 did not affect A2AAR-deficient neutrophils, confirming its specificity. Our findings provide new insights into the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of A2AAR signaling and the potential utility of A2AAR agonists in inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. Multi-inhibitory effects of A2A adenosine receptor signaling on neutrophil adhesion under flow**

    PubMed Central

    Yago, Tadayuki; Tsukamoto, Hiroki; Liu, Zhenghui; Wang, Ying; Thompson, Linda F.; McEver, Rodger P.

    2015-01-01

    A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR) signaling negatively regulates inflammatory responses in many disease models, but the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. We used the selective A2AAR agonist, ATL313, to examine how A2AAR signaling affects human and murine neutrophil adhesion under flow. Treating neutrophils with ATL313 inhibited selectin-induced, β2 integrin-dependent slow rolling and chemokine-induced, β2 integrin-dependent arrest on ICAM-1. ATL313 inhibited selectin-induced β2 integrin extension, which supports slow rolling, and chemokine-induced hybrid domain “swing-out”, which supports arrest. Furthermore, ATL313 inhibited integrin outside-in signaling as revealed by reduced neutrophil superoxide production and spreading on immobilized anti-β2 integrin antibody. ATL313 suppressed selectin-triggered activation of Src family kinases (SFKs) and p38 MAPK, chemokine-triggered activation of Ras-related protein 1 (Rap1), and β2 integrin-triggered activation of SFKs and Vav cytoskeletal regulatory proteins. ATL313 activated protein kinase A (PKA) and its substrate C-terminal Src kinase (Csk), an inhibitor of SFKs. Treating neutrophils with a PKA inhibitor blocked the actions of ATL313. In vivo, ATL313-treated neutrophils rolled faster and arrested much less frequently in postcapillary venules of the murine cremaster muscle after TNF-α challenge. Furthermore, ATL313 markedly suppressed neutrophil migration into the peritoneum challenged with thioglycollate. ATL313 did not affect A2AAR-deficient neutrophils, confirming its specificity. Our findings provide new insights into the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of A2AAR signaling and the potential utility of A2AAR agonists in inflammatory diseases. PMID:26355151

  1. Pathway-Targeted Pharmacogenomics of CYP1A2 in Human Liver

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Kathrin; Winter, Stefan; Turpeinen, Miia; Schwab, Matthias; Zanger, Ulrich M.

    2010-01-01

    The human drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, is one of the major P450 isoforms contributing by about 5–20% to the hepatic P450 pool and catalyzing oxidative biotransformation of up to 10% of clinically relevant drugs including clozapine and caffeine. CYP1A2 activity is interindividually highly variable and although twin studies have suggested a high heritability, underlying genetic factors are still unknown. Here we adopted a pathway-oriented approach using a large human liver bank (n = 150) to elucidate whether variants in candidate genes of constitutive, ligand-inducible, and pathophysiological inhibitory regulatory pathways may explain different hepatic CYP1A2 phenotypes. Samples were phenotyped for phenacetin O-deethylase activity, and the expression of CYP1A2 protein and mRNA was determined. CYP1A2 expression and function was increased in smokers and decreased in patients with inflammation and cholestasis. Of 169 SNPs in 17 candidate genes including the CYP1A locus, 136 non-redundant SNPs with minor allele frequency >5% were analyzed by univariate and multivariate methods. A total of 13 strong significant associations were identified, of which 10 SNPs in the ARNT, AhRR, HNF1α, IL1β, SRC-1, and VDR genes showed consistent changes for at least two phenotypes by univariate analysis. Multivariate linear modeling indicated that the polymorphisms and non-genetic factors together explained 42, 38, and 33% of CYP1A2 variation at activity, protein and mRNA levels, respectively. In conclusion, we identified novel trans-associations between regulatory genes and hepatic CYP1A2 function and expression, but additional genetic factors must be assumed to explain the full extent of CYP1A2 heritability. PMID:21918647

  2. Nitric oxide mediates insect cellular immunity via phospholipase A2 activation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    After infection or invasion is recognized, biochemical mediators act in signaling insect immune functions. These include biogenic amines, insect cytokines, eicosanoids and nitric oxide (NO). Treating insects or isolated hemocyte populations with different mediators often leads to similar results. Se...

  3. 17 CFR 240.17a-2 - Recordkeeping requirements relating to stabilizing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (a) Scope of section. This section shall apply to any person who effects any purchase of a security... engages in, “stabilizing,” as defined in § 242.100 of this chapter, the price of any security; or effects... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recordkeeping requirements...

  4. EphB6 promotes anoikis by modulating EphA2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Akada, Mai; Harada, Kohei; Negishi, Manabu; Katoh, Hironori

    2014-12-01

    Anoikis is a specific type of apoptosis induced by detachment of epithelial cells from extracellular matrix, and acquiring resistance to anoikis is an important step that enables cancer cells to metastasize. EphA2, which is overexpressed in a variety of human cancers, is phosphorylated by Akt on serine 897 and mediates ligand ephrin-independent promotion of anoikis resistance through the RhoG activator Ephexin4. EphB6 is frequently silenced in invasive and metastatic cancers; however, its role in cancer progression is poorly understood. Here we show that EphB6 interacts with EphA2 and suppresses EphA2-mediated promotion of anoikis resistance in MCF7 breast cancer cells. On the other hand, knockdown of EphB6 promotes anoikis resistance. We further show that expression of EphB6 decreases serine 897 phosphorylation of EphA2 and suppresses EphA2-Ephexin4 interaction and the RhoG activation. These findings implicate EphB6 as a negative regulator of EphA2 oncogenic signaling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The structure of Ca2+-loaded S100A2 at 1.3-Å resolution.

    PubMed

    Koch, Michael; Fritz, Günter

    2012-05-01

    S100A2 is an EF-hand calcium ion (Ca(2+))-binding protein that activates the tumour suppressor p53. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the Ca(2+) -induced activation of S100A2, the structure of Ca(2+)-bound S100A2 was determined at 1.3 Å resolution by X-ray crystallography. The structure was compared with Ca(2+) -free S100A2 and with other S100 proteins. Binding of Ca(2+) to S100A2 induces small structural changes in the N-terminal EF-hand, but a large conformational change in the C-terminal EF-hand, reorienting helix III by approximately 90°. This movement is accompanied by the exposure of a hydrophobic cavity between helix III and helix IV that represents the target protein interaction site. This molecular reorganization is associated with the breaking and new formation of intramolecular hydrophobic contacts. The target binding site exhibits unique features; in particular, the hydrophobic cavity is larger than in other Ca(2+)-loaded S100 proteins. The structural data underline that the shape and size of the hydrophobic cavity are major determinants for target specificity of S100 proteins and suggest that the binding mode for S100A2 is different from that of other p53-interacting S100 proteins. Database Structural data are available in the Protein Data Bank database under the accession number 4DUQ © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.

  6. Functional analysis of human cytochrome P450 21A2 variants involved in congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chunxue; Pallan, Pradeep S.; Zhang, Wei

    Cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) 21A2 is the major steroid 21-hydroxylase, converting progesterone to 11-deoxycorticosterone and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OH-progesterone) to 11-deoxycortisol. More than 100 CYP21A2 variants give rise to congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We previously reported a structure of WT human P450 21A2 with bound progesterone and now present a structure bound to the other substrate (17α-OH-progesterone). We found that the 17α-OH-progesterone- and progesterone-bound complex structures are highly similar, with only some minor differences in surface loop regions. Twelve P450 21A2 variants associated with either salt-wasting or nonclassical forms of CAH were expressed, purified, and analyzed. The catalytic activities of these 12more » variants ranged from 0.00009% to 30% of WT P450 21A2 and the extent of heme incorporation from 10% to 95% of the WT. Substrate dissociation constants (Ks) for four variants were 37–13,000-fold higher than for WT P450 21A2. Cytochrome b5, which augments several P450 activities, inhibited P450 21A2 activity. Similar to the WT enzyme, high noncompetitive intermolecular kinetic deuterium isotope effects (≥ 5.5) were observed for all six P450 21A2 variants examined for 21-hydroxylation of 21-d3-progesterone, indicating that C–H bond breaking is a rate-limiting step over a 104-fold range of catalytic efficiency. Using UV-visible and CD spectroscopy, we found that P450 21A2 thermal stability assessed in bacterial cells and with purified enzymes differed among salt-wasting- and nonclassical-associated variants, but these differences did not correlate with catalytic activity. Our in-depth investigation of CAH-associated P450 21A2 variants reveals critical insight into the effects of disease-causing mutations on this important enzyme.« less

  7. Draft genome sequence of the white-rot fungus Obba rivulosa 3A-2

    Treesearch

    Otto Miettinen; Robert Riley; Kerrie Barry; Daniel Cullen; Ronald P. de Vries; Matthieu Hainaut; Annele Hatakka; Bernard Henrissat; Kristiina Hilden; Rita Kuo; Kurt LaButti; Anna Lipzen; Miia R. Makela; Laura Sandor; Joseph W. Spatafora; Igor V. Grigoriev; David S. Hibbett

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first genome sequence of the white-rot fungus Obba rivulsa (Polyporales, Basidiomycota), a polypore known for its lignin-decomposing ability. The genome is based on the homokaryon 3A-2 originating in Finland. The genome is typical in size and carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZy) content for wood-decomposing basidiomycetes.

  8. Evaluation critique of state of the art dyslipidemia management in general and with a special emphasis on the Indian population.

    PubMed

    Whayne, Thomas F

    2007-01-01

    Classically, there have been three well established major cardiovascular risk factors, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and tobacco abuse. With accumulating clinical evidence, diabetes can now be added as a fourth major risk factor. Much interest in various other risk factors and possible causative factors has been generated, but it should be remembered that of all these, low density lipoproteins (LDL) remains the gold standard for evaluating risk. The common perception is that only caucasians in the western world have significant cardiovascular (CV) risk. However, much clinical information to the contrary has accumulated and now it is realized that many other ethnic groups also have significant CV disease, such as in India, especially in the urban population. Dyslipidemias of specific lipoproteins and their treatment is an important part of understanding and managing CV disease and risk. Various plasma factors such as homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) [(a)] have been considered to have definite associations with CV disease, but any treatment benefit remains in doubt. In addition, inflammatory risk factors are considered to be of significant clinical interest, especially high sensitivity C-Reactive protein (hsCRP). Where do these factors fit into routine clinical practice still awaits clarification. Only two of these inflammatory risk (Lp-factors can be tested commercially on a routine clinical basis and these are hsCRP and Lipoprotein-associated Phospholipase A2 Lp-PLA2). Their clinical utillity is not established and acceptance is limited: some third party health coverage organizations refuse to pay for such analyses. In the past, women have been looked upon as not having significant CV disease. More recently, evidence suggests that women may have more CV disease than men, and that physicians may have failed to realize this and act accordingly. The true situation is that women have less CV disease than men prior to menopause and then they slowly catch up

  9. The role of negatively charged lipids in lysosomal phospholipase A2 function

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Akira; Shayman, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Lysosomal phospholipase A2 (LPLA2) is characterized by increased activity toward zwitterionic phospholipid liposomes containing negatively charged lipids under acidic conditions. The effect of anionic lipids on LPLA2 activity was investigated. Mouse LPLA2 activity was assayed as C2-ceramide transacylation. Sulfatide incorporated into liposomes enhanced LPLA2 activity under acidic conditions and was weakened by NaCl or increased pH. Amiodarone, a cationic amphiphilic drug, reduced LPLA2 activity. LPLA2 exhibited esterase activity when p-nitro-phenylbutyrate (pNPB) was used as a substrate. Unlike the phospholipase A2 activity, the esterase activity was detected over wide pH range and not inhibited by NaCl or amiodarone. Presteady-state kinetics using pNPB were consistent with the formation of an acyl-enzyme intermediate. C2-ceramide was an acceptor for the acyl group of the acyl-enzyme but was not available as the acyl group acceptor when dispersed in liposomes containing amiodarone. Cosedimentation of LPLA2 with liposomes was enhanced in the presence of sulfatide and was reduced by raising NaCl, amiodarone, or pH in the reaction mixture. LPLA2 adsorption to negatively charged lipid membrane surfaces through an electrostatic attraction, therefore, enhances LPLA2 enzyme activity toward insoluble substrates. Thus, anionic lipids present within lipid membranes enhance the rate of phospholipid hydrolysis by LPLA2 at lipid-water interfaces.—Abe, A., and J. A. Shayman. The role of negatively charged lipids in lysosomal phospholipase A2 function. PMID:19321879

  10. The Posttranslocation Chaperone PrsA2 Contributes to Multiple Facets of Listeria monocytogenes Pathogenesis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Alonzo, Francis; Port, Gary C.; Cao, Min; Freitag, Nancy E.

    2009-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular bacterial pathogen whose virulence depends on the regulated expression of numerous secreted bacterial factors. As for other gram-positive bacteria, many proteins secreted by L. monocytogenes are translocated across the bacterial membrane in an unfolded state to the compartment existing between the membrane and the cell wall. This compartment presents a challenging environment for protein folding due to its high density of negative charge, high concentrations of cations, and low pH. We recently identified PrsA2 as a gene product required for L. monocytogenes virulence. PrsA2 was identified based on its increased secretion by strains containing a mutationally activated form of prfA, the key regulator of L. monocytogenes virulence gene expression. The prsA2 gene product is one of at least two predicted peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans-isomerases encoded by L. monocytogenes; these proteins function as posttranslocation protein chaperones and/or foldases. In this study, we demonstrate that PrsA2 plays a unique and important role in L. monocytogenes pathogenesis by promoting the activity and stability of at least two critical secreted virulence factors: listeriolysin O (LLO) and a broad-specificity phospholipase. Loss of PrsA2 activity severely attenuated virulence in mice and impaired bacterial cell-to-cell spread in host cells. In contrast, mutants lacking prsA1 resembled wild-type bacteria with respect to intracellular growth and cell-to-cell spread as well as virulence in mice. PrsA2 is thus distinct from PrsA1 in its unique requirement for the stability and full activity of L. monocytogenes-secreted factors that contribute to host infection. PMID:19451247

  11. Yeast Derived LysA2 Can Control Bacterial Contamination in Ethanol Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Seob; Daum, M Angela; Jin, Yong-Su; Miller, Michael J

    2018-05-24

    Contamination of fuel-ethanol fermentations continues to be a significant problem for the corn and sugarcane-based ethanol industries. In particular, members of the Lactobacillaceae family are the primary bacteria of concern. Currently, antibiotics and acid washing are two major means of controlling contaminants. However, antibiotic use could lead to increased antibiotic resistance, and the acid wash step stresses the fermenting yeast and has limited effectiveness. Bacteriophage endolysins such as LysA2 are lytic enzymes with the potential to contribute as antimicrobials to the fuel ethanol industries. Our goal was to evaluate the potential of yeast-derived LysA2 as a means of controlling Lactobacillaceae contamination. LysA2 intracellularly produced by Pichia pastoris showed activity comparable to Escherichia coli produced LysA2. Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) with the A4α peptidoglycan chemotype (L-Lys-D-Asp crosslinkage) were the most sensitive to LysA2, though a few from that chemotype were insensitive. Pichia -expressed LysA2, both secreted and intracellularly produced, successfully improved ethanol productivity and yields in glucose (YPD60) and sucrose-based (sugarcane juice) ethanol fermentations in the presence of a LysA2 susceptible LAB contaminant. LysA2 secreting Sacharomyces cerevisiae did not notably improve production in sugarcane juice, but it did control bacterial contamination during fermentation in YPD60. Secretion of LysA2 by the fermenting yeast, or adding it in purified form, are promising alternative tools to control LAB contamination during ethanol fermentation. Endolysins with much broader lytic spectrums than LysA2 could supplement or replace the currently used antibiotics or the acidic wash.

  12. Evaluating the ototoxicity of an anti-MRSA peptide KR-12-a2.

    PubMed

    Sung, Chung Man; Kim, Hong Chan; Cho, Yong Beom; Shin, Song Yub; Jang, Chul Ho

    2017-05-31

    Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus is an emerging problem for the treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media, and also for pediatric tympanostomy tube otorrhea. To date, there are no effective topical antibiotic drugs to treat methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus otorrhea. In this study, we evaluated the ototoxicity of topical KR-12-a2 solution on the cochlea when it is applied topically in the middle ear of guinea pigs. The antimicrobial activity of KR-12-a2 against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus strains was examined by using the inhibition zone test. Topical application of KR-12-a2 solution, Gentamicin and Phosphate Buffered Saline were applied in the middle ear of the guinea pigs after inserting ventilation tubes. Ototoxicity was assessed by Auditory Brainstem Evoked Response and Scanning Electron Microscope examination. KR-12-a2 produced an inhibition zone against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus from 6.25 μg. Hearing threshold in the KR-12-a2 and PBS groups were similar to that before ventilation tube insertion. However, the Gentamicin group showed elevation of the hearing threshold and there were statistically significant differences compared to the PBS or the KR-12-a2 group. In the SEM findings, the KR-12-a2 group showed intact outer hair cells. However, the GM group showed total loss of outer hair cells. In our experiment, topically applied KR-12-a2 solution did not cause hearing loss or cochlear damage in guinea pigs. In our experiment, topically applied KR-12-a2 solution did not cause hearing loss or cochlear damage in guinea pigs. The KR-12-a2 solution can be used as ototopical drops for treating methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus otorrhea; however, further evaluations, such as the definition of optimal concentration and combination, are necessary. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Emerging strategies for EphA2 receptor targeting for cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Manish; Vemula, Sai Vikram; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field High mortality rates with cancers warrant further development of earlier diagnostics and better treatment strategies. Membrane-bound hepatocellular receptor tyrosine kinase class A2 (EphA2) is overexpressed in breast, prostate, urinary bladder, skin, lung, ovary and brain cancers. Areas covered in this review This review describes EphA2 overexpression in cancers, its signaling mechanisms and strategies to target its deregulation. What will the reader will gain High EphA2 expression in cancer cells is correlated to a poor prognosis associated with recurrence due to enhanced metastasis. Interaction of the EphA2 receptor with its ligand (e.g., EphrinA1) triggers events that are deregulated and implicated in carcinogenesis. Both EphrinA1-independent oncogenic activity and EphrinA1-dependent tumor suppressor roles for EphA2 are described. Molecular interactions of EphA2 with signaling proteins are associated with the modulation of cytoskeleton dynamics, cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and metastasis. The deregulated signaling by EphA2 and its involvement in oncogenesis provide multiple avenues for the rational design of intervention approaches. Take home message EphA2 has been tested as a drug target using multiple approaches such as agonist antibodies, RNA interference, immunotherapy, virus vectors-mediated gene transfer, small molecule inhibitors and nanoparticles. With over a decade of research, encouraging results with successful targeting of EphA2 expression in various pre-clinical cancer models necessitate further studies. PMID:21142802

  14. T cells redirected to EphA2 for the immunotherapy of glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Chow, Kevin K H; Naik, Swati; Kakarla, Sunitha; Brawley, Vita S; Shaffer, Donald R; Yi, Zhongzhen; Rainusso, Nino; Wu, Meng-Fen; Liu, Hao; Kew, Yvonne; Grossman, Robert G; Powell, Suzanne; Lee, Dean; Ahmed, Nabil; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2013-03-01

    Outcomes for patients with glioblastoma (GBM) remain poor despite aggressive multimodal therapy. Immunotherapy with genetically modified T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting interleukin (IL)-13Rα2, epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII), or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) has shown promise for the treatment of gliomas in preclinical models and in a clinical study (IL-13Rα2). However, targeting IL-13Rα2 and EGFRvIII is associated with the development of antigen loss variants, and there are safety concerns with targeting HER2. Erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma A2 (EphA2) has emerged as an attractive target for the immunotherapy of GBM as it is overexpressed in glioma and promotes its malignant phenotype. To generate EphA2-specific T cells, we constructed an EphA2-specific CAR with a CD28-ζ endodomain. EphA2-specific T cells recognized EphA2-positive glioma cells as judged by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and IL-2 production and tumor cell killing. In addition, EphA2-specific T cells had potent activity against human glioma-initiating cells preventing neurosphere formation and destroying intact neurospheres in coculture assays. Adoptive transfer of EphA2-specific T cells resulted in the regression of glioma xenografts in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice and a significant survival advantage in comparison to untreated mice and mice treated with nontransduced T cells. Thus, EphA2-specific T-cell immunotherapy may be a promising approach for the treatment of EphA2-positive GBM.

  15. Overexpression of Adenosine A2A Receptors in Rats: Effects on Depression, Locomotion, and Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Joana E; Alves, Pedro; Canas, Paula M; Valadas, Jorge S; Shmidt, Tatiana; Batalha, Vânia L; Ferreira, Diana G; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Bader, Michael; Cunha, Rodrigo A; do Couto, Frederico Simões; Lopes, Luísa V

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) are a sub-type of receptors enriched in basal ganglia, activated by the neuromodulator adenosine, which interact with dopamine D2 receptors. Although this reciprocal antagonistic interaction is well-established in motor function, the outcome in dopamine-related behaviors remains uncertain, in particular in depression and anxiety. We have demonstrated an upsurge of A2AR associated to aging and chronic stress. Furthermore, Alzheimer's disease patients present A2AR accumulation in cortical areas together with depressive signs. We now tested the impact of overexpressing A2AR in forebrain neurons on dopamine-related behavior, namely depression. Adult male rats overexpressing human A2AR under the control of CaMKII promoter [Tg(CaMKII-hA2AR)] and aged-matched wild-types (WT) of the same strain (Sprague-Dawley) were studied. The forced swimming test (FST), sucrose preference test (SPT), and the open-field test (OFT) were performed to evaluate behavioral despair, anhedonia, locomotion, and anxiety. Tg(CaMKII-hA2AR) animals spent more time floating and less time swimming in the FST and presented a decreased sucrose preference at 48 h in the SPT. They also covered higher distances in the OFT and spent more time in the central zone than the WT. The results indicate that Tg(CaMKII-hA2AR) rats exhibit depressive-like behavior, hyperlocomotion, and altered exploratory behavior. This A2AR overexpression may explain the depressive signs found in aging, chronic stress, and Alzheimer's disease.

  16. Active-R filter

    DOEpatents

    Soderstrand, Michael A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational amplifier-type active filter in which the only capacitor in the circuit is the compensating capacitance of the operational amplifiers, the various feedback and coupling elements being essentially solely resistive.

  17. VEGF increases paracellular permeability in brain endothelial cells via upregulation of EphA2.

    PubMed

    Miao, Ziwei; Dong, Yanbin; Fang, Wengang; Shang, Deshu; Liu, Dongxin; Zhang, Ke; Li, Bo; Chen, Yu-Hua

    2014-05-01

    Neurological disorders are associated with an increase in the permeability of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). Our previous findings have indicated that EphA2 could increase the permeability of HBMEC. Recent evidence has linked EphA2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to abnormalities in the vascular response. However, it is unclear whether EphA2 is involved in the VEGF-induced changes in the permeability of HBMEC. Here, changes in permeability were determined by measuring transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and the flux of FITC-dextran. We found that knockdown of EphA2 in HBMEC abolished the VEGF-induced reduction in TEER and increase in flux of fluorescent dextran. Moreover, VEGF-induced redistribution of ZO-1 and the recruitment of detergent-soluble occludin and claudin-5 were also prevented. Further results showed that VEGF increased EphA2 expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which was inhibited by a neutralizing antibody against VEGFR2 or SU1498. VEGF-induced EphA2 expression was suppressed in the brain endothelium following treatments with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, Akt inhibitor or transfection with the dominant-negative PI3K mutants (Δp110). Similar results were obtained when ERK1/2 activation was inhibited by PD98059 or ERK1/2 siRNA transfection. Our data suggest that VEGF upregulates the expression of EphA2 in HBMEC through binding to VEGFR2 and subsequently activating the intracellular PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways, which contribute to an increase in paracellular permeability. These data reveal a novel role for VEGF as a regulator of EphA2 expression in the brain endothelial cells and provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of VEGF-mediated changes in paracellular permeability. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Crucial roles of RSK in cell motility by catalysing serine phosphorylation of EphA2

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yue; Yamada, Naoki; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Hori, Takashi; Yokoyama, Satoru; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Yano, Seiji; Fukuoka, Junya; Koizumi, Keiichi; Saiki, Ikuo; Sakurai, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Crosstalk between inflammatory signalling pathways and receptor tyrosine kinases has been revealed as an indicator of cancer malignant progression. In the present study, we focus on EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase, which is overexpressed in many human cancers. It has been reported that ligand-independent phosphorylation of EphA2 at Ser-897 is induced by Akt. We show that inflammatory cytokines promote RSK-, not Akt-, dependent phosphorylation of EphA2 at Ser-897. In addition, the RSK–EphA2 signalling pathway controls cell migration and invasion of metastatic breast cancer cells. Moreover, Ser-897-phosphorylated EphA2 co-localizes with phosphorylated active form of RSK in various human tumour specimens, and this double positivity is related to poor survival in lung cancer patients, especially those with a smoking history. Taken together, these results indicate that the phosphorylation of EphA2 at Ser-897 is controlled by RSK and the RSK–EphA2 axis might contribute to cell motility and promote tumour malignant progression. PMID:26158630

  19. Crucial roles of RSK in cell motility by catalysing serine phosphorylation of EphA2.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Yamada, Naoki; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Hori, Takashi; Yokoyama, Satoru; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Yano, Seiji; Fukuoka, Junya; Koizumi, Keiichi; Saiki, Ikuo; Sakurai, Hiroaki

    2015-07-09

    Crosstalk between inflammatory signalling pathways and receptor tyrosine kinases has been revealed as an indicator of cancer malignant progression. In the present study, we focus on EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase, which is overexpressed in many human cancers. It has been reported that ligand-independent phosphorylation of EphA2 at Ser-897 is induced by Akt. We show that inflammatory cytokines promote RSK-, not Akt-, dependent phosphorylation of EphA2 at Ser-897. In addition, the RSK-EphA2 signalling pathway controls cell migration and invasion of metastatic breast cancer cells. Moreover, Ser-897-phosphorylated EphA2 co-localizes with phosphorylated active form of RSK in various human tumour specimens, and this double positivity is related to poor survival in lung cancer patients, especially those with a smoking history. Taken together, these results indicate that the phosphorylation of EphA2 at Ser-897 is controlled by RSK and the RSK-EphA2 axis might contribute to cell motility and promote tumour malignant progression.

  20. Emerging and Diverse Functions of the EphA2 Noncanonical Pathway in Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Sakurai, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular receptor A2 (EphA2) receptor tyrosine kinase controls multiple physiological processes to maintain homeostasis in normal cells. In many types of solid tumors, it has been reported that EphA2 is overexpressed and plays a critical role in oncogenic signaling. However, in recent years, the opposing functions of EphA2 have been explained by the canonical and noncanonical signaling pathways. Ligand- and tyrosine kinase-dependent EphA2 activation (the canonical pathway) inhibits cancer cell proliferation and motility. In contrast, ligand- and tyrosine kinase-independent EphA2 signaling (the noncanonical pathway) promotes tumor survival and metastasis and controls acquired drug resistance and maintenance of cancer stem cell-like properties. Evidence has accumulated showing that the EphA2 noncanonical pathway is mainly regulated by inflammatory cytokines and growth factors via phosphorylation at Ser-897 in the intracellular C-tail region via some serine/threonine kinases, including p90 ribosomal S6 kinase. In this review, we focus on the regulation of Ser-897 phosphorylation and its functional importance in tumor malignancy and discuss future therapeutic targeting.

  1. ATP13A2 variability in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Vilariño-Güell, Carles; Soto, Alexandra I.; Lincoln, Sarah J.; Yahmed, Samia Ben; Kefi, Mounir; Heckman, Michael G.; Hulihan, Mary M.; Chai, Hua; Diehl, Nancy N.; Amouri, Rim; Rajput, Alex; Mash, Deborah C.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Middleton, Lefkos T.; Gibson, Rachel A.; Hentati, Faycal; Farrer, Matthew J.

    2008-01-01

    Recessively inherited mutations in ATP13A2 result in Kufor-Rakeb syndrome, whereas genetic variability and elevated ATP13A2 expression have been implicated in Parkinson disease (PD). Given this background, ATP13A2 was comprehensively assessed to support or refute its contribution to PD. Sequencing of ATP13A2 exons and intron-exon boundaries was performed in 89 probands with familial parkinsonism from Tunisia. The segregation of mutations with parkinsonism was subsequently assessed within pedigrees. The frequency of genetic variants and evidence for association was also examined in 240 patients with non-familial PD and 372 healthy controls. ATP13A2 mRNA expression was also quantified in brain tissues from 38 patients with non-familial PD and 38 healthy subjects from the US. Sequencing analysis revealed 37 new variants; seven missense, six silent and 24 that were noncoding. However, no single ATP13A2 mutation segregated with familial parkinsonism in either a dominant or recessive manner. Four markers showed marginal association with non-familial PD, prior to correction for multiple testing. ATP13A2 mRNA expression was marginally decreased in PD brains compared with tissue from control subjects. In conclusion, neither ATP13A2 genetic variability nor quantitative gene expression in brain appears to contribute to familial parkinsonism or non-familial PD. PMID:19085912

  2. 17 CFR 240.6a-2 - Amendments to application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amendments to application. 240.6a-2 Section 240.6a-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the...

  3. 17 CFR 240.6a-2 - Amendments to application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amendments to application. 240.6a-2 Section 240.6a-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the...

  4. 17 CFR 240.6a-2 - Amendments to application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amendments to application. 240.6a-2 Section 240.6a-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the...

  5. 12 CFR 708a.2 - Authority to convert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority to convert. 708a.2 Section 708a.2 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS CONVERSION OF... form without the prior approval of the NCUA, subject to applicable law governing mutual savings banks...

  6. Roles of EphA2 in Development and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong Eun; Son, Alexander I.; Zhou, Renping

    2013-01-01

    The Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) has been implicated in the regulation of many aspects of mammalian development. Recent analyses have revealed that the EphA2 receptor is a key modulator for a wide variety of cellular functions. This review focuses on the roles of EphA2 in both development and disease. PMID:24705208

  7. 40 CFR 721.4585 - Lecithins, phospholipase A2-hydrolyzed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lecithins, phospholipase A2-hydrolyzed... Substances § 721.4585 Lecithins, phospholipase A2-hydrolyzed. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as lecithins...

  8. 32 CFR 809a.2 - Military responsibility and authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Military responsibility and authority. 809a.2 Section 809a.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE... installations, to ensure the uninterrupted and successful accomplishment of the Air Force mission. (b) Each...

  9. 32 CFR 809a.2 - Military responsibility and authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Military responsibility and authority. 809a.2 Section 809a.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE... installations, to ensure the uninterrupted and successful accomplishment of the Air Force mission. (b) Each...

  10. 32 CFR 809a.2 - Military responsibility and authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military responsibility and authority. 809a.2 Section 809a.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE... installations, to ensure the uninterrupted and successful accomplishment of the Air Force mission. (b) Each...

  11. 32 CFR 809a.2 - Military responsibility and authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Military responsibility and authority. 809a.2 Section 809a.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE... installations, to ensure the uninterrupted and successful accomplishment of the Air Force mission. (b) Each...

  12. 32 CFR 809a.2 - Military responsibility and authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Military responsibility and authority. 809a.2 Section 809a.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE... installations, to ensure the uninterrupted and successful accomplishment of the Air Force mission. (b) Each...

  13. 8 CFR 213a.2 - Use of affidavit of support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SUPPORT ON BEHALF OF IMMIGRANTS § 213a.2 Use of affidavit of support. (a) General. (1)(i)(A) In any case specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, an intending immigrant is inadmissible as an alien likely to... substitute sponsor and, if necessary, a joint sponsor, has executed on behalf of the intending immigrant a...

  14. 21 CFR 864.7400 - Hemoglobin A 2 assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hemoglobin A 2 assay. 864.7400 Section 864.7400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7400 Hemoglobin A 2...

  15. 21 CFR 864.7400 - Hemoglobin A2 assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hemoglobin A2 assay. 864.7400 Section 864.7400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7400 Hemoglobin A2...

  16. 21 CFR 864.7400 - Hemoglobin A 2 assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hemoglobin A 2 assay. 864.7400 Section 864.7400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7400 Hemoglobin A 2...

  17. 12 CFR 269a.2 - Party in interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... employees, labor organization, or bank that will be or is directly affected by the resolution of any charge... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Party in interest. 269a.2 Section 269a.2 Banks... employees of a bank or that is or was recently a party to a collective bargaining agreement with a bank...

  18. 15 CFR 4a.2 - Deputy Assistant Secretary for Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deputy Assistant Secretary for Security. 4a.2 Section 4a.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION... Security. The Deputy Assistant Secretary for Security (DAS) is responsible for implementing E.O. 12958 and...

  19. 15 CFR 4a.2 - Deputy Assistant Secretary for Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deputy Assistant Secretary for Security. 4a.2 Section 4a.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION... Security. The Deputy Assistant Secretary for Security (DAS) is responsible for implementing E.O. 12958 and...

  20. 15 CFR 4a.2 - Deputy Assistant Secretary for Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deputy Assistant Secretary for Security. 4a.2 Section 4a.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION... Security. The Deputy Assistant Secretary for Security (DAS) is responsible for implementing E.O. 12958 and...

  1. 15 CFR 4a.2 - Deputy Assistant Secretary for Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deputy Assistant Secretary for Security. 4a.2 Section 4a.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION... Security. The Deputy Assistant Secretary for Security (DAS) is responsible for implementing E.O. 12958 and...

  2. 15 CFR 4a.2 - Deputy Assistant Secretary for Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deputy Assistant Secretary for Security. 4a.2 Section 4a.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION... Security. The Deputy Assistant Secretary for Security (DAS) is responsible for implementing E.O. 12958 and...

  3. EphA2 is an epithelial cell pattern recognition receptor for fungal β-glucans

    PubMed Central

    Swidergall, Marc; Solis, Norma V.; Lionakis, Michail S.; Filler, Scott G.

    2017-01-01

    Oral epithelial cells discriminate between pathogenic and non-pathogenic stimuli, and only induce an inflammatory response when they are exposed to high levels of a potentially harmful microorganism. The pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in epithelial cells that mediate this differential response are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EphA2) is an oral epithelial cell PRR that binds to exposed β-glucans on the surface of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Binding of C. albicans to EphA2 on oral epithelial cells activates signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in an inoculum-dependent manner, and is required for induction of a pro-inflammatory and antifungal response. EphA2−/− mice have impaired inflammatory responses and reduced IL-17 signaling during oropharyngeal candidiasis, resulting in more severe disease. Our study reveals that EphA2 functions as PRR for β-glucans that senses epithelial cell fungal burden and is required for the maximal mucosal inflammatory response to C. albicans. PMID:29133884

  4. Synergistic Efficacy of Aedes aegypti Antimicrobial Peptide Cecropin A2 and Tetracycline against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhaojun; Tharmalingam, Nagendran; Liu, Qingzhong; Kim, Wooseong; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Zhang, Rijun; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance has created an urgent need for alternative drugs with new mechanisms of action. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising candidates that could address the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria, either alone or in combination with conventional antibiotics. We studied the antimicrobial efficacy and bactericidal mechanism of cecropin A2, a 36-residue α-helical cationic peptide derived from Aedes aegypti cecropin A, focusing on the common pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The peptide showed little hemolytic activity and toxicity toward mammalian cells, and the MICs against most clinical P. aeruginosa isolates were 32 to 64 μg/ml, and its MICs versus other Gram-negative bacteria were 2 to 32 μg/ml. Importantly, cecropin A2 demonstrated synergistic activity against P. aeruginosa when combined with tetracycline, reducing the MICs of both agents by 8-fold. The combination was also effective in vivo in the P. aeruginosa/Galleria mellonella model (P < 0.001). We found that cecropin A2 bound to P. aeruginosa lipopolysaccharides, permeabilized the membrane, and interacted with the bacterial genomic DNA, thus facilitating the translocation of tetracycline into the cytoplasm. In summary, the combination of cecropin A2 and tetracycline demonstrated synergistic antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa in vitro and in vivo, offering an alternative approach for the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections. PMID:28483966

  5. Behavioral control by striatal adenosine A2A -dopamine D2 receptor heteromers.

    PubMed

    Taura, J; Valle-León, M; Sahlholm, K; Watanabe, M; Van Craenenbroeck, K; Fernández-Dueñas, V; Ferré, S; Ciruela, F

    2018-04-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) exhibit the ability to form receptor complexes that include molecularly different GPCR (ie, GPCR heteromers), which endow them with singular functional and pharmacological characteristics. The relative expression of GPCR heteromers remains a matter of intense debate. Recent studies support that adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A R) and dopamine D 2 receptors (D 2 R) predominantly form A 2A R-D 2 R heteromers in the striatum. The aim of the present study was evaluating the behavioral effects of pharmacological manipulation and genetic blockade of A 2A R and D 2 R within the frame of such a predominant striatal heteromeric population. First, in order to avoid possible strain-related differences, a new D 2 R-deficient mouse with the same genetic background (CD-1) than the A 2A R knock-out mouse was generated. Locomotor activity, pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) and drug-induced catalepsy were then evaluated in wild-type, A 2A R and D 2 R knock-out mice, with and without the concomitant administration of either the D 2 R agonist sumanirole or the A 2A R antagonist SCH442416. SCH442416-mediated locomotor effects were demonstrated to be dependent on D 2 R signaling. Similarly, a significant dependence on A 2A R signaling was observed for PPI and for haloperidol-induced catalepsy. The results could be explained by the existence of one main population of striatal postsynaptic A 2A R-D 2 R heteromers, which may constitute a relevant target for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  6. SOCS2 Binds to and Regulates EphA2 through Multiple Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pilling, Carissa; Cooper, Jonathan A

    2017-09-07

    Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins inhibit signaling by serving as substrate receptors for the Cullin5-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL5) and through a variety of CRL5-independent mechanisms. CRL5, SOCS2 and SOCS6 are implicated in suppressing transformation of epithelial cells. We identified cell proteins that interact with SOCS2 and SOCS6 using two parallel proteomics techniques: BioID and Flag affinity purification mass spectrometry. The receptor tyrosine kinase ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EphA2) was identified as a SOCS2-interacting protein. SOCS2-EphA2 binding requires the SOCS2 SH2 domain and EphA2 activation loop autophosphorylation, which is stimulated by Ephrin A1 (EfnA1) or by phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibition. Surprisingly, EfnA1-stimulated EphA2-SOCS2 binding is delayed until EphA2 has been internalized into endosomes. This suggests that SOCS2 binds to EphA2 in the context of endosomal membranes. We also found that SOCS2 overexpression decreases steady state levels of EphA2, consistent with increased EphA2 degradation. This effect is indirect: SOCS2 induces EfnA1 expression, and EfnA1 induces EphA2 down-regulation. Other RTKs have been reported to bind, and be regulated by, over-expressed SOCS proteins. Our data suggest that SOCS protein over-expression may regulate receptor tyrosine kinases through indirect and direct mechanisms.

  7. Aggravated brain damage after hypoxic ischemia in immature adenosine A2A knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Adén, Ulrika; Halldner, Linda; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Dalmau, Ishar; Ledent, Catherine; Fredholm, Bertil B

    2003-03-01

    Cerebral hypoxic ischemia (HI) is an important cause of brain injury in the newborn infant. Adenosine is believed to protect against HI brain damage. However, the roles of the different adenosine receptors are unclear, particularly in young animals. We examined the role of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) using 7-day-old A2A knockout (A2AR(-/-)) mice in a model of HI. HI was induced in 7-day-old CD1 mice by exposure to 8% oxygen for 30 minutes after occlusion of the left common carotid artery. The resulting unilateral focal lesion was evaluated with the use of histopathological scoring and measurements of residual brain areas at 5 days, 3 weeks, and 3 months after HI. Behavioral evaluation of brain injury by locomotor activity, rotarod, and beam-walking test was made 3 weeks and 3 months after HI. Cortical cerebral blood flow, assessed by laser-Doppler flowmetry, and rectal temperature were measured during HI. Reduction in cortical cerebral blood flow during HI and rectal temperature did not differ between wild-type (A2AR(+/+)) and knockout mice. In the A2AR(-/-) animals, brain injury was aggravated compared with wild-type mice. The A2AR(-/-) mice subjected to HI displayed increased forward locomotion and impaired rotarod performance in adulthood compared with A2AR(+/+) mice subjected to HI, whereas beam-walking performance was similarly defective in both groups. These results suggest that, in contrast to the situation in adult animals, A2AR play an important protective role in neonatal HI brain injury.

  8. Mechanisms of the adenosine A2A receptor-induced sensitization of esophageal C fibers

    PubMed Central

    Brozmanova, M.; Mazurova, L.; Ru, F.; Tatar, M.; Hu, Y.; Yu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies indicate that adenosine contributes to esophageal mechanical hypersensitivity in some patients with pain originating in the esophagus. We have previously reported that the esophageal vagal nodose C fibers express the adenosine A2A receptor. Here we addressed the hypothesis that stimulation of the adenosine A2A receptor induces mechanical sensitization of esophageal C fibers by a mechanism involving transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1). Extracellular single fiber recordings of activity originating in C-fiber terminals were made in the ex vivo vagally innervated guinea pig esophagus. The adenosine A2A receptor-selective agonist CGS21680 induced robust, reversible sensitization of the response to esophageal distention (10–60 mmHg) in a concentration-dependent fashion (1–100 nM). At the half-maximally effective concentration (EC50: ≈3 nM), CGS21680 induced an approximately twofold increase in the mechanical response without causing an overt activation. This sensitization was abolished by the selective A2A antagonist SCH58261. The adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin mimicked while the nonselective protein kinase inhibitor H89 inhibited mechanical sensitization by CGS21680. CGS21680 did not enhance the response to the purinergic P2X receptor agonist α,β-methylene-ATP, indicating that CGS21680 does not nonspecifically sensitize to all stimuli. Mechanical sensitization by CGS21680 was abolished by pretreatment with two structurally different TRPA1 antagonists AP18 and HC030031. Single cell RT-PCR and whole cell patch-clamp studies in isolated esophagus-specific nodose neurons revealed the expression of TRPA1 in A2A-positive C-fiber neurons and demonstrated that CGS21682 potentiated TRPA1 currents evoked by allylisothiocyanate. We conclude that stimulation of the adenosine A2A receptor induces mechanical sensitization of nodose C fibers by a mechanism sensitive to TRPA1 antagonists indicating the involvement of TRPA1. PMID:26564719

  9. Resistance irrelevant CYP417A2v2 was found degrading insecticide in Laodelphax striatellus.

    PubMed

    Miah, Mohammad Asaduzzaman; Elzaki, Mohammed Esmail Abdalla; Han, Zhaojun

    2017-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs) usually overexpressed in resistant strain were found involved in oxidative detoxification of insecticides. In this study, an investigation was conducted to confirm if resistance irrelevant CYPs which were not overexpressed in resistant strain before, were capable of degrading insecticides. Three resistance irrelevant CYPs viz. CYP417A2v2, CYP425A1v2, and CYP4DJ1 from CYP4 family of Laodelphax striatellus were randomly selected for experiments. CYP417A2v2 and CYP425A1v2 were found expressed successfully in Sf9 cell line while CYP4DJ1 was not expressed successfully and out of two expressed CYPs, only CYP417A2v2 showed its efficient catalytic activity. For catalytic activity, three traditional model probe substrates and five insecticides were assayed. For the probe substrates screened, p -nitroanisole and ethoxycoumarin were preferentially metabolized by CYP417A2v2 (specific activity 3.76 ± 1.22 and 1.63 ± 0.37 nmol min -1  mg protein -1 , respectively) and they may be potential diagnostic probes for this enzyme. Among insecticides, only imidacloprid was efficiently degraded by CYP417A2v2. Incubation of imidacloprid with CYP417A2v2 of L. striatellus and subsequent HPLC, LC-MS, and MS/MS analysis revealed the formation of imidacloprid metabolites, that is, 4' or 5'hydroxy-imidacloprid by hydroxylation. This result implies the exemption of CYPs character that it is not always, all the CYPs degrading insecticides being selected and overexpressed in resistant strains and the degrading CYPs without mutations to upregulate could be candidates during insecticide resistance evolution. This characterization of individual insect CYPs in insecticide degradation can provide insight for better understand of insecticide resistance development.

  10. Secretoglobin Superfamily Protein SCGB3A2 Alleviates House Dust Mite-Induced Allergic Airway Inflammation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Mitsuhiro; Xu, Lei; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Kawabe, Shuko; Paiz, Jorge; Ward, Jerrold M; Kimura, Shioko

    2016-01-01

    Secretoglobin (SCGB) 3A2, a novel, lung-enriched, cytokine-like, secreted protein of small molecular weight, was demonstrated to exhibit various biological functions including anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic and growth-factor activities. Anti-inflammatory activity was uncovered using the ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation model. However, further validation of this activity using knockout mice in a different allergic inflammation model is necessary in order to establish the antiallergic inflammatory role for this protein. Scgb3a2-null (Scgb3a2-/-) mice were subjected to nasal inhalation of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus extract for 5 days/week for 5 consecutive weeks; control mice received nasal inhalation of saline as a comparator. Airway inflammation was assessed by histological analysis, the number of inflammatory cells and various Th2-type cytokine levels in the lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids by qRT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Exacerbated inflammation was found in the airway of Scgb3a2-/- mice subjected to house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic airway inflammation compared with saline-treated control groups. All the inflammation end points were increased in the Scgb3a2-/- mice. The Ccr4 and Ccl17 mRNA levels were higher in HDM-treated lungs of Scgb3a2-/- mice than wild-type mice or saline-treated Scgb3a2-/- mice, whereas no changes were observed for Ccr3 and Ccl11 mRNA levels. These results demonstrate that SCGB3A2 has an anti-inflammatory activity in the HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation model, in which SCGB3A2 may modulate the CCR4-CCL17 pathway. SCGB3A2 may provide a useful tool to treat allergic airway inflammation, and further studies on the levels and function of SCGB3A2 in asthmatic patients are warranted. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Role of CYP1A2 polymorphisms in breast cancer risk in women.

    PubMed

    Ayari, Imene; Fedeli, Ugo; Saguem, Saad; Hidar, Samir; Khlifi, Saida; Pavanello, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) is a key enzyme in the etiology of breast cancer (BC). It is involved in breast carcinogen activation [aromatic (AAs) and heterocyclic amines (HAs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)], in the production of beneficial oestrogen [2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1)] and in converting arachidonic acid (AAc) to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which have anti-inflammatory properties. Within a hospital-based case-control study, the effect of functional CYP1A2 variants [-3860G/A (rs2069514), -2467T/delT (rs3569413), -163C/A (rs762551)] and their interactions with environmental factors in BC risk was investigated. The study population included 125 BC cases and 43 non-cancer controls. Genotyping was performed in RT-PCR using Taqman assays. The gene-environment interaction was appraised using a case-only study design. We found that the -3860A variant, independently from environmental factors, as well as by interacting with fried foods (p=0.025) and indoor exposure to pollutants (p=0.050), reduced the risk of BC (p=0.025), whereas its interaction with coffee (p=0.045) increased the BC risk. This is the first study indicating that the -3860A variant, by decreasing CYP1A2 activity, modifies BC risk by interacting with environmental factors, thereby supporting the hypothesis that reduced CYP1A2 activity contributes to BC risk in different ways, for example, it may be protective by reducing the activation of pro-carcinogens such as AAs, HAs and PAHs, but would increase risk by reducing the beneficial formation of 2-OHE1 and EETs.

  12. Biotechnological Production of Caffeic Acid by Bacterial Cytochrome P450 CYP199A2

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Yuka; Kino, Kuniki

    2012-01-01

    Caffeic acid is a biologically active molecule that has various beneficial properties, including antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we explored the catalytic potential of a bacterial cytochrome P450, CYP199A2, for the biotechnological production of caffeic acid. When the CYP199A2 enzyme was reacted with p-coumaric acid, it stoichiometrically produced caffeic acid. The crystal structure of CYP199A2 shows that Phe at position 185 is situated directly above, and only 6.35 Å from, the heme iron. This F185 residue was replaced with hydrophobic or hydroxylated amino acids using site-directed mutagenesis to create mutants with novel and improved catalytic properties. In whole-cell assays with the known substrate of CYP199A2, 2-naphthoic acid, only the wild-type enzyme hydroxylated 2-naphthoic acid at the C-7 and C-8 positions, whereas all of the active F185 mutants exhibited a preference for C-5 hydroxylation. Interestingly, several F185 mutants (F185V, F185L, F185I, F185G, and F185A mutants) also acquired the ability to hydroxylate cinnamic acid, which was not hydroxylated by the wild-type enzyme. These results demonstrate that F185 is an important residue that controls the regioselectivity and the substrate specificity of CYP199A2. Furthermore, Escherichia coli cells expressing the F185L mutant exhibited 5.5 times higher hydroxylation activity for p-coumaric acid than those expressing the wild-type enzyme. By using the F185L whole-cell catalyst, the production of caffeic acid reached 15 mM (2.8 g/liter), which is the highest level so far attained in biotechnological production of this compound. PMID:22729547

  13. AMPKα1 controls hepatocyte proliferation independently of energy balance by regulating Cyclin A2 expression.

    PubMed

    Merlen, Grégory; Gentric, Géraldine; Celton-Morizur, Séverine; Foretz, Marc; Guidotti, Jacques-Emmanuel; Fauveau, Véronique; Leclerc, Jocelyne; Viollet, Benoit; Desdouets, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved sensor of cellular energy status that contributes to restoration of energy homeostasis by slowing down ATP-consuming pathways and activating ATP-producing pathways. Unexpectedly, in different systems, AMPK is also required for proper cell division. In the current study, we evaluated the potential effect of the AMPK catalytic subunit, AMPKα1, on hepatocyte proliferation. Hepatocyte proliferation was determined in AMPKα1 knockout and wild-type mice in vivo after two thirds partial hepatectomy, and in vitro in primary hepatocyte cultures. The activities of metabolic and cell cycle-related signaling pathways were measured. After partial hepatectomy, hepatocytes proliferated rapidly, correlating with increased AMPK phosphorylation. Deletion of AMPKα1 delayed liver regeneration by impacting on G1/S transition phase. The proliferative defect of AMPKα1-deficient hepatocytes was cell autonomous, and independent of energy balance. The priming phase, lipid droplet accumulation, protein anabolic responses and growth factor activation after partial hepatectomy occurred normally in the absence of AMPKα1 activity. By contrast, mRNA and protein expression of cyclin A2, a key driver of S phase progression, were compromised in the absence of AMPK activity. Importantly, AMPKα1 controlled cyclin A2 transcription mainly through the ATF/CREB element. Our study highlights a novel role for AMPKα1 as a positive regulator of hepatocyte division occurring independently of energy balance. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Disruption of GluA2 phosphorylation potentiates stress responsivity.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Alexandra S; Fosnocht, Anne Q; Lucerne, Kelsey E; Briand, Lisa A

    2017-08-30

    Cocaine addiction is characterized by persistent craving and addicts frequently relapse even after long periods of abstinence. Exposure to stress can precipitate relapse in humans and rodents. Stress and drug use can lead to common alterations in synaptic plasticity and these commonalities may contribute to the ability of stress to elicit relapse. These common changes in synaptic plasticity are mediated, in part, by alterations in the trafficking and stabilization of AMPA receptors. Exposure to both cocaine and stress can lead to alterations in protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of GluA2 AMPA subunits and thus alter the trafficking of GluA2-containing AMPARs. However, it is not clear what role AMPAR trafficking plays in the interactions between stress and cocaine. The current study utilized a mouse with a point mutation within the GluA2 subunit c-terminus resulting in a disruption of PKC-mediated GluA2 phosphorylation to examine stress responsivity. Although no differences were seen in the response to a forced swim stress in naïve mice, GluA2 K882A knock-in mice exhibited an increased stress response following cocaine self-administration. Furthermore, we demonstrated that disrupting GluA2 phosphorylation increases vulnerability to stress-induced reinstatement of both cocaine seeking and cocaine-conditioned reward. Finally, GluA2 K882A knock-in mice exhibit an increased vulnerability to social defeat as indicated by increased social avoidance. Taken together these results indicate that disrupting GluA2 phosphorylation leads to increased responsivity to acute stress following cocaine exposure and increased vulnerability to chronic stress. These results highlight the GluA2 phosphorylation site as a novel target for the stress-related disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Impaired osteoblast differentiation in Annexin A2- and -A5-deficient cells

    SciTech Connect

    Genetos, Damian C.; Wong, Alice; Weber, Thomas J.

    Annexins are a class of calcium-binding proteins with diverse functions in the regulation of lipid rafts inflammation,fibrinolysis, transcriptional programming and ion transport. Within bone, they are well-characterized as components of mineralizing matrix vesicles, although little else is known as to their function during osteogenesis. We generated annexin A2 (AnxA2)- or annexin A5 (AnxA5)-knockdown pre-osteoblasts, and asked whether proliferation or osteogenic differentiation was altered in knockdown cells, compared to vector controls. We report that DNA content, a marker of proliferation, was significantly reduced in both AnxA2 and AnxA5 knockdown cells. Alkaline phosphatase expression and staining activity were also suppressed in AnxA2-more » or AnxA5-knockdown after 14 days of culture. The pattern of osteogenic gene expression was altered in knockdown cells, with Col1a1 expressed more rapidly in knock-down cells, compared to controls. In contrast, Runx2, Ibsp, and Bglap all revealed decreased expression after 14 days of culture. Using a murine fracture model, we demonstrate that AnxA2 and AnxA5 are rapidly expressed within the fracture callus. These data demonstrate that AnxA2 and AnxA5 can influence bone formation via regulation of osteoprogenitor proliferation and differentiation in addition to their well-studied function in matrix vesicles.« less

  16. Shear-induced mechanical failure of β -G a2O3 from quantum mechanics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Qi; Li, Guodong

    2017-10-01

    Monoclinic gallium oxide (β -G a2O3 ) has important applications in power devices and deep UV optoelectronic devices because of such novel properties as a wide band gap, high breakdown electric field, and a wide range of n -type doping conductivity. However, the intrinsic failure mechanisms of β -G a2O3 remain unknown, which limits the fabrication and packaging of β -G a2O3 -based electronic devices. Here we used density