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Sample records for a2 mediated tumor

  1. Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity Effector-Enhanced EphA2 Agonist Monoclonal Antibody Demonstrates Potent Activity against Human Tumors1

    PubMed Central

    Bruckheimer, Elizabeth M; Fazenbaker, Christine A; Gallagher, Sandra; Mulgrew, Kathy; Fuhrmann, Stacy; Coffman, Karen T; Walsh, William; Ready, Shannon; Cook, Kim; Damschroder, Melissa; Kinch, Michael; Kiener, Peter A; Woods, Rob; Gao, Changshou; Dall'Acqua, William; Wu, Herren; Coats, Steven

    2009-01-01

    EphA2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase that has been shown to be overexpressed in a variety of human tumor types. Previous studies demonstrated that agonist monoclonal antibodies targeting EphA2 induced the internalization and degradation of the receptor, thereby abolishing its oncogenic effects. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity of EphA2 effector-enhanced agonist monoclonal antibodies was evaluated. With tumor cell lines and healthy human peripheral blood monocytes, the EphA2 antibodies demonstrated ∼80% tumor cell killing. In a dose-dependent manner, natural killer (NK) cells were required for the in vitro ADCC activity and became activated as demonstrated by the induction of cell surface expression of CD107a. To assess the role of NK cells on antitumor efficacy in vivo, the EphA2 antibodies were evaluated in xenograft models in severe compromised immunodeficient (SCID) mice (which have functional NK cells and monocytes) and SCID nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice (which largely lack functional NK cells and monocytes). Dosing of EphA2 antibody in the SCID murine tumor model resulted in a 6.2-fold reduction in tumor volume, whereas the SCID/nonobese diabetic model showed a 1.6-fold reduction over the isotype controls. Together, these results demonstrate that the anti-EphA2 monoclonal antibodies may function through at least two mechanisms of action: EphA2 receptor activation and ADCC-mediated activity. These novel EphA2 monoclonal antibodies provide additional means by which host effector mechanisms can be activated for selective destruction of EphA2-expressing tumor cells. PMID:19484140

  2. EphrinA1-EphA2 interaction-mediated apoptosis and Flt3L-induced immunotherapy inhibits tumor growth in a breast cancer mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Manish; Vemula, Sai V.; Sharma, Anurag; Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Mittal, Shalini; Bangari, Dinesh S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2 is overexpressed in several types of cancers and is currently being pursued as a target for breast cancer therapeutics. The EphA2 ligand EphrinA1 induces EphA2 phosphorylation and intracellular internalization and degradation, thus inhibiting tumor progression. The hematopoietic growth factor, FMS-like tyrosine kinase receptor ligand (Flt3L), promotes expansion and mobilization of functional dendritic cells. Methods We tested the EphrinA1-EphA2 interaction in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells focusing on the receptor-ligand-mediated apoptosis of breast cancer cells. In order to determine whether the EphrinA1-EphA2 interaction-associated apoptosis and Flt3L-mediated immunotherapy would have an additive effect in inhibiting tumor growth, we used an immunocompetent mouse model of breast cancer to evaluate intratumoral (i.t.) inoculation strategies with human adenovirus (HAd) vectors expressing either EphrinA1 (HAd-EphrinA1-Fc), Flt3L (HAd-Flt3L) or a combination of EphrinA1-Fc + Flt3L (HAd-EphrinA1-Fc + HAd-Flt3L). Results In vitro analysis demonstrated that an EphrinA1-EphA2 interaction led to apoptosis-related changes in breast cancer cells. In vivo, three i.t. inoculations of HAd-EphrinA1-Fc showed potent inhibition of tumor growth. Furthermore, increased inhibition in tumor growth was observed with the combination of HAd-EphrinA1-Fc and HAd-Flt3L accompanied by the generation of an anti-tumor adaptive immune response. Conclusions The results indicating induction of apoptosis and inhibition of mammary tumor growth show the potential therapeutic benefits of HAd-EphrinA1-Fc. In combination with HAd-Flt3L, this represents a promising strategy to effectively induce mammary tumor regression by HAd vector-based therapy. PMID:22228563

  3. Autocrine IL-6 mediates pituitary tumor senescence

    PubMed Central

    Fuertes, Mariana; Ajler, Pablo; Carrizo, Guillermo; Cervio, Andrés; Sevlever, Gustavo; Stalla, Günter K.; Arzt, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a stable proliferative arrest state. Pituitary adenomas are frequent and mostly benign, but the mechanism for this remains unknown. IL-6 is involved in pituitary tumor progression and is produced by the tumoral cells. In a cell autonomous fashion, IL-6 participates in oncogene-induced senescence in transduced human melanocytes. Here we prove that autocrine IL-6 participates in pituitary tumor senescence. Endogenous IL-6 inhibition in somatotroph MtT/S shRNA stable clones results in decreased SA-β-gal activity and p16INK4a but increased pRb, proliferation and invasion. Nude mice injected with IL-6 silenced clones develop tumors contrary to MtT/S wild type that do not, demonstrating that clones that escape senescence are capable of becoming tumorigenic. When endogenous IL-6 is silenced, cell cultures derived from positive SA-β-gal human tumor samples decrease the expression of the senescence marker. Our results establish that IL-6 contributes to maintain senescence by its autocrine action, providing a natural model of IL-6 mediated benign adenoma senescence. PMID:27902467

  4. KSHV-Mediated Angiogenesis in Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Purushothaman, Pravinkumar; Uppal, Timsy; Sarkar, Roni; Verma, Subhash C.

    2016-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is a malignant human oncovirus belonging to the gamma herpesvirus family. HHV-8 is closely linked to the pathogenesis of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) and two other B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases: primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and a plasmablastic variant of multicentric Castleman’s disease (MCD). KS is an invasive tumor of endothelial cells most commonly found in untreated HIV-AIDS or immuno-compromised individuals. KS tumors are highly vascularized and have abnormal, excessive neo-angiogenesis, inflammation, and proliferation of infected endothelial cells. KSHV directly induces angiogenesis in an autocrine and paracrine fashion through a complex interplay of various viral and cellular pro-angiogenic and inflammatory factors. KS is believed to originate due to a combination of KSHV’s efficient strategies for evading host immune systems and several pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory stimuli. In addition, KSHV infection of endothelial cells produces a wide array of viral oncoproteins with transforming capabilities that regulate multiple host-signaling pathways involved in the activation of angiogenesis. It is likely that the cellular-signaling pathways of angiogenesis and lymph-angiogenesis modulate the rate of tumorigenesis induction by KSHV. This review summarizes the current knowledge on regulating KSHV-mediated angiogenesis by integrating the findings reported thus far on the roles of host and viral genes in oncogenesis, recent developments in cell-culture/animal-model systems, and various anti-angiogenic therapies for treating KSHV-related lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:27447661

  5. Tyrosine isomers mediate the classical phenomenon of concomitant tumor resistance.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Raúl A; Bruzzo, Juan; Chiarella, Paula; di Gianni, Pedro; Isturiz, Martín A; Linskens, Susana; Speziale, Norma; Meiss, Roberto P; Bustuoabad, Oscar D; Pasqualini, Christiane D

    2011-11-15

    Concomitant tumor resistance (CR) is a phenomenon originally described in 1906 in which a tumor-bearing host is resistant to the growth of secondary tumor implants and metastasis. Although recent studies have indicated that T-cell-dependent processes mediate CR in hosts bearing immunogenic small tumors, manifestations of CR induced by immunogenic and nonimmunogenic large tumors have been associated with an elusive serum factor. In this study, we identify this serum factor as tyrosine in its meta and ortho isoforms. In three different murine models of cancer that generate CR, both meta-tyrosine and ortho-tyrosine inhibited tumor growth. In addition, we showed that both isoforms of tyrosine blocked metastasis in a fourth model that does not generate CR but is sensitive to CR induced by other tumors. Mechanistic studies showed that the antitumor effects of the tyrosine isoforms were mediated, in part, by early inhibition of mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway and inactivation of STAT3, potentially driving tumor cells into a state of dormancy. By revealing a molecular basis for the classical phenomenon of CR, our findings may stimulate new generalized approaches to limit the development of metastases that arise after resection of primary tumors, an issue of pivotal importance to oncologists and their patients. ©2011 AACR

  6. Intracellular targeting of annexin A2 inhibits tumor cell adhesion, migration, and in vivo grafting.

    PubMed

    Staquicini, Daniela I; Rangel, Roberto; Guzman-Rojas, Liliana; Staquicini, Fernanda I; Dobroff, Andrey S; Tarleton, Christy A; Ozbun, Michelle A; Kolonin, Mikhail G; Gelovani, Juri G; Marchiò, Serena; Sidman, Richard L; Hajjar, Katherine A; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2017-06-26

    Cytoskeletal-associated proteins play an active role in coordinating the adhesion and migration machinery in cancer progression. To identify functional protein networks and potential inhibitors, we screened an internalizing phage (iPhage) display library in tumor cells, and selected LGRFYAASG as a cytosol-targeting peptide. By affinity purification and mass spectrometry, intracellular annexin A2 was identified as the corresponding binding protein. Consistently, annexin A2 and a cell-internalizing, penetratin-fused version of the selected peptide (LGRFYAASG-pen) co-localized and specifically accumulated in the cytoplasm at the cell edges and cell-cell contacts. Functionally, tumor cells incubated with LGRFYAASG-pen showed disruption of filamentous actin, focal adhesions and caveolae-mediated membrane trafficking, resulting in impaired cell adhesion and migration in vitro. These effects were paralleled by a decrease in the phosphorylation of both focal adhesion kinase (Fak) and protein kinase B (Akt). Likewise, tumor cells pretreated with LGRFYAASG-pen exhibited an impaired capacity to colonize the lungs in vivo in several mouse models. Together, our findings demonstrate an unrecognized functional link between intracellular annexin A2 and tumor cell adhesion, migration and in vivo grafting. Moreover, this work uncovers a new peptide motif that binds to and inhibits intracellular annexin A2 as a candidate therapeutic lead for potential translation into clinical applications.

  7. Mathematical and Computational Modeling for Tumor Virotherapy with Mediated Immunity.

    PubMed

    Timalsina, Asim; Tian, Jianjun Paul; Wang, Jin

    2017-08-01

    We propose a new mathematical modeling framework based on partial differential equations to study tumor virotherapy with mediated immunity. The model incorporates both innate and adaptive immune responses and represents the complex interaction among tumor cells, oncolytic viruses, and immune systems on a domain with a moving boundary. Using carefully designed computational methods, we conduct extensive numerical simulation to the model. The results allow us to examine tumor development under a wide range of settings and provide insight into several important aspects of the virotherapy, including the dependence of the efficacy on a few key parameters and the delay in the adaptive immunity. Our findings also suggest possible ways to improve the virotherapy for tumor treatment.

  8. Capacity of tumor necrosis factor to augment lymphocyte-mediated tumor cell lysis of malignant mesothelioma

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, R.V.; Manning, L.S.; Davis, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (rHuTNF) was evaluated both for direct anti-tumor action against human malignant mesothelioma and for its capacity to augment the generation and lytic phases of lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity against this tumor. rHuTNF was directly toxic by MTT assay to one of two mesothelioma cell lines evaluated, but had no effect on susceptibility to subsequent lymphocyte-mediated lysis of either line. TNF alone was incapable of generating anti-mesothelioma lymphokine-activated killer cell (LAK) activity. Furthermore, it did not augment the degree or LAK activity produced by submaximal interleukin-2 (IL-2) concentrations nor did it augment lysis of mesothelioma cells by naturalmore » killer (NK) or LAK effector cells during the 4-hr 51chromium release cytolytic reaction. The studies also suggest that mesothelioma targets are less responsive to TNF plus submaximal IL-2 concentrations than the standard LAK sensitive target Daudi, raising the possibility that intermediate LAK sensitive tumors such as mesothelioma may require separate and specific evaluation in immunomodulation studies. This in vitro study indicates that use of low-dose rHuTNF and IL-2 is unlikely to be an effective substitute for high-dose IL-2 in generation and maintenance of LAK activity in adoptive immunotherapy for mesothelioma.« less

  9. Differences and Similarities in TRAIL- and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Mediated Necroptotic Signaling in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Philipp, Stephan; Fuchslocher Chico, Johaiber; Saggau, Carina; Fritsch, Jürgen; Föll, Alexandra; Plenge, Johannes; Arenz, Christoph; Pinkert, Thomas; Kalthoff, Holger; Trauzold, Anna; Schmitz, Ingo; Schütze, Stefan; Adam, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a type of regulated necrosis (RN) called necroptosis was identified to be involved in many pathophysiological processes and emerged as an alternative method to eliminate cancer cells. However, only a few studies have elucidated components of TRAIL-mediated necroptosis useful for anticancer therapy. Therefore, we have compared this type of cell death to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated necroptosis and found similar signaling through acid and neutral sphingomyelinases, the mitochondrial serine protease HtrA2/Omi, Atg5, and vacuolar H+-ATPase. Notably, executive mechanisms of both TRAIL- and TNF-mediated necroptosis are independent of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), and depletion of p38α increases the levels of both types of cell death. Moreover, we found differences in signaling between TNF- and TRAIL-mediated necroptosis, e.g., a lack of involvement of ubiquitin carboxyl hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) and Atg16L1 in executive mechanisms of TRAIL-mediated necroptosis. Furthermore, we discovered indications of an altered involvement of mitochondrial components, since overexpression of the mitochondrial protein Bcl-2 protected Jurkat cells from TRAIL- and TNF-mediated necroptosis, and overexpression of Bcl-XL diminished only TRAIL-induced necroptosis in Colo357 cells. Furthermore, TRAIL does not require receptor internalization and endosome-lysosome acidification to mediate necroptosis. Taken together, pathways described for TRAIL-mediated necroptosis and differences from those for TNF-mediated necroptosis might be unique targets to increase or modify necroptotic signaling and eliminate tumor cells more specifically in future anticancer approaches. PMID:27528614

  10. Autoradiographic and histopathological studies of boric acid-mediated BNCT in hepatic VX2 tumor-bearing rabbits: Specific boron retention and damage in tumor and tumor vessels.

    PubMed

    Yang, C H; Lin, Y T; Hung, Y H; Liao, J W; Peir, J J; Liu, H M; Lin, Y L; Liu, Y M; Chen, Y W; Chuang, K S; Chou, F I

    2015-12-01

    Hepatoma is a malignant tumor that responds poorly to conventional therapies. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) may provide a better way for hepatoma therapy. In this research, (10)B-enriched boric acid (BA, 99% (10)B) was used as the boron drug. A multifocal hepatic VX2 tumor-bearing rabbit model was used to study the mechanisms of BA-mediated BNCT. Autoradiography demonstrated that BA was selectively targeted to tumors and tumor vessels. Histopathological examination revealed the radiation damage to tumor-bearing liver was concentrated in the tumor regions during BNCT treatment. The selective killing of tumor cells and the destruction of the blood vessels in tumor masses may be responsible for the success of BA-mediated BNCT for liver tumors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Membrane-derived second messenger regulates x-ray-mediated tumor necrosis factor alpha gene induction.

    PubMed Central

    Hallahan, D E; Virudachalam, S; Kuchibhotla, J; Kufe, D W; Weichselbaum, R R

    1994-01-01

    Cells adapt to adverse environmental conditions through a wide range of responses that are conserved throughout evolution. Physical agents such as ionizing radiation are known to initiate a stress response that is triggered by the recognition of DNA damage. We have identified a signaling pathway involving the activation of phospholipase A2 and protein kinase C in human cells that confers x-ray induction of the tumor necrosis factor alpha gene. Treatment of human cells with ionizing radiation or H2O2 was associated with the production of arachidonic acid. Inhibition of phospholipase A2 abolished radiation-mediated arachidonate production as well as the subsequent activation of protein kinase C and tumor necrosis factor alpha gene expression. These findings demonstrate that ionizing radiation-mediated gene expression in human cells is regulated in part by extranuclear signal transduction. One practical application of phospholipase A2 inhibitors is to ameliorate the adverse effects of radiotherapy associated with tumor necrosis factor alpha production. Images PMID:8197153

  12. Selective inhibition of tumor cell associated Vacuolar-ATPase 'a2' isoform overcomes cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kulshrestha, Arpita; Katara, Gajendra K; Ginter, Jordyn; Pamarthy, Sahithi; Ibrahim, Safaa A; Jaiswal, Mukesh K; Sandulescu, Corina; Periakaruppan, Ramayee; Dolan, James; Gilman-Sachs, Alice; Beaman, Kenneth D

    2016-06-01

    Development of resistance to platinum compounds significantly hinders successful ovarian cancer (OVCA) treatment. In tumor cells, dysregulated pH gradient across cell membranes is a key physiological mechanism of metastasis/chemo-resistance. These pH alterations are mediated by aberrant activation of key multi-subunit proton pumps, Vacuolar-ATPases (V-ATPases). In tumor cells, its 'a2' isoform (V-ATPase-V0a2) is a component of functional plasma-membrane complex and promotes tumor invasion through tumor-acidification and immuno-modulation. Its involvement in chemo-resistance has not been studied. Here, we show that V-ATPase-V0a2 is over-expressed in acquired-cisplatin resistant OVCA cells (cis-A2780/cis-TOV112D). Of all the 'a' subunit isoforms, V-ATPase-V0a2 exhibited an elevated expression on plasma membrane of cisplatin-resistant cells compared to sensitive counterparts. Immuno-histochemistry revealed V-ATPase-V0a2 expression in both low grade (highly drug-resistant) and high grade (highly recurrent) human OVCA tissues indicating its role in a centralized mechanism of tumor resistance. In cisplatin resistant cells, shRNA mediated inhibition of V-ATPase-V0a2 enhanced sensitivity towards both cisplatin and carboplatin. This improved cytotoxicity was mediated by enhanced cisplatin-DNA-adduct formation and suppressed DNA-repair pathway, leading to enhanced apoptosis. Suppression of V0a2 activity strongly reduced cytosolic pH in resistant tumor cells, which is known to enhance platinum-associated DNA-damage. As an indicator of reduced metastasis and chemo-resistance, in contrast to plasma membrane localization, a diffused cytoplasmic localization of acidic vacuoles was observed in V0a2-knockdown resistant cells. Interestingly, pre-treatment with monoclonal V0a2-inhibitory antibody enhanced cisplatin cytotoxicity in resistant cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that the isoform specific inhibition of V-ATPase-V0a2 could serve as a therapeutic strategy for chemo

  13. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Mediated Effects of Tumor Support or Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Ki-Jong; Lee, Jong In; Eom, Young Woo

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can exhibit a marked tropism towards site of tumors. Many studies have reported that tumor progression and metastasis increase by MSCs. In contrast, other studies have shown that MSCs suppress growth of tumors. MSCs contribute to tumor growth promotion by several mechanisms: (1) transition to tumor-associated fibroblasts; (2) suppression of immune response; (3) promotion of angiogenesis; (4) stimulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT); (5) contribution to the tumor microenvironment; (6) inhibition of tumor cell apoptosis; and (7) promotion of tumor metastasis. In contrast to the tumor-promoting properties, MSCs inhibit tumor growth by increasing inflammatory infiltration, inhibiting angiogenesis, suppressing Wnt signaling and AKT signaling, and inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In this review, we will discuss potential mechanisms by which MSC mediates tumor support or suppression and then the possible tumor-specific therapeutic strategies using MSCs as delivery vehicles, based on their homing potential to tumors. PMID:26694366

  14. Vaccination with EphA2-derived T cell-epitopes promotes immunity against both EphA2-expressing and EphA2-negative tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, Manabu; Kuwashima, Naruo; Tatsumi, Tomohide; Dusak, Jill E; Nishimura, Fumihiko; Reilly, Karlyne M; Storkus, Walter J; Okada, Hideho

    2004-01-01

    Background A novel tyrosine kinase receptor EphA2 is expressed at high levels in advanced and metastatic cancers. We examined whether vaccinations with synthetic mouse EphA2 (mEphA2)-derived peptides that serve as T cell epitopes could induce protective and therapeutic anti-tumor immunity. Methods C57BL/6 mice received subcutaneous (s.c.) vaccinations with bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with synthetic peptides recognized by CD8+ (mEphA2671–679, mEphA2682–689) and CD4+ (mEphA230–44) T cells. Splenocytes (SPCs) were harvested from primed mice to assess the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses against syngeneic glioma, sarcoma and melanoma cell lines. The ability of these vaccines to prevent or treat tumor (s.c. injected MCA205 sarcoma or B16 melanoma; i.v. injected B16-BL6) establishment/progression was then assessed. Results Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with mEphA2-derived peptides induced specific CTL responses in SPCs. Vaccination with mEPhA2 peptides, but not control ovalbumin (OVA) peptides, prevented the establishment or prevented the growth of EphA2+ or EphA2-negative syngeneic tumors in both s.c. and lung metastasis models. Conclusions These data indicate that mEphA2 can serve as an attractive target against which to direct anti-tumor immunity. The ability of mEphA2 vaccines to impact EphA2-negative tumors such as the B16 melanoma may suggest that such beneficial immunity may be directed against alternative EphA2+ target cells, such as the tumor-associated vascular endothelial cells. PMID:15563374

  15. The tumor microenvironment: An irreplaceable element of tumor budding and epithelial-mesenchymal transition-mediated cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Xu, Fangying; Li, Si; Zhong, Anjing; Meng, Xianwen; Lai, Maode

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tumor budding occurs at the invasive front of cancer; the tumor cells involved have metastatic and stemness features, indicating a poor prognosis. Tumor budding is partly responsible for cancer metastasis, and its initiation is based on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. The EMT process involves the conversion of epithelial cells into migratory and invasive cells, and is a profound event in tumorigenesis. The EMT, associated with the formation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and resistance to therapy, results from a combination of gene mutation, epigenetic regulation, and microenvironmental control. Tumor budding can be taken to represent the EMT in vivo. The EMT process is under the influence of the tumor microenvironment as well as tumor cells themselves. Here, we demonstrate that the tumor microenvironment dominates EMT development and impacts cancer metastasis, as well as promotes CSC formation and mediates drug resistance. In this review, we mainly discuss components of the microenvironment, such as the extracellular matrix (ECM), inflammatory cytokines, metabolic products, and hypoxia, that are involved in and impact on the acquisition of tumor-cell motility and dissemination, the EMT, metastatic tumor-cell formation, tumor budding and CSCs, and cancer metastasis, including subsequent chemo-resistance. From our point of view, the tumor microenvironment now constitutes a promising target for cancer therapy. PMID:26743180

  16. Adenosine A(2B) receptor antagonist PSB603 suppresses tumor growth and metastasis by inhibiting induction of regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Wakako; Tanaka, Satomi; Tsukimoto, Mitsutoshi; Kojima, Shuji

    2014-04-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a role in suppression of immune response, including anti-tumor immunity. We have recently reported that treatment of naïve CD4 T cells with adenosine A(2B) receptor antagonist PSB603 under Treg-skewing conditions inhibits expression of Foxp3, a marker of differentiation to Treg, without blocking IL-2 production or CD25 expression, which are activation markers, in CD4 T cells. We hypothesized that PSB603 suppresses cancer growth and metastasis by inhibiting induction of Treg, thereby facilitating anti-tumor immunity. In this study, we first examined the effect of PSB603 on tumor growth in B16 melanoma-bearing C57BL/6 mice. Administration of PSB603 significantly suppressed the increase of tumor volume as well as the increase of Treg population in these mice. The populations of CD4 and CD8 T cells were higher and splenic lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity towards B16 melanoma was significantly increased in PSB603-treated mice. We confirmed that PSB603 did not reduce the viability of B16 melanoma cells in vitro. Moreover, we also examined the effect of PSB603 on tumor metastasis in pulmonary metastasis model mice intravenously injected with B16 melanoma cells. The metastasis was also suppressed in PSB603-treated mice, in which the population of Treg was significantly lower. Overall, our results suggest that A(2B) receptor antagonist PSB603 enhances anti-tumor immunity by inhibiting differentiation to Treg, resulting in a delay of tumor growth and a suppression of metastasis.

  17. Proteolysis of EphA2 Converts It from a Tumor Suppressor to an Oncoprotein.

    PubMed

    Koshikawa, Naohiko; Hoshino, Daisuke; Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Minegishi, Tomoko; Tomari, Taizo; Nam, Sung-Ouk; Aoki, Mikiko; Sueta, Takayuki; Nakagawa, Takashi; Miyamoto, Shingo; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Weaver, Alissa M; Seiki, Motoharu

    2015-08-15

    Eph receptor tyrosine kinases are considered candidate therapeutic targets in cancer, but they can exert opposing effects on cell growth. In the presence of its ligands, Eph receptor EphA2 suppresses signaling by other growth factor receptors, including ErbB, whereas ligand-independent activation of EphA2 augments ErbB signaling. To deploy EphA2-targeting drugs effectively in tumors, the anti-oncogenic ligand-dependent activation state of EphA2 must be discriminated from its oncogenic ligand-independent state. Because the molecular basis for the latter is little understood, we investigated how the activation state of EphA2 can be switched in tumor tissue. We found that ligand-binding domain of EphA2 is cleaved frequently by the membrane metalloproteinase MT1-MMP, a powerful modulator of the pericellular environment in tumor cells. EphA2 immunostaining revealed a significant loss of the N-terminal portion of EphA2 in areas of tumor tissue that expressed MT1-MMP. Moreover, EphA2 phosphorylation patterns that signify ligand-independent activation were observed specifically in these areas of tumor tissue. Mechanistic experiments revealed that processing of EphA2 by MT1-MMP promoted ErbB signaling, anchorage-independent growth, and cell migration. Conversely, expression of a proteolysis-resistant mutant of EphA2 prevented tumorigenesis and metastasis of human tumor xenografts in mice. Overall, our results showed how the proteolytic state of EphA2 in tumors determines its effector function and influences its status as a candidate biomarker for targeted therapy. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Proteolysis of EphA2 converts it from a tumor suppressor to an oncoprotein

    PubMed Central

    KOSHIKAWA, Naohiko; HOSHINO, Daisuke; TANIGUCHI, Hiroaki; MINEGISHI, Tomoko; TOMARI, Taizo; NAM, Sung-Ouk; AOKI, Mikiko; SUETA, Takayuki; NAKAGAWA, Takashi; MIYAMOTO, Shingo; NABESHIMA, Kazuki; WEAVER, Alissa M.; SEIKI, Motoharu

    2015-01-01

    Eph receptor tyrosine kinases are considered candidate therapeutic targets in cancer, but they can exert opposing effects on cell growth. In presence of its ligands, Eph receptor EphA2 suppresses signaling by other growth factor receptors, including ErbB, whereas ligand-independent activation of EphA2 augments ErbB signaling. To deploy EphA2-targeting drugs effectively in tumors, the anti-oncogenic ligand-dependent activation state of EphA2 must be discriminated from its oncogenic ligand-independent state. Since the molecular basis for the latter is little understood, we investigated how the activation state of EphA2 can be switched in tumor tissue. We found that ligand-binding domain of EphA2 is cleaved frequently by the membrane metalloproteinase MT1-MMP, a powerful modulator of the pericellular environment in tumor cells. EphA2 immunostaining revealed a significant loss of the N-terminal portion of EphA2 in areas of tumor tissue that expressed MT1-MMP. Moreover, EphA2 phosphorylation patterns that signify ligand-independent activation were observed specifically in these areas of tumor tissue. Mechanistic experiments revealed that processing of EphA2 by MT1-MMP promoted ErbB signaling, anchorage-independent growth, and cell migration. Conversely, expression of a proteolysis-resistant mutant of EphA2 prevented tumorigenesis and metastasis of human tumor xenografts in mice. Overall, our results showed how the proteolytic state of EphA2 in tumors determines its effector function and influences its status as a candidate biomarker for targeted therapy. PMID:26130649

  19. Silencing Receptor EphA2 Enhanced Sensitivity to Lipoplatin™ in Lung Tumor and MPM Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hung-Yen; Mohammed, Kamal A; Goldberg, Eugene P; Kaye, Frederic; Najmunnisa, Nasreen

    2016-08-08

    Receptor EphA2 is overexpressed in lung cancer and malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) which promote tumorogenesis. Lipoplatin™, a new liposomal cisplatin formulation, is used against resistant tumors. Use of cisplatin-based drugs leads to unacceptable toxicities. To improve the effectiveness of Lipoplatin, enhancing the cellular sensitivity of lung tumor and MPM cells is critical. Therefore, we targeted receptor EphA2 by silencing interference RNA (siRNA) and treated tumor cells with Lipoplatin. The combined effects of siRNA-EphA2 and Lipoplatin were determined. We report that silencing EphA2 significantly enhanced the cellular sensitivity of lung tumor and MPM cells to Lipoplatin and maybe a potential therapy for lung cancer.

  20. CD98hc (SLC3A2) Loss Protects Against Ras-Driven Tumorigenesis by Modulating Integrin-Mediated Mechanotransduction

    PubMed Central

    Estrach, Soline; Lee, Sin-Ae; Boulter, Etienne; Pisano, Sabrina; Errante, Aurélia; Tissot, Floriane S.; Cailleteau, Laurence; Pons, Catherine; Ginsberg, Mark H.; Féral, Chloé C.

    2016-01-01

    CD98hc (SLC3A2) is the heavy chain component of the dimeric transmembrane glycoprotein CD98, which comprises the large neutral amino acid transporter LAT1 (SLC7A5) in cells. Overexpression of CD98hc occurs widely in cancer cells, and is associated with poor prognosis clinically, but its exact contributions to tumorigenesis are uncertain. In this study, we showed that that genetic deficiency of CD98hc protects against Ras-driven skin carcinogenesis. Deleting CD98hc after tumor induction was also sufficient to cause regression of existing tumors. Investigations into the basis for these effects defined two new functions of CD98hc that contribute to epithelial cancer beyond an intrinsic effect on CD98hc on tumor cell proliferation. First, CD98hc increased the stiffness of the tumor microenvironment. Second, CD98hc amplified the capacity of cells to respond to matrix rigidity, an essential factor in tumor development. Mechanistically, CD98hc mediated this stiffness-sensing by increasing Rho kinase (ROCK) activity, resulting in increased transcription mediated by YAP/TAZ, a nuclear relay for mechanical signals. Our results suggest that CD98hc contributes to carcinogenesis by amplifying a positive feedback loop which increases both extracellular matrix stiffness and resulting cellular responses. This work supports a rationale to explore the use of CD98hc inhibitors as cancer therapeutics, PMID:25267066

  1. Immunodiagnosis of tumors in vivo using radiolabeled monoclonal antibody A2B5

    SciTech Connect

    Reintgen, D.S.; Shimizu, K.; Coleman, E.

    1983-07-01

    Recently a murine monoclonal antibody (A2B5) has been described that reacts with a membrane associated GQ ganglioside common to peptide secreting normal cells and tumors. In vitro binding data demonstrated the presence of this ganglioside on neurons, adrenal medulla, and pancreatic islets, along with neuroendocrine tumors such as insulinomas, pheochromocytomas, melanomas and neuroblastomas. Negative binding has previously been shown for tissue sections from liver, kidney, colon, lung, stomach, and tumors not derived from the neural crest. Because of the specificity at A2B5 in vitro, this monoclonal antibody was labeled with /sup 131/I for in vivo tumor localization studies. Daily radionuclearmore » scans were obtained in 5 KX rats bearing the radiation induced rat insulinoma with disappearance of the label from the blood pool and concentration in the tumor so that by the fourth day, the only activity present by scan was in the insulinoma. In addition A2B5 also localized to five different human melanoma cells lines grown in nude mice with high tumor/blood levels compared to normal tissues, while no localization is seen in nudes carrying osteosarcomas, colon, bladder, and renal cell carcinomas. In addition antibody A2B5 did not concentrate in any normal tissue though the antigen is present on several. The finding that A2B5 reacts across species lines (mouse, rat, man) lends itself to obvious diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities.« less

  2. Antigen localization controls T cell-mediated tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Zeelenberg, Ingrid S; van Maren, Wendy W C; Boissonnas, Alexandre; Van Hout-Kuijer, Maaike A; Den Brok, Martijn H M G M; Wagenaars, Jori A L; van der Schaaf, Alie; Jansen, Eric J R; Amigorena, Sebastian; Théry, Clotilde; Figdor, Carl G; Adema, Gosse J

    2011-08-01

    Effective antitumor immunotherapy requires the identification of suitable target Ags. Interestingly, many of the tumor Ags used in clinical trials are present in preparations of secreted tumor vesicles (exosomes). In this study, we compared T cell responses elicited by murine MCA101 fibrosarcoma tumors expressing a model Ag at different localizations within the tumor cell in association with secreted vesicles (exosomes), as a nonsecreted cell-associated protein, or as secreted soluble protein. Remarkably, we demonstrated that only the tumor-secreting vesicle-bound Ag elicited a strong Ag-specific CD8(+) T cell response, CD4(+) T cell help, Ag-specific Abs, and a decrease in the percentage of immunosuppressive regulatory T cells in the tumor. Moreover, in a therapeutic tumor model of cryoablation, only in tumors secreting vesicle-bound Ag could Ag-specific CD8(+) T cells still be detected up to 16 d after therapy. We concluded that the localization of an Ag within the tumor codetermines whether a robust immunostimulatory response is elicited. In vivo, vesicle-bound Ag clearly skews toward a more immunogenic phenotype, whereas soluble or cell-associated Ag expression cannot prevent or even delay outgrowth and results in tumor tolerance. This may explain why particular immunotherapies based on these vesicle-bound tumor Ags are potentially successful. Therefore, we conclude that this study may have significant implications in the discovery of new tumor Ags suitable for immunotherapy and that their location should be taken into account to ensure a strong antitumor immune response.

  3. Enhancement in Specific CD8+ T cell Recognition of EphA2+ Tumors In Vitro and In Vivo After Treatment with Ligand Agonists1

    PubMed Central

    Wesa, Amy K.; Herrem, Christopher J.; Mandic, Maja; Taylor, Jennifer L.; Vasquez, Cecilia; Kawabe, Mayumi; Tatsumi, Tomohide; Leibowitz, Michael S.; Finke, James H.; Bukowski, Ronald M.; Bruckheimer, Elizabeth; Kinch, Michael S.; Storkus, Walter J.

    2012-01-01

    The EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) is an attractive therapeutic target that is commonly overexpressed on solid tumors, with the degree of overexpression associated with disease progression, metastatic potential and poor prognosis. Agonistic monoclonal antibodies or ligand (ephrinA1)-Fc fusion protein are capable of inducing EphA2 internalization and degradation, thereby (at least transiently) eliminating the influence of this oncoprotein. We and others have also shown that EphA2 contains multiple peptide epitopes that can be recognized by effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells isolated from tumor-bearing patients. Herein, we show that “agonist” reagents that trigger the proteasome-dependent degradation of tumor cell EphA2 result in the improved presentation of peptides derived from (both the extracellular and intracellular domains of) EphA2 in MHC class I complexes expressed on the tumor cell membrane for at least 48h, as manifest by increased recognition by EphA2-specific CD8+ T cells in vitro. We also observed that while delivery of ephrinA1-Fc fusion protein or agonist mAb into EphA2+ tumor lesions promotes EphA2 degradation in situ, this single administration of agent does not dramatically alter tumor progression in a Hu-SCID model. However, when combined with the adoptive transfer of normally non-therapeutic (human) anti-EphA2 CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), this dual agent regimen results in complete tumor eradication. These results suggest that strategies targeting the conditional proteasome-mediated destruction of tumor cell EphA2 may enable EphA2-specific CD8+ T cells (of modest functional avidity) to realize improved therapeutic potential. PMID:19017961

  4. Nanoparticle-mediated combination chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy overcomes tumor drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Khdair, Ayman; Chen, Di; Patil, Yogesh; Ma, Linan; Dou, Q Ping; Shekhar, Malathy P V; Panyam, Jayanth

    2010-01-25

    Tumor drug resistance significantly limits the success of chemotherapy in the clinic. Tumor cells utilize multiple mechanisms to prevent the accumulation of anticancer drugs at their intracellular site of action. In this study, we investigated the anticancer efficacy of doxorubicin in combination with photodynamic therapy using methylene blue in a drug-resistant mouse tumor model. Surfactant-polymer hybrid nanoparticles formulated using an anionic surfactant, Aerosol-OT (AOT), and a naturally occurring polysaccharide polymer, sodium alginate, were used for synchronized delivery of the two drugs. Balb/c mice bearing syngeneic JC tumors (mammary adenocarcinoma) were used as a drug-resistant tumor model. Nanoparticle-mediated combination therapy significantly inhibited tumor growth and improved animal survival. Nanoparticle-mediated combination treatment resulted in enhanced tumor accumulation of both doxorubicin and methylene blue, significant inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, and increased induction of apoptosis. These data suggest that nanoparticle-mediated combination chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy using doxorubicin and methylene blue has significant therapeutic potential against drug-resistant tumors. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases mediates thromboxane A2-induced invasion in lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuling; Tai, Hsin-Hsiung

    2012-07-01

    Thromboxane A(2) receptor (TP) has been shown to play an important role in multiple aspects of cancer development including regulation of tumor growth, survival and metastasis. Here we report that TP mediates cancer cell invasion by inducing expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). TP agonist, I-BOP, significantly elevated MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9 and MMP-10 mRNA levels in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells overexpressing TPα or TPβ. The secretion of MMP-1 and MMP-9 in conditioned media was determined using Western blot analysis and zymographic assay. Signaling pathways of I-BOP-induced MMP-1 expression were examined in further detail as a model system for MMPs induction. Signaling molecules involved in I-BOP-induced MMP-1 expression were identified by using specific inhibitors including small interfering (si)-RNAs of signaling molecules and promoter reporter assay. The results indicate that I-BOP-induced MMP-1 expression is mediated by protein kinase C (PKC), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-activator protein-1(AP-1) and ERK-CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) pathways. I-BOP-induced cellular invasiveness of A549 cells expressing TPα or TPβ was determined by invasion assay. GM6001, a general inhibitor of MMPs, decreased basal and I-BOP-induced cell invasion. Knockdown of MMP-1 and MMP-9 by their respective siRNA partially reduced I-BOP-stimulated cell invasion suggesting that other MMPs induced by I-BOP were also involved. Our studies establish the relationship between TP and MMPs in cancer cell invasion and suggest that the thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2))-TP signaling is a potential therapeutic target for cancer invasion and metastasis.

  6. Cytosolic PhospholipaseA2 Inhibition with PLA-695 Radiosensitizes Tumors in Lung Cancer Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Daniel J.; Kotipatruni, Rama P.; Bhave, Sandeep R.; Jaboin, Jerry J.; Hallahan, Dennis E.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States and the rest of the world. The advent of molecularly directed therapies holds promise for improvement in therapeutic efficacy. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) is associated with tumor progression and radioresistance in mouse tumor models. Utilizing the cPLA2 specific inhibitor PLA-695, we determined if cPLA2 inhibition radiosensitizes non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and tumors. Treatment with PLA-695 attenuated radiation induced increases of phospho-ERK and phospho-Akt in endothelial cells. NSCLC cells (LLC and A549) co-cultured with endothelial cells (bEND3 and HUVEC) and pre-treated with PLA-695 showed radiosensitization. PLA-695 in combination with irradiation (IR) significantly reduced migration and proliferation in endothelial cells (HUVEC & bEND3) and induced cell death and attenuated invasion by tumor cells (LLC &A549). In a heterotopic tumor model, the combination of PLA-695 and radiation delayed growth in both LLC and A549 tumors. LLC and A549 tumors treated with a combination of PLA-695 and radiation displayed reduced tumor vasculature. In a dorsal skin fold model of LLC tumors, inhibition of cPLA2 in combination with radiation led to enhanced destruction of tumor blood vessels. The anti-angiogenic effects of PLA-695 and its enhancement of the efficacy of radiotherapy in mouse models of NSCLC suggest that clinical trials for its capacity to improve radiotherapy outcomes are warranted. PMID:23894523

  7. Cytosolic phospholipaseA2 inhibition with PLA-695 radiosensitizes tumors in lung cancer animal models.

    PubMed

    Thotala, Dinesh; Craft, Jeffrey M; Ferraro, Daniel J; Kotipatruni, Rama P; Bhave, Sandeep R; Jaboin, Jerry J; Hallahan, Dennis E

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States and the rest of the world. The advent of molecularly directed therapies holds promise for improvement in therapeutic efficacy. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) is associated with tumor progression and radioresistance in mouse tumor models. Utilizing the cPLA2 specific inhibitor PLA-695, we determined if cPLA2 inhibition radiosensitizes non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and tumors. Treatment with PLA-695 attenuated radiation induced increases of phospho-ERK and phospho-Akt in endothelial cells. NSCLC cells (LLC and A549) co-cultured with endothelial cells (bEND3 and HUVEC) and pre-treated with PLA-695 showed radiosensitization. PLA-695 in combination with irradiation (IR) significantly reduced migration and proliferation in endothelial cells (HUVEC & bEND3) and induced cell death and attenuated invasion by tumor cells (LLC &A549). In a heterotopic tumor model, the combination of PLA-695 and radiation delayed growth in both LLC and A549 tumors. LLC and A549 tumors treated with a combination of PLA-695 and radiation displayed reduced tumor vasculature. In a dorsal skin fold model of LLC tumors, inhibition of cPLA2 in combination with radiation led to enhanced destruction of tumor blood vessels. The anti-angiogenic effects of PLA-695 and its enhancement of the efficacy of radiotherapy in mouse models of NSCLC suggest that clinical trials for its capacity to improve radiotherapy outcomes are warranted.

  8. Use of gold nanoshells to mediate heating induced perfusion changes in prostate tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetty, Anil; Elliott, Andrew M.; Schwartz, Jon A.; Wang, James; Esparza-Coss, Emilio; Klumpp, Sherry; Taylor, Brian; Hazle, John D.; Stafford, R. Jason

    2008-02-01

    This study investigates the potential of using gold nanoshells to mediate a thermally induced modulation of tumor vasculature in experimental prostate tumors. We demonstrate that after passive extravasation and retention of the circulating nanoshells from the tumor vasculature into the tumor interstitium, the enhanced nanoshells absorption of near-infrared irradiation over normal vasculature, can be used to increase tumor perfusion or shut it down at powers which result in no observable affects on tissue without nanoshells. Temperature rise was monitored in real time using magnetic resonance temperature imaging and registered with perfusion changes as extrapolated from MR dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) imaging results before and after each treatment. Results indicate that nanoshell mediated heating can be used to improve perfusion and subsequently enhance drug delivery and radiation effects, or be used to shut down perfusion to assist in thermal ablative therapy delivery.

  9. [Experimental study of glioma stem cell-mediated immune tolerance in tumor microenvironment].

    PubMed

    Xie, T; Ma, J W; Liu, B; Dong, J; Huang, Q

    2017-11-23

    Objective: To investigate the tumor microenvironment of immune tolerance induced by glioma stem cells (GSC). Methods: Human GSC SU3 cells transfected with red fluorescent protein (SU3-RFP) gene were implanted into the brain, subcutis (armpit and foot), liver and abdominal cavity of transgenic green fluorescence protein (GFP) nude mice to establish RFP(+) /GFP(+) dual fluorescence solid tumor model. The re-cultured cells derived from implanted tumor tissues, SU3-RFP cells co-cultured with peritoneal fluid of transgenic GFP nude mice and malignant ascites of tumor-bearing mice were observed by fluorescence microscopy and real-time video image tracing to analyze the microenvironment of immune tolerance mediated by RFP(+) /GFP(+) implanted tumor. Results: Dual fluorescence labeled frozen section showed that all of cells in the tumor microenvironment were GFP(+) , while the pressed tissue-patch showed that the tumor blood vessels exhibited a RFP(+) /GFP(+) double-positioning yellow. In the GFP single fluorescence labeled tumor tissue, all of cells in the microenvironment were green, including tumor edge, necrotic foci and blood vessel. Among them, CD68(+) , F4/80(+) , CD11c(+) , CD11b(+) and CD80(+) cells were observed. In the dual fluorescence labeled co-cultured cells, the phagocytosis and fusion between green host cells and red tumor cells were also observed, and these fusion cells might transfer to the malignant dendritic cells and macrophages. Conclusions: The tumor microenvironment of immune tolerance induced by GSC is not affected by the tissue types of tumor-inoculated sites, and the immune tolerance mediated by inflammatory cells is associated with the inducible malignant transformation, which may be driven by cell fusion.

  10. Mitochondria mediate tumor necrosis factor-alpha/NF-kappaB signaling in skeletal muscle myotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Y. P.; Atkins, C. M.; Sweatt, J. D.; Reid, M. B.; Hamilton, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is implicated in muscle atrophy and weakness associated with a variety of chronic diseases. Recently, we reported that TNF-alpha directly induces muscle protein degradation in differentiated skeletal muscle myotubes, where it rapidly activates nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). We also have found that protein loss induced by TNF-alpha is NF-kappaB dependent. In the present study, we analyzed the signaling pathway by which TNF-alpha activates NF-kappaB in myotubes differentiated from C2C12 and rat primary myoblasts. We found that activation of NF-kappaB by TNF-alpha was blocked by rotenone or amytal, inhibitors of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. On the other hand, antimycin A, an inhibitor of complex III, enhanced TNF-alpha activation of NK-kappaB. These results suggest a key role of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating NF-kappaB activation in muscle. In addition, we found that TNF-alpha stimulated protein kinase C (PKC) activity. However, other signal transduction mediators including ceramide, Ca2+, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and nitric oxide (NO) do not appear to be involved in the activation of NF-kappaB.

  11. Virus vector-mediated genetic modification of brain tumor stromal cells after intravenous delivery.

    PubMed

    Volak, Adrienn; LeRoy, Stanley G; Natasan, Jeya Shree; Park, David J; Cheah, Pike See; Maus, Andreas; Fitzpatrick, Zachary; Hudry, Eloise; Pinkham, Kelsey; Gandhi, Sheetal; Hyman, Bradley T; Mu, Dakai; GuhaSarkar, Dwijit; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat O; Sena-Esteves, Miguel; Badr, Christian E; Maguire, Casey A

    2018-05-16

    The malignant primary brain tumor, glioblastoma (GBM) is generally incurable. New approaches are desperately needed. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated delivery of anti-tumor transgenes is a promising strategy, however direct injection leads to focal transgene spread in tumor and rapid tumor division dilutes out the extra-chromosomal AAV genome, limiting duration of transgene expression. Intravenous (IV) injection gives widespread distribution of AAV in normal brain, however poor transgene expression in tumor, and high expression in non-target cells which may lead to ineffective therapy and high toxicity, respectively. Delivery of transgenes encoding secreted, anti-tumor proteins to tumor stromal cells may provide a more stable and localized reservoir of therapy as they are more differentiated than fast-dividing tumor cells. Reactive astrocytes and tumor-associated macrophage/microglia (TAMs) are stromal cells that comprise a large portion of the tumor mass and are associated with tumorigenesis. In mouse models of GBM, we used IV delivery of exosome-associated AAV vectors driving green fluorescent protein expression by specific promoters (NF-κB-responsive promoter and a truncated glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter), to obtain targeted transduction of TAMs and reactive astrocytes, respectively, while avoiding transgene expression in the periphery. We used our approach to express the potent, yet toxic anti-tumor cytokine, interferon beta, in tumor stroma of a mouse model of GBM, and achieved a modest, yet significant enhancement in survival compared to controls. Noninvasive genetic modification of tumor microenvironment represents a promising approach for therapy against cancers. Additionally, the vectors described here may facilitate basic research in the study of tumor stromal cells in situ.

  12. Gene Targets in Prostate Tumor Cells that Mediate Aberrant Growth and Invasiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    Craig A. Hauser , Ph.D. Gabriele Foos, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: The Burnham Institute La Jolla, California 92037 REPORT DATE: February 2005 TYPE...NUMBERS Gene Targets in Prostate Tumor Cells that Mediate DAMD17-02-1-0019 Aberrant Growth and Invasiveness 6. AUTHOR(S) Craig A. Hauser , Ph.D. Gabriele...REPORTABLE OUTCOMES Foos G, Hauser CA (2004) The role of Ets transcription factors in mediating cellular transformation. In: Handbook of Experimental

  13. Tumor-Mediated Suppression of Dendritic Cell Vaccines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    presence of 10 ng/ml of TGF-P for 6 days. (A) DCs were incubated with 2x10 5 splenic T cells isolated from C57/ BL6 mice for 5 days with the addition...intensity (MFI) at 37°C minus 4°C. D, DCs were incubated with 2 X 105 splenic T cells isolated from C57/ BL6 mice for 5 days with the addition of [3H...or MCA-106 fibrosarcoma 1863 TGF-13 NEUTRALIZING ANTIBODY AND DCs yields equally effective vaccines against B16 tumors in mice. J. Surg., 68: 79-91, 20

  14. Cell mediated therapeutics for cancer treatment: Tumor homing cells as therapeutic delivery vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balivada, Sivasai

    Many cell types were known to have migratory properties towards tumors and different research groups have shown reliable results regarding cells as delivery vehicles of therapeutics for targeted cancer treatment. Present report discusses proof of concept for 1. Cell mediated delivery of Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and targeted Magnetic hyperthermia (MHT) as a cancer treatment by using in vivo mouse cancer models, 2. Cells surface engineering with chimeric proteins for targeted cancer treatment by using in vitro models. 1. Tumor homing cells can carry MNPs specifically to the tumor site and tumor burden will decrease after alternating magnetic field (AMF) exposure. To test this hypothesis, first we loaded Fe/Fe3O4 bi-magnetic NPs into neural progenitor cells (NPCs), which were previously shown to migrate towards melanoma tumors. We observed that NPCs loaded with MNPs travel to subcutaneous melanoma tumors. After alternating magnetic field (AMF) exposure, the targeted delivery of MNPs by the NPCs resulted in a mild decrease in tumor size (Chapter-2). Monocytes/macrophages (Mo/Ma) are known to infiltrate tumor sites, and also have phagocytic activity which can increase their uptake of MNPs. To test Mo/Ma-mediated MHT we transplanted Mo/Ma loaded with MNPs into a mouse model of pancreatic peritoneal carcinomatosis. We observed that MNP-loaded Mo/Ma infiltrated pancreatic tumors and, after AMF treatment, significantly prolonged the lives of mice bearing disseminated intraperitoneal pancreatic tumors (Chapter-3). 2. Targeted cancer treatment could be achieved by engineering tumor homing cell surfaces with tumor proteases cleavable, cancer cell specific recombinant therapeutic proteins. To test this, Urokinase and Calpain (tumor specific proteases) cleavable; prostate cancer cell (CaP) specific (CaP1 targeting peptide); apoptosis inducible (Caspase3 V266ED3)- rCasp3V266ED3 chimeric protein was designed in silico. Hypothesized membrane anchored chimeric protein (rCasp3V

  15. Alternative splicing regulation in tumor necrosis factor-mediated inflammation.

    PubMed

    López-Urrutia, Eduardo; Campos-Parra, Alma; Herrera, Luis Alonso; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos

    2017-11-01

    It is generally accepted that alternative splicing has an effect on disease when it leads to conspicuous changes in relevant proteins, but that the combinatorial effect of several small modifications can have marked outcomes as well. Inflammation is a complex process involving numerous signaling pathways, among which the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) pathway is one of the most studied. Signaling pathways are commonly represented as intricate cascades of molecular interactions that eventually lead to the activation of one or several genes. Alternative splicing is a common means of controlling protein expression in time and space; therefore, it can modulate the outcome of signaling pathways through small changes in their elements. Notably, the overall process is tightly regulated, which is easily overlooked when analyzing the pathway as a whole. The present review summarizes recent studies of the alternative splicing of key players of the TNF pathway leading to inflammation, and hypothesizes on the cumulative results of those modifications and the impact on cancer development.

  16. Curcumin reverses T cell-mediated adaptive immune dysfunctions in tumor-bearing hosts.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sankar; Md Sakib Hossain, Dewan; Mohanty, Suchismita; Sankar Sen, Gouri; Chattopadhyay, Sreya; Banerjee, Shuvomoy; Chakraborty, Juni; Das, Kaushik; Sarkar, Diptendra; Das, Tanya; Sa, Gaurisankar

    2010-07-01

    Immune dysfunction is well documented during tumor progression and likely contributes to tumor immune evasion. CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are involved in antigen-specific tumor destruction and CD4(+) T cells are essential for helping this CD8(+) T cell-dependent tumor eradication. Tumors often target and inhibit T-cell function to escape from immune surveillance. This dysfunction includes loss of effector and memory T cells, bias towards type 2 cytokines and expansion of T regulatory (Treg) cells. Curcumin has previously been shown to have antitumor activity and some research has addressed the immunoprotective potential of this plant-derived polyphenol in tumor-bearing hosts. Here we examined the role of curcumin in the prevention of tumor-induced dysfunction of T cell-based immune responses. We observed severe loss of both effector and memory T-cell populations, downregulation of type 1 and upregulation of type 2 immune responses and decreased proliferation of effector T cells in the presence of tumors. Curcumin, in turn, prevented this loss of T cells, expanded central memory T cell (T(CM))/effector memory T cell (T(EM)) populations, reversed the type 2 immune bias and attenuated the tumor-induced inhibition of T-cell proliferation in tumor-bearing hosts. Further investigation revealed that tumor burden upregulated Treg cell populations and stimulated the production of the immunosuppressive cytokines transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and IL-10 in these cells. Curcumin, however, inhibited the suppressive activity of Treg cells by downregulating the production of TGF-beta and IL-10 in these cells. More importantly, curcumin treatment enhanced the ability of effector T cells to kill cancer cells. Overall, our observations suggest that the unique properties of curcumin may be exploited for successful attenuation of tumor-induced suppression of cell-mediated immune responses.

  17. A mathematical model for IL-6-mediated, stem cell driven tumor growth and targeted treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nör, Jacques Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    Targeting key regulators of the cancer stem cell phenotype to overcome their critical influence on tumor growth is a promising new strategy for cancer treatment. Here we present a modeling framework that operates at both the cellular and molecular levels, for investigating IL-6 mediated, cancer stem cell driven tumor growth and targeted treatment with anti-IL6 antibodies. Our immediate goal is to quantify the influence of IL-6 on cancer stem cell self-renewal and survival, and to characterize the subsequent impact on tumor growth dynamics. By including the molecular details of IL-6 binding, we are able to quantify the temporal changes in fractional occupancies of bound receptors and their influence on tumor volume. There is a strong correlation between the model output and experimental data for primary tumor xenografts. We also used the model to predict tumor response to administration of the humanized IL-6R monoclonal antibody, tocilizumab (TCZ), and we found that as little as 1mg/kg of TCZ administered weekly for 7 weeks is sufficient to result in tumor reduction and a sustained deceleration of tumor growth. PMID:29351275

  18. Alternative splicing regulation in tumor necrosis factor-mediated inflammation

    PubMed Central

    López-Urrutia, Eduardo; Campos-Parra, Alma; Herrera, Luis Alonso; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    It is generally accepted that alternative splicing has an effect on disease when it leads to conspicuous changes in relevant proteins, but that the combinatorial effect of several small modifications can have marked outcomes as well. Inflammation is a complex process involving numerous signaling pathways, among which the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) pathway is one of the most studied. Signaling pathways are commonly represented as intricate cascades of molecular interactions that eventually lead to the activation of one or several genes. Alternative splicing is a common means of controlling protein expression in time and space; therefore, it can modulate the outcome of signaling pathways through small changes in their elements. Notably, the overall process is tightly regulated, which is easily overlooked when analyzing the pathway as a whole. The present review summarizes recent studies of the alternative splicing of key players of the TNF pathway leading to inflammation, and hypothesizes on the cumulative results of those modifications and the impact on cancer development. PMID:29113151

  19. Strategies for improving chemotherapeutic delivery to solid tumors mediated by vascular permeability modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy Chaudhuri, Tista

    An essential mode of distribution of blood-borne chemotherapeutic agents within a solid tumor is via the micro-circulation. Poor tumor perfusion, because of a lack of functional vasculature or a lack of microvessels, as well as low tumor vascular permeability, can prevent adequate deposition of even low molecular-weight agents into the tumor. The modulation of tumor vascular function and density can provides numerous strategies for improving intratumor deposition of chemotherapeutic agents. Here we investigated strategies to improve drug delivery to two tumor types that share in common poor drug delivery, but differ in the underlying cause. First, in an angiogenesis-driven brain tumor model of Glioblastoma, the vascular permeability barrier, along with poorly-functional vasculature, hinders drug delivery. A strategy of nanoparticle-based tumor 'priming' to attack the vascular permeability barrier, employing sterically stabilized liposomal doxorubicin (SSL-DXR), was investigated. Functional and histological evaluation of tumor vasculature revealed that after an initial period of depressed vascular permeability and vascular pruning 3--4 days after SSL-DXR administration, vascular permeability and perfusion were restored and then elevated after 5--7 days. As a result of tumor priming, deposition of subsequently-administered nanoparticles was enhanced, and the efficacy of temozolomide (TMZ), if administered during the window of elevated permeability, was increased. The sequenced regimen resulted in a persistent reduction of the tumor proliferative index and a 40% suppression of tumor volume, compared to animals that received both agents simultaneously. Second, in a hypovascular, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma model, disruption of tumor-stromal communication via sonic hedgehog (sHH) signaling pathway inhibition mediated an indirect vascular proliferation and a more than 2-fold increase in intratumor nanoparticle deposition. Enhanced delivery of SSL-DXR in tumors pre

  20. Radio frequency-mediated local thermotherapy for destruction of pancreatic tumors using Ni-Au core-shell nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Xiaoping; Gill, Waqas Amin; Kringel, Rosemarie; Wang, Guankui; Hass, Jamie; Acharya, Suresh; Park, Jungrae; Tak Jeon, In; An, Boo Hyun; Lee, Ji Sung; Ryu, Jong Eun; Hill, Rod; McIlroy, David; Kim, Young Keun; Choi, Daniel S.

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel method of radio frequency (RF)-mediated thermotherapy in tumors by remotely heating nickel (Ni)-gold (Au) core-shell nanowires (CSNWs). Ectopic pancreatic tumors were developed in nude mice to evaluate the thermotherapeutic effects on tumor progression. Tumor ablation was produced by RF-mediated thermotherapy via activation of the paramagnetic properties of the Ni-Au CSNWs. Histopathology demonstrated that heat generated by RF irradiation caused significant cellular death with pyknotic nuclei and nuclear fragmentation dispersed throughout the tumors. These preliminary results suggest that thermotherapy ablation induced via RF activation of nanowires provides a potential alternative therapy for cancer treatment.

  1. Combining Cytotoxic and Immune-Mediated Gene Therapy to Treat Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Curtin, James F.; King, Gwendalyn D.; Candolfi, Marianela; Greeno, Remy B.; Kroeger, Kurt M.; Lowenstein, Pedro R.; Castro, Maria G.

    2006-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a type of intracranial brain tumor, for which there is no cure. In spite of advances in surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, patients die within a year of diagnosis. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop novel therapeutic approaches for this disease. Gene therapy, which is the use of genes or other nucleic acids as drugs, is a powerful new treatment strategy which can be developed to treat GBM. Several treatment modalities are amenable for gene therapy implementation, e.g. conditional cytotoxic approaches, targeted delivery of toxins into the tumor mass, immune stimulatory strategies, and these will all be the focus of this review. Both conditional cytotoxicity and targeted toxin mediated tumor death, are aimed at eliminating an established tumor mass and preventing further growth. Tumors employ several defensive strategies that suppress and inhibit anti-tumor immune responses. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in eliciting anti-tumor immune responses has identified promising targets for immunotherapy. Immunotherapy is designed to aid the immune system to recognize and destroy tumor cells in order to eliminate the tumor burden. Also, immune-therapeutic strategies have the added advantage that an activated immune system has the capability of recognizing tumor cells at distant sites from the primary tumor, therefore targeting metastasis distant from the primary tumor locale. Pre-clinical models and clinical trials have demonstrated that in spite of their location within the central nervous system (CNS), a tissue described as ‘immune privileged’, brain tumors can be effectively targeted by the activated immune system following various immunotherapeutic strategies. This review will highlight recent advances in brain tumor immunotherapy, with particular emphasis on advances made using gene therapy strategies, as well as reviewing other novel therapies that can be used in combination with immunotherapy. Another

  2. Macrophage PPARγ inhibits Gpr132 to mediate the anti-tumor effects of rosiglitazone

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wing Yin; Huynh, HoangDinh; Chen, Peiwen; Peña-Llopis, Samuel; Wan, Yihong

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) significantly contributes to cancer progression. Human cancer is enhanced by PPARγ loss-of-function mutations, but inhibited by PPARγ agonists such as TZD diabetes drugs including rosiglitazone. However, it remains enigmatic whether and how macrophage contributes to PPARγ tumor-suppressive functions. Here we report that macrophage PPARγ deletion in mice not only exacerbates mammary tumor development but also impairs the anti-tumor effects of rosiglitazone. Mechanistically, we identify Gpr132 as a novel direct PPARγ target in macrophage whose expression is enhanced by PPARγ loss but repressed by PPARγ activation. Functionally, macrophage Gpr132 is pro-inflammatory and pro-tumor. Genetic Gpr132 deletion not only retards inflammation and cancer growth but also abrogates the anti-tumor effects of PPARγ and rosiglitazone. Pharmacological Gpr132 inhibition significantly impedes mammary tumor malignancy. These findings uncover macrophage PPARγ and Gpr132 as critical TAM modulators, new cancer therapeutic targets, and essential mediators of TZD anti-cancer effects. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18501.001 PMID:27692066

  3. Dosimetry study of PHOTOFRIN-mediated photodynamic therapy in a mouse tumor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Haixia; Kim, Michele M.; Penjweini, Rozhin; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2016-03-01

    It is well known in photodynamic therapy (PDT) that there is a large variability between PDT light dose and therapeutic outcomes. An explicit dosimetry model using apparent reacted 1O2 concentration [1O2]rx has been developed as a PDT dosimetric quantity to improve the accuracy of the predicted ability of therapeutic efficacy. In this study, this explicit macroscopic singlet oxygen model was adopted to establish the correlation between calculated reacted [1O2]rx and the tumor growth using Photofrin-mediated PDT in a mouse tumor model. Mice with radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumors were injected with Photofrin at a dose of 5 mg/kg. PDT was performed 24h later with different fluence rates (50, 75 and 150 mW/cm2) and different fluences (50 and 135 J/cm2) using a collimated light applicator coupled to a 630nm laser. The tumor volume was monitored daily after PDT and correlated with the total light fluence and [1O2]rx. Photophysical parameters as well as the singlet oxygen threshold dose for this sensitizer and the RIF tumor model were determined previously. The result showed that tumor growth rate varied greatly with light fluence for different fluence rates while [1O2]rx had a good correlation with the PDT-induced tumor growth rate. This preliminary study indicated that [1O2]rx could serve as a better dosimetric predictor for predicting PDT outcome than PDT light dose.

  4. Tumor-derived microvesicles mediate human breast cancer invasion through differentially glycosylated EMMPRIN.

    PubMed

    Menck, Kerstin; Scharf, Christian; Bleckmann, Annalen; Dyck, Lydia; Rost, Ulrike; Wenzel, Dirk; Dhople, Vishnu M; Siam, Laila; Pukrop, Tobias; Binder, Claudia; Klemm, Florian

    2015-04-01

    Tumor cells secrete not only a variety of soluble factors, but also extracellular vesicles that are known to support the establishment of a favorable tumor niche by influencing the surrounding stroma cells. Here we show that tumor-derived microvesicles (T-MV) also directly influence the tumor cells by enhancing their invasion in a both autologous and heterologous manner. Neither the respective vesicle-free supernatant nor MV from benign mammary cells mediate invasion. Uptake of T-MV is essential for the proinvasive effect. We further identify the highly glycosylated form of the extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) as a marker for proinvasive MV. EMMPRIN is also present at high levels on MV from metastatic breast cancer patients in vivo. Anti-EMMPRIN strategies, such as MV deglycosylation, gene knockdown, and specific blocking peptides, inhibit MV-induced invasion. Interestingly, the effect of EMMPRIN-bearing MV is not mediated by matrix metalloproteinases but by activation of the p38/MAPK signaling pathway in the tumor cells. In conclusion, T-MV stimulate cancer cell invasion via a direct feedback mechanism dependent on highly glycosylated EMMPRIN. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS.

  5. Tumor-derived microvesicles mediate human breast cancer invasion through differentially glycosylated EMMPRIN

    PubMed Central

    Menck, Kerstin; Scharf, Christian; Bleckmann, Annalen; Dyck, Lydia; Rost, Ulrike; Wenzel, Dirk; Dhople, Vishnu M.; Siam, Laila; Pukrop, Tobias; Binder, Claudia; Klemm, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cells secrete not only a variety of soluble factors, but also extracellular vesicles that are known to support the establishment of a favorable tumor niche by influencing the surrounding stroma cells. Here we show that tumor-derived microvesicles (T-MV) also directly influence the tumor cells by enhancing their invasion in a both autologous and heterologous manner. Neither the respective vesicle-free supernatant nor MV from benign mammary cells mediate invasion. Uptake of T-MV is essential for the proinvasive effect. We further identify the highly glycosylated form of the extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) as a marker for proinvasive MV. EMMPRIN is also present at high levels on MV from metastatic breast cancer patients in vivo. Anti-EMMPRIN strategies, such as MV deglycosylation, gene knockdown, and specific blocking peptides, inhibit MV-induced invasion. Interestingly, the effect of EMMPRIN-bearing MV is not mediated by matrix metalloproteinases but by activation of the p38/MAPK signaling pathway in the tumor cells. In conclusion, T-MV stimulate cancer cell invasion via a direct feedback mechanism dependent on highly glycosylated EMMPRIN. PMID:25503107

  6. Forced LIGHT expression in prostate tumors overcomes Treg mediated immunosuppression and synergizes with a prostate tumor therapeutic vaccine by recruiting effector T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lisa; Da Silva, Diane M; Verma, Bhavna; Gray, Andrew; Brand, Heike E; Skeate, Joseph G; Porras, Tania B; Kanodia, Shreya; Kast, W Martin

    2015-02-15

    LIGHT, a ligand for lymphotoxin-β receptor (LTβR) and herpes virus entry mediator, is predominantly expressed on activated immune cells and LTβR signaling leads to the recruitment of lymphocytes. The interaction between LIGHT and LTβR has been previously shown to activate immune cells and result in tumor regression in a virally-induced tumor model, but the role of LIGHT in tumor immunosuppression or in a prostate cancer setting, where self antigens exist, has not been explored. We hypothesized that forced expression of LIGHT in prostate tumors would shift the pattern of immune cell infiltration toward an anti-tumoral milieu, would inhibit T regulatory cells (Tregs) and would induce prostate cancer tumor associated antigen (TAA) specific T cells that would eradicate tumors. Real Time PCR was used to evaluate expression of forced LIGHT and other immunoregulatory genes in prostate tumors samples. For in vivo studies, adenovirus encoding murine LIGHT was injected intratumorally into TRAMP-C2 prostate cancer cell tumor bearing mice. Chemokine and cytokine concentrations were determined by multiplex ELISA. Flow cytometry was used to phenotype tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and expression of LIGHT on the tumor cell surface. Tumor-specific lymphocytes were quantified via ELISpot assay. Treg induction and Treg suppression assays determined Treg functionality after LIGHT treatment. LIGHT in combination with a therapeutic vaccine, PSCA TriVax, reduced tumor burden. LIGHT expression peaked within 48 hr of infection, recruited effector T cells that recognized mouse prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) into the tumor microenvironment, and inhibited infiltration of Tregs. Tregs isolated from tumor draining lymph nodes had impaired suppressive capability after LIGHT treatment. Forced LIGHT treatment combined with PSCA TriVax therapeutic vaccination delays prostate cancer progression in mice by recruiting effector T lymphocytes to the tumor and inhibiting Treg mediated

  7. Differential expression of Mediator complex subunit MED15 in testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Klümper, Niklas; Syring, Isabella; Offermann, Anne; Shaikhibrahim, Zaki; Vogel, Wenzel; Müller, Stefan C; Ellinger, Jörg; Strauß, Arne; Radzun, Heinz Joachim; Ströbel, Philipp; Brägelmann, Johannes; Perner, Sven; Bremmer, Felix

    2015-09-17

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most common cancer entities in young men with increasing incidence observed in the last decades. For therapeutic management it is important, that TGCT are divided into several histological subtypes. MED15 is part of the multiprotein Mediator complex which presents an integrative hub for transcriptional regulation and is known to be deregulated in several malignancies, such as prostate cancer and bladder cancer role, whereas the role of the Mediator complex in TGCT has not been investigated so far. Aim of the study was to investigate the implication of MED15 in TGCT development and its stratification into histological subtypes. Immunohistochemical staining (IHC) against Mediator complex subunit MED15 was conducted on a TGCT cohort containing tumor-free testis (n = 35), intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified (IGCNU, n = 14), seminomas (SEM, n = 107) and non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT, n = 42), further subdivided into embryonic carcinomas (EC, n = 30), yolk sac tumors (YST, n = 5), chorionic carcinomas (CC, n = 5) and teratomas (TER, n = 2). Quantification of MED15 protein expression was performed through IHC followed by semi-quantitative image analysis using the Definiens software. In tumor-free seminiferous tubules, MED15 protein expression was absent or only low expressed in spermatogonia. Interestingly, the precursor lesions IGCNU exhibited heterogeneous but partly very strong MED15 expression. SEM weakly express the Mediator complex subunit MED15, whereas NSGCT and especially EC show significantly enhanced expression compared to tumor-free testis. In conclusion, MED15 is differentially expressed in tumor-free testis and TGCT. While MED15 is absent or low in tumor-free testis and SEM, NSGCT highly express MED15, hinting at the diagnostic potential of this marker to distinguish between SEM and NSGCT. Further, the precursor lesion IGCNU showed increased nuclear MED15

  8. C2-streptavidin mediates the delivery of biotin-conjugated tumor suppressor protein p53 into tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Fahrer, Jörg; Schweitzer, Brigitte; Fiedler, Katja; Langer, Torben; Gierschik, Peter; Barth, Holger

    2013-04-17

    We have previously generated a recombinant C2-streptavidin fusion protein for the delivery of biotin-labeled molecules of low molecular weight into the cytosol of mammalian cells. A nontoxic moiety of Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin mediates the cellular uptake, whereas the streptavidin unit serves as a binding platform for biotin-labeled cargo molecules. In the present study, we used the C2-streptavidin transporter to introduce biotin-conjugated p53 protein into various mammalian cell lines. The p53 tumor suppressor protein is inactivated in many human cancers by multiple mechanisms and therefore the restoration of its activity in tumor cells is of great therapeutic interest. Recombinant p53 was expressed in insect cells and biotin-labeled. Biotin-p53 retained its specific high-affinity DNA-binding as revealed by gel-shift analysis. Successful conjugation of biotin-p53 to the C2-streptavidin transporter was monitored by an overlay blot technique and confirmed by real-time surface plasmon resonance, providing a KD-value in the low nM range. C2-streptavidin significantly enhanced the uptake of biotin-p53 into African Green Monkey (Vero) epithelial cells as shown by flow cytometry. Using cell fractionation, the cytosolic translocation of biotin-p53 was detected in Vero cells as well as in HeLa cervix carcinoma cells. In line with this finding, confocal microscopy displayed cytoplasmic staining of biotin-p53 in HeLa and HL60 leukemia cells. Internalized biotin-p53 partially colocalized with early endosomes, as confirmed by confocal microscopy. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the successful conjugation of biotin-p53 to C2-streptavidin and its subsequent receptor-mediated endocytosis into different human tumor cell lines.

  9. Computational modeling identifies key gene regulatory interactions underlying phenobarbital-mediated tumor promotion

    PubMed Central

    Luisier, Raphaëlle; Unterberger, Elif B.; Goodman, Jay I.; Schwarz, Michael; Moggs, Jonathan; Terranova, Rémi; van Nimwegen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Gene regulatory interactions underlying the early stages of non-genotoxic carcinogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we have identified key candidate regulators of phenobarbital (PB)-mediated mouse liver tumorigenesis, a well-characterized model of non-genotoxic carcinogenesis, by applying a new computational modeling approach to a comprehensive collection of in vivo gene expression studies. We have combined our previously developed motif activity response analysis (MARA), which models gene expression patterns in terms of computationally predicted transcription factor binding sites with singular value decomposition (SVD) of the inferred motif activities, to disentangle the roles that different transcriptional regulators play in specific biological pathways of tumor promotion. Furthermore, transgenic mouse models enabled us to identify which of these regulatory activities was downstream of constitutive androstane receptor and β-catenin signaling, both crucial components of PB-mediated liver tumorigenesis. We propose novel roles for E2F and ZFP161 in PB-mediated hepatocyte proliferation and suggest that PB-mediated suppression of ESR1 activity contributes to the development of a tumor-prone environment. Our study shows that combining MARA with SVD allows for automated identification of independent transcription regulatory programs within a complex in vivo tissue environment and provides novel mechanistic insights into PB-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:24464994

  10. HSP90 inhibitor 17-DMAG enhances EphA2+ tumor cell recognition by specific CD8+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Kawabe, Mayumi; Mandic, Maja; Taylor, Jennifer L.; Vasquez, Cecilia A.; Wesa, Amy K.; Neckers, Leonard M.; Storkus, Walter J.

    2009-01-01

    EphA2, a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family, is commonly expressed by a broad range of cancer types, where its level of (over)expression correlates with poor clinical outcome. Since tumor cell expressed EphA2 is a non-mutated “self” protein, specific CD8+ T cells are subject to self-tolerance mechanisms and typically exhibit only moderate-to-low functional avidity, rendering them marginally competent to recognize EphA2+ tumor cells in vitro or in vivo. We have recently reported that the ability of specific CD8+ T cells to recognize EphA2+ tumor cells can be augmented after the cancer cells are pretreated with EphA2 agonists that promote proteasomal degradation and upregulated expression of EphA2/class I complexes on the tumor cell membrane (Wesa et al., J. Immunol. 2008;181:7721-7). In the current study we show that treatment of EphA2+ tumor cells with the irreversible HSP90 inhibitor, 17-DMAG, similarly enhances their recognition by EphA2-specific CD8+ T cell lines and clones in vitro via a mechanism that is dependent on proteasome and TAP function, as well as, the retrotranslocation of EphA2 into the tumor cytoplasm. When 17-DMAG and agonist anti-EphA2 mAb are co-applied, T cell recognition of tumor cells is further increased over that observed for either agent alone. These studies suggest that EphA2 represents a novel HSP90 client protein and that the treatment of cancer patients with 17-DMAG-based “pulse” therapy may improve the anti-tumor efficacy of CD8+ T effector cells reactive against EphA2-derived epitopes. PMID:19690146

  11. 2,3,7, 8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD)-MEDIATED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN FEMALE CYP1A-2 KNOCKOUT (CYP1A2-/-) MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-Mediated Oxidative Stress in Female CYP1A2 Knockout (CYP1A2-/-) Mice

    Deborah Burgin1, Janet Diliberto2, Linda Birnbaum2
    1UNC Toxicology; 2USEPA/ORD/NHEERL, RTP, NC

    Most of the effects due to TCDD exposure are mediated via...

  12. Forced LIGHT expression in prostate tumors overcomes Treg mediated immunosuppression and synergizes with a prostate tumor therapeutic vaccine by recruiting effector T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lisa; Da Silva, Diane M.; Verma, Bhavna; Gray, Andrew; Brand, Heike E.; Skeate, Joseph G.; Porras, Tania B.; Kanodia, Shreya; Kast, W. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background LIGHT, a ligand for lymphotoxin-β receptor (LTβR) and herpes virus entry mediator, is predominantly expressed on activated immune cells and LTβR signaling leads to the recruitment of lymphocytes. The interaction between LIGHT and LTβR has been previously shown in a virus induced tumor model to activate immune cells and result in tumor regression, but the role of LIGHT in tumor immunosuppression or in a prostate cancer setting, where self antigens exist, has not been explored. We hypothesized that forced expression of LIGHT in prostate tumors would shift the pattern of immune cell infiltration, would inhibit T regulatory cells (Tregs) and would induce prostate cancer tumor associated antigen (TAA) specific T cells that would eradicate tumors. Methods Real Time PCR was used to evaluate expression of forced LIGHT and various other genes in prostate tumors samples. Adenovirus encoding murine LIGHT was injected intratumorally into TRAMP C2 prostate cancer cell tumor bearing mice for in vivo studies. Chemokine and cytokine concentrations were determined by multiplex ELISA. Flow cytometry was used to phenotype tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and expression of LIGHT on the tumor cell surface. Tumor specific lymphocytes were quantified via an ELISpot assay. Treg induction and Treg suppression assays determined Treg functionality after LIGHT treatment. Results LIGHT expression peaked within 48 hours of infection, recruited effector T cells into the tumor microenvironment that recognized mouse prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) and inhibited the infiltration of Tregs. Tregs isolated from tumor draining lymph nodes had impaired suppressive capability after LIGHT treatment. LIGHT in combination with a therapeutic vaccine, PSCA TriVax, reduced tumor burden. Conclusion Forced LIGHT treatment combined with PSCA TriVax therapeutic vaccination delays prostate cancer progression in mice by recruiting effector T lymphocytes to the tumor and inhibiting Treg mediated

  13. A genome-wide loss-of-function screen identifies SLC26A2 as a novel mediator of TRAIL resistance

    PubMed Central

    Dimberg, Lina Y.; Towers, Christina G.; Behbakht, Kian; Hotz, Taylor J.; Kim, Jihye; Fosmire, Susan; Porter, Christopher C.; Tan, Aik-Choon; Thorburn, Andrew; Ford, Heide L.

    2017-01-01

    TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a potent death-inducing ligand that mediates apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway and serves as an important endogenous tumor suppressor mechanism. Because tumor cells are often killed by TRAIL and normal cells are not, drugs that activate the TRAIL pathway have been thought to have potential clinical value. However, to date, most TRAIL-related clinical trials have largely failed due to the tumor cells having intrinsic or acquired resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Previous studies to identify resistance mechanisms have focused on targeted analysis of the canonical apoptosis pathway and other known regulators of TRAIL receptor signaling. To identify novel mechanisms of TRAIL resistance in an unbiased way, we performed a genome wide shRNA screen for genes that regulate TRAIL sensitivity in sub-lines that had been selected for acquired TRAIL resistance. This screen identified previously unknown mediators of TRAIL resistance including Angiotensin II Receptor 2, Crk-like protein, T-Box Transcription Factor 2 and solute carrier family 26 member 2 (SLC26A2). SLC26A2 downregulates the TRAIL receptors, DR4 and DR5, and this downregulation is associated with resistance to TRAIL. Its expression is high in numerous tumor types compared to normal cells, and in breast cancer, SLC26A2 is associated with a significant decrease in relapse free survival. PMID:28108622

  14. MiR-1 suppresses tumor cell proliferation in colorectal cancer by inhibition of Smad3-mediated tumor glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wanfu; Zhang, Zijing; Zou, Kejian; Cheng, Yang; Yang, Min; Chen, Huan; Wang, Hongli; Zhao, Junhong; Chen, Peiyu; He, Liying; Chen, Xinwen; Geng, Lanlan; Gong, Sitang

    2017-01-01

    Aberrant expression of microRNA (miR)-1 has been observed in many human malignancies. However, the function and underlying mechanism of miR-1 remains elusive. To address the specific role of miR-1 in tumor glycolysis using the gain- or loss-of-function studies. Metabolic studies combined with gene expression analysis were performed in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated aberrant expression of miR-1 in aerobic glycolysis, the Warburg effect, in cancer cells. MiR-1 suppressed aerobic glycolysis and tumor cell proliferation via inactivation of Smad3 and targeting HIF-1α, leading to reduce HK2 and MCT4 expression, which illustrated a novel pathway to mediate aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells. Overexpression of miR-1 mimics significantly decreased tumor glycolysis, including lactate production and glucose uptake, and cell proliferation, and these effects were reversed by ectopic expression of Smad3. Importantly, endogenous Smad3 regulated and interacted with HIF-1α, resulting in increasing activity of Smad3, and this interaction was dramatically abolished by addition of miR-1. We further demonstrated that Smad3 was central to the effects of miR-1 in colorectal cancer cells, establishing a previously unappreciated mechanism by which the miR-1/Smad3/HIF-1α axis facilitates the Warburg effect to promote cancer progression in vitro and in vivo. The results indicate that miR-1 may have an essential role as a tumor suppressor, suggesting its potential role in molecular therapy of patients with advanced colorectal cancer. PMID:28471448

  15. NF-κB functions as a molecular link between tumor cells and Th1/Tc1 T cells in the tumor microenvironment to exert radiation-mediated tumor suppression

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Priscilla S.; Bardhan, Kankana; Chen, May R.; Paschall, Amy V.; Lu, Chunwan; Bollag, Roni J.; Kong, Feng-Chong; Jin, JianYue; Kong, Feng-Ming; Waller, Jennifer L.; Pollock, Raphael E.; Liu, Kebin

    2016-01-01

    Radiation modulates both tumor cells and immune cells in the tumor microenvironment to exert its anti-tumor activity; however, the molecular connection between tumor cells and immune cells that mediates radiation-exerted tumor suppression activity in the tumor microenvironment is largely unknown. We report here that radiation induces rapid activation of the p65/p50 and p50/p50 NF-κB complexes in human soft tissue sarcoma (STS) cells. Radiation-activated p65/p50 and p50/p50 bind to the TNFα promoter to activate its transcription in STS cells. Radiation-induced TNFα induces tumor cell death in an autocrine manner. A sublethal dose of Smac mimetic BV6 induces cIAP1 and cIAP2 degradation to increase tumor cell sensitivity to radiation-induced cell death in vitro and to enhance radiation-mediated suppression of STS xenografts in vivo. Inhibition of caspases, RIP1, or RIP3 blocks radiation/TNFα-induced cell death, whereas inhibition of RIP1 blocks TNFα-induced caspase activation, suggesting that caspases and RIP1 act sequentially to mediate the non-compensatory cell death pathways. Furthermore, we determined in a syngeneic sarcoma mouse model that radiation up-regulates IRF3, IFNβ, and the T cell chemokines CCL2 and CCL5 in the tumor microenvironment, which are associated with activation and increased infiltration of Th1/Tc1 T cells in the tumor microenvironment. Moreover, tumor-infiltrating T cells are in their active form since both the perforin and FasL pathways are activated in irradiated tumor tissues. Consequently, combined BV6 and radiation completely suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Therefore, radiation-induced NF-κB functions as a molecular link between tumor cells and immune cells in the tumor microenvironment for radiation-mediated tumor suppression. PMID:27014915

  16. DNA Methylation Mediated Control of Gene Expression Is Critical for Development of Crown Gall Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kneitz, Susanne; Weber, Dana; Fuchs, Joerg; Hedrich, Rainer; Deeken, Rosalia

    2013-01-01

    Crown gall tumors develop after integration of the T-DNA of virulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains into the plant genome. Expression of the T-DNA–encoded oncogenes triggers proliferation and differentiation of transformed plant cells. Crown gall development is known to be accompanied by global changes in transcription, metabolite levels, and physiological processes. High levels of abscisic acid (ABA) in crown galls regulate expression of drought stress responsive genes and mediate drought stress acclimation, which is essential for wild-type-like tumor growth. An impact of epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation on crown gall development has been suggested; however, it has not yet been investigated comprehensively. In this study, the methylation pattern of Arabidopsis thaliana crown galls was analyzed on a genome-wide scale as well as at the single gene level. Bisulfite sequencing analysis revealed that the oncogenes Ipt, IaaH, and IaaM were unmethylated in crown galls. Nevertheless, the oncogenes were susceptible to siRNA–mediated methylation, which inhibited their expression and subsequently crown gall growth. Genome arrays, hybridized with methylated DNA obtained by immunoprecipitation, revealed a globally hypermethylated crown gall genome, while promoters were rather hypomethylated. Mutants with reduced non-CG methylation developed larger tumors than the wild-type controls, indicating that hypermethylation inhibits plant tumor growth. The differential methylation pattern of crown galls and the stem tissue from which they originate correlated with transcriptional changes. Genes known to be transcriptionally inhibited by ABA and methylated in crown galls became promoter methylated upon treatment of A. thaliana with ABA. This suggests that the high ABA levels in crown galls may mediate DNA methylation and regulate expression of genes involved in drought stress protection. In summary, our studies provide evidence that epigenetic processes regulate gene

  17. DNA methylation mediated control of gene expression is critical for development of crown gall tumors.

    PubMed

    Gohlke, Jochen; Scholz, Claus-Juergen; Kneitz, Susanne; Weber, Dana; Fuchs, Joerg; Hedrich, Rainer; Deeken, Rosalia

    2013-01-01

    Crown gall tumors develop after integration of the T-DNA of virulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains into the plant genome. Expression of the T-DNA-encoded oncogenes triggers proliferation and differentiation of transformed plant cells. Crown gall development is known to be accompanied by global changes in transcription, metabolite levels, and physiological processes. High levels of abscisic acid (ABA) in crown galls regulate expression of drought stress responsive genes and mediate drought stress acclimation, which is essential for wild-type-like tumor growth. An impact of epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation on crown gall development has been suggested; however, it has not yet been investigated comprehensively. In this study, the methylation pattern of Arabidopsis thaliana crown galls was analyzed on a genome-wide scale as well as at the single gene level. Bisulfite sequencing analysis revealed that the oncogenes Ipt, IaaH, and IaaM were unmethylated in crown galls. Nevertheless, the oncogenes were susceptible to siRNA-mediated methylation, which inhibited their expression and subsequently crown gall growth. Genome arrays, hybridized with methylated DNA obtained by immunoprecipitation, revealed a globally hypermethylated crown gall genome, while promoters were rather hypomethylated. Mutants with reduced non-CG methylation developed larger tumors than the wild-type controls, indicating that hypermethylation inhibits plant tumor growth. The differential methylation pattern of crown galls and the stem tissue from which they originate correlated with transcriptional changes. Genes known to be transcriptionally inhibited by ABA and methylated in crown galls became promoter methylated upon treatment of A. thaliana with ABA. This suggests that the high ABA levels in crown galls may mediate DNA methylation and regulate expression of genes involved in drought stress protection. In summary, our studies provide evidence that epigenetic processes regulate gene

  18. Antisense oligonucleotide–mediated MDM4 exon 6 skipping impairs tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Dewaele, Michael; Tabaglio, Tommaso; Willekens, Karen; Bezzi, Marco; Teo, Shun Xie; Low, Diana H.P.; Koh, Cheryl M.; Rambow, Florian; Fiers, Mark; Rogiers, Aljosja; Radaelli, Enrico; Al-Haddawi, Muthafar; Tan, Soo Yong; Hermans, Els; Amant, Frederic; Yan, Hualong; Lakshmanan, Manikandan; Koumar, Ratnacaram Chandrahas; Lim, Soon Thye; Derheimer, Frederick A.; Campbell, Robert M.; Bonday, Zahid; Tergaonkar, Vinay; Shackleton, Mark; Blattner, Christine; Marine, Jean-Christophe; Guccione, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    MDM4 is a promising target for cancer therapy, as it is undetectable in most normal adult tissues but often upregulated in cancer cells to dampen p53 tumor-suppressor function. The mechanisms that underlie MDM4 upregulation in cancer cells are largely unknown. Here, we have shown that this key oncogenic event mainly depends on a specific alternative splicing switch. We determined that while a nonsense-mediated, decay-targeted isoform of MDM4 (MDM4-S) is produced in normal adult tissues as a result of exon 6 skipping, enhanced exon 6 inclusion leads to expression of full-length MDM4 in a large number of human cancers. Although this alternative splicing event is likely regulated by multiple splicing factors, we identified the SRSF3 oncoprotein as a key enhancer of exon 6 inclusion. In multiple human melanoma cell lines and in melanoma patient–derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models, antisense oligonucleotide–mediated (ASO-mediated) skipping of exon 6 decreased MDM4 abundance, inhibited melanoma growth, and enhanced sensitivity to MAPK-targeting therapeutics. Additionally, ASO-based MDM4 targeting reduced diffuse large B cell lymphoma PDX growth. As full-length MDM4 is enhanced in multiple human tumors, our data indicate that this strategy is applicable to a wide range of tumor types. We conclude that enhanced MDM4 exon 6 inclusion is a common oncogenic event and has potential as a clinically compatible therapeutic target. PMID:26595814

  19. Modality of tumor endothelial VEGFR2 silencing-mediated improvement in intratumoral distribution of lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shoshiro; Kato, Akari; Sakurai, Yu; Hada, Tomoya; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2017-04-10

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated enhancement in vascular permeability is considered to be a major factor in tumor-targeting delivery via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. We previously reported that the silencing of the endothelial VEGF receptor (VEGFR2) by a liposomal siRNA system (RGD-MEND) resulted in an enhanced intratumoral distribution of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified liposomes (LPs) in a renal cell carcinoma, a type of hypervascularized cancer, although the inhibition of VEGF signaling would be expected to decrease the permeability of the tumor vasculature. We herein report that the enhancement in the intratumoral distribution of LPs by VEGFR2 inhibition was dependent on the vascular type of the tumor (stroma vessel type; SV and tumor vessel type; TV). In the case of TV-type tumors (renal cell carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma), inhibiting VEGFR2 improved intratumoral distribution, while no effect was found in the case of SV-type tumors (colorectal cancer). Moreover, through a comparison of the intratumoral distribution of LPs with a variety of physical properties (100nm vs 400nm, neutral vs negative vs positive), VEGFR2 inhibition was found to alter the tumor microenvironment, including heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). In addition, the results regarding the effect of the size of nanoparticles indicated that VEGFR2 inhibition improved the penetration of nanoparticles through the vessel wall, but not via permeability, suggesting the involvement of an unknown mechanism. Our findings suggest that a combination of anti-angiogenic therapy and delivery via the EPR effect would be useful in certain cases, and that altering the tumor microenvironment by VEGFR2 blockade has a drastic effect on the intratumoral distribution of nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. MicroRNA-196a2 Biomarker and Targetome Network Analysis in Solid Tumors.

    PubMed

    Toraih, Eman A; Fawzy, Manal S; Mohammed, Eman A; Hussein, Mohammad H; El-Labban, Mohamad M

    2016-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been linked to cancer development and progression. The molecular mechanisms underlying the genetic associations of the miRNA single nucleotide polymorphism with cancer vary by cancer site. As there are no previous studies on the miR-196a2 variant or expression in any type of cancer among our population, we aimed to determine the expression profile of mature miR-196a2 in various types of solid tumors and to analyze the impact of its polymorphism (rs11614913; C/T) on the expression levels. The study included 230 cancer patients (including 17 types of cancer), 26 patients with pre-cancer lesions, and 100 unrelated controls. Archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens (n = 197) were available for both miRNA expression analysis and single nucleotide polymorphism identification. Venous blood was collected from 59 histologically confirmed sporadic cancer patients and the study controls for single nucleotide polymorphism identification. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed for allelic discrimination and relative quantification of miR-196a2 in the study samples. In silico target gene prediction and network analysis was performed. We found that individuals with the T variant were associated with cancer risk under all genetic association models, especially in colorectal, esophageal, skin, lung, thyroid, and renal cancer. Overall and stratified analysis showed miR-196a2 over-expression in most of the current malignant tumor samples relative to their corresponding cancer-free tissues. Carriers of the C allele had significantly higher expression levels of miR-196a2. Correlation with the clinicopathological features of cancer showed organ-specific effects. Gene enrichment analysis of predicted and validated targets speculated the putative role of miR-196a2 in cancer-associated biology. We highlighted cancer-type specific expression profiles of miR-196a2, which was correlated with the clinicopathological features in various

  1. Heat shock protein 90-mediated peptide-selective presentation of cytosolic tumor antigen for direct recognition of tumors by CD4(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Takemasa; Matsuzaki, Junko; Caballero, Otavia L; Jungbluth, Achim A; Ritter, Gerd; Odunsi, Kunle; Old, Lloyd J; Gnjatic, Sacha

    2012-04-15

    Tumor Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells play important functions in tumor immunosurveillance, and in certain cases they can directly recognize HLA class II-expressing tumor cells. However, the underlying mechanism of intracellular Ag presentation to CD4(+) T cells by tumor cells has not yet been well characterized. We analyzed two naturally occurring human CD4(+) T cell lines specific for different peptides from cytosolic tumor Ag NY-ESO-1. Whereas both lines had the same HLA restriction and a similar ability to recognize exogenous NY-ESO-1 protein, only one CD4(+) T cell line recognized NY-ESO-1(+) HLA class II-expressing melanoma cells. Modulation of Ag processing in melanoma cells using specific molecular inhibitors and small interfering RNA revealed a previously undescribed peptide-selective Ag-presentation pathway by HLA class II(+) melanoma cells. The presentation required both proteasome and endosomal protease-dependent processing mechanisms, as well as cytosolic heat shock protein 90-mediated chaperoning. Such tumor-specific pathway of endogenous HLA class II Ag presentation is expected to play an important role in immunosurveillance or immunosuppression mediated by various subsets of CD4(+) T cells at the tumor local site. Furthermore, targeted activation of tumor-recognizing CD4(+) T cells by vaccination or adoptive transfer could be a suitable strategy for enhancing the efficacy of tumor immunotherapy.

  2. Penfluridol suppresses glioblastoma tumor growth by Akt-mediated inhibition of GLI1

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Alok; Srivastava, Sanjay K.

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common brain tumor with poor survival rate. Our results show that penfluridol, an antipsychotic drug significantly reduced the survival of ten adult and pediatric glioblastoma cell lines with IC50 ranging 2–5 μM after 72 hours of treatment and induced apoptosis. Penfluridol treatment suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 and reduced the expression of GLI1, OCT4, Nanog and Sox2 in several glioblastoma cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. Inhibiting Akt with LY294002 and siRNA, or inhibiting GLI1 using GANT61, cyclopamine, siRNA and CRISPR/Cas9 resulted in enhanced cell growth suppressive effects of penfluridol. On the other hand, overexpression of GLI1 significantly attenuated the effects of penfluridol. Our results further demonstrated that penfluridol treatment inhibited the growth of U87MG tumors by 65% and 72% in subcutaneous and intracranial in vivo glioblastoma tumor models respectively. Immunohistochemical and western blot analysis of tumors revealed reduced pAkt (Ser 473), GLI1, OCT4 and increase in caspase-3 cleavage and TUNEL staining, confirming in vitro findings. Taken together, our results indicate that overall glioblastoma tumor growth suppression by penfluridol was associated with Akt-mediated inhibition of GLI1. PMID:28380428

  3. Singlet oxygen explicit dosimetry to predict local tumor control for HPPH-mediated photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penjweini, Rozhin; Kim, Michele M.; Ong, Yi Hong; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2017-02-01

    This preclinical study examines four dosimetric quantities (light fluence, photosensitizer photobleaching ratio, PDT dose, and reacted singlet oxygen ([1O2]rx)) to predict local control rate (LCR) for 2-(1-Hexyloxyethyl)-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide (HPPH)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT). Mice bearing radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumors were treated with different in-air fluences (135, 250 and 350 J/cm2) and in-air fluence rates (50, 75 and 150 mW/cm2) at 0.25 mg/kg HPPH and a drug-light interval of 24 hours using a 1 cm diameter collimated laser beam at 665 nm wavelength. A macroscopic model was used to calculate ([1O2]rx)) based on in vivo explicit dosimetry of the initial tissue oxygenation, photosensitizer concentration, and tissue optical properties. PDT dose was defined as a temporal integral of drug concentration and fluence rate (φ) at a 3 mm tumor depth. Light fluence rate was calculated throughout the treatment volume based on Monte-Carlo simulation and measured tissue optical properties. The tumor volume of each mouse was tracked for 30 days after PDT and Kaplan-Meier analyses for LCR were performed based on a tumor volume <=100 mm3, for four dose metrics: fluence, HPPH photobleaching rate, PDT dose, and ([1O2]rx)). The results of this study showed that ([1O2]rx)) is the best dosimetric quantity that can predict tumor response and correlate with LCR.

  4. Low-intensity focused ultrasound mediated localized drug delivery for liver tumors in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yuping; Wang, Zhigang; Dong, Guifang; Sun, Yang; Wang, Xi; Rong, Yue; Li, Maoping; Wang, Dong; Ran, Haitao

    2016-09-01

    To explore the antitumor effects of low-intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) mediated localized drug delivery of adriamycin-microbubble-PLGA nanoparticle complexes on rabbits VX2 liver tumor. ADM-NMCs were prepared by covalent linking of ADM-PLGA nanoparticles (ADM-NPs) to the shell of the microbubbles. A fixed water bag filled with microbubbles was subjected to LIFU and non-focused ultrasound respectively, and the ultrasound images of which were recorded before and after ultrasonication. A total of 54 VX2 liver tumor-burdened rabbits were divided into six groups randomly, including control, ADM-NPs combined with LIFU, microbubbles combined with LIFU, ADM-NPs and microbubbles combined with LIFU, ADM-NMCs combined with LIFU and ADM-NMCs combined with Non-FUS. The tumor volume and volume inhibition rate (VIR) of tumor progression were calculated and compared. Apoptotic cells were labeled by terminal deoxyuridine nick end. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry. The median survival time of the animals were recorded and compared. ADM-NMCs were successfully prepared with an average diameter of 1721 nm. The highest VIR and apoptotic index (AI) were found in the group of ADM-NMCs combined with LIFU while the lowest proliferating index (PI) was simultaneously observed in this group. The median survival time of the rabbits in the ADM-NMCs combined with LIFU group was the longest (71days) among all groups. ADM-NMCs combined with LIFU could inhibit the rabbits VX2 liver tumor progress by delaying the tumor proliferation and accelerating apoptosis, which presents a novel process for liver tumor targeting chemotherapy.

  5. Adenosine A2A Receptor Activation and Macrophage-mediated Experimental Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Gabriela E.; Truong, Luan D.; Li, Ping; Zhang, Ping; Du, Jie; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Feng, Lili

    2010-01-01

    In immune-induced inflammation, leukocytes are key mediators of tissue damage. Since A2A adenosine receptors (A2AR) are endogenous suppressors of inflammation, we examined cellular and molecular mechanisms of kidney damage to determine whether selective activation of A2AR will suppress inflammation in a rat model of glomerulonephritis. Activation of A2AR reduced the degree of kidney injury in both the acute inflammatory phase and the progressive phase of glomerulonephritis. This protection against acute and chronic inflammation was associated with suppression of the glomerular expression of the MDC/CCL22 chemokine and down-regulation of MIP-1α/CCL3, RANTES/CCL5, MIP-1β/CCL4, and MCP-1/CCL2 chemokines. The expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-4 and IL-10, also increased. The mechanism for these anti-inflammatory responses to the A2AR agonist was suppression of macrophages function. A2AR expression was increased in macrophages, macrophage-derived chemokines were reduced in response to the A2AR agonist, and chemokines not expressed in macrophages did not respond to A2AR activation. Thus, activation of the A2AR on macrophages inhibits immune-associated inflammation. In glomerulonephritis, A2AR activation modulates inflammation and tissue damage even in the progressive phase of glomerulonephritis. Accordingly, pharmacological activation of A2AR could be developed into a novel treatment for glomerulonephritis and other macrophage-related inflammatory diseases. PMID:17898087

  6. Field distribution and DNA transport in solid tumors during electric field-mediated gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Henshaw, Joshua W; Yuan, Fan

    2008-02-01

    Gene therapy has a great potential in cancer treatment. However, the efficacy of cancer gene therapy is currently limited by the lack of a safe and efficient means to deliver therapeutic genes into the nucleus of tumor cells. One method under investigation for improving local gene delivery is based on the use of pulsed electric field. Despite repeated demonstration of its effectiveness in vivo, the underlying mechanisms behind electric field-mediated gene delivery remain largely unknown. Without a thorough understanding of these mechanisms, it will be difficult to further advance the gene delivery. In this review, the electric field-mediated gene delivery in solid tumors will be examined by following individual transport processes that must occur in vivo for a successful gene transfer. The topics of examination include: (i) major barriers for gene delivery in the body, (ii) distribution of electric fields at both cell and tissue levels during the application of external fields, and (iii) electric field-induced transport of genes across each of the barriers. Through this approach, the review summarizes what is known about the mechanisms behind electric field-mediated gene delivery and what require further investigations in future studies.

  7. Electroporation driven delivery of both an IL-12 expressing plasmid and cisplatin synergizes to inhibit B16 melanoma tumor growth through an NK cell mediated tumor killing mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ha; Sin, Jeong-Im

    2012-11-01

    Combined therapy using chemotherapeutic drugs and immunotherapeutics offers some promise for treating patients with cancer. In this study, we evaluated whether cisplatin delivered by intratumoral (IT)-electroporation (EP) might enhance antitumor activity against established B16 melanoma and whether further addition of intramuscular (IM)-EP of IL-12 cDNA to IT-EP of cisplatin might augment antitumor therapeutic activity, with a focus on the underlining antitumor mechanism(s). When tumor (7 mm)-bearing animals were treated locally with cisplatin by IT-EP, they showed tumor growth inhibition significantly more than those without IT-EP. Moreover, IL-12 cDNA delivered by IM-EP was also able to inhibit tumor growth significantly more than control vector delivery. This tumor growth inhibition was mediated by NK cells, but not CD4+ T or CD8+ T cells, as determined by immune cell subset depletion and IFN-γ induction. Moreover, concurrent therapy using IT-EP of cisplatin plus IM-EP of IL-12 cDNA displayed antitumor therapeutic synergy. This therapeutic synergy appeared to be mediated by increased sensitivity of cisplatin-treated tumors to NK cell-mediated tumor killing. Taken together, these data support that cisplatin delivery by IT-EP plus IL-12 gene delivery by IM-EP are more effective at inducing antitumor therapeutic responses through increased sensitivity of cisplatin-treated tumors to NK cell-mediated tumor killing. This combined approach might have some implication for treating melanoma in patients.

  8. A2B Adenosine Receptor–Mediated Induction of IL-6 Promotes CKD

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yingbo; Zhang, Weiru; Wen, Jiaming; Zhang, Yujin; Kellems, Rodney E.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic elevation of adenosine, which occurs in the setting of repeated or prolonged tissue injury, can exacerbate cellular dysfunction, suggesting that it may contribute to the pathogenesis of CKD. Here, mice with chronically elevated levels of adenosine, resulting from a deficiency in adenosine deaminase (ADA), developed renal dysfunction and fibrosis. Both the administration of polyethylene glycol–modified ADA to reduce adenosine levels and the inhibition of the A2B adenosine receptor (A2BR) attenuated renal fibrosis and dysfunction. Furthermore, activation of A2BR promoted renal fibrosis in both mice infused with angiotensin II (Ang II) and mice subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). These three mouse models shared a similar profile of profibrotic gene expression in kidney tissue, suggesting that they share similar signaling pathways that lead to renal fibrosis. Finally, both genetic and pharmacologic approaches showed that the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 mediates adenosine-induced renal fibrosis downstream of A2BR. Taken together, these data suggest that A2BR-mediated induction of IL-6 contributes to renal fibrogenesis and shows potential therapeutic targets for CKD. PMID:21511827

  9. Pharmacological and Physical Vessel Modulation Strategies to Improve EPR-mediated Drug Targeting to Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ojha, Tarun; Pathak, Vertika; Shi, Yang; Hennink, Wim; Moonen, Chrit; Storm, Gert; Kiessling, Fabian; Lammers, Twan

    2018-01-01

    The performance of nanomedicine formulations depends on the Enhanced Permeability and Retention (EPR) effect. Prototypic nanomedicine-based drug delivery systems, such as liposomes, polymers and micelles, aim to exploit the EPR effect to accumulate at pathological sites, to thereby improve the balance between drug efficacy and toxicity. Thus far, however, tumor-targeted nanomedicines have not yet managed to achieve convincing therapeutic results, at least not in large cohorts of patients. This is likely mostly due to high inter- and intra-patient heterogeneity in EPR. Besides developing (imaging) biomarkers to monitor and predict EPR, another strategy to address this heterogeneity is the establishment of vessel modulation strategies to homogenize and improve EPR. Over the years, several pharmacological and physical co-treatments have been evaluated to improve EPR-mediated tumor targeting. These include pharmacological strategies, such as vessel permeabilization, normalization, disruption and promotion, as well as physical EPR enhancement via hyperthermia, radiotherapy, sonoporation and phototherapy. In the present manuscript, we summarize exemplary studies showing that pharmacological and physical vessel modulation strategies can be used to improve tumor-targeted drug delivery, and we discuss how these advanced combination regimens can be optimally employed to enhance the (pre-) clinical performance of tumor-targeted nanomedicines. PMID:28697952

  10. Pharmacological and physical vessel modulation strategies to improve EPR-mediated drug targeting to tumors.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Tarun; Pathak, Vertika; Shi, Yang; Hennink, Wim E; Moonen, Chrit T W; Storm, Gert; Kiessling, Fabian; Lammers, Twan

    2017-09-15

    The performance of nanomedicine formulations depends on the Enhanced Permeability and Retention (EPR) effect. Prototypic nanomedicine-based drug delivery systems, such as liposomes, polymers and micelles, aim to exploit the EPR effect to accumulate at pathological sites, to thereby improve the balance between drug efficacy and toxicity. Thus far, however, tumor-targeted nanomedicines have not yet managed to achieve convincing therapeutic results, at least not in large cohorts of patients. This is likely mostly due to high inter- and intra-patient heterogeneity in EPR. Besides developing (imaging) biomarkers to monitor and predict EPR, another strategy to address this heterogeneity is the establishment of vessel modulation strategies to homogenize and improve EPR. Over the years, several pharmacological and physical co-treatments have been evaluated to improve EPR-mediated tumor targeting. These include pharmacological strategies, such as vessel permeabilization, normalization, disruption and promotion, as well as physical EPR enhancement via hyperthermia, radiotherapy, sonoporation and phototherapy. In the present manuscript, we summarize exemplary studies showing that pharmacological and physical vessel modulation strategies can be used to improve tumor-targeted drug delivery, and we discuss how these advanced combination regimens can be optimally employed to enhance the (pre-) clinical performance of tumor-targeted nanomedicines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Extracellular microvesicles and invadopodia mediate non-overlapping modes of tumor cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Sedgwick, Alanna E.; Clancy, James W.; Olivia Balmert, M.; D’Souza-Schorey, Crislyn

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cell invasion requires the molecular and physical adaptation of both the cell and its microenvironment. Here we show that tumor cells are able to switch between the use of microvesicles and invadopodia to facilitate invasion through the extracellular matrix. Invadopodia formation accompanies the mesenchymal mode of migration on firm matrices and is facilitated by Rac1 activation. On the other hand, during invasion through compliant and deformable environments, tumor cells adopt an amoeboid phenotype and release microvesicles. Notably, firm matrices do not support microvesicle release, whereas compliant matrices are not conducive to invadopodia biogenesis. Furthermore, Rac1 activation is required for invadopodia function, while its inactivation promotes RhoA activation and actomyosin contractility required for microvesicle shedding. Suppression of RhoA signaling blocks microvesicle formation but enhances the formation of invadopodia. Finally, we describe Rho-mediated pathways involved in microvesicle biogenesis through the regulation of myosin light chain phosphatase. Our findings suggest that the ability of tumor cells to switch between the aforementioned qualitatively distinct modes of invasion may allow for dissemination across different microenvironments. PMID:26458510

  12. Autocrine Complement Inhibits IL10-Dependent T-Cell Mediated Antitumor Immunity to Promote Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Sun, Sheng-Nan; Liu, Qing; Yu, Yang-Yang; Guo, Jian; Wang, Kun; Xing, Bao-Cai; Zheng, Qing-Feng; Campa, Michael J.; Patz, Edward F.; Li, Shi-You; He, You-Wen

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to its inhibitory effects on many cells, IL-10 activates CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and enhances their antitumor activity. However, CD8+ TILs do not routinely express IL-10 as autocrine complement C3 inhibits IL-10 production through complement receptors C3aR and C5aR. CD8+ TILs from C3-deficient mice, however, express IL-10 and exhibit enhanced effector function. C3-deficient mice are resistant to tumor development in a T cell- and IL-10-dependent manner; human TILs expanded with IL-2 plus IL-10 increase the killing of primary tumors in vitro compared to IL-2 treated TILs. Complement-mediated inhibition of antitumor immunity is independent of the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint pathway. Our findings suggest that complement receptors C3aR and C5aR expressed on CD8+ TILs represent a novel class of immune checkpoints that could be targeted for tumor immunotherapy. Moreover, incorporation of IL-10 in the expansion of TILs and in gene-engineered T cells for adoptive cell therapy enhances their antitumor efficacy. PMID:27297552

  13. Biomimetic HDL nanoparticle mediated tumor targeted delivery of indocyanine green for enhanced photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yazhe; Wang, Cheng; Ding, Yang; Li, Jing; Li, Min; Liang, Xiao; Zhou, Jianping; Wang, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy has emerged as a promising strategy for cancer treatment. To ensure the efficient delivery of a photosensitizer to tumor for anticancer effect, a safe and tumor-specific delivery system is highly desirable. Herein, we introduce a novel biomimetic nanoparticle named rHDL/ICG (rHDL/I), by loading amphiphilic near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye indocyanine green (ICG) into reconstituted high density lipoproteins (rHDL). In this system, rHDL can mediate photoprotection effect and receptor-guided tumor-targeting transportation of cargos into cells. Upon NIR irradiation, ICG can generate fluorescent imaging signals for diagnosis and monitoring therapeutic activity, and produce singlet oxygen to trigger photodynamic therapy (PDT). Our studies demonstrated that rHDL/I exhibited excellent size and fluorescence stability, light-triggered controlled release feature, and neglectable hemolytic activity. It also showed equivalent NIR response compared to free ICG under laser irradiation. Importantly, the fluorescent signal of ICG loaded in rHDL/I could be visualized subcellularly in vitro and exhibited metabolic distribution in vivo, presenting superior tumor targeting and internalization. This NIR-triggered image-guided nanoparticle produced outstanding therapeutic outcomes against cancer cells, demonstrating great potential of biomimetic delivery vehicles in future clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fibroblast growth factor receptor mediates fibroblast-dependent growth in EMMPRIN-depleted head and neck cancer tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiyong; Hartman, Yolanda E; Warram, Jason M; Knowles, Joseph A; Sweeny, Larissa; Zhou, Tong; Rosenthal, Eben L

    2011-08-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tumors (HNSCC) contain a dense fibrous stroma which is known to promote tumor growth, although the mechanism of stroma-mediated growth remains unclear. As dysplastic mucosal epithelium progresses to cancer, there is incremental overexpression of extracellular matrix metalloprotease inducer (EMMPRIN) which is associated with tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we present evidence that gain of EMMPRIN expression allows tumor growth to be less dependent on fibroblasts by modulating fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR2) signaling. We show that silencing EMMPRIN in FaDu and SCC-5 HNSCC cell lines inhibits cell growth, but when EMMPRIN-silenced tumor cells were cocultured with fibroblasts or inoculated with fibroblasts into severe combined immunodeficient mice, the growth inhibition by silencing EMMPRIN was blunted by the presence of fibroblasts. Coculture experiments showed fibroblast-dependent tumor cell growth occurred via a paracrine signaling. Analysis of tumor gene expression revealed expression of FGFR2 was inversely related to EMMPRIN expression. To determine the role of FGFR2 signaling in EMMPRIN-silenced tumor cells, ligands and inhibitors of FGFR2 were assessed. Both FGF1 and FGF2 enhanced tumor growth in EMMPRIN-silenced cells compared with control vector-transfected cells, whereas inhibition of FGFR2 with blocking antibody or with a synthetic inhibitor (PD173074) inhibited tumor cell growth in fibroblast coculture, suggesting the importance of FGFR2 signaling in fibroblast-mediated tumor growth. Analysis of xenografted tumors revealed that EMMPRIN-silenced tumors had a larger stromal compartment compared with control. Taken together, these results suggest that EMMPRIN acquired during tumor progression promotes fibroblast-independent tumor growth.

  15. Fibroblast growth factor receptor mediates fibroblast-dependent growth in EMMPRIN depleted head and neck cancer tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiyong; Hartman, Yolanda E.; Warram, Jason M.; Knowles, Joseph A.; Sweeny, Larrisa; Zhou, Tong; Rosenthal, Eben L.

    2011-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tumors (HNSCC) contain a dense fibrous stroma which is known to promote tumor growth, although the mechanism of stroma mediated growth remains unclear. As dysplastic mucosal epithelium progresses to cancer there is incremental overexpression of extracellular matrix metalloprotease inducer (EMMPRIN) which is associated with tumor growth and metastasis. Here we present evidence that gain of EMMPRIN expression allows tumor growth to be less dependent on fibroblasts by modulating fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR2) signaling. We show that silencing EMMPRIN in FaDu and SCC-5 HNSCC cell lines inhibits cell growth, but when EMMPRIN-silenced tumor cells were co-cultured with fibroblasts or inoculated with fibroblasts into SCID mice, the growth inhibition by silencing EMMPRIN was blunted by the presence of fibroblasts. Co-culture experiments demonstrated fibroblast-dependent tumor cell growth occurred via a paracrine signaling. Analysis of tumor gene expression revealed expression of FGFR2 was inversely related to EMMPRIN expression. To determine the role of FGFR2 signaling in EMMPRIN silenced tumor cells, ligands and inhibitors of FGFR2 were assessed. Both FGF1 and FGF2 enhanced tumor growth in EMMPRIN silenced cells compared to control vector transfected cells, while inhibition of FGFR2 with blocking antibody or with a synthetic inhibitor (PD173074) inhibited tumor cell growth in fibroblast co-culture, suggesting the importance of FGFR2 signaling in fibroblast mediated tumor growth. Analysis of xenografted tumors revealed EMMPRIN silenced tumors had a larger stromal compartment compared to control. Taken together, these results suggest that EMMPRIN acquired during tumor progression promotes fibroblast independent tumor growth. PMID:21665938

  16. Nanoparticle-mediated combination chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy overcomes tumor drug resistance in vitro.

    PubMed

    Khdair, Ayman; Handa, Hitesh; Mao, Guangzhao; Panyam, Jayanth

    2009-02-01

    Drug resistance limits the success of many anticancer drugs. Reduced accumulation of the drug at its intracellular site of action because of overexpression of efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a major mechanism of drug resistance. In this study, we investigated whether photodynamic therapy (PDT) using methylene blue, also a P-gp inhibitor, can be used to enhance doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity in drug-resistant tumor cells. Aerosol OT (AOT)-alginate nanoparticles were used as a carrier for the simultaneous cellular delivery of doxorubicin and methylene blue. Methylene blue was photoactivated using light of 665 nm wavelength. Induction of apoptosis and necrosis following treatment with combination chemotherapy and PDT was investigated in drug-resistant NCI/ADR-RES cells using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Effect of encapsulation in nanoparticles on the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin and methylene blue was investigated qualitatively using fluorescence microscopy and was quantitated using HPLC. Encapsulation in AOT-alginate nanoparticles significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of combination therapy in resistant tumor cells. Nanoparticle-mediated combination therapy resulted in a significant induction of both apoptosis and necrosis. Improvement in cytotoxicity could be correlated with enhanced intracellular and nuclear delivery of the two drugs. Further, nanoparticle-mediated combination therapy resulted in significantly elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production compared to single drug treatment. In conclusion, nanoparticle-mediated combination chemotherapy and PDT using doxorubicin and methylene blue was able to overcome resistance mechanisms and resulted in improved cytotoxicity in drug-resistant tumor cells.

  17. Akt mediated ROS-dependent selective targeting of mutant KRAS tumors.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Kartini; Rezlan, Majidah; Pervaiz, Shazib

    2014-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in a variety of cellular processes, ranging from cell survival and proliferation to cell death. Previously, we reported the ability of a small molecule compound, C1, to induce ROS dependent autophagy associated apoptosis in human cancer cell lines and primary tumor cells (Wong C. et al. 2010). Our ongoing investigations have unraveled a hitherto undefined novel signaling network involving hyper-phosphorylation of Akt and Akt-mediated ROS production in cancer cell lines. Interestingly, drug-induced Akt activation is selectively seen in cell lines that carry mutant KRAS; HCT116 cells that carry the V13D KRAS mutation respond favorably to C1 while HT29 cells expressing wild type KRAS are relatively resistant. Of note, not only does the compound target mutant KRAS expressing cells but also induces RAS activation as evidenced by the PAK pull down assay. Corroborating this, pharmacological inhibition as well as siRNA mediated silencing of KRAS or Akt, blocked C1-induced ROS production and rescued tumor colony forming ability in HCT116 cells. To further confirm the involvement of KRAS, we made use of mutant KRAS transformed RWPE-1 prostate epithelial cells. Notably, drug-induced ROS generation and death sensitivity was significantly higher in RWPE-1-KRAS cells than the RWPE-1-vector cells, thus confirming the results obtained with mutant KRAS colorectal carcinoma cell line. Lastly, we made use of HCT116 mutant KRAS knockout cells (KO) where the mutant KRAS allele had been deleted, thus expressing a single wild-type KRAS allele. Exposure of the KO cells to C1 failed to induce Akt activation and mitochondrial ROS production. Taken together, results show the involvement of activated Akt in ROS-mediated selective targeting of mutant KRAS expressing tumors, which could have therapeutic implications given the paucity of chemotherapeutic strategies specifically targeting KRAS mutant cancers. Copyright © 2014. Published by

  18. Polymeric micelle for tumor pH and folate-mediated targeting.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Seong; Na, Kun; Bae, You Han

    2003-08-28

    Novel pH-sensitive polymeric mixed micelles composed of poly(L-histidine) (polyHis; M(w) 5000)/PEG (M(n) 2000) and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) (M(n) 3000)/PEG (M(n) 2000) block copolymers with or without folate conjugation were prepared by diafiltration. The micelles were investigated for pH-dependent drug release, folate receptor-mediated internalization and cytotoxicity using MCF-7 cells in vitro. The polyHis/PEG micelles showed accelerated adriamycin release as the pH decreased from 8.0. When the cumulative release for 24 h was plotted as a function of pH, the gradual transition in release rate appeared in a pH range from 8.0 to 6.8. In order to tailor the triggering pH of the polymeric micelles to the more acidic extracellular pH of tumors, while improving the micelle stability at pH 7.4, the PLLA/PEG block copolymer was blended with polyHis/PEG to form mixed micelles. Blending shifted the triggering pH to a lower value. Depending on the amount of PLLA/PEG, the mixed micelles were destabilized in the pH range of 7.2-6.6 (triggering pH for adriamycin release). When the mixed micelles were conjugated with folic acid, the in vitro results demonstrated that the micelles were more effective in tumor cell kill due to accelerated drug release and folate receptor-mediated tumor uptake. In addition, after internalization polyHis was found to be effective for cytosolic ADR delivery by virtue of fusogenic activity. This approach is expected to be useful for treatment of solid tumors in vivo.

  19. Macrophage-mediated trogocytosis leads to death of antibody-opsonized tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Velmurugan, Ramraj; Challa, Dilip K.; Ram, Sripad; Ober, Raimund J.; Ward, E. Sally

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the complex behavior of effector cells such as monocytes or macrophages in regulating cancerous growth is of central importance for cancer immunotherapy. Earlier studies using CD20-specific antibodies have demonstrated that the Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-mediated transfer of the targeted receptors from tumor cells to these effector cells through trogocytosis can enable escape from antibody therapy, leading to the viewpoint that this process is pro-tumorigenic. In the current study we demonstrate that persistent trogocytic attack results in the killing of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. Further, antibody engineering to increase FcγR interactions enhances this tumoricidal activity. These studies extend the complex repertoire of activities of macrophages to trogocytic-mediated cell death of HER2-overexpressing target cells and have implications for the development of effective antibody-based therapies. PMID:27226489

  20. Dihydroartemisinin inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin-mediated signaling pathways in tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shile

    2014-01-01

    Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), an antimalarial drug, has previously unrecognized anticancer activity, and is in clinical trials as a new anticancer agent for skin, lung, colon and breast cancer treatment. However, the anticancer mechanism is not well understood. Here, we show that DHA inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in rhabdomyosarcoma (Rh30 and RD) cells, and concurrently inhibited the signaling pathways mediated by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a central controller for cell proliferation and survival, at concentrations (<3 μM) that are pharmacologically achievable. Of interest, in contrast to the effects of conventional mTOR inhibitors (rapalogs), DHA potently inhibited mTORC1-mediated phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase 1 and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 but did not obviously affect mTORC2-mediated phosphorylation of Akt. The results suggest that DHA may represent a novel class of mTORC1 inhibitor and may execute its anticancer activity primarily by blocking mTORC1-mediated signaling pathways in the tumor cells. PMID:23929438

  1. Annexin A2 Mediates the Localization of Measles Virus Matrix Protein at the Plasma Membrane.

    PubMed

    Koga, Ritsuko; Kubota, Marie; Hashiguchi, Takao; Yanagi, Yusuke; Ohno, Shinji

    2018-02-28

    Annexins are a family of structurally related proteins that bind negatively charged membrane phospholipids in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner. Annexin A2 (AnxA2), a member of the family, has been implicated in a variety of cellular functions including the organization of membrane domains, vesicular trafficking and cell-cell adhesion. AnxA2 generally forms the heterotetrameric complex with a small Ca 2+ -binding protein S100A10. Measles virus (MV), a member of the family Paramyxoviridae , is an enveloped virus with a nonsegmented negative strand RNA genome. Knockdown of AnxA2 greatly reduced MV growth in cells, without affecting its entry and viral RNA production. In MV-infected, AnxA2-knockdown cells, the expression level of the matrix (M) protein, but not other viral proteins, was reduced compared with that in control cells, and the distribution of the M protein at the plasma membrane was decreased. The M protein lines the inner surface of the envelope and plays an important role in virus assembly by connecting the nucleocapsid to the envelope proteins. The M protein bound to AnxA2 independently of AnxA2's phosphorylation or its association with S100A10, and was co-localized with AnxA2 within cells. Truncation of the N-terminal 10 amino acid residues, but not the N-terminal 5 residues, compromised the ability of the M protein to interact with AnxA2 and localize at the plasma membrane. These results indicate that AnxA2 mediates the localization of the MV M protein at the plasma membrane by interacting with its N-terminal region (especially residues at positions 6-10), thereby aiding in MV assembly. IMPORTANCE Measles virus (MV) is an important human pathogen, still claiming ∼ 100,000 lives per year despite the presence of effective vaccines, and causes occasional outbreaks even in developed countries. Replication of viruses largely relies on the functions of host cells. Our study revealed that the reduction of the host protein annexin A2 compromises the replication of

  2. Apoptosis triggered by pyropheophorbide-α methyl ester-mediated photodynamic therapy in a giant cell tumor in bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K.-T.; Zhang, J.; Duan, Q.-Q.; Bi, Y.; Bai, D.-Q.; Ou, Y.-S.

    2014-06-01

    A giant cell tumor in bone is the common primary bone tumor with aggressive features, occurring mainly in young adults. Photodynamic therapy is a new therapeutic technique for tumors. In this study, we investigated the effects of Pyropheophorbide-α methyl ester (MPPa)-mediated photodynamic therapy on the proliferation of giant cell tumor cells and its mechanism of action. Cell proliferation was evaluated using an MTT assay. Cellular apoptosis was detected by Hoechst nuclear staining, and flow cytometric assay. Mitochondrial membrane potential changes and cytochrome c, caspase-9, caspase-3, and Bcl-2 expression was assessed. Finally, we found that MPPa-mediated photodynamic therapy could effectively suppress the proliferation of human giant cell tumor cells and induce apoptosis. The mitochondrial pathway was involved in the MPPa-photodynamic therapy-induced apoptosis.

  3. Tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1 as mediators of endotoxin-induced beneficial effects

    SciTech Connect

    Urbaschek, R.; Urbaschek, B.

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharides or endotoxins are known to induce tumor necrosis; enhanced nonspecific resistance to bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections and to radiation sickness; and tolerance to lethal doses of endotoxin. These beneficial effects are achieved by pretreatment with minute amounts of endotoxin. Recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 1 (IL-1) are among the mediators capable of invoking radioprotection or resistance to the consequences of cecal ligation and puncture. Both cytokines are potent inducers of serum colony-stimulating factor (CSF) in C3H/HeJ mice (low responders to endotoxin). The number of splenic granulocyte-macrophage precursors was found to increase 5 days after injectionmore » of TNF in these mice. Although with IL-1 no increase in the number of granulocyte-macrophage colonies occurred in culture in the presence of serum CSF, a marked stimulation was observed when TNF was added. This stimulation of myelopoiesis observed in vivo and in vitro may be related to the radioprotective effect of TNF. The data presented suggest that TNF and IL-1 released after injection of endotoxin participate in the mediation of endotoxin-induced enhancement of nonspecific resistance and stimulation of hematopoiesis. 76 references.« less

  4. The EphA2 Receptor and EphrinA1 Ligand in Solid Tumors: Function and Therapeutic Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Wykosky, Jill; Debinski, Waldemar

    2013-01-01

    The Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and ephrin ligands have been studied extensively for their roles in developmental processes. In recent years, Eph receptors and ephrins have been found to be integral players in cancer formation and progression. Among these are EphA2 and ephrinA1, which are involved in the development and maintenance of many different types of solid tumors. The function of EphA2 and ephrinA1 in tumorigenesis and tumor progression is complex and seems to be dependent on cell type and microenvironment. These variables affect the expression of the EphA2 and ephrinA1 proteins, the pathways through which they induce signaling, and the functional consequences of that signaling on the behavior of tumor cells and tumor-associated cells. This review will specifically focus on the roles that EphA2 and ephrinA1 play in the different cell types that contribute to the malignancy of solid tumors, with emphasis on the opportunities for therapeutic targeting. PMID:19074825

  5. Anti-tumor effect of evodiamine by inducing Akt-mediated apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Fan; Shi, Le; Liang, Tao

    Background: Evodiamine is an alkaloid extracted from Euodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. There is little information about the mechanisms of evodiamine on the apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and methods: A xenograft model and CCK8 assay were used to investigate the anti-HCC effect of evodiamine. The effect of evodiamine on apoptosis was evaluated by DAPI staining and flow cytometry. Western blot analyses and immunohistochemistry were processed to assess the protein expressions of Akt and apoptotic proteins. Results: Evodiamine suppressed tumor growth, improved the expression of cleaved-caspase3 and decreased tumor specific growth factor (TSGF) and alpha fetoprotein (AFP) activities. Furthermore, evodiaminemore » inhibited cell viability and induced cell cycle arrest. DAPI staining revealed nuclear condensation in evodiamine-treated groups. Meanwhile, evodiamine increased the number of apoptotic cells. Furthermore, evodiamine suppressed Akt and regulated apoptotic proteins in HepG2 cells. Evodiamine decreased p-Akt levels activated by SC79, which led to the increase of bax/bcl-2 and cleaved-caspase3. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that evodiamine could exert anti-HCC effect through inducing Akt-mediated apoptosis. Evodiamine has the potential to be a therapeutic medicine for HCCs. - Highlights: • Anti-tumor effect of evodiamine in hepatocellular carcinoma. • Evodiamine induces apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma. • The correlation between induction of apoptosis and Akt expression.« less

  6. Sleep-mediated heart rate variability after bilateral carotid body tumor resection.

    PubMed

    Niemeijer, Nicolasine D; Corssmit, Eleonora P M; Reijntjes, Robert H A M; Lammers, Gert Jan; van Dijk, J Gert; Thijs, Roland D

    2015-04-01

    The carotid bodies are thought to play an important role in sleep-dependent autonomic changes. Patients who underwent resection of bilateral carotid body tumors have chronically attenuated baroreflex sensitivity. These subjects provide a unique opportunity to investigate the role of the baroreflex during sleep. One-night ambulatory polysomnography (PSG) recording. Participants' homes. Nine patients with bilateral carotid body tumor resection (bCBR) (four women, mean age 50.4 ± 7.2 years) and nine controls matched for age, gender, and body mass index. N/A. Sleep parameters were obtained from PSG. Heart rate (HR) and its variability were calculated using 30-s epochs. In bCBR patients, HR was slightly but not significantly increased during wake and all sleep stages. The effect of sleep on HR was similar for patients and controls. Low frequency (LF) power of the heart rate variability spectrum was significantly lower in bCBR patients in active wakefulness, sleep stage 1 and REM sleep. No differences were found between patients and controls for high frequency (HF) power and the LF/HF ratio. Bilateral carotid body tumor resection (bCBR) is associated with decreased low frequency power during sleep, suggesting impaired baroreflex function. Despite this, sleep-related heart rate changes were similar between bCBR patients and controls. These findings suggest that the effects of sleep on heart rate are predominantly generated through central, non-baroreflex mediated pathways. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  7. 2-methoxyestradiol-mediated anti-tumor effect increases osteoprotegerin expression in osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Benedikt, Michaela B; Mahlum, Eric W; Shogren, Kristen L; Subramaniam, Malayannan; Spelsberg, Thomas C; Yaszemski, Michael J; Maran, Avudaiappan

    2010-04-01

    Osteosarcoma is a bone tumor that frequently develops during adolescence. 2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME), a naturally occurring metabolite of 17beta-estradiol, induces cell cycle arrest and cell death in human osteosarcoma cells. To investigate whether the osteoprotegrin (OPG) protein plays a role in 2-ME actions, we studied the effect of 2-ME treatment on OPG gene expression in human osteosarcoma cells. 2-ME treatment induced OPG gene promoter activity and mRNA levels. Also, Western blot analysis showed that 2-ME treatment increased OPG protein levels in MG63, KHOS, 143B and LM7 osteosarcoma cells by 3-, 1.9-, 2.8-, and 2.5-fold, respectively, but did not affect OPG expression in normal bone cells. In addition, increases in OPG protein levels were observed in osteosarcoma cell culture media after 3 days of 2-ME treatment. The effect of 2-ME on osteosarcoma cells was ligand-specific as parent estrogen, 17beta-estradiol and a tumorigenic estrogen metabolite, 16alpha-hydroxyestradiol, which do not affect osteosarcoma cell cycle and cell death, had no effect on OPG protein expression. Furthermore, co-treating osteosarcoma cells with OPG protein did not further enhance 2-ME-mediated anti-tumor effects. OPG-released in 2-ME-treated cultures led to an increase in osteoblastic activity and a decrease in osteoclast number, respectively. These findings suggest that OPG is not directly involved in 2-ME-mediated anti-proliferative effects in osteosarcoma cells, but rather participates in anti-resorptive functions of 2-ME in bone tumor environment. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Targeted Nanocurcumin Therapy Using Annexin A2 Anitbody Improves Tumor Accumulation and Therapeutic Efficacy Against Highly Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mukerjee, Anindita; Ranjan, Anmalendu P; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K

    2016-07-01

    A major challenge in pharmaceutical research is effective targeting strategies to their sites of action. Emerging knowledge and the current progress in nanotechnology based delivery systems has opened up exciting ways towards successful targeted nanodelivery systems. For cancer therapy, nanoparticle-based drug formulations hold several advantages over free drugs, including improved pharmacokinetics, enhanced tumor accumulation, reduced systemic exposure and side effects and better patient compliance. The goal of this study was to validate the in vivo targeting potential and evaluate the combinatorial therapeutic potential of novel Annexin A2 (AnxA2) antibody-conjugated curcumin loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (AnxA2-CPNP) against metastatic breast cancer. As a first step, we demonstrated that the cell-surface expression of AnxA2 is increases during breast cancer progression with very high expression in highly malignant cancer cells and basal expression in non-malignant cells. This confirmed AnxA2 as an excellent target for targeting our curcumin nanoparticles. Our results indicate that AnxA2-CPNP showed increased uptake in highly metastatic breast cancer cells than untargeted nanoparticles due to the differential AnxA2 expression. Cell viability, plasmin generation and wound healing assays reveal that AnxA2-CPNPs effectively inhibited cell proliferation, invasion and migration, key elements for cancer growth and metastasis. Further, angiogenesis assay illustrated that AnxA2-CPNPs decreased the formation of tube capillaries, thus inhibiting neoangiogenesis, a critical element in tumor growth. Live animal imaging demonstrated that AnxA2-PNPs and AnxA2-CPNPs effectively targeted and accumulated in the tumor as seen by the increased fluorescence intensity on the live scans. Xenograft studies in mice showed significant regression of breast tumor as a result of both effective targeting, accumulation and sustained release of curcumin in the tumor

  9. Autocrine Complement Inhibits IL10-Dependent T-cell-Mediated Antitumor Immunity to Promote Tumor Progression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Sun, Sheng-Nan; Liu, Qing; Yu, Yang-Yang; Guo, Jian; Wang, Kun; Xing, Bao-Cai; Zheng, Qing-Feng; Campa, Michael J; Patz, Edward F; Li, Shi-You; He, You-Wen

    2016-09-01

    In contrast to its inhibitory effects on many cells, IL10 activates CD8(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and enhances their antitumor activity. However, CD8(+) TILs do not routinely express IL10, as autocrine complement C3 inhibits IL10 production through complement receptors C3aR and C5aR. CD8(+) TILs from C3-deficient mice, however, express IL10 and exhibit enhanced effector function. C3-deficient mice are resistant to tumor development in a T-cell- and IL10-dependent manner; human TILs expanded with IL2 plus IL10 increase the killing of primary tumors in vitro compared with IL2-treated TILs. Complement-mediated inhibition of antitumor immunity is independent of the programmed death 1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) immune checkpoint pathway. Our findings suggest that complement receptors C3aR and C5aR expressed on CD8(+) TILs represent a novel class of immune checkpoints that could be targeted for tumor immunotherapy. Moreover, incorporation of IL10 in the expansion of TILs and in gene-engineered T cells for adoptive cell therapy enhances their antitumor efficacy. Our data suggest novel strategies to enhance immunotherapies: a combined blockade of complement signaling by antagonists to C3aR, C5aR, and anti-PD-1 to enhance anti-PD-1 efficacy; a targeted IL10 delivery to CD8(+) TILs using anti-PD-1-IL10 or anti-CTLA4-IL10 fusion proteins; and the addition of IL10 in TIL expansion for adoptive cellular therapy. Cancer Discov; 6(9); 1022-35. ©2016 AACR.See related commentary by Peng et al., p. 953This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 932. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Interleukin 1 amplifies receptor-mediated activation of phospholipase A2 in 3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Burch, R M; Connor, J R; Axelrod, J

    1988-01-01

    Human recombinant interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) and IL-1 beta stimulated prostaglandin E2 synthesis in 3T3 fibroblasts in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Enhanced prostaglandin E2 synthesis after IL-1 treatment was apparent by 1 hr and continued to increase for at least 2 days. Half-maximal stimulation occurred at 0.5 pM IL-1 alpha or IL-1 beta, and both interleukins were equally effective, with maximal stimulation occurring in response to 5-10 pM IL-1. In contrast to IL-1, bradykinin stimulation of prostaglandin E2 synthesis is rapid; its effect is maximal by 5 min. In cells that had been pretreated with IL-1 for 24 hr, prostaglandin E2 synthesis in response to bradykinin was amplified more than 10-fold. IL-1 also amplified the receptor-mediated formation of prostaglandin E2 by bombesin and thrombin. The lymphokine did not affect bradykinin receptor number or affinity. IL-1 treatment induced phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase but not phospholipase C or prostaglandin E isomerase. It also enhanced bradykinin-stimulated GTPase activity, suggesting possible induction of the GTP-binding regulatory protein coupled to the bradykinin receptor. Thus, IL-1 enhanced receptor-mediated release of prostaglandin E2 in response to bradykinin, bombesin, and thrombin by increasing the cellular levels of phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase, and GTP-binding regulatory protein(s). PMID:2901097

  11. EphA2 Receptor Signaling Mediates Inflammatory Responses in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji Young; Shin, Mi Hwa; Chung, Kyung Soo; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Ji Ye; Kang, Young Ae; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Park, Moo Suk

    2015-07-01

    Eph receptors and ephrin ligands have several functions including angiogenesis, cell migration, axon guidance, fluid homeostasis, oncogenesis, inflammation and injury repair. The EphA2 receptor potentially mediates the regulation of vascular permeability and inflammation in response to lung injury. Mice were divided into 3 experimental groups to study the role of EphA2 signaling in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury model i.e., IgG+phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) group (IgG instillation before PBS exposure), IgG+LPS group (IgG instillation before LPS exposure) and EphA2 monoclonal antibody (mAb)+LPS group (EphA2 mAb pretreatment before LPS exposure). EphA2 and ephrinA1 were upregulated in LPS-induced lung injury. The lung injury score of the EphA2 mAb+LPS group was lower than that of the IgG+LPS group (4.30±2.93 vs. 11.45±1.20, respectively; p=0.004). Cell counts (EphA2 mAb+LPS: 11.33×10(4)±8.84×10(4) vs. IgG+LPS: 208.0×10(4)±122.6×10(4); p=0.018) and total protein concentrations (EphA2 mAb+LPS: 0.52±0.41 mg/mL vs. IgG+LPS: 1.38±1.08 mg/mL; p=0.192) were decreased in EphA2 mAb+LPS group, as compared to the IgG+LPS group. In addition, EphA2 antagonism reduced the expression of phospho-p85, phosphoinositide 3-kinase 110γ, phospho-Akt, nuclear factor κB, and proinflammatory cytokines. This results of the study indicated a role for EphA2-ephrinA1 signaling in the pathogenesis of LPS-induced lung injury. Furthermore, EphA2 antagonism inhibits the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt pathway and attenuates inflammation.

  12. Radio-photothermal therapy mediated by a single compartment nanoplatform depletes tumor initiating cells and reduces lung metastasis in the orthotopic 4T1 breast tumor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Min; Zhao, Jun; Tian, Mei; Song, Shaoli; Zhang, Rui; Gupta, Sanjay; Tan, Dongfeng; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro; Li, Chun

    2015-11-01

    Tumor Initiating Cells (TICs) are resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and are believed to be responsible for tumor recurrence and metastasis. Combination therapies can overcome the limitation of conventional cancer treatments, and have demonstrated promising application in the clinic. Here, we show that dual modality radiotherapy (RT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) mediated by a single compartment nanosystem copper-64-labeled copper sulfide nanoparticles ([64Cu]CuS NPs) could suppress breast tumor metastasis through eradication of TICs. Positron electron tomography (PET) imaging and biodistribution studies showed that more than 90% of [64Cu]CuS NPs was retained in subcutaneously grown BT474 breast tumor 24 h after intratumoral (i.t.) injection, indicating the NPs are suitable for the combination therapy. Combined RT/PTT therapy resulted in significant tumor growth delay in the subcutaneous BT474 breast cancer model. Moreover, RT/PTT treatment significantly prolonged the survival of mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast tumors compared to no treatment, RT alone, or PTT alone. The RT/PTT combination therapy significantly reduced the number of tumor nodules in the lung and the formation of tumor mammospheres from treated 4T1 tumors. No obvious side effects of the CuS NPs were noted in the treated mice in a pilot toxicity study. Taken together, our data support the feasibility of a therapeutic approach for the suppression of tumor metastasis through localized RT/PTT therapy.Tumor Initiating Cells (TICs) are resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and are believed to be responsible for tumor recurrence and metastasis. Combination therapies can overcome the limitation of conventional cancer treatments, and have demonstrated promising application in the clinic. Here, we show that dual modality radiotherapy (RT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) mediated by a single compartment nanosystem copper-64-labeled copper sulfide nanoparticles ([64Cu]CuS NPs) could suppress

  13. Tumor necrosis factor regulates NMDA receptor-mediated airway smooth muscle contractile function and airway responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Anaparti, Vidyanand; Pascoe, Christopher D; Jha, Aruni; Mahood, Thomas H; Ilarraza, Ramses; Unruh, Helmut; Moqbel, Redwan; Halayko, Andrew J

    2016-08-01

    We have shown that N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDA-Rs) are receptor-operated calcium entry channels in human airway smooth muscle (HASM) during contraction. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) augments smooth muscle contractility by influencing pathways that regulate intracellular calcium flux and can alter NMDA-R expression and activity in cortical neurons and glial cells. We hypothesized that NMDA-R-mediated Ca(2+) and contractile responses of ASM can be altered by inflammatory mediators, including TNF. In cultured HASM cells, we assessed TNF (10 ng/ml, 48 h) effect on NMDA-R subunit abundance by quantitative PCR, confocal imaging, and immunoblotting. We observed dose- and time-dependent changes in NMDA-R composition: increased obligatory NR1 subunit expression and altered regulatory NR2 and inhibitory NR3 subunits. Measuring intracellular Ca(2+) flux in Fura-2-loaded HASM cultures, we observed that TNF exposure enhanced cytosolic Ca(2+) mobilization and changed the temporal pattern of Ca(2+) flux in individual myocytes induced by NMDA, an NMDA-R selective analog of glutamate. We measured airway responses to NMDA in murine thin-cut lung slices (TCLS) from allergen-naive animals and observed significant airway contraction. However, NMDA acted as a bronchodilator in TCLS from house dust mice-challenged mice and in allergen-naive TCLS subjected to TNF exposure. All contractile or bronchodilator responses were blocked by a selective NMDA-R antagonist, (2R)-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate, and bronchodilator responses were prevented by N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) or indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor). Collectively, we show that TNF augments NMDA-R-mediated Ca(2+) mobilization in HASM cells, whereas in multicellular TCLSs allergic inflammation and TNF exposure leads to NMDA-R-mediated bronchodilation. These findings reveal the unique contribution of ionotrophic NMDA-R to airway hyperreactivity. Copyright © 2016 the American

  14. Pivotal roles of CD4+ effector T cells in mediating agonistic anti-GITR mAb-induced-immune activation and tumor immunity in CT26 tumors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pengfei; L'italien, Lawrence; Hodges, Douglas; Schebye, Xiao Min

    2007-12-01

    Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor family related protein (GITR) is a member of the TNFR superfamily. Previous studies have shown that in vivo administration of a GITR agonistic Ab (DTA-1) is able to overcome tolerance and induce tumor rejection in several murine syngeneic tumor models. However, little is known about the in vivo targets and the mechanisms of how this tolerance is overcome in a tumor-bearing host, nor is much known about how the immune network is regulated to achieve this antitumor response. In this study, we demonstrate that the in vivo ligation of GITR on CD4(+) effector T cells renders them refractory to suppression by regulatory T (T(reg)) cells in the CT26 tumor-bearing mouse. GITR engagement on T(reg) cells does not appear to directly abrogate their suppressive function; rather, it increases the expansion of T(reg) cells and promotes IL-10 production, a cytokine important for their suppressive function. Moreover, CD4(+) effector T cells play a crucial role in mediating DTA-1-induced immune activation and expansion of CD8(+), NK, and B cells in the tumor-draining lymph nodes. This includes increased CD69 expression on all of these subsets. In addition, NK and tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells are generated that are cytolytic, which show increased intracellular IFN-gamma production and CD107a mobilization, the latter a hallmark of cytolytic activities that lead to tumor killing.

  15. Ganglioside GM2 mediates migration of tumor cells by interacting with integrin and modulating the downstream signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Manjari; Mahata, Barun; Banerjee, Avisek; Chakraborty, Sohini; Debnath, Shibjyoti; Ray, Sougata Sinha; Ghosh, Zhumur; Biswas, Kaushik

    2016-07-01

    The definitive role of ganglioside GM2 in mediating tumor-induced growth and progression is still unknown. Here we report a novel role of ganglioside GM2 in mediating tumor cell migration and uncovered its mechanism. Data shows differential expression levels of GM2-synthase as well as GM2 in different human cancer cells. siRNA mediated knockdown of GM2-synthase in CCF52, A549 and SK-RC-26B cells resulted in significant inhibition of tumor cell migration as well as invasion in vitro without affecting cellular proliferation. Over-expression of GM2-synthase in low-GM2 expressing SK-RC-45 cells resulted in a consequent increase in migration thus confirming the potential role GM2 and its downstream partners play in tumor cell migration and motility. Further, treatment of SK-RC-45 cells with exogenous GM2 resulted in a dramatic increase in migratory and invasive capacity with no change in proliferative capacity, thereby confirming the role of GM2 in tumorigenesis specifically by mediating tumor migration and invasion. Gene expression profiling of GM2-synthase silenced cells revealed altered expression of several genes involved in cell migration primarily those controlling the integrin mediated signaling. GM2-synthase knockdown resulted in decreased phosphorylation of FAK, Src as well as Erk, while over-expression and/or exogenous GM2 treatment caused increased FAK and Erk phosphorylation respectively. Again, GM2 mediated invasion and Erk phosphorylation is blocked in integrin knockdown SK-RC-45 cells, thus confirming that GM2 mediated migration and phosphorylation of Erk is integrin dependent. Finally, confocal microscopy suggested co-localization while co-immunoprecipitation and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) confirmed direct interaction of membrane bound ganglioside, GM2 with the integrin receptor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Lack of FasL-mediated killing leads to in vivo tumor promotion in mouse Lewis lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, J-K; Sayers, T J; Back, T C; Wigginton, J M; Wiltrout, R H

    2003-03-01

    Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL) cells were constitutively resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis, but overexpression of Fas on 3LL cells allowed Fas-mediated apoptosis after crosslinking with agonist anti-Fas antibody (Jo2) in vitro. Surprisingly, Fas-overexpressing 3LL cells showed enhanced in vivo tumor progression, whereas no promotion of in vivo tumor growth was observed for dominant negative (DN) Fas-overexpressing 3LL transfectants in which the cytoplasmic death domain was deleted. In addition, the promotion of in vivo tumor growth by Fas-overexpression was reduced in gld (FasL-mutation) mice compared to normal mice. These data indicate that intact Fas/FasL cell signaling is required for the promotion of in vivo tumor growth by Fas overexpression in 3LL cells. In contrast to the efficient Fas-mediated killing induced in vitro by crosslinking with anti-Fas antibody, Fas-overexpressing 3LL cells were resistant in vitro to Fas-mediated apoptosis by activated T cells or transient FasL transfection. These data suggest that agonist anti-Fas antibody and natural FasL can transmit qualitatively different signals, and crosslinking of Fas with natural FasL on 3LL cells does not deliver the expected death signal. Thus, our results demonstrate that in some cases overexpression of Fas can result in a survival advantage for tumor cells in vivo.

  17. The receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2 promotes glutamine metabolism in tumors by activating the transcriptional coactivators YAP and TAZ.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Deanna N; Ngwa, Verra M; Wang, Shan; Shiuan, Eileen; Brantley-Sieders, Dana M; Kim, Laura C; Reynolds, Albert B; Chen, Jin

    2017-12-05

    Malignant tumors reprogram cellular metabolism to support cancer cell proliferation and survival. Although most cancers depend on a high rate of aerobic glycolysis, many cancer cells also display addiction to glutamine. Glutamine transporters and glutaminase activity are critical for glutamine metabolism in tumor cells. We found that the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2 activated the TEAD family transcriptional coactivators YAP and TAZ (YAP/TAZ), likely in a ligand-independent manner, to promote glutamine metabolism in cells and mouse models of HER2-positive breast cancer. Overexpression of EphA2 induced the nuclear accumulation of YAP and TAZ and increased the expression of YAP/TAZ target genes. Inhibition of the GTPase Rho or the kinase ROCK abolished EphA2-dependent YAP/TAZ nuclear localization. Silencing YAP or TAZ substantially reduced the amount of intracellular glutamate through decreased expression of SLC1A5 and GLS , respectively, genes that encode proteins that promote glutamine uptake and metabolism. The regulatory DNA elements of both SLC1A5 and GLS contain TEAD binding sites and were bound by TEAD4 in an EphA2-dependent manner. In patient breast cancer tissues, EphA2 expression positively correlated with that of YAP and TAZ , as well as that of GLS and SLC1A5 Although high expression of EphA2 predicted enhanced metastatic potential and poor patient survival, it also rendered HER2-positive breast cancer cells more sensitive to glutaminase inhibition. The findings define a previously unknown mechanism of EphA2-mediated glutaminolysis through YAP/TAZ activation in HER2-positive breast cancer and identify potential therapeutic targets in patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  18. Anti-tumor immunity of BAM-SiPc-mediated vascular photodynamic therapy in a BALB/c mouse model.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Hing-Yuen; Lo, Pui-Chi; Ng, Dennis K P; Fong, Wing-Ping

    2017-02-01

    In recent decades, accumulating evidence from both animal and clinical studies has suggested that a sufficiently activated immune system may strongly augment various types of cancer treatment, including photodynamic therapy (PDT). Through the generation of reactive oxygen species, PDT eradicates tumors by triggering localized tumor damage and inducing anti-tumor immunity. As the major component of anti-tumor immunity, the involvement of a cell-mediated immune response in PDT has been well investigated in the past decade, whereas the role of humoral immunity has remained relatively unexplored. In the present investigation, using the photosensitizer BAM-SiPc and the CT26 tumor-bearing BALB/c mouse model, it was demonstrated that both cell-mediated and humoral adaptive immune components could be involved in PDT. With a vascular PDT (VPDT) regimen, BAM-SiPc could eradicate the tumors of ∼70% of tumor-bearing mice and trigger an anti-tumor immune response that could last for more than 1 year. An elevation of Th2 cytokines was detected ex vivo after VPDT, indicating the potential involvement of a humoral response. An analysis of serum from the VPDT-cured mice also revealed elevated levels of tumor-specific antibodies. Moreover, this serum could effectively hinder tumor growth and protect the mice against further re-challenge in a T-cell-dependent manner. Taken together, these results show that the humoral components induced after BAM-SiPc-VPDT could assist the development of anti-tumor immunity.

  19. EPAS-1 mediates SP-1-dependent FBI-1 expression and regulates tumor cell survival and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaogang; Cao, Peng; Li, Zhiqing; Wu, Dongyang; Wang, Xi; Liang, Guobiao

    2014-09-04

    Factor binding IST-1 (FBI-1) plays an important role in oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. As FBI-1 is over-expressed in multiple human cancers, the regulation of itself would provide new effective options for cancer intervention. In this work, we aimed to study the role that EPAS-1 plays in regulating FBI-1. We use the fact that specificity protein-1 (SP-1) is one of the crucial transcription factors of FBI-1, and that SP-1 can interact with the endothelial pas domain protein-1 (EPAS-1) for the induction of hypoxia related genes. The study showed that EPAS-1 plays an indispensible role in SP-1 transcription factor-mediated FBI-1 induction, and participated in tumor cell survival and proliferation. Thus, EPAS-1 could be a novel target for cancer therapeutics.

  20. EPAS-1 Mediates SP-1-Dependent FBI-1 Expression and Regulates Tumor Cell Survival and Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaogang; Cao, Peng; Li, Zhiqing; Wu, Dongyang; Wang, Xi; Liang, Guobiao

    2014-01-01

    Factor binding IST-1 (FBI-1) plays an important role in oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. As FBI-1 is over-expressed in multiple human cancers, the regulation of itself would provide new effective options for cancer intervention. In this work, we aimed to study the role that EPAS-1 plays in regulating FBI-1. We use the fact that specificity protein-1 (SP-1) is one of the crucial transcription factors of FBI-1, and that SP-1 can interact with the endothelial pas domain protein-1 (EPAS-1) for the induction of hypoxia related genes. The study showed that EPAS-1 plays an indispensible role in SP-1 transcription factor-mediated FBI-1 induction, and participated in tumor cell survival and proliferation. Thus, EPAS-1 could be a novel target for cancer therapeutics. PMID:25192290

  1. p53 regulates mesenchymal stem cell-mediated tumor suppression in a tumor microenvironment through immune modulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Yu, P; Li, W; Ren, G; Roberts, A I; Cao, W; Zhang, X; Su, J; Chen, X; Chen, Q; Shou, P; Xu, C; Du, L; Lin, L; Xie, N; Zhang, L; Wang, Y; Shi, Y

    2014-07-17

    p53 is one of the most studied genes in cancer biology, and mutations in this gene may be predictive for the development of many types of cancer in humans and in animals. However, whether p53 mutations in non-tumor stromal cells can affect tumor development has received very little attention. In this study, we show that B16F0 melanoma cells form much larger tumors in p53-deficient mice than in wild-type mice, indicating a potential role of p53 deficiency in non-tumor cells of the microenvironment. As mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are attracted to tumors and form a major component of the tumor microenvironment, we examined the potential role of p53 status in MSCs in tumor development. We found that larger tumors resulted when B16F0 melanoma cells were co-injected with bone marrow MSCs derived from p53-deficient mice rather than MSCs from wild-type mice. Interestingly, this tumor-promoting effect by p53-deficient MSCs was not observed in non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mice, indicating the immune response has a critical role. Indeed, in the presence of inflammatory cytokines, p53-deficient MSCs expressed more inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and exhibited greater immunosuppressive capacity. Importantly, tumor promotion by p53-deficient MSCs was abolished by administration of S-methylisothiourea, an iNOS inhibitor. Therefore, our data demonstrate that p53 status in tumor stromal cells has a key role in tumor development by modulating immune responses.

  2. Overcoming photodynamic resistance and tumor targeting dual-therapy mediated by indocyanine green conjugated gold nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Guo, Xiaomeng; Kong, Fenfen; Zhang, Hanbo; Luo, Lihua; Li, Qingpo; Zhu, Chunqi; Yang, Jie; Du, Yongzhong; You, Jian

    2017-07-28

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) have captured much attention due to the great potential to cure malignant tumor. Nevertheless, photodynamic resistance of cancer cells has limited the further efficacy of PDT. Unfortunately, the resistance mechanism and efforts to overcome the resistance still have been rarely reported so far. Here, we report a nanosystem with specific tumor targeting for combined PDT and PTT mediated by near-infrared (NIR) light, which was established by covalently conjugating indocyanine green (ICG) and TNYL peptide onto the surface of hollow gold nanospheres (HAuNS). Our nanosystem (TNYL-ICG-HAuNS) was proved to possess significantly increased light stability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and photothermal effect under NIR light irradiation, thus presenting a remarkably enhanced antitumor efficacy. The up-regulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NFE2L2, Nrf2) in cancer cells during PDT induced a significant increase of ABCG2, NQO-1 and HIF-1α expression, causing PDT resistance of the cells. Interestingly, ABCG2 expression could almost keep a normal level in the whole PDT process mediated by TNYL-ICG-HAuNS. After repeated irradiations, TNYL-ICG-HAuNS could still produce almost constant ROS in cells while the Nrf2 expression reduced significantly. Furthermore, PDT resistance induced an obvious decrease of the internalization of free ICG, but didn't influence the cell uptake of TNYL-ICG-HAuNS. Our data explained that TNYL-ICG-HAuNS could overcome the photodynamic resistance of cancer cells, acting as a promising modality for simultaneous photothermal and photodynamic cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hypoxia-Mediated Epigenetic Regulation of Stemness in Brain Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Pankaj; Mittal, Shivani Arora; Chongtham, Jonita; Mohanty, Sujata; Srivastava, Tapasya

    2017-06-01

    Activation of pluripotency regulatory circuit is an important event in solid tumor progression and the hypoxic microenvironment is known to enhance the stemness feature of some cells. The distinct population of cancer stem cells (CSCs)/tumor initiating cells exist in a niche and augment invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance. Previously, studies have reported global hypomethylation and site-specific aberrant methylation in gliomas along with other epigenetic modifications as important contributors to genomic instability during glioma progression. Here, we have demonstrated the role of hypoxia-mediated epigenetic modifications in regulating expression of core pluripotency factors, OCT4 and NANOG, in glioma cells. We observe hypoxia-mediated induction of demethylases, ten-eleven-translocation (TET) 1 and 3, but not TET2 in our cell-line model. Immunoprecipitation studies reveal active demethylation and direct binding of TET1 and 3 at the Oct4 and Nanog regulatory regions. Tet1 and 3 silencing assays further confirmed induction of the pluripotency pathway involving Oct4, Nanog, and Stat3, by these paralogues, although with varying degrees. Knockdown of Tet1 and Tet3 inhibited the formation of neurospheres in hypoxic conditions. We observed independent roles of TET1 and TET3 in differentially regulating pluripotency and differentiation associated genes in hypoxia. Overall, this study demonstrates an active demethylation in hypoxia by TET1 and 3 as a mechanism of Oct4 and Nanog overexpression thus contributing to the formation of CSCs in gliomas. Stem Cells 2017;35:1468-1478. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  4. Two photon microscopy intravital study of DC-mediated anti-tumor response of NK cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caccia, Michele; Gorletta, Tatiana; Sironi, Laura; Zanoni, Ivan; Salvetti, Cristina; Collini, Maddalena; Granucci, Francesca; Chirico, Giuseppe

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role in the activation of Natural Killer cells (NKs) that are responsible for anti-tumor innate immune responses. The focus of this report is on the role of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) activated-DCs in inducing NK cell-mediated anti-tumor responses. Mice transplanted sub-cute (s.c.) with AK7 cells, a mesothelioma cell line sensitive to NK cell responses, are injected with fluorescent NK cells and DC activation is then induced by s.c. injection of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Using 4 dimensional tracking we follow the kinetic behavior of NK cells at the Draining Lymph-Node (DLN). As control, noninflammatory conditions are also evaluated. Our data suggest that NK cells are recruited to the DLN where they can interact with activated-DCs with a peculiar kinetic behavior: short lived interactions interleaved by rarer longer ones. We also found that the changes in the NK dynamic behavior in inflammatory conditions clearly affect relevant motility parameters such as the instantaneous and average velocity and the effective diffusion coefficient. This observation suggests that NK cells and activated-DCs might efficiently interact in the DLN, where cells could be activated. Therefore the interaction between activated-DCs and NK cells in DLN is not only a reality but it may be also crucial for the start of the immune response of the NKs.

  5. Natural Killer Cell Mediated Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity in Tumor Immunotherapy with Therapeutic Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Ursula J. E.; Schlegel, Patrick; Lang, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade several therapeutic antibodies have been Federal Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMEA) approved. Although their mechanisms of action in vivo is not fully elucidated, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) mediated by natural killer (NK) cells is presumed to be a key effector function. A substantial role of ADCC has been demonstrated in vitro and in mouse tumor models. However, a direct in vivo effect of ADCC in tumor reactivity in humans remains to be shown. Several studies revealed a predictive value of FcγRIIIa-V158F polymorphism in monoclonal antibody treatment, indicating a potential effect of ADCC on outcome for certain indications. Furthermore, the use of therapeutic antibodies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an interesting option. Studying the role of the FcγRIIIa-V158F polymorphism and the influence of Killer-cell Immunoglobuline-like Receptor (KIR) receptor ligand incompatibility on ADCC in this approach may contribute to future transplantation strategies. Despite the success of approved second-generation antibodies in the treatment of several malignancies, efforts are made to further augment ADCC in vivo by antibody engineering. Here, we review currently used therapeutic antibodies for which ADCC has been suggested as effector function. PMID:23543707

  6. Ultrasound-Mediated Tumor Imaging and Nanotherapy using Drug Loaded, Block Copolymer Stabilized Perfluorocarbon Nanoemulsions

    PubMed Central

    Rapoport, Natalya; Nam, Kweon-Ho; Gupta, Roohi; Gao, Zhongao; Mohan, Praveena; Payne, Allison; Todd, Nick; Liu, Xin; Kim, Taeho; Shea, Jill; Scaife, Courtney; Parker, Dennis L.; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Kennedy, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    Perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions can deliver lipophilic therapeutic agents to solid tumors and simultaneously provide for monitoring nanocarrier biodistribution via ultrasonography and/or 19F MRI. In the first generation of block copolymer stabilized perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions, perfluoropentane (PFP) was used as the droplet forming compound. Although manifesting excellent therapeutic and ultrasound imaging properties, PFP nanoemulsions were unstable at storage, difficult to handle, and underwent hard to control phenomenon of irreversible droplet-to-bubble transition upon injection. To solve the above problems, perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether (PFCE) was used as a core forming compound in the second generation of block copolymer stabilized perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions. PFCE nanodroplets manifest both ultrasound and fluorine (19F) MR contrast properties, which allows using multimodal imaging and 19F MR spectroscopy for monitoring nanodroplet pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. In the present paper, acoustic, imaging, and therapeutic properties of unloaded and paclitaxel (PTX) loaded PFCE nanoemulsions are reported. As manifested by the 19F MR spectroscopy, PFCE nanodroplets are long circulating, with about 50% of the injected dose remaining in circulation two hours after the systemic injection. Sonication with 1-MHz therapeutic ultrasound triggered reversible droplet-to-bubble transition in PFCE nanoemulsions. Microbubbles formed by acoustic vaporization of nanodroplets underwent stable cavitation. The nanodroplet size (200 nm to 350 nm depending on a type of the shell and conditions of emulsification) as well as long residence in circulation favored their passive accumulation in tumor tissue that was confirmed by ultrasonography. In the breast and pancreatic cancer animal models, ultrasound-mediated therapy with paclitaxel-loaded PFCE nanoemulsions showed excellent therapeutic properties characterized by tumor regression and suppression of metastasis. Anticipated

  7. Luteolin Inhibits Human Prostate Tumor Growth by Suppressing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2-Mediated Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Young-Ok; Budhraja, Amit; Wang, Xin; Ding, Songze; Wang, Lei; Hitron, Andrew; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Kim, Donghern; Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Zhuo; Luo, Jia; Shi, Xianglin

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vascular beds, is essential for tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Luteolin is a common dietary flavonoid found in fruits and vegetables. We studied the antiangiogenic activity of luteolin using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models. In vitro studies using rat aortic ring assay showed that luteolin at non-toxic concentrations significantly inhibited microvessel sprouting and proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation of endothelial cells, which are key events in the process of angiogenesis. Luteolin also inhibited ex vivo angiogenesis as revealed by chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM) and matrigel plug assay. Gelatin zymographic analysis demonstrated the inhibitory effect of luteolin on the activation of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9. Western blot analysis showed that luteolin suppressed VEGF induced phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 and their downstream protein kinases AKT, ERK, mTOR, P70S6K, MMP-2, and MMP-9 in HUVECs. Proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α level were significantly reduced by the treatment of luteolin in PC-3 cells. Luteolin (10 mg/kg/d) significantly reduced the volume and the weight of solid tumors in prostate xenograft mouse model, indicating that luteolin inhibited tumorigenesis by targeting angiogenesis. CD31 and CD34 immunohistochemical staining further revealed that the microvessel density could be remarkably suppressed by luteolin. Moreover, luteolin reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, which were correlated with the downregulation of AKT, ERK, mTOR, P70S6K, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expressions. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that luteolin inhibits human prostate tumor growth by suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-mediated angiogenesis. PMID:23300633

  8. Fluorescence detection of malignant liver tumors using 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic diagnosis: principles, technique, and clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Ryo; Komeda, Koji; Hirokawa, Fumitoshi; Hayashi, Michihiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhisa

    2014-07-01

    Photoactive drugs selectively accumulate in malignant tissue specimens and cause drug-induced fluorescence. Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) and fluorescence can distinguish normal from malignant tissue. From May 2012 to September 2013, a total of 70 patients underwent hepatic resections using 5-ALA-mediated PDD for liver tumors at our hospital. 5-ALA fluorescence was detected in all hepatocellular carcinoma cases with serosa invasion. In liver metastasis from colorectal cancer cases with serosa invasion, 18 patients (85.7 %) were detected, and three patients (14.2 %) whose tumors showed complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy showed no fluorescence. Both superficial and deep malignant liver tumors were detected with 92.5 % sensitivity. Using 5-ALA-mediated PDD, tumors remaining at the cut surface and postoperative bile leakage were less frequent than in our previous hepatic resections using conventional white-light observation. Moreover, all malignant liver tumors were completely removed with a clear microscopic margin using 5-ALA, with a significant difference in resection margin width between 5-ALA-mediated PDD (6.7 ± 6.9 mm) and white-light observation (9.2 ± 7.0 mm; p = 0.0083). With the detection of malignant liver tumors, residual tumor and bile leakage at the cut surface of the remnant liver were improved by PDD with 5-ALA. This procedure may provide greater sensitivity than the conventional procedure. Furthermore, 5-ALA-mediated PDD can ensure histological clearance regardless of the resection margin and preserve as much liver parenchyma as possible in patients with impaired liver function.

  9. Interaction between tumor cell surface receptor RAGE and proteinase 3 mediates prostate cancer metastasis to bone

    PubMed Central

    Kolonin, Mikhail G.; Sergeeva, Anna; Staquicini, Daniela I.; Smith, Tracey L.; Tarleton, Christy A.; Molldrem, Jeffrey J.; Sidman, Richard L.; Marchiò, Serena; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih

    2017-01-01

    Human prostate cancer often metastasizes to bone, but the biological basis for such site-specific tropism remains largely unresolved. Recent work led us to hypothesize that this tropism may reflect pathogenic interactions between RAGE, a cell surface receptor expressed on malignant cells in advanced prostate cancer, and proteinase 3 (PR3), a serine protease present in inflammatory neutrophils and hematopoietic cells within the bone marrow microenvironment. In this study, we establish that RAGE-PR3 interaction mediates homing of prostate cancer cells to the bone marrow. PR3 bound to RAGE on the surface of prostate cancer cells in vitro, inducing tumor cell motility through a non-proteolytic signal transduction cascade involving activation and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1. In preclinical models of experimental metastasis, ectopic expression of RAGE on human prostate cancer cells was sufficient to promote bone marrow homing within a short time frame. Our findings demonstrate how RAGE-PR3 interactions between human prostate cancer cells and the bone marrow microenvironment mediate bone metastasis during prostate cancer progression, with potential implications for prognosis and therapeutic intervention. PMID:28428279

  10. Nitric oxide mediates insect cellular immunity via phospholipase A2 activation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    After infection or invasion is recognized, biochemical mediators act in signaling insect immune functions. These include biogenic amines, insect cytokines, eicosanoids and nitric oxide (NO). Treating insects or isolated hemocyte populations with different mediators often leads to similar results. Se...

  11. Au@Pt nanoparticles as catalase mimics to attenuate tumor hypoxia and enhance immune cell-mediated cytotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Hong; Wu, Ying; Ou, Xiang-Yu; Li, Jing-Ying; Li, Juan

    2017-11-01

    Hypoxic tumor microenvironment (TME) is closely linked to tumor progression, heterogeneity and immune suppression. Therefore, the development of effective methods to overcome hypoxia and substantially enhance the immunotherapy efficacy remains a desirable goal. Herein, we engineered a biocompatible Au core/Pt shell nanoparticles (Au@Pt NPs) to reoxygenate the TME by reacting with endogenous H2O2. Treatment with Au@Pt NPs appeared to improve oxygen in intracellular environments and decrease hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression. Furthermore, the integration of high catalytic efficiency of Au@Pt NPs with cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cell immunotherapy, could lead to significantly improve the effect of CIK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. These results suggest great potential of Au@Pt NPs for regulation of the hypoxic TME and enhance immune cell mediated anti-tumor immunity.

  12. Social Competence in Childhood Brain Tumor Survivors: Feasibility and Preliminary Outcomes of a Peer-Mediated Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Devine, Katie A.; Bukowski, William M.; Sahler, Olle Jane Z.; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Smith, Tristram H.; Lown, E. Anne; Patenaude, Andrea Farkas; Korones, David N.; Noll, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the acceptability, feasibility, and preliminary outcomes of a peer-mediated intervention to improve social competence of brain tumor survivors and classmates. Methods Twelve childhood brain tumor survivors and 217 classroom peers in intervention (n = 8) or comparison (n = 4) classrooms completed measures of social acceptance and reputation at two time points in the year. The intervention (5–8 sessions over 4–6 weeks) taught peer leaders skills for engaging classmates. Individual and classroom outcomes were analyzed with ANCOVA. Results Recruitment rates of families of brain tumor survivors (81%) and schools (100%) were adequate. Peer leaders reported satisfaction with the intervention. Preliminary outcome data trended toward some benefit in increasing the number of friend nominations for survivors of brain tumors but no changes in other peer-reported metrics. Preliminary results also suggested some positive effects on classroom levels of victimization and rejection. Conclusions A peer-mediated intervention was acceptable to families of brain tumor survivors and feasible to implement in schools. Findings warrant a larger trial to evaluate improvements for children with brain tumors and their peers. PMID:27355881

  13. Transdifferentiation mediated tumor suppression by the endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor IRE-1 in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Levi-Ferber, Mor; Gian, Hai; Dudkevich, Reut; Henis-Korenblit, Sivan

    2015-01-01

    Deciphering effective ways to suppress tumor progression and to overcome acquired apoptosis resistance of tumor cells are major challenges in the tumor therapy field. We propose a new concept by which tumor progression can be suppressed by manipulating tumor cell identity. In this study, we examined the effect of ER stress on apoptosis resistant tumorous cells in a Caenorhabditis elegans germline tumor model. We discovered that ER stress suppressed the progression of the lethal germline tumor by activating the ER stress sensor IRE-1. This suppression was associated with the induction of germ cell transdifferentiation into ectopic somatic cells. Strikingly, transdifferentiation of the tumorous germ cells restored their ability to execute apoptosis and enabled their subsequent removal from the gonad. Our results indicate that tumor cell transdifferentiation has the potential to combat cancer and overcome the escape of tumor cells from the cell death machinery. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08005.001 PMID:26192965

  14. Lactate is a mediator of metabolic cooperation between stromal carcinoma associated fibroblasts and glycolytic tumor cells in the tumor microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Rattigan, Yanique I.; Patel, Brijesh B.; Department of Pharmacology, The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, 195 Little Albany Street, New Brunswick, NJ 08901

    2012-02-15

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are bone marrow-derived stromal cells, which play a role in tumor progression. We have shown earlier that breast cancer cells secrete higher levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) under hypoxia, leading to the recruitment of hMSCs towards hypoxic tumor cells. We found that (i) MDA-MB-231 cells secrete significantly higher levels of lactate (3-fold more) under hypoxia (1% O{sub 2}) than under 20% O{sub 2} and (ii) lactate recruits hMSCs towards tumor cells by activating signaling pathways to enhance migration. The mRNA and protein expression of functional MCT1 in hMSCs is increased in response to lactate exposure. Thus,more » we hypothesized that hMSCs and stromal carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in the tumor microenvironment have the capacity to take up lactate expelled from tumor cells and use it as a source of energy. Our {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopic measurements indicate that {sup 13}C-lactate is converted to {sup 13}C-alpha ketoglutarate in hMSCs and CAFs supporting this hypothesis. To our knowledge this is the first in vitro model system demonstrating that hMSCs and CAFs can utilize lactate produced by tumor cells.« less

  15. GLUT1-mediated selective tumor targeting with fluorine containing platinum(II) glycoconjugates

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ran; Fu, Zheng; Zhao, Meng; Gao, Xiangqian; Li, Hong; Mi, Qian; Liu, Pengxing; Yang, Jinna; Yao, Zhi; Gao, Qingzhi

    2017-01-01

    Increased glycolysis and overexpression of glucose transporters (GLUTs) are physiological characteristics of human malignancies. Based on the so-called Warburg effect, 18flurodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has successfully developed as clinical modality for the diagnosis and staging of many cancers. To leverage this glucose transporter mediated metabolic disparity between normal and malignant cells, in the current report, we focus on the fluorine substituted series of glucose, mannose and galactose-conjugated (trans-R,R-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine)-2-flouromalonato-platinum(II) complexes for a comprehensive evaluation on their selective tumor targeting. Besides highly improved water solubility, these sugar-conjugates presented improved cytotoxicity than oxaliplatin in glucose tranporters (GLUTs) overexpressing cancer cell lines and exhibited no cross-resistance to cisplatin. For the highly water soluble glucose-conjugated complex (5a), two novel in vivo assessments were conducted and the results revealed that 5a was more efficacious at a lower equitoxic dose (70% MTD) than oxaliplatin (100% MTD) in HT29 xenograft model, and it was significantly more potent than oxaliplatin in leukemia-bearing DBA/2 mice as well even at equimolar dose levels (18% vs 90% MTD). GLUT inhibitor mediated cell viability analysis, GLUT1 knockdown cell line-based cytotoxicity evaluation, and platinum accumulation study demonstrated that the cellular uptake of the sugar-conjugates was regulated by GLUT1. The higher intrinsic DNA reactivity of the sugar-conjugates was confirmed by kinetic study of platinum(II)-guanosine adduct formation. The mechanistic origin of the antitumor effect of the fluorine complexes was found to be forming the bifunctional Pt-guanine-guanine (Pt-GG) intrastrand cross-links with DNA. The results provide a rationale for Warburg effect targeted anticancer drug design. PMID:28467806

  16. GLUT1-mediated selective tumor targeting with fluorine containing platinum(II) glycoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ran; Fu, Zheng; Zhao, Meng; Gao, Xiangqian; Li, Hong; Mi, Qian; Liu, Pengxing; Yang, Jinna; Yao, Zhi; Gao, Qingzhi

    2017-06-13

    Increased glycolysis and overexpression of glucose transporters (GLUTs) are physiological characteristics of human malignancies. Based on the so-called Warburg effect, 18flurodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has successfully developed as clinical modality for the diagnosis and staging of many cancers. To leverage this glucose transporter mediated metabolic disparity between normal and malignant cells, in the current report, we focus on the fluorine substituted series of glucose, mannose and galactose-conjugated (trans-R,R-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine)-2-flouromalonato-platinum(II) complexes for a comprehensive evaluation on their selective tumor targeting. Besides highly improved water solubility, these sugar-conjugates presented improved cytotoxicity than oxaliplatin in glucose tranporters (GLUTs) overexpressing cancer cell lines and exhibited no cross-resistance to cisplatin. For the highly water soluble glucose-conjugated complex (5a), two novel in vivo assessments were conducted and the results revealed that 5a was more efficacious at a lower equitoxic dose (70% MTD) than oxaliplatin (100% MTD) in HT29 xenograft model, and it was significantly more potent than oxaliplatin in leukemia-bearing DBA/2 mice as well even at equimolar dose levels (18% vs 90% MTD). GLUT inhibitor mediated cell viability analysis, GLUT1 knockdown cell line-based cytotoxicity evaluation, and platinum accumulation study demonstrated that the cellular uptake of the sugar-conjugates was regulated by GLUT1. The higher intrinsic DNA reactivity of the sugar-conjugates was confirmed by kinetic study of platinum(II)-guanosine adduct formation. The mechanistic origin of the antitumor effect of the fluorine complexes was found to be forming the bifunctional Pt-guanine-guanine (Pt-GG) intrastrand cross-links with DNA. The results provide a rationale for Warburg effect targeted anticancer drug design.

  17. The genetic locus NRC-1 within chromosome 3p12 mediates tumor suppression in renal cell carcinoma independently of histological type, tumor microenvironment, and VHL mutation.

    PubMed

    Lovell, M; Lott, S T; Wong, P; El-Naggar, A; Tucker, S; Killary, A M

    1999-05-01

    Human chromosome 3p cytogenetic abnormalities and loss of heterozygosity have been observed at high frequency in the nonpapillary form of sporadic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene has been identified as a tumor suppressor gene for RCC at 3p25, and functional studies as well as molecular genetic and cytogenetic analyses have suggested as many as two or three additional regions of 3p that could harbor tumor suppressor genes for sporadic RCC. We have previously functionally defined a novel genetic locus nonpapillary renal carcinoma-1 (NRC-1) within chromosome 3p12, distinct from the VHL gene, that mediates tumor suppression and rapid cell death of RCC cells in vivo. We now report the suppression of tumorigenicity of RCC cells in vivo after the transfer of a defined centric 3p fragment into different histological types of RCC. Results document the functional involvement of NRC-1 in not only different cell types of RCC (i.e., clear cell, mixed granular cell/clear cell, and sarcomatoid types) but also in papillary RCC, a less frequent histological type of RCC for which chromosome 3p LOH and genetic aberrations have only rarely been observed. We also report that the tumor suppression observed in functional genetic screens was independent of the microenvironment of the tumor, further supporting a role for NRC-1 as a more general mediator of in vivo growth control. Furthermore, this report demonstrates the first functional evidence for a VHL-independent pathway to tumorigenesis in the kidney via the genetic locus NRC-1.

  18. Diesel exhaust particle promotes tumor lung metastasis via the induction of BLT1-mediated neutrophilic lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjing; Liu, Ting; Xiong, Yingluo; Lv, Jiaoyan; Cui, Xinyi; He, Rui

    2018-06-05

    BLT1, the primary functional receptor of Leukotriene B4 (LTB4), is involved in tissue inflammation by mediating leukocyte recruitment, and recently LTB4-dependent inflammation was reported to promote lung tumor growth. Exposure to diesel exhaust particle (DEP), the major component of particulate matter 2.5 (PM 2.5 ), can elicit lung inflammation, which may increase the risk of lung cancer. However, it remains unknown about the critical factors mediating DEP-induced lung inflammation and the subsequent effect on tumor metastasis. In this study, we found that DEP exposure led to acute lung inflammation, characterized by abundant infiltration of neutrophils and elevated lung levels in LTB4, as well as several pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, CXCL1/2. Furthermore, DEP exposure promoted lung metastasis of 3LL and 4T1 cells. BLT1 blockade by its specific antagonist U75302 significantly inhibited neutrophilic lung inflammation following DEP exposure. Importantly, BLT1 blockade before the onset of inflammation significantly reduced DEP-enhanced lung metastasis, which was associated with greatly decreased infiltrating neutrophils in lungs. Interestingly, BLT1 blockade after the occurrence of lung metastases had no effect on the magnitude of lung metastasis, suggesting that inhibition of BLT1-mediated lung inflammation was insufficient to suppress established metastatic tumor. Administration of BLT2 inhibitor LY255283 fails to inhibit DEP-induced lung inflammation and tumor metastasis. Collectively, our results demonstrate that DEP exposure causes BLT1-mediated lung neutrophilic inflammation, which is critical for tumor lung metastasis, and suggest that interruption of the LTB4-BLT1 axis could be useful for preventing PM 2.5 -induced inflammation and subsequent susceptible to lung metastasis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Vaccinia Virus-mediated Expression of Human Erythropoietin in Tumors Enhances Virotherapy and Alleviates Cancer-related Anemia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Duong H; Chen, Nanhai G; Zhang, Qian; Le, Ha T; Aguilar, Richard J; Yu, Yong A; Cappello, Joseph; Szalay, Aladar A

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO), a glycoprotein hormone regulating red blood cell (RBC) formation, is used for the treatment of cancer-related anemia. The effect of rhEPO on tumor growth, however, remains controversial. Here, we report the construction and characterization of the recombinant vaccinia virus (VACV) GLV-1h210, expressing hEPO. GLV-1h210 was shown to replicate in and kill A549 lung cancer cells in culture efficiently. In mice bearing A549 lung cancer xenografts, treatment with a single intravenous dose of GLV-1h210 resulted in tumor-specific production and secretion of functional hEPO, which exerted an effect on RBC progenitors and precursors in the mouse bone marrow, leading to a significant increase in the number of RBCs and in the level of hemoglobin. Furthermore, virally expressed hEPO, but not exogenously added rhEPO, enhanced virus-mediated green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression in tumors and subsequently accelerated tumor regression when compared with the treatment with the parental virus GLV-1h68 or GLV-1h209 that expressed a nonfunctional hEPO protein. Moreover, intratumorally expressed hEPO caused enlarged tumoral microvessels, likely facilitating virus spreading. Taken together, VACV-mediated intratumorally expressed hEPO not only enhanced oncolytic virotherapy but also simultaneously alleviated cancer-related anemia. PMID:23765443

  20. Nanoparticle Delivery of Artesunate Enhances the Anti-tumor Efficiency by Activating Mitochondria-Mediated Cell Apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rui; Yu, Xiwei; Su, Chang; Shi, Yijie; Zhao, Liang

    2017-06-01

    Artemisinin and its derivatives were considered to exert a broad spectrum of anti-cancer activities, and they induced significant anti-cancer effects in tumor cells. Artemisinin and its derivatives could be absorbed quickly, and they were widely distributed, selectively killing tumor cells. Since low concentrations of artesunate primarily depended on oncosis to induce cell death in tumor cells, its anti-tumor effects were undesirable and limited. To obtain better anti-tumor effects, in this study, we took advantage of a new nanotechnology to design novel artesunate-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles to achieve the mitochondrial accumulation of artesunate and induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. The results showed that when compared with free artesunate's reliance on oncotic death, artesunate-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles showed higher cytotoxicity and their significant apoptotic effects were induced through the distribution of artesunate in the mitochondria. This finding indicated that artesunate-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles damaged the mitochondrial integrity and activated mitochondrial-mediated cell apoptosis by upregulating apoptosis-related proteins and facilitating the rapid release of cytochrome C.

  1. Use of a 2-tier histologic grading system for canine cutaneous mast cell tumors on cytology specimens.

    PubMed

    Hergt, Franziska; von Bomhard, Wolf; Kent, Michael S; Hirschberger, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Mast cell tumors (MCT) represent the most common malignant skin tumor in the dog. Diagnosis of an MCT can be achieved through cytologic examination of a fine-needle aspirate. However, the grade of the tumor is an important prognostic marker and currently requires histologic assessment. Recently a 2-tier histologic grading system based on nuclear features including number of mitoses, multinucleated cells, bizarre nuclei, and karyomegaly was proposed. The aim of this study was to assess if the cytomorphologic criteria proposed in the 2-tier histologic grading system are applicable to cytology specimens. A total of 141 MCT specimens reported as grade I, II, or III according to the Patnaik system with both histologic specimens and fine-needle aspirates available were histologically and cytologically reevaluated in a retrospective study. According to the 2-tier grading system, 38 cases were diagnosed histologically as high-grade and 103 as low-grade MCT. Cytologic grading resulted in 36 high-grade and 105 low-grade tumors. Agreement between histologic and cytologic grading based on the 2-tier grading system was achieved in 133 cases (sensitivity 86.8%, specificity 97.1%, kappa value 0.853), but 5 high-grade tumors on histology were classified as low-grade on cytology. Cytologic grading of MCT in the dog is helpful for initial assessment. However, the reliability of cytology using the 2-tier grading system is considered inadequate at this point. Prospective studies including clinical outcome should be pursued to further determine diagnostic accuracy of cytologic mast cell grading. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  2. Epitope diversification driven by non-tumor epitope-specific Th1 and Th17 mediates potent antitumor reactivity.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Kosuke; Kagamu, Hiroshi; Koyama, Kenichi; Miyabayashi, Takao; Koshio, Jun; Miura, Satoru; Watanabe, Satoshi; Yoshizawa, Hirohisa; Narita, Ichiei

    2012-09-21

    MHC class I-restricted peptide-based vaccination therapies have been conducted to treat cancer patients, because CD8⁺ CTL can efficiently induce apoptosis of tumor cells in an MHC class I-restricted epitope-specific manner. Interestingly, clinical responders are known to demonstrate reactivity to epitopes other than those used for vaccination; however, the mechanism underlying how antitumor T cells with diverse specificity are induced is unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that dendritic cells (DCs) that engulfed apoptotic tumor cells in the presence of non-tumor MHC class II-restricted epitope peptides, OVA(323-339), efficiently presented tumor-associated antigens upon effector-dominant CD4⁺ T cell balance against regulatory T cells (Treg) for the OVA(323-339) epitope. Th1 and Th17 induced tumor-associated antigens presentation of DC, while Th2 ameliorated tumor-antigen presentation for CD8⁺ T cells. Blocking experiments with anti-IL-23p19 antibody and anti-IL-23 receptor indicated that an autocrine mechanism of IL-23 likely mediated the diverted tumor-associated antigens presentation of DC. Tumor-associated antigens presentation of DC induced by OVA(323-339) epitope-specific CD4⁺ T cells resulted in facilitated antitumor immunity in both priming and effector phase in vivo. Notably, this immunotherapy did not require pretreatment to reduce Treg induced by tumor. This strategy may have clinical implications for designing effective antitumor immunotherapies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Addressing challenges of heterogeneous tumor treatment through bispecific protein-mediated pretargeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qi; Parker, Christina L; McCallen, Justin D; Lai, Samuel K

    2015-12-28

    Tumors are frequently characterized by genomically and phenotypically distinct cancer cell subpopulations within the same tumor or between tumor lesions, a phenomenon termed tumor heterogeneity. These diverse cancer cell populations pose a major challenge to targeted delivery of diagnostic and/or therapeutic agents, as the conventional approach of conjugating individual ligands to nanoparticles is often unable to facilitate intracellular delivery to the full spectrum of cancer cells present in a given tumor lesion or patient. As a result, many cancers are only partially suppressed, leading to eventual tumor regrowth and/or the development of drug-resistant tumors. Pretargeting (multistep targeting) approaches involving the administration of 1) a cocktail of bispecific proteins that can collectively bind to the entirety of a mixed tumor population followed by 2) nanoparticles containing therapeutic and/or diagnostic agents that can bind to the bispecific proteins accumulated on the surface of target cells offer the potential to overcome many of the challenges associated with drug delivery to heterogeneous tumors. Despite its considerable success in improving the efficacy of radioimmunotherapy, the pretargeting strategy remains underexplored for a majority of nanoparticle therapeutic applications, especially for targeted delivery to heterogeneous tumors. In this review, we will present concepts in tumor heterogeneity, the shortcomings of conventional targeted systems, lessons learned from pretargeted radioimmunotherapy, and important considerations for harnessing the pretargeting strategy to improve nanoparticle delivery to heterogeneous tumors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Human CAR T cells with cell-intrinsic PD-1 checkpoint blockade resist tumor-mediated inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Cherkassky, Leonid; Morello, Aurore; Villena-Vargas, Jonathan; Feng, Yang; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.; Jones, David R.; Sadelain, Michel; Adusumilli, Prasad S.

    2016-01-01

    Following immune attack, solid tumors upregulate coinhibitory ligands that bind to inhibitory receptors on T cells. This adaptive resistance compromises the efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies, which redirect T cells to solid tumors. Here, we investigated whether programmed death-1–mediated (PD-1–mediated) T cell exhaustion affects mesothelin-targeted CAR T cells and explored cell-intrinsic strategies to overcome inhibition of CAR T cells. Using an orthotopic mouse model of pleural mesothelioma, we determined that relatively high doses of both CD28- and 4-1BB–based second-generation CAR T cells achieved tumor eradication. CAR-mediated CD28 and 4-1BB costimulation resulted in similar levels of T cell persistence in animals treated with low T cell doses; however, PD-1 upregulation within the tumor microenvironment inhibited T cell function. At lower doses, 4-1BB CAR T cells retained their cytotoxic and cytokine secretion functions longer than CD28 CAR T cells. The prolonged function of 4-1BB CAR T cells correlated with improved survival. PD-1/PD-1 ligand [PD-L1] pathway interference, through PD-1 antibody checkpoint blockade, cell-intrinsic PD-1 shRNA blockade, or a PD-1 dominant negative receptor, restored the effector function of CD28 CAR T cells. These findings provide mechanistic insights into human CAR T cell exhaustion in solid tumors and suggest that PD-1/PD-L1 blockade may be an effective strategy for improving the potency of CAR T cell therapies. PMID:27454297

  5. B cells promote tumor progression in a mouse model of HPV-mediated cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Tang, Alexandre; Dadaglio, Gilles; Oberkampf, Marine; Di Carlo, Selene; Peduto, Lucie; Laubreton, Daphné; Desrues, Belinda; Sun, Cheng-Ming; Montagutelli, Xavier; Leclerc, Claude

    2016-09-15

    Enhancing anti-tumor immunity and preventing tumor escape are efficient strategies to increase the efficacy of therapeutic cancer vaccines. However, the treatment of advanced tumors remains difficult, mainly due to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells have been extensively studied, and their role in suppressing tumor immunity is now well established. In contrast, the role of B lymphocytes in tumor immunity remains unclear because B cells can promote tumor immunity or display regulatory functions to control excessive inflammation, mainly through IL-10 secretion. Here, in a mouse model of HPV-related cancer, we demonstrate that B cells accumulated in the draining lymph node of tumor-bearing mice, due to a prolonged survival, and showed a decreased expression of MHC class II and CD86 molecules and an increased expression of Ly6A/E, PD-L1 and CD39, suggesting potential immunoregulatory properties. However, B cells from tumor-bearing mice did not show an increased ability to secrete IL-10 and a deficiency in IL-10 production did not impair tumor growth. In contrast, in B cell-deficient μMT mice, tumor rejection occurred due to a strong T cell-dependent anti-tumor response. Genetic analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms identified genetic variants associated with tumor rejection in μMT mice, which could potentially affect reactive oxygen species production and NK cell activity. Our results demonstrate that B cells play a detrimental role in anti-tumor immunity and suggest that targeting B cells could enhance the anti-tumor response and improve the efficacy of therapeutic cancer vaccines. © 2016 UICC.

  6. Chimeric peptide containing both B and T cells epitope of tumor-associated antigen L6 enhances anti-tumor effects in HLA-A2 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Su-I; Huang, Ming-Hsi; Chang, Yu-Wen; Chen, I-Hua; Roffler, Steve; Chen, Bing-Mae; Sher, Yuh-Pyng; Liu, Shih-Jen

    2016-07-28

    Synthetic peptides are attractive for cancer immunotherapy because of their safety and flexibility. In this report, we identified a new B cell epitope of tumor-associated antigen L6 (TAL6) that could induce antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in vivo. We incorporated the B cell epitope with a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and a helper T (Th) epitope to form a chimeric long peptide. We formulated the chimeric peptide with different adjuvants to immunize HLA-A2 transgenic mice and evaluate their immunogenicity. The chimeric peptide formulated with an emulsion type nanoparticle (PELC) adjuvant and a toll-like receptor 9 agonist (CpG ODN) (PELC/CpG) induced the greatest ADCC and CTL responses. The induced anti-tumor immunity inhibited the growth of TAL6-positive cancer cells. Moreover, we observed that immunization with the chimeric peptide inhibited cancer cell migration in vitro and metastasis in vivo. These data suggest that a chimeric peptide containing both B and T cell epitopes of TAL6 formulated with PELC/CpG adjuvant is feasible for cancer immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 (GIIA) mediates apoptotic death during NMDA receptor activation in rat primary cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Chiricozzi, Elena; Fernandez-Fernandez, Seila; Nardicchi, Vincenza; Almeida, Angeles; Bolaños, Juan Pedro; Goracci, Gianfrancesco

    2010-03-01

    Phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)) participate in neuronal death signalling pathways because of their ability to release lipid mediators, although the contribution of each isoform and mechanism of neurotoxicity are still elusive. Using a novel fluorogenic method to assess changes in a PLA(2) activity by flow cytometry, here we show that the group IIA secretory phospholipase A(2) isoform (GIIA) was specifically activated in cortical neurons following stimulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor subtype (NMDAR). For activation, GIIA required Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, and inhibition of its activity fully prevented NMDAR-mediated neuronal apoptotic death. Superoxide, nitric oxide or peroxynitrite donors stimulated GIIA activity, which mediated neuronal death. Intriguingly, we also found that GIIA activity induced mitochondrial superoxide production after NMDAR stimulation. These results reveal a novel role for GIIA in excitotoxicity both as target and producer of superoxide in a positive-loop of activation that may contribute to the propagation of neurodegeneration.

  8. Induction of Tca8113 tumor cell apoptosis by icotinib is associated with reactive oxygen species mediated p38-MAPK activation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cailing; Yan, Jianguo; Yuan, Guoyan; Zhang, Yinghua; Lu, Derong; Ren, Mingxin; Cui, Weigang

    2014-08-01

    Icotinib, a selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI), has been shown to exhibit anti-tumor activity against several tumor cell lines. However, the exact molecular mechanism of icotinib's anti-tumor effect remains unknown. This study aims to examine the zytotoxic effect of icotinib on Tca8113 cells and its potential molecular mechanism. Icotinib significantly resulted in dose-dependent cell death as determined by MTT assay, accompanied by increased levels of Bax and DNA fragmentation. Icotinib could also induce Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation. Further studies confirmed that scavenging of reactive oxygen species by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), and pharmacological inhibition of MAPK reversed icotinib-induced apoptosis in Tca8113 cells. Our data provide evidence that icotinib induces apoptosis, possibly via ROS-mediated MAPK pathway in Tca8113 cells.

  9. Gene therapy of uterine leiomyomas: adenovirus-mediated expression of dominant negative estrogen receptor inhibits tumor growth in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Al-Hendy, Ayman; Lee, Eun J; Wang, Hui Q; Copland, John A

    2004-11-01

    Leiomyomas (fibroids) are common estrogen-dependent uterine tumors with no effective medicinal treatment; hysterectomy is the mainstay of management. This study was undertaken to investigate a potential therapy for leiomyoma; we used a mutated dominant-negative estrogen receptor gene delivered via an adenoviral vector (Ad-ER-DN). Ad-ER-DN transduction, in both human and rat leiomyoma cell lines, induced an increase in both caspase-3 levels and BAX/Bcl-2 ratio with evident apoptosis in the TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay. In nude mice, rat leiomyoma cells ex vivo transduced with Ad-ER-DN supported significantly smaller tumors compared with Ad-LacZ-treated cells 5 weeks after implantation. In mice treated by direct intratumor injection into preexisting lesions, Ad-ER-DN caused immediate overall arrest of tumor growth. The Ad-ER-DN-treated tumors demonstrated severely inhibited cell proliferation (BrdU index) and a marked increase in the number of apoptotic cells (TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling index). Dominant-negative estrogen receptor gene therapy may provide a nonsurgical treatment option for women with symptomatic uterine fibroids who want to preserve their uteri.

  10. Leonurine protects against tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated inflammation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinhua; Pan, Lilong; Wang, Xianli; Gong, Qihai; Zhu, Yi Zhun

    2012-05-01

    Leonurine, a bioactive alkaloid compound in Herba leonuri, has various pharmacological activities, including antioxidant and anti-apoptotic capacities. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that leonurine was able to attenuate tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) activation and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) activation, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, and inflammatory mediators expression were detected by Western blot or enzyme-liked immunosorbent assay, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NF-κB p65 translocation were measured by immunofluorescence, endothelial cell-monocyte interaction was detected by microscope. Leonurine inhibited U937 cells adhesion to TNF-α-activated HUVEC in a concentration dependent manner. Treatment with leonurine blocked TNF-α-induced mRNA and protein expression of adhesion molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1), cyclooxygenase-2, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in endothelial cells. In addition, leonurine attenuated TNF-α-induced intracellular ROS production in HUVEC. Furthermore, leonurine also suppressed the TNF-α-activated p38 phosphorylation and IκBα degradation. Subsequently, reduced NF-κB p65 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and DNA-binding activity were also observed. Our results demonstrated for the first time that the anti-inflammatory properties of leonurine in endothelial cells, at least in part, through suppression of NF-κB activation, which may have a potential therapeutic use for inflammatory vascular diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Aspirin delays mesothelioma growth by inhibiting HMGB1-mediated tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Pellegrini, L; Napolitano, A; Giorgi, C; Jube, S; Preti, A; Jennings, C J; De Marchis, F; Flores, E G; Larson, D; Pagano, I; Tanji, M; Powers, A; Kanodia, S; Gaudino, G; Pastorino, S; Pass, H I; Pinton, P; Bianchi, M E; Carbone, M

    2015-06-11

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is an inflammatory molecule that has a critical role in the initiation and progression of malignant mesothelioma (MM). Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA) is the most widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that reduces the incidence, metastatic potential and mortality of many inflammation-induced cancers. We hypothesized that ASA may exert anticancer properties in MM by abrogating the carcinogenic effects of HMGB1. Using HMGB1-secreting and -non-secreting human MM cell lines, we determined whether aspirin inhibited the hallmarks of HMGB1-induced MM cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Our data demonstrated that ASA and its metabolite, salicylic acid (SA), inhibit motility, migration, invasion and anchorage-independent colony formation of MM cells via a novel HMGB1-mediated mechanism. ASA/SA, at serum concentrations comparable to those achieved in humans taking therapeutic doses of aspirin, and BoxA, a specific inhibitor of HMGB1, markedly reduced MM growth in xenograft mice and significantly improved survival of treated animals. The effects of ASA and BoxA were cyclooxygenase-2 independent and were not additive, consistent with both acting via inhibition of HMGB1 activity. Our findings provide a rationale for the well documented, yet poorly understood antitumorigenic activity of aspirin, which we show proceeds via HMGB1 inhibition. Moreover, the use of BoxA appears to allow a more efficient HMGB1 targeting while eluding the known gastrointestinal side effects of ASA. Our findings are directly relevant to MM. Given the emerging importance of HMGB1 and its tumor-promoting functions in many cancer types, and of aspirin in cancer prevention and therapy, our investigation is poised to provide broadly applicable information.

  12. The natural dietary genistein boosts bacteriophage-mediated cancer cell killing by improving phage-targeted tumor cell transduction.

    PubMed

    Tsafa, Effrosyni; Al-Bahrani, Mariam; Bentayebi, Kaoutar; Przystal, Justyna; Suwan, Keittisak; Hajitou, Amin

    2016-08-09

    Gene therapy has long been regarded as a promising treatment for cancer. However, cancer gene therapy is still facing the challenge of targeting gene delivery vectors specifically to tumors when administered via clinically acceptable non-invasive systemic routes (i.e. intravenous). The bacteria virus, bacteriophage (phage), represents a new generation of promising vectors in systemic gene delivery since their targeting can be achieved through phage capsid display ligands, which enable them to home to specific tumor receptors without the need to ablate any native eukaryotic tropism. We have previously reported a tumor specific bacteriophage vector named adeno-associated virus/phage, or AAVP, in which gene expression is under a recombinant human rAAV2 virus genome targeted to tumors via a ligand-directed phage capsid. However, cancer gene therapy with this tumor-targeted vector achieved variable outcomes ranging from tumor regression to no effect in both experimental and natural preclinical models. Herein, we hypothesized that combining the natural dietary genistein, with proven anticancer activity, would improve bacteriophage anticancer safe therapy. We show that combination treatment with genistein and AAVP increased targeted cancer cell killing by AAVP carrying the gene for Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) in 2D tissue cultures and 3D tumor spheroids. We found this increased tumor cell killing was associated with enhanced AAVP-mediated gene expression. Next, we established that genistein protects AAVP against proteasome degradation and enhances vector genome accumulation in the nucleus. Combination of genistein and phage-guided virotherapy is a safe and promising strategy that should be considered in anticancer therapy with AAVP.

  13. The natural dietary genistein boosts bacteriophage-mediated cancer cell killing by improving phage-targeted tumor cell transduction

    PubMed Central

    Tsafa, Effrosyni; Al-Bahrani, Mariam; Bentayebi, Kaoutar; Przystal, Justyna; Suwan, Keittisak; Hajitou, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy has long been regarded as a promising treatment for cancer. However, cancer gene therapy is still facing the challenge of targeting gene delivery vectors specifically to tumors when administered via clinically acceptable non-invasive systemic routes (i.e. intravenous). The bacteria virus, bacteriophage (phage), represents a new generation of promising vectors in systemic gene delivery since their targeting can be achieved through phage capsid display ligands, which enable them to home to specific tumor receptors without the need to ablate any native eukaryotic tropism. We have previously reported a tumor specific bacteriophage vector named adeno-associated virus/phage, or AAVP, in which gene expression is under a recombinant human rAAV2 virus genome targeted to tumors via a ligand-directed phage capsid. However, cancer gene therapy with this tumor-targeted vector achieved variable outcomes ranging from tumor regression to no effect in both experimental and natural preclinical models. Herein, we hypothesized that combining the natural dietary genistein, with proven anticancer activity, would improve bacteriophage anticancer safe therapy. We show that combination treatment with genistein and AAVP increased targeted cancer cell killing by AAVP carrying the gene for Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) in 2D tissue cultures and 3D tumor spheroids. We found this increased tumor cell killing was associated with enhanced AAVP-mediated gene expression. Next, we established that genistein protects AAVP against proteasome degradation and enhances vector genome accumulation in the nucleus. Combination of genistein and phage-guided virotherapy is a safe and promising strategy that should be considered in anticancer therapy with AAVP. PMID:27437775

  14. Complement is a central mediator of radiotherapy-induced tumor-specific immunity and clinical response.

    PubMed

    Surace, Laura; Lysenko, Veronika; Fontana, Andrea Orlando; Cecconi, Virginia; Janssen, Hans; Bicvic, Antonela; Okoniewski, Michal; Pruschy, Martin; Dummer, Reinhard; Neefjes, Jacques; Knuth, Alexander; Gupta, Anurag; van den Broek, Maries

    2015-04-21

    Radiotherapy induces DNA damage and cell death, but recent data suggest that concomitant immune stimulation is an integral part of the therapeutic action of ionizing radiation. It is poorly understood how radiotherapy supports tumor-specific immunity. Here we report that radiotherapy induced tumor cell death and transiently activated complement both in murine and human tumors. The local production of pro-inflammatory anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a was crucial to the tumor response to radiotherapy and concomitant stimulation of tumor-specific immunity. Dexamethasone, a drug frequently given during radiotherapy, limited complement activation and the anti-tumor effects of the immune system. Overall, our findings indicate that anaphylatoxins are key players in radiotherapy-induced tumor-specific immunity and the ensuing clinical responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. CD4+ T cell-mediated rejection of MHC class II-positive tumor cells is dependent on antigen secretion and indirect presentation on host APCs.

    PubMed

    Haabeth, Ole Audun Werner; Fauskanger, Marte; Manzke, Melanie; Lundin, Katrin U; Corthay, Alexandre; Bogen, Bjarne; Tveita, Anders Aune

    2018-05-11

    Tumor-specific CD4+ T cells have been shown to mediate efficient anti-tumor immune responses against cancer. Such responses can occur through direct binding to MHC class II (MHC II)-expressing tumor cells or indirectly via activation of professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) that take up and present the tumor antigen. We have previously shown that CD4+ T cells reactive against an epitope within the Ig light chain variable region of a murine B cell lymphoma can reject established tumors. Given the presence of MHC II molecules at the surface of lymphoma cells, we investigated whether MHC II-restricted antigen presentation on tumor cells alone was required for rejection. Variants of the A20 B lymphoma cell line that either secreted or intracellularly retained different versions of the tumor-specific antigen revealed that antigen secretion by the MHC II-expressing tumor cells was essential both for the priming and effector phase of CD4+ T cell-driven anti-tumor immune responses. Consistent with this, genetic ablation of MHC II in tumor cells, both in the case of B lymphoma and B16 melanoma, did not preclude rejection of tumors by tumor antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in vivo. These findings demonstrate that MHC class II expression on tumor cells themselves is not required for CD4+ T cell-mediated rejection, and that indirect display on host APC is sufficient for effective tumor elimination. These results support the importance of tumor-infiltrating APC as mediators of tumor cell killing by CD4+ T cells. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Breast Cancer Survival: Mediating Effect of Tumor Characteristics and Sociodemographic and Treatment Factors

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Erica T.; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Hughes, Melissa E.; Ottesen, Rebecca A.; Wong, Yu-Ning; Edge, Stephen B.; Theriault, Richard L.; Blayney, Douglas W.; Niland, Joyce C.; Winer, Eric P.; Weeks, Jane C.; Partridge, Ann H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relationship between race/ethnicity and breast cancer–specific survival according to subtype and explore mediating factors. Patients and Methods Participants were women presenting with stage I to III breast cancer between January 2000 and December 2007 at National Comprehensive Cancer Network centers with survival follow-up through December 2009. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compare breast cancer–specific survival among Asians (n = 533), Hispanics (n = 1,122), and blacks (n = 1,345) with that among whites (n = 14,268), overall and stratified by subtype (luminal A like, luminal B like, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 type, and triple negative). Model estimates were used to derive mediation proportion and 95% CI for selected risk factors. Results In multivariable adjusted models, overall, blacks had 21% higher risk of breast cancer–specific death (hazard ratio [HR], 1.21; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.45). For estrogen receptor–positive tumors, black and white survival differences were greatest within 2 years of diagnosis (years 0 to 2: HR, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.34 to 5.24; year 2 to end of follow-up: HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.12 to 2.00). Blacks were 76% and 56% more likely to die as a result of luminal A–like and luminal B–like tumors, respectively. No disparities were observed for triple-negative or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–type tumors. Asians and Hispanics were less likely to die as a result of breast cancer compared with whites (Asians: HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.85; Hispanics: HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.95). For blacks, tumor characteristics and stage at diagnosis were significant disparity mediators. Body mass index was an important mediator for blacks and Asians. Conclusion Racial disparities in breast cancer survival vary by tumor subtype. Interventions are needed to reduce disparities, particularly in the first 2 years after diagnosis among black women with estrogen receptor–positive tumors. PMID

  17. Transient Mild Hyperthermia Induces E-selectin Mediated Localization of Mesoporous Silicon Vectors in Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kirui, Dickson K.; Mai, Juahua; Palange, Anna-Lisa; Qin, Guoting; van de Ven, Anne L.; Liu, Xuewu; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Background Hyperthermia treatment has been explored as a strategy to overcome biological barriers that hinder effective drug delivery in solid tumors. Most studies have used mild hyperthermia treatment (MHT) to target the delivery of thermo-sensitive liposomes carriers. Others have studied its application to permeabilize tumor vessels and improve tumor interstitial transport. However, the role of MHT in altering tumor vessel interfacial and adhesion properties and its relationship to improved delivery has not been established. In the present study, we evaluated effects of MHT treatment on tumor vessel flow dynamics and expression of adhesion molecules and assessed enhancement in particle localization using mesoporous silicon vectors (MSVs). We also determined the optimal time window at which maximal accumulation occur. Results In this study, using intravital microscopy analyses, we showed that temporal mild hyperthermia (∼1 W/cm2) amplified delivery and accumulation of MSVs in orthotopic breast cancer tumors. The number of discoidal MSVs (1000×400 nm) adhering to tumor vasculature increased 6-fold for SUM159 tumors and 3-fold for MCF-7 breast cancer tumors. By flow chamber experiments and Western blotting, we established that a temporal increase in E-selectin expression correlated with enhanced particle accumulation. Furthermore, MHT treatment was shown to increase tumor perfusion in a time-dependent fashion. Conclusions Our findings reveal that well-timed mild hyperthermia treatment can transiently elevate tumor transport and alter vascular adhesion properties and thereby provides a means to enhance tumor localization of non-thermally sensitive particles such as MSVs. Such enhancement in accumulation could be leveraged to increase therapeutic efficacy and reduce drug dosing in cancer therapy. PMID:24558362

  18. Myristoylation of Src kinase mediates Src-induced and high-fat diet-accelerated prostate tumor progression in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungjin; Yang, Xiangkun; Li, Qianjin; Wu, Meng; Costyn, Leah; Beharry, Zanna; Bartlett, Michael G; Cai, Houjian

    2017-11-10

    Exogenous fatty acids provide substrates for energy production and biogenesis of the cytoplasmic membrane, but they also enhance cellular signaling during cancer cell proliferation. However, it remains controversial whether dietary fatty acids are correlated with tumor progression. In this study, we demonstrate that increased Src kinase activity is associated with high-fat diet-accelerated progression of prostate tumors and that Src kinases mediate this pathological process. Moreover, in the in vivo prostate regeneration assay, host SCID mice carrying Src(Y529F)-transduced regeneration tissues were fed a low-fat diet or a high-fat diet and treated with vehicle or dasatinib. The high-fat diet not only accelerated Src-induced prostate tumorigenesis in mice but also compromised the inhibitory effect of the anticancer drug dasatinib on Src kinase oncogenic potential in vivo We further show that myristoylation of Src kinase is essential to facilitate Src-induced and high-fat diet-accelerated tumor progression. Mechanistically, metabolism of exogenous myristic acid increased the biosynthesis of myristoyl CoA and myristoylated Src and promoted Src kinase-mediated oncogenic signaling in human cells. Of the fatty acids tested, only exogenous myristic acid contributed to increased intracellular myristoyl CoA levels. Our results suggest that targeting Src kinase myristoylation, which is required for Src kinase association at the cellular membrane, blocks dietary fat-accelerated tumorigenesis in vivo Our findings uncover the molecular basis of how the metabolism of myristic acid stimulates high-fat diet-mediated prostate tumor progression. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Bacterial-Mediated Knockdown of Tumor Resistance to an Oncolytic Virus Enhances Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Michelle; Le Boeuf, Fabrice; Murphy, Carola; Roy, Dominic G; Falls, Theresa; Bell, John C; Tangney, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) and bacteria share the property of tumor-selective replication following systemic administration. In the case of nonpathogenic bacteria, tumor selectivity relates to their ability to grow extracellularly within tumor stroma and is therefore ideally suited to restricting the production of bacterially produced therapeutic agents to tumors. We have previously shown the ability of the type 1 interferon antagonist B18R to enhance the replication and spread of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) by overcoming related cellular innate immunity. In this study, we utilized nonpathogenic bacteria (E. coli) expressing B18R to facilitate tumor-specific production of B18R, resulting in a microenvironment depleted of bioactive antiviral cytokine, thus “preconditioning” the tumor to enhance subsequent tumor destruction by the OV. Both in vitro and in vivo infection by VSVΔ51 was greatly enhanced by B18R produced from E. coli. Moreover, a significant increase in therapeutic efficacy resulted from intravenous (IV) injection of bacteria to tumor-bearing mice 5 days prior to IV VSVΔ51 administration, as evidenced by a significant reduction in tumor growth and increased survival in mice. Our strategy is the first example where two such diverse microorganisms are rationally combined and demonstrates the feasibility of combining complementary microorganisms to improve therapeutic outcome. PMID:24569832

  20. M2 polarization of macrophages by Oncostatin M in hypoxic tumor microenvironment is mediated by mTORC2 and promotes tumor growth and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Richa; Asif, Mohammad; Singh, Varsha; Dubey, Parul; Ahmad Malik, Showkat; Lone, Mehraj-U-Din; Tewari, Brij Nath; Baghel, Khemraj Singh; Pal, Subhashis; Nagar, Geet Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Bhadauria, Smrati

    2018-04-03

    Oncostatin M (OSM), an inflammatory cytokine belonging to the interleukin-6 (IL-6) superfamily, plays a vital role in multitude of physiological and pathological processes. Its role in breast tumor progression and metastasis to distant organs is well documented. Recent reports implicate OSM in macrophage M2 polarization, a key pro-tumoral phenomenon. M2 polarization of macrophages is believed to promote tumor progression by potentiating metastasis and angiogenesis. In the current study, we delineated the mechanism underlying OSM induced macrophage M2 polarization. The findings revealed that OSM skews macrophages towards an M2 polarized phenotype via mTOR signaling complex 2 (mTORC2). mTORC2 relays signals through two effector kinases i.e. PKC-α and Akt. Our results indicated that mTORC2 mediated M2 polarization of macrophages is not dependent on PKC-α and is primarily affected via Akt, particularly Akt1. In vivo studies conducted on 4T1/BALB/c mouse orthotropic model of breast cancer further corroborated these observations wherein i.v. reintroduction of mTORC2 abrogated monocytes into orthotropic mouse model resulted in diminished acquisition of M2 specific attributes by tumor associated macrophages. Metastasis to distant organs like lung, liver and bone was reduced as evident by decrease in formation of focal metastatic lesions in mTORC2 abrogated monocytes mice. Our study pinpoints key role of mTORC2-Akt1 axis in OSM induced macrophage polarization and suggests for possible usage of Oncostatin-M blockade and/or selective mTORC2 inhibition as a potential anti-cancer strategy particularly with reference to metastasis of breast cancer to distant organs such as lung, liver and bone. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mechanism-Based Tumor-Targeting Drug Delivery System. Validation of Efficient Vitamin Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis and Drug Release

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.; Wong, S.; Zhao, X.

    An efficient mechanism-based tumor-targeting drug delivery system, based on tumor-specific vitamin-receptor mediated endocytosis, has been developed. The tumor-targeting drug delivery system is a conjugate of a tumor-targeting molecule (biotin: vitamin H or vitamin B-7), a mechanism-based self-immolative linker and a second-generation taxoid (SB-T-1214) as the cytotoxic agent. This conjugate (1) is designed to be (i) specific to the vitamin receptors overexpressed on tumor cell surface and (ii) internalized efficiently through receptor-mediated endocytosis, followed by smooth drug release via glutathione-triggered self-immolation of the linker. In order to monitor and validate the sequence of events hypothesized, i.e., receptor-mediated endocytosis of the conjugate,more » drug release, and drug-binding to the target protein (microtubules), three fluorescent/fluorogenic molecular probes (2, 3, and 4) were designed and synthesized. The actual occurrence of these processes was unambiguously confirmed by means of confocal fluorescence microscopy (CFM) and flow cytometry using L1210FR leukemia cells, overexpressing biotin receptors. The molecular probe 4, bearing the taxoid linked to fluorescein, was also used to examine the cell specificity (i.e., efficacy of receptor-based cell targeting) for three cell lines, L1210FR (biotin receptors overexpressed), L1210 (biotin receptors not overexpressed), and WI38 (normal human lung fibroblast, biotin receptor negative). As anticipated, the molecular probe 4 exhibited high specificity only to L1210FR. To confirm the direct correlation between the cell-specific drug delivery and anticancer activity of the probe 4, its cytotoxicity against these three cell lines was also examined. The results clearly showed a good correlation between the two methods. In the same manner, excellent cell-specific cytotoxicity of the conjugate 1 (without fluorescein attachment to the taxoid) against the same three cell lines was confirmed. This

  2. Methylglyoxal, a glycolysis side-product, induces Hsp90 glycation and YAP-mediated tumor growth and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Nokin, Marie-Julie; Durieux, Florence; Peixoto, Paul; Chiavarina, Barbara; Peulen, Olivier; Blomme, Arnaud; Turtoi, Andrei; Costanza, Brunella; Smargiasso, Nicolas; Baiwir, Dominique; Scheijen, Jean L; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Leenders, Justine; De Tullio, Pascal; Bianchi, Elettra; Thiry, Marc; Uchida, Koji; Spiegel, David A; Cochrane, James R; Hutton, Craig A; De Pauw, Edwin; Delvenne, Philippe; Belpomme, Dominique; Castronovo, Vincent; Bellahcène, Akeila

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic reprogramming toward aerobic glycolysis unavoidably induces methylglyoxal (MG) formation in cancer cells. MG mediates the glycation of proteins to form advanced glycation end products (AGEs). We have recently demonstrated that MG-induced AGEs are a common feature of breast cancer. Little is known regarding the impact of MG-mediated carbonyl stress on tumor progression. Breast tumors with MG stress presented with high nuclear YAP, a key transcriptional co-activator regulating tumor growth and invasion. Elevated MG levels resulted in sustained YAP nuclear localization/activity that could be reverted using Carnosine, a scavenger for MG. MG treatment affected Hsp90 chaperone activity and decreased its binding to LATS1, a key kinase of the Hippo pathway. Cancer cells with high MG stress showed enhanced growth and metastatic potential in vivo. These findings reinforce the cumulative evidence pointing to hyperglycemia as a risk factor for cancer incidence and bring renewed interest in MG scavengers for cancer treatment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19375.001 PMID:27759563

  3. T cells targeting a neuronal paraneoplastic antigen mediate tumor rejection and trigger CNS autoimmunity with humoral activation.

    PubMed

    Blachère, Nathalie E; Orange, Dana E; Santomasso, Bianca D; Doerner, Jessica; Foo, Patricia K; Herre, Margaret; Fak, John; Monette, Sébastien; Gantman, Emily C; Frank, Mayu O; Darnell, Robert B

    2014-11-01

    Paraneoplastic neurologic diseases (PND) involving immune responses directed toward intracellular antigens are poorly understood. Here, we examine immunity to the PND antigen Nova2, which is expressed exclusively in central nervous system (CNS) neurons. We hypothesized that ectopic expression of neuronal antigen in the periphery could incite PND. In our C57BL/6 mouse model, CNS antigen expression limits antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell expansion. Chimera experiments demonstrate that this tolerance is mediated by antigen expression in nonhematopoietic cells. CNS antigen expression does not limit tumor rejection by adoptively transferred transgenic T cells but does limit the generation of a memory population that can be expanded upon secondary challenge in vivo. Despite mediating cancer rejection, adoptively transferred transgenic T cells do not lead to paraneoplastic neuronal targeting. Preliminary experiments suggest an additional requirement for humoral activation to induce CNS autoimmunity. This work provides evidence that the requirements for cancer immunity and neuronal autoimmunity are uncoupled. Since humoral immunity was not required for tumor rejection, B-cell targeting therapy, such as rituximab, may be a rational treatment option for PND that does not hamper tumor immunity. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging of cancer mediated by tumor hypoxia and HIF1α/OATPs signaling axis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jason Boyang; Shao, Chen; Li, Xiangyan; Shi, Changhong; Li, Qinlong; Hu, Peizhen; Chen, Yi-Ting; Dou, Xiaoliang; Sahu, Divya; Li, Wei; Harada, Hiroshi; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Ruoxiang; Zhau, Haiyen E.; Chung, Leland W.K.

    2014-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging agents are promising tools for noninvasive cancer imaging. Here, we explored the mechanistic properties of a specific group of NIR heptamethine carbocyanines including MHI-148 dye we identified and synthesized, and demonstrated these dyes to achieve cancer-specific imaging and targeting via a hypoxia-mediated mechanism. We found that cancer cells and tumor xenografts exhibited hypoxia-dependent MHI-148 dye uptake in vitro and in vivo, which was directly mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α). Microarray analysis and dye uptake assay further revealed a group of hypoxia-inducible organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) responsible for dye uptake, and the correlation between OATPs and HIF1α was manifested in progressive clinical cancer specimens. Finally, we demonstrated increased uptake of MHI-148 dye in situ in perfused clinical tumor samples with activated HIF1α/OATPs signaling. Our results establish these NIRF dyes as potential tumor hypoxia-dependent cancer-targeting agents and provide a mechanistic rationale for continued development of NIRF imaging agents for improved cancer detection, prognosis and therapy. PMID:24957295

  5. Suppression of PLCβ2 by Endotoxin Plays a Role in the Adenosine A2A Receptor-Mediated Switch of Macrophages from an Inflammatory to an Angiogenic Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Grinberg, Stan; Hasko, Gyorgy; Wu, Dianqing; Leibovich, Samuel Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, 4, 7, and 9 agonists, together with adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) agonists, switch macrophages from an inflammatory (M1) to an angiogenic (M2-like) phenotype. This switch involves induction of A2ARs by TLR agonists, down-regulation of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin-12, and up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-10 expression. We show here that the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces rapid and specific post-transcriptional down-regulation of phospholipase C(PLC)β1 and β2 expression in macrophages by de-stabilizing their mRNAs. The PLCβ inhibitor U73122 down-regulates TNFα expression by macrophages, and in the presence of A2AR agonists, up-regulates VEGF, mimicking the synergistic action of LPS with A2AR agonists. Selective down-regulation of PLCβ2, but not PLCβ1, using small-interfering RNA resulted in increased VEGF expression in response to A2AR agonists, but did not suppress TNFα expression. Macrophages from PLCβ2−/− mice also expressed increased VEGF in response to A2AR agonists. LPS-mediated suppression of PLCβ1 and β2 is MyD88-dependent. In a model of endotoxic shock, LPS (35 μg/mouse, i.p.) suppressed PLCβ1 and β2 expression in spleen, liver, and lung of wild-type but not MyD88−/− mice. These studies indicate that LPS suppresses PLCβ1 and β2 expression in macrophages in vitro and in several tissues in vivo. These results suggest that suppression of PLCβ2 plays an important role in switching M1 macrophages into an M2-like state. PMID:19850892

  6. F-Box Protein FBXO22 Mediates Polyubiquitination and Degradation of CD147 to Reverse Cisplatin Resistance of Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bo; Liu, Zhen-Yu; Cui, Jian; Yang, Xiang-Min; Jing, Lin; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Jiang, Jian-Li

    2017-01-20

    Drug resistance remains a major clinical obstacle to successful treatment of cancer. As posttranslational modification is becoming widely recognized to affect the function of oncoproteins, targeting specific posttranslational protein modification provides an attractive strategy for anticancer drug development. CD147 is a transmembrane glycoprotein contributing to chemo-resistance of cancer cells in a variety of human malignancies. Ubiquitination is an important posttranslational modification mediating protein degradation. Degradation of oncoproteins, CD147 included, emerges as an attractive alternative for tumor inhibition. However, the ubiquitination of CD147 remains elusive. Here in this study, we found that deletion of the CD147 intracellular domain (CD147-ICD) prolonged the half-life of CD147 in HEK293T cells, and we identified that CD147-ICD interacts with FBXO22 using mass spectrometry and Western blot. Then, we demonstrated that FBXO22 mediates the polyubiquitination and degradation of CD147 by recognizing CD147-ICD. While knocking down of FBXO22 prolonged the half-life of CD147 in HEK293T cells, we found that FBXO22 regulates CD147 protein turnover in SMMC-7721, Huh-7 and A549 cells. Moreover, we found that the low level of FBXO22 contributes to the accumulation of CD147 and thereafter the cisplatin resistance of A549/DDP cells. To conclude, our study demonstrated that FBXO22 mediated the polyubiquitination and degradation of CD147 by interacting with CD147-ICD, and CD147 polyubiquitination by FBXO22 reversed cisplatin resistance of tumor cells.

  7. 3D Porous Chitosan-Alginate Scaffolds as an In Vitro Model for Evaluating Nanoparticle-Mediated Tumor Targeting and Gene Delivery to Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kui; Kievit, Forrest M; Florczyk, Stephen J; Stephen, Zachary R; Zhang, Miqin

    2015-10-12

    Cationic nanoparticles (NPs) for targeted gene delivery are conventionally evaluated using 2D in vitro cultures. However, this does not translate well to corresponding in vivo studies because of the marked difference in NP behavior in the presence of the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we investigated whether prostate cancer (PCa) cells cultured in three-dimensional (3D) chitosan-alginate (CA) porous scaffolds could model cationic NP-mediated gene targeted delivery to tumors in vitro. We assessed in vitro tumor cell proliferation, formation of tumor spheroids, and expression of marker genes that promote tumor malignancy in CA scaffolds. The efficacy of NP-targeted gene delivery was evaluated in PCa cells in 2D cultures, PCa tumor spheroids grown in CA scaffolds, and PCa tumors in a mouse TRAMP-C2 flank tumor model. PCa cells cultured in CA scaffolds grew into tumor spheroids and displayed characteristics of higher malignancy as compared to those in 2D cultures. Significantly, targeted gene delivery was only observed in cells cultured in CA scaffolds, whereas cells cultured on 2D plates showed no difference in gene delivery between targeted and nontarget control NPs. In vivo NP evaluation confirmed targeted gene delivery, indicating that only CA scaffolds correctly modeled NP-mediated targeted delivery in vivo. These findings suggest that CA scaffolds serve as a better in vitro platform than 2D cultures for evaluation of NP-mediated targeted gene delivery to PCa.

  8. CXCL4 mediates tumor regrowth after chemotherapy by suppression of antitumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Gao, Jing; Wang, Xia; Deng, Shaorong; Ye, Hao; Guan, Wen; Wu, Mingyuan; Zhu, Shunying; Yu, Yan; Han, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The recurrence of colorectal cancer after chemotherapy is the leading cause of its high mortality. We propose that elucidating the mechanisms of tumor regrowth after chemotherapy in tumor-bearing mice may provide new insights into tumor relapse in cancer patients. We firstly report the identification of a chemokine, CXCL4, that plays an important role in the molecular mechanism of cancer regrowth after chemotherapy. A syngenic transplantation tumor model was established with murine colon cancer CT26 cells and treated with 5-FU. Genome-wide gene expression analysis determined that CXCL4 was transiently upregulated in the tumor model. Systemic overexpression of CXCL4 accelerated cancer growth in vivo, but not in vitro. Conversely, the anti-CXCL4 monoclonal antibody (CXCL4-mab) retarded tumor-regrowth after 5-FU treatment in immune-competent mice, but not nude mice. The CXCL4-mab treatment increased the local expression levels of IFN-γ and Gran-b genes in the tumor-bed, and elevated the function of CTLs against CT26 cells. Thus, the colon cancer cells in responding to the cytotoxic stress of 5-FU produce a high level of CXCL4, which suppresses antitumor immunity to confer the residual cancer cells an advantage for regrowth after chemotherapy. Our findings provide a novel target for developing therapeutics aiming to increase antitumor immunity after chemotherapy. PMID:26479470

  9. CXCL4 mediates tumor regrowth after chemotherapy by suppression of antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Gao, Jing; Wang, Xia; Deng, Shaorong; Ye, Hao; Guan, Wen; Wu, Mingyuan; Zhu, Shunying; Yu, Yan; Han, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The recurrence of colorectal cancer after chemotherapy is the leading cause of its high mortality. We propose that elucidating the mechanisms of tumor regrowth after chemotherapy in tumor-bearing mice may provide new insights into tumor relapse in cancer patients. We firstly report the identification of a chemokine, CXCL4, that plays an important role in the molecular mechanism of cancer regrowth after chemotherapy. A syngenic transplantation tumor model was established with murine colon cancer CT26 cells and treated with 5-FU. Genome-wide gene expression analysis determined that CXCL4 was transiently upregulated in the tumor model. Systemic overexpression of CXCL4 accelerated cancer growth in vivo, but not in vitro. Conversely, the anti-CXCL4 monoclonal antibody (CXCL4-mab) retarded tumor-regrowth after 5-FU treatment in immune-competent mice, but not nude mice. The CXCL4-mab treatment increased the local expression levels of IFN-γ and Gran-b genes in the tumor-bed, and elevated the function of CTLs against CT26 cells. Thus, the colon cancer cells in responding to the cytotoxic stress of 5-FU produce a high level of CXCL4, which suppresses antitumor immunity to confer the residual cancer cells an advantage for regrowth after chemotherapy. Our findings provide a novel target for developing therapeutics aiming to increase antitumor immunity after chemotherapy.

  10. Multiple injections of electroporated autologous T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor mediate regression of human disseminated tumor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yangbing; Moon, Edmund; Carpenito, Carmine; Paulos, Chrystal M; Liu, Xiaojun; Brennan, Andrea L; Chew, Anne; Carroll, Richard G; Scholler, John; Levine, Bruce L; Albelda, Steven M; June, Carl H

    2010-11-15

    Redirecting T lymphocyte antigen specificity by gene transfer can provide large numbers of tumor-reactive T lymphocytes for adoptive immunotherapy. However, safety concerns associated with viral vector production have limited clinical application of T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CAR). T lymphocytes can be gene modified by RNA electroporation without integration-associated safety concerns. To establish a safe platform for adoptive immunotherapy, we first optimized the vector backbone for RNA in vitro transcription to achieve high-level transgene expression. CAR expression and function of RNA-electroporated T cells could be detected up to a week after electroporation. Multiple injections of RNA CAR-electroporated T cells mediated regression of large vascularized flank mesothelioma tumors in NOD/scid/γc(-/-) mice. Dramatic tumor reduction also occurred when the preexisting intraperitoneal human-derived tumors, which had been growing in vivo for >50 days, were treated by multiple injections of autologous human T cells electroporated with anti-mesothelin CAR mRNA. This is the first report using matched patient tumor and lymphocytes showing that autologous T cells from cancer patients can be engineered to provide an effective therapy for a disseminated tumor in a robust preclinical model. Multiple injections of RNA-engineered T cells are a novel approach for adoptive cell transfer, providing flexible platform for the treatment of cancer that may complement the use of retroviral and lentiviral engineered T cells. This approach may increase the therapeutic index of T cells engineered to express powerful activation domains without the associated safety concerns of integrating viral vectors. Copyright © 2010 AACR.

  11. Nutrients in folate-mediated, one-carbon metabolism and risk of rectal tumors in men and women

    PubMed Central

    Curtin, Karen; Samowitz, Wade S.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Wolff, Roger K.; Herrick, Jennifer S; Caan, Bette J.; Slattery, Martha L.

    2011-01-01

    In an investigation of rectal tumors characterized by CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP), KRAS2 mutation, and TP53 mutation, we examined associations with dietary and supplemental folate, riboflavin, vitamins B6 andB12, and methionine, nutrients involved in folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism. We also examined folate intake and common MTHFR polymorphisms in relation to CIMP. Data from a population-based study of 951 cases (750 with tumor markers) and 1,205 controls were evaluated using multiple logistic regression models and generalized estimating equations. Reduced risk of methylated tumors was suggested in women with upper tertiles of folate intake (≥0.42 mg/day) vs. lower tertile: OR=0.6, 95%CI 0.3–1.2. In men, a significant 3-fold increased risk of CIMP+ tumor was observed for the upper tertile of folate (≥0.75 mg/day) vs. the lower tertile (<0.44 mg/day): OR=3.2, 95%CI 1.5–6.7. These men consumed a greater proportion of folic-acid fortified foods relative to natural, primarily plant-based sources (52% vs. 48%) than women with CIMP+ tumor (22% vs. 78%). MTHFR 1298A>C influenced folate in male CIMP+ risk (P-interaction<0.01). Our findings suggest folate supplementation effects may differ between genders, perhaps due to variation in MTHFR and/or endogenous/exogenous hormones, and may be important in the initiation and progression of methylated rectal tumors in men. PMID:21462086

  12. Multiple injections of electroporated autologous T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor mediate regression of human disseminated tumor

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yangbing; Moon, Edmund; Carpenito, Carmine; Paulos, Chrystal M.; Liu, Xiaojun; Brennan, Andrea L; Chew, Anne; Carroll, Richard G.; Scholler, John; Levine, Bruce L.; Albelda, Steven M.; June, Carl H.

    2010-01-01

    Redirecting T lymphocyte antigen specificity by gene transfer can provide large numbers of tumor reactive T lymphocytes for adoptive immunotherapy. However, safety concerns associated with viral vector production have limited clinical application of T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). T lymphocytes can be gene modified by RNA electroporation without integration-associated safety concerns. To establish a safe platform for adoptive immunotherapy, we first optimized the vector backbone for RNA in vitro transcription to achieve high level transgene expression. CAR expression and function of RNA-electroporated T cells could be detected up to a week post electroporation. Multiple injections of RNA CAR electroporated T cells mediated regression of large vascularized flank mesothelioma tumors in NOD/scid/γc(−/−) mice. Dramatic tumor reduction also occurred when the pre-existing intraperitoneal human-derived tumors, that had been growing in vivo for over 50 days, were treated by multiple injections of autologous human T cells electroporated with anti-mesothelin CAR mRNA. This is the first report using matched patient tumor and lymphocytes demonstrating that autologous T cells from cancer patients can be engineered to provide an effective therapy for a disseminated tumor in a robust preclinical model. Multiple injections of RNA engineered T cells are a novel approach for adoptive cell transfer, providing flexible platform for the treatment of cancer that may complement the use of retroviral and lentiviral engineered T cells. This approach may increase the therapeutic index of T cells engineered to express powerful activation domains without the associated safety concerns of integrating viral vectors. PMID:20926399

  13. CD44v6 Regulates Growth of Brain Tumor Stem Cells Partially through the AKT-Mediated Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jijiwa, Mayumi; Demir, Habibe; Gupta, Snehalata; Leung, Crystal; Joshi, Kaushal; Orozco, Nicholas; Huang, Tiffany; Yildiz, Vedat O.; Shibahara, Ichiyo; de Jesus, Jason A.; Yong, William H.; Mischel, Paul S.; Fernandez, Soledad; Kornblum, Harley I.; Nakano, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Identification of stem cell-like brain tumor cells (brain tumor stem-like cells; BTSC) has gained substantial attention by scientists and physicians. However, the mechanism of tumor initiation and proliferation is still poorly understood. CD44 is a cell surface protein linked to tumorigenesis in various cancers. In particular, one of its variant isoforms, CD44v6, is associated with several cancer types. To date its expression and function in BTSC is yet to be identified. Here, we demonstrate the presence and function of the variant form 6 of CD44 (CD44v6) in BTSC of a subset of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Patients with CD44high GBM exhibited significantly poorer prognoses. Among various variant forms, CD44v6 was the only isoform that was detected in BTSC and its knockdown inhibited in vitro growth of BTSC from CD44high GBM but not from CD44low GBM. In contrast, this siRNA-mediated growth inhibition was not apparent in the matched GBM sample that does not possess stem-like properties. Stimulation with a CD44v6 ligand, osteopontin (OPN), increased expression of phosphorylated AKT in CD44high GBM, but not in CD44low GBM. Lastly, in a mouse spontaneous intracranial tumor model, CD44v6 was abundantly expressed by tumor precursors, in contrast to no detectable CD44v6 expression in normal neural precursors. Furthermore, overexpression of mouse CD44v6 or OPN, but not its dominant negative form, resulted in enhanced growth of the mouse tumor stem-like cells in vitro. Collectively, these data indicate that a subset of GBM expresses high CD44 in BTSC, and its growth may depend on CD44v6/AKTpathway. PMID:21915300

  14. Populational equilibrium through exosome-mediated Wnt signaling in tumor progression of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Koch, Raphael; Demant, Martin; Aung, Thiha; Diering, Nina; Cicholas, Anna; Chapuy, Bjoern; Wenzel, Dirk; Lahmann, Marlen; Güntsch, Annemarie; Kiecke, Christina; Becker, Sabrina; Hupfeld, Timo; Venkataramani, Vivek; Ziepert, Marita; Opitz, Lennart; Klapper, Wolfram; Trümper, Lorenz; Wulf, Gerald G

    2014-04-03

    Tumors are composed of phenotypically heterogeneous cell populations. The nongenomic mechanisms underlying transitions and interactions between cell populations are largely unknown. Here, we show that diffuse large B-cell lymphomas possess a self-organized infrastructure comprising side population (SP) and non-SP cells, where transitions between clonogenic states are modulated by exosome-mediated Wnt signaling. DNA methylation modulated SP-non-SP transitions and was correlated with the reciprocal expressions of Wnt signaling pathway agonist Wnt3a in SP cells and the antagonist secreted frizzled-related protein 4 in non-SP cells. Lymphoma SP cells exhibited autonomous clonogenicity and exported Wnt3a via exosomes to neighboring cells, thus modulating population equilibrium in the tumor.

  15. microRNAs as mediators and communicators between cancer cells and the tumor micro-environment

    PubMed Central

    Kohlhapp, Frederick J.; Mitra, Anirban K.; Lengyel, Ernst; Peter, Marcus E.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells grow in an environment comprised of multiple components that support tumor growth and contribute to therapy resistance. Major cell types in the tumor micro-environment are fibroblasts, endothelial cells and infiltrating immune cells all of which communicate with cancer cells. One way that these cell types promote cancer progression is by altering expression of miRNAs, small noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate protein expression, either in the cancer cells or in associated normal cells. Changes in miRNA expression can be brought about by direct interaction between the stromal cells and cancer cells, by paracrine factors secreted by any of the cell types, or even through direct communication between cells through secreted miRNAs. Understanding the role of miRNAs in the complex interactions between the tumor and cells in its micro-environment is necessary if we are to understand tumor progression and devise new treatments. PMID:25867073

  16. Systemic Tolerance Mediated by Melanoma Brain Tumors is Reversible by Radiotherapy and Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Christopher M.; Kochel, Christina M.; Nirschl, Christopher J.; Durham, Nicholas M.; Ruzevick, Jacob; Alme, Angela; Francica, Brian J.; Elias, Jimmy; Daniels, Andrew; Dubensky, Thomas W.; Lauer, Peter; Brockstedt, Dirk G.; Baxi, Emily G.; Calabresi, Peter A.; Taube, Janis M.; Pardo, Carlos A.; Brem, Henry; Pardoll, Drew M.; Lim, Michael; Drake, Charles G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Immune responses to antigens originating in the CNS are generally attenuated, since collateral damage can have devastating consequences. The significance of this finding for the efficacy of tumor-targeted immunotherapies is largely unknown. Experimental Design The B16 murine melanoma model was used to compare cytotoxic responses against established tumors in the CNS and in the periphery. Cytokine analysis of tissues from brain tumor-bearing mice detected elevated TGF-β secretion from microglia and in the serum and TGF-β signaling blockade reversed tolerance of tumor antigen-directed CD8 T cells. Additionally, a treatment regimen using focal radiation therapy and recombinant Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated for immunologic activity and efficacy in this model. Results CNS melanomas were more tolerogenic than equivalently progressed tumors outside the CNS as antigen-specific CD8 T cells were deleted and exhibited impaired cytotoxicity. Tumor-bearing mice had elevated serum levels of TGF-β; however, blocking TGF-β signaling with a small molecule inhibitor or a monoclonal antibody did not improve survival. Conversely, tumor antigen-specific vaccination in combination with focal radiation therapy reversed tolerance and improved survival. This treatment regimen was associated with increased polyfunctionality of CD8 T cells, elevated T effector to T regulatory cell ratios and decreased TGF-β secretion from microglia. Conclusions These data suggest that CNS tumors may impair systemic antitumor immunity and consequently accelerate cancer progression locally as well as outside the CNS while antitumor immunity may be restored by combining vaccination with radiation therapy. These findings are hypothesis-generating and warrant further study in more contemporary melanoma models as well as human trials. PMID:26490306

  17. Antibody tumor penetration: transport opposed by systemic and antigen-mediated clearance.

    PubMed

    Thurber, Greg M; Schmidt, Michael M; Wittrup, K Dane

    2008-09-01

    Antibodies have proven to be effective agents in cancer imaging and therapy. One of the major challenges still facing the field is the heterogeneous distribution of these agents in tumors when administered systemically. Large regions of untargeted cells can therefore escape therapy and potentially select for more resistant cells. We present here a summary of theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze and improve antibody penetration in tumor tissue.

  18. Indolyl-quinuclidinols inhibit ENOX activity and endothelial cell morphogenesis while enhancing radiation-mediated control of tumor vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Ling; Rachakonda, Girish; Morré, D. James; Morré, Dorothy M.; Crooks, Peter A.; Sonar, Vijayakumar N.; Roti, Joseph L. Roti; Rogers, Buck E.; Greco, Suellen; Ye, Fei; Salleng, Kenneth J.; Sasi, Soumya; Freeman, Michael L.; Sekhar, Konjeti R.

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for novel strategies that target tumor vasculature, specifically those that synergize with cytotoxic therapy, in order to overcome resistance that can develop with current therapeutics. A chemistry-driven drug discovery screen was employed to identify novel compounds that inhibit endothelial cell tubule formation. Cell-based phenotypic screening revealed that noncytotoxic concentrations of (Z)-(±)-2-(1-benzenesulfonylindol-3-ylmethylene)-1-azabicyclo[2. 2.2]octan-3-ol (analog I) and (Z)-(±)-2-(1-benzylindol-3-ylmethylene)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-3-ol (analog II) inhibited endothelial cell migration and the ability to form capillary-like structures in Matrigel by ≥70%. The ability to undergo neoangiogenesis, as measured in a window-chamber model, was also inhibited by 70%. Screening of biochemical pathways revealed that analog II inhibited the enzyme ENOX1 (EC50 = 10 μM). Retroviral-mediated shRNA suppression of endothelial ENOX1 expression inhibited cell migration and tubule formation, recapitulating the effects observed with the small-molecule analogs. Genetic or chemical suppression of ENOX1 significantly increased radiation-mediated Caspase3-activated apoptosis, coincident with suppression of p70S6K1 phosphorylation. Administration of analog II prior to fractionated X-irradiation significantly diminished the number and density of tumor microvessels, as well as delayed syngeneic and xenograft tumor growth compared to results obtained with radiation alone. Analysis of necropsies suggests that the analog was well tolerated. These results suggest that targeting ENOX1 activity represents a novel therapeutic strategy for enhancing the radiation response of tumors.—Geng, L., Rachakonda, G., Morré, D. J., Morré, D. M., Crooks, P. A., Sonar, V. N., Roti Roti, J. L., Rogers, B. E., Greco, S., Ye, F., Salleng, K. J., Sasi, S., Freeman, M. L., Sekhar, K. R. Indolyl-quinuclidinols inhibit ENOX activity and endothelial cell morphogenesis while

  19. Bacteria-mediated in vivo delivery of quantum dots into solid tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ying; Zhou, Mei; Luo, Dan

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New approach using the probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum as a vehicle to deliver QDs into the deep tissue of solid tumors in vivo was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bifidobacterium bifidum delivery system has intrinsic biocompatibility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The targeting efficacy was improved by folic acids. -- Abstract: Semiconductor nanocrystals, so-called quantum dots (QDs), promise potential application in bioimaging and diagnosis in vitro and in vivo owing to their high-quality photoluminescence and excellent photostability as well as size-tunable spectra. Here, we describe a biocompatible, comparatively safe bacteria-based system that can deliver QDs specifically into solid tumor of living animals. In our strategy, anaerobicmore » bacterium Bifidobacterium bifidum (B. bifidum) that colonizes selectively in hypoxic regions of animal body was successfully used as a vehicle to load with QDs and transported into the deep tissue of solid tumors. The internalization of lipid-encapsuled QDs into B. bifidum was conveniently carried by electroporation. To improve the efficacy and specificity of tumor targeting, the QDs-carrying bacterium surface was further conjugated with folic acids (FAs) that can bind to the folic acid receptor overexpressed tumor cells. This new approach opens a pathway for delivering different types of functional cargos such as nanoparticles and drugs into solid tumor of live animals for imaging, diagnosis and therapy.« less

  20. Anti-tumor and Chemoprotective Effect of Bauhinia tomentosa by Regulating Growth Factors and Inflammatory Mediators.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Narayanan; Sakthivel, Kunnathur Murugesan; Guruvayoorappan, Chandrasekaran

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Due to the toxic side effects of the commonly used chemotherapeutic drug cyclophosphamide (CTX), the use of herbal medicines with fewer side effects but having potential use as inducing anti-cancer outcomes in situ has become increasingly popular. The present study sought to investigate the effects of a methanolic extract of Bauhinia tomentosa against Dalton's ascites lymphoma (DAL) induced ascites as well as solid tumors in BALB/c mice. Specifically, B. tomentosa extract was administered intraperitonealy (IP) at 10 mg/kg. BW body weight starting just after tumor cell implantation and thereafter for 10 consecutive days. In the ascites tumor model hosts, administration of extract resulted in a 52% increase in the life span. In solid tumor models, co-administration of extract and CTX significantly reduced tumor volume (relative to in untreated hosts) by 73% compared to just by 52% when the extract alone was provided. Co-administration of the extract also mitigated CTX-induced toxicity, including decreases in WBC count, and in bone marrow cellularity and α-esterase activity. Extract treatment also attenuated any increases in serum levels of TNFα, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-6, GM-CSF, and VEGF seen in tumor-bearing hosts. This study confirmed that, the potent antitumor activity of B.tomentosa extract may be associated with immune modulatory effects by regulating anti-oxidants and cytokine levels.

  1. Regulation of COX-2–mediated signaling by α3 type IV noncollagenous domain in tumor angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Boosani, Chandra Shekhar; Mannam, Arjuna P.; Cosgrove, Dominic; Silva, Rita; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan M.; Keshamouni, Venkateshwar G.

    2007-01-01

    Human α3 chain, a noncollagenous domain of type IV collagen [α3(IV)NC1], inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth. These biologic functions are partly attributed to the binding of α3(IV)NC1 to αVβ3 and α3β1 integrins. α3(IV)NC1 binds αVβ3 integrin, leading to translation inhibition by inhibiting focal adhesion kinase/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mTOR/4E-BP1 pathways. In the present study, we evaluated the role of α3β1 and αVβ3 integrins in tube formation and regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) on α3(IV)NC1 stimulation. We found that although both integrins were required for the inhibition of tube formation by α3(IV)NC1 in endothelial cells, only α3β1 integrin was sufficient to regulate COX-2 in hypoxic endothelial cells. We show that binding of α3(IV)NC1 to α3β1 integrin leads to inhibition of COX-2–mediated pro-angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor by regulating IκBα/NFκB axis, and is independent of αVβ3 integrin. Furthermore, β3 integrin–null endothelial cells, when treated with α3(IV)NC1, inhibited hypoxia-mediated COX-2 expression, whereas COX-2 inhibition was not observed in α3 integrin–null endothelial cells, indicating that regulation of COX-2 by α3(IV)NC1 is mediated by integrin α3β1. Our in vitro and in vivo findings demonstrate that α3β1 integrin is critical for α3(IV)NC1-mediated inhibition of COX-2–dependent angiogenic signaling and inhibition of tumor progression. PMID:17426256

  2. Mechanisms involved in hemoglobin-mediated oxidation of lipids in washed fish muscle and inhibitory effects of phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Tatiyaborworntham, Nantawat; Richards, Mark P

    2018-05-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) is a lipid oxidation promoter in fish muscle. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2; EC 3.1.1.4) is linked to an increased resistance to lipid oxidation of frozen-thawed cod fillets via an unknown mechanism. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism of Hb-mediated lipid oxidation with a focus on ferryl Hb and methemoglobin (metHb), the pro-oxidative Hb species, and to examine how porcine pancreatic PLA2 inhibits Hb-mediated lipid oxidation in washed cod muscle (WCM). Lipid hydroperoxides (LOOHs) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured as primary and secondary lipid oxidation products, respectively. The formation of metHb and ferryl Hb was also monitored. Ferryl Hb and metHb formed during the Hb-mediated lipid oxidation. PLA2 inhibited the formation of LOOHs and TBARS and suppressed the formation of metHb and ferryl Hb. WCM was pre-oxidized by hemin to increase the amount of LOOHs. PLA2 promoted the depletion of LOOHs in the pre-oxidized WCM with limited TBARS formation at the expense of the heme moiety of Hb. The results of the present study suggest that ferryl Hb may play a role in Hb-mediated lipid oxidation and that PLA2 from pig pancreas may work together with Hb as a novel antioxidant with an ability to remove pre-formed LOOHs from a lipid substrate. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. CT perfusion for determination of pharmacologically mediated blood flow changes in an animal tumor model.

    PubMed

    Hakimé, Antoine; Peddi, Himaja; Hines-Peralta, Andrew U; Wilcox, Carol J; Kruskal, Jonathan; Lin, Shezhang; de Baere, Thierry; Raptopoulos, Vassilios D; Goldberg, S Nahum

    2007-06-01

    To prospectively compare single- and multisection computed tomographic (CT) perfusion for tumor blood flow determination in an animal model. All animal protocols and experiments were approved by the institutional animal care and use committee before the study was initiated. R3230 mammary adenocarcinoma was implanted in 11 rats. Tumors (18-20 mm) were scanned with dynamic 16-section CT at baseline and after administration of arsenic trioxide, which is known to cause acute reduction in blood flow. The concentration of arsenic was titrated (0-6 mg of arsenic per kilogram of body weight) to achieve a defined blood flow reduction (0%-75%) from baseline levels at 60 minutes, as determined with correlative laser Doppler flowmetry. The mean blood flow was calculated for each of four 5-mm sections that covered the entire tumor, as well as for the entire tumor after multiple sections were processed. Measurements obtained with both methods were correlated with laser Doppler flowmetry measurements. Interobserver agreement was determined for two blinded radiologists, who calculated the percentage of blood flow reduction for the "most representative" single sections at baseline and after arsenic administration. These results were compared with the interobserver variability of the same radiologists obtained by summing blood flow changes for the entire tumor volume. Overall correlations for acute blood flow reduction were demonstrated between laser Doppler flowmetry and the two CT perfusion approaches (single-section CT, r=0.85 and r(2)=0.73; multisection CT, r=0.93 and r(2)=0.87; pooled data, P=.01). CT perfusion disclosed marked heterogeneity of blood flow, with variations of 36% +/- 13 between adjacent 5-mm sections. Given these marked differences, interobserver agreement was much lower for single-section CT (standard deviation, 0.22) than for multisection CT (standard deviation, 0.10; P=.01). Multisection CT perfusion techniques may provide an accurate and more reproducible

  4. Singlet oxygen explicit dosimetry to predict long-term local tumor control for Photofrin-mediated photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penjweini, Rozhin; Kim, Michele M.; Ong, Yi Hong; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2017-02-01

    Although photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an established modality for the treatment of cancer, current dosimetric quantities do not account for the variations in PDT oxygen consumption for different fluence rates (φ). In this study we examine the efficacy of reacted singlet oxygen concentration ([1O2]rx) to predict long-term local control rate (LCR) for Photofrin-mediated PDT. Radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumors in the right shoulders of female C3H mice are treated with different in-air fluences of 225-540 J/cm2 and in-air fluence rate (φair) of 50 and 75 mW/cm2 at 5 mg/kg Photofrin and a drug-light interval of 24 hours using a 1 cm diameter collimated laser beam at 630 nm wavelength. [1O2]rx is calculated by using a macroscopic model based on explicit dosimetry of Photofrin concentration, tissue optical properties, tissue oxygenation and blood flow changes during PDT. The tumor volume of each mouse is tracked for 90 days after PDT and Kaplan-Meier analyses for LCR are performed based on a tumor volume <=100 mm3, for the four dose metrics light fluence, photosensitizer photobleaching rate, PDT dose and [1O2]rx. PDT dose is defined as a temporal integral of photosensitizer concentration and Φ at a 3 mm tumor depth. φ is calculated throughout the treatment volume based on Monte-Carlo simulation and measured tissue optical properties. Our preliminary studies show that [1O2]rx is the best dosimetric quantity that can predict tumor response and correlate with LCR. Moreover, [1O2]rx calculated using the blood flow changes was in agreement with [1O2]rx calculated based on the actual tissue oxygenation.

  5. Hypoxic Tumor Kinase Signaling Mediated by STAT5A in Development of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Røe, Kathrine; Bratland, Åse; Vlatkovic, Ljiljana; Ragnum, Harald Bull; Saelen, Marie Grøn; Olsen, Dag Rune; Marignol, Laure; Ree, Anne Hansen

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in prostate cancer, although initially efficient, induces changes in the tumor kinome, which subsequently promote development of castration-resistant (CR) disease. Recognizing the correlation between tumor hypoxia and poor prognosis in prostate cancer, we further hypothesized that such changes might be influenced by hypoxia. Microarrays with 144 kinase peptide substrates were applied to analyze CWR22 prostate carcinoma xenograft samples from ADT-naïve, androgen-deprived (AD), long-term AD (ADL), and CR disease stages. The impact of hypoxia was assessed by matching the xenograft kinase activity profiles with those acquired from hypoxic and normoxic prostate carcinoma cell cultures, whereas the clinical relevance was evaluated by analyzing prostatectomy tumor samples from patients with locally advanced disease, either in ADT-naïve or early CR disease stages. By using this novel peptide substrate microarray method we revealed high kinase activity mediated by signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A (STAT5A) in CR prostate cancer. Additionally, we uncovered high STAT5A kinase activity already in regressing ADL xenografts, before renewed CR growth was evidenced. Finally, since increased STAT5A kinase activity also was detected after exposing prostate carcinoma cells to hypoxia, we propose long-term ADT to induce tumor hypoxia and stimulate STAT5A kinase activity, subsequently leading to renewed CR tumor growth. Hence, the study detected STAT5A as a candidate to be further investigated for its potential as marker of advanced prostate cancer and as possible therapeutic target protein. PMID:23675504

  6. Doxycycline potentiates antitumor effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ming-Jen; Hung, Shih-Hsuan; Huang, Mu-Ching; Tsai, Tsuimin

    2017-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most common neurocutaneous disorders. Some NF1 patients develop benign large plexiform neurofibroma(s) at birth, which can then transform into a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST). There is no curative treatment for this rapidly progressive and easily metastatic neurofibrosarcoma. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been developed as an anti-cancer treatment, and 5-aminolevulinic (ALA) mediated PDT (ALA-PDT) has been used to treat cutaneous skin and oral neoplasms. Doxycycline, a tetracycline derivative, can substantially reduce the tumor burden in human and animal models, in addition to its antimicrobial effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect and to investigate the mechanism of action of combined doxycycline and ALA-PDT treatment of MPNST cells. An 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that the combination of ALA-PDT and doxycycline significantly reduce MPNST survival rate, compared to cells treated with each therapy alone. Isobologram analysis showed that the combined treatment had a synergistic effect. The increased cytotoxic activity could be seen by an increase in cellular protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) accumulation. Furthermore, we found that the higher retention of PpIX was mainly due to increasing ALA uptake, rather than activity changes of the enzymes porphobilinogen deaminase and ferrochelatase. The combined treatment inhibited tumor growth in different tumor cell lines, but not in normal human Schwann cells or fibroblasts. Similarly, a synergistic interaction was also found in cells treated with ALA-PDT combined with minocycline, but not tetracycline. In summary, doxycycline can potentiate the effect of ALA-PDT to kill tumor cells. This increased potency allows for a dose reduction of doxycycline and photodynamic radiation, reducing the occurrence of toxic side effects in vivo. PMID:28558025

  7. Doxycycline potentiates antitumor effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ming-Jen; Hung, Shih-Hsuan; Huang, Mu-Ching; Tsai, Tsuimin; Chen, Chin-Tin

    2017-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most common neurocutaneous disorders. Some NF1 patients develop benign large plexiform neurofibroma(s) at birth, which can then transform into a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST). There is no curative treatment for this rapidly progressive and easily metastatic neurofibrosarcoma. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been developed as an anti-cancer treatment, and 5-aminolevulinic (ALA) mediated PDT (ALA-PDT) has been used to treat cutaneous skin and oral neoplasms. Doxycycline, a tetracycline derivative, can substantially reduce the tumor burden in human and animal models, in addition to its antimicrobial effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect and to investigate the mechanism of action of combined doxycycline and ALA-PDT treatment of MPNST cells. An 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that the combination of ALA-PDT and doxycycline significantly reduce MPNST survival rate, compared to cells treated with each therapy alone. Isobologram analysis showed that the combined treatment had a synergistic effect. The increased cytotoxic activity could be seen by an increase in cellular protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) accumulation. Furthermore, we found that the higher retention of PpIX was mainly due to increasing ALA uptake, rather than activity changes of the enzymes porphobilinogen deaminase and ferrochelatase. The combined treatment inhibited tumor growth in different tumor cell lines, but not in normal human Schwann cells or fibroblasts. Similarly, a synergistic interaction was also found in cells treated with ALA-PDT combined with minocycline, but not tetracycline. In summary, doxycycline can potentiate the effect of ALA-PDT to kill tumor cells. This increased potency allows for a dose reduction of doxycycline and photodynamic radiation, reducing the occurrence of toxic side effects in vivo.

  8. Tumor growth delay by adjuvant alternating electric fields which appears non-thermally mediated.

    PubMed

    Castellví, Quim; Ginestà, Mireia M; Capellà, Gabriel; Ivorra, Antoni

    2015-10-01

    Delivery of the so-called Tumor Treatment Fields (TTFields) has been proposed as a cancer therapy. These are low magnitude alternating electric fields at frequencies from 100 to 300 kHz which are applied continuously in a non-invasive manner. Electric field delivery may produce an increase in temperature which cannot be neglected. We hypothesized that the reported results obtained by applying TTFields in vivo could be due to heat rather than to electrical forces as previously suggested. Here, an in vivo study is presented in which pancreatic tumors subcutaneously implanted in nude mice were treated for a week either with mild hyperthermia (41 °C) or with TTFields (6 V/cm, 150 kHz) and tumor growth was assessed. Although the TTFields applied singly did not produce any significant effect, the combination with chemotherapy did show a delay in tumor growth in comparison to animals treated only with chemotherapy (median relative reduction=47%). We conclude that concomitant chemotherapy and TTFields delivery show a beneficial impact on pancreatic tumor growth. Contrary to our hypothesis, this impact is non-related with the induced temperature increase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Overexpression and correlation of HIF-2α, VEGFA and EphA2 in residual hepatocellular carcinoma following high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment: Implications for tumor recurrence and progression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lun; Zhang, You-Shun; Ye, Meng-Liang; Shen, Feng; Liu, Wei; Hu, Hong-Sheng; Li, Sheng-Wei; Wu, Hong-Wei; Chen, Qin-Hua; Zhou, Wen-Bo

    2017-06-01

    Rapid growth of residual tumors can occur as a result of their recurrence and progression. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-2 subunit α (HIF-2α), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular A2 (EphA2) and angiogenesis in residual hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), following treatment with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation, in order to investigate the association between protein expression and tumor recurrence and growth. Athymic BALB/c (nu/nu) mice were subcutaneously inoculated with the HCC cell line HepG2, in order to create xenograft tumors. Approximately 30 days post-inoculation, eight mice were treated with HIFU, whereas eight mice received no treatment and acted as the control group. Residual tumor tissues were obtained from the experimental groups after one month. Levels of HIF-2α, VEGFA, EphA2 and cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31) expression was measured by immunohistochemical staining. CD31-positive vascular endothelial cells were counted to calculate microvascular density (MVD), and western blot analysis was performed to determine levels of HIF-2α, VEGFA, and EphA2 protein. It was found that the expression levels of HIF-2α, VEGFA, EphA2, and MVD proteins in residual HCC tissues were significantly higher than in the control group tissues (P<0.05). Tumor MVD was strongly correlated with VEGFA (R=0.957, P<0.01) and EphA2 (R=0.993, P<0.01) protein expression levels. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between HIF-2α and EphA2 expression (R=0.991, P<0.01). The correlation between VEGFA and EphA2 expression was also positive (R=0.985, P<0.01). These data suggest that overexpression of HIF-2α, VEGFA and EphA2 is related to angiogenesis in residual HCC following HIFU ablation, potentially via their association with key mediators of recurrence.

  10. Neutrophils suppress intraluminal NK-mediated tumor cell clearance and enhance extravasation of disseminated carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Spiegel, Asaf; Brooks, Mary W.; Houshyar, Samin; Reinhardt, Ferenc; Ardolino, Michele; Fessler, Evelyn; Chen, Michelle B.; Krall, Jordan A.; DeCock, Jasmine; Zervantonakis, Ioannis K.; Iannello, Alexandre; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Cortez-Retamozo, Virna; Kamm, Roger D.; Pittet, Mikael J.; Raulet, David H.; Weinberg, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Immune cells promote the initial metastatic dissemination of carcinoma cells from primary tumors. In contrast to their well-studied functions in the initial stages of metastasis, the specific roles of immunocytes in facilitating progression through the critical later steps of the invasion-metastasis cascade remain poorly understood. Here we define novel functions of neutrophils in promoting intraluminal survival and extravasation at sites of metastatic dissemination. We show that CD11b+/Ly6G+ neutrophils enhance metastasis formation via two distinct mechanisms. First, neutrophils inhibit natural killer cell function, which leads to a significant increase in the intraluminal survival time of tumor cells. Thereafter, neutrophils operate to facilitate extravasation of tumor cells through the secretion of IL-1β and matrix metalloproteinases. These results identify neutrophils as key regulators of intraluminal survival and extravasation through their crosstalk with host cells and disseminating carcinoma cells. PMID:27072748

  11. Redox sensor CtBP mediates hypoxia-induced tumor cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Su-Yan; Nottke, Amanda C.; Rocheleau, Jonathan V.; Piston, David W.; Goodman, Richard H.

    2006-01-01

    The rapid growth and poor vascularization of solid tumors expose cancer cells to hypoxia, which promotes the metastatic phenotype by reducing intercellular adhesion and increasing cell motility and invasiveness. In this study, we found that hypoxia increased free NADH levels in cancer cells, promoting CtBP recruitment to the E-cadherin promoter. This effect was blocked by pyruvate, which prevents the NADH increase. Furthermore, hypoxia repressed E-cadherin gene expression and increased tumor cell migration, effects that were blocked by CtBP knockdown. We propose that CtBP senses levels of free NADH to control expression of cell adhesion genes, thereby promoting tumor cell migration under hypoxic stress. PMID:16740659

  12. Near-infrared mediated tumor destruction by photothermal effect of PANI-Np in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, L. E.; Yslas, E. I.; Molina, M. A.; Rivarola, C. R.; Romanini, S.; Barbero, C. A.; Rivarola, V. A.; Bertuzzi, M. L.

    2013-06-01

    Photothermal therapy is a therapy in which photon energy is converted into heat to kill cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of photothermal therapy, toxicity and hepatic and renal function of polyaniline nanoparticles (PANI-Np) in a tumor-bearing mice model. The in vivo efficacy of nanoparticles, following NIR light exposure, was assessed by examining tumor growth over time compared to the untreated control. Signs of drug toxicity and the histopathology and morphology of tumor and tissues, after intratumoral injection treatment, were examined or monitored. Excellent photothermal therapy efficacy is achieved upon intratumoral injection of PANI-Np followed by near-infrared light exposure. These results suggest that PANI-Np could be considered as an effective photothermal agent and pave the way to future cancer therapeutics.

  13. SPARC Overexpression Inhibits Cell Proliferation in Neuroblastoma and Is Partly Mediated by Tumor Suppressor Protein PTEN and AKT

    PubMed Central

    Bhoopathi, Praveen; Gorantla, Bharathi; Sailaja, G. S.; Gondi, Christopher S.; Gujrati, Meena; Klopfenstein, Jeffrey D.; Rao, Jasti S.

    2012-01-01

    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is also known as BM-40 or Osteonectin, a multi-functional protein modulating cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions. In cancer, SPARC is not only linked with a highly aggressive phenotype, but it also acts as a tumor suppressor. In the present study, we sought to characterize the function of SPARC and its role in sensitizing neuroblastoma cells to radio-therapy. SPARC overexpression in neuroblastoma cells inhibited cell proliferation in vitro. Additionally, SPARC overexpression significantly suppressed the activity of AKT and this suppression was accompanied by an increase in the tumor suppressor protein PTEN both in vitro and in vivo. Restoration of neuroblastoma cell radio-sensitivity was achieved by overexpression of SPARC in neuroblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. To confirm the role of the AKT in proliferation inhibited by SPARC overexpression, we transfected neuroblastoma cells with a plasmid vector carrying myr-AKT. Myr-AKT overexpression reversed SPARC-mediated PTEN and increased proliferation of neuroblastoma cells in vitro. PTEN overexpression in parallel with SPARC siRNA resulted in decreased AKT phosphorylation and proliferation in vitro. Taken together, these results establish SPARC as an effector of AKT-PTEN-mediated inhibition of proliferation in neuroblastoma in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22567126

  14. Enhancing cancer immunotherapy through nanotechnology-mediated tumor infiltration and activation of immune cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Haifa; Sun, Tong; Hoang, Hanh H; Burchfield, Jana S; Hamilton, Gillian F; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A; Ferrari, Mauro

    2017-12-01

    Cancer immunotherapy has become arguably the most promising advancement in cancer research and therapy in recent years. The efficacy of cancer immunotherapy is critically dependent on specific physiological and physical processes - collectively referred to as transport barriers - including the activation of T cells by antigen presenting cells, T cells migration to and penetration into the tumor microenvironment, and movement of nutrients and other immune cells through the tumor microenvironment. Nanotechnology-based approaches have great potential to help overcome these transport barriers. In this review, we discuss the ways that nanotechnology is being leveraged to improve the efficacy and potency of various cancer immunotherapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Increased brain edema following 5-aminolevulinic acid mediated photodynamic in normal and tumor bearing rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschberg, Henry; Angell-Petersen, Even; Spetalen, Signe; Mathews, Marlon; Madsen, Steen J.

    2007-02-01

    Introduction: Failure of treatment for high grade gliomas is usually due to local recurrence at the site of surgical resection indicating that a more aggressive form of local therapy, such as PDT, could be of benefit. PDT causes damage to both tumor cells as well as cerebral blood vessels leading to degradation of the blood brain barrier with subsequent increase of brain edema. The increase in brain edema following ALA-PDT was evaluated in terms of animal survival, histopatological changes in normal brain and tumor tissue and MRI scanning. The effect of steroid treatment, to reduce post-treatment PDT induced edema, was also examined. Methods:Tumors were established in the brains of inbred BD-IX and Fisher rats. At various times following tumor induction the animals were injected with ALA ip. and four hours later light treatment at escalating fluences and fluence rates were given. Nontumor bearing control animals were also exposed to ALA-PDT in a similar manner to evaluate damage to normal brain and degree of blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption. Results: Despite a very low level of PpIX production in normal brain, with a 200:1 tumor to normal tissue selectivity ratio measured at a distance of 2 mm from the tumor border, many animals succumbed shortly after treatment. A total radiant energy of 54 J to non-tumor bearing animals resulted in 50% mortality within 5 days of treatment. Treatment of tumor bearing animals with moderate fluence levels produced similar brain edema compared to higher fluence levels. ALA PDT in nontumor bearing animals produced edema that was light dose dependent. PDT appeared to open the BBB for a period of 24-48 hrs after which it was restored. The addition of post operative steroid treatment reduced the incident of post treatment morbidity and mortality. Conclusions: T2 and contrast enhanced T1 MRI scanning proved to be a highly effective and non-evasive modality in following the development of the edema reaction and the degree and time

  16. EGFR-targeted granzyme B expressed in NK cells enhances natural cytotoxicity and mediates specific killing of tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Oberoi, Pranav; Jabulowsky, Robert A; Bähr-Mahmud, Hayat; Wels, Winfried S

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are highly specialized effectors of the innate immune system that hold promise for adoptive cancer immunotherapy. Their cell killing activity is primarily mediated by the pro-apoptotic serine protease granzyme B (GrB), which enters targets cells with the help of the pore-forming protein perforin. We investigated expression of a chimeric GrB fusion protein in NK cells as a means to augment their antitumoral activity. For selective targeting to tumor cells, we fused the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) peptide ligand transforming growth factor α (TGFα) to human pre-pro-GrB. Established human NKL natural killer cells transduced with a lentiviral vector expressed this GrB-TGFα (GrB-T) molecule in amounts comparable to endogenous wildtype GrB. Activation of the genetically modified NK cells by cognate target cells resulted in the release of GrB-T together with endogenous granzymes and perforin, which augmented the effector cells' natural cytotoxicity against NK-sensitive tumor cells. Likewise, GrB-T was released into the extracellular space upon induction of degranulation with PMA and ionomycin. Secreted GrB-T fusion protein displayed specific binding to EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells, enzymatic activity, and selective target cell killing in the presence of an endosomolytic activity. Our data demonstrate that ectopic expression of a targeted GrB fusion protein in NK cells is feasible and can enhance antitumoral activity of the effector cells.

  17. YAP is essential for Treg mediated suppression of anti-tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xuhao; Tao, Jinhui; Barbi, Joseph; Chen, Qian; Park, Benjamin V; Li, Zhiguang; Zhang, Nailing; Lebid, Andriana; Ramaswamy, Anjali; Wei, Ping; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Xingmei; Vignali, Paolo D A; Yang, Cuiping; Li, Huabin; Pardoll, Drew; Lu, Ling; Pan, Duojia; Pan, Fan

    2018-06-15

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical for maintaining self-tolerance and immune homeostasis, but their suppressive function can impede effective anti-tumor immune responses. Foxp3 is a transcription factor expressed in Tregs that is required for their function. However, the pathways and microenvironmental cues governing Foxp3 expression and Treg function are not completely understood. Herein, we report that Yes-associated protein (YAP), a co-activator of the Hippo pathway, is highly expressed in Tregs and bolsters Foxp3 expression and Treg function in vitro and in vivo. This potentiation stemmed from YAP-dependent upregulation of Activin signaling which amplifies TGFβ/SMAD activation in Tregs. YAP-deficiency resulted in dysfunctional Tregs unable to suppress anti-tumor immunity or promote tumor growth in mice. Chemical YAP antagonism and knockout or blockade of the YAP-regulated Activin Receptor similarly improved anti-tumor immunity. Thus we identify YAP as an unexpected amplifier of a Treg-reinforcing pathway with significant potential as an anti-cancer immunotherapeutic target. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. The heat shock protein-CD91 pathway mediates tumor immunosurveillance

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yu Jerry; Binder, Robert Julian

    2014-01-01

    Tumor immunosurveillance can be readily observed in mice and humans. Here, we examine how T-cell responses are primed during tumorigenesis, a condition in which immunostimulatory antigens are extraordinarily scarce. We recently demonstrated that the HSP-CD91 pathway is indispensable for antigen cross-presentation, and thus immunosurveillance, in cancer. PMID:25050192

  19. mTHPC-mediated photodynamic detection for fluorescence-guided resection of brain tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostron, Herwig; Zimmermann, Andreas; Obwegeser, Alois

    1998-06-01

    A most radical resection is of great importance in the treatment of brain tumors, however they can hardly be differentiated from normal brain parenchyma by the naked eye of the neurosurgeon. Photosensitizers are highly selective taken up into malignant tissues, therefore the fluorescence properties of photosensitizers could be utilized for optical differentiation of normal and malignant tissue. Ten patients presenting with brain malignancies were sensitized for photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) and photodynamic treatment (PDT) with 0.15 mg/kg b.w. m-THPC. On day 4 intraoperative PDD and fluorescence guided tumor resection (FGR) was performed, followed by intraoperative PDT. The fluorescence was induced by a xenon lamp at an excitation wavelength ranging from 370 to 440 nm. A sensitive CCD camera was employed for imaging, equipped with a long pass filter to shut off the excitation wavelength and to improve the signal to noise ratio. The pictures are converted digitally by a standard frame grabber and processed in real time and calculated for the tissue auto fluorescence in the emission band of m-THPC at 652 nm. Out of 10 0bservations, two were false negative and 2 were false positive. Our preliminary results indicate that fluorescence guided surgery is feasible and proved to be of significant help in delineating tumor margins and in resection of residual tumor that could not be detected by the surgeon, however the sensitivity and specificity needs to be further improved.

  20. Electric field-mediated transport of plasmid DNA in tumor interstitium in vivo.

    PubMed

    Henshaw, Joshua W; Zaharoff, David A; Mossop, Brian J; Yuan, Fan

    2007-11-01

    Local pulsed electric field application is a method for improving non-viral gene delivery. Mechanisms of the improvement include electroporation and electrophoresis. To understand how electrophoresis affects pDNA delivery in vivo, we quantified the magnitude of electric field-induced interstitial transport of pDNA in 4T1 and B16.F10 tumors implanted in mouse dorsal skin-fold chambers. Four different electric pulse sequences were used in this study, each consisted of 10 identical pulses that were 100 or 400 V/cm in strength and 20 or 50 ms in duration. The interval between consecutive pulses was 1 s. The largest distance of transport was obtained with the 400 V/cm and 50 ms pulse, and was 0.23 and 0.22 microm/pulse in 4T1 and B16.F10 tumors, respectively. There were no significant differences in transport distances between 4T1 and B16.F10 tumors. Results from in vivo mapping and numerical simulations revealed an approximately uniform intratumoral electric field that was predominantly in the direction of the applied field. The data in the study suggested that interstitial transport of pDNA induced by a sequence of ten electric pulses was ineffective for macroscopic delivery of genes in tumors. However, the induced transport was more efficient than passive diffusion.

  1. Tumor Progression Is Mediated by Thymosin-β4 through a TGFβ/MRTF Signaling Axis.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Ken'ichiro

    2018-05-01

    Although enhanced thymosin β4 (TMSB4X/Tβ4) expression is associated with tumor progression and metastasis, its tumor-promoting functions remain largely unknown. Here, it is demonstrated that TGFβ facilitates Tβ4 expression and leads to the activation of myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTF), which are coactivators of serum response factor (SRF) and regulate the expression of genes critical for the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor metastasis. In murine mammary gland cells (NMuMG), Tβ4 upregulation is required for full induction of a MRTF-regulated EMT gene expression program after TGFβ stimulation. Tβ4 levels are transcriptionally regulated via the novel cis -acting element AGACAAAG, which interacts with Smad and T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) to synergistically activate the Tβ4 promoter downstream of TGFβ. Murine skin melanoma cells (B16F0 and B16F1) also show the expression regulation of Tβ4 by Smad and TCF/LEF. Tβ4-knockout B16F1 (Tβ4 KO) clones show significantly diminished expression level of tumor-associated genes, which is regulated by the TGFβ/MRTFs pathway. In multiple human cancers, Tβ4 levels correlate positively with TGFβ1 and the tumor-associated gene expression levels through processes that respectively depend on TGFβ receptor 1 (TGFBR1) and MRTF expression. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses demonstrate that high Tβ4 expression associates with poor prognosis in an SRF expression-dependent manner in several cancers. In mice, Tβ4 KO clones show significantly decreased experimental metastatic potential; furthermore, ectopic expression of constitutively active MRTF-A fully restores the diminished metastatic activity. In conclusion, the TGFβ/Tβ4/MRTF/SRF pathway is critical for metastasis and tumor progression. Implications: These findings define a molecular mechanism underlying a tumor-promoting function of thymosin β4 through activation of MRTF/SRF signaling. Mol Cancer Res; 16(5); 880-93.

  2. First demonstration of gold nanorods-mediated photodynamic therapeutic destruction of tumors via near infra-red light activation.

    PubMed

    Vankayala, Raviraj; Huang, Yu-Kuan; Kalluru, Poliraju; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Hwang, Kuo Chu

    2014-04-24

    Previously, a large volume of papers reports that gold nanorods (Au NRs) are able to effectively kill cancer cells upon high laser doses (usually 808 nm, 1-48 W/cm²) irradiation, leading to hyperthermia-induced destruction of cancer cells, i.e, photothermal therapy (PTT) effects. Combination of Au NRs-mediated PTT and organic photosensitizers-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) were also reported to achieve synergistic PTT and PDT effects on killing cancer cells. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time that Au NRs alone can sensitize formation of singlet oxygen (¹O₂) and exert dramatic PDT effects on complete destrcution of tumors in mice under very low LED/laser doses of single photon NIR (915 nm, <130 mW/cm²) light excitation. By changing the NIR light excitation wavelengths, Au NRs-mediated phototherapeutic effects can be switched from PDT to PTT or combination of both. Both PDT and PTT effects were confirmed by measurements of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and heat shock protein (HSP 70), singlet oxygen sensor green (SOSG) sensing, and sodium azide quenching in cellular experiments. In vivo mice experiments further show that the PDT effect via irradiation of Au NRs by 915 nm can destruct the B16F0 melanoma tumor in mice far more effectively than doxorubicin (a clinically used anti-cancer drug) as well as the PTT effect (via irradiation of Au NRs by 780 nm light). In addition, we show that Au NRs can emit single photon-induced fluorescence to illustrate their in vivo locations/distribution. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. F-Box Protein FBXO22 Mediates Polyubiquitination and Degradation of CD147 to Reverse Cisplatin Resistance of Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bo; Liu, Zhen-Yu; Cui, Jian; Yang, Xiang-Min; Jing, Lin; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Jiang, Jian-Li

    2017-01-01

    Drug resistance remains a major clinical obstacle to successful treatment of cancer. As posttranslational modification is becoming widely recognized to affect the function of oncoproteins, targeting specific posttranslational protein modification provides an attractive strategy for anticancer drug development. CD147 is a transmembrane glycoprotein contributing to chemo-resistance of cancer cells in a variety of human malignancies. Ubiquitination is an important posttranslational modification mediating protein degradation. Degradation of oncoproteins, CD147 included, emerges as an attractive alternative for tumor inhibition. However, the ubiquitination of CD147 remains elusive. Here in this study, we found that deletion of the CD147 intracellular domain (CD147-ICD) prolonged the half-life of CD147 in HEK293T cells, and we identified that CD147-ICD interacts with FBXO22 using mass spectrometry and Western blot. Then, we demonstrated that FBXO22 mediates the polyubiquitination and degradation of CD147 by recognizing CD147-ICD. While knocking down of FBXO22 prolonged the half-life of CD147 in HEK293T cells, we found that FBXO22 regulates CD147 protein turnover in SMMC-7721, Huh-7 and A549 cells. Moreover, we found that the low level of FBXO22 contributes to the accumulation of CD147 and thereafter the cisplatin resistance of A549/DDP cells. To conclude, our study demonstrated that FBXO22 mediated the polyubiquitination and degradation of CD147 by interacting with CD147-ICD, and CD147 polyubiquitination by FBXO22 reversed cisplatin resistance of tumor cells. PMID:28117675

  4. Tumor-induced anorexia and weight loss are mediated by the TGF-beta superfamily cytokine MIC-1.

    PubMed

    Johnen, Heiko; Lin, Shu; Kuffner, Tamara; Brown, David A; Tsai, Vicky Wang-Wei; Bauskin, Asne R; Wu, Liyun; Pankhurst, Greg; Jiang, Lele; Junankar, Simon; Hunter, Mark; Fairlie, W Douglas; Lee, Nicola J; Enriquez, Ronaldo F; Baldock, Paul A; Corey, Eva; Apple, Fred S; Murakami, Maryann M; Lin, En-Ju; Wang, Chuansong; During, Matthew J; Sainsbury, Amanda; Herzog, Herbert; Breit, Samuel N

    2007-11-01

    Anorexia and weight loss are part of the wasting syndrome of late-stage cancer, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer, and are thought to be cytokine mediated. Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1) is produced by many cancers. Examination of sera from individuals with advanced prostate cancer showed a direct relationship between MIC-1 abundance and cancer-associated weight loss. In mice with xenografted prostate tumors, elevated MIC-1 levels were also associated with marked weight, fat and lean tissue loss that was mediated by decreased food intake and was reversed by administration of antibody to MIC-1. Additionally, normal mice given systemic MIC-1 and transgenic mice overexpressing MIC-1 showed hypophagia and reduced body weight. MIC-1 mediates its effects by central mechanisms that implicate the hypothalamic transforming growth factor-beta receptor II, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2, signal transducer and activator of transcription-3, neuropeptide Y and pro-opiomelanocortin. Thus, MIC-1 is a newly defined central regulator of appetite and a potential target for the treatment of both cancer anorexia and weight loss, as well as of obesity.

  5. Engineered Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium overcomes limitations of anti-bacterial immunity in bacteria-mediated tumor therapy

    PubMed Central

    Felgner, Sebastian; Kocijancic, Dino; Frahm, Michael; Heise, Ulrike; Rohde, Manfred; Zimmermann, Kurt; Falk, Christine; Weiss, Siegfried

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the industrialized world and represents a tremendous social and economic burden. As conventional therapies fail to provide a sustainable cure for most cancer patients, the emerging unique immune therapeutic approach of bacteria-mediated tumor therapy (BMTT) is marching towards a feasible solution. Although promising results have been obtained with BMTT using various preclinical tumor models, for advancement a major concern is immunity against the bacterial vector itself. Pre-exposure to the therapeutic agent under field conditions is a reasonable expectation and may limit the therapeutic efficacy of BMTT. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of Salmonella and E. coli vector strains in naïve and immunized tumor bearing mice. Pre-exposure to the therapeutic agent caused a significant aberrant phenotype of the microenvironment of colonized tumors and limited the in vivo efficacy of established BMTT vector strains Salmonella SL7207 and E. coli Symbioflor-2. Using targeted genetic engineering, we generated the optimized auxotrophic Salmonella vector strain SF200 (ΔlpxR9 ΔpagL7 ΔpagP8 ΔaroA ΔydiV ΔfliF) harboring modifications in Lipid A and flagella synthesis. This combination of mutations resulted in an increased immune-stimulatory capacity and as such the strain was able to overcome the efficacy-limiting effects of pre-exposure. Thus, we conclude that any limitations of BMTT concerning anti-bacterial immunity may be countered by strategies that optimize the immune-stimulatory capacity of the attenuated vector strains. PMID:29308303

  6. Singlet oxygen explicit dosimetry to predict long-term local tumor control for BPD-mediated photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Michele M.; Penjweini, Rozhin; Ong, Yi Hong; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2017-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a well-established treatment modality for cancer and other malignant diseases; however, quantities such as light fluence, photosensitizer photobleaching rate, and PDT dose do not fully account for all of the dynamic interactions between the key components involved. In particular, fluence rate (Φ) effects are not accounted for, which has a large effect on the oxygen consumption rate. In this preclinical study, reacted singlet oxygen [1O2]rx was investigated as a dosimetric quantity for PDT outcome. The ability of [1O2]rx to predict the long-term local tumor control rate (LCR) for BPD-mediated PDT was examined. Mice bearing radioactivelyinduced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumors were treated with different in-air fluences (250, 300, and 350 J/cm2) and in-air ϕ (75, 100, and150 mW/cm2) with a BPD dose of 1 mg/kg and a drug-light interval of 3 hours. Treatment was delivered with a collimated laser beam of 1 cm diameter at 690 nm. Explicit dosimetry of initial tissue oxygen concentration, tissue optical properties, and BPD concentration was used to calculate [1O2]rx. Φ was calculated for the treatment volume based on Monte-Carlo simulations and measured tissue optical properties. Kaplan-Meier analyses for LCR were done for an endpoint of tumor volume <= 100 mm3 using four dose metrics: light fluence, photosensitizer photobleaching rate, PDT dose, and [1O2]rx. PDT dose was defined as the product of the timeintegral of photosensitizer concentration and Φ at a 3 mm tumor depth. Preliminary studies show that [1O2]rx better correlates with LCR and is an effective dosimetric quantity that can predict treatment outcome.

  7. NCOA1 promotes angiogenesis in breast tumors by simultaneously enhancing both HIF1α- and AP-1-mediated VEGFa transcription

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Li; Xu, Yan; Xu, Yixiang; Ma, Gang; Liao, Lan; Wu, Yelin; Li, Yi; Wang, Xian; Wang, Xiaosong; Jiang, Jun; Wang, Jin; Xu, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear receptor coactivator 1 (NCOA1) is overexpressed in a subset of breast cancer and its increased expression positively correlates with disease recurrence and metastasis. Although NCOA1 is known to promote breast cancer metastasis through working with multiple transcription factors to upregulate the expression of Twist1, ITGA5, CSF-1, SDF1 and CXCR4, the role of NCOA1 in breast tumor angiogenesis has not been investigated. In this study, we found that the microvascular density (MVD) was significantly decreased and increased in Ncoa1-knockout and NCOA1-overexpressing mammary tumors, respectively, in several breast cancer mouse models. Knockout or knockdown of NCOA1 in breast cancer cell lines also markedly compromised their capability to induce angiogenesis in Matrigel plugs embedded subcutaneously in mice, while this compromised capability could be rescued by VEGFa treatment. At the molecular level, NCOA1 upregulates VEGFa expression in both mouse mammary tumors and cultured breast cancer cells, and it does so by associating with both c-Fos, which is recruited to the AP-1 site at bp −938 of the VEGFa promoter, and HIF1α, which is recruited to the HIF1α-binding element at bp −979 of the VEGFa promoter, to enhance VEGFa transcription. In 140 human breast tumors, high NCOA1 protein correlates with high MVD and patients with both high NCOA1 and high MVD showed significantly shorter survival time. In summary, this study revealed a novel mechanism that NCOA1 potentiates breast cancer angiogenesis through upregulating HIF1α and AP-1-mediated VEGFa expression, which reinforces the rational of targeting NCOA1 in controlling breast cancer progression and metastasis. PMID:26287601

  8. Elevation of c-MYC Disrupts HLA Class II-mediated Immune Recognition of Human B-cell Tumors1

    PubMed Central

    God, Jason M.; Cameron, Christine; Figueroa, Janette; Amria, Shereen; Hossain, Azim; Kempkes, Bettina; Bornkamm, Georg W.; Stuart, Robert K.; Blum, Janice S.; Haque, Azizul

    2014-01-01

    Elevated levels of the transcription factor c-myc are strongly associated with various cancers, and in particular B-cell lymphomas. While many of c-MYC’s functions have been elucidated, its effect on the presentation of antigen (Ag) through the HLA class II pathway has not previously been reported. This is an issue of considerable importance, given the low immunogenicity of many c-MYC-positive tumors. We report here that increased c-MYC expression has a negative effect on the ability of B-cell lymphomas to functionally present Ags/peptides to CD4+ T cells. This defect was associated with alterations in the expression of distinct co-factors as well as interactions of antigenic peptides with class II molecules required for the presentation of class II-peptide complexes and T cell engagement. Using early passage Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) tumors and transformed cells, we show that compared to B-lymphoblasts, BL cells express decreased levels of the class II editor HLA-DM, lysosomal thiol-reductase GILT, and a 47kDa enolase-like protein. Functional Ag presentation was partially restored in BL cells treated with a c-MYC inhibitor, demonstrating the impact of this oncogene on Ag recognition. This restoration of HLA class II-mediated Ag presentation in early passage BL tumors/cells was linked to enhanced HLA-DM expression and a concurrent decrease in HLA-DO in BL cells. Taken together, these results reveal c-MYC exerts suppressive effects at several critical checkpoints in Ag presentation which contribute to the immunoevasive properties of BL tumors. PMID:25595783

  9. A novel T cell receptor single-chain signaling complex mediates antigen-specific T cell activity and tumor control

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Jennifer D.; Harris, Daniel T.; Soto, Carolina M.; Chervin, Adam S.; Aggen, David H.; Roy, Edward J.; Kranz, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of genetically modified T cells to treat cancer has shown promise in several clinical trials. Two main strategies have been applied to redirect T cells against cancer: 1) introduction of a full-length T cell receptor (TCR) specific for a tumor-associated peptide-MHC, or 2) introduction of a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), including an antibody fragment specific for a tumor cell surface antigen, linked intracellularly to T cell signaling domains. Each strategy has advantages and disadvantages for clinical applications. Here, we present data on the in vitro and in vivo effectiveness of a single-chain signaling receptor incorporating a TCR variable fragment as the targeting element (referred to as TCR-SCS). This receptor contained a single-chain TCR (Vβ-linker-Vα) from a high-affinity TCR called m33, linked to the intracellular signaling domains of CD28 and CD3ζ. This format avoided mispairing with endogenous TCR chains, and mediated specific T cell activity when expressed in either CD4 or CD8 T cells. TCR-SCS-transduced CD8-negative cells showed an intriguing sensitivity, compared to full-length TCRs, to higher densities of less stable pepMHC targets. T cells that expressed this peptide-specific receptor persisted in vivo, and exhibited polyfunctional responses. Growth of metastatic antigen-positive tumors was significantly inhibited by T cells that expressed this receptor, and tumor cells that escaped were antigen loss variants. TCR-SCS receptors represent an alternative targeting receptor strategy that combines the advantages of single-chain expression, avoidance of TCR chain mispairing, and targeting of intracellular antigens presented in complex with MHC proteins. PMID:25082071

  10. Genetically mediated Nf1 loss in mice promotes diverse radiation-induced tumors modeling second malignant neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Grace; Huang, Brian; Pinarbasi, Emile; Braunstein, Steve E.; Horvai, Andrew E.; Kogan, Scott; Bhatia, Smita; Faddegon, Bruce; Nakamura, Jean L.

    2013-01-01

    Second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) are therapy-induced malignancies and a growing problem in cancer survivors, particularly survivors of childhood cancers. The lack of experimental models of SMNs has limited understanding of their pathogenesis. It is currently not possible to predict or prevent this devastating late complication. Individuals with Neurofibromatosis I (NF1) are at increased risk of developing therapy-induced cancers for unclear reasons. To model SMNs, we replicated clinical radiotherapy and delivered fractionated abdominal irradiation to Nf1+/− and wildtype mice. Similar to irradiated cancer survivors, irradiated wildtype and Nf1+/− mice developed diverse in-field malignancies. In Nf1+/− mice, fractionated irradiation promoted both classical NF1-associated malignancies and malignancies unassociated with the NF1 syndrome but typical of SMNs. Nf1 heterozygosity potentiated the mutagenic effects of irradiation, as evidenced by the significantly reduced survival after irradiation and tumor development that was often characterized by synchronous primary tumors. Interestingly, diverse radiation-induced tumors arising in wildtype and Nf1+/− mice shared a genetic signature characterized by monoallelic loss of Nf1 and the adjacent Trp53 allele. These findings implicate Nf1 loss as mediating tumorigenesis in a broad range of cell types and organs extending beyond the classical NF1 tumor histologies. Examining clinical SMN samples, we found LOH of NF1 in SMNs from non-NF1 patients. Nf1 heterozygosity confers broad susceptibility to genotoxin-induced tumorigenesis and this paradigm serves as an experimental platform for future studies of SMNs. PMID:23071067

  11. Augmented IFN-γ and TNF-α Induced by Probiotic Bacteria in NK Cells Mediate Differentiation of Stem-Like Tumors Leading to Inhibition of Tumor Growth and Reduction in Inflammatory Cytokine Release; Regulation by IL-10

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Vickie T.; Tseng, Han-Ching; Kozlowska, Anna; Maung, Phyu Ou; Kaur, Kawaljit; Topchyan, Paytsar; Jewett, Anahid

    2015-01-01

    Our previous reports demonstrated that the magnitude of natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity correlate directly with the stage and level of differentiation of tumor cells. In addition, we have shown previously that activated NK cells inhibit growth of cancer cells through induction of differentiation, resulting in the resistance of tumor cells to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity through secreted cytokines, as well as direct NK-tumor cell contact. In this report, we show that in comparison to IL-2 + anti-CD16mAb-treated NK cells, activation of NK cells by probiotic bacteria (sAJ2) in combination with IL-2 and anti-CD16mAb substantially decreases tumor growth and induces maturation, differentiation, and resistance of oral squamous cancer stem cells, MIA PaCa-2 stem-like/poorly differentiated pancreatic tumors, and healthy stem cells of apical papillae through increased secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α, as well as direct NK-tumor cell contact. Tumor resistance to NK cell-mediated killing induced by IL-2 + anti-CD16mAb + sAJ2-treated NK cells is induced by combination of IFN-γ and TNF-α since antibodies to both, and not each cytokine alone, were able to restore tumor sensitivity to NK cells. Increased surface expression of CD54, B7H1, and MHC-I on NK-differentiated tumors was mediated by IFN-γ since the addition of anti-IFN-γ abolished their increase and restored the ability of NK cells to trigger cytokine and chemokine release; whereas differentiated tumors inhibited cytokine release by the NK cells. Monocytes synergize with NK cells in the presence of probiotic bacteria to induce regulated differentiation of stem cells through secretion of IL-10 resulting in resistance to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity and inhibition of cytokine release. Therefore, probiotic bacteria condition activated NK cells to provide augmented differentiation of cancer stem cells resulting in inhibition of tumor growth, and decreased inflammatory cytokine release. PMID

  12. A Co-Receptor Independent Transgenic Human TCR Mediates Anti-Tumor and Anti-Self Immunity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mehrotra, Shikhar; Al-Khami, Amir A.; Klarquist, Jared; Husain, Shahid; Naga, Osama; Eby, Jonathan M.; Murali, Anuradha K.; Lyons, Gretchen E.; Li, Mingli; Spivey, Natali D.; Norell, Håkan; Martins da Palma, Telma; Onicescu, Georgiana; Diaz-Montero, C. Marcela; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Cole, David J.; Le Poole, I. Caroline; Nishimura, Michael I.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advancements in T cell immunotherapy suggest that T cells engineered with high affinity T cell receptors (TCR) can offer better tumor regression. However, whether a high affinity TCR alone is sufficient to control tumor growth, or the T cell subset bearing the TCR is also important remains unclear. Using the human tyrosinase epitope reactive, CD8 independent, high affinity TCR isolated from MHC class-I restricted CD4+ T cells obtained from tumor infiltrating lymphocytes of a metastatic melanoma patient, we developed a novel TCR transgenic mouse with a C57BL/6 background. This HLA-A2 restricted TCR was positively selected on both CD4+ and CD8+ single-positive (SP) cells. However, when the TCR transgenic mouse was developed with an HLA-A2 background, the transgenic TCR was primarily expressed by CD3+CD4-CD8- double-negative (DN) T cells. TIL 1383I TCR transgenic CD4+, CD8+ and CD4-CD8- T cells were functional and retained the ability to control tumor growth without the need for vaccination or cytokine support in vivo. Furthermore, the HLA-A2+/human tyrosinase TCR double transgenic mice developed spontaneous hair depigmentation and had visual defects that progressed with age. Our data show that the expression of the high affinity TIL 1383I TCR alone in CD3+ T cells is sufficient to control the growth of murine and human melanoma and the presence or absence of CD4 and CD8 co-receptors had little effect on its functional capacity. PMID:22798675

  13. Minimum datasets to establish a CAR-mediated mode of action for rodent liver tumors.

    PubMed

    Peffer, Richard C; LeBaron, Matthew J; Battalora, Michael; Bomann, Werner H; Werner, Christoph; Aggarwal, Manoj; Rowe, Rocky R; Tinwell, Helen

    2018-04-16

    Methods for investigating the Mode of Action (MoA) for rodent liver tumors via constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation are outlined here, based on current scientific knowledge about CAR and feedback from regulatory agencies globally. The key events (i.e., CAR activation, altered gene expression, cell proliferation, altered foci and increased adenomas/carcinomas) can be demonstrated by measuring a combination of key events and associative events that are markers for the key events. For crop protection products, a primary dataset typically should include a short-term study in the species/strain that showed the tumor response at dose levels that bracket the tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic dose levels. The dataset may vary depending on the species and the test compound. As examples, Case Studies with nitrapyrin (in mice) and metofluthrin (in rats) are described. Based on qualitative differences between the species, the key events leading to tumors in mice or rats by this MoA are not operative in humans. In the future, newer approaches such as a CAR biomarker signature approach and/or in vitro CAR3 reporter assays for mouse, rat and human CAR may eventually be used to demonstrate a CAR MoA is operative, without the need for extensive additional studies in laboratory animals. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Silibinin-mediated metabolic reprogramming attenuates pancreatic cancer-induced cachexia and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Surendra K; Dasgupta, Aneesha; Mehla, Kamiya; Gunda, Venugopal; Vernucci, Enza; Souchek, Joshua; Goode, Gennifer; King, Ryan; Mishra, Anusha; Rai, Ibha; Nagarajan, Sangeetha; Chaika, Nina V; Yu, Fang; Singh, Pankaj K

    2015-12-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the US. Cancer-associated cachexia is present in up to 80% of PDAC patients and is associated with aggressive disease and poor prognosis. In the present studies we evaluated an anti-cancer natural product silibinin for its effectiveness in targeting pancreatic cancer aggressiveness and the cachectic properties of pancreatic cancer cells and tumors. Our results demonstrate that silibinin inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth in a dose-dependent manner and reduces glycolytic activity of cancer cells. Our LC-MS/MS based metabolomics data demonstrates that silibinin treatment induces global metabolic reprogramming in pancreatic cancer cells. Silibinin treatment diminishes c-MYC expression, a key regulator of cancer metabolism. Furthermore, we observed reduced STAT3 signaling in silibinin-treated cancer cells. Overexpression of constitutively active STAT3 was sufficient to substantially revert the silibinin-induced downregulation of c-MYC and the metabolic phenotype. Our in vivo investigations demonstrate that silibinin reduces tumor growth and proliferation in an orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer and prevents the loss of body weight and muscle. It also improves physical activity including grip strength and latency to fall in tumor-bearing mice. In conclusion, silibinin-induced metabolic reprogramming diminishes cell growth and cachectic properties of pancreatic cancer cells and animal models.

  15. Silibinin-mediated metabolic reprogramming attenuates pancreatic cancer-induced cachexia and tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Surendra K.; Dasgupta, Aneesha; Mehla, Kamiya; Gunda, Venugopal; Vernucci, Enza; Souchek, Joshua; Goode, Gennifer; King, Ryan; Mishra, Anusha; Rai, Ibha; Nagarajan, Sangeetha; Chaika, Nina V.; Yu, Fang; Singh, Pankaj K.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the US. Cancer-associated cachexia is present in up to 80% of PDAC patients and is associated with aggressive disease and poor prognosis. In the present studies we evaluated an anti-cancer natural product silibinin for its effectiveness in targeting pancreatic cancer aggressiveness and the cachectic properties of pancreatic cancer cells and tumors. Our results demonstrate that silibinin inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth in a dose-dependent manner and reduces glycolytic activity of cancer cells. Our LC-MS/MS based metabolomics data demonstrates that silibinin treatment induces global metabolic reprogramming in pancreatic cancer cells. Silibinin treatment diminishes c-MYC expression, a key regulator of cancer metabolism. Furthermore, we observed reduced STAT3 signaling in silibinin-treated cancer cells. Overexpression of constitutively active STAT3 was sufficient to substantially revert the silibinin-induced downregulation of c-MYC and the metabolic phenotype. Our in vivo investigations demonstrate that silibinin reduces tumor growth and proliferation in an orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer and prevents the loss of body weight and muscle. It also improves physical activity including grip strength and latency to fall in tumor-bearing mice. In conclusion, silibinin-induced metabolic reprogramming diminishes cell growth and cachectic properties of pancreatic cancer cells and animal models. PMID:26510913

  16. A major chromatin regulator determines resistance of tumor cells to T cell-mediated killing.

    PubMed

    Pan, Deng; Kobayashi, Aya; Jiang, Peng; Ferrari de Andrade, Lucas; Tay, Rong En; Luoma, Adrienne M; Tsoucas, Daphne; Qiu, Xintao; Lim, Klothilda; Rao, Prakash; Long, Henry W; Yuan, Guo-Cheng; Doench, John; Brown, Myles; Liu, X Shirley; Wucherpfennig, Kai W

    2018-02-16

    Many human cancers are resistant to immunotherapy, for reasons that are poorly understood. We used a genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 screen to identify mechanisms of tumor cell resistance to killing by cytotoxic T cells, the central effectors of antitumor immunity. Inactivation of >100 genes-including Pbrm1 , Arid2 , and Brd7 , which encode components of the PBAF form of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex-sensitized mouse B16F10 melanoma cells to killing by T cells. Loss of PBAF function increased tumor cell sensitivity to interferon-γ, resulting in enhanced secretion of chemokines that recruit effector T cells. Treatment-resistant tumors became responsive to immunotherapy when Pbrm1 was inactivated. In many human cancers, expression of PBRM1 and ARID2 inversely correlated with expression of T cell cytotoxicity genes, and Pbrm1 -deficient murine melanomas were more strongly infiltrated by cytotoxic T cells. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  17. Integrin-mediated traction force enhances paxillin molecular associations and adhesion dynamics that increase the invasiveness of tumor cells into a three-dimensional extracellular matrix

    PubMed Central

    Mekhdjian, Armen H.; Kai, FuiBoon; Rubashkin, Matthew G.; Prahl, Louis S.; Przybyla, Laralynne M.; McGregor, Alexandra L.; Bell, Emily S.; Barnes, J. Matthew; DuFort, Christopher C.; Ou, Guanqing; Chang, Alice C.; Cassereau, Luke; Tan, Steven J.; Pickup, Michael W.; Lakins, Jonathan N.; Ye, Xin; Davidson, Michael W.; Lammerding, Jan; Odde, David J.; Dunn, Alexander R.; Weaver, Valerie M.

    2017-01-01

    Metastasis requires tumor cells to navigate through a stiff stroma and squeeze through confined microenvironments. Whether tumors exploit unique biophysical properties to metastasize remains unclear. Data show that invading mammary tumor cells, when cultured in a stiffened three-dimensional extracellular matrix that recapitulates the primary tumor stroma, adopt a basal-like phenotype. Metastatic tumor cells and basal-like tumor cells exert higher integrin-mediated traction forces at the bulk and molecular levels, consistent with a motor-clutch model in which motors and clutches are both increased. Basal-like nonmalignant mammary epithelial cells also display an altered integrin adhesion molecular organization at the nanoscale and recruit a suite of paxillin-associated proteins implicated in invasion and metastasis. Phosphorylation of paxillin by Src family kinases, which regulates adhesion turnover, is similarly enhanced in the metastatic and basal-like tumor cells, fostered by a stiff matrix, and critical for tumor cell invasion in our assays. Bioinformatics reveals an unappreciated relationship between Src kinases, paxillin, and survival of breast cancer patients. Thus adoption of the basal-like adhesion phenotype may favor the recruitment of molecules that facilitate tumor metastasis to integrin-based adhesions. Analysis of the physical properties of tumor cells and integrin adhesion composition in biopsies may be predictive of patient outcome. PMID:28381423

  18. Effect of Aerva lanata on cell-mediated immune responses and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte generation in normal and tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Siveen, K S; Kuttan, Girija

    2012-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity offers protection against virus-infected cells and tumor cells, involves activation of natural killer (NK) cells, production of antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and release of various cytokines in response to an antigen. Administration of an ethanolic extract of Aerva lanata was found to stimulate cell-mediated immunological responses in normal and tumor-bearing BALB/c mice. A significant enhancement in NK cell activity in both normal and tumor-bearing hosts was observed after administration of A. lanata. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent complement-mediated cytotoxicity (ACC) were significantly enhanced as well in both sets of treated hosts. In addition, in vivo production of IL-2 and IFNg were each significantly enhanced by extract treatment. The stimulatory effect of A. lanata on cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) production was determined by Winn's neutralization assay using CTL-sensitive EL4 thymoma cells. A. lanata treatment caused a significant increase in CTL production in both in vivo and in vitro models, in each case as indicated by a significant increase in the life-spans of tumor-injected mice. Taken together, all of these results in the murine model indicate that administration of an ethanolic extract of A. lanata could enhance the cell-mediated anti-tumor response.

  19. EphA2/Ephrin-A1 Mediate Corneal Epithelial Cell Compartmentalization via ADAM10 Regulation of EGFR Signaling.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Nihal; Ventrella, Rosa; Peng, Han; Pal-Ghosh, Sonali; Arvanitis, Constadina; Rappoport, Joshua Z; Mitchell, Brian J; Stepp, Mary Ann; Lavker, Robert M; Getsios, Spiro

    2018-01-01

    Progenitor cells of the limbal epithelium reside in a discrete area peripheral to the more differentiated corneal epithelium and maintain tissue homeostasis. What regulates the limbal-corneal epithelial boundary is a major unanswered question. Ephrin-A1 ligand is enriched in the limbal epithelium, whereas EphA2 receptor is concentrated in the corneal epithelium. This reciprocal pattern led us to assess the role of ephrin-A1 and EphA2 in limbal-corneal epithelial boundary organization. EphA2-expressing corneal epithelial cells engineered to express ephrin-A1 were used to study boundary formation in vitro in a manner that mimicked the relative abundance of these juxtamembrane signaling proteins in the limbal and corneal epithelium in vivo. Interaction of these two distinct cell populations following initial seeding into discrete culture compartments was assessed by live cell imaging. Immunofluoresence and immunoblotting was used to evaluate the contribution of downstream growth factor signaling and cell-cell adhesion systems to boundary formation at sites of heterotypic contact between ephrin-A1 and EphA2 expressing cells. Ephrin-A1-expressing cells impeded and reversed the migration of EphA2-expressing corneal epithelial cells upon heterotypic contact formation leading to coordinated migration of the two cell populations in the direction of an ephrin-A1-expressing leading front. Genetic silencing and pharmacologic inhibitor studies demonstrated that the ability of ephrin-A1 to direct migration of EphA2-expressing cells depended on an a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10 (ADAM10) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway that limited E-cadherin-mediated adhesion at heterotypic boundaries. Ephrin-A1/EphA2 signaling complexes play a key role in limbal-corneal epithelial compartmentalization and the response of these tissues to injury.

  20. EphA2/Ephrin-A1 Mediate Corneal Epithelial Cell Compartmentalization via ADAM10 Regulation of EGFR Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Nihal; Ventrella, Rosa; Peng, Han; Pal-Ghosh, Sonali; Arvanitis, Constadina; Rappoport, Joshua Z.; Mitchell, Brian J.; Stepp, Mary Ann; Lavker, Robert M.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Progenitor cells of the limbal epithelium reside in a discrete area peripheral to the more differentiated corneal epithelium and maintain tissue homeostasis. What regulates the limbal–corneal epithelial boundary is a major unanswered question. Ephrin-A1 ligand is enriched in the limbal epithelium, whereas EphA2 receptor is concentrated in the corneal epithelium. This reciprocal pattern led us to assess the role of ephrin-A1 and EphA2 in limbal–corneal epithelial boundary organization. Methods EphA2-expressing corneal epithelial cells engineered to express ephrin-A1 were used to study boundary formation in vitro in a manner that mimicked the relative abundance of these juxtamembrane signaling proteins in the limbal and corneal epithelium in vivo. Interaction of these two distinct cell populations following initial seeding into discrete culture compartments was assessed by live cell imaging. Immunofluoresence and immunoblotting was used to evaluate the contribution of downstream growth factor signaling and cell–cell adhesion systems to boundary formation at sites of heterotypic contact between ephrin-A1 and EphA2 expressing cells. Results Ephrin-A1–expressing cells impeded and reversed the migration of EphA2-expressing corneal epithelial cells upon heterotypic contact formation leading to coordinated migration of the two cell populations in the direction of an ephrin-A1–expressing leading front. Genetic silencing and pharmacologic inhibitor studies demonstrated that the ability of ephrin-A1 to direct migration of EphA2-expressing cells depended on an a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10 (ADAM10) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway that limited E-cadherin–mediated adhesion at heterotypic boundaries. Conclusions Ephrin-A1/EphA2 signaling complexes play a key role in limbal–corneal epithelial compartmentalization and the response of these tissues to injury. PMID:29351356

  1. A 2-Oxoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase Mediates the Biosynthesis of Glucoraphasatin in Radish1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Li, Feng; Fukino, Nobuko; Ohara, Takayoshi; Nishio, Takeshi; Ishida, Masahiko

    2017-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) are secondary metabolites whose degradation products confer intrinsic flavors and aromas to Brassicaceae vegetables. Several structures of GSLs are known in the Brassicaceae, and the biosynthetic pathway and regulatory networks have been elucidated in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). GSLs are precursors of chemical defense substances against herbivorous pests. Specific GSLs can act as feeding blockers or stimulants, depending on the pest species. Natural selection has led to diversity in the GSL composition even within individual species. However, in radish (Raphanus sativus), glucoraphasatin (4-methylthio-3-butenyl glucosinolate) accounts for more than 90% of the total GSLs, and little compositional variation is observed. Because glucoraphasatin is not contained in other members of the Brassicaceae, like Arabidopsis and cabbage (Brassica oleracea), the biosynthetic pathways for glucoraphasatin remain unclear. In this report, we identified and characterized a gene encoding GLUCORAPHASATIN SYNTHASE 1 (GRS1) by genetic mapping using a mutant that genetically lacks glucoraphasatin. Transgenic Arabidopsis, which overexpressed GRS1 cDNA, accumulated glucoraphasatin in the leaves. GRS1 encodes a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase, and it is abundantly expressed in the leaf. To further investigate the biosynthesis and transportation of GSLs in radish, we grafted a grs1 plant onto a wild-type plant. The grafting experiment revealed a leaf-to-root long-distance glucoraphasatin transport system in radish and showed that the composition of GSLs differed among the organs. Based on these observations, we propose a characteristic biosynthesis pathway for glucoraphasatin in radish. Our results should be useful in metabolite engineering for breeding of high-value vegetables. PMID:28100450

  2. PLGA nanoparticle-mediated delivery of tumor antigenic peptides elicits effective immune responses.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenxue; Chen, Mingshui; Kaushal, Sharmeela; McElroy, Michele; Zhang, Yu; Ozkan, Cengiz; Bouvet, Michael; Kruse, Carol; Grotjahn, Douglas; Ichim, Thomas; Minev, Boris

    2012-01-01

    The peptide vaccine clinical trials encountered limited success because of difficulties associated with stability and delivery, resulting in inefficient antigen presentation and low response rates in patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel delivery approach for tumor antigenic peptides in order to elicit enhanced immune responses using poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (PLGA-NPs) encapsulating tumor antigenic peptides. PLGA-NPs were made using the double emulsion-solvent evaporation method. Artificial antigen-presenting cells were generated by human dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with PLGA-NPs encapsulating tumor antigenic peptide(s). The efficiency of the antigen presentation was measured by interferon-γ ELISpot assay (Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA). Antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were generated and evaluated by CytoTox 96(®) Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay (Promega, Fitchburg, WI). The efficiency of the peptide delivery was compared between the methods of emulsification in incomplete Freund's adjuvant and encapsulation in PLGA-NPs. Our results showed that most of the PLGA-NPs were from 150 nm to 500 nm in diameter, and were negatively charged at pH 7.4 with a mean zeta potential of -15.53 ± 0.71 mV; the PLGA-NPs could be colocalized in human DCs in 30 minutes of incubation. Human DCs loaded with PLGA-NPs encapsulating peptide induced significantly stronger CTL cytotoxicity than those pulsed with free peptide, while human DCs loaded with PLGA-NPs encapsulating a three-peptide cocktail induced a significantly greater CTL response than those encapsulating a two-peptide cocktail. Most importantly, the peptide dose encapsulated in PLGA-NPs was 63 times less than that emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant, but it induced a more powerful CTL response in vivo. These results demonstrate that the delivery of peptides encapsulated in PLGA-NPs is a promising approach to induce effective antitumor CTL

  3. hNaa10p contributes to tumorigenesis by facilitating DNMT1-mediated tumor suppressor gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chung-Fan; Ou, Derick S.-C.; Lee, Sung-Bau; Chang, Liang-Hao; Lin, Ruo-Kai; Li, Ying-Shiuan; Upadhyay, Anup K.; Cheng, Xiaodong; Wang, Yi-Ching; Hsu, Han-Shui; Hsiao, Michael; Wu, Cheng-Wen; Juan, Li-Jung

    2010-01-01

    Hypermethylation-mediated tumor suppressor gene silencing plays a crucial role in tumorigenesis. Understanding its underlying mechanism is essential for cancer treatment. Previous studies on human N-α-acetyltransferase 10, NatA catalytic subunit (hNaa10p; also known as human arrest-defective 1 [hARD1]), have generated conflicting results with regard to its role in tumorigenesis. Here we provide multiple lines of evidence indicating that it is oncogenic. We have shown that hNaa10p overexpression correlated with poor survival of human lung cancer patients. In vitro, enforced expression of hNaa10p was sufficient to cause cellular transformation, and siRNA-mediated depletion of hNaa10p impaired cancer cell proliferation in colony assays and xenograft studies. The oncogenic potential of hNaa10p depended on its interaction with DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). Mechanistically, hNaa10p positively regulated DNMT1 enzymatic activity by facilitating its binding to DNA in vitro and its recruitment to promoters of tumor suppressor genes, such as E-cadherin, in vivo. Consistent with this, interaction between hNaa10p and DNMT1 was required for E-cadherin silencing through promoter CpG methylation, and E-cadherin repression contributed to the oncogenic effects of hNaa10p. Together, our data not only establish hNaa10p as an oncoprotein, but also reveal that it contributes to oncogenesis through modulation of DNMT1 function. PMID:20592467

  4. VHL-regulated miR-204 Suppresses Tumor Growth through Inhibition of LC3B-mediated Autophagy in Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mikhaylova, Olga; Stratton, Yiwen; Hall, Daniel; Kellner, Emily; Ehmer, Birgit; Drew, Angela F.; Gallo, Catherine A.; Plas, David R.; Biesiada, Jacek; Meller, Jarek; Czyzyk-Krzeska, Maria F.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The von Hippel-Lindau tumor-suppressor gene (VHL) is lost in most clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC). Here, using human ccRCC specimens, VHL-deficient cells, and xenograft models, we show that miR-204 is a VHL-regulated tumor suppressor acting by inhibiting macroautophagy, with MAP1LC3B (LC3B) as a direct and functional target. Importantly, higher tumor grade of human ccRCC was correlated with a concomitant decrease in miR-204 and increase in LC3B levels, indicating that LC3B-mediated macroautophagy is necessary for RCC progression. VHL, in addition to inducing endogenous miR-204, triggered the expression of LC3C, an HIF-regulated LC3B paralog, that suppressed tumor growth. These data reveal a function of VHL as a tumor suppressing regulator of autophagic programs. PMID:22516261

  5. MCT1-mediated transport of a toxic molecule is an effective strategy for targeting glycolytic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Birsoy, Kivanc; Wang, Tim; Possemato, Richard; Yilmaz, Omer H.; Koch, Catherine E.; Chen, Walter W.; Hutchins, Amanda W.; Gultekin, Yetis; Peterson, Tim R.; Carette, Jan E.; Brummelkamp, Thijn R.; Clish, Clary B.; Sabatini, David M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY There is increasing evidence that oncogenic transformation modifies the metabolic program of cells. A common alteration is the upregulation of glycolysis, and efforts to target glycolytic enzymes for anti-cancer therapy are underway. Here, we performed a genome-wide haploid genetic screen to identify resistance mechanisms to 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA), a drug candidate that inhibits glycolysis in a poorly understood fashion. We identified the SLC16A1 gene product, MCT1, as the main determinant of 3-BrPA sensitivity. MCT1 is necessary and sufficient for 3-BrPA uptake by cancer cells. Additionally, MCT1 mRNA levels are the best predictor of 3-BrPA sensitivity and are most elevated in glycolytic cancer cells. Lastly, forced MCT1 expression in 3-BrPA resistant cancer cells sensitizes tumor xenografts to 3-BrPA treatment in vivo. Our results identify a potential biomarker for 3-BrPA sensitivity and provide proof of concept that the selectivity of cancer-expressed transporters can be exploited for delivering toxic molecules to tumors. PMID:23202129

  6. Serpin Facilitates Tumor-Suppressive Cell Competition by Blocking Toll-Mediated Yki Activation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Katsukawa, Mitsuko; Ohsawa, Shizue; Zhang, Lina; Yan, Yan; Igaki, Tatsushi

    2018-06-04

    Normal epithelial tissue exerts an intrinsic tumor-suppressive effect against oncogenically transformed cells. In Drosophila imaginal epithelium, clones of oncogenic polarity-deficient cells mutant for scribble (scrib) or discs large (dlg) are eliminated by cell competition when surrounded by wild-type cells. Here, through a genetic screen in Drosophila, we identify Serpin5 (Spn5), a secreted negative regulator of Toll signaling, as a crucial factor for epithelial cells to eliminate scrib mutant clones from epithelium. Downregulation of Spn5 in wild-type cells leads to elevation of Toll signaling in neighboring scrib cells. Strikingly, forced activation of Toll signaling or Toll-related receptor (TRR) signaling in scrib clones transforms scrib cells from losers to supercompetitors, resulting in tumorous overgrowth of mutant clones. Mechanistically, Toll activation in scrib clones leads to c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation and F-actin accumulation, which cause strong activation of the Hippo pathway effector Yorkie that blocks cell death and promotes cell proliferation. Our data suggest that Spn5 secreted from normal epithelial cells acts as a component of the extracellular surveillance system that facilitates elimination of pre-malignant cells from epithelium. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sphere-derived tumor cells exhibit impaired metastasis by a host-mediated quiescent phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Bleau, Anne-Marie; Zandueta, Carolina; Redrado, Miriam; Martínez-Canarias, Susana; Larzábal, Leyre; Montuenga, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    The spread of lung cancer cells to distant sites represents a common event associated with poor prognosis. A fraction of tumor cells named cancer stem cells (CSCs) have the ability to overcome therapeutic stress and remain quiescent. However, whether these CSCs have also the capacity to initiate and sustain metastasis remains unclear. Here, we used tumor sphere cultures (TSC) isolated from mouse and human lung cancer models to enrich for CSCs, and assessed their metastatic potential as compared to non-CSCs. As expected, TSC overexpressed a variety of stem cell markers and displayed chemoresistance. The CSC phenotype of TSC was confirmed by their higher growth ability in soft agar and tumorigenic potential in vivo, despite their reduced in vitro cell growth kinetics. Surprisingly, the appearance of spontaneous lung metastases was strongly delayed in mice injected with TSC as compared to non-TSC cells. Similarly, this finding was confirmed in several other models of metastasis, an effect associated with a retarded colonization activity. Interestingly, such delay correlated with a quiescent phenotype whose underlined mechanisms included an increase in p27 protein and lower phospho-ERK1/2 levels. Thus, these data suggest that cells enriched for CSC properties display an impaired metastatic activity, a finding with potential clinical implications. PMID:26318423

  8. The tumor suppressor cybL, a component of the respiratory chain, mediates apoptosis induction.

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Timur; Scherhammer, Volker; Schoenfeld, Nicole; Braziulis, Erik; Mund, Thomas; Bauer, Manuel K A; Scheffler, Immo E; Grimm, Stefan

    2003-08-01

    A genetic screen was established to clone apoptosis-inducing genes in a high-throughput format. It led to the isolation of several proapoptotic genes whose proteins are localized to mitochondria. One of the isolated genes is cytochrome bL (cybL also known as SDHC, CII-3, or QPs-1), a component of the respiratory chain complex II. It was further investigated because both cybL and another component of complex II, cybS, have recently been identified as tumor suppressor proteins, some of which act by controlling apoptosis. Our studies reveal that cell death induction by cybL expression is concomitant with a transient inhibition of complex II and the generation of reactive oxygen species. Importantly, cells that are constitutively deficient in cybL are resistant to a variety of proapoptotic cytostatic drugs and to the effects of the Fas receptor. Our results therefore identify complex II as a sensor for apoptosis induction and could explain the unexpected observation that complex II is inactivated in tumors.

  9. The Tumor Suppressor cybL, a Component of the Respiratory Chain, Mediates Apoptosis Induction

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Timur; Scherhammer, Volker; Schoenfeld, Nicole; Braziulis, Erik; Mund, Thomas; Bauer, Manuel K.A.; Scheffler, Immo E.; Grimm, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    A genetic screen was established to clone apoptosis-inducing genes in a high-throughput format. It led to the isolation of several proapoptotic genes whose proteins are localized to mitochondria. One of the isolated genes is cytochrome bL (cybL also known as SDHC, CII-3, or QPs-1), a component of the respiratory chain complex II. It was further investigated because both cybL and another component of complex II, cybS, have recently been identified as tumor suppressor proteins, some of which act by controlling apoptosis. Our studies reveal that cell death induction by cybL expression is concomitant with a transient inhibition of complex II and the generation of reactive oxygen species. Importantly, cells that are constitutively deficient in cybL are resistant to a variety of proapoptotic cytostatic drugs and to the effects of the Fas receptor. Our results therefore identify complex II as a sensor for apoptosis induction and could explain the unexpected observation that complex II is inactivated in tumors. PMID:12925748

  10. Type I collagen aging impairs discoidin domain receptor 2-mediated tumor cell growth suppression

    PubMed Central

    Saby, Charles; Buache, Emilie; Brassart-Pasco, Sylvie; El Btaouri, Hassan; Courageot, Marie-Pierre; Van Gulick, Laurence; Garnotel, Roselyne; Jeannesson, Pierre; Morjani, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Tumor cells are confronted to a type I collagen rich environment which regulates cell proliferation and invasion. Biological aging has been associated with structural changes of type I collagen. Here, we address the effect of collagen aging on cell proliferation in a three-dimensional context (3D). We provide evidence for an inhibitory effect of adult collagen, but not of the old one, on proliferation of human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells. This effect involves both the activation of the tyrosine kinase Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 (DDR2) and the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2. DDR2 and SHP-2 were less activated in old collagen. DDR2 inhibition decreased SHP-2 phosphorylation in adult collagen and increased cell proliferation to a level similar to that observed in old collagen. In the presence of old collagen, a high level of JAK2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation was observed while expression of the cell cycle negative regulator p21CIP1 was decreased. Inhibition of DDR2 kinase function also led to an increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation and a decrease in p21CIP1 expression. Similar signaling profile was observed when DDR2 was inhibited in adult collagen. Altogether, these data suggest that biological collagen aging could increase tumor cell proliferation by reducingthe activation of the key matrix sensor DDR2. PMID:27121132

  11. Hydrogel-PLGA delivery system prolongs 2-methoxyestradiol-mediated anti-tumor effects in osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Maran, Avudaiappan; Dadsetan, Mahrokh; Buenz, Colleen M; Shogren, Kristen L; Lu, Lichun; Yaszemski, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    Osteosarcoma is a bone tumor that affects children and young adults. 2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME), a naturally occurring estrogen metabolite, kills osteosarcoma cells, but does not affect normal osteoblasts. In order to effectively target osteosarcoma and improve the therapeutic index of the drug 2-ME, we have encapsulated 2-ME in a composite of oligo-(polyethylene glycol) fumarate (OPF) hydrogel and poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres and investigated the effect of polymer composition on 2-ME release kinetics and osteosarcoma cell survival. The in vitro study shows that 2-ME can be released in a controlled manner over 21-days. The initial burst releases observed on day 1 were 50% and 32% for OPF and OPF/PLGA composites, respectively. The extended release kinetics show that 100% of the encapsulated 2-ME is released by day 12 from OPF, whereas the OPF/PLGA composites showed a release of 85% on day 21. 2-ME released from the polymers was biologically active and blocked osteosarcoma cell proliferation in vitro. Also, comparison of 2-ME delivery in osteosarcoma cells in culture, shows that direct treatment has no effect after 3 days, whereas polymer-mediated delivery produces anti-tumor effects that could be sustained for 21 days. These findings show that the OPF and PLGA polymeric system may prove to be useful in controlled and sustained delivery of 2-ME and could be further explored in the treatment of osteosarcoma. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Lysophosphatidic acid-induced ADAM12 expression mediates human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell-stimulated tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Do, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Young Mi; Heo, Soon Chul; Kwon, Yang Woo; Shin, Sang Hun; Suh, Dong-Soo; Kim, Ki-Hyung; Yoon, Man-Soo; Kim, Jae Ho

    2012-11-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is involved in mesenchymal stem cell-stimulated tumor growth in vivo. However, the molecular mechanism by which mesenchymal stem cells promote tumorigenesis remains elusive. In the present study, we demonstrate that conditioned medium from A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549 CM) induced the expression of ADAM12, a disintegrin and metalloproteases family member, in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs). A549 CM-stimulated ADAM12 expression was abrogated by pretreatment of hASCs with the LPA receptor 1 inhibitor Ki16425 or by small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of LPA receptor 1, suggesting a key role for the LPA-LPA receptor 1 signaling axis in A549 CM-stimulated ADAM12 expression. Silencing of ADAM12 expression using small interfering RNA or short hairpin RNA abrogated LPA-induced expression of both α-smooth muscle actin, a marker of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts, and ADAM12 in hASCs. Using a xenograft transplantation model of A549 cells, we demonstrated that silencing of ADAM12 inhibited the hASC-stimulated in vivo growth of A549 xenograft tumors and the differentiation of transplanted hASCs to α-smooth muscle actin-positive carcinoma-associated fibroblasts. LPA-conditioned medium from hASCs induced the adhesion of A549 cells and silencing of ADAM12 inhibited LPA-induced expression of extracellular matrix proteins, periostin and βig-h3, in hASCs and LPA-conditioned medium-stimulated adhesion of A549 cells. These results suggest a pivotal role for LPA-stimulated ADAM12 expression in tumor growth and the differentiation of hASCs to carcinoma-associated fibroblasts expressing α-smooth muscle actin, periostin, and βig-h3. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Immune response to a mammary adenocarcinoma. V. Sera from tumor-bearing rats contain multiple factors blocking cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Huber, S A; Lucas, Z J

    1978-12-01

    Sera from Fischer rats 3 to 13 days after i.p. injection of syngeneic 13762A mammary adenocarcinoma contain three factors specifically blocking cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC). The major blocking factor is a 160,000-dalton IgG that combines specifically to cytolytic lymphocytes but not to tumor cells or tumor antigen, and that is not dissociated after treatment with 8 M urea. The other factors have been putatively identified as tumor antigen (less than 70,000 daltons) and as soluble antigen-antibody complexes (greater than 200,000 daltons). Injecting the tumor antigen into tumor-free rats induced spleen cells specifically cytotoxic to the 13762A tumor and provided partial protection to challenge with live tumor cells. Treating soluble antigen-antibody complexes with 8 M urea decreased the size of the blocking activity from greater than 200,000 to less than 70,000 daltons. Although the IgG fraction dissociated from the complex did not block CMC, it did recombine with the tumor antigen fraction to transfer activity to the greater than 200,000-dalton fraction. In contrast, mixing tumor antigen with the IgG fraction that did block CMC did not alter the size of the blocking activities.

  14. Nitric oxide mediates angiogenesis induced in vivo by platelet-activating factor and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Montrucchio, G.; Lupia, E.; de Martino, A.; Battaglia, E.; Arese, M.; Tizzani, A.; Bussolino, F.; Camussi, G.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the role of an endogenous production of nitric oxide (NO) in the in vitro migration of endothelial cells and in the in vivo angiogenic response elicited by platelet-activating factor (PAF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The NO synthase inhibitor, N omega-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME), but not its enantiomer D-NAME, prevented chemotaxis of endothelial cells induced in vitro by PAF and by TNF. The motogenic activity of TNF was also inhibited by WEB 2170, a specific PAF-receptor antagonist. In contrast, chemotaxis induced by bFGF was not prevented by L-NAME or by WEB 2170. Angiogenesis was studied in vivo in a murine model in which Matrigel was used as a vehicle for the delivery of mediators. In this model, the angiogenesis induced by PAF and TNF was inhibited by WEB 2170 and L-NAME but not by D-NAME. In contrast, angiogenesis induced by bFGF was not affected by L-NAME or by WEB 2170. TNF, but not bFGF, induced PAF synthesis within Matrigel. These results suggest that NO mediates the angiogenesis induced by PAF as well as that induced by TNF, which is dependent on the production of PAF. In contrast, the angiogenic effect of bFGF appears to be both PAF and NO independent. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9250168

  15. Hyaluronan synthase 3 mediated oncogenic action through forming inter-regulation loop with tumor necrosis factor alpha in oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Yi-Zih; Fang, Wei-Yu; Huang, Cheng-Chih; Tsai, Sen-Tien; Wang, Yi-Ching; Yang, Chih-Li; Wu, Li-Wha

    2017-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a major extracellular matrix component. However, its role and mediation in oral cancer remains elusive. Hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3), involved in pro-inflammatory short chain HA synthesis, was the predominant synthase in oral cancer cells and tissues. HAS3 overexpression significantly increased oral cancer cell migration, invasion and xenograft tumorigenesis accompanied with the increased expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1). Conversely, HAS3 depletion abrogated HAS3-mediated stimulation. HAS3 induced oncogenic actions partly through activating EGFR-SRC signaling. HAS3-derived HA release into extracellular milieu enhanced transendothelial monocyte migration and MCP-1 expression, which was attenuated by anti-HAS3 antibodies or a HAS inhibitor, 4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MU). The NF-κB-binding site III at -1692 to -1682 bp upstream from the transcript 1 start site in HAS3 proximal promoter was the most responsive to TNF-α-stimulated transcription. ChIP-qPCR analysis confirmed the highest NF-κB-p65 enrichment on site III. Increased HAS3 mRNA expression was negatively correlated with the overall survival of oral cancer patients. A concomitant increase of TNF-α, a stimulus for HAS3 expression, with HAS3 expression was not only associated with lymph node metastasis but also negated clinical outcome. Together, HAS3 and TNF-α formed an inter-regulation loop to enhance tumorigenesis in oral cancer. PMID:28107185

  16. PLGA nanoparticle-mediated delivery of tumor antigenic peptides elicits effective immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wenxue; Chen, Mingshui; Kaushal, Sharmeela; McElroy, Michele; Zhang, Yu; Ozkan, Cengiz; Bouvet, Michael; Kruse, Carol; Grotjahn, Douglas; Ichim, Thomas; Minev, Boris

    2012-01-01

    The peptide vaccine clinical trials encountered limited success because of difficulties associated with stability and delivery, resulting in inefficient antigen presentation and low response rates in patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel delivery approach for tumor antigenic peptides in order to elicit enhanced immune responses using poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (PLGA-NPs) encapsulating tumor antigenic peptides. PLGA-NPs were made using the double emulsion-solvent evaporation method. Artificial antigen-presenting cells were generated by human dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with PLGA-NPs encapsulating tumor antigenic peptide(s). The efficiency of the antigen presentation was measured by interferon-γ ELISpot assay (Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA). Antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were generated and evaluated by CytoTox 96® Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay (Promega, Fitchburg, WI). The efficiency of the peptide delivery was compared between the methods of emulsification in incomplete Freund’s adjuvant and encapsulation in PLGA-NPs. Our results showed that most of the PLGA-NPs were from 150 nm to 500 nm in diameter, and were negatively charged at pH 7.4 with a mean zeta potential of −15.53 ± 0.71 mV; the PLGA-NPs could be colocalized in human DCs in 30 minutes of incubation. Human DCs loaded with PLGA-NPs encapsulating peptide induced significantly stronger CTL cytotoxicity than those pulsed with free peptide, while human DCs loaded with PLGA-NPs encapsulating a three-peptide cocktail induced a significantly greater CTL response than those encapsulating a two-peptide cocktail. Most importantly, the peptide dose encapsulated in PLGA-NPs was 63 times less than that emulsified in incomplete Freund’s adjuvant, but it induced a more powerful CTL response in vivo. These results demonstrate that the delivery of peptides encapsulated in PLGA-NPs is a promising approach to induce effective antitumor

  17. Both internalization and AIP1 association are required for tumor necrosis factor receptor 2-mediated JNK signaling.

    PubMed

    Ji, Weidong; Li, Yonghao; Wan, Ting; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Haifeng; Chen, Hong; Min, Wang

    2012-09-01

    The proinflammtory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF), primarily via TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1), induces nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-dependent cell survival, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and caspase-dependent cell death, regulating vascular endothelial cell (EC) activation and apoptosis. However, signaling by the second receptor, TNFR2, is poorly understood. The goal of this study was to dissect how TNFR2 mediates NF-κB and JNK signaling in vascular EC, and its relevance to in vivo EC function. We show that TNFR2 contributes to TNF-induced NF-κB and JNK signaling in EC as TNFR2 deletion or knockdown reduces the TNF responses. To dissect the critical domains of TNFR2 that mediate the TNF responses, we examine the activity of TNFR2 mutant with a specific deletion of the TNFR2 intracellular region, which contains conserved domain I, domain II, domain III, and 2 TNFR-associated factor-2-binding sites. Deletion analyses indicate that different sequences on TNFR2 have distinct roles in NF-κB and JNK activation. Specifically, deletion of the TNFR-associated factor-2-binding sites (TNFR2-59) diminishes the TNFR2-mediated NF-κB, but not JNK activation; whereas, deletion of domain II or domain III blunts TNFR2-mediated JNK but not NF-κB activation. Interestingly, we find that the TNFR-associated factor-2-binding sites ensure TNFR2 on the plasma membrane, but the di-leucine LL motif within the domain II and aa338-355 within the domain III are required for TNFR2 internalization as well as TNFR2-dependent JNK signaling. Moreover, domain III of TNFR2 is responsible for association with ASK1-interacting protein-1, a signaling adaptor critical for TNF-induced JNK signaling. While TNFR2 containing the TNFR-associated factor-2-binding sites prevents EC cell death, a specific activation of JNK without NF-κB activation by TNFR2-59 strongly induces caspase activation and EC apoptosis. Our data reveal that both internalization and ASK1-interacting protein-1 association are

  18. Dissecting GRB7-mediated signals for proliferation and migration in HER2 overexpressing breast tumor cells: GTP-ase rules.

    PubMed

    Pradip, De; Bouzyk, Mark; Dey, Nandini; Leyland-Jones, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Amplification of human Her2 and its aberrant signaling in 20-30% of early breast cancer patients is responsible for highly aggressive tumors with poor outcome. Grb7 is reported to be co-amplified with Her2. We report a concurrent high expression of mRNA (from FFPE tumor samples; mRNA correlation, Pearson r(2)= 0.806), and high levels of GRB7 protein (immunoblot) in HER2+ breast cancer cell lines. We demonstrated the signaling mechanism of HER2 and downstream effectors that contributes to proliferation and migration. Using HER2+ and trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer cell lines, we identified the interaction between GRB7 and HER2 in the control of HER2+ cell proliferation. Our co-IP data show that GRB7 recruits SHC into the HER2-GRB7 signaling complex. This complex formation leads to activation of RAS-GTP. We also observed that following integrin engagement, GRB7 is phosphorylated at tyrosine in a p-FAK (Y397) dependent manner. This FAK-GRB7 complex leads to downstream activation of RAC1-GTP (responsible for migration) probably through the recruitment of VAV2. Our CO-IP data demonstrate that GRB7 directly binds with VAV2 following fibronectin engagement in HER2+ cells. To address whether GRB7 could serve as a pathway specific therapeutic target, we used siRNA to suppress GRB7 expression. Knockdown of GRB7 expression in the HER2+ breast cancer cell lines decreases RAS activation, cell proliferation, 2D and 3D colony formation and also blocked integrin-mediated RAC1 activation along with integrin-directed cell migration. These findings dissected the HER2-mediated signaling cascade into (1) HER2+ cell proliferation (HER2-GRB7-SHC-RAS) and (2) HER2+ cell migration (alpha5 beta1/alpha4 beta1-FAK-GRB7-VAV2-RAC1). Our data clearly demonstrate that a coupling of GRB7 with HER2 is required for the proliferative and migratory signals in HER2+ breast tumor cells.

  19. Boron-Containing Compounds for Liposome-Mediated Tumor Localization and Application to Neutron Capture Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, M. Frederick

    2005-04-07

    Medical application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been significantly hindered by the slow development of boron drug-targeting methodologies for the selective delivery of high boron concentration sto malignant cells. We have successfully sought to fill this need by creating liposomes suitable as in vivo boron delivery vehicles for BNCT. Delivery of therapeutic quantities of boron to tumors in murine models has been achieved with small unilamellar boron-rich liposomes. Subsequently, attempts have been made to improve delivery efficiency of liposomes encapsulating boron-containing water-soluble species into their hollow core by incorporating lipophilic boron compounds as addenda to the liposome bilayer,more » incorporating boron compounds as structural components of the bilayer (which however, poses the risk of sacrificing some stability), and combinations thereof. Regardless of the method, approximately 90% of the total liposome mass remains therapeutically inactive and comprised of the vehicle's construction materials, while less than 5% is boron for neutron targeting. Following this laboratory's intensive study, the observed tumor specificity of certain liposomes has been attributed to their diminutive size of these liposomes (30-150 nm), which enables these small vesicles to pass through the porous, immature vasculature of rapidly growing tumor tissue. We surmised that any amphiphilic nanoparticle of suitable size could possess some tumor selectivity. Consequently, the discovery of a very boron-rich nanoparticle delivery agent with biodistribution performance similar to unilamellar liposomes became one of our goals. Closomers, a new class of polyhedral borane derivatives, attracted us as an alternative BNCT drug-delivery system. We specifically envisioned dodeca (nido-carboranyl)-substituted closomers as possibly having a great potential role in BNCT drug delivery. They could function as extraordinarily boron-rich BNCT drugs since they are

  20. Pim1 kinase is upregulated in glioblastoma multiforme and mediates tumor cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Susann; Fink, Matthias Alexander; Weitmann, Kerstin; Friedel, Claudius; Hadlich, Stefan; Langner, Sönke; Kindermann, Katharina; Holm, Tobias; Böhm, Andreas; Eskilsson, Eskil; Miletic, Hrvoje; Hildner, Markus; Fritsch, Michael; Vogelgesang, Silke; Havemann, Christoph; Ritter, Christoph Alexander; Meyer zu Schwabedissen, Henriette Elisabeth; Rauch, Bernhard; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Kroemer, Heyo Klaus; Schroeder, Henry; Bien-Möller, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Background The current therapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most aggressive and common primary brain tumor of adults, involves surgery and a combined radiochemotherapy that controls tumor progression only for a limited time window. Therefore, the identification of new molecular targets is highly necessary. Inhibition of kinases has become a standard of clinical oncology, and thus the oncogenic kinase Pim1 might represent a promising target for improvement of GBM therapy. Methods Expression of Pim1 and associated signaling molecules was analyzed in human GBM samples, and the potential role of this kinase in patients' prognosis was evaluated. Furthermore, we analyzed the in vivo role of Pim1 in GBM cell growth in an orthotopic mouse model and examined the consequences of Pim1 inhibition in vitro to clarify underlying pathways. Results In comparison with normal brain, a strong upregulation of Pim1 was demonstrated in human GBM samples. Notably, patients with short overall survival showed a significantly higher Pim1 expression compared with GBM patients who lived longer than the median. In vitro experiments with GBM cells and analysis of patients' GBM samples suggest that Pim1 regulation is dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor. Furthermore, inhibition of Pim1 resulted in reduced cell viability accompanied by decreased cell numbers and increased apoptotic cells, as seen by elevated subG1 cell contents and caspase-3 and -9 activation, as well as modulation of several cell cycle or apoptosis regulatory proteins. Conclusions Altogether, Pim1 could be a novel therapeutic target, which should be further analyzed to improve the outcome of patients with aggressive GBM. PMID:25155357

  1. LPA1 receptor-mediated thromboxane A2 release is responsible for lysophosphatidic acid-induced vascular smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Dancs, Péter Tibor; Ruisanchez, Éva; Balogh, Andrea; Panta, Cecília Rita; Miklós, Zsuzsanna; Nüsing, Rolf M; Aoki, Junken; Chun, Jerold; Offermanns, Stefan; Tigyi, Gábor; Benyó, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has been recognized recently as an endothelium-dependent vasodilator, but several lines of evidence indicate that it may also stimulate vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), thereby contributing to vasoregulation and remodeling. In the present study, mRNA expression of all 6 LPA receptor genes was detected in murine aortic VSMCs, with the highest levels of LPA 1 , LPA 2 , LPA 4 , and LPA 6 In endothelium-denuded thoracic aorta (TA) and abdominal aorta (AA) segments, 1-oleoyl-LPA and the LPA 1-3 agonist VPC31143 induced dose-dependent vasoconstriction. VPC31143-induced AA contraction was sensitive to pertussis toxin (PTX), the LPA 1&3 antagonist Ki16425, and genetic deletion of LPA 1 but not that of LPA 2 or inhibition of LPA 3 , by diacylglycerol pyrophosphate. Surprisingly, vasoconstriction was also diminished in vessels lacking cyclooxygenase-1 [COX1 knockout (KO)] or the thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptor (TP KO). VPC31143 increased thromboxane A 2 (TXA 2 ) release from TA of wild-type, TP-KO, and LPA 2 -KO mice but not from LPA 1 -KO or COX1-KO mice, and PTX blocked this effect. Our findings indicate that LPA causes vasoconstriction in VSMCs, mediated by LPA 1 -, G i -, and COX1-dependent autocrine/paracrine TXA 2 release and consequent TP activation. We propose that this new-found interaction between the LPA/LPA 1 and TXA 2 /TP pathways plays significant roles in vasoregulation, hemostasis, thrombosis, and vascular remodeling.-Dancs, P. T., Ruisanchez, E., Balogh, A., Panta, C. R., Miklós, Z., Nüsing, R. M., Aoki, J., Chun, J., Offermanns, S., Tigyi, G., Benyó, Z. LPA 1 receptor-mediated thromboxane A 2 release is responsible for lysophosphatidic acid-induced vascular smooth muscle contraction. © FASEB.

  2. An artemisinin-mediated ROS evolving and dual protease light-up nanocapsule for real-time imaging of lysosomal tumor cell death.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liwei; Luo, Yingping; Sun, Xian; Ju, Huangxian; Tian, Jiangwei; Yu, Bo-Yang

    2017-06-15

    Lysosomes are critical organelles for cellular homeostasis and can be used as potential targets to kill tumor cells from inside. Many photo-therapeutic methods have been developed to overproduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) to trigger lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP)-associated cell death pathway. However, these technologies rely on extra irradiation to activate the photosensitizers, which limits the applications in treating deep seated tumors and widespread metastatic lesions. This work reports a multifunctional nanocapsule to achieve targeted lysosomal tumor cell death without irradiation and real-time monitoring of drug effect through encapsulating artemisinin and dual protease light-up nanoprobe in a folate-functionalized liposome. The nanocapsule can be specifically uptaken by tumor cells via folate receptor-mediated endocytosis to enter lysosomes, in which artemisinin reacts with ferrous to generate ROS for LMP-associated cell death. By virtue of confocal fluorescence imaging, the artemisinin location in lysosome, ROS-triggered LMP and ultimate cell apoptosis can be visualized with the cathepsin B and caspase-3 activatable nanoprobe. Notably, the artemisinin-mediated ROS evolving for tumor therapy and real-time therapeutic monitoring were successfully implemented by living imaging in tumor-bearing mice, which broaden the nanocapsule for in vivo theranostics and may offer new opportunities for precise medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. CD40 dependent exacerbation of immune mediated hepatitis by hepatic CD11b+ Gr-1+ myeloid derived suppressor cells in tumor bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Kapanadze, Tamar; Medina-Echeverz, José; Gamrekelashvili, Jaba; Weiss, Jonathan M.; Wiltrout, Robert H.; Kapoor, Veena; Hawk, Nga; Terabe, Masaki; Berzofsky, Jay A.; Manns, Michael P.; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M.; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F.

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressive CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) accumulate in the livers of tumor-bearing mice. We studied hepatic MDSC in two murine models of immune mediated hepatitis. Unexpectedly, treatment of tumor bearing mice with Concanavalin A or α-Galactosylceramide resulted in increased ALT and AST serum levels in comparison to tumor free mice. Adoptive transfer of hepatic MDSC into naïve mice exacerbated Concanavalin A induced liver damage. Hepatic CD11b+Gr-1+ cells revealed a polarized pro-inflammatory gene signature after Concanavalin A treatment. An interferon gamma- dependent up-regulation of CD40 on hepatic CD11b+Gr-1+ cells along with an up-regulation of CD80, CD86, and CD1d after Concanavalin A treatment was observed. Concanavalin A treatment resulted in a loss of suppressor function by tumor-induced CD11b+Gr-1+ MDSC as well as enhanced reactive oxygen species-mediated hepatotoxicity. CD40 knockdown in hepatic MDSC led to increased arginase activity upon Concanavalin A treatment and lower ALT/AST serum levels. Finally, blockade of arginase activity in Cd40−/− tumor-induced myeloid cells resulted in exacerbation of hepatitis and increased reactive oxygen species production in vivo. Our findings indicate that in a setting of acute hepatitis, tumor-induced hepatic MDSC act as pro-inflammatory immune effector cells capable of killing hepatocytes in a CD40-dependent manner. PMID:25616156

  4. A Small Molecule Agonist of EphA2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibits Tumor Cell Migration In Vitro and Prostate Cancer Metastasis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hong; Miao, Hui; Tochtrop, Gregory P.; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Page, Phillip; Liu, Lili; Lindner, Daniel J.; Acharya, Chayan; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Ficker, Eckhard; Song, Jianxing; Wang, Bingcheng

    2012-01-01

    During tumor progression, EphA2 receptor can gain ligand-independent pro-oncogenic functions due to Akt activation and reduced ephrin-A ligand engagement. The effects can be reversed by ligand stimulation, which triggers the intrinsic tumor suppressive signaling pathways of EphA2 including inhibition of PI3/Akt and Ras/ERK pathways. These observations argue for development of small molecule agonists for EphA2 as potential tumor intervention agents. Through virtual screening and cell-based assays, we report here the identification and characterization of doxazosin as a novel small molecule agonist for EphA2 and EphA4, but not for other Eph receptors tested. NMR studies revealed extensive contacts of doxazosin with EphA2/A4, recapitulating both hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions recently found in the EphA2/ephrin-A1 complex. Clinically used as an α1-adrenoreceptor antagonist (Cardura®) for treating hypertension and benign prostate hyperplasia, doxazosin activated EphA2 independent of α1-adrenoreceptor. Similar to ephrin-A1, doxazosin inhibited Akt and ERK kinase activities in an EphA2-dependent manner. Treatment with doxazosin triggered EphA2 receptor internalization, and suppressed haptotactic and chemotactic migration of prostate cancer, breast cancer, and glioma cells. Moreover, in an orthotopic xenograft model, doxazosin reduced distal metastasis of human prostate cancer cells and prolonged survival in recipient mice. To our knowledge, doxazosin is the first small molecule agonist of a receptor tyrosine kinase that is capable of inhibiting malignant behaviors in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22916121

  5. A heterotypic bystander effect for tumor cell killing after adeno-associated virus/phage-mediated, vascular-targeted suicide gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Trepel, Martin; Stoneham, Charlotte A; Eleftherohorinou, Hariklia; Mazarakis, Nicholas D; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih; Hajitou, Amin

    2009-08-01

    Suicide gene transfer is the most commonly used cytotoxic approach in cancer gene therapy; however, a successful suicide gene therapy depends on the generation of efficient targeted systemic gene delivery vectors. We recently reported that selective systemic delivery of suicide genes such as herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) to tumor endothelial cells through a novel targeted adeno-associated virus/phage vector leads to suppression of tumor growth. This marked effect has been postulated to result primarily from the death of cancer cells by hypoxia following the targeted disruption of tumor blood vessels. Here, we investigated whether an additional mechanism of action is involved. We show that there is a heterotypic "bystander" effect between endothelial cells expressing the HSVtk suicide gene and tumor cells. Treatment of cocultures of HSVtk-transduced endothelial cells and non-HSVtk-transduced tumor cells with ganciclovir results in the death of both endothelial and tumor cells. Blocking of this effect by 18alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid indicates that gap junctions between endothelial and tumor cells are largely responsible for this phenomenon. Moreover, the observed bystander killing is mediated by connexins 43 and 26, which are expressed in endothelial and tumor cell types. Finally, this heterotypic bystander effect is accompanied by a suppression of tumor growth in vivo that is independent of primary gene transfer into host-derived tumor vascular endothelium. These findings add an alternative nonmutually exclusive and potentially synergistic cytotoxic mechanism to cancer gene therapy based on targeted adeno-associated virus/phage and further support the promising role of nonmalignant tumor stromal cells as therapeutic targets.

  6. Alkaline Ceramidase 2 (ACER2) and Its Product Dihydrosphingosine Mediate the Cytotoxicity of N-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)retinamide in Tumor Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Zhehao; Sun, Wei; Xu, Ruijuan; Novgorodov, Sergei; Szulc, Zdzislaw M.; Bielawski, Jacek; Obeid, Lina M.; Mao, Cungui

    2010-01-01

    Increased generation of dihydrosphingosine (DHS), a bioactive sphingolipid, has been implicated in the cytotoxicity of the synthetic retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR) in tumor cells. However, how 4-HPR increases DHS remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that 4-HPR increases the expression of ACER2, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of dihydroceramides to generate DHS, and that ACER2 up-regulation plays a key role in mediating the 4-HPR-induced generation of DHS as well as the cytotoxicity of 4-HPR in tumor cells. Treatment with 4-HPR induced the accumulation of dihydroceramides (DHCs) in tumor cells by inhibiting dihydroceramide desaturase (DES) activity, which catalyzes the conversion of DHCs to ceramides. Treatment with 4-HPR also increased ACER2 expression through a retinoic acid receptor-independent and caspase-dependent manner. Overexpression of ACER2 augmented the 4-HPR-induced generation of DHS as well as 4-HPR cytotoxicity, and 4-HPR-induced death in tumor cells, whereas knocking down ACER2 had the opposite effects. ACER2 overexpression, along with treatment with GT11, another DES inhibitor, markedly increased cellular DHS, leading to tumor cell death, whereas ACER2 overexpression or GT11 treatment alone failed to do so, suggesting that both ACER2 up-regulation and DES inhibition are necessary and sufficient to mediate 4-HPR-induced DHS accumulation, cytotoxicity, and death in tumor cells. Taken together, these results suggest that up-regulation of the ACER2/DHS pathway mediates the cytotoxicity of 4-HPR in tumor cells and that up-regulating or activating ACER2 may improve the anti-cancer activity of 4-HRR and other DHC-inducing agents. PMID:20628055

  7. Tumor-promoting effect of IL-23 in mammary cancer mediated by infiltration of M2 macrophages and neutrophils in tumor microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, Wen; Yu, Ting; Sang, Yaxiong

    Interleukin 23 (IL-23) is an inflammatory cytokine which plays a vital role in autoimmune diseases as well as in tumorigenesis. However, the role of IL-23 in tumor procession is still controversial and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we established a stable cell line overexpressing IL-23 to prove that IL-23 promoted tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis through induction of tumor-related inflammation and absence of immune surveillance. IL-23 promotes tumor-associate inflammatory response such as infiltration of M2 macrophages, neutrophils and their elevated secretions of immunosuppressive cytokines transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), IL-10 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) into tumor tissues, meanwhilemore » the increase of the matrix metalloprotease MMP9. In addition, IL-23 increases the expression of the endothelial marker CD31 and proliferative marker Ki67 in tumors. Moreover, IL23 induces immunosuppression though reducing the infiltration of CD4{sup +}and CD8{sup +}T cells into tumor tissues. In conclusion, IL-23 is a considerable molecular in tumor progression, which simultaneously facilitates processes of pro-tumor inflammation, such as angiogenesis, immunosuppressive cytokines as well as infiltrations of M2 macrophages and neutrophils, and suppresses antitumor immune responses through reduction of CD4{sup +} T cells and CD8{sup +} T cells. - Highlights: • IL-23 promoted mammary tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis. • IL-23 enhanced the infiltration of M2 macrophages and neutrophils into IL-23-dominated tumor microenvironment (TME). • Immunosuppressing cytokines IL-10, TGF-β and VEGF were detected to rise in IL-23-transduced tumor tissues. • IL-23 down regulated the ability of CD8{sup +}T and CD4{sup +}T cells to infiltrate tumors.« less

  8. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3, Mediated Remodeling of the Tumor Microenvironment Results in Enhanced Tumor Drug Delivery in a Mouse Model of Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nagathihalli, Nagaraj S; Castellanos, Jason A; Shi, Chanjuan; Beesetty, Yugandhar; Reyzer, Michelle L; Caprioli, Richard; Chen, Xi; Walsh, Alex J; Skala, Melissa C; Moses, Harold L; Merchant, Nipun B

    2015-12-01

    A hallmark of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the presence of a dense desmoplastic reaction (stroma) that impedes drug delivery to the tumor. Attempts to deplete the tumor stroma have resulted in formation of more aggressive tumors. We have identified signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 as a biomarker of resistance to cytotoxic and molecularly targeted therapy in PDAC. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of targeting STAT3 on the PDAC stroma and on therapeutic resistance. Activated STAT3 protein expression was determined in human pancreatic tissues and tumor cell lines. In vivo effects of AZD1480, a JAK/STAT3 inhibitor, gemcitabine or the combination were determined in Ptf1a(cre/+);LSL-Kras(G12D/+);Tgfbr2(flox/flox) (PKT) mice and in orthotopic tumor xenografts. Drug delivery was analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry. Collagen second harmonic generation imaging quantified tumor collagen alignment and density. STAT3 activation correlates with decreased survival and advanced tumor stage in patients with PDAC. STAT3 inhibition combined with gemcitabine significantly inhibits tumor growth in both an orthotopic and the PKT mouse model of PDAC. This combined therapy attenuates in vivo expression of SPARC, increases microvessel density, and enhances drug delivery to the tumor without depletion of stromal collagen or hyaluronan. Instead, the PDAC tumors demonstrate vascular normalization, remodeling of the tumor stroma, and down-regulation of cytidine deaminase. Targeted inhibition of STAT3 combined with gemcitabine enhances in vivo drug delivery and therapeutic response in PDAC. These effects occur through tumor stromal remodeling and down-regulation of cytidine deaminase without depletion of tumor stromal content. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cancer cell specific cytotoxic gene expression mediated by ARF tumor suppressor promoter constructs

    SciTech Connect

    Kurayoshi, Kenta; Ozono, Eiko; Iwanaga, Ritsuko

    Highlights: • ARF promoter showed higher responsiveness to deregulated E2F activity than the E2F1 promoter. • ARF promoter showed higher cancer cell-specificity than E2F1 promoter to drive gene expression. • HSV-TK driven by ARF promoter showed higher cancer cell-specific cytotoxicity than that driven by E2F1 promoter. - Abstract: In current cancer treatment protocols, such as radiation and chemotherapy, side effects on normal cells are major obstacles to radical therapy. To avoid these side effects, a cancer cell-specific approach is needed. One way to specifically target cancer cells is to utilize a cancer specific promoter to express a cytotoxic gene (suicidemore » gene therapy) or a viral gene required for viral replication (oncolytic virotherapy). For this purpose, the selected promoter should have minimal activity in normal cells to avoid side effects, and high activity in a wide variety of cancers to obtain optimal therapeutic efficacy. In contrast to the AFP, CEA and PSA promoters, which have high activity only in a limited spectrum of tumors, the E2F1 promoter exhibits high activity in wide variety of cancers. This is based on the mechanism of carcinogenesis. Defects in the RB pathway and activation of the transcription factor E2F, the main target of the RB pathway, are observed in almost all cancers. Consequently, the E2F1 promoter, which is mainly regulated by E2F, has high activity in wide variety of cancers. However, E2F is also activated by growth stimulation in normal growing cells, suggesting that the E2F1 promoter may also be highly active in normal growing cells. In contrast, we found that the tumor suppressor ARF promoter is activated by deregulated E2F activity, induced by forced inactivation of pRB, but does not respond to physiological E2F activity induced by growth stimulation. We also found that the deregulated E2F activity, which activates the ARF promoter, is detected only in cancer cell lines. These observations suggest that ARF

  10. CCNG2 Overexpression Mediated by AKT Inhibits Tumor Cell Proliferation in Human Astrocytoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Danfeng; Wang, Chunhui; Li, Zhenxing; Li, Yiming; Dai, Dawei; Han, Kaiwei; Lv, Liquan; Lu, Yicheng; Hou, Lijun; Wang, Junyu

    2018-01-01

    The cyclin family protein CCNG2 has an important inhibitory role in cancer initiation and progression, but the exact mechanism is still unknown. In this study, we examined the relationship between CCNG2 and the malignancy of astrocytomas and whether the AKT pathway, which is upregulated in astrocytomas, may inhibit CCNG2 expression. CCNG2 expression was found to be negatively associated with the pathological grade and proliferative activity of astrocytomas, as the highest expression was found in control brain tissue ( N  = 31), whereas the lowest expression was in high-grade glioma tissue ( N  = 31). Additionally, CCNG2 overexpression in glioma cell lines, T98G and U251 inhibited proliferation and arrested cells in the G0/G1 phase. Moreover, CCNG2 overexpression could increase glioma cells apoptosis. In contrast, AKT activity increased in glioma cells that had low CCNG2 expression. Expression of CCNG2 was higher in cells treated with the AKT kinase inhibitor MK-2206 indicating that the presence of phosphorylated AKT may inhibit the expression of CCNG2. Inhibition of AKT also led to decreased colony formation in T98G and U251 cells and knocked down of CCNG2 reversed the result. Finally, overexpression of CCNG2 in glioma cells reduced tumor volume in a murine model. To conclude, low expression of CCNG2 correlated with the severity astrocytoma and CCNG2 overexpression could induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation. Inhibition of AKT activity increased the expression of CCNG2. The present study highlights the regulatory consequences of CCNG2 expression and AKT activity in astrocytoma tumorigenesis and the potential use of CCNG2 in anticancer treatment.

  11. Mannose-conjugated platinum complexes reveals effective tumor targeting mediated by glucose transporter 1

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ran; Li, Hong; Gao, Xiangqian

    Despite numerous studies that report the glucose derived glycoconjugates as antitumor candidates, using mannose as sugar motif for specific tumor targeting remains less studied. In this research, two novel mannose-conjugated platinum complexes 4a and 4b that target the Warburg effect were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antitumor activities in vitro and in vivo. Compared with oxaliplatin, both complexes exhibited substantial enhancement in water solubility as well as excellent or comparative cytotoxicity in six human cancer cell lines. Cytotoxicity assessments on Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) down-regulated or overexpressed cells and platinum accumulation study demonstrated that cellular uptake of compound 4a was regulatedmore » by GLUT1. In particular, 4a induced apoptosis in HT29 cells by suppressing expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, which preliminary explained the mechanism origin of antitumor effect. As indicated by its maximum tolerated dose-finding assay and in vivo anticancer activity, compound 4a exhibits better safety and efficacy profile than oxaliplatin. The findings of this study indicate the possibility of subjecting mannose-conjugated platinum complexes as lead compounds for further preclinical evaluation. - Highlights: • Mannose-conjugated platinum complexes were designed and synthesized to target glucose transporter 1(GLUT1). • Mannose-conjugated platinum complex 4a transport across cancer cells through GLUT1. • Mannose-conjugated platinum complex 4a induce apoptosis in HT29 cells. • Mannose-conjugated platinum complex 4a antitumor activities were more potent than those of oxaliplatin.« less

  12. Allostery Mediates Ligand Binding to WWOX Tumor Suppressor via a Conformational Switch

    PubMed Central

    Schuchardt, Brett J.; Mikles, David C.; Bhat, Vikas; McDonald, Caleb B.; Sudol, Marius; Farooq, Amjad

    2014-01-01

    While being devoid of the ability to recognize ligands itself, the WW2 domain is believed to aid ligand binding to WW1 domain in the context of WW1-WW2 tandem module of WWOX tumor suppressor. In an effort to test the generality of this hypothesis, we have undertaken here a detailed biophysical analysis of the binding of WW domains of WWOX alone and in the context of WW1-WW2 tandem module to an array of putative PPXY ligands. Our data show that while the WW1 domain of WWOX binds to all ligands in a physiologically-relevant manner, the WW2 domain does not. Moreover, ligand binding to WW1 domain in the context of WW1-WW2 tandem module is two-to-three-fold stronger than when treated alone. We also provide evidence that the WW domains within the WW1-WW2 tandem module physically associate so as to adopt a fixed spatial orientation relative to each other. Of particular note is the observation that the physical association of WW2 domain with WW1 blocks access to ligand. Consequently, ligand binding to WW1 domain not only results in the displacement of WW2 lid but also disrupts the physical association of WW domains in the liganded conformation. Taken together, our study underscores a key role of allosteric communication in the ability of WW2 orphan domain to chaperone physiological action of WW1 domain within the context of the WW1-WW2 tandem module of WWOX. PMID:25703206

  13. Allostery mediates ligand binding to WWOX tumor suppressor via a conformational switch.

    PubMed

    Schuchardt, Brett J; Mikles, David C; Bhat, Vikas; McDonald, Caleb B; Sudol, Marius; Farooq, Amjad

    2015-04-01

    While being devoid of the ability to recognize ligands itself, the WW2 domain is believed to aid ligand binding to the WW1 domain in the context of a WW1-WW2 tandem module of WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) tumor suppressor. In an effort to test the generality of this hypothesis, we have undertaken here a detailed biophysical analysis of the binding of WW domains of WWOX alone and in the context of the WW1-WW2 tandem module to an array of putative proline-proline-x-tyrosine (PPXY) ligands. Our data show that while the WW1 domain of WWOX binds to all ligands in a physiologically relevant manner, the WW2 domain does not. Moreover, ligand binding to the WW1 domain in the context of the WW1-WW2 tandem module is two-to-three-fold stronger than when treated alone. We also provide evidence that the WW domains within the WW1-WW2 tandem module physically associate so as to adopt a fixed spatial orientation relative to each other. Of particular note is the observation that the physical association of the WW2 domain with WW1 blocks access to ligands. Consequently, ligand binding to the WW1 domain not only results in the displacement of the WW2 lid but also disrupts the physical association of WW domains in the liganded conformation. Taken together, our study underscores a key role of allosteric communication in the ability of the WW2 orphan domain to chaperone physiological action of the WW1 domain within the context of the WW1-WW2 tandem module of WWOX. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Group X Phospholipase A2 Stimulates the Proliferation of Colon Cancer Cells by Producing Various Lipid Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Surrel, Fanny; Jemel, Ikram; Boilard, Eric; Bollinger, James G.; Payré, Christine; Mounier, Carine M.; Talvinen, Kati A.; Laine, Veli J. O.; Nevalainen, Timo J.; Gelb, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    Among mammalian secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s), the group X enzyme has the most potent hydrolyzing capacity toward phosphatidylcholine, the major phospholipid of cell membrane and lipoproteins. This enzyme has recently been implicated in chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis and asthma and may also play a role in colon tumorigenesis. We show here that group X sPLA2 [mouse (m)GX] is one of the most highly expressed PLA2 in the mouse colon and that recombinant mouse and human enzymes stimulate proliferation and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation of various colon cell lines, including Colon-26 cancer cells. Among various recombinant sPLA2s, mGX is the most potent enzyme to stimulate cell proliferation. Based on the use of sPLA2 inhibitors, catalytic site mutants, and small interfering RNA silencing of cytosolic PLA2α and M-type sPLA2 receptor, we demonstrate that mGX promotes cell proliferation independently of the receptor and via its intrinsic catalytic activity and production of free arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids, which are mitogenic by themselves. mGX can also elicit the production of large amounts of prostaglandin E2 and other eicosanoids from Colon-26 cells, but these lipid mediators do not play a role in mGX-induced cell proliferation because inhibitors of cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases do not prevent sPLA2 mitogenic effects. Together, our results indicate that group X sPLA2 may play an important role in colon tumorigenesis by promoting cancer cell proliferation and releasing various lipid mediators involved in other key events in cancer progression. PMID:19602573

  15. Group X phospholipase A2 stimulates the proliferation of colon cancer cells by producing various lipid mediators.

    PubMed

    Surrel, Fanny; Jemel, Ikram; Boilard, Eric; Bollinger, James G; Payré, Christine; Mounier, Carine M; Talvinen, Kati A; Laine, Veli J O; Nevalainen, Timo J; Gelb, Michael H; Lambeau, Gérard

    2009-10-01

    Among mammalian secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA(2)s), the group X enzyme has the most potent hydrolyzing capacity toward phosphatidylcholine, the major phospholipid of cell membrane and lipoproteins. This enzyme has recently been implicated in chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis and asthma and may also play a role in colon tumorigenesis. We show here that group X sPLA(2) [mouse (m)GX] is one of the most highly expressed PLA(2) in the mouse colon and that recombinant mouse and human enzymes stimulate proliferation and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation of various colon cell lines, including Colon-26 cancer cells. Among various recombinant sPLA(2)s, mGX is the most potent enzyme to stimulate cell proliferation. Based on the use of sPLA(2) inhibitors, catalytic site mutants, and small interfering RNA silencing of cytosolic PLA(2)alpha and M-type sPLA(2) receptor, we demonstrate that mGX promotes cell proliferation independently of the receptor and via its intrinsic catalytic activity and production of free arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids, which are mitogenic by themselves. mGX can also elicit the production of large amounts of prostaglandin E2 and other eicosanoids from Colon-26 cells, but these lipid mediators do not play a role in mGX-induced cell proliferation because inhibitors of cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases do not prevent sPLA(2) mitogenic effects. Together, our results indicate that group X sPLA(2) may play an important role in colon tumorigenesis by promoting cancer cell proliferation and releasing various lipid mediators involved in other key events in cancer progression.

  16. The phzA2-G2 Transcript Exhibits Direct RsmA-Mediated Activation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa M18

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Bin; Shen, Huifeng; Lu, Zhi John; Liu, Haiming; Xu, Yuquan

    2014-01-01

    In bacteria, RNA-binding proteins of the RsmA/CsrA family act as post-transcriptional regulators that modulate translation initiation at target transcripts. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa genome contains two phenazine biosynthetic (phz) gene clusters, phzA1-G1 (phz1) and phzA2-G2 (phz2), each of which is responsible for phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) biosynthesis. In the present study, we show that RsmA exhibits differential gene regulation on two phz clusters in P. aeruginosa M18 at the post-transcriptional level. Based on the sequence analysis, four GGA motifs, the potential RsmA binding sites, are found on the 5′-untranslated region (UTR) of the phz2 transcript. Studies with a series of lacZ reporter fusions, and gel mobility shift assays suggest that the third GGA motif (S3), located 21 nucleotides upstream of the Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence, is involved in direct RsmA-mediated activation of phz2 expression. We therefore propose a novel model in which the binding of RsmA to the target S3 results in the destabilization of the stem-loop structure and the enhancement of ribosome access. This model could be fully supported by RNA structure prediction, free energy calculations, and nucleotide replacement studies. In contrast, various RsmA-mediated translation repression mechanisms have been identified in which RsmA binds near the SD sequence of target transcripts, thereby blocking ribosome access. Similarly, RsmA is shown to negatively regulate phz1 expression. Our new findings suggest that the differential regulation exerted by RsmA on the two phz clusters may confer an advantage to P. aeruginosa over other pseudomonads containing only a single phz cluster in their genomes. PMID:24586939

  17. Modulation of in vivo distribution through chelator: Synthesis and evaluation of a 2-nitroimidazole-dipicolylamine-(99m)Tc(CO)3 complex for detecting tumor hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Mallia, Madhava B; Mittal, Sweety; Sarma, Haladhar D; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have clearly demonstrated strong correlation between in vivo distribution and blood clearance of radiopharmaceuticals for the detection of hypoxia. Present study describes an attempt to improve the in vivo distribution of a previously reported 2-nitroimidazole-(99m)Tc(CO)3 complex by tuning its blood clearance pattern through structural modification of the ligand. Herein, a 2-nitroimidazole-dipicolylamine ligand (2-nitroimidazole-DPA) was synthesized in a two-step procedure and radiolabeled with (99m)Tc(CO)3 core. Subsequently, the complex was evaluated in Swiss mice bearing fibrosarcoma tumor. As intended by its design, 2-nitroimidazole-DPA-(99m)Tc(CO)3 complex was more lipophilic than previously reported 2-nitroimidazole-DETA-(99m)Tc(CO)3 complex (DETA-diethylenetriamine) and showed slower blood clearance. Consequently it showed higher tumor uptake than 2-nitroimidazole-DETA-(99m)Tc(CO)3 complex. Significantly, despite structural modifications, other parameters such as the tumor to blood ratio and tumor to muscle ratio of the 2-nitroimidazole-DPA-(99m)Tc(CO)3 complex remained comparable to that of 2-nitroimidazole-DETA-(99m)Tc(CO)3 complex. Present study demonstrates the feasibility of structural modifications for improving in vivo tumor uptake of hypoxia detecting radiopharmaceuticals. This might encourage researchers to improve suboptimal properties of a potential radiopharmaceuticals rather than ignoring it altogether. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. PI3K/Akt signaling mediated Hexokinase-2 expression inhibits cell apoptosis and promotes tumor growth in pediatric osteosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuo, Baobiao; Li, Yuan; Li, Zhengwei

    2015-08-21

    Accumulating evidence has shown that PI3K/Akt pathway is frequently hyperactivated in osteosarcoma (OS) and contributes to tumor initiation and progression. Altered phenotype of glucose metabolism is a key hallmark of cancer cells including OS. However, the relationship between PI3K/Akt pathway and glucose metabolism in OS remains largely unexplored. In this study, we showed that elevated Hexokinase-2 (HK2) expression, which catalyzes the first essential step of glucose metabolism by conversion of glucose into glucose-6-phosphate, was induced by activated PI3K/Akt signaling. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that HK2 was overexpressed in 83.3% (25/30) specimens detected and was closely correlated with Ki67, a cell proliferationmore » index. Silencing of endogenous HK2 resulted in decreased aerobic glycolysis as demonstrated by reduced glucose consumption and lactate production. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling also suppressed aerobic glycolysis and this effect can be reversed by reintroduction of HK2. Furthermore, knockdown of HK2 led to increased cell apoptosis and reduced ability of colony formation; meanwhile, these effects were blocked by 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), a glycolysis inhibitor through its actions on hexokinase, indicating that HK2 functions in cell apoptosis and growth were mediated by altered aerobic glycolysis. Taken together, our study reveals a novel relationship between PI3K/Akt signaling and aerobic glycolysis and indicates that PI3K/Akt/HK2 might be potential therapeutic approaches for OS. - Highlights: • PI3K/Akt signaling contributes to elevated expression of HK2 in osteosarcoma. • HK2 inhibits cell apoptosis and promotes tumor growth through enhanced Warburg effect. • Inhibition of glycolysis blocks the oncogenic activity of HK2.« less

  19. Socioeconomic disparities in the quality of life in children with cancer or brain tumors: the mediating role of family factors.

    PubMed

    Litzelman, Kristin; Barker, Emily; Catrine, Kristine; Puccetti, Diane; Possin, Peggy; Witt, Whitney P

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to determine if and to what extent (i) socioeconomic disparities exist in the health-related quality of life (QOL) of children with cancer or brain tumors and healthy children; and (ii) family functioning and burden mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status and children's QOL. In this cross-sectional study, parents of children ages 2-18 with (n = 71) and without (n = 135) cancer or brain tumors completed in-person interviewer-assisted surveys assessing sociodemographics (including income and parental education), child QOL (measure: PedsQL), family functioning (measure: Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale IV) and burden (measure: Impact on the Family Scale). For children with cancer, clinical characteristics were captured through medical record abstraction. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the relationship between income and child QOL; the interaction between group status and income was assessed. Staged multivariate regression models were used to assess the role of family factors in this relationship among children with cancer. In multivariate analyses, the effect of income differed by cancer status; lower income was associated with worse QOL in children with cancer but not among healthy children. Among children with cancer, this relationship was significantly attenuated by family burden. Significant socioeconomic disparities exist in the QOL of children with cancer. Family factors partially explain the relationship between low income and poor QOL outcomes among these children. Lower-income families may have fewer resources to cope with their child's cancer. Increased support, monitoring, and referrals to reduce burden for these families may lead to improved QOL in children with cancer. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. p21, an important mediator of quiescence during pituitary tumor formation, is dispensable for normal pituitary development during embryogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Monahan, Pamela; Himes, Ashley D.; Parfieniuk, Agata; Raetzman, Lori T.

    2011-01-01

    A delicate balance between proliferation and differentiation must be maintained in the developing pituitary to ensure the formation of the appropriate number of hormone producing cells. In the adult, proliferation is actively restrained to prevent tumor formation. The cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) of the CIP/KIP family, p21, p27 and p57, mediate cell cycle inhibition. Although p21 is induced in the pituitary upon loss of Notch signaling or initiation of tumor formation to halt cell cycle progression, its role in normal pituitary organogenesis has not been explored. In wildtype pituitaries, expression of p21 is limited to a subset of cells embryonically as well as during the postnatal proliferative phase. Mice lacking p21 do not have altered cell proliferation during early embryogenesis, but do show a slight delay in separation of proliferating progenitors from the oral ectoderm. By embryonic day 16.5, p21 mutants have an alteration in the spatial distribution of proliferating pituitary progenitors, however there is no overall change in proliferation. At postnatal day 21, there appears to be no change in proliferation, as assessed by cells expressing Ki67 protein. However, p21 mutant pituitaries have significantly less mRNA of Myc and the cyclins Ccnb1, Ccnd1, Ccnd2 and Ccne1 than wildtype pituitaries. Interestingly, unlike the redundant role in cell cycle inhibition uncovered in p27/p57 double mutants, the pituitary of p21/p27 double mutants has a similar proliferation profile to p27 single mutants at the time points examined. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that unlike p27 or p57, p21 does not play a major role in control of progenitor proliferation in the developing pituitary. However, p21 may be required to maintain normal levels of cell cycle components. PMID:22154697

  1. Socioeconomic Disparities in the Quality of Life in Children with Cancer or Brain Tumors: The Mediating Role of Family Factors

    PubMed Central

    Litzelman, Kristin; Barker, Emily; Catrine, Kristine; Puccetti, Diane; Possin, Peggy; Witt, Whitney P

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine if and to what extent: (1) socioeconomic disparities exist in the health-related quality of life (QOL) of children with cancer or brain tumors and healthy children; and (2) family functioning and burden mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status and children’s QOL. Methods In this cross-sectional study, parents of children ages 2–18 with (n=71) and without (n=135) cancer or brain tumors completed in-person interviewer-assisted surveys assessing sociodemographics (including income and parental education), child QOL (measure: PedsQL), family functioning (measure: FACES IV) and burden (measure: Impact on the Family Scale). For children with cancer, clinical characteristics were captured through medical record abstraction. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the relationship between income and child QOL; the interaction between group status and income was assessed. Staged multivariate regression models were used to assess the role of family factors in this relationship among children with cancer. Results In multivariate analyses, the effect of income differed by cancer status; lower income was associated with worse QOL in children with cancer, but not among healthy children. Among children with cancer, this relationship was significantly attenuated by family burden. Conclusions Significant socioeconomic disparities exist in the QOL of children with cancer. Family factors partially explain the relationship between low income and poor QOL outcomes among these children. Lower income families may have fewer resources to cope with their child’s cancer. Increased support, monitoring, and referrals to reduce burden for these families may lead to improved QOL in children with cancer. PMID:22645071

  2. Phosphorylation of p53 by LRRK2 induces microglial tumor necrosis factor α-mediated neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Dong Hwan, E-mail: ethan2887@gmail.com; Seol, Wongi; Eun, Jin Hwan

    Leucine-rich repeat kinase (LRRK2), a major causal gene of Parkinson's disease (PD), functions as a kinase. The most prevalent mutation of LRRK2 is G2019S. It exhibits increased kinase activity compared to the wildtype LRRK2. Previous studies have shown that LRRK2 can phosphorylate p53 at T304 and T377 of threonine-X-arginine (TXR) motif in neurons. Reduction of LRRK2 expression or inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity has been shown to be able to alleviate LPS-induced neuroinflammation in microglia cells. In this study, we found that LRRK2 could also phosphorylate p53 in microglia model BV2 cells. Transfection of BV2 with phosphomimetic p53 T304/377D significantlymore » increased the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα compared to BV2 transfected with p53 wild type after LPS treatment. In addition, conditioned media from these transfected cells increased the death of dopaminergic neuronal SN4741 cells. Moreover, such neurotoxic effect was rescued by co-treatment with the conditioned media and etanercept, a TNFα blocking antibody. Furthermore, TNFα secretion was significantly increased in primary microglia derived from G2019S transgenic mice treated with LPS compared to that in cells derived from their littermates. These results suggest that LRRK2 kinase activity in microglia can contribute to neuroinflammation in PD via phosphorylating p53 at T304 and T377 site. - Highlights: • LPS stimulates LRRK2-mediated p53 phosphorylation and its nuclear localization. • Phosphorylation of p53 by LRRK2 in microglia enhances TNFα expression. • Microglial TNFα via LRRK2-induced p53 phosphorylation decreases neuronal survival.« less

  3. Cationic liposome-mediated gene transfer to tumor cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Son, K; Sorgi, F; Gao, X; Huang, L

    1997-01-01

    Development of safe and effective technology for delivering functional DNA into cells in an intact organism is crucial to broad applications of gene therapy to human disease. Both viral and nonviral vectors have been developed. Of the technologies currently being studied, liposomal delivery system is particularly attractive. Cationic liposome-mediated gene transfection (lipofection), a relatively new technique pioneered by Felgner and coworkers (1), was highly efficient for transfecting cells in culture. The liposomes were composed of an equimolar mixture of a synthetic cationic lipid N-[1-(2,3,-dioleyloxy)propyl]-N,N,N,-trimethylammonium chloride (DOTMA) and a helper lipid dioleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) Fig. 1). The DOTMA/DOPE mixture (Lipofectin) forms complexes with DNA by charge interaction upon mixing at room temperature. Other catronic lipids are DOTAP, LipofectAMINE, Lipofectam, and DC-chol. The DOTAP is a diester analog of DOTMA and commercially available. LipofectAMINE and Lipofectam are polycationic lipids with a spermine head group that show increased frequency and activity of eukaryotic cell transfection (2,3). 3β-[N-(N',N'-dimethyaminoaminoethane) carbamoyl] cholesterol (DC-chol) (Fig. 1), a cationic cholesterol derivative, was introduced by Gao and Huang (4) and is routinely used in our laboratory. The DC-chol is now commercially available but can be easily synthesized with a single-step reaction from N,N-dimethylethylenediamine and cholesterol chloroformate (4), and improves the efficiency of transfection with minimal toxicity.Liposomes prepared with DC-chol and DOPE (3∶2 molar ratio) are stable at 4°C for at least 1 yr (unpublished data).

  4. Tumor-promoting effect of IL-23 in mammary cancer mediated by infiltration of M2 macrophages and neutrophils in tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Nie, Wen; Yu, Ting; Sang, Yaxiong; Gao, Xiang

    2017-01-22

    Interleukin 23 (IL-23) is an inflammatory cytokine which plays a vital role in autoimmune diseases as well as in tumorigenesis. However, the role of IL-23 in tumor procession is still controversial and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we established a stable cell line overexpressing IL-23 to prove that IL-23 promoted tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis through induction of tumor-related inflammation and absence of immune surveillance. IL-23 promotes tumor-associate inflammatory response such as infiltration of M2 macrophages, neutrophils and their elevated secretions of immunosuppressive cytokines transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), IL-10 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) into tumor tissues, meanwhile the increase of the matrix metalloprotease MMP9. In addition, IL-23 increases the expression of the endothelial marker CD31 and proliferative marker Ki67 in tumors. Moreover, IL23 induces immunosuppression though reducing the infiltration of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells into tumor tissues. In conclusion, IL-23 is a considerable molecular in tumor progression, which simultaneously facilitates processes of pro-tumor inflammation, such as angiogenesis, immunosuppressive cytokines as well as infiltrations of M2 macrophages and neutrophils, and suppresses antitumor immune responses through reduction of CD4 + T cells and CD8 + T cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cytokine-Induction of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 2 (TNFR2) is Mediated by STAT3 in Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Kathryn E.; Simmons, James G.; Ding, Shengli; Van Landeghem, Laurianne; Lund, P. Kay

    2011-01-01

    The IL-6/STAT3 and TNFα/NFκB pathways are emerging as critical mediators of inflammation-associated colon cancer. TNFR2 expression is increased in inflammatory bowel diseases, the azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS) model of colitis-associated cancer, and by combined IL-6 and TNFα. The molecular mechanisms that regulate TNFR2 remain undefined. This study used colon cancer cell lines to test the hypothesis that IL-6 and TNFα induce TNFR2 via STAT3 and/or NFκB. Basal and IL-6 + TNFα-induced TNFR2 were decreased by pharmacological STAT3 inhibition. NFκB inhibition had little effect on IL-6 + TNFα-induced TNFR2, but did inhibit induction of endogenous IL-6 and TNFR2 in cells treated with TNFα alone. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) revealed cooperative effects of IL-6 + TNFα to induce STAT3 binding to a -1578 STAT response element in the TNFR2 promoter, but no effect on NFκB binding to consensus sites. Constitutively active STAT3 was sufficient to induce TNFR2 expression. Over-expression of SOCS3, a cytokine-inducible STAT3 inhibitor, which reduces tumorigenesis in preclinical models of colitis-associated cancer, decreased cytokine-induced TNFR2 expression and STAT3 binding to the -1578 STAT response element. SOCS3 over-expression also decreased proliferation of colon cancer cells and dramatically decreased anchorage-independent growth of colon cancer cells, even cells over-expressing TNFR2. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that IL-6 and TNFα-induced TNFR2 expression in colon cancer cells is mediated primarily by STAT3, and provide evidence that TNFR2 may contribute to the tumor-promoting roles of STAT3. PMID:21994466

  6. Nano-graphene oxide-mediated In vivo fluorescence imaging and bimodal photodynamic and photothermal destruction of tumors.

    PubMed

    Kalluru, Poliraju; Vankayala, Raviraj; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Hwang, Kuo Chu

    2016-07-01

    Cancer is one of the major life-threatening diseases among human beings. Developing a simple, cost-effective and biocompatible approach to treat cancers using ultra-low doses of light is a grand challenge in clinical cancer treatments. In this study, we report for the first time that nano-sized graphene oxide (GO) exhibits single-photon excitation wavelength dependent photoluminescence in the visible and short near-infrared (NIR) region, suitable for in vivo multi-color fluorescence imaging. We also demonstrate in both in vitro and in vivo experiments to show that nano GO can sensitize the formation of singlet oxygen to exert combined nanomaterial-mediated photodynamic therapeutic (NmPDT) and photothermal therapy (NmPTT) effects on the destruction of B16F0 melanoma tumors in mice using ultra-low doses (∼0.36 W/cm(2)) of NIR (980 nm) light. The average half-life span of the mice treated by the GO-PEG-folate-mediated NmPDT effects is beyond 30 days, which is ∼1.8 times longer than the mice treated with doxorubicin (17 days). Overall, the current study points out a successful example of using GO-PEG-folate nanocomposite as a theranostic nanomedicine to exert simultaneously in vivo fluorescent imaging as well as combined NmPDT and NmPTT effects for clinical cancer treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhancement of the p27Kip1-mediated antiproliferative effect of trastuzumab (Herceptin) on HER2-overexpressing tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Marches, Radu; Uhr, Jonathan W

    2004-11-10

    The oncogenic activity of the overexpressed HER2 tyrosine kinase receptor requires its localization in the plasma membrane. The antitumor effect of anti-HER2 antibodies (Abs) is mainly dependent on receptor downregulation and comprises p27Kip1-mediated G1 cell cycle arrest. However, one major limitation of anti-HER2 therapy is the reversibility of tumor growth inhibition after discontinuation of treatment caused by the mitogenic signaling associated with cell surface receptor re-expression. We found that the level of p27Kip1 upregulation, inhibition of Cdk2 activity and magnitude of G1 arrest induced by the humanized Ab trastuzumab (Herceptin, HCT) on BT474 and SKBr3 HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells correlates with the level of cell surface receptor. Thus, continuous exposure of cells to HCT for 72 hr results in downregulation of the cell surface receptor and a concurrent increase in the level of p27Kip1 protein. Discontinuation of Ab exposure after the first 8 hr results in failure to upregulate p27Kip1 and arrest of cell cycle progression. We show that the lysosomotropic amine chloroquine (CQ) augments receptor internalization in HER2-overexpressing cells either pretreated or continuously treated with HCT and leads to an increased and sustained inhibitory effect. The enhanced CQ-dependent loss of functional HER2 from the cell surface resulted in sustained inactivation of the serine/threonine kinase Akt, upregulation of p27Kip1 protein and inhibition of cyclin E/Cdk2 activity. Potentiation of the inhibitory effect of HCT by CQ was directly related to loss of HER2 from the plasma membrane since prevention of Ab-mediated receptor endocytosis by engagement of the receptor with immobilized HCT abrogated the effect of CQ.

  8. Cytoplasmic GPER translocation in cancer-associated fibroblasts mediates cAMP/PKA/CREB/glycolytic axis to confer tumor cells with multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Yu, T; Yang, G; Hou, Y; Tang, X; Wu, C; Wu, X-A; Guo, L; Zhu, Q; Luo, H; Du, Y-E; Wen, S; Xu, L; Yin, J; Tu, G; Liu, M

    2017-04-01

    Multiple drug resistance is a challenging issue in the clinic. There is growing evidence that the G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) is a novel mediator in the development of multidrug resistance in both estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and -negative breast cancers, and that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in the tumor microenvironment may be a new agent that promotes drug resistance in tumor cells. However, the role of cytoplasmic GPER of CAFs on tumor therapy remains unclear. Here we first show that the breast tumor cell-activated PI3K/AKT (phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT) signaling pathway induces the cytoplasmic GPER translocation of CAFs in a CRM1-dependent pattern, and leads to the activation of a novel estrogen/GPER/cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling axis that triggers the aerobic glycolysis switch in CAFs. The glycolytic CAFs feed the extra pyruvate and lactate to tumor cells for augmentation of mitochondrial activity, and this energy metabolically coupled in a 'host-parasite relationship' between catabolic CAFs and anabolic cancer cells confers the tumor cells with multiple drug resistance to several conventional clinical treatments including endocrine therapy (tamoxifen), Her-2-targeted therapy (herceptin) and chemotherapy (epirubicin). Moreover, the clinical data from 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography further present a strong association between the GPER/cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway of stromal fibroblasts with tumor metabolic activity and clinical treatment, suggesting that targeting cytoplasmic GPER in CAFs may rescue the drug sensitivity in patients with breast cancer. Thus, our data define novel insights into the stromal GPER-mediated multiple drug resistance from the point of reprogramming of tumor energy metabolism and provide the rationale for CAFs as a promising target for clinical therapy.

  9. Acquired Tumor Cell Radiation Resistance at the Treatment Site Is Mediated Through Radiation-Orchestrated Intercellular Communication

    SciTech Connect

    Aravindan, Natarajan, E-mail: naravind@ouhsc.edu; Aravindan, Sheeja; Pandian, Vijayabaskar

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Radiation resistance induced in cancer cells that survive after radiation therapy (RT) could be associated with increased radiation protection, limiting the therapeutic benefit of radiation. Herein we investigated the sequential mechanistic molecular orchestration involved in radiation-induced radiation protection in tumor cells. Results: Radiation, both in the low-dose irradiation (LDIR) range (10, 50, or 100 cGy) or at a higher, challenge dose IR (CDIR), 4 Gy, induced dose-dependent and sustained NFκB-DNA binding activity. However, a robust and consistent increase was seen in CDIR-induced NFκB activity, decreased DNA fragmentation, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity and attenuation of CDIR-inhibited clonal expansion when the cellsmore » were primed with LDIR prior to challenge dose. Furthermore, NFκB manipulation studies with small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing or p50/p65 overexpression unveiled the influence of LDIR-activated NFκB in regulating CDIR-induced DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. LDIR significantly increased the transactivation/translation of the radiation-responsive factors tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1α (IL-1α), cMYC, and SOD2. Coculture experiments exhibit LDIR-influenced radiation protection and increases in cellular expression, secretion, and activation of radiation-responsive molecules in bystander cells. Individual gene-silencing approach with siRNAs coupled with coculture studies showed the influence of LDIR-modulated TNF-α, IL-1α, cMYC, and SOD2 in induced radiation protection in bystander cells. NFκB inhibition/overexpression studies coupled with coculture experiments demonstrated that TNF-α, IL-1α, cMYC, and SOD2 are selectively regulated by LDIR-induced NFκB. Conclusions: Together, these data strongly suggest that scattered LDIR-induced NFκB-dependent TNF-α, IL-1α, cMYC, and SOD2 mediate radiation protection to the subsequent challenge dose in tumor cells.« less

  10. Expression of EphA2 protein is positively associated with age, tumor size and Fuhrman nuclear grade in clear cell renal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Longxin; Hu, Haibing; Tian, Feng; Zhou, Wenquan; Zhou, Shuigen; Wang, Jiandong

    2015-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase of EphA2 has been shown frequently overexpressed in various types of human carcinomas, which implicated that it plays important roles in carcinogenesis. Although EphA2 protein expression has been investigated in many types of human carcinomas, the relationship between the expression of EphA2 protein in clear cell renal cell carcinoma was not well documented. In the present study, using specific anit-EphA2 polyclonal antibody and immunohistochemistry, we evaluated EphA2 protein expression levels in clear cell RCC specimens surgically resected from 90 patients. Our results shows that EphA2 protein was positively expressed in all normal renal tubes of 90 samples (100%, 3+), which was expressed at low levels in renal cortex but high levels in the collecting ducts of the renal medulla and papilla. EphA2 was negatively or weakly expressed in 30 out of 90 samples (33.3%, 0/1+), moderately expressed in 24 samples (26.7%, 2+) and strongly expressed in 36 samples (40%, 3+). Expression of EphA2 was positively associated with age (P=0.029), tumor diameters (P<0.001) and Fuhrman nuclear grade (P<0.001). Our results indicate that EphA2 variably expressed in clear cell renal cell carcinomas. High expression of EphA2 was more often found in big size and high nuclear grade tumors, which indicated EphA2 protein may be used as a new marker for the prognosis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

  11. P2X7 Integrates PI3K/AKT and AMPK-PRAS40-mTOR Signaling Pathways to Mediate Tumor Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Aiping; Zhang, Chunqing; Li, Linglin; Enjyoji, Keiichi; Junger, Wolfgang G.; Robson, Simon C.; Wu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Background Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) functions as a novel danger signal that boosts antitumor immunity and can also directly kill tumor cells. We have previously reported that chronic exposure of tumor cells to ATP provokes P2X7-mediated tumor cell death, by as yet incompletely defined molecular mechanisms. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we show that acute exposure of tumor cells to ATP results in rapid cytotoxic effects impacting several aspects of cell growth/survival, leading to inhibition of tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Using agonist and antagonist studies together with generation of P2X7 deficient tumor cell lines by lentiviral shRNA delivery system, we confirm P2X7 to be the central control node transmitting extracellular ATP signals. We identify that downstream intracellular signaling regulatory networks implicate two signaling pathways: the known P2X7-PI3K/AKT axis and remarkably a novel P2X7-AMPK-PRAS40-mTOR axis. When exposed to high levels of extracellular ATP, these two signaling axes perturb the balance between growth and autophagy, thereby promoting tumor cell death. Conclusions Our study defines novel molecular mechanisms underpinning the antitumor actions of P2X7 and provides a further rationale for purine-based drugs in targeted cancer therapy. PMID:23565201

  12. Folate Receptor-Mediated Enhanced and Specific Delivery of Far-Red Light-Activatable Prodrugs of Combretastatin A-4 to FR-Positive Tumor

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We examined the concept of a novel prodrug strategy in which anticancer drug can be locally released by visible/near IR light, taking advantage of the photodynamic process and photo-unclick chemistry. Our most recently formulated prodrug of combretastatin A-4, Pc-(L-CA4)2, showed multifunctionality for fluorescence imaging, light-activated drug release, and the combined effects of PDT and local chemotherapy. In this formulation, L is a singlet oxygen cleavable linker. Here, we advanced this multifunctional prodrug by adding a tumor-targeting group, folic acid (FA). We designed and prepared four FA-conjugated prodrugs 1–4 (CA4-L-Pc-PEGn-FA: n = 0, 2, 18, ∼45) and one non-FA-conjugated prodrug 5 (CA4-L-Pc-PEG18-boc). Prodrugs 3 and 4 had a longer PEG spacer and showed higher hydrophilicity, enhanced uptake to colon 26 cells via FR-mediated mechanisms, and more specific localization to SC colon 26 tumors in Balb/c mice than prodrugs 1 and 2. Prodrug 4 also showed higher and more specific uptake to tumors, resulting in selective tumor damage and more effective antitumor efficacy than non-FA-conjugated prodrug 5. FR-mediated targeting seemed to be an effective strategy to spare normal tissues surrounding tumors in the illuminated area during treatment with this prodrug. PMID:25351441

  13. Nuclear degradation of Wilms tumor 1-associating protein and survivin splice variant switching underlie IGF-1-mediated survival.

    PubMed

    Small, Theodore W; Pickering, J Geoffrey

    2009-09-11

    WTAP (Wilms tumor 1-associating protein) is a recently identified nuclear protein that is essential for mouse embryo development. The Drosophila homolog of WTAP, Fl(2)d, regulates pre-mRNA splicing; however, the role of WTAP in mammalian cells is uncertain. To elucidate a context for WTAP action, we screened growth and survival factors for their effects on WTAP expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), a cell type previously found to express WTAP dynamically. This revealed that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) uniquely reduced WTAP abundance. This decline in WTAP proved to be necessary for IGF-1 to confer its antiapoptotic properties, which were blocked by transducing the WTAP gene into SMCs. WTAP down-regulation by IGF-1 was mediated by an IGF-1 receptor-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling axis that directed WTAP degradation via a nuclear 26 S proteasome. Moreover, by promoting the degradation of WTAP, IGF-1 shifted the pre-mRNA splicing program for the survival factor, survivin, to reduce expression of survivin-2B, which is proapoptotic, and increase expression of survivin, which is antiapoptotic. Knockdown of survivin-2B rescued the ability of IGF-1 to promote survival when WTAP was overexpressed. These data uncover a novel regulatory cascade for human SMC survival based on adjusting the nuclear abundance of WTAP to define the splice variant balance among survivin isoforms.

  14. Ferulic Acid Exerts Anti-Angiogenic and Anti-Tumor Activity by Targeting Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1-Mediated Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Song; Lu, Wei-Qin

    2015-10-12

    Most anti-angiogenic therapies currently being evaluated target the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway; however, the tumor vasculature can acquire resistance to VEGF-targeted therapy by shifting to other angiogenesis mechanisms. Therefore, other therapeutic agents that block non-VEGF angiogenic pathways need to be evaluated. Here, we identified ferulic acid as a novel fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) inhibitor and a novel agent with potential anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer activities. Ferulic acid demonstrated inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation in response to basic fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1). In ex vivo and in vivo angiogenesis assays, ferulic acid suppressed FGF1-induced microvessel sprouting of rat aortic rings and angiogenesis. To understand the underlying molecular basis, we examined the effects of ferulic acid on different molecular components and found that ferulic acid suppressed FGF1-triggered activation of FGFR1 and phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (Akt) signaling. Moreover, ferulic acid directly inhibited proliferation and blocked the PI3K-Akt pathway in melanoma cell. In vivo, using a melanoma xenograft model, ferulic acid showed growth-inhibitory activity associated with inhibition of angiogenesis. Taken together, our results indicate that ferulic acid targets the FGFR1-mediated PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, leading to the suppression of melanoma growth and angiogenesis.

  15. BAG3 down-modulation reduces anaplastic thyroid tumor growth by enhancing proteasome-mediated degradation of BRAF protein.

    PubMed

    Chiappetta, Gennaro; Basile, Anna; Arra, Claudio; Califano, Daniela; Pasquinelli, Rosa; Barbieri, Antonio; De Simone, Veronica; Rea, Domenica; Giudice, Aldo; Pezzullo, Luciano; De Laurenzi, Vincenzo; Botti, Gerardo; Losito, Simona; Conforti, Daniela; Turco, Maria Caterina

    2012-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid tumors (ATC) express high levels of BAG3, a member of the BAG family of cochaperone proteins that is involved in regulating cell apoptosis through multiple mechanisms. The objective of the study was the investigation of the influence of B-cell lymphoma-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) on ATC growth. We investigated the effects of BAG3 down-modulation, obtained by using a specific small interfering RNA, on in vitro and in vivo growth of the human ATC cell line 8505C. Because BRAF protein plays an important role in ATC cell growth, we analyzed the effects of BAG3 down-modulation on BRAF protein levels. Furthermore, by using a proteasome inhibitor, we verified whether BAG3-mediated regulation of BRAF levels involved a proteasome-dependent mechanism. BAG3 down-modulation significantly inhibits ATC growth in vitro and in vivo. BAG3 coimmunoprecipitates with BRAF protein, and its down-modulation results in a significant reduction of BRAF protein levels, which can be reverted by incubation with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. BAG3 protein sustains ATC growth in vitro and in vivo. The underlying molecular mechanism appears to rely on BAG3 binding to BRAF, thus protecting it from proteasome-dependent degradation. These results are in line with the reported ability of BAG3 to interfere with the proteasomal delivery of a number of other client proteins.

  16. Cyclophilin B is involved in p300-mediated degradation of CHOP in tumor cell adaptation to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Jeong, K; Kim, H; Kim, K; Kim, S-J; Hahn, B-S; Jahng, G-H; Yoon, K-S; Kim, S S; Ha, J; Kang, I; Choe, W

    2014-03-01

    The regulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-response factor, is key to cellular survival. Hypoxia is a physiologically important stress that induces cell death in the context of the ER, especially in solid tumors. Although our previous studies have suggested that Cyclophilin B (CypB), a molecular chaperone, has a role in ER stress, currently, there is no direct information supporting its mechanism under hypoxia. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that CypB is associated with p300 E4 ligase, induces ubiquitination and regulates the proteasomal turnover of CHOP, one of the well-known pro-apoptotic molecules under hypoxia. Our findings show that CypB physically interacts with the N-terminal α-helix domain of CHOP under hypoxia and cooperates with p300 to modulate the ubiquitination of CHOP. We also show that CypB is transcriptionally induced through ATF6 under hypoxia. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that CypB prevents hypoxia-induced cell death through modulation of ubiquitin-mediated CHOP protein degradation, suggesting that CypB may have an important role in the tight regulation of CHOP under hypoxia.

  17. Cyclophilin B is involved in p300-mediated degradation of CHOP in tumor cell adaptation to hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, K; Kim, H; Kim, K; Kim, S-J; Hahn, B-S; Jahng, G-H; Yoon, K-S; Kim, S S; Ha, J; Kang, I; Choe, W

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-response factor, is key to cellular survival. Hypoxia is a physiologically important stress that induces cell death in the context of the ER, especially in solid tumors. Although our previous studies have suggested that Cyclophilin B (CypB), a molecular chaperone, has a role in ER stress, currently, there is no direct information supporting its mechanism under hypoxia. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that CypB is associated with p300 E4 ligase, induces ubiquitination and regulates the proteasomal turnover of CHOP, one of the well-known pro-apoptotic molecules under hypoxia. Our findings show that CypB physically interacts with the N-terminal α-helix domain of CHOP under hypoxia and cooperates with p300 to modulate the ubiquitination of CHOP. We also show that CypB is transcriptionally induced through ATF6 under hypoxia. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that CypB prevents hypoxia-induced cell death through modulation of ubiquitin-mediated CHOP protein degradation, suggesting that CypB may have an important role in the tight regulation of CHOP under hypoxia. PMID:24270407

  18. Macrophages promote coal tar pitch extract-induced tumorigenesis of BEAS-2B cells and tumor metastasis in nude mice mediated by AP-1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Jin, Yue-Fei; Zhang, Qiao; Wu, Yi-Ming; Wu, Wei-Dong; Yao, Wu; Wu, Yong-Jun; Li, Zhi-Tao; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Yu; Feng, Fei-Fei

    2014-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the role of tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) on the promotion of coal tar pitch extract (CTPE)-induced tumorigenesis of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and tumor metastasis in nude mice, and related mechanisms. BEAS-2B cells were first treated with 2.4 mg/mL CTPE for 72 hours. After removal of CTPE, the cells were continuously cultured and passaged using trypsin-EDTA. THP-1 cells were used as macrophage-like cells. BEAS-2B cells under different conditions (n=6/ group) were injected into the back necks of nude mice, and alterations of tumor xenograft growth, indicative of tumorigenicity, and tumor metastasis were determined. Pathological changes (tumor nests and microvascular lesions) of HE-stained tumor tissues were also evaluated. The expression of AP-1(c-Jun) in xenografts and metastatic tumors was determined using immunohistochemistry. Tumor size and weight in nude mice transplanted with the mixture of CTPE-induced passage 30 BEAS-2B and THP-1 cells (2:1) were increased compared to those from the CTPE-treated BEAS-2B cells at passage 30 alone at different observation time points. Tumor metastasis to lymph nodes and liver was only detected after transplantation of a mixture the two kinds of cells. The numbers of tumor nests and microvascular lesions, and the expression levels of AP-1 (c-Jun) in tumors from the mixture of two kinds of cells were increased apparently in contrast to those in tumor from the CTPE-treated BEAS-2B cells of passage 30 alone. In addition, there was positive correlation between AP-1 (c-Jun) expression level and the number of microvascular lesions, or between AP-1 (c-Jun) expression level and tumor metastasis in these two groups. TAMs not only facilitate tumorigenesis transformation of CTPE-induced BEAS-2B cells, but also promote tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis in nude mice in vivo, which may be mediated by AP-1.

  19. Intracranial extension of adenoid cystic carcinoma: potential involvement of EphA2 expression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in tumor metastasis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fukai, Junya; Fujita, Koji; Yamoto, Toshikazu; Sasaki, Takahiro; Uematsu, Yuji; Nakao, Naoyuki

    2014-03-07

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant epithelial tumor derived from salivary glands and tends to invade the surrounding structures including nervous system. We present a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma with intracranial extension and propose a novel molecular mechanism of adenoid cystic carcinoma metastasis. A 29-year-old Japanese male presented with left trigeminal nerve disturbance. Neuroimaging revealed a tumor located at the right middle cranial and infratemporal fossa. The tumor was removed via a subtemporal extradural and infratemporal fossa approach and histologically diagnosed as adenoid cystic carcinoma. Radiological and operative findings confirmed a perineural spread of the tumor along the mandibular nerve. Immunohistochemical analyses of molecular consequences in this case were performed for better understanding of the biological processes associated with adenoid cystic carcinoma metastasis. First, the neoplastic cells were not immunoreactive for E-cadherin, an epithelial marker, but for vimentin, a mesenchymal marker, suggesting changes in cell phenotype from epithelial to mesenchymal states. Correspondingly, immunoreactivity of transcriptional factors, such as Slug, Twist, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9, which are involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, were observed. Second, elevated expression of EphA2 receptor, not ephrin-A1, was notable in the neoplastic cells, suggesting morphological changes reminiscent of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and ligand-independent promotion of tumor cell migration and invasion. We report a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma with perineural spread and provide the first published evidence that EphA2 expression without ephrin-A1 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition might play important roles in adenoid cystic carcinoma progression.

  20. Tumor-Derived Microvesicles Modulate Antigen Cross-Processing via Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Alkalinization of Phagosomal Compartment in Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Battisti, Federico; Napoletano, Chiara; Rahimi Koshkaki, Hassan; Belleudi, Francesca; Zizzari, Ilaria Grazia; Ruscito, Ilary; Palchetti, Sara; Bellati, Filippo; Benedetti Panici, Pierluigi; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria; Caracciolo, Giulio; Altieri, Fabio; Nuti, Marianna; Rughetti, Aurelia

    2017-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are the only antigen-presenting cells able to prime naïve T cells and cross-prime antigen-specific CD8 + T cells. Their functionality is a requirement for the induction and maintenance of long-lasting cancer immunity. Albeit intensively investigated, the in vivo mechanisms underlying efficient antigen cross-processing and presentation are not fully understood. Several pieces of evidence indicate that antigen transfer to DCs mediated by microvesicles (MVs) enhances antigen immunogenicity. This mechanism is also relevant for cross-presentation of those tumor-associated glycoproteins such as MUC1 that are blocked in HLA class II compartment when internalized by DCs as soluble molecules. Here, we present pieces of evidence that the internalization of tumor-derived MVs modulates antigen-processing machinery of DCs. Employing MVs derived from ovarian cancer ascites fluid and established tumor cell lines, we show that MV uptake modifies DC phagosomal microenvironment, triggering reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and early alkalinization. Indeed, tumor MVs carry radical species and the MV uptake by DCs counteracts the chemically mediated acidification of the phagosomal compartment. Further pieces of evidence suggest that efficacious antigen cross-priming of the MUC1 antigen carried by the tumor MVs results from the early signaling induced by MV internalization and the function of the antigen-processing machinery of DCs. These results strongly support the hypothesis that tumor-derived MVs impact antigen immunogenicity by tuning the antigen-processing machinery of DCs, besides being carrier of tumor antigens. Furthermore, these findings have important implications for the exploitation of MVs as antigenic cell-free immunogen for DC-based therapeutic strategies.

  1. Enhancement of Tumor-Specific T Cell–Mediated Immunity in Dendritic Cell–Based Vaccines by Mycobacterium tuberculosis Heat Shock Protein X

    PubMed Central

    Jung, In Duk; Shin, Sung Jae; Lee, Min-Goo; Kang, Tae Heung; Han, Hee Dong; Lee, Seung Jun; Kim, Woo Sik; Kim, Hong Min; Park, Won Sun; Kim, Han Wool; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Lee, Eun Kyung; Wu, T.-C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the potential for stimulation of robust antitumor immunity by dendritic cells (DCs), clinical applications of DC-based immunotherapy are limited by the low potency in generating tumor Ag-specific T cell responses. Therefore, optimal conditions for generating potent immunostimulatory DCs that overcome tolerance and suppression are key factors in DC-based tumor immunotherapy. In this study, we demonstrate that use of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis heat shock protein X (HspX) as an immunoadjuvant in DC-based tumor immunotherapy has significant potential in therapeutics. In particular, the treatment aids the induction of tumor-reactive T cell responses, especially tumor-specific CTLs. The HspX protein induces DC maturation and proinflammatory cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-β) through TLR4 binding partially mediated by both the MyD88 and the TRIF signaling pathways. We employed two models of tumor progression and metastasis to evaluate HspX-stimulated DCs in vivo. The administration of HspX-stimulated DCs increased the activation of naive T cells, effectively polarizing the CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to secrete IFN-γ, as well as enhanced the cytotoxicity of splenocytes against HPV-16 E7 (E7)–expressing TC-1 murine tumor cells in therapeutic experimental animals. Moreover, the metastatic capacity of B16-BL6 melanoma cancer cells toward the lungs was remarkably attenuated in mice that received HspX-stimulated DCs. In conclusion, the high therapeutic response rates with tumor-targeted Th1-type T cell immunity as a result of HspX-stimulated DCs in two models suggest that HspX harnesses the exquisite immunological power and specificity of DCs for the treatment of tumors. PMID:24990079

  2. Common germline variants within the CDKN2A/2B region affect risk of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Campa, Daniele; Capurso, Gabriele; Pastore, Manuela; Talar-Wojnarowska, Renata; Milanetto, Anna Caterina; Landoni, Luca; Maiello, Evaristo; Lawlor, Rita T.; Malecka-Panas, Ewa; Funel, Niccola; Gazouli, Maria; De Bonis, Antonio; Klüter, Harald; Rinzivillo, Maria; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Hackert, Thilo; Landi, Stefano; Bugert, Peter; Bambi, Franco; Archibugi, Livia; Scarpa, Aldo; Katzke, Verena; Dervenis, Christos; Liço, Valbona; Furlanello, Sara; Strobel, Oliver; Tavano, Francesca; Basso, Daniela; Kaaks, Rudolf; Pasquali, Claudio; Gentiluomo, Manuel; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Canzian, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are heterogeneous neoplasms which represent only 2% of all pancreatic neoplasms by incidence, but 10% by prevalence. Genetic risk factors could have an important role in the disease aetiology, however only a small number of case control studies have been performed yet. To further our knowledge, we genotyped 13 SNPs belonging to the pleiotropic CDKN2A/B gene region in 320 PNET cases and 4436 controls, the largest study on the disease so far. We observed a statistically significant association between the homozygotes for the minor allele of the rs2518719 SNP and an increased risk of developing PNET (ORhom = 2.08, 95% CI 1.05–4.11, p = 0.035). This SNP is in linkage disequilibrium with another polymorphic variant associated with increased risk of several cancer types. In silico analysis suggested that the SNP could alter the sequence recognized by the Neuron-Restrictive Silencer Factor (NRSF), whose deregulation has been associated with the development of several tumors. The mechanistic link between the allele and the disease has not been completely clarified yet but the epidemiologic evidences that link the DNA region to increased cancer risk are convincing. In conclusion, our results suggest rs2518719 as a pleiotropic CDKN2A variant associated with the risk of developing PNETs. PMID:28008994

  3. Common germline variants within the CDKN2A/2B region affect risk of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Campa, Daniele; Capurso, Gabriele; Pastore, Manuela; Talar-Wojnarowska, Renata; Milanetto, Anna Caterina; Landoni, Luca; Maiello, Evaristo; Lawlor, Rita T; Malecka-Panas, Ewa; Funel, Niccola; Gazouli, Maria; De Bonis, Antonio; Klüter, Harald; Rinzivillo, Maria; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Hackert, Thilo; Landi, Stefano; Bugert, Peter; Bambi, Franco; Archibugi, Livia; Scarpa, Aldo; Katzke, Verena; Dervenis, Christos; Liço, Valbona; Furlanello, Sara; Strobel, Oliver; Tavano, Francesca; Basso, Daniela; Kaaks, Rudolf; Pasquali, Claudio; Gentiluomo, Manuel; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Canzian, Federico

    2016-12-23

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are heterogeneous neoplasms which represent only 2% of all pancreatic neoplasms by incidence, but 10% by prevalence. Genetic risk factors could have an important role in the disease aetiology, however only a small number of case control studies have been performed yet. To further our knowledge, we genotyped 13 SNPs belonging to the pleiotropic CDKN2A/B gene region in 320 PNET cases and 4436 controls, the largest study on the disease so far. We observed a statistically significant association between the homozygotes for the minor allele of the rs2518719 SNP and an increased risk of developing PNET (OR hom  = 2.08, 95% CI 1.05-4.11, p = 0.035). This SNP is in linkage disequilibrium with another polymorphic variant associated with increased risk of several cancer types. In silico analysis suggested that the SNP could alter the sequence recognized by the Neuron-Restrictive Silencer Factor (NRSF), whose deregulation has been associated with the development of several tumors. The mechanistic link between the allele and the disease has not been completely clarified yet but the epidemiologic evidences that link the DNA region to increased cancer risk are convincing. In conclusion, our results suggest rs2518719 as a pleiotropic CDKN2A variant associated with the risk of developing PNETs.

  4. T cells bearing a chimeric antigen receptor against prostate-specific membrane antigen mediate vascular disruption and result in tumor regression

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Stephen P.; Kim, Soorin; Motz, Gregory T.; Alatzoglou, Dimitrios; Li, Chunsheng; Irving, Melita; Powell, Daniel J.; Coukos, George

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant blood vessels enable tumor growth, provide a barrier to immune infiltration, and serve as a source of pro-tumorigenic signals. Targeting tumor blood vessels for destruction, or tumor vascular disruption therapy, can therefore provide significant therapeutic benefit. Here we describe the ability of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-bearing T cells to recognize human prostate-specific membrane antigen (hPSMA) on endothelial targets in vitro as well as in vivo. CAR T cells were generated using the anti-PSMA scFv, J591, and the intracellular signaling domains: CD3ζ, CD28, and/or CD137/4-1BB. We found that all anti-hPSMA CAR T cells recognized and eliminated PSMA+ endothelial targets in vitro, regardless of the signaling domain. T cells bearing the 3rd generation anti-hPSMA CAR, P28BBζ, were able to recognize and kill primary human endothelial cells isolated from gynecologic cancers. In addition, the P28BBζ CAR T cells mediated regression of hPSMA-expressing vascular neoplasms in mice. Finally, in murine models of ovarian cancers populated by murine vessels expressing hPSMA, the P28BBζ CAR T cells were able to ablate PSMA+ vessels, cause secondary depletion of tumor cells, and reduce tumor burden. Taken together, these results provide strong rationale for the use of CAR T cells as agents of tumor vascular disruption, specifically those targeting PSMA. PMID:25358763

  5. TRIADIMEFON INDUCES RAT THYROID TUMORS THROUGH A NON-TSH MEDIATED MODE OF ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles are a class of fungicides used as agricultural and pharmaceutical products which inhibit ergosterol biosynthesis. Members of this class are hepatotoxic and cause mouse hepatocellular tumors and/or rat thyroid follicular cell tumors. Triadimefon-induced rat thyroid tumor...

  6. NF-κB Directly Regulates Fas Transcription to Modulate Fas-mediated Apoptosis and Tumor Suppression*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feiyan; Bardhan, Kankana; Yang, Dafeng; Thangaraju, Muthusamy; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Waller, Jennifer L.; Liles, Georgia B.; Lee, Jeffrey R.; Liu, Kebin

    2012-01-01

    Fas is a member of the death receptor family. Stimulation of Fas leads to induction of apoptotic signals, such as caspase 8 activation, as well as “non-apoptotic” cellular responses, notably NF-κB activation. Convincing experimental data have identified NF-κB as a critical promoter of cancer development, creating a solid rationale for the development of antitumor therapy that suppresses NF-κB activity. On the other hand, compelling data have also shown that NF-κB activity enhances tumor cell sensitivity to apoptosis and senescence. Furthermore, although stimulation of Fas activates NF-κB, the function of NF-κB in the Fas-mediated apoptosis pathway remains largely undefined. In this study, we observed that deficiency of either Fas or FasL resulted in significantly increased incidence of 3-methylcholanthrene-induced spontaneous sarcoma development in mice. Furthermore, Fas-deficient mice also exhibited significantly greater incidence of azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate-induced colon carcinoma. In addition, human colorectal cancer patients with high Fas protein in their tumor cells had a longer time before recurrence occurred. Engagement of Fas with FasL triggered NF-κB activation. Interestingly, canonical NF-κB was found to directly bind to the FAS promoter. Blocking canonical NF-κB activation diminished Fas expression, whereas blocking alternate NF-κB increased Fas expression in human carcinoma cells. Moreover, although canonical NF-κB protected mouse embryo fibroblast (MEF) cells from TNFα-induced apoptosis, knocking out p65 diminished Fas expression in MEF cells, resulting in inhibition of FasL-induced caspase 8 activation and apoptosis. In contrast, knocking out p52 increased Fas expression in MEF cells. Our observations suggest that canonical NF-κB is a Fas transcription activator and alternate NF-κB is a Fas transcription repressor, and Fas functions as a suppressor of spontaneous sarcoma and colon carcinoma. PMID:22669972

  7. The inhibition of FGF receptor 1 activity mediates sorafenib antiproliferative effects in human malignant pleural mesothelioma tumor-initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Pattarozzi, Alessandra; Carra, Elisa; Favoni, Roberto E; Würth, Roberto; Marubbi, Daniela; Filiberti, Rosa Angela; Mutti, Luciano; Florio, Tullio; Barbieri, Federica; Daga, Antonio

    2017-05-25

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an aggressive cancer, characterized by rapid progression and high mortality. Persistence of tumor-initiating cells (TICs, or cancer stem cells) after cytotoxic drug treatment is responsible for tumor relapse, and represents one of the main reasons for the poor prognosis of mesothelioma. In fact, identification of the molecules affecting TIC viability is still a significant challenge. TIC-enriched cultures were obtained from 10 human malignant pleural mesotheliomas and cultured in vitro. Three fully characterized tumorigenic cultures, named MM1, MM3, and MM4, were selected and used to assess antiproliferative effects of the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib. Cell viability was investigated by MTT assay, and cell cycle analysis as well as induction of apoptosis were determined by flow cytometry. Western blotting was performed to reveal the modulation of protein expression and the phosphorylation status of pathways associated with sorafenib treatment. We analyzed the molecular mechanisms of the antiproliferative effects of sorafenib in mesothelioma TIC cultures. Sorafenib inhibited cell cycle progression in all cultures, but only in MM3 and MM4 cells was this effect associated with Mcl-1-dependent apoptosis. To investigate the mechanisms of sorafenib-mediated antiproliferative activity, TICs were treated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) or basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) causing, in MM3 and MM4 cells, MEK, ERK1/2, Akt, and STAT3 phosphorylation. These effects were abolished by sorafenib only in bFGF-treated cells, while a modest inhibition occurred after EGF stimulation, suggesting that sorafenib effects are mainly due to FGF receptor (FGFR) inhibition. Indeed, FGFR1 phosphorylation was inhibited by sorafenib. Moreover, in MM1 cells, which release high levels of bFGF and showed autocrine activation of FGFR1 and constitutive phosphorylation/activation of MEK-ERK1/2, sorafenib induced a more effective antiproliferative response

  8. Protein kinase A can block EphA2 receptor-mediated cell repulsion by increasing EphA2 S897 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Barquilla, Antonio; Lamberto, Ilaria; Noberini, Roberta; Heynen-Genel, Susanne; Brill, Laurence M; Pasquale, Elena B

    2016-09-01

    The EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase plays key roles in tissue homeostasis and disease processes such as cancer, pathological angiogenesis, and inflammation through two distinct signaling mechanisms. EphA2 "canonical" signaling involves ephrin-A ligand binding, tyrosine autophosphorylation, and kinase activity; EphA2 "noncanonical" signaling involves phosphorylation of serine 897 (S897) by AKT and RSK kinases. To identify small molecules counteracting EphA2 canonical signaling, we developed a high-content screening platform measuring inhibition of ephrin-A1-induced PC3 prostate cancer cell retraction. Surprisingly, most hits from a screened collection of pharmacologically active compounds are agents that elevate intracellular cAMP by activating G protein-coupled receptors such as the β2-adrenoceptor. We found that cAMP promotes phosphorylation of S897 by protein kinase A (PKA) as well as increases the phosphorylation of several nearby serine/threonine residues, which constitute a phosphorylation hotspot. Whereas EphA2 canonical and noncanonical signaling have been viewed as mutually exclusive, we show that S897 phosphorylation by PKA can coexist with EphA2 tyrosine phosphorylation and block cell retraction induced by EphA2 kinase activity. Our findings reveal a novel paradigm in EphA2 function involving the interplay of canonical and noncanonical signaling and highlight the ability of the β2-adrenoceptor/cAMP/PKA axis to rewire EphA2 signaling in a subset of cancer cells. © 2016 Barquilla et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  9. Protein kinase A can block EphA2 receptor–mediated cell repulsion by increasing EphA2 S897 phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Barquilla, Antonio; Lamberto, Ilaria; Noberini, Roberta; Heynen-Genel, Susanne; Brill, Laurence M.; Pasquale, Elena B.

    2016-01-01

    The EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase plays key roles in tissue homeostasis and disease processes such as cancer, pathological angiogenesis, and inflammation through two distinct signaling mechanisms. EphA2 “canonical” signaling involves ephrin-A ligand binding, tyrosine autophosphorylation, and kinase activity; EphA2 “noncanonical” signaling involves phosphorylation of serine 897 (S897) by AKT and RSK kinases. To identify small molecules counteracting EphA2 canonical signaling, we developed a high-content screening platform measuring inhibition of ephrin-A1–induced PC3 prostate cancer cell retraction. Surprisingly, most hits from a screened collection of pharmacologically active compounds are agents that elevate intracellular cAMP by activating G protein–coupled receptors such as the β2-adrenoceptor. We found that cAMP promotes phosphorylation of S897 by protein kinase A (PKA) as well as increases the phosphorylation of several nearby serine/threonine residues, which constitute a phosphorylation hotspot. Whereas EphA2 canonical and noncanonical signaling have been viewed as mutually exclusive, we show that S897 phosphorylation by PKA can coexist with EphA2 tyrosine phosphorylation and block cell retraction induced by EphA2 kinase activity. Our findings reveal a novel paradigm in EphA2 function involving the interplay of canonical and noncanonical signaling and highlight the ability of the β2-adrenoceptor/cAMP/PKA axis to rewire EphA2 signaling in a subset of cancer cells. PMID:27385333

  10. Pivotal role of phospholipase D1 in tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated inflammation and scar formation after myocardial ischemia and reperfusion in mice.

    PubMed

    Schönberger, Tanja; Jürgens, Tobias; Müller, Julia; Armbruster, Nicole; Niermann, Christina; Gorressen, Simone; Sommer, Jan; Tian, Huasong; di Paolo, Gilbert; Scheller, Jürgen; Fischer, Jens W; Gawaz, Meinrad; Elvers, Margitta

    2014-09-01

    Myocardial inflammation is critical for ventricular remodeling after ischemia. Phospholipid mediators play an important role in inflammatory processes. In the plasma membrane they are degraded by phospholipase D1 (PLD1). PLD1 was shown to be critically involved in ischemic cardiovascular events. Moreover, PLD1 is coupled to tumor necrosis factor-α signaling and inflammatory processes. However, the impact of PLD1 in inflammatory cardiovascular disease remains elusive. Here, we analyzed the impact of PLD1 in tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated activation of monocytes after myocardial ischemia and reperfusion using a mouse model of myocardial infarction. PLD1 expression was highly up-regulated in the myocardium after ischemia/reperfusion. Genetic ablation of PLD1 led to defective cell adhesion and migration of inflammatory cells into the infarct border zone 24 hours after ischemia/reperfusion injury, likely owing to reduced tumor necrosis factor-α expression and release, followed by impaired nuclear factor-κB activation and interleukin-1 release. Moreover, PLD1 was found to be important for transforming growth factor-β secretion and smooth muscle α-actin expression of cardiac fibroblasts because myofibroblast differentiation and interstitial collagen deposition were altered in Pld1(-/-) mice. Consequently, infarct size was increased and left ventricular function was impaired 28 days after myocardial infarction in Pld1(-/-) mice. Our results indicate that PLD1 is crucial for tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated inflammation and transforming growth factor-β-mediated collagen scar formation, thereby augmenting cardiac left ventricular function after ischemia/reperfusion. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. JNK signaling mediates EPHA2-dependent tumor cell proliferation, motility, and cancer stem cell-like properties in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wenqiang; Ma, Yufang; Wang, Jialiang; Brantley-Sieders, Dana; Chen, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Recent genome-wide analyses in human lung cancer revealed that EPHA2 receptor tyrosine kinase is overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and high levels of EPHA2 correlate with poor clinical outcome. However, the mechanistic basis for EPHA2-mediated tumor promotion in lung cancer remains poorly understood. Here we show that the JNK/c-JUN signaling mediates EPHA2-dependent tumor cell proliferation and motility. A screen of phospho-kinase arrays revealed a decrease in phospho-c-JUN levels in EPHA2 knockdown cells. Knockdown of EPHA2 inhibited p-JNK and p-c-JUN levels in approximately 50% of NSCLC lines tested. Treatment of parental cells with SP600125, a JNK inhibitor, recapitulated defects in EPHA2-deficient tumor cells; whereas constitutively activated JNK mutants were sufficient to rescue phenotypes. Knockdown of EPHA2 also inhibited tumor formation and progression in xenograft animal models in vivo. Furthermore, we investigated the role of EPHA2 in cancer stem-like cells. RNAi-mediated depletion of EPHA2 in multiple NSCLC lines decreased the ALDH positive cancer stem-like population and tumor spheroid formation in suspension. Depletion of EPHA2 in sorted ALDH positive populations markedly inhibited tumorigenicity in nude mice. Furthermore, analysis of a human lung cancer tissue microarray revealed a significant, positive association between EPHA2 and ALDH expression, indicating an important role for EPHA2 in human lung cancer stem-like cells. Collectively, these studies revealed a critical role of JNK signaling in EPHA2-dependent lung cancer cell proliferation and motility and a role for EPHA2 in cancer stem-like cell function, providing evidence for EPHA2 as a potential therapeutic target in NSCLC. PMID:24607842

  12. EphrinA2 Regulates Clathrin Mediated KSHV Endocytosis in Fibroblast Cells by Coordinating Integrin-Associated Signaling and c-Cbl Directed Polyubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Dipanjan; Chakraborty, Sayan; Bandyopadhyay, Chirosree; Valiya Veettil, Mohanan; Ansari, Mairaj Ahmed; Singh, Vivek Vikram; Chandran, Bala

    2013-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) interacts with human dermal endothelial cell surface tyrosine kinase EphrinA2 (EphA2) and integrins (α3β1 and αVβ3) in the lipid raft (LR) region, and EphA2 regulates macropinocytic virus entry by coordinating integrin-c-Cbl associated signaling. In contrast, KSHV enters human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells by LR-independent clathrin mediated endocytosis. The present studies conducted to identify the key molecules regulating KSHV entry in HFF cells showed that KSHV induces association with integrins (αVβ5, αVβ3 and α3β1) and EphA2 in non-LR regions early during infection and activates EphA2, which in turn associates with phosphorylated c-Cbl, myosin IIA, FAK, Src, and PI3-K, as well as clathrin and its adaptor AP2 and effector Epsin-15 proteins. EphA2 knockdown significantly reduced these signal inductions, virus internalization and gene expression. c-Cbl knockdown ablated the c-Cbl mediated K63 type polyubiquitination of EphA2 and clathrin association with EphA2 and KSHV. Mutations in EphA2's tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) or sterile alpha motif (SAM) abolished its interaction with c-Cbl. Mutations in tyrosine kinase binding (TKB) or RING finger (RF) domains of c-Cbl resulted in very poor association of c-Cbl with EphA2 and decreased EphA2 polyubiquitination. These studies demonstrated the contributions of these domains in EphA2 and c-Cbl association, EphA2 polyubiquitination and virus-EphA2 internalization. Collectively, these results revealed for the first time that EphA2 influences the tyrosine phosphorylation of clathrin, the role of EphA2 in clathrin mediated endocytosis of a virus, and c-Cbl mediated EphA2 polyubiquitination directing KSHV entry in HFF cells via coordinated signal induction and progression of endocytic events, all of which suggest that targeting EphA2 and c-Cbl could block KSHV entry and infection. PMID:23874206

  13. Curcumin inhibits urothelial tumor development by suppressing IGF2 and IGF2-mediated PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Tian, Binqiang; Zhao, Yingmei; Liang, Tao; Ye, Xuxiao; Li, Zuowei; Yan, Dongliang; Fu, Qiang; Li, Yonghui

    2017-08-01

    We have previously reported that curcumin inhibits urothelial tumor development in a rat bladder carcinogenesis model. In this study, we report that curcumin inhibits urothelial tumor development by suppressing IGF2 and IGF2-mediated PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Curcumin inhibits IGF2 expression at the transcriptional level and decreases the phosphorylation levels of IGF1R and IRS-1 in bladder cancer cells and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced urothelial tumor tissue. Ectopic expression of IGF2 and IGF1R, but not IGF1, in bladder cancer cells restored this process, suggesting that IGF2 is a target of curcumin. Moreover, introduction of constitutively active AKT1 abolished the inhibitory effect of curcumin on cell proliferation, migration, and restored the phosphorylation levels of 4E-BP1 and S6K1, suggesting that curcumin functions via suppressing IGF2-mediated AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. In summary, our results reveal that suppressing IGF2 and IGF2-mediated PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway is one of the mechanisms of action of curcumin. Our findings suggest a new therapeutic strategy against human bladder cancer caused by aberrant activation of IGF2, which are useful for translational application of curcumin.

  14. Tumors acquire inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP)-mediated apoptosis resistance through altered specificity of cytosolic proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xu; Lei, Lu; Glas, Rickard

    2003-06-16

    Many tumors overexpress members of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family. IAPs contribute to tumor cell apoptosis resistance by the inhibition of caspases, and are degraded by the proteasome to allow further progression of apoptosis. Here we show that tumor cells can alter the specificity of cytosolic proteolysis in order to acquire apoptosis resistance, which promotes formation of rapidly growing tumors. Survival of tumor cells with low proteasomal activity can occur in the presence of high expression of Tri-peptidyl-peptidase II (TPP II), a large subtilisin-like peptidase that complements proteasomal activity. We find that this state leaves tumor cells unable of effectively degrading IAPs, and that cells in this state form rapidly growing tumors in vivo. We also find, in studies of apoptosis resistant cells derived from large in vivo tumors, that these have acquired an altered peptidase activity, with up-regulation of TPP II activity and decreased proteasomal activity. Importantly, we find that growth of subcutaneous tumors is limited by maintenance of the apoptosis resistant phenotype. The apoptosis resistant phenotype was reversed by increased expression of Smac/DIABLO, an antagonist of IAP molecules. Our data suggest a reversible mechanism in regulation of apoptosis resistance that drives tumor progression in vivo. These data are relevant in relation to the multitude of therapy-resistant clinical tumors that have increased levels of IAP molecules.

  15. Menin: A Tumor Suppressor That Mediates Postsynaptic Receptor Expression and Synaptogenesis between Central Neurons of Lymnaea stagnalis

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Nichole; Getz, Angela; Visser, Frank; Janes, Tara A.; Syed, Naweed I.

    2014-01-01

    Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) support neuronal survival, differentiation, and even synaptic plasticity both during development and throughout the life of an organism. However, their precise roles in central synapse formation remain unknown. Previously, we demonstrated that excitatory synapse formation in Lymnaea stagnalis requires a source of extrinsic NTFs and receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation. Here we show that NTFs such as Lymnaea epidermal growth factor (L-EGF) act through RTKs to trigger a specific subset of intracellular signalling events in the postsynaptic neuron, which lead to the activation of the tumor suppressor menin, encoded by Lymnaea MEN1 (L-MEN1) and the expression of excitatory nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We provide direct evidence that the activation of the MAPK/ERK cascade is required for the expression of nAChRs, and subsequent synapse formation between pairs of neurons in vitro. Furthermore, we show that L-menin activation is sufficient for the expression of postsynaptic excitatory nAChRs and subsequent synapse formation in media devoid of NTFs. By extending our findings in situ, we reveal the necessity of EGFRs in mediating synapse formation between a single transplanted neuron and its intact presynaptic partner. Moreover, deficits in excitatory synapse formation following EGFR knock-down can be rescued by injecting synthetic L-MEN1 mRNA in the intact central nervous system. Taken together, this study provides the first direct evidence that NTFs functioning via RTKs activate the MEN1 gene, which appears sufficient to regulate synapse formation between central neurons. Our study also offers a novel developmental role for menin beyond tumour suppression in adult humans. PMID:25347295

  16. Neurofibromatosis 2 tumor suppressor, the gene induced by valproic acid, mediates neurite outgrowth through interaction with paxillin.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Junji; Miyamoto, Yuki; Kusakawa, Shinji; Torii, Tomohiro; Mizutani, Reiko; Sanbe, Atsushi; Nakajima, Hideki; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka; Tanoue, Akito

    2008-07-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), the drug for bipolar disorder and epilepsy, has a potent ability to induce neuronal differentiation, yet comparatively little is presently known about the underlying mechanism. We previously demonstrated that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation of the focal adhesion protein paxillin mediates differentiation in N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells. Here, we show that VPA up-regulates the neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) tumor suppressor, merlin, to regulate neurite outgrowth through the interaction with paxillin. The inhibition of merlin function by its knockdown or expression of merlin harboring the Gln-538-to-Pro mutation, a naturally occurring NF2 missense mutation deficient in linking merlin to the actin cytoskeleton, decreases VPA-induced neurite outgrowth. Importantly, the expression of merlin by itself is not sufficient to induce neurite outgrowth, which requires co-expression with paxillin, the binding partner of merlin. In fact, the missense mutation Trp-60-to-Cys or Phe-62-to-Ser, that is deficient in binding to paxillin, reduces neurite outgrowth induced by VPA. In addition, co-expression of a paxillin construct harboring the mutation at the JNK phosphorylation site with merlin results in blunted induction of the outgrowth. We also find that the first LIM domain of paxillin is a major binding region with merlin and that expression of the isolated first LIM domain blocks the effects of VPA. Furthermore, similar findings that merlin regulates neurite outgrowth through the interaction with paxillin have been observed in several kinds of neuronal cells. These results suggest that merlin is an as yet unknown regulator of neurite outgrowth through the interaction with paxillin, providing a possibly common mechanism regulating neurite formation.

  17. Sphingosine mediates the immediate negative inotropic effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the adult mammalian cardiac myocyte.

    PubMed

    Oral, H; Dorn, G W; Mann, D L

    1997-02-21

    To determine whether activation of the neutral sphingomyelinase pathway was responsible for the immediate (<30 min) negative inotropic effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), we examined sphingosine levels in diluent and TNF-alpha-stimulated cardiac myocytes. TNF-alpha stimulation of adult feline cardiac myocytes provoked a rapid (<15 min) increase in the hydrolysis of [14C]sphingomyelin in cell-free extracts, as well as an increase in ceramide mass, consistent with cytokine-induced activation of the neutral sphingomyelinase pathway. High performance liquid chromatographic analysis of lipid extracts from TNF-alpha-stimulated cardiac myocytes showed that TNF-alpha stimulation produced a rapid (<30 min) increase in free sphingosine levels. Moreover, exogenous D-sphingosine mimicked the effects of TNF-alpha on intracellular calcium homeostasis, as well as the negative inotropic effects of TNF-alpha in isolated contracting myocytes; time course studies showed that exogenous D-sphingosine produced abnormalities in cell shortening that were maximal at 5 min. Finally, blocking sphingosine production using an inhibitor of ceramidase, n-oleoylethanolamine, completely abrogated the negative inotropic effects of TNF-alpha in isolated contracting cardiac myocytes. Additional studies employing biologically active ceramide analogs and sphingosine 1-phosphate suggested that neither the immediate precursor of sphingosine nor the immediate metabolite of sphingosine, respectively, were likely to be responsible for the immediate negative inotropic effects of TNF-alpha. Thus, these studies suggest that sphingosine mediates the immediate negative inotropic effects of TNF-alpha in isolated cardiac myocytes.

  18. The role of Fas ligand and transforming growth factor beta in tumor progression: molecular mechanisms of immune privilege via Fas-mediated apoptosis and potential targets for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ryungsa; Emi, Manabu; Tanabe, Kazuaki; Uchida, Yoko; Toge, Tetsuya

    2004-06-01

    Despite the fact that expression of Fas ligand (FasL) in cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and in natural killer (NK) cells plays an important role in Fas-mediated tumor killing, During tumor progression FasL-expressing tumor cells are involved in counterattacking to kill tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Soluble FasL levels also increase with tumor progression in solid tumors, and this increase inhibits Fas-mediated tumor killing by CTLs and NK cells. The increased expression of FasL in tumor cells is associated with decreased expression of Fas; and the promoter region of the FASL gene is regulated by transcription factors, such as neuronal factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and AP-1, in the tumor microenvironment. Although the ratio of FasL expression to Fas expression in tumor cells is not strongly related to the induction of apoptosis in TILs, increased expression of FasL is associated with decreased Fas levels in tumor cells that can escape immune surveillance and facilitate tumor progression and metastasis. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a potent growth inhibitor and has tumor-suppressing activity in the early phases of carcinogenesis. During subsequent tumor progression, the increased secretion of TGF-beta by both tumor cells and, in a paracrine fashion, stromal cells, is involved in the enhancement of tumor invasion and metastasis accompanied by immunosuppression. Herein, the authors review the clinical significance of FasL and TGF-beta expression patterns as features of immune privilege accompanying tumor progression in the tumor microenvironment. Potential strategies for identifying which molecules can serve as targets for effective antitumor therapy also are discussed. Copyright 2004 American Cancer Society.

  19. Early effect of boron neutron capture therapy mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA-BNCT) on mast cells in premalignant tissue and tumors of the hamster cheek pouch.

    PubMed

    Aromando, Romina F; Trivillin, Verónica A; Heber, Elisa M; Pozzi, Emiliano; Schwint, Amanda E; Itoiz, María E

    2010-05-01

    Mast cell (MC) activation in the hamster cheek pouch cancerization model is associated with the increase in tumor cell proliferation, mediated in turn by tryptase, a protease released from mast cell granules after activation. Tryptase induces tumor cell proliferation through the activation of PAR-2 (protease activated receptor-2) on the plasma membrane of carcinoma cells. The therapeutic success of boron neutron capture therapy mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA-BNCT) in tumor control in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model has been previously reported by our laboratory. Early effects of BPA-BNCT on tumors of the hamster cheek pouch include a reduction in DNA-synthesis with the concomitant decrease in the proliferation of malignant cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the early histological changes in mast cells after BPA-BNCT in tumors and premalignant tissue of the hamster cheek pouch. Tumor-bearing pouches were treated with BPA-BNCT or beam only (neutron irradiation without prior administration of the boron compound) and sacrificed 1day after treatment. The samples were fixed in Carnoy fixative and stained with alcian blue-safranin to identify all the populations of mast cells. Total, active and inactive mast cells (MC) were counted in the connective tissue and the adventitious tissue underlying the pouch wall and at the base of the tumors in pouches treated with BPA-BNCT, in keeping with a previously described technique. BPA-BNCT induced a marked reduction in the total number of mast cells in the pouch (p<0.05). This reduction in the total number of mast cells was due to a reduction in mast cells at the base of the tumor (p<0.005) and it occurred at the expense of the active mast cells (p<0.05). A slight reduction that did not reach statistical significance also occurred in the amount of mast cells in the pouch wall (that corresponds to the premalignant tissue in tumor-bearing pouches), and in the adventitious tissue. In this case the

  20. Resistant starch prevents tumorigenesis of dimethylhydrazine-induced colon tumors via regulation of an ER stress-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuyu; Wang, Peng; Xiao, Zhigang

    2018-04-01

    protein (CHOP), binding immunoglobulin protein (BIP) and caspase‑12 expression levels upregulated by resistant starch diet may contribute to the resistant starch‑induced apoptosis of colon tumor cells induced by 1,2‑dimethylhydrazine. In vitro assays demonstrated that knockdown of eIF2α inhibited apoptosis of colon tumor cells isolated from mice fed with resistant starch, which also downregulated CHOP, BIP and caspase‑3 expression levels compared with controls. Furthermore, long‑term survival of experimental mice was prolonged by the resistant starch diet compared with the standard diet group. In conclusion, the results indicate that resistant starch in the diet may prevent carcinogenesis of colon epithelial cells, mediated by enhancing apoptosis through an endoplasmic reticulum stress‑mediated mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.

  1. Tumor Cells Surviving Exposure to Proton or Photon Radiation Share a Common Immunogenic Modulation Signature, Rendering Them More Sensitive to T Cell–Mediated Killing

    SciTech Connect

    Gameiro, Sofia R.; Malamas, Anthony S.; Bernstein, Michael B.

    Purpose: To provide the foundation for combining immunotherapy to induce tumor antigen–specific T cells with proton radiation therapy to exploit the activity of those T cells. Methods and Materials: Using cell lines of tumors frequently treated with proton radiation, such as prostate, breast, lung, and chordoma, we examined the effect of proton radiation on the viability and induction of immunogenic modulation in tumor cells by flow cytometric and immunofluorescent analysis of surface phenotype and the functional immune consequences. Results: These studies show for the first time that (1) proton and photon radiation induced comparable up-regulation of surface molecules involved in immune recognition (histocompatibilitymore » leukocyte antigen, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and the tumor-associated antigens carcinoembryonic antigen and mucin 1); (2) proton radiation mediated calreticulin cell-surface expression, increasing sensitivity to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte killing of tumor cells; and (3) cancer stem cells, which are resistant to the direct cytolytic activity of proton radiation, nonetheless up-regulated calreticulin after radiation in a manner similar to non-cancer stem cells. Conclusions: These findings offer a rationale for the use of proton radiation in combination with immunotherapy, including for patients who have failed radiation therapy alone or have limited treatment options.« less

  2. 3-bromopyruvate and sodium citrate target glycolysis, suppress survivin, and induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in gastric cancer cells and inhibit gastric orthotopic transplantation tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting-An; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Guo, Xing-Yu; Xian, Shu-Lin; Lu, Yun-Fei

    2016-03-01

    Glycolysis is the primary method utilized by cancer cells to produce the energy (adenosine triphosphate, ATP) required for cell proliferation. Therefore, inhibition of glycolysis may inhibit tumor growth. We previously found that both 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) and sodium citrate (SCT) can inhibit glycolysis in vitro; however, the underlying inhibitory mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we used a human gastric cancer cell line (SGC-7901) and an orthotopic transplantation tumor model in nude mice to explore the specific mechanisms of 3-BrPA and SCT. We found that both 3-BrPA and SCT effectively suppressed cancer cell proliferation, arrested the cell cycle, induced apoptosis, and decreased the production of lactate and ATP. 3-BrPA significantly reduced the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase activity, while SCT selectively inhibited phosphofructokinase-1 activity. Furthermore, 3-BrPA and SCT upregulated the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, cytochrome c, and cleaved caspase-3) and downregulated the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and survivin). Finally, our animal model of gastric cancer indicated that intraperitoneal injection of 3-BrPA and SCT suppressed orthotopic transplantation tumor growth and induced tumor apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that 3-BrPA and SCT selectively suppress glycolytic enzymes, decrease ATP production, induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, downregulate survivin, and inhibit tumor growth. Moreover, an intraperitoneal injection is an effective form of administration of 3-BrPA and SCT.

  3. Human uterus myoma and gene expression profiling: A novel in vitro model for studying secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor-mediated tumor invasion.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Yoshikazu; Fukushima, Atsushi; Komiyama, Yusuke; Iwase, Takashi; Tsuda, Hiromasa; Higuchi, Yasuhiko; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Kuyama, Kayo; Komiyama, Kazuo

    2016-08-28

    Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) is a serine protease inhibitor that diminishes tissue destruction during inflammation. A recent report revealed high levels of SLPI expression in the oral carcinoma cell. In addition, overexpression of SLPI up-regulates metastasis in lung carcinoma cells. On the other hand, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteinases that participate in extracellular matrix degradation. SLPI and MMPs are involved as accelerators of the tumor invasion process; however, their exact roles are not fully understood. Understanding the mechanism of tumor invasion requires models that take the effect of microenvironmental factors into account. In one such in vitro model, different carcinoma cells have been shown to invade myoma tissue in highly distinct patterns. We have used this myoma model, as it provides a more natural stroma-like environment, to investigate the role of SLPI in tumor invasion. Our results indicate that the model provides a relevant matrix for tumor invasion studies, and that SLPI is important for the invasion of oral carcinoma Ca9-22 cells in conjunction with MMPs. Furthermore, using bioinformatics analysis, we have identified candidates as key molecules involved in SLPI-mediated tumor invasion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 3-Bromopyruvate and sodium citrate target glycolysis, suppress survivin, and induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in gastric cancer cells and inhibit gastric orthotopic transplantation tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    WANG, TING-AN; ZHANG, XIAO-DONG; GUO, XING-YU; XIAN, SHU-LIN; LU, YUN-FEI

    2016-01-01

    Glycolysis is the primary method utilized by cancer cells to produce the energy (adenosine triphosphate, ATP) required for cell proliferation. Therefore, inhibition of glycolysis may inhibit tumor growth. We previously found that both 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) and sodium citrate (SCT) can inhibit glycolysis in vitro; however, the underlying inhibitory mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we used a human gastric cancer cell line (SGC-7901) and an orthotopic transplantation tumor model in nude mice to explore the specific mechanisms of 3-BrPA and SCT. We found that both 3-BrPA and SCT effectively suppressed cancer cell proliferation, arrested the cell cycle, induced apoptosis, and decreased the production of lactate and ATP. 3-BrPA significantly reduced the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase activity, while SCT selectively inhibited phosphofructokinase-1 activity. Furthermore, 3-BrPA and SCT upregulated the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, cytochrome c, and cleaved caspase-3) and downregulated the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and survivin). Finally, our animal model of gastric cancer indicated that intraperitoneal injection of 3-BrPA and SCT suppressed orthotopic transplantation tumor growth and induced tumor apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that 3-BrPA and SCT selectively suppress glycolytic enzymes, decrease ATP production, induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, downregulate survivin, and inhibit tumor growth. Moreover, an intraperitoneal injection is an effective form of administration of 3-BrPA and SCT. PMID:26708213

  5. Identification of Galectin-1 as a Critical Factor in Function of Mouse Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Mediated Tumor Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Blazsó, Péter; Katona, Róbert László; Novák, Julianna; Szabó, Enikő; Czibula, Ágnes; Fajka-Boja, Roberta; Hegyi, Beáta; Uher, Ferenc; Krenács, László; Joó, Gabriella; Monostori, Éva

    2012-01-01

    Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have recently been implicated as one source of the tumor-associated stroma, which plays essential role in regulating tumor progression. In spite of the intensive research, the individual factors in MSCs controlling tumor progression have not been adequately defined. In the present study we have examined the role of galectin-1 (Gal-1), a protein highly expressed in tumors with poor prognosis, in MSCs in the course of tumor development. Co-transplantation of wild type MSCs with 4T1 mouse breast carcinoma cells enhances the incidence of palpable tumors, growth, vascularization and metastasis. It also reduces survival compared to animals treated with tumor cells alone or in combination with Gal-1 knockout MSCs. In vitro studies show that the absence of Gal-1 in MSCs does not affect the number of migrating MSCs toward the tumor cells, which is supported by the in vivo migration of intravenously injected MSCs into the tumor. Moreover, differentiation of endothelial cells into blood vessel-like structures strongly depends on the expression of Gal-1 in MSCs. Vital role of Gal-1 in MSCs has been further verified in Gal-1 knockout mice. By administering B16F10 melanoma cells into Gal-1 deficient animals, tumor growth is highly reduced compared to wild type animals. Nevertheless, co-injection of wild type but not Gal-1 deficient MSCs results in dramatic tumor growth and development. These results confirm that galectin-1 is one of the critical factors in MSCs regulating tumor progression. PMID:22844466

  6. Antisecretory Factor-mediated Inhibition of Cell Volume Dynamics Produces Anti-tumor Activity in Glioblastoma. | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) presents a barrier to drug uptake in solid tumors, including the aggressive primary brain tumor glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). It remains unclear how fluid dynamics impacts tumor progression and can be targeted therapeutically. To address this issue, a novel telemetry-based approach was developed to measure changes in IFP during progression of GBM xenografts. Antisecretory factor (AF) is an endogenous protein that displays anti-secretory effects in animals and patients.

  7. CXCR5+CD8+ T cells present elevated capacity in mediating cytotoxicity toward autologous tumor cells through interleukin 10 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jiahong; Zha, Jie; Guo, Xutao; Shi, Pengcheng; Xu, Bing

    2017-09-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a common and aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, with limited treatment options in refractory and relapsed patients. Growing evidence supports the notion that CD8 + T cell immunity could be utilized to eliminate B cell lymphomas. CXCR5 + CD8 + T cell is a novel cell subtype and share CXCR5 expression with CD19 + tumor cells. In this study, we investigated the frequency and function of existing CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells in DLBCL patients. We found that DLBCL patients as a group demonstrated significantly higher level of CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells than healthy individuals, with huge variability in each patient. Using anti-CD3/CD28-stimulated CD8 + T cells as effector (E) cells and autologous CD19 + tumor cells as target (T) cells, at high E:T ratio, no difference between the intensities of CXCR5 + CD8 + T cell- and CXCR5 - CD8 + T cell-mediated cytotoxicity were observed. However, at intermediate and low E:T ratios, the CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells presented stronger cytotoxicity than CXCR5 - CD8 + T cells. The expressions of granzyme A, granzyme B, and perforin were significantly higher in CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells than in CXCR5 - CD8 + T cells, with no significant difference in the level of degranulation. Tumor cells in DLBCL were known to secrete high level of interleukin 10 (IL-10). We therefore blocked the IL-10/IL-10R pathway, and found that the expressions of granzyme A, granzyme B, and perforin by CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells were significantly elevated. Together, these results suggest that CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells are potential candidates of CD8 + T cell-based immunotherapies, could mediate elimination of autologous tumor cells in DLBCL patients, but are also susceptible to IL-10-mediated suppression. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Radiation-induced equilibrium is a balance between tumor cell proliferation and T cell-mediated killing

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hua; Deng, Liufu; Chmura, Steven; Burnette, Byron; Liadis, Nicole; Darga, Thomas; Beckett, Michael A.; Lingen, Mark W.; Witt, MaryEllyn; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Local failures following radiation therapy are multifactorial and the contributions of the tumor and the host are complex. Current models of tumor equilibrium suggest that a balance exists between cell birth and cell death due to insufficient angiogenesis, immune effects, or intrinsic cellular factors. We investigated whether host immune responses contribute to radiation induced tumor equilibrium in animal models. We report an essential role for immune cells and their cytokines in suppressing tumor cell regrowth in two experimental animal model systems. Depletion of T cells or neutralization of interferon-gamma reversed radiation-induced equilibrium leading to tumor regrowth. We also demonstrate that PD-L1 blockade augments T cell responses leading to rejection of tumors in radiation induced equilibrium. We identify an active interplay between tumor cells and immune cells that occurs in radiation-induced tumor equilibrium and suggest a potential role for disruption of the PD-L1/PD-1 axis in increasing local tumor control. PMID:23630355

  9. Radiation and inhibition of angiogenesis by canstatin synergize to induce HIF-1α–mediated tumor apoptotic switch

    PubMed Central

    Magnon, Claire; Opolon, Paule; Ricard, Marcel; Connault, Elisabeth; Ardouin, Patrice; Galaup, Ariane; Métivier, Didier; Bidart, Jean-Michel; Germain, Stéphane; Perricaudet, Michel; Schlumberger, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Tumor radioresponsiveness depends on endothelial cell death, which leads in turn to tumor hypoxia. Radiation-induced hypoxia was recently shown to trigger tumor radioresistance by activating angiogenesis through hypoxia-inducible factor 1–regulated (HIF-1–regulated) cytokines. We show here that combining targeted radioiodide therapy with angiogenic inhibitors, such as canstatin, enhances direct tumor cell apoptosis, thereby overcoming radio-induced HIF-1–dependent tumor survival pathways in vitro and in vivo. We found that following dual therapy, HIF-1α increases the activity of the canstatin-induced αvβ5 signaling tumor apoptotic pathway and concomitantly abrogates mitotic checkpoint and tetraploidy triggered by radiation. Apoptosis in conjunction with mitotic catastrophe leads to lethal tumor damage. We discovered that HIF-1 displays a radiosensitizing activity that is highly dependent on treatment modalities by regulating key apoptotic molecular pathways. Our findings therefore support a crucial role for angiogenesis inhibitors in shifting the fate of radiation-induced HIF-1α activity from hypoxia-induced tumor radioresistance to hypoxia-induced tumor apoptosis. This study provides a basis for developing new biology-based clinically relevant strategies to improve the efficacy of radiation oncology, using HIF-1 as an ally for cancer therapy. PMID:17557121

  10. Real-time quantitative PCR detection of circulating tumor cells using tag DNA mediated signal amplification strategy.

    PubMed

    Mei, Ting; Lu, Xuewen; Sun, Ning; Li, Xiaomei; Chen, Jitao; Liang, Min; Zhou, Xinke; Fang, Zhiyuan

    2018-06-05

    The level of circulating tumor cell (CTCs) is a reliable marker for tumor burden and malignant progression. Quantification of CTCs remains technically challenging due to the rarity of these cells in peripheral blood. In the present study, we established a real-time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) based method for sensitive detection of CTCs without DNA extraction. Blood sample was first turned to erythrocyte lyses and then incubated with two antibodies, tag-DNA modified CK-19 antibody and magnetic beads conjugated EpCAM antibody. Tumor cells were further enriched by magnetic separation. Tag-DNA that immobilized on tumor cells through CK-19 antibodies were also retrieved, which was further quantified by Q-PCR. This assay was able to detect single tumor cell in a 5 mL blood sample. The detection rate of clinical tumor blood sample was 92.3%. Furthermore, CTC count in patient was correlated with tumor stage and tumor status. The signal amplification was based on tag DNA rather than tumor gene, which was independent of nucleic acid extraction. With high sensitivity and convenience, this method can be a good alternative for the determination of cancer progress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Activated natural killer cell-mediated immunity is required for the inhibition of tumor metastasis by dendritic cell vaccination.

    PubMed

    Kim, Aeyung; Noh, Young-Woock; Kim, Kwang Dong; Jang, Yong-Suk; Choe, Yong-Kyung; Lim, Jong-Seok

    2004-10-31

    Immunization with dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with tumor antigen can activate tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), which is responsible for tumor protection and regression. In this study, we examined whether DCs pulsed with necrotic tumor lysates can efficiently prevent malignant melanoma tumor cell metastasis to the lung. DCs derived from mouse bone marrow were found to produce remarkably elevated levels of IL-12 after being pulsed with the tumor lysates. Moreover, immunization with these DCs induced CTL activation and protected mice from metastasis development by intravenously inoculated tumor cells. In addition, these DCs activated NK cells in vitro in a contact-dependent manner, and induced NK activities in vivo. Furthermore, NK cell depletion before DC vaccination significantly reduced the tumor-specific CTL activity, IFN-gamma production, and IFN-gamma- inducible gene expression, and eventually interfered with the antitumor effect of tumor-pulsed DCs. Finally, similar findings with respect to NK cell dependency were obtained in the C57BL/ 6J-bg/bg mice, which have severe deficiency in cytolytic activity of NK cells. These data suggest that the antitumor effect elicited by DC vaccination, at least in a B16 melanoma model, requires the participation of both cytolytic NK and CD8(+) T cells. The findings of this study would provide important data for the effective design of DC vaccines for cancer immunotherapy.

  12. Tumor site-specific silencing of NF-κB p65 by targeted hollow gold nanospheres-mediated photothermal transfection

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wei; Zhang, Guodong; Zhang, Rui; Flores, Leo G; Huang, Qian; Gelovani, Juri G; Li, Chun

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcription factor is a critical regulator of the expression of genes involved in tumor formation and progression. Successful RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutics targeting NF-κB is challenged by siRNA delivery systems, which can render targeted in vivo delivery, efficient endo-lysosomal escape and dynamic control over activation of RNAi. Here, we report near-infrared light-inducible NF-κB down-regulation through folate receptor-targeted hollow gold nanospheres carrying siRNA recognizing NF-κB p65 subunit. Using micro-positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging, the targeted nanoconstructs exhibited significantly higher tumor uptake in nude mice-bearing HeLa cervical cancer xenografts than non-targeted nanoparticles following intravenous administration. Mediated by hollow gold nanospheres, controllable cytoplasmic delivery of siRNA was obtained upon near-infrared light irradiation through photothermal effect. Efficient down-regulation of NF-κB p65 was achieved only in tumors irradiated with near-infrared light, but not in non-irradiated tumors grown in the same mice. Liver, spleen, kidney, and lung were not affected by the treatments, in spite of significant uptake of the siRNA nanoparticles in these organs. We term this mode of action “photothermal transfection”. Combined treatments with p65 siRNA photothermal transfection and irinotecan caused substantially enhanced tumor apoptosis and significant tumor growth delay compared with other treatment regimens. Therefore, photothermal transfection of NF-κB p65 siRNA could effectively sensitize the tumor to chemotherapeutic agents. Because NIR light can penetrate skin and be delivered with high spatiotemporal control, therapeutic RNAi may benefit from this novel transfection strategy while avoiding unwanted side effect. PMID:20388791

  13. Anti-Tumor Activity of a Novel Compound-CDF Is Mediated by Regulating miR-21, miR-200, and PTEN in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Dejuan; Sarkar, Sanila H.; Wang, Zhiwei; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Aboukameel, Amro; Padhye, Subhash; Philip, Philip A.; Sarkar, Fazlul H.

    2011-01-01

    Background The existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) or cancer stem-like cells in a tumor mass is believed to be responsible for tumor recurrence because of their intrinsic and extrinsic drug-resistance characteristics. Therefore, targeted killing of CSCs would be a newer strategy for the prevention of tumor recurrence and/or treatment by overcoming drug-resistance. We have developed a novel synthetic compound-CDF, which showed greater bioavailability in animal tissues such as pancreas, and also induced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis, which was mediated by inactivation of NF-κB, COX-2, and VEGF in pancreatic cancer (PC) cells. Methodology/Principal Findings In the current study we showed, for the first time, that CDF could significantly inhibit the sphere-forming ability (pancreatospheres) of PC cells consistent with increased disintegration of pancreatospheres, which was associated with attenuation of CSC markers (CD44 and EpCAM), especially in gemcitabine-resistant (MIAPaCa-2) PC cells containing high proportion of CSCs consistent with increased miR-21 and decreased miR-200. In a xenograft mouse model of human PC, CDF treatment significantly inhibited tumor growth, which was associated with decreased NF-κB DNA binding activity, COX-2, and miR-21 expression, and increased PTEN and miR-200 expression in tumor remnants. Conclusions/Significance These results strongly suggest that the anti-tumor activity of CDF is associated with inhibition of CSC function via down-regulation of CSC-associated signaling pathways. Therefore, CDF could be useful for the prevention of tumor recurrence and/or treatment of PC with better treatment outcome in the future. PMID:21408027

  14. Protease-activated Receptor-2 (PAR-2)-mediated Nf-κB Activation Suppresses Inflammation-associated Tumor Suppressor MicroRNAs in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jeff J.; Miller, Daniel L.; Jiang, Rong; Liu, Yueying; Shi, Zonggao; Tarwater, Laura; Williams, Russell; Balsara, Rashna; Sauter, Edward R.; Stack, M. Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common cause of death from cancer with an estimated 400,000 deaths worldwide and a low (50%) 5-year survival rate. The most common form of oral cancer is oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). OSCC is highly inflammatory and invasive, and the degree of inflammation correlates with tumor aggressiveness. The G protein-coupled receptor protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) plays a key role in inflammation. PAR-2 is activated via proteolytic cleavage by trypsin-like serine proteases, including kallikrein-5 (KLK5), or by treatment with activating peptides. PAR-2 activation induces G protein-α-mediated signaling, mobilizing intracellular calcium and Nf-κB signaling, leading to the increased expression of pro-inflammatory mRNAs. Little is known, however, about PAR-2 regulation of inflammation-related microRNAs. Here, we assess PAR-2 expression and function in OSCC cell lines and tissues. Stimulation of PAR-2 activates Nf-κB signaling, resulting in RelA nuclear translocation and enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory mRNAs. Concomitantly, suppression of the anti-inflammatory tumor suppressor microRNAs let-7d, miR-23b, and miR-200c was observed following PAR-2 stimulation. Analysis of orthotopic oral tumors generated by cells with reduced KLK5 expression showed smaller, less aggressive lesions with reduced inflammatory infiltrate relative to tumors generated by KLK5-expressing control cells. Together, these data support a model wherein KLK5-mediated PAR-2 activation regulates the expression of inflammation-associated mRNAs and microRNAs, thereby modulating progression of oral tumors. PMID:26839311

  15. Protease-activated Receptor-2 (PAR-2)-mediated Nf-κB Activation Suppresses Inflammation-associated Tumor Suppressor MicroRNAs in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeff J; Miller, Daniel L; Jiang, Rong; Liu, Yueying; Shi, Zonggao; Tarwater, Laura; Williams, Russell; Balsara, Rashna; Sauter, Edward R; Stack, M Sharon

    2016-03-25

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common cause of death from cancer with an estimated 400,000 deaths worldwide and a low (50%) 5-year survival rate. The most common form of oral cancer is oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). OSCC is highly inflammatory and invasive, and the degree of inflammation correlates with tumor aggressiveness. The G protein-coupled receptor protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) plays a key role in inflammation. PAR-2 is activated via proteolytic cleavage by trypsin-like serine proteases, including kallikrein-5 (KLK5), or by treatment with activating peptides. PAR-2 activation induces G protein-α-mediated signaling, mobilizing intracellular calcium and Nf-κB signaling, leading to the increased expression of pro-inflammatory mRNAs. Little is known, however, about PAR-2 regulation of inflammation-related microRNAs. Here, we assess PAR-2 expression and function in OSCC cell lines and tissues. Stimulation of PAR-2 activates Nf-κB signaling, resulting in RelA nuclear translocation and enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory mRNAs. Concomitantly, suppression of the anti-inflammatory tumor suppressor microRNAs let-7d, miR-23b, and miR-200c was observed following PAR-2 stimulation. Analysis of orthotopic oral tumors generated by cells with reduced KLK5 expression showed smaller, less aggressive lesions with reduced inflammatory infiltrate relative to tumors generated by KLK5-expressing control cells. Together, these data support a model wherein KLK5-mediated PAR-2 activation regulates the expression of inflammation-associated mRNAs and microRNAs, thereby modulating progression of oral tumors. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Intein-mediated site-specific synthesis of tumor-targeting protein delivery system: Turning PEG dilemma into prodrug-like feature

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yingzhi; Zhang, Meng; Jin, Hongyue; Tang, Yisi; Wang, Huiyuan; Xu, Qin; Li, Yaping; Li, Feng; Huang, Yongzhuo

    2017-01-01

    Poor tumor-targeted and cytoplasmic delivery is a bottleneck for protein toxin-based cancer therapy. Ideally, a protein toxin drug should remain stealthy in circulation for prolonged half-life and reduced side toxicity, but turn activated at tumor. PEGylation is a solution to achieve the first goal, but creates a hurdle for the second because PEG rejects interaction between the drugs and tumor cells therein. Such PEG dilemma is an unsolved problem in protein delivery. Herein proposed is a concept of turning PEG dilemma into prodrug-like feature. A site-selectively PEGylated, gelatinase-triggered cell-penetrating trichosanthin protein delivery system is developed with three specific aims. The first is to develop an intein-based ligation method for achieving site-specific modification of protein toxins. The second is to develop a prodrug feature that renders protein toxins remaining stealthy in blood for reduced side toxicity and improved EPR effect. The third is to develop a gelatinase activatable cell-penetration strategy for enhanced tumor targeting and cytoplasmic delivery. Of note, site-specific modification is a big challenge in protein drug research, especially for such a complicated, multifunctional protein delivery system. We successfully develop a protocol for constructing a macromolecular prodrug system with intein-mediated ligation synthesis. With an on-column process of purification and intein-mediated cleavage, the site-specific PEGylation then can be readily achieved by conjugation with the activated C-terminus, thus constructing a PEG-capped, cell-penetrating trichosanthin system with a gelatinase-cleavable linker that enables tumor-specific activation of cytoplasmic delivery. It provides a promising method to address the PEG dilemma for enhanced protein drug delivery, and importantly, a facile protocol for site-specific modification of such a class of protein drugs for improving their druggability and industrial translation. PMID:27914267

  17. Tumor-induced CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells exacerbate immune-mediated hepatitis in mice in a CD40-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Kapanadze, Tamar; Medina-Echeverz, José; Gamrekelashvili, Jaba; Weiss, Jonathan M; Wiltrout, Robert H; Kapoor, Veena; Hawk, Nga; Terabe, Masaki; Berzofsky, Jay A; Manns, Michael P; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F

    2015-04-01

    Immunosuppressive CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulate in the livers of tumor-bearing (TB) mice. We studied hepatic MDSCs in two murine models of immune-mediated hepatitis. Unexpectedly, treatment of TB mice with Concanavalin A (Con A) or α-galactosylceramide resulted in increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) serum levels in comparison to tumor-free mice. Adoptive transfer of hepatic MDSCs into naïve mice exacerbated Con A induced liver damage. Hepatic CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) cells revealed a polarized proinflammatory gene signature after Con A treatment. An IFN-γ-dependent upregulation of CD40 on hepatic CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) cells along with an upregulation of CD80, CD86, and CD1d after Con A treatment was observed. Con A treatment resulted in a loss of suppressor function by tumor-induced CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) MDSCs as well as enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated hepatotoxicity. CD40 knockdown in hepatic MDSCs led to increased arginase activity upon Con A treatment and lower ALT/AST serum levels. Finally, blockade of arginase activity in Cd40(-/-) tumor-induced myeloid cells resulted in exacerbation of hepatitis and increased ROS production in vivo. Our findings indicate that in a setting of acute hepatitis, tumor-induced hepatic MDSCs act as proinflammatory immune effector cells capable of killing hepatocytes in a CD40-dependent manner. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Lymph Node-Targeted Immunotherapy Mediates Potent Immunity Resulting in Regression of Isolated or Metastatic HPV-Transformed Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kent A.; Meisenburg, Brenna L.; Tam, Victor L.; Pagarigan, Robb R.; Wong, Raymond; Joea, Diljeet K.; Lantzy, Liz; Carrillo, Mayra A.; Gross, Todd M.; Malyankar, Uriel M.; Chiang, Chih-Sheng; Da Silva, Diane M.; Kündig, Thomas M.; Kast, W. Martin; Qiu, Zhiyong; Bot, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of a novel immunotherapy strategy resulting in immunity to localized or metastatic HPV 16-transformed murine tumors. Experimental design Animals bearing E7-expressing tumors were co-immunized by lymph node injection with E7 49-57 antigen and TLR3-ligand (synthetic dsRNA). Immune responses were measured by flow cytometry and anti-tumor efficacy was evaluated by tumor size and survival. In situ cytotoxicity assays and identification of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and T regulatory cells were used to assess the mechanisms of treatment resistance in bulky disease. Chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide was explored to augment immunotherapy in late-stage disease. Results In therapeutic and prophylactic settings, immunization resulted in a considerable expansion of E7 49-57 antigen-specific T lymphocytes in the range of 1/10 CD8+ T cells. The resulting immunity was effective in suppressing disease progression and mortality in a pulmonary metastatic disease model. Therapeutic immunization resulted in control of isolated tumors up to a certain volume, and correlated with anti-tumor immune responses measured in blood. In situ analysis showed that within bulky tumors, T cell function was affected by negative regulatory mechanisms linked to an increase in T regulatory cells and could be overcome by cyclophosphamide treatment in conjunction with immunization. Conclusions This study highlights a novel cancer immunotherapy platform with potential for translatability to the clinic and suggests its potential usefulness for controlling metastatic disease, solid tumors of limited size, or larger tumors when combined with cytotoxic agents that reduce the number of tumor-infiltrating T regulatory cells. PMID:19789304

  19. Ultrasound Targeted Microbubble Destruction-Mediated Delivery of a Transcription Factor Decoy Inhibits STAT3 Signaling and Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Kopechek, Jonathan A.; Carson, Andrew R.; McTiernan, Charles F.; Chen, Xucai; Hasjim, Bima; Lavery, Linda; Sen, Malabika; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Villanueva, Flordeliza S.

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is constitutively activated in many cancers where it acts to promote tumor progression. A STAT3-specific transcription factor decoy has been developed to suppress STAT3 downstream signaling, but a delivery strategy is needed to improve clinical translation. Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) has been shown to enhance image-guided local delivery of molecular therapeutics to a target site. The objective of this study was to deliver STAT3 decoy to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tumors using UTMD to disrupt STAT3 signaling and inhibit tumor growth. Studies performed demonstrated that UTMD treatment with STAT3 decoy-loaded microbubbles inhibited STAT3 signaling in SCC cells in vitro. Studies performed in vivo demonstrated that UTMD treatment with STAT3 decoy-loaded microbubbles induced significant tumor growth inhibition (31-51% reduced tumor volume vs. controls, p < 0.05) in mice bearing SCC tumors. Furthermore, expression of STAT3 downstream target genes (Bcl-xL and cyclin D1) was significantly reduced (34-39%, p < 0.05) in tumors receiving UTMD treatment with STAT3 decoy-loaded microbubbles compared to controls. In addition, the quantity of radiolabeled STAT3 decoy detected in tumors eight hours after treatment was significantly higher with UTMD treatment compared to controls (70-150%, p < 0.05). This study demonstrates that UTMD can increase delivery of a transcription factor decoy to tumors in vivo and that the decoy can inhibit STAT3 signaling and tumor growth. These results suggest that UTMD treatment holds potential for clinical use to increase the concentration of a transcription factor signaling inhibitor in the tumor. PMID:26681983

  20. DNA methylation screening of primary prostate tumors identifies SRD5A2 and CYP11A1 as candidate markers for assessing risk of biochemical recurrence.

    PubMed

    Horning, Aaron M; Awe, Julius A; Wang, Chiou-Miin; Liu, Joseph; Lai, Zhao; Wang, Vickie Yao; Jadhav, Rohit R; Louie, Anna D; Lin, Chun-Lin; Kroczak, Tad; Chen, Yidong; Jin, Victor X; Abboud-Werner, Sherry L; Leach, Robin J; Hernandez, Javior; Thompson, Ian M; Saranchuk, Jeff; Drachenberg, Darrel; Chen, Chun-Liang; Mai, Sabine; Huang, Tim Hui-Ming

    2015-11-01

    Altered DNA methylation in CpG islands of gene promoters has been implicated in prostate cancer (PCa) progression and can be used to predict disease outcome. In this study, we determine whether methylation changes of androgen biosynthesis pathway (ABP)-related genes in patients' plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) can serve as prognostic markers for biochemical recurrence (BCR). Methyl-binding domain capture sequencing (MBDCap-seq) was used to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in primary tumors of patients who subsequently developed BCR or not, respectively. Methylation pyrosequencing of candidate loci was validated in cfDNA samples of 86 PCa patients taken at and/or post-radical prostatectomy (RP) using univariate and multivariate prediction analyses. Putative DMRs in 13 of 30 ABP-related genes were found between tumors of BCR (n = 12) versus no evidence of disease (NED) (n = 15). In silico analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas data confirmed increased DNA methylation of two loci-SRD5A2 and CYP11A1, which also correlated with their decreased expression, in tumors with subsequent BCR development. Their aberrant cfDNA methylation was also associated with detectable levels of PSA taken after patients' post-RP. Multivariate analysis of the change in cfDNA methylation at all of CpG sites measured along with patient's treatment history predicted if a patient will develop BCR with 77.5% overall accuracy. Overall, increased DNA methylation of SRD5A2 and CYP11A1 related to androgen biosynthesis functions may play a role in BCR after patients' RP. The correlation between aberrant cfDNA methylation and detectable PSA in post-RP further suggests their utility as predictive markers for PCa recurrence. . © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Fluorescence in vivo imaging of live tumor cells with pH-activatable targeted probes via receptor-mediated endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asanuma, Daisuke; Urano, Yasuteru; Nagano, Tetsuo; Hama, Yukihiro; Koyama, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2009-02-01

    One goal of molecular imaging is to establish a widely applicable technique for specific detection of tumors with minimal background. Here, we achieve specific in vivo tumor visualization with a newly-designed "activatable" targeted fluorescence probe. This agent is activated after cellular internalization by sensing the pH change in the lysosome. Novel acidic pH-activatable probes based on the BODIPY fluorophore were synthesized, and then conjugated to a cancer-targeting monoclonal antibody, Trastuzumab, or galactosyl serum albumin (GSA). As proof of concept, ex and in vivo imaging of two different tumor mouse models was performed: HER2-overexpressed lung metastasis tumor with Trastuzumab-pH probe conjugates and lectin-overexpressed i.p. disseminated tumor with GSA-pH probe conjugates. These pH-activatable targeted probes were highly specific for tumors with minimal background signal. Because the acidic pH in lysosomes is maintained by the energy-consuming proton pump, only viable cancer cells were successfully visualized. Furthermore, this strategy was also applied to fluorescence endoscopy in tumor mouse models, resulting in specific visualization of tumors as small as submillimeter in size that could hardly detected by naked eyes because of their poor contrast against normal tissues. The design concept can be widely adapted to cancer-specific cell-surface-targeting molecules that result in cellular internalization.

  2. Loss of the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1 in the Context of Brachyury-Mediated Phenotypic Plasticity Drives Tumor Resistance to Immune Attack.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Duane H; McCampbell, Kristen K; Palena, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    The acquisition of mesenchymal features by carcinoma cells is now recognized as a driver of metastasis and tumor resistance to a range of anticancer therapeutics, including chemotherapy, radiation, and certain small-molecule targeted therapies. With the recent successful implementation of immunotherapies for the treatment of various types of cancer, there is growing interest in understanding whether an immunological approach could be effective at eradicating carcinoma cells bearing mesenchymal features. Recent studies, however, demonstrated that carcinoma cells that have acquired mesenchymal features may also exhibit decreased susceptibility to lysis mediated by immune effector cells, including antigen-specific CD8 + T cells, innate natural killer (NK), and lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. Here, we investigated the mechanism involved in the immune resistance of carcinoma cells that express very high levels of the transcription factor brachyury, a molecule previously shown to drive the acquisition of mesenchymal features by carcinoma cells. Our results demonstrate that very high levels of brachyury expression drive the loss of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21CIP1, p21), an event that results in decreased tumor susceptibility to immune-mediated lysis. We show here that reconstitution of p21 expression markedly increases the lysis of brachyury-high tumor cells mediated by antigen-specific CD8 + T cells, NK, and LAK cells, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, and chemotherapy. Several reports have now demonstrated a role for p21 loss in cancer as an inducer of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The results from the present study situate p21 as a central player in many of the aspects of the phenomenon of brachyury-mediated mesenchymalization of carcinomas, including resistance to chemotherapy and immune-mediated cytotoxicity. We also demonstrate here that the defects in tumor cell death described in association with very high levels of

  3. Loss of the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1 in the Context of Brachyury-Mediated Phenotypic Plasticity Drives Tumor Resistance to Immune Attack

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Duane H.; McCampbell, Kristen K.; Palena, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    The acquisition of mesenchymal features by carcinoma cells is now recognized as a driver of metastasis and tumor resistance to a range of anticancer therapeutics, including chemotherapy, radiation, and certain small-molecule targeted therapies. With the recent successful implementation of immunotherapies for the treatment of various types of cancer, there is growing interest in understanding whether an immunological approach could be effective at eradicating carcinoma cells bearing mesenchymal features. Recent studies, however, demonstrated that carcinoma cells that have acquired mesenchymal features may also exhibit decreased susceptibility to lysis mediated by immune effector cells, including antigen-specific CD8+ T cells, innate natural killer (NK), and lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. Here, we investigated the mechanism involved in the immune resistance of carcinoma cells that express very high levels of the transcription factor brachyury, a molecule previously shown to drive the acquisition of mesenchymal features by carcinoma cells. Our results demonstrate that very high levels of brachyury expression drive the loss of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21CIP1, p21), an event that results in decreased tumor susceptibility to immune-mediated lysis. We show here that reconstitution of p21 expression markedly increases the lysis of brachyury-high tumor cells mediated by antigen-specific CD8+ T cells, NK, and LAK cells, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, and chemotherapy. Several reports have now demonstrated a role for p21 loss in cancer as an inducer of the epithelial–mesenchymal transition. The results from the present study situate p21 as a central player in many of the aspects of the phenomenon of brachyury-mediated mesenchymalization of carcinomas, including resistance to chemotherapy and immune-mediated cytotoxicity. We also demonstrate here that the defects in tumor cell death described in association with very high levels of

  4. The YAP1/SIX2 axis is required for DDX3-mediated tumor aggressiveness and cetuximab resistance in KRAS-wild-type colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, De-Wei; Lin, Po-Lin; Wang, Lee; Huang, Chi-Chou; Lee, Huei

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism underlying tumor aggressiveness and cetuximab (CTX) resistance in KRAS-wild-type (KRAS -WT) colorectal cancer remains obscure. We here provide evidence that DDX3 promoted soft agar growth and invasiveness of KRAS-WT cells, as already confirmed in KRAS-mutated cells. Mechanistically, increased KRAS expression induced ROS production, which elevated HIF-1α and YAP1 expression. Increased HIF-1α persistently promoted DDX3 expression via a KRAS/ROS/HIF-1α feedback loop. DDX3-mediated aggressiveness and CTX resistance were regulated by the YAP1/SIX2 axis in KRAS-WT cells and further confirmed in animal models. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis indicated that DDX3, KRAS, and YAP1 expression had prognostic value for OS and RFS in KRAS-WT and KRAS-mutated tumors, but SIX2 and YAP1/SIX2 were prognostic value only in KRAS-WT patients. The observation from patients seemed to support the mechanistic action of cell and animal models. We therefore suggest that combining YAP1 inhibitors with CTX may therefore suppress DDX3-mediated tumor aggressiveness and enhance CTX sensitivity in KRAS-WT colorectal cancer. PMID:28435452

  5. p75 neurotrophin receptor cleavage by α- and γ-secretases is required for neurotrophin-mediated proliferation of brain tumor-initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Peter A; Krishna, Niveditha; Lawn, Samuel; Valadez, J Gerardo; Qu, Xiaotao; Fenstermacher, David A; Fournier, Michelle; Potthast, Lisa; Chinnaiyan, Prakash; Gibney, Geoffrey T; Zeinieh, Michele; Barker, Philip A; Carter, Bruce D; Cooper, Michael K; Kenchappa, Rajappa S

    2014-03-21

    Malignant gliomas are highly invasive, proliferative, and resistant to treatment. Previously, we have shown that p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) is a novel mediator of invasion of human glioma cells. However, the role of p75NTR in glioma proliferation is unknown. Here we used brain tumor-initiating cells (BTICs) and show that BTICs express neurotrophin receptors (p75NTR, TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC) and their ligands (NGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and neurotrophin 3) and secrete NGF. Down-regulation of p75NTR significantly decreased proliferation of BTICs. Conversely, exogenouous NGF stimulated BTIC proliferation through α- and γ-secretase-mediated p75NTR cleavage and release of its intracellular domain (ICD). In contrast, overexpression of the p75NTR ICD induced proliferation. Interestingly, inhibition of Trk signaling blocked NGF-stimulated BTIC proliferation and p75NTR cleavage, indicating a role of Trk in p75NTR signaling. Further, blocking p75NTR cleavage attenuated Akt activation in BTICs, suggesting role of Akt in p75NTR-mediated proliferation. We also found that p75NTR, α-secretases, and the four subunits of the γ-secretase enzyme were elevated in glioblastoma multiformes patients. Importantly, the ICD of p75NTR was commonly found in malignant glioma patient specimens, suggesting that the receptor is activated and cleaved in patient tumors. These results suggest that p75NTR proteolysis is required for BTIC proliferation and is a novel potential clinical target.

  6. PBMC are as good a source of tumor-reactive T lymphocytes as TIL after selection by Melan-A/A2 multimer immunomagnetic sorting.

    PubMed

    Labarrière, Nathalie; Gervois, Nadine; Bonnin, Annabelle; Bouquié, Régis; Jotereau, Francine; Lang, François

    2008-02-01

    Choosing a reliable source of tumor-specific T lymphocytes and an efficient method to isolate these cells still remains a critical issue in adoptive cellular therapy (ACT). In this study, we assessed the capacity of MHC/peptide based immunomagnetic sorting followed by polyclonal T cell expansion to derive pure polyclonal and tumor-reactive Melan-A specific T cell populations from melanoma patient's PBMC and TIL. We first demonstrated that this approach was extremely efficient and reproducible. We then used this procedure to compare PBMC and TIL-derived cells from three melanoma patients in terms of avidity for Melan-A A27L analog, Melan-A(26-35)and Melan-A(27-35), tumor reactivity (lysis and cytokine production) and repertoire. Regardless of their origin, i.e., fresh PBMC, peptide stimulated PBMC or TIL, all sorted populations (from the three patients) were cytotoxic against HLA-A2+ melanoma cell lines expressing Melan-A. Although some variability in peptide avidity, lytic activity and cytokine production was observed between populations of different origins in a given patient, it differed from one patient to another and thus no correlation could be drawn between T cell source and reactivity. Analysis of Vbeta usage within the sorted populations showed the recurrence of Vbeta3 and Vbeta14 subfamilies in the three patients but differences in the rest of the Melan-A repertoire. In addition, in two patients, we observed major repertoire differences between populations sorted from the three sources. We especially documented that in vitro peptide stimulation of PBMC, used to facilitate the sort by enriching in specific T lymphocytes, could significantly alter their repertoire and reactivity towards tumor cells. We conclude that PBMC which are easily obtained from all melanoma patients, can be as good a source as TIL to derive high amounts of tumor-reactive Melan-A specific T cells, with this selection/amplification procedure. However, the conditions of peptide

  7. Transferrin-mediated fullerenes nanoparticles as Fe(2+)-dependent drug vehicles for synergistic anti-tumor efficacy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huijuan; Hou, Lin; Jiao, Xiaojing; Ji, Yandan; Zhu, Xiali; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2015-01-01

    Artesunate (AS) is an iron-dependent drug, which has been used extensively as anti-malarial drugs worldwide with no obvious side effects. Recently, studies have shown that AS also possess profound cytotoxicity against tumor cells. However, simultaneous delivery of hydrophobic AS and Fe(2+) into tumor cells remains a major challenge. Herein, we report a new kind of active-targeting preparations which could not only specially target to tumor cells but also synchronously transfer AS and irons into tumor tissue. In this study, hyaluronic acid (HA) was grafted onto fullerene to get a water-soluble biomaterial (HA-C60) with excellent biocompatibility, and then combined with transferrin (Tf) to obtain a multi-functional drug delivery system (HA-C60-Tf) with significant tumor-targeting efficacy and powerful photodynamic therapy capacity. Finally, AS was adsorbed on HA-C60-Tf with a high loading efficacy of 162.4% (weight ratio of AS: HA-C60-Tf). Compared with free AS, remarkably enhanced antitumor efficacy of AS-loaded HA-C60-Tf nanoparticles was realized both in a cultured MCF-7 cells in vitro and in a tumor-bearing murine model in vivo, due to increased intracellular accumulation of AS in tumor and activated mechanism by co-delivery of Tf and AS analogs. Furthermore, with laser irradiation in vivo, the relative tumor volume (V/V0) of HA-C60-Tf/AS declined by half, from 1.72 ± 0.12 to 0.84 ± 0.07, suggesting a new way with multi-mechanism for tumor treatment was developed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. FasL Mediates T-Cell Eradication of Tumor Cells Presenting Low Levels of Antigens | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    One approach to cancer immunotherapy, as opposed to therapeutic vaccination, is the transfusion of large numbers of tumor-specific killer T cells (cytotoxic T cells or CTLs) into patients. The body’s own defense killer T cells are a subgroup of T lymphocytes (a type of white blood cells) that are capable of inducing death in tumor cells. CTLs can cause the death of target cells either by releasing granules containing toxic molecules including perforin, or by producing a membrane protein called Fas ligand (FasL) which on interaction with the tumor cell results in cell death.

  9. Increased Soluble CD226 in Sera of Patients with Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma Mediates Cytotoxic Activity against Tumor Cells via CD155.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Naomi; Sugaya, Makoto; Suga, Hiraku; Oka, Tomonori; Kawaguchi, Makiko; Miyagaki, Tomomitsu; Fujita, Hideki; Inozume, Takashi; Sato, Shinichi

    2017-08-01

    Immune checkpoint therapy, which targets regulatory pathways in T cells to enhance antitumor immune responses, has led to important clinical advances. CD155 is expressed in various types of cancer, and this surface molecule on tumor cells functions either as a co-stimulatory molecule or a co-inhibitory molecule, depending on its receptor. CD226, a CD155 ligand, is mainly expressed on natural killer cells and CD8 + T cells, playing important roles in natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity. In this study, we investigated the expression and function of CD155 and CD226 in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). CD155 was strongly expressed on tumor cells and CD155 mRNA expression levels were increased in CTCL lesional skin. CD226 expression on natural killer cells and CD8 + cells in peripheral blood of CTCL patients was decreased. On the other hand, serum CD226 levels were significantly elevated in CTCL patients, strongly reflecting disease activity, suggesting that soluble CD226 in sera was generated by shedding of its membrane form. Recombinant CD226 itself showed cytotoxic activity against CD155-expressing CTCL cells in vitro. These data suggest that soluble CD226 elevated in sera of CTCL patients would be important for tumor immunity by interacting with CD155 on tumor cells. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Target-induced proximity ligation triggers recombinase polymerase amplification and transcription-mediated amplification to detect tumor-derived exosomes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma with high sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wanli; Li, Jianpei; Wu, Yixian; Xing, Shan; Lai, Yanzhen; Zhang, Ge

    2018-04-15

    Tumor-derived exosomes (TEXs) are extracellular vesicles that are continuously released into the blood by tumor cells and carry specific surface markers of the original tumor cells. Substantial evidence has implicated TEXs as attractive diagnostic markers for cancer. However, the detection of TEXs in blood at an early tumor stage is challenging due to their very low concentration. Here, we established a method called PLA-RPA-TMA assay that allows TEXs to be detected with high sensitivity and specificity. Based on two proximity ligation assay (PLA) probes that recognize a biomarker on a TEX, we generated a unique surrogate DNA signal for the specific biomarker, which was synchronously amplified twice by recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) coupled with transcription-mediated amplification (TMA), and then the products of the RPA-TMA reaction were quantitatively detected using a gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric assay. We established proof-of-concept evidence for this approach using TEXs from nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells, with a detection limit of 10 2 particles/mL, and reported the measurement of plasma Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 (LPM1)-positive (LMP1 + , accuracy: 0.956) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-positive (EGFR + , accuracy: 0.906) TEXs as potent early diagnostic biomarkers for NPC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Both p53-PUMA/NOXA-Bax-mitochondrion and p53-p21cip1 pathways are involved in the CDglyTK-mediated tumor cell suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Zhendong, E-mail: zdyu@hotmail.com; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Libin

    CDglyTK fusion suicide gene has been well characterized to effectively kill tumor cells. However, the exact mechanism and downstream target genes are not fully understood. In our study, we found that CDglyTK/prodrug treatment works more efficiently in p53 wild-type (HONE1) cells than in p53 mutant (CNE1) cells. We then used adenovirus-mediated gene delivery system to either knockdown or overexpress p53 and its target genes in these cells. Consistent results showed that both p53-PUMA/NOXA/Bcl2-Bax and p53-p21 pathways contribute to the CDglyTK induced tumor cell suppression. Our work for the first time addressed the role of p53 related genes in the CDglyTK/prodrugmore » system.« less

  12. Histone Methyltransferase NSD2/MMSET Mediates Constitutive NF-κB Signaling for Cancer Cell Proliferation, Survival, and Tumor Growth via a Feed-Forward Loop

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ping; Guo, Linlang; Duan, Zhijian J.; Tepper, Clifford G.; Xue, Ling; Chen, Xinbin; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Gao, Allen C.

    2012-01-01

    Constitutive NF-κB activation by proinflammatory cytokines plays a major role in cancer progression. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. We report here that histone methyltransferase NSD2 (also known as MMSET or WHSC1), a target of bromodomain protein ANCCA/ATAD2, acts as a strong coactivator of NF-κB by directly interacting with NF-κB for activation of target genes, including those for interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), cyclin D, Bcl-2, and survivin, in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells. NSD2 is recruited to the target gene promoters upon induction and mediates NF-κB activation-associated elevation of histone H3K36me2 and H3K36me3 marks at the promoter, which involves its methylase activity. Interestingly, we found that NSD2 is also critical for cytokine-induced recruitment of NF-κB and acetyltransferase p300 and histone hyperacetylation. Importantly, NSD2 is overexpressed in prostate cancer tumors, and its overexpression correlates with NF-κB activation. Furthermore, NSD2 expression is strongly induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and IL-6 via NF-κB and plays a crucial role in tumor growth. These results identify NSD2 to be a key chromatin regulator of NF-κB and mediator of the cytokine autocrine loop for constitutive NF-κB activation and emphasize the important roles played by NSD2 in cancer cell proliferation and survival and tumor growth. PMID:22645312

  13. Survival of residual neutrophils and accelerated myelopoiesis limit the efficacy of antibody-mediated depletion of Ly-6G+ cells in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Moses, Katrin; Klein, Johanna C; Männ, Linda; Klingberg, Anika; Gunzer, Matthias; Brandau, Sven

    2016-06-01

    Expansion of Ly-6G(+) myeloid cells has been reported in most murine cancer models. However, divergent findings exist regarding the role and effect of these cells on host immunity and tumor progression. Antibody-mediated depletion of Ly-6G(+) cells is a common technique to assess the in vivo relevance of these cells. Interpretation of results crucially depends on the efficacy and course of depletion. We established murine head and neck cancer models and analyzed the efficacy of antibody-mediated depletion by flow cytometry, conventional histology, and intravital imaging with a novel Ly-6G-transgenic mouse model. The first phase of depletion was characterized by effective elimination of Ly-6G(+) cells from the peripheral blood. Nevertheless, viable, resistant cells were found to reside in the tumor tissue and spleen. This peripheral depletion phase was associated with high systemic levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and KC and enhanced splenic production of Ly-6G(+) cells. Even under sustained treatment with either αGr-1 or αLy-6G antibodies, peripheral blood depletion ended after approximately 1 wk and was followed by reappearance of immature Ly-6G(+) cells with an immunoregulatory phenotype. Reappearance of these depletion-resistant immature cells was enhanced in tumor-bearing, compared with naïve, control mice. Collectively, our data suggest that depletion of Ly-6G(+) myeloid cells in tumor-bearing mice is counteracted by the persistence of intratumoral cells, enhanced extramedullary granulopoiesis, and accelerated reappearance of immature cells. Hence, extensive monitoring of in vivo kinetics and tissue distribution of Ly-6G(+) cells is required in depletion studies. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  14. Composition of PLGA and PEI/DNA nanoparticles improves ultrasound-mediated gene delivery in solid tumors in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chumakova, Olga V; Liopo, Anton V; Andreev, Valery G; Cicenaite, Inga; Evers, B Mark; Chakrabarty, Shilla; Pappas, Todd C; Esenaliev, Rinat O

    2008-03-18

    The goal of this study was to enhance gene delivery and tumor cell transfection in vivo by using a combination of ultrasonication with complex nanoparticles consisting of two types of nanoparticles: PEI/DNA beta-gal plasmid with highly positive zeta-potential and air-filled poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles (with negative zeta-potential) manufactured in our laboratory. The PLGA/PEI/DNA nanoparticles were a colloid with positive zeta-potential and injected i.v. in nude mice with DU145 human prostate tumors. We found that the combination of PLGA/PEI/DNA nanoparticles with ultrasonication substantially enhanced tumor cell transfection in vivo. The overexpression of beta-gal gene was evaluated histochemically and by Western blot analysis. At least an 8-fold increase of the cell transfection efficacy was obtained in irradiated tumors compared to non-irradiated controls, while little to no cell death was produced by ultrasonication.

  15. FasL Mediates T-Cell Eradication of Tumor Cells Presenting Low Levels of Antigens | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    One approach to cancer immunotherapy, as opposed to therapeutic vaccination, is the transfusion of large numbers of tumor-specific killer T cells (cytotoxic T cells or CTLs) into patients. The body’s own defense killer T cells are a subgroup of T lymphocytes (a type of white blood cells) that are capable of inducing death in tumor cells. CTLs can cause the death of target

  16. Transferrin-mediated rapid targeting, isolation, and detection of circulating tumor cells by multifunctional magneto-dendritic nanosystem.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Shashwat S; Jalota-Badhwar, Archana; Satavalekar, Sneha D; Bhansali, Sujit G; Aher, Naval D; Mascarenhas, Russel R; Paul, Debjani; Sharma, Somesh; Khandare, Jayant J

    2013-06-01

    A multicomponent magneto-dendritic nanosystem (MDNS) is designed for rapid tumor cell targeting, isolation, and high-resolution imaging by a facile bioconjugation approach. The highly efficient and rapid-acting MDNS provides a convenient platform for simultaneous isolation and high-resolution imaging of tumor cells, potentially leading towards an early diagnosis of cancer. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Renal protection from ischemia mediated by A2A adenosine receptors on bone marrow–derived cells

    PubMed Central

    Day, Yuan-Ji; Huang, Liping; McDuffie, Marcia J.; Rosin, Diane L.; Ye, Hong; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Fink, J. Stephen; Linden, Joel; Okusa, Mark D.

    2003-01-01

    Activation of A2A adenosine receptors (A2ARs) protects kidneys from ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). A2ARs are expressed on bone marrow–derived (BM-derived) cells and renal smooth muscle, epithelial, and endothelial cells. To measure the contribution of A2ARs on BM-derived cells in suppressing renal IRI, we examined the effects of a selective agonist of A2ARs, ATL146e, in chimeric mice in which BM was ablated by lethal radiation and reconstituted with donor BM cells derived from GFP, A2AR-KO, or WT mice to produce GFP→WT, A2A-KO→WT, or WT→WT mouse chimera. We found little or no repopulation of renal vascular endothelial cells by donor BM with or without renal IRI. ATL146e had no effect on IRI in A2A-KO mice or A2A-KO→WT chimera, but reduced the rise in plasma creatinine from IRI by 75% in WT mice and by 60% in WT→WT chimera. ATL146e reduced the induction of IL-6, IL-1β, IL-1ra, and TGF-α mRNA in WT→WT mice but not in A2A-KO→WT mice. Plasma creatinine was significantly greater in A2A-KO than in WT mice after IRI, suggesting some renal protection by endogenous adenosine. We conclude that protection from renal IRI by A2AR agonists or endogenous adenosine requires activation of receptors expressed on BM-derived cells. PMID:12975473

  18. Adenovirus-mediated p53 gene delivery potentiates the radiation-induced growth inhibition of experimental brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Badie, B; Kramar, M H; Lau, R; Boothman, D A; Economou, J S; Black, K L

    1998-05-01

    Patients with malignant gliomas continue to have very poor prognosis even after surgical resection, radiation and chemotherapy. Because these tumors often have alterations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene, which plays a key role in the cellular response to DNA damaging agents, we investigated the role of p53 gene therapy in conjunction with ionizing radiation in a rat brain tumor model. Exposure of cultured rat 9L gliosarcoma cells, which contain a mutant p53 gene, to a recombinant adenovirus-vector bearing the wild-type p53 gene (Adp53), induced apoptosis within 24 hours. Although ionizing radiation had no additional effect on apoptosis within this time frame, it caused G1 arrest in non-apoptotic cells after Adp53 therapy. In contrast, wild-type 9L cells demonstrated little G1 arrest after X-irradiation. When animals bearing brain tumors were irradiated after intratumoral Adp53 injections, more than 85% reduction in tumor size was noted. Moreover, the group of rats receiving both radiation and Adp53 therapy had a significant increase in survival as compared to animals receiving either therapy alone. These results support the use of p53 gene therapy as an adjunct to radiation in treatment of malignant brain tumors.

  19. Self-Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles Shows Microenvironment-Mediated Dynamic Switching and Enhanced Brain Tumor Targeting.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qishuai; Shen, Yajing; Fu, Yingjie; Muroski, Megan E; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Qiaoyue; Xu, Chang; Lesniak, Maciej S; Li, Gang; Cheng, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic nanoparticles with unique physical properties have been explored as nanomedicines for brain tumor treatment. However, the clinical applications of the inorganic formulations are often hindered by the biological barriers and failure to be bioeliminated. The size of the nanoparticle is an essential design parameter which plays a significant role to affect the tumor targeting and biodistribution. Here, we report a feasible approach for the assembly of gold nanoparticles into ~80 nm nanospheres as a drug delivery platform for enhanced retention in brain tumors with the ability to be dynamically switched into the single formulation for excretion. These nanoassemblies can target epidermal growth factor receptors on cancer cells and are responsive to tumor microenvironmental characteristics, including high vascular permeability and acidic and redox conditions. Anticancer drug release was controlled by a pH-responsive mechanism. Intracellular L-glutathione (GSH) triggered the complete breakdown of nanoassemblies to single gold nanoparticles. Furthermore, in vivo studies have shown that nanospheres display enhanced tumor-targeting efficiency and therapeutic effects relative to single-nanoparticle formulations. Hence, gold nanoassemblies present an effective targeting strategy for brain tumor treatment.

  20. Self-Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles Shows Microenvironment-Mediated Dynamic Switching and Enhanced Brain Tumor Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Qishuai; Shen, Yajing; Fu, Yingjie; Muroski, Megan E.; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Qiaoyue; Xu, Chang; Lesniak, Maciej S.; Li, Gang; Cheng, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic nanoparticles with unique physical properties have been explored as nanomedicines for brain tumor treatment. However, the clinical applications of the inorganic formulations are often hindered by the biological barriers and failure to be bioeliminated. The size of the nanoparticle is an essential design parameter which plays a significant role to affect the tumor targeting and biodistribution. Here, we report a feasible approach for the assembly of gold nanoparticles into ~80 nm nanospheres as a drug delivery platform for enhanced retention in brain tumors with the ability to be dynamically switched into the single formulation for excretion. These nanoassemblies can target epidermal growth factor receptors on cancer cells and are responsive to tumor microenvironmental characteristics, including high vascular permeability and acidic and redox conditions. Anticancer drug release was controlled by a pH-responsive mechanism. Intracellular L-glutathione (GSH) triggered the complete breakdown of nanoassemblies to single gold nanoparticles. Furthermore, in vivo studies have shown that nanospheres display enhanced tumor-targeting efficiency and therapeutic effects relative to single-nanoparticle formulations. Hence, gold nanoassemblies present an effective targeting strategy for brain tumor treatment. PMID:28638474

  1. MicroRNA-627 Mediates the Epigenetic Mechanisms of Vitamin D to Suppress Proliferation of Human Colorectal Cancer Cells and Growth of Xenograft Tumors in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Padi, Sathish K.R.; Zhang, Qunshu; Rustum, Youcef M; Morrison, Carl; Guo, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Vitamin D protects against colorectal cancer by unclear mechanisms. We investigated the effects of calcitriol (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, the active form of vitamin D) on levels of different microRNAs (miRs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells from humans and xenograft tumors in mice. Methods Expression of microRNAs in CRC cell lines was examined using the Ambion mirVana miRNA Bioarray. The effects of calcitriol on expression of miR-627 and cell proliferation were determined by real-time PCR and WST-1 assay, respectively; growth of colorectal xenograft tumors was examined in nude mice. Real-time PCR was used to analyze levels of miR-627 in human colon adenocarcinoma samples and non-tumor colon mucosa tissues (controls). Results In HT-29 cells, miR-627 was the only microRNA significantly upregulated by calcitriol. Jumonji domain containing 1A (JMJD1A), which encodes a histone demethylase, was found to be a target of miR-627. By downregulating JMJD1A, miR-627 increased methylation of histone H3K9 and suppressed expression of proliferative factors such as GDF15. Calcitriol induced expression of miR-627, which downregulated JMJD1A and suppressed growth of xenograft tumors from HCT-116 cells in nude mice. Overexpression of miR-627 prevented proliferation of CRC cell lines in culture and growth of xenograft tumors in mice. Conversely, blocking the activity of miR-627 inhibited the tumor suppressive effects of calcitriol in cultured CRC cells and in mice. Levels of miR-627 were decreased in human colon adenocarcinoma samples, compared with controls. Conclusions miR-627 mediates tumor-suppressive epigenetic activities of vitamin D on CRC cells and xenograft tumors in mice. The mRNA that encodes the histone demethylase JMJD1A is a direct target of miR-627. Reagents designed to target JMJD1A or its mRNA, or increase the function of miR-627, might have the same antitumor activities of vitamin D without the hypercalcemic side effects. PMID:23619147

  2. CCL5/CCR5 axis induces vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated tumor angiogenesis in human osteosarcoma microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shih-Wei; Liu, Shih-Chia; Sun, Hui-Lung; Huang, Te-Yang; Chan, Chia-Han; Yang, Chen-Yu; Yeh, Hung-I; Huang, Yuan-Li; Chou, Wen-Yi; Lin, Yu-Min; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Chemokines modulate angiogenesis and metastasis that dictate cancer development in tumor microenvironment. Osteosarcoma is the most frequent bone tumor and is characterized by a high metastatic potential. Chemokine CCL5 (previously called RANTES) has been reported to facilitate tumor progression and metastasis. However, the crosstalk between chemokine CCL5 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as well as tumor angiogenesis in human osteosarcoma microenvironment has not been well explored. In this study, we found that CCL5 increased VEGF expression and production in human osteosarcoma cells. The conditioned medium (CM) from CCL5-treated osteosarcoma cells significantly induced tube formation and migration of human endothelial progenitor cells. Pretreatment of cells with CCR5 antibody or transfection with CCR5 specific siRNA blocked CCL5-induced VEGF expression and angiogenesis. CCL5/CCR5 axis demonstrably activated protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ), c-Src and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) signaling cascades to induce VEGF-dependent angiogenesis. Furthermore, knockdown of CCL5 suppressed VEGF expression and attenuated osteosarcoma CM-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. CCL5 knockdown dramatically abolished tumor growth and angiogenesis in the osteosarcoma xenograft animal model. Importantly, we demonstrated that the expression of CCL5 and VEGF were correlated with tumor stage according the immunohistochemistry analysis of human osteosarcoma tissues. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that CCL5/CCR5 axis promotes VEGF-dependent tumor angiogenesis in human osteosarcoma microenvironment through PKCδ/c-Src/HIF-1α signaling pathway. CCL5 may represent a potential therapeutic target against human osteosarcoma. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Eritoran inhibits S100A8-mediated TLR4/MD-2 activation and tumor growth by changing the immune microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, A; Tomita, T; Ohto, U; Takemura, K; Kitao, A; Akashi-Takamura, S; Miyake, K; Maru, Y

    2016-03-17

    S100A8/A9 is a major component of the acute phase of inflammation, and appears to regulate cell proliferation, redox regulation and chemotaxis. We previously reported that S100A8/S100A9 are upregulated in the premetastatic lung. However, the detailed mechanisms by which S100A8 contributes to tumor progression have not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the TLR4/MD-2 dependency by S100A8 on tumor progression. We found that S100A8 (2-89) peptide stimulated cell migration in a manner dependent on TLR4, MD-2 and MyD88. The S100A8 (2-89) peptide also activated p38 and NF-κB in TLR4-dependent manner. The peptide induced the upregulation of both IL-6 and Ccl2 in peritoneal macrophages obtained from wild-type mice, but not TLR4-deficient mice. We then investigated the responsible region of S100A8 for TLR4/MD-2 binding by a binding assay, and found that C-terminal region of S100A8 binds to TLR4/MD-2 complex. To further evaluate the TLR4 dependency on tumor microenvironment, Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice were treated with Eritoran, an antagonist of TLR4/MD-2 complex. We found that both tumor volume and pulmonary recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells were reduced with the treatment of Eritoran for five consecutive days. Eritoran reduced the development of tumor vasculature, and increased tumor-infiltration of CD8(+) T-cells. Taken together, S100A8 appears to play a crucial role in the activation of the TLR4/MD-2 pathway and the promotion of a tumor growth-enhancing immune microenvironment.

  4. Local application of bacteria improves safety of Salmonella-mediated tumor therapy and retains advantages of systemic infection

    PubMed Central

    Schauer, Tim; Frahm, Michael; Heise, Ulrike; Zimmermann, Kurt; Erhardt, Marc; Weiss, Siegfried

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is a devastating disease and a large socio-economic burden. Novel therapeutic solutions are on the rise, although a cure remains elusive. Application of microorganisms represents an ancient therapeutic strategy, lately revoked and refined via simultaneous attenuation and amelioration of pathogenic properties. Salmonella Typhimurium has prevailed in preclinical development. Yet, using virulent strains for systemic treatment might cause severe side effects. In the present study, we highlight a modified strain based on Salmonella Typhimurium UK-1 expressing hexa-acylated Lipid A. We corroborate improved anti-tumor properties of this strain and investigate to which extent an intra-tumoral (i.t.) route of infection could help improve safety and retain advantages of systemic intravenous (i.v.) application. Our results show that i.t. infection exhibits therapeutic efficacy against CT26 and F1.A11 tumors similar to a systemic route of inoculation. Moreover, i.t. application allows extensive dose titration without compromising tumor colonization. Adverse colonization of healthy organs was generally reduced via i.t. infection and accompanied by less body weight loss of the murine host. Despite local application, adjuvanticity remained, and a CT26-specific CD8+ T cell response was effectively stimulated. Most interestingly, also secondary tumors could be targeted with this strategy, thereby extending the unique tumor targeting ability of Salmonella. The i.t. route of inoculation may reap the benefits of systemic infection and aid in safety assurance while directing potency of an oncolytic vector to where it is most needed, namely the primary tumor. PMID:28637010

  5. pH-dependent antitumor activity of proton pump inhibitors against human melanoma is mediated by inhibition of tumor acidity.

    PubMed

    De Milito, Angelo; Canese, Rossella; Marino, Maria Lucia; Borghi, Martina; Iero, Manuela; Villa, Antonello; Venturi, Giulietta; Lozupone, Francesco; Iessi, Elisabetta; Logozzi, Mariantonia; Della Mina, Pamela; Santinami, Mario; Rodolfo, Monica; Podo, Franca; Rivoltini, Licia; Fais, Stefano

    2010-07-01

    Metastatic melanoma is associated with poor prognosis and still limited therapeutic options. An innovative treatment approach for this disease is represented by targeting acidosis, a feature characterizing tumor microenvironment and playing an important role in cancer malignancy. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI), such as esomeprazole (ESOM) are prodrugs functionally activated by acidic environment, fostering pH neutralization by inhibiting proton extrusion. We used human melanoma cell lines and xeno-transplated SCID mice to provide preclinical evidence of ESOM antineoplastic activity. Human melanoma cell lines, characterized by different mutation and signaling profiles, were treated with ESOM in different pH conditions and evaluated for proliferation, viability and cell death. SCID mice engrafted with human melanoma were used to study ESOM administration effects on tumor growth and tumor pH by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). ESOM inhibited proliferation of melanoma cells in vitro and induced a cytotoxicity strongly boosted by low pH culture conditions. ESOM-induced tumor cell death occurred via rapid intracellular acidification and activation of several caspases. Inhibition of caspases activity by pan-caspase inhibitor z-vad-fmk completely abrogated the ESOM-induced cell death. ESOM administration (2.5 mg kg(-1)) to SCID mice engrafted with human melanoma reduced tumor growth, consistent with decrease of proliferating cells and clear reduction of pH gradients in tumor tissue. Moreover, systemic ESOM administration dramatically increased survival of human melanoma-bearing animals, in absence of any relevant toxicity. These data show preclinical evidence supporting the use of PPI as novel therapeutic strategy for melanoma, providing the proof of concept that PPI target human melanoma modifying tumor pH gradients.

  6. Stimulation of Natural Killer Cell-Mediated Tumor Immunity by an IL15/TGFβ-Neutralizing Fusion Protein.

    PubMed

    Ng, Spencer; Deng, Jiusheng; Chinnadurai, Raghavan; Yuan, Shala; Pennati, Andrea; Galipeau, Jacques

    2016-10-01

    The clinical efficacy of immune cytokines used for cancer therapy is hampered by elements of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment such as TGFβ. Here we demonstrate that FIST15, a recombinant chimeric protein composed of the T-cell-stimulatory cytokine IL15, the sushi domain of IL15Rα and a TGFβ ligand trap, can overcome immunosuppressive TGFβ to effectively stimulate the proliferation and activation of natural killer (NK) and CD8 + T cells with potent antitumor properties. FIST15-treated NK and CD8 + T cells produced more IFNγ and TNFα compared with treatment with IL15 and a commercially available TGFβ receptor-Fc fusion protein (sTβRII) in the presence of TGFβ. Murine B16 melanoma cells, which overproduce TGFβ, were lysed by FIST15-treated NK cells in vitro at doses approximately 10-fold lower than NK cells treated with IL15 and sTβRII. Melanoma cells transduced to express FIST15 failed to establish tumors in vivo in immunocompetent murine hosts and could only form tumors in beige mice lacking NK cells. Mice injected with the same cells were also protected from subsequent challenge by unmodified B16 melanoma cells. Finally, mice with pre-established B16 melanoma tumors responded to FIST15 treatment more strongly compared with tumors treated with control cytokines. Taken together, our results offer a preclinical proof of concept for the use of FIST15 as a new class of biological therapeutics that can coordinately neutralize the effects of immunosuppressive TGFβ in the tumor microenvironment while empowering tumor immunity. Cancer Res; 76(19); 5683-95. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Local application of bacteria improves safety of Salmonella -mediated tumor therapy and retains advantages of systemic infection.

    PubMed

    Kocijancic, Dino; Felgner, Sebastian; Schauer, Tim; Frahm, Michael; Heise, Ulrike; Zimmermann, Kurt; Erhardt, Marc; Weiss, Siegfried

    2017-07-25

    Cancer is a devastating disease and a large socio-economic burden. Novel therapeutic solutions are on the rise, although a cure remains elusive. Application of microorganisms represents an ancient therapeutic strategy, lately revoked and refined via simultaneous attenuation and amelioration of pathogenic properties. Salmonella Typhimurium has prevailed in preclinical development. Yet, using virulent strains for systemic treatment might cause severe side effects. In the present study, we highlight a modified strain based on Salmonella Typhimurium UK-1 expressing hexa-acylated Lipid A. We corroborate improved anti-tumor properties of this strain and investigate to which extent an intra-tumoral (i.t.) route of infection could help improve safety and retain advantages of systemic intravenous (i.v.) application. Our results show that i.t. infection exhibits therapeutic efficacy against CT26 and F1.A11 tumors similar to a systemic route of inoculation. Moreover, i.t. application allows extensive dose titration without compromising tumor colonization. Adverse colonization of healthy organs was generally reduced via i.t. infection and accompanied by less body weight loss of the murine host. Despite local application, adjuvanticity remained, and a CT26-specific CD8+ T cell response was effectively stimulated. Most interestingly, also secondary tumors could be targeted with this strategy, thereby extending the unique tumor targeting ability of Salmonella. The i.t. route of inoculation may reap the benefits of systemic infection and aid in safety assurance while directing potency of an oncolytic vector to where it is most needed, namely the primary tumor.

  8. From Ugly Duckling to Swan: Unexpected Identification from Cell-SELEX of an Anti-Annexin A2 Aptamer Targeting Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Cibiel, Agnes; Nguyen Quang, Nam; Gombert, Karine; Thézé, Benoit; Garofalakis, Anikitos; Ducongé, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Background Cell-SELEX is now widely used for the selection of aptamers against cell surface biomarkers. However, despite negative selection steps using mock cells, this method sometimes results in aptamers against undesirable targets that are expressed both on mock and targeted cells. Studying these junk aptamers might be useful for further applications than those originally envisaged. Methodology/Principal Findings Cell-SELEX was performed to identify aptamers against CHO-K1 cells expressing human Endothelin type B receptor (ETBR). CHO-K1 cells were used for negative selection of aptamers. Several aptamers were identified but no one could discriminate between both cell lines. We decided to study one of these aptamers, named ACE4, and we identified that it binds to the Annexin A2, a protein overexpressed in many cancers. Radioactive binding assays and flow cytometry demonstrated that the aptamer was able to bind several cancer cell lines from different origins, particularly the MCF-7 cells. Fluorescence microscopy revealed it could be completely internalized in cells in 2 hours. Finally, the tumor targeting of the aptamer was evaluated in vivo in nude mice xenograft with MCF-7 cells using fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (fDOT) imaging. Three hours after intravenous injection, the aptamer demonstrated a significantly higher uptake in the tumor compared to a scramble sequence. Conclusions/Significance Although aptamers could be selected during cell-SELEX against other targets than those initially intended, they represent a potential source of ligands for basic research, diagnoses and therapy. Here, studying such aptamers, we identify one with high affinity for Annexin A2 that could be a promising tool for biomedical application. PMID:24489826

  9. The effects of RNA interference mediated VEGF gene silencing on biological behavior of renal cell carcinoma and transplanted renal tumor in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Wang, Shuai; Sun, Si-Qiao; Cheng, Zhi-Hua; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Guang; Gu, Meng; Yao, Hai-Jun; Wang, Zhong; Zhou, Juan; Peng, Yu-Bing; Xu, Ming-Xi; Zhang, Ke; Sun, Xi-Wei

    2016-01-01

    This study was to explore the effects of RNA interference mediated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene silencing on biological behavior of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), transplanted renal tumor and angiogenesis in nude mice. The specific siRNA sequence targeting VEGF were designed and synthesized to construct hVEGF-siRNA plasmid which was transfected into RCC 786-O cells. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used for the detection of VEGF gene expression and western blot was adopted for the examination of VEGF protein expression. The 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to detect cell growth as well as cell migration and invasion. The transplanted renal tumor models in nude mice were established, and the growth condition of nude mice, and VEGF protein expression in transplanted tumor slices and the microvessel density (MVD) were detected. The expression level of VEGF mRNA in VEGF-siRNA group was significant lower than that in the control group and negative group, suggesting that establishment of plasmid specifically inhibited the expression of VEGF gene The expression level of VEGF protein in VEGF-siRNA group was significant lower than that in the control group and negative group. VEGF gene silencing has the significant inhibition effects on proliferation, migration and invasion of RCC 786-O cells. The tumor weight, VEGF protein positive rate and MVD in VEGF-siRNA group were significant lower than those in negative group and blank group. The VEGF gene silencing could inhibit the cell proliferation, migration and invasion of RCC 786-O cells; inhibition of VEGF protein expression could prevent transplanted RCC growth and tumor angiogenesis.

  10. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors of the lung carrying a chimeric A2M-ALK gene: report of 2 infantile cases and review of the differential diagnosis of infantile pulmonary lesions.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Mio; Kohashi, Kenichi; Kushitani, Kei; Yoshida, Misa; Kurihara, Sho; Kawashima, Masumi; Ueda, Yuka; Souzaki, Ryota; Kinoshita, Yoshiaki; Oda, Yoshinao; Takeshima, Yukio; Hiyama, Eiso; Taguchi, Tomoaki; Tanaka, Yukichi

    2017-08-01

    We report 2 infantile cases of pulmonary tumor carrying a chimeric A2M-ALK gene. A2M-ALK is a newly identified anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-related chimeric gene from a tumor diagnosed as fetal lung interstitial tumor (FLIT). FLIT is a recently recognized infantile pulmonary lesion defined as a mass-like lesion that morphologically resembles the fetal lung. Grossly, FLIT characteristically appears as a well-circumscribed spongy mass, whereas the tumors in these patients were solid and firm. Histologically, the tumors showed intrapulmonary lesions composed of densely proliferating polygonal or spindle-shaped mesenchymal cells with diffuse and dense infiltrations of inflammatory cells forming microcystic or micropapillary structures lined by thyroid transcription factor 1-positive pneumocytes, favoring inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor rather than FLIT. The proliferating cells were immunoreactive for ALK, and A2M-ALK was identified in both tumors with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The dense infiltration of inflammatory cells, immunoreactivity for ALK, and identification of an ALK-related chimeric gene suggested a diagnosis of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. Histologically, most reported FLITs show sparse inflammatory infiltrates and a relatively low density of interstitial cells in the septa, although prominent infiltration of inflammatory cells and high cellularity of interstitial cells are seen in some FLITs. The present cases suggest that ALK rearrangements, including the chimeric A2M-ALK gene, may be present in these infantile pulmonary lesions, especially those with inflammatory cell infiltration. We propose that these infantile pulmonary lesions containing a chimeric A2M-ALK gene be categorized as a specific type of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor that develops exclusively in neonates and infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Constitutive NF-κB activation and tumor-growth promotion by Romo1-mediated reactive oxygen species production

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Jin Sil; Lee, Sora; Yoo, Young Do, E-mail: ydy1130@korea.ac.kr

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Romo1 expression is required for constitutive nuclear DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. • Romo1 depletion suppresses tumor growth in vivo. • Romo1 presents a potential therapeutic target for diseases. - Abstract: Deregulation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and related pathways contribute to tumor cell proliferation and invasion. Mechanisms for constitutive NF-κB activation are not fully explained; however, the underlying defects appear to generate and maintain pro-oxidative conditions. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues, up-regulation of reactive oxygen species modulator 1 (Romo1) correlates positively with tumor size. In the present study, we showed that Romo1 expression is required to maintain constitutive nuclearmore » DNA-binding activity of NF-κB and transcriptional activity through constitutive IκBα phosphorylation. Overexpression of Romo1 promoted p65 nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity. We also show that Romo1 depletion suppressed anchorage-independent colony formation by HCC cells and suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Based on these findings, Romo1 may be a principal regulatory factor in the maintenance of constitutive NF-κB activation in tumor cells. In the interest of anti-proliferative treatments for cancer, Romo1 may also present a productive target for drug development.« less

  12. Type I Interferons as Stimulators of DC-Mediated Cross-Priming: Impact on Anti-Tumor Response.

    PubMed

    Schiavoni, Giovanna; Mattei, Fabrizio; Gabriele, Lucia

    2013-12-25

    Induction of potent tumor-specific cytotoxic T-cell responses is a fundamental objective in anticancer therapeutic strategies. This event requires that antigen-presenting cells present tumor-associated antigens (Ag) on their MHC class-I molecule, in a process termed cross-presentation. Dendritic cells (DC) are particularly keen on this task and can induce the cross-priming of CD8(+) T cells, when exposed to danger or inflammatory signals that stimulate their activation. Type I interferons (IFN-I), a family of long-known immunostimulatory cytokines, have been proven to produce optimal activation signal for DC-induced cross-priming. Recent in vitro and in vivo evidences have suggested that IFN-I-stimulated cross-priming by DC against tumor-associated Ag is a key mechanism for cancer immunosurveillance and may be usefully exploited to boost anti-tumor CD8(+) T-cell responses. Here, we will review the cross-presentation properties of different DC subsets, with special focus on cell-associated and tumor Ag, and discuss how IFN-I can modify this function, with the aim of identifying more specific and effective strategies for improving anticancer responses.

  13. Type I Interferons as Stimulators of DC-Mediated Cross-Priming: Impact on Anti-Tumor Response

    PubMed Central

    Schiavoni, Giovanna; Mattei, Fabrizio; Gabriele, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Induction of potent tumor-specific cytotoxic T-cell responses is a fundamental objective in anticancer therapeutic strategies. This event requires that antigen-presenting cells present tumor-associated antigens (Ag) on their MHC class-I molecule, in a process termed cross-presentation. Dendritic cells (DC) are particularly keen on this task and can induce the cross-priming of CD8+ T cells, when exposed to danger or inflammatory signals that stimulate their activation. Type I interferons (IFN-I), a family of long-known immunostimulatory cytokines, have been proven to produce optimal activation signal for DC-induced cross-priming. Recent in vitro and in vivo evidences have suggested that IFN-I-stimulated cross-priming by DC against tumor-associated Ag is a key mechanism for cancer immunosurveillance and may be usefully exploited to boost anti-tumor CD8+ T-cell responses. Here, we will review the cross-presentation properties of different DC subsets, with special focus on cell-associated and tumor Ag, and discuss how IFN-I can modify this function, with the aim of identifying more specific and effective strategies for improving anticancer responses. PMID:24400008

  14. Aptamer-Mediated Codelivery of Doxorubicin and NF-κB Decoy Enhances Chemosensitivity of Pancreatic Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Porciani, David; Tedeschi, Lorena; Marchetti, Laura; Citti, Lorenzo; Piazza, Vincenzo; Beltram, Fabio; Signore, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Aptamers able to bind efficiently cell-surface receptors differentially expressed in tumor and in healthy cells are emerging as powerful tools to perform targeted anticancer therapy. Here, we present a novel oligonucleotide chimera, composed by an RNA aptamer and a DNA decoy. Our assembly is able to (i) target tumor cells via an antitransferrin receptor RNA aptamer and (ii) perform selective codelivery of a chemotherapeutic drug (Doxorubicin) and of an inhibitor of a cell-survival factor, the nuclear factor κB decoy oligonucleotide. Both payloads are released under conditions found in endolysosomal compartments (low pH and reductive environment). Targeting and cytotoxicity of the oligonucleotidic chimera were assessed by confocal microscopy, cell viability, and Western blot analysis. These data indicated that the nuclear factor κB decoy does inhibit nuclear factor κB activity and ultimately leads to an increased therapeutic efficacy of Doxorubicin selectively in tumor cells. PMID:25919089

  15. EphA2 modulates radiosensitive of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated signal pathways.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qiao; Li, Xiangjun; Cao, Peiguo

    2015-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the role of EPH receptor A2 (EphA2) in the modulation of radiosensitivity of hepatic cellular cancer (HCC) cells and to determine whether p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) signaling mediated EphA2 function in this respect. The protein expressions of EphA2 and phosphorylated p38MAPK were tested in HCC and normal hepatic tissues. In HCC 97H cells, EphA2 was overexpressed and knocked out by transfection with EphA2 expression vector and EphA2-ShRNA, respectively, prior to cell exposure to low-dose irradiation. Significantly upregulated EphA2 and phosphorylated p38MAPK were observed in HCC tissues, compared with those in normal hepatic tissues. Low-dose irradiation (1 Gy) only caused minor damage to HCC 97H cells, as assessed by alterations in cell viability, apoptosis rate, and cell healing capacity (p = 0.072, p = 0.078, and p = 0.069 respectively). However, EphA2 knock-out in HCC 97H cells induced significant reduction in cell viability and cell healing capacity after these cells were subjected to low-dose irradiation. Apoptosis rate underwent dramatic increase (p < 0.01). By contrast, EphA2 overexpression in HCC 97H cells reversed these effects and enhanced cell colony formation rate, thus displaying remarkable attenuation of radiosensitivity of HCC 97H cells. Further, SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38MAPK, was added to HCC 97H cells over-expressing EphA2. The effect of EphA2 overexpression on the radiosensitivity of HCC 97H cells was abrogated. Thus, the present study indicates that EphA2 have the ability to negatively regulate the radiosensitivity of HCC 97H cells, which mainly depends on 38MAPK-mediated signal pathways. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  16. Enhanced anti-tumor activity by the combination of a conditionally replicating adenovirus mediated interleukin-24 and dacarbazine against melanoma cells via induction of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guan; Liu, Yan-Qun; Wei, Zhi-Ping; Pei, Dong-Sheng; Mao, Li-Jun; Zheng, Jun-Nian

    2010-08-28

    Malignant melanoma is one of the most lethal and aggressive human malignancies. It is notoriously resistant to all of the current therapeutic modalities, including chemotherapy. Suppressed apoptosis and extraordinary invasiveness are the distinctive features that contribute to the malignancy of melanoma. Dacarbazine (DTIC) has been considered as the gold standard for melanoma treatment with a response rate of 15-20%. Unfortunately, the resistance to this chemotherapeutic agent occurs frequently. ZD55-IL-24 is a selective conditionally replicating adenovirus that can mediate the expression of interleukin-24 (IL-24) gene, which has a strong anti-tumor effect. In this study, we hypothesized that a combination of ZD55-IL-24-mediated gene virotherapy and chemotherapy using DTIC would produce an increased cytotoxicity against human melanoma cells in comparison with these agents alone. Our results showed that the combination of ZD55-IL-24 and DTIC significantly enhanced the anti-tumor activity by more effectively inducing apoptosis in melanoma cells than either agent used alone without any overlapping toxicity against normal cells. This additive or synergistic effect of ZD55-IL-24 in combination with DTIC in killing human malignant melanoma cells implies a promising novel approach for melanoma therapy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. TALEN mediated targeted editing of GM2/GD2-synthase gene modulates anchorage independent growth by reducing anoikis resistance in mouse tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Mahata, Barun; Banerjee, Avisek; Kundu, Manjari; Bandyopadhyay, Uday; Biswas, Kaushik

    2015-01-01

    Complex ganglioside expression is highly deregulated in several tumors which is further dependent on specific ganglioside synthase genes. Here, we designed and constructed a pair of highly specific transcription-activator like effector endonuclease (TALENs) to disrupt a particular genomic locus of mouse GM2-synthase, a region conserved in coding sequence of all four transcript variants of mouse GM2-synthase. Our designed TALENs effectively work in different mouse cell lines and TALEN induced mutation rate is over 45%. Clonal selection strategy is undertaken to generate stable GM2-synthase knockout cell line. We have also demonstrated non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) mediated integration of neomycin cassette into the TALEN targeted GM2-synthase locus. Functionally, clonally selected GM2-synthase knockout clones show reduced anchorage-independent growth (AIG), reduction in tumor growth and higher cellular adhesion as compared to wild type Renca-v cells. Insight into the mechanism shows that, reduced AIG is due to loss in anoikis resistance, as both knockout clones show increased sensitivity to detachment induced apoptosis. Therefore, TALEN mediated precise genome editing at GM2-synthase locus not only helps us in understanding the function of GM2-synthase gene and complex gangliosides in tumorigenicity but also holds tremendous potential to use TALENs in translational cancer research and therapeutics. PMID:25762467

  18. TALEN mediated targeted editing of GM2/GD2-synthase gene modulates anchorage independent growth by reducing anoikis resistance in mouse tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Mahata, Barun; Banerjee, Avisek; Kundu, Manjari; Bandyopadhyay, Uday; Biswas, Kaushik

    2015-03-12

    Complex ganglioside expression is highly deregulated in several tumors which is further dependent on specific ganglioside synthase genes. Here, we designed and constructed a pair of highly specific transcription-activator like effector endonuclease (TALENs) to disrupt a particular genomic locus of mouse GM2-synthase, a region conserved in coding sequence of all four transcript variants of mouse GM2-synthase. Our designed TALENs effectively work in different mouse cell lines and TALEN induced mutation rate is over 45%. Clonal selection strategy is undertaken to generate stable GM2-synthase knockout cell line. We have also demonstrated non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) mediated integration of neomycin cassette into the TALEN targeted GM2-synthase locus. Functionally, clonally selected GM2-synthase knockout clones show reduced anchorage-independent growth (AIG), reduction in tumor growth and higher cellular adhesion as compared to wild type Renca-v cells. Insight into the mechanism shows that, reduced AIG is due to loss in anoikis resistance, as both knockout clones show increased sensitivity to detachment induced apoptosis. Therefore, TALEN mediated precise genome editing at GM2-synthase locus not only helps us in understanding the function of GM2-synthase gene and complex gangliosides in tumorigenicity but also holds tremendous potential to use TALENs in translational cancer research and therapeutics.

  19. Bone sialoprotein mediates the tumor cell-targeted prometastatic activity of transforming growth factor beta in a mouse model of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nam, Jeong-Seok; Suchar, Adam M; Kang, Mi-Jin; Stuelten, Christina H; Tang, Binwu; Michalowska, Aleksandra M; Fisher, Larry W; Fedarko, Neal S; Jain, Alka; Pinkas, Jan; Lonning, Scott; Wakefield, Lalage M

    2006-06-15

    Transforming growth factor betas (TGF-beta) play a dual role in carcinogenesis, functioning as tumor suppressors early in the process, and then switching to act as prometastatic factors in late-stage disease. We have previously shown that high molecular weight TGF-beta antagonists can suppress metastasis without the predicted toxicities. To address the underlying mechanisms, we have used the 4T1 syngeneic mouse model of metastatic breast cancer. Treatment of mice with a monoclonal anti-TGF-beta antibody (1D11) significantly suppressed metastasis of 4T1 cells to the lungs. When metastatic 4T1 cells were recovered from lungs of 1D11-treated and control mice, the most differentially expressed gene was found to be bone sialoprotein (Bsp). Immunostaining confirmed the loss of Bsp protein in 1D11-treated lung metastases, and TGF-beta was shown to regulate and correlate with Bsp expression in vitro. Functionally, knockdown of Bsp in 4T1 cells reduced the ability of TGF-beta to induce local collagen degradation and invasion in vitro, and treatment with recombinant Bsp protected 4T1 cells from complement-mediated lysis. Finally, suppression of Bsp in 4T1 cells reduced metastasis in vivo. We conclude that Bsp is a plausible mediator of at least some of the tumor cell-targeted prometastatic activity of TGF-beta in this model and that Bsp expression in metastases can be successfully suppressed by systemic treatment with anti-TGF-beta antibodies.

  20. The eukaryotic translation elongation factor eEF1A2 induces neoplastic properties and mediates tumorigenic effects of ZNF217 in precursor cells of human ovarian carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yu; Wong, Nicholas; Guan, Yinghui

    2008-04-25

    Ovarian epithelial carcinomas (OEC) frequently exhibit amplifications at the 20q13 locus which is the site of several oncogenes, including the eukaryotic elongation factor EEF1A2 and the transcription factor ZNF217. We reported previously that overexpressed ZNF217 induces neoplastic characteristics in precursor cells of OEC. Unexpectedly, ZNF217, which is a transcriptional repressor, enhanced expression of eEF1A2. In this study, array comparative genomic hybridization, single nucleotide polymorphism and Affymetrix analysis of ZNF217-overexpressing cell lines confirmed consistently increased expression of eEF1A2 but not of other oncogenes, and revealed early changes in EEF1A2 gene copy numbers and increased expression at crisis during immortalization. We definedmore » the influence of eEF1A2 overexpression on immortalized ovarian surface epithelial cells, and investigated interrelationships between effects of ZNF217 and eEF1A2 on cellular phenotypes. Lentivirally induced eEF1A2 overexpression caused delayed crisis, apoptosis resistance and increases in serum-independence, saturation densities, and anchorage independence. siRNA to eEF1A2 reversed apoptosis resistance and reduced anchorage independence in eEF1A2-overexpressing lines. Remarkably, siRNA to eEF1A2 was equally efficient in inhibiting both anchorage independence and resistance to apoptosis conferred by ZNF217 overexpression. Our data define neoplastic properties that are caused by eEF1A2 in nontumorigenic ovarian cancer precursor cells, and suggest that eEF1A2 plays a role in mediating ZNF217-induced neoplastic progression.« less

  1. Phytochrome-mediated synthesis of novel growth inhibitors, A-2α and β, and dwarfism in peas.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, H; Hashimoto, T

    1990-05-01

    Variations in the content of A-2α and β, novel endogenous growth inhibitors, andcis,trans- andtrans, trans-xanthoxins were determined in 6- or 7-d-old, dark-grown seedlings of peas (Pisum sativum L. cvs. Progress No. 9, dwarf, and Alaska, tall) under various treatments with red light (R), and compared with R-induced growth inhibition. After transfer of the plants to continuous R the contents of the A-2s in cv. Progress increased after a 20-min lag, and reached plateaus after 12 h, whereas they remained almost unchanged in darkness. Both the rates of increase of the A-2s and the plateau levels were proportional to the logarithm of the irradiance applied. After a 10-min R pulse, the contents of both A-2α and β increased with the same rapidity to reach peaks after 6 h, and then gradually decreased to the initial levels after about 24 h. The effect of R was shown to be phytochrome-dependent, being nullified by far-red light. The level of neithercis,trans- nortrans,trans-xanthoxin showed such a close correlation with growth inhibition, although both xanthoxins increased as a result of phytochrome action. It is highly suggestive that the A-2s, rather than the xanthoxins, are responsible for phytochrome-dependent growth inhibition in cv. Progress. In cv. Alaska, in contrast, R-induced increase of the A-2s was rapid but slight, and could not explain the transient growth inhibition, which was found to be as large as that in cv. Progress shortly after the onset of R. The large content of the A-2s in cv. Progress in the steady state under continuous R, compared with that in cv. Alaska, may explain the dwarfism of cv. Progress.

  2. Adenovirus-mediated interleukin-18 mutant in vivo gene transfer inhibits tumor growth through the induction of T cell immunity and activation of natural killer cell cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kyung-Sun; Cho, Won-Kyung; Yoo, Jinsang; Seong, Young Rim; Kim, Bum-Kyeng; Kim, Samyong; Im, Dong-Soo

    2004-06-01

    We report here that gene transfer using recombinant adenoviruses encoding interleukin (IL)-18 mutants induces potent antitumor activity in vivo. The precursor form of IL-18 (ProIL-18) is processed by caspase-1 to produce bioactive IL-18, but its cleavage by caspase-3 (CPP32) produces an inactive form. To prepare IL-18 molecules with an effective antitumor activity, a murine IL-18 mutant with the signal sequence of murine granulocyte-macrophage (GM)- colony stimulating factor (CSF) at the 5'-end of mature IL-18 cDNA (GMmIL-18) and human IL-18 mutant with the prepro leader sequence of trypsin (PPT), which is not cleaved by caspase-3 (PPThIL-18CPP32-), respectively, were constructed. Adenovirus vectors carrying GMmIL-18 or PPThIL-18CPP32- produced bioactive IL-18. Ad.GMmIL-18 had a more potent antitumor effect than Ad.mProIL-18 encoding immature IL-18 in renal cell adenocarcinoma (Renca) tumor-bearing mice. Tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, the induction of Th1 cytokines, and an augmented natural killer (NK) cell activity were detected in Renca tumor-bearing mice treated with Ad.GMmIL-18. An immunohistological analysis revealed that CD4+ and CD8+ T cells abundantly infiltrated into tumors of mice treated with Ad.GMmIL-18. Huh-7 human hepatoma tumor growth in nude mice with a defect of T cell function was significantly inhibited by Ad.PPThIL-18CPP32- compared with Ad.hProIL-18 encoding immature IL-18. Nude mice treated with Ad.PPThIL-18CPP32- contained NK cells with increased cytotoxicity. The results suggest that the release of mature IL-18 in tumors is required for achieving an antitumor effect including tumor-specific cellular immunity and augmented NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. These optimally designed IL-18 mutants could be useful for improving the antitumor effectiveness of wild-type IL-18. Copyright 2004 Nature Publishing Group

  3. Slc3a2 Mediates Branched-Chain Amino-Acid-Dependent Maintenance of Regulatory T Cells.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Kayo; Kinoshita, Makoto; Kayama, Hisako; Nagamori, Shushi; Kongpracha, Pornparn; Umemoto, Eiji; Okumura, Ryu; Kurakawa, Takashi; Murakami, Mari; Mikami, Norihisa; Shintani, Yasunori; Ueno, Satoko; Andou, Ayatoshi; Ito, Morihiro; Tsumura, Hideki; Yasutomo, Koji; Ozono, Keiichi; Takashima, Seiji; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2017-11-14

    Foxp3 + regulatory T (Treg) cells, which suppress immune responses, are highly proliferative in vivo. However, it remains unclear how the active replication of Treg cells is maintained in vivo. Here, we show that branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), including isoleucine, are required for maintenance of the proliferative state of Treg cells via the amino acid transporter Slc3a2-dependent metabolic reprogramming. Mice fed BCAA-reduced diets showed decreased numbers of Foxp3 + Treg cells with defective in vivo proliferative capacity. Mice lacking Slc3a2 specifically in Foxp3 + Treg cells showed impaired in vivo replication and decreased numbers of Treg cells. Slc3a2-deficient Treg cells showed impaired isoleucine-induced activation of the mTORC1 pathway and an altered metabolic state. Slc3a2 mutant mice did not show an isoleucine-induced increase of Treg cells in vivo and exhibited multi-organ inflammation. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that BCAA controls Treg cell maintenance via Slc3a2-dependent metabolic regulation. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. EZH2 is a mediator of EWS/FLI1 driven tumor growth and metastasis blocking endothelial and neuro-ectodermal differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Günther H. S.; Plehm, Stephanie; Fasan, Annette; Rössler, Sabine; Unland, Rebekka; Bennani-Baiti, Idriss M.; Hotfilder, Marc; Löwel, Diana; von Luettichau, Irene; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Kovar, Heinrich; Staege, Martin S.; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Burdach, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Ewing tumors (ET) are highly malignant, localized in bone or soft tissue, and are molecularly defined by ews/ets translocations. DNA microarray analysis revealed a relationship of ET to both endothelium and fetal neural crest. We identified expression of histone methyltransferase enhancer of Zeste, Drosophila, Homolog 2 (EZH2) to be increased in ET. Suppressive activity of EZH2 maintains stemness in normal and malignant cells. Here, we found EWS/FLI1 bound to the EZH2 promoter in vivo, and induced EZH2 expression in ET and mesenchymal stem cells. Down-regulation of EZH2 by RNA interference in ET suppressed oncogenic transformation by inhibiting clonogenicity in vitro. Similarly, tumor development and metastasis was suppressed in immunodeficient Rag2−/−γC−/− mice. EZH2-mediated gene silencing was shown to be dependent on histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. Subsequent microarray analysis of EZH2 knock down, HDAC-inhibitor treatment and confirmation in independent assays revealed an undifferentiated phenotype maintained by EZH2 in ET. EZH2 regulated stemness genes such as nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), as well as genes involved in neuroectodermal and endothelial differentiation (EMP1, EPHB2, GFAP, and GAP43). These data suggest that EZH2 might have a central role in ET pathology by shaping the oncogenicity and stem cell phenotype of this tumor. PMID:19289832

  5. Interruption of the Sequential Release of Small and Large Molecules from Tumor Cells by Low Temperature During Cytolysis Mediated by Immune T-Cells or Complement

    PubMed Central

    Martz, Eric; Burakoff, Steven J.; Benacerraf, Baruj

    1974-01-01

    Specific lysis of tumor cells by thymus-derived lymphocytes from alloimmunized mice (T-effector specific lysis) was studied with target cells labeled with isotopes attached to both small (14C-labeled nicotinamide) and large (51Cr-labeled) molecules. The results confirm and extend previous reports that target cells release small molecules considerably earlier than large molecules during T-effector specific lysis. After interruption of T-effector specific lysis by specific antibody and complement directed against the killer cells, or by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, release of both isotopes continued, eventually reaching identical levels of specific release, the value of which represents the fraction of the target cell population which had been committed to die at the time these treatments were applied. On the other hand, release of both isotopes during T-effector specific lysis stops immediately when the cultures are cooled to 0°. Thus, while ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid or specific complement-mediated lysis of the killer cells merely prevents the initiation of any new damage to target cells, cooling to 0° also stops the lytic process in already-damaged target cells. The colloid osmotic phase of target cell lysis induced by specific antibody and complement was similarly stopped at 0° in tumor cells, but not in erythrocytes. Thus, in tumor target cells, both T-effector specific lysis and complement cause a sequential release of progressively larger molecules which can be immediately stopped at any point by cooling to 0°. PMID:4359327

  6. The role of slow and persistent TTX-resistant sodium currents in acute tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated increase in nociceptors excitability

    PubMed Central

    Gudes, Sagi; Barkai, Omer; Caspi, Yaki; Katz, Ben; Lev, Shaya

    2014-01-01

    Tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-r) sodium channels are key players in determining the input-output properties of peripheral nociceptive neurons. Changes in gating kinetics or in expression levels of these channels by proinflammatory mediators are likely to cause the hyperexcitability of nociceptive neurons and pain hypersensitivity observed during inflammation. Proinflammatory mediator, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), is secreted during inflammation and is associated with the early onset, as well as long-lasting, inflammation-mediated increase in excitability of peripheral nociceptive neurons. Here we studied the underlying mechanisms of the rapid component of TNF-α-mediated nociceptive hyperexcitability and acute pain hypersensitivity. We showed that TNF-α leads to rapid onset, cyclooxygenase-independent pain hypersensitivity in adult rats. Furthermore, TNF-α rapidly and substantially increases nociceptive excitability in vitro, by decreasing action potential threshold, increasing neuronal gain and decreasing accommodation. We extended on previous studies entailing p38 MAPK-dependent increase in TTX-r sodium currents by showing that TNF-α via p38 MAPK leads to increased availability of TTX-r sodium channels by partial relief of voltage dependence of their slow inactivation, thereby contributing to increase in neuronal gain. Moreover, we showed that TNF-α also in a p38 MAPK-dependent manner increases persistent TTX-r current by shifting the voltage dependence of activation to a hyperpolarized direction, thus producing an increase in inward current at functionally critical subthreshold voltages. Our results suggest that rapid modulation of the gating of TTX-r sodium channels plays a major role in the mediated nociceptive hyperexcitability of TNF-α during acute inflammation and may lead to development of effective treatments for inflammatory pain, without modulating the inflammation-induced healing processes. PMID:25355965

  7. Chlorella sorokiniana induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer cells and inhibits xenograft tumor growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ping-Yi; Tsai, Ching-Tsan; Chuang, Wan-Ling; Chao, Ya-Hsuan; Pan, I-Horng; Chen, Yu-Kuo; Lin, Chi-Chen; Wang, Bing-Yen

    2017-02-01

    Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths worldwide. Marine microalgae are a source of biologically active compounds and are widely consumed as a nutritional supplement in East Asian countries. It has been reported that Chlorella or Chlorella extracts have various beneficial pharmacological compounds that modulate immune responses; however, no studies have investigated the anti-cancer effects of Chlorella sorokiniana (CS) on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we evaluated the anti-cancer effects of CS in two human NSCLC cell lines (A549 and CL1-5 human lung adenocarcinoma cells), and its effects on tumor growth in a subcutaneous xenograft tumor model. We also investigated the possible molecular mechanisms governing the pharmacological function of CS. Our results showed that exposure of the two cell lines to CS resulted in a concentration-dependent reduction in cell viability. In addition, the percentage of apoptotic cells increased in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that CS might induce apoptosis in human NSCLC cells. Western blot analysis revealed that exposure to CS resulted in increased protein expression of the cleaved/activated forms of caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP, except caspase-8. ZDEVD (caspase-3 inhibitor) and Z-LEHD (caspase-9 inhibitor) were sufficient at preventing apoptosis in both A549 and CL1-5 cells, proving that CS induced cell death via the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. Exposure of A549 and CL1-5 cells to CS for 24 h resulted in decreased expression of Bcl-2 protein and increased expression of Bax protein as well as decreased expression of two IAP family proteins, survivin and XIAP. We demonstrated that CS induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in NSCLC cells via downregulation of Bcl-2, XIAP and survivin. In addition, we also found that the tumors growth of subcutaneous xenograft in vivo was markedly inhibited after oral intake of CS.

  8. Regulation of monocarboxylate transporter MCT1 expression by p53 mediates inward and outward lactate fluxes in tumors.

    PubMed

    Boidot, Romain; Végran, Frédérique; Meulle, Aline; Le Breton, Aude; Dessy, Chantal; Sonveaux, Pierre; Lizard-Nacol, Sarab; Feron, Olivier

    2012-02-15

    The monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) family member MCT1 can transport lactate into and out of tumor cells. Whereas most oxidative cancer cells import lactate through MCT1 to fuel mitochondrial respiration, the role of MCT1 in glycolysis-derived lactate efflux remains less clear. In this study, we identified a direct link between p53 function and MCT1 expression. Under hypoxic conditions, p53 loss promoted MCT1 expression and lactate export produced by elevated glycolytic flux, both in vitro and in vivo. p53 interacted directly with the MCT1 gene promoter and altered MCT1 mRNA stabilization. In hypoxic p53(-/-) tumor cells, NF-κB further supported expression of MCT1 to elevate its levels. Following glucose deprivation, upregulated MCT1 in p53(-/-) cells promoted lactate import and favored cell proliferation by fuelling mitochondrial respiration. We also found that MCT1 expression was increased in human breast tumors harboring p53 mutations and coincident features of hypoxia, with higher MCT1 levels associated with poorer clinical outcomes. Together, our findings identify MCT1 as a target for p53 repression and they suggest that MCT1 elevation in p53-deficient tumors allows them to adapt to metabolic needs by facilitating lactate export or import depending on the glucose availability.

  9. Compounds from the marine sponge Cribrochalina vasculum offer a way to target IGF-1R mediated signaling in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Zovko, Ana; Novak, Metka; Hååg, Petra; Kovalerchick, Dimitry; Holmlund, Teresa; Färnegårdh, Katarina; Ilan, Micha; Carmeli, Shmuel; Lewensohn, Rolf; Viktorsson, Kristina

    2016-08-02

    In this work two acetylene alcohols, compound 1 and compound 2, which were isolated and identified from the sponge Cribrochalina vasculum, and which showed anti-tumor effects were further studied with respect to targets and action mechanisms. Gene expression analyses suggested insulin like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) signaling to be instrumental in controlling anti-tumor efficacy of these compounds in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Indeed compounds 1 and 2 inhibited phosphorylation of IGF-1Rβ as well as reduced its target signaling molecules IRS-1 and PDK1 allowing inhibition of pro-survival signaling. In silico docking indicated that compound 1 binds to the kinase domain of IGF-1R at the same binding site as the well known tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1024. Indeed, cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA) confirmed that C. vasculum compound 1 binds to IGF-1R but not to the membrane localized tyrosine kinase receptor EGFR. Importantly, we demonstrate that compound 1 causes IGF-1Rβ but not Insulin Receptor degradation specifically in tumor cells with no effects seen in normal diploid fibroblasts. Thus, these compounds hold potential as novel therapeutic agents targeting IGF-1R signaling for anti-tumor treatment.

  10. Viral antigen mediated NKp46 activation of NK cells results in tumor rejection via NK-DC crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Chinnery, Fay; King, Catherine A.; Elliott, Tim; Bateman, Andrew R.; James, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a critical role in antitumor immunity, their activation being regulated through NK cell receptors. Although the endogenous ligands for these receptors are largely unknown, viral ligands have been identified. We investigated the ability of an activating NK receptor ligand derived from the mumps virus, haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) to enhance NK activation against tumor cells. HN-expressing B16.OVA tumor cells induced stronger activation of NK cells compared with B16.OVA cells and also promoted dendritic cell (DC) activation toward a DC1 phenotype, in vitro. Moreover, incubation of DCs, NK cells and HN-expressing B16-OVA cells further enhanced NK cell activation through the NK-DC crosstalk, in a cell-to-cell contact- and IL-12-dependent fashion. Immunization of mice with HN-expressing B16-OVA cells resulted in > 85% survival rate after subsequent challenge with parental B16 or B16.OVA tumor cells. Tumor rejection was dependent on both NK and CD8+ T cells but not on CD4+ T cells, demonstrating induction of an effective adaptive immune response through innate immune cell activation. Our data indicate the potential of using robust NK cell activation, which through the NK-DC crosstalk stimulates effective antitumor responses, providing an alternate vaccine strategy. PMID:23162755

  11. Compounds from the marine sponge Cribrochalina vasculum offer a way to target IGF-1R mediated signaling in tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Zovko, Ana; Novak, Metka; Hååg, Petra; Kovalerchick, Dimitry; Holmlund, Teresa; Färnegårdh, Katarina; Ilan, Micha; Carmeli, Shmuel; Lewensohn, Rolf; Viktorsson, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    In this work two acetylene alcohols, compound 1 and compound 2, which were isolated and identified from the sponge Cribrochalina vasculum, and which showed anti-tumor effects were further studied with respect to targets and action mechanisms. Gene expression analyses suggested insulin like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) signaling to be instrumental in controlling anti-tumor efficacy of these compounds in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Indeed compounds 1 and 2 inhibited phosphorylation of IGF-1Rβ as well as reduced its target signaling molecules IRS-1 and PDK1 allowing inhibition of pro-survival signaling. In silico docking indicated that compound 1 binds to the kinase domain of IGF-1R at the same binding site as the well known tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1024. Indeed, cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA) confirmed that C. vasculum compound 1 binds to IGF-1R but not to the membrane localized tyrosine kinase receptor EGFR. Importantly, we demonstrate that compound 1 causes IGF-1Rβ but not Insulin Receptor degradation specifically in tumor cells with no effects seen in normal diploid fibroblasts. Thus, these compounds hold potential as novel therapeutic agents targeting IGF-1R signaling for anti-tumor treatment. PMID:27384680

  12. Surgical Stress Abrogates Pre-Existing Protective T Cell Mediated Anti-Tumor Immunity Leading to Postoperative Cancer Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Lansdell, Casey; Alkayyal, Almohanad A.; Baxter, Katherine E.; Angka, Leonard; Zhang, Jiqing; Tanese de Souza, Christiano; Stephenson, Kyle B.; Parato, Kelley; Bramson, Jonathan L.; Bell, John C.; Lichty, Brian D.; Auer, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-tumor CD8+ T cells are a key determinant for overall survival in patients following surgical resection for solid malignancies. Using a mouse model of cancer vaccination (adenovirus expressing melanoma tumor-associated antigen (TAA)—dopachrome tautomerase (AdDCT) and resection resulting in major surgical stress (abdominal nephrectomy), we demonstrate that surgical stress results in a reduction in the number of CD8+ T cell that produce cytokines (IFNγ, TNFα, Granzyme B) in response to TAA. This effect is secondary to both reduced proliferation and impaired T cell function following antigen binding. In a prophylactic model, surgical stress completely abrogates tumor protection conferred by vaccination in the immediate postoperative period. In a clinically relevant surgical resection model, vaccinated mice undergoing a positive margin resection with surgical stress had decreased survival compared to mice with positive margin resection alone. Preoperative immunotherapy with IFNα significantly extends survival in surgically stressed mice. Importantly, myeloid derived suppressor cell (MDSC) population numbers and functional impairment of TAA-specific CD8+ T cell were altered in surgically stressed mice. Our observations suggest that cancer progression may result from surgery-induced suppression of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells. Preoperative immunotherapies aimed at targeting the prometastatic effects of cancer surgery will reduce recurrence and improve survival in cancer surgery patients. PMID:27196057

  13. Core-shell nanosized assemblies mediated by the alpha-beta cyclodextrin dimer with a tumor-triggered targeting property.

    PubMed

    Quan, Chang-Yun; Chen, Jing-Xiao; Wang, Hui-Yuan; Li, Cao; Chang, Cong; Zhang, Xian-Zheng; Zhuo, Ren-Xi

    2010-07-27

    In this paper, the alpha-beta cyclodextrin dimer is designed via "click" chemistry to connect the hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments to form self-assembled noncovalently connected micelles (NCCMs) through host-guest interactions. A peptide containing the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence was introduced to NCCMs as a target ligand to improve the cell uptake efficacy, while PEGylated technology was employed via benzoic-imine bonds to protect the ligands in normal tissues and body fluid. In addition, two fluorescent dyes were conjugated to different segments to track the formation of the micelles as well as the assemblies. It was found that the targeting property of NCCMs was switched off before reaching the tumor sites and switched on after removing the poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) segment in the tumor sites, which was called "tumor-triggered targeting". With deshielding of the PEG segment, the drugs loaded in NCCMs could be released rapidly due to the thermoinduced phase transition. The new concept of "tumor-triggered targeting" proposed here has great potential for cancer treatment.

  14. Scutellaria flavonoids inhibit tumor-mediated induction of Treg cells via inhibition of TGF-ß1 activity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It has become evident that tumor-induced Treg cell activity is mostly responsible for the sub-optimal response to therapeutic vaccines. Development of neo-adjuvant strategies targeting TGF-ß and Treg cell activity is therefore imperative. Scutellaria extracts or constituent flavonoids have shown e...

  15. Neutrophil-derived 5′-Adenosine Monophosphate Promotes Endothelial Barrier Function via CD73-mediated Conversion to Adenosine and Endothelial A2B Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, Paul F.; Taylor, Cormac T.; Stahl, Gregory L.; Colgan, Sean P.

    1998-01-01

    During episodes of inflammation, polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) transendothelial migration has the potential to disturb vascular barrier function and give rise to intravascular fluid extravasation and edema. However, little is known regarding innate mechanisms that dampen fluid loss during PMN-endothelial interactions. Using an in vitro endothelial paracellular permeability model, we observed a PMN-mediated decrease in endothelial paracellular permeability. A similar decrease was elicited by cell-free supernatants from activated PMN (FMLP 10−6 M), suggesting the presence of a PMN-derived soluble mediator(s). Biophysical and biochemical analysis of PMN supernatants revealed a role for PMN-derived 5′-adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and its metabolite, adenosine, in modulation of endothelial paracellular permeability. Supernatants from activated PMN contained micromolar concentrations of bioactive 5′-AMP and adenosine. Furthermore, exposure of endothelial monolayers to authentic 5′-AMP and adenosine increased endothelial barrier function more than twofold in both human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human microvascular endothelial cells. 5′-AMP bioactivity required endothelial CD73-mediated conversion of 5′-AMP to adenosine via its 5′-ectonucleotidase activity. Decreased endothelial paracellular permeability occurred through adenosine A2B receptor activation and was accompanied by a parallel increase in intracellular cAMP. We conclude that activated PMN release soluble mediators, such as 5′-AMP and adenosine, that promote endothelial barrier function. During inflammation, this pathway may limit potentially deleterious increases in endothelial paracellular permeability and could serve as a basic mechanism of endothelial resealing during PMN transendothelial migration. PMID:9782120

  16. RGD peptide-mediated chitosan-based polymeric micelles targeting delivery for integrin-overexpressing tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Cai, Li-Li; Liu, Ping; Li, Xi; Huang, Xuan; Ye, Yi-Qing; Chen, Feng-Ying; Yuan, Hong; Hu, Fu-Qiang; Du, Yong-Zhong

    2011-01-01

    Solid tumors need new blood vessels to feed and nourish them as well as to allow tumor cells to escape into the circulation and lodge in other organs, which is termed "angiogenesis." Some tumor cells within solid tumors can overexpress integrins α(v)β(3) and α(v)β(5), which can specifically recognize the peptide motif Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD). Thus, the targeting of RGD-modified micelles to tumor vasculature is a promising strategy for tumor-targeting treatment. RGD peptide (GSSSGRGDSPA) was coupled to poly(ethylene glycol)-modified stearic acid-grafted chitosan (PEG-CS-SA) micelles via chemical reaction in the presence of N,N'-Disuccinimidyl carbonate. The critical micelle concentration of the polymeric micelles was determined by measuring the fluorescence intensity of pyrene as a fluorescent probe. The micelle size, size distribution, and zeta potential were measured by light scattering and electrophoretic mobility. Doxorubicin (DOX) was chosen as a model anticancer drug to investigate the drug entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug-release profile, and in vitro antitumor activities of drug-loaded RGD-PEG-CS-SA micelles in cells that overexpress integrins (α(ν)β(3) and α(ν)β(5)) and integrin-deficient cells. Using DOX as a model drug, the drug encapsulation efficiency could reach 90%, and the in vitro drug-release profiles suggested that the micelles could be used as a controlled-release carrier for the hydrophobic drug. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of cellular uptake indicated that RGD-modified micelles could significantly increase the DOX concentration in integrin-overexpressing human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (BEL-7402), but not in human epithelial carcinoma cell line (Hela). The competitive cellular-uptake test showed that the cellular uptake of RGD-modified micelles in BEL-7402 cells was significantly inhibited in the presence of excess free RGD peptides. In vitro cytotoxicity tests demonstrated DOX-loaded RGD-modified micelles could

  17. p75 Neurotrophin Receptor Cleavage by α- and γ-Secretases Is Required for Neurotrophin-mediated Proliferation of Brain Tumor-initiating Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Peter A.; Krishna, Niveditha; Lawn, Samuel; Valadez, J. Gerardo; Qu, Xiaotao; Fenstermacher, David A.; Fournier, Michelle; Potthast, Lisa; Chinnaiyan, Prakash; Gibney, Geoffrey T.; Zeinieh, Michele; Barker, Philip A.; Carter, Bruce D.; Cooper, Michael K.; Kenchappa, Rajappa S.

    2014-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are highly invasive, proliferative, and resistant to treatment. Previously, we have shown that p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) is a novel mediator of invasion of human glioma cells. However, the role of p75NTR in glioma proliferation is unknown. Here we used brain tumor-initiating cells (BTICs) and show that BTICs express neurotrophin receptors (p75NTR, TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC) and their ligands (NGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and neurotrophin 3) and secrete NGF. Down-regulation of p75NTR significantly decreased proliferation of BTICs. Conversely, exogenouous NGF stimulated BTIC proliferation through α- and γ-secretase-mediated p75NTR cleavage and release of its intracellular domain (ICD). In contrast, overexpression of the p75NTR ICD induced proliferation. Interestingly, inhibition of Trk signaling blocked NGF-stimulated BTIC proliferation and p75NTR cleavage, indicating a role of Trk in p75NTR signaling. Further, blocking p75NTR cleavage attenuated Akt activation in BTICs, suggesting role of Akt in p75NTR-mediated proliferation. We also found that p75NTR, α-secretases, and the four subunits of the γ-secretase enzyme were elevated in glioblastoma multiformes patients. Importantly, the ICD of p75NTR was commonly found in malignant glioma patient specimens, suggesting that the receptor is activated and cleaved in patient tumors. These results suggest that p75NTR proteolysis is required for BTIC proliferation and is a novel potential clinical target. PMID:24519935

  18. Rearrangement and allelic imbalance on chromosome 5 leads to homozygous deletions in the CDKN2A/2B tumor suppressor gene region in rat endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Adamovic, Tatjana; Hamta, Ahmad; Roshani, Leyla; Lü, Xuchun; Röhme, Dan; Helou, Khalil; Klinga-Levan, Karin; Levan, Göran

    2008-07-01

    The inbred BDII rat is a valuable experimental model for the genetic analysis of hormone-dependent endometrial adenocarcinoma (EAC). One common aberration detected previously by comparative genomic hybridization in rat EAC is loss affecting mostly the middle part of rat chromosome 5 (RNO5). First, we applied an RNO5-specific painting probe and four region-specific gene probes onto tumor cell metaphases from 21 EACs, and found that rearrangements involving RNO5 were common. The copy numbers of loci situated on RNO5 were found to be reduced, particularly for the CDKN2A/2B locus. Second, polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed with 22 genes and markers and homozygous deletions of the CDKN2A exon 1beta and CDKN2B genes were detected in 13 EACs (62%) and of CDKN2A exon 1alpha in 12 EACs (57%) Third, the occurrence of allelic imbalance in RNO5 was analyzed using 39 microsatellite markers covering the entire chromosome and frequent loss of heterozygosity was detected. Even more intriguing was the repeated finding of allele switching in a narrow region of 7 Mb across the CDKN2A/2B locus. We conclude that genetic events affecting the middle part of RNO5 (including bands 5q31 approximately q33 and the CDKN2A locus) contribute to the development of EAC in rat, with the CDKN2A locus having a primary role.

  19. Delta-ALA-mediated fluorescence spectroscopy of gastrointestinal tumors: comparison of in vivo and in vitro results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, B.; Borisova, E.; Avramov, L.

    2007-06-01

    The limitations of standard endoscopy for detection of dysplastic changes of mucosa are significant challenge and initiate development of new photodiagnostic techniques, additional to diagnostic possibilities of standard endoscopic equipment. One of the most widely examined optical modalities is the laser- or light-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS), because of its rapid and highly sensitive response to early biochemical and morphological changes in biological tissues. In the recent study delta-aminolevulinic acid/protoporphyrin IX is used as fluorescent marker for dysplasia and tumor detection in esophagus and stomach. The δ -ALA is administered per os six hours before measurements at dose 20mg/kg weight. High-power light-emitting diode at 405 nm is used as an excitation source. Special opto-mechanical device is built to use the light guide of standard video-endoscopic system. Through endoscopic instrumental channel a fiber is applied to return information about fluorescence to microspectrometer. The fluorescence detected from in vivo tumor sites has very complex spectral origins. It consists of autofluorescence, fluorescence from exogenous fluorophores and re-absorption from the chromophores accumulated in the tissue investigated. Mucosa autofluorescence lies at 450-600 nm region. The fluorescence of PpIX is clearly pronounced at the 630-710 nm region. Deep minima in the tumor fluorescence signals are observed in the region 540-575 nm, related to hemoglobin re-absorption. Such high hemoglobin content is an indication of the tumors vascularization and it is clearly pronounced in all dysplastic and tumor sites investigated. After formalin conservation for in vitro samples hemoglobin absorption is strongly reduced that increases mucous fluorescence signal in green-yellow spectral region. Simultaneously the maxima at 635 nm and 720 nm are reduced.

  20. PIK3CA mutations enable targeting of a breast tumor dependency through mTOR-mediated MCL-1 translation

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Grace R.; Wardell, Suzanne E.; Cakir, Merve; Crawford, Lorin; Leeds, Jim C.; Nussbaum, Daniel P.; Shankar, Pallavi S.; Soderquist, Ryan S.; Stein, Elizabeth M.; Tingley, Jennifer P.; Winter, Peter S.; Zieser-Misenheimer, Elizabeth K.; Alley, Holly M.; Yllanes, Alexander; Haney, Victoria; Blackwell, Kimberly L.; McCall, Shannon J.; McDonnell, Donald P.; Wood, Kris C.

    2017-01-01

    Therapies that efficiently induce apoptosis are likely to be required for durable clinical responses in patients with solid tumors. Using a pharmacological screening approach, we discovered that the combined inhibition of BCL-XL and the mTOR/4E-BP axis results in selective and synergistic induction of apoptosis in cellular and animal models of PIK3CA mutant breast cancers, including triple negative tumors. Mechanistically, inhibition of mTOR/4E-BP suppresses MCL-1 protein translation only in PIK3CA mutant tumors, creating a synthetic dependence on BCL-XL. This dual dependence on BCL-XL and MCL-1, but not on BCL-2, appears to be a fundamental property of diverse breast cancer cell lines, xenografts, and patient-derived tumors that is independent of molecular subtype or PIK3CA mutational status. Further, this dependence distinguishes breast cancers from normal breast epithelial cells, which are neither primed for apoptosis nor dependent on BCL-XL/MCL-1, suggesting a potential therapeutic window. By tilting the balance of pro- to anti-apoptotic signals in the mitochondria, dual inhibition of MCL-1 and BCL-XL also sensitizes breast cancer cells to standard of care cytotoxic and targeted chemotherapies. Together, these results suggest that patients with PIK3CA mutant breast cancers may benefit from combined treatment with inhibitors of BCL-XL and the mTOR/4E-BP axis, whereas alternative methods of inhibiting MCL-1 and BCL-XL may be effective in tumors lacking PIK3CA mutations. PMID:27974663

  1. Unimpaired Autoreactive T-Cell Traffic Within the Central Nervous System During Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Mediated inhibition of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korner, Heinrich; Goodsall, Anna L.; Lemckert, Frances A.; Scallon, Bernard J.; Ghrayeb, John; Ford, Andrew L.; Sedgwick, Jonathon D.

    1995-11-01

    The critical role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) as a mediator in autoimmune inflammatory processes is evident from in vivo studies with TNF-blocking agents. However, the mechanisms by which TNF, and possibly also its homologue lymphotoxin α, contributes to development of pathology in rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn disease and in animal models like experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is unclear. Possibilities include regulation of vascular adhesion molecules enabling leukocyte movement into tissues or direct cytokine-mediated effector functions such as mediation of tissue damage. Here we show that administration of a TNF receptor (55 kDa)-IgG fusion protein prevented clinical signs of actively induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Significantly, the total number of CD4^+ T lymphocytes isolated from the central nervous system of clinically healthy treated versus diseased control animals was comparable. By using a CD45 congenic model of passively transferred experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis to enable tracking of myelin basic protein-specific effector T lymphocytes, prevention of clinical signs of disease was again demonstrated in treated animals but without quantitative or qualitative impediment to the movement of autoreactive T lymphocytes to and within the central nervous system. Thus, despite the uninterrupted movement of specific T lymphocytes into the target tissue, subsequent disease development was blocked. This provides compelling evidence for a direct effector role of TNF/lymphotoxin α in autoimmune tissue damage.

  2. c-Kit mediates chemoresistance and tumor-initiating capacity of ovarian cancer cells through activation of Wnt/β-catenin-ATP-binding cassette G2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Chau, W K; Ip, C K; Mak, A S C; Lai, H-C; Wong, A S T

    2013-05-30

    Cisplatin and paclitaxel are standard chemotherapy for metastatic ovarian cancer, but with limited efficacy. Cancer stem/progenitor cells (or tumor-initiating cells, TICs) are hypothesized to be chemoresistant, and the existence of TICs in ovarian cancer has been previously demonstrated. However, the key signals and molecular events regulating the formation and expansion of ovarian tumor-initiating cells (OTICs) remain elusive. Here, we show that c-Kit is not just a marker of OTICs, but also a critical mediator of the phenotype that can be a viable target for the treatment of ovarian cancer. In contrast to non-OICs, c-Kit was overexpressed in OTICs. Moreover, the use of small interfering RNA to inhibit c-Kit expression markedly attenuated the number and size of OTIC subpopulations, inhibited the expression of stem cell markers and decreased the tumorigenic capabilities of OTICs. Imatinib (Gleevec), a clinical drug that blocks c-Kit kinase activity, also demonstrated its inhibition potency on OTICs. In addition, cisplatin/paclitaxel, which killed non-OTICs, with c-Kit knockdown or imatinib revealed that this was critically required for intervening ovarian cancer progression and recurrence in vitro and in xenograft tumors in vivo. Similar results were obtained with OTICs derived from ovarian carcinoma patients. Studies into the mechanisms suggest an important role for the activation of Wnt/β-catenin and ATP-binding cassette G2 downstream of c-Kit. The tumor-promoting microenvironment, such as hypoxia, could promote OTICs via upregulation of c-Kit expression. These results unravel an integral role for c-Kit in ovarian neoplastic processes and shed light on its mechanisms of action.

  3. Connective tissue growth factor mediates TGF-β1-induced low-grade serous ovarian tumor cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jung-Chien; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Leung, Peter C K

    2017-10-17

    Ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC) is a rare disease and is now considered to be a distinct entity from high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), which is the most common and malignant form of epithelial ovarian cancer. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a secreted matricellular protein that has been shown to modulate many biological functions by interacting with multiple molecules in the microenvironment. Increasing evidence indicates that aberrant expression of CTGF is associated with cancer development and progression. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is a well-known molecule that can strongly up-regulate CTGF expression in different types of normal and cancer cells. Our previous study demonstrated that TGF-β1 induces apoptosis of LGSC cells. However, the effect of TGF-β1 on CTGF expression in LGSC needs to be defined. In addition, whether CTGF mediates TGF-β1-induced LGSC cell apoptosis remains unknown. In the present study, we show that TGF-β1 treatment up-regulates CTGF expression by activating SMAD3 signaling in two human LGSC cell lines. Additionally, siRNA-mediated CTGF knockdown attenuates TGF-β1-induced cell apoptosis. Moreover, our results show that the inhibitory effect of the CTGF knockdown on TGF-β1-induced cell apoptosis is mediated by down-regulating SMAD3 expression. This study demonstrates an important role for CTGF in mediating the pro-apoptotic effects of TGF-β1 on LGCS.

  4. Ibrutinib interferes with the cell-mediated anti-tumor activities of therapeutic CD20 antibodies: implications for combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    Roit, Fabio Da; Engelberts, Patrick J.; Taylor, Ronald P.; Breij, Esther C.W.; Gritti, Giuseppe; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Introna, Martino; Parren, Paul W.H.I.; Beurskens, Frank J.; Golay, Josée

    2015-01-01

    The novel Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib and phosphatidyl-4-5-biphosphate 3-kinase-δ inhibitor idelalisib are promising drugs for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, either alone or in combination with anti-CD20 antibodies. We investigated the possible positive or negative impact of these drugs on all known mechanisms of action of both type I and type II anti-CD20 antibodies. Pretreatment with ibrutinib for 1 hour did not increase direct cell death of cell lines or chronic lymphocytic leukemia samples mediated by anti-CD20 antibodies. Pre-treatment with ibrutinib did not inhibit complement activation or complement-mediated lysis. In contrast, ibrutinib strongly inhibited all cell-mediated mechanisms induced by anti-CD20 antibodies rituximab, ofatumumab or obinutuzumab, either in purified systems or whole blood assays. Activation of natural killer cells, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity by these cells, as well as phagocytosis by macrophages or neutrophils were inhibited by ibrutinib with a half maximal effective concentration of 0.3–3 μM. Analysis of anti-CD20 mediated activation of natural killer cells isolated from patients on continued oral ibrutinib treatment suggested that repeated drug dosing inhibits these cells in vivo. Finally we show that the phosphatidyl-4-5-biphosphate 3-kinase-δ inhibitor idelalisib similarly inhibited the immune cell-mediated mechanisms induced by anti-CD20 antibodies, although the effects of this drug at 10 μM were weaker than those observed with ibrutinib at the same concentration. We conclude that the design of combined treatment schedules of anti-CD20 antibodies with these kinase inhibitors should consider the multiple negative interactions between these two classes of drugs. PMID:25344523

  5. A tumor suppressor locus within 3p14-p12 mediates rapid cell death of renal cell carcinoma in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Y; el-Naggar, A; Pathak, S; Killary, A M

    1994-01-01

    High frequency loss of alleles and cytogenetic aberrations on the short arm of chromosome 3 have been documented in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Potentially, three distinct regions on 3p could encode tumor suppressor genes involved in the genesis of this cancer. We report that the introduction of a centric fragment of 3p, encompassing 3p14-q11, into a highly malignant RCC cell line resulted in a dramatic suppression of tumor growth in athymic nude mice. Another defined deletion hybrid contained the region 3p12-q24 of the introduced human chromosome and failed to suppress tumorigenicity. These data functionally define a tumor suppressor locus, nonpapillary renal carcinoma-1 (NRC-1), within 3p14-p12, the most proximal region of high frequency allele loss in sporadic RCC as well as the region containing the translocation breakpoint in familial RCC. Furthermore, we provide functional evidence that NRC-1 controls the growth of RCC cells by inducing rapid cell death in vivo. Images PMID:8159756

  6. Immunostimulatory properties and enhanced TNF- α mediated cellular immunity for tumor therapy by C60(OH)20 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Jiao, Fang; Qiu, Yang; Li, Wei; Qu, Ying; Tian, Chixia; Li, Yufeng; Bai, Ru; Lao, Fang; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang; Chen, Chunying

    2009-10-01

    Publications concerning the mechanism of biological activity, especially the immunological mechanism of C60(OH)20 nanoparticles, are relatively limited. However, the structure and characteristics of this carbon allotrope have been widely investigated. In this paper, we have demonstrated that water-soluble C60(OH)20 nanoparticles have an efficient anti-tumor activity in vivo, and show specific immunomodulatory effects to the immune cells, such as T cells and macrophages, both in vivo and in vitro. For example, C60(OH)20 nanoparticles can increase the production of T-helper cell type 1 (Th1) cytokines (IL-2, IFN- γ and TNF-α), and decrease the production of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-6) in serum samples. On the other hand, C60(OH)20 nanoparticles show almost no adverse effect to the viability of immune cells in vitro but stimulate the immune cells to release more cytokines, in particular TNF- α, which plays a key role in the cellular immune process to help eliminate abnormal cells. TNF- α production increased almost three-fold in treated T lymphocytes and macrophages. Accordingly, we conclude that C60(OH)20 nanoparticles have an efficient anti-tumor activity and this effect is associated with an increased CD4+/CD8+ lymphocyte ratio and the enhancement of TNF- α production. The data suggest that C60(OH)20 nanoparticles can improve the immune response to help to scavenge and kill tumor cells.

  7. βTrCP controls the lysosome-mediated degradation of CDK1, whose accumulation correlates with tumor malignancy.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Ruiz, Joaquín; Mora-Santos, Mar; Giráldez, Servando; Sáez, Carmen; Japón, Miguel A; Tortolero, Maria; Romero, Francisco

    2014-09-15

    In mammals, cell cycle progression is controlled by cyclin-dependent kinases, among which CDK1 plays important roles in the regulation of the G2/M transition, G1 progression and G1/S transition. CDK1 is highly regulated by its association to cyclins, phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, changes in subcellular localization, and by direct binding of CDK inhibitor proteins. CDK1 steady-state protein levels are held constant throughout the cell cycle by a coordinated regulation of protein synthesis and degradation. We show that CDK1 is ubiquitinated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase SCFβTrCP and degraded by the lysosome. Furthermore, we found that DNA damage not only triggers the stabilization of inhibitory phosphorylation sites on CDK1 and repression of CDK1 gene expression, but also regulates βTrCP-induced CDK1 degradation in a cell type-dependent manner. Specifically, treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin in certain cell lines provokes CDK1 degradation and induces apoptosis, whereas in others it inhibits destruction of the protein. These observations raise the possibility that different tumor types, depending on their pathogenic spectrum mutations, may display different sensitivity to βTrCP-induced CDK1 degradation after DNA damage. Finally, we found that CDK1 accumulation in patients' tumors shows a negative correlation with βTrCP and a positive correlation with the degree of tumor malignancy.

  8. βTrCP controls the lysosome-mediated degradation of CDK1, whose accumulation correlates with tumor malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Herrero-Ruiz, Joaquín; Mora-Santos, Mar; Giráldez, Servando; Sáez, Carmen; Japón, Miguel Á.; Tortolero, Maria; Romero, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, cell cycle progression is controlled by cyclin-dependent kinases, among which CDK1 plays important roles in the regulation of the G2/M transition, G1 progression and G1/S transition. CDK1 is highly regulated by its association to cyclins, phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, changes in subcellular localization, and by direct binding of CDK inhibitor proteins. CDK1 steady-state protein levels are held constant throughout the cell cycle by a coordinated regulation of protein synthesis and degradation. We show that CDK1 is ubiquitinated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase SCFβTrCP and degraded by the lysosome. Furthermore, we found that DNA damage not only triggers the stabilization of inhibitory phosphorylation sites on CDK1 and repression of CDK1 gene expression, but also regulates βTrCP-induced CDK1 degradation in a cell type-dependent manner. Specifically, treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin in certain cell lines provokes CDK1 degradation and induces apoptosis, whereas in others it inhibits destruction of the protein. These observations raise the possibility that different tumor types, depending on their pathogenic spectrum mutations, may display different sensitivity to βTrCP-induced CDK1 degradation after DNA damage. Finally, we found that CDK1 accumulation in patients’ tumors shows a negative correlation with βTrCP and a positive correlation with the degree of tumor malignancy. PMID:25149538

  9. Loss of corepressor PER2 under hypoxia up-regulates OCT1-mediated EMT gene expression and enhances tumor malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Hwang-Verslues, Wendy W.; Chang, Po-Hao; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Chiang, Pei-Hsun; Chang, Yi-Cheng; Hsieh, Tsung-Han; Su, Fang-Yi; Lin, Liu-Chen; Abbondante, Serena; Yang, Cheng-Yuan; Hsu, Huan-Ming; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Chang, King-Jen; Shew, Jin-Yuh; Lee, Eva Y.-H. P.; Lee, Wen-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    The circadian clock gene Period2 (PER2) has been suggested to be a tumor suppressor. However, detailed mechanistic evidence has not been provided to support this hypothesis. We found that loss of PER2 enhanced invasion and activated expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) genes including TWIST1, SLUG, and SNAIL. This finding was corroborated by clinical observation that PER2 down-regulation was associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. We further demonstrated that PER2 served as a transcriptional corepressor, which recruited polycomb proteins EZH2 and SUZ12 as well as HDAC2 to octamer transcription factor 1 (OCT1) (POU2F1) binding sites of the TWIST1 and SLUG promoters to repress expression of these EMT genes. Hypoxia, a condition commonly observed in tumors, caused PER2 degradation and disrupted the PER2 repressor complex, leading to activation of EMT gene expression. This result was further supported by clinical data showing a significant negative correlation between hypoxia and PER2. Thus, our findings clearly demonstrate the tumor suppression function of PER2 and elucidate a pathway by which hypoxia promotes EMT via degradation of PER2. PMID:23836662

  10. Ergosterol Peroxide Isolated from Ganoderma lucidum Abolishes MicroRNA miR-378-Mediated Tumor Cells on Chemoresistance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang-Min; Yang, Weining; Jiao, Chun-Wei; Fang, Ling; Li, Sen-Zhu; Pan, Hong-Hui; Yee, Albert J.; Lee, Daniel Y.; Li, Chong; Zhang, Zhi; Guo, Jun; Yang, Burton B.

    2012-01-01

    Due to an altered expression of oncogenic factors and tumor suppressors, aggressive cancer cells have an intrinsic or acquired resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. This typically contributes to cancer recurrence after chemotherapy. microRNAs are short non-coding RNAs that are involved in both cell self-renewal and cancer development. Here we report that tumor cells transfected with miR-378 acquired properties of aggressive cancer cells. Overexpression of miR-378 enhanced both cell survival and colony formation, and contributed to multiple drug resistance. Higher concentrations of chemotherapeutic drugs were needed to induce death of miR-378-transfected cells than to induce death of control cells. We found that the biologically active component isolated from Ganoderma lucidum could overcome the drug-resistance conferred by miR-378. We purified and identified the biologically active component of Ganoderma lucidum as ergosterol peroxide. We demonstrated that ergosterol peroxide produced greater activity in inducing death of miR-378 cells than the GFP cells. Lower concentrations of ergosterol peroxide were needed to induce death of the miR-378-transfected cells than in the control cells. With further clinical development, ergosterol peroxide represents a promising new reagent that can overcome the drug-resistance of tumor cells. PMID:22952996

  11. Presynaptic facilitatory adenosine A2A receptors mediate fade induced by neuromuscular relaxants that exhibit anticholinesterase activity.

    PubMed

    Bornia, Elaine Cs; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo; Alves-Do-Prado, Wilson

    2011-03-01

    1. Pancuronium, cisatracurium and vecuronium are antinicotinic agents that, in contrast with d-tubocurarine and hexamethonium, exhibit anticholinesterase activity. Pancuronium-, cisatracurium- and vecuronium-induced fade results from blockade of facilitatory nicotinic receptors on motor nerves, but fade produced by such agents also depends on the presynaptic activation of inhibitory muscarinic M2 receptors by acetylcholine released from motor nerve terminals and activation of inhibitory adenosine A1 receptors by adenosine released from motor nerves and muscles. The participation of presynaptic facilitatory A2A receptors in fade caused by pancuronium, cisatracurium and vecuronium has not yet been investigated. In the present study, we determined the effects of ZM241385, an antagonist of presynaptic facilitatory A2A receptors, on fade produced by these neuromuscular relaxants in the rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND) preparation. 2. The muscles were stimulated indirectly at 75±3Hz to induce a sustained tetanizing muscular contraction. The lowest concentration at which each antinicotinic agent produced fade without modifying initial tetanic tension (presynaptic action) was determined. 3. d-Tubocurarine-induced fade occurred only at 55 nmol/L, a concentration that also reduced maximal tetanic tension (post-synaptic action). At 10 nmol/L, ZM 241385 alone did not produce fade, but it did attenuate pancuronium (0.32 μmol/L)-, cisatracurium (0.32 μmol/L)- and vecuronium (0.36 μmol/L)-induced fade. 4. The fade induced by the 'pure' antinicotinic agents d-tubocurarine (55 nmol/L) and hexamethonium (413 μmol/L) was not altered by 10 nmol/L ZM 241385, indicating that presynaptic adenosine A2A receptors play a significant role in the fade produced by antinicotinic agents when such agents have anticholinesterase activity. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. 5-epi-Sinuleptolide induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through tumor necrosis factor/mitochondria-mediated caspase signaling pathway in human skin cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chia-Hua; Wang, Guey-Horng; Chou, Tzung-Han; Wang, Shih-Hao; Lin, Rong-Jyh; Chan, Leong-Perng; So, Edmund Cheung; Sheu, Jyh-Horng

    2012-07-01

    Skin cancers are reportedly increasing worldwide. Developing novel anti-skin cancer drugs with minimal side effects is necessary to address this public health issue. Sinuleptolide has been demonstrated to possess anti-cancer cell activities; however, the mechanisms underlying the anti-skin cancer effects of 5-epi-sinuleptolide and sinuleptolide remain poorly understood. Apoptosis cell, cell-cycle-related regulatory factors, and mitochondria- and death receptor-dependent caspase pathway in 5-epi-sinuleptolide-induced cell apoptosis were examined using SCC25 cells. 5-epi-Sinuleptolide inhibited human skin cancer cell growth more than did sinuleptolide. Treatment of SCC25 cells with 5-epi-sinuleptolide increased apoptotic body formation, and induced cell-cycle arrest during the G2/M phase. Notably, 5-epi-sinuleptolide up-regulated p53 and p21 expression and inhibited G2/M phase regulators of cyclin B1 and cyclin-dependent kinease 1 (CDK1) in SCC25 cells. Additionally, 5-epi-sinuleptolide induced apoptosis by mitochondria-mediated cytochrome c and Bax up-expression, down-regulated Bcl-2, and activated caspase-9 and -3. 5-epi-Sinuleptolide also up-regulated tBid, which is associated with up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and Fas ligand (FasL) and their cognate receptors (i.e., TNF-RI, TNF-R2 and Fas), downstream adaptor TNF-R1-associated death domain (TRADD) and Fas-associated death domain (FADD), and activated caspase-8 in SCC25 cells. The analytical results indicate that the death receptor- and mitochondria-mediated caspase pathway is critical in 5-epi-sinuleptolide-induced apoptosis of skin cancer cells. This is the first report suggesting that the apoptosis mediates the anti-tumor effect of 5-epi-sinuleptolide. The results of this study might provide useful suggestions for designing of anti-tumor drugs for skin cancer patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Monitoring of the tumor response to nano-graphene oxide-mediated photothermal/photodynamic therapy by diffusion-weighted and BOLD MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jianbo; An, Hengqing; Huang, Xinglu; Fu, Guifeng; Zhuang, Rongqiang; Zhu, Lei; Xie, Jin; Zhang, Fan

    2016-05-01

    Photothermal therapy (PTT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) are promising cancer treatment modalities. Because each modality has its own set of advantages and limitations, there has been interest in developing methods that can co-deliver the two regimens for enhanced tumor treatment. Among the efforts, nano-graphene oxide-mediated phototherapies have recently attracted much attention. Nano-graphene oxide has a broad absorbance spectrum and can be loaded with photosensitizers, such as chlorin e6, with high efficiency. Chlorin e6-loaded and PEGylated nano-graphene (GO-PEG-Ce6) can be excited at 660 nm, 808 nm, or both, to induce PDT, PTT, or PDT/PTT combination. Despite the potential of the treatments, there is a lack of a diagnostic tool which can monitor their therapeutic response in a non-invasive and prognostic manner; such an ability is urgently needed for the transformation and translation of the technologies. In this study, we performed diffusion-weighted and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after GO-PEG-Ce6-mediated PTT, PDT, or PTT/PDT. We found that after efficient PTT, there is a significant increase of the tumor apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) maps; meanwhile, an efficient PDT led to an increase of in BOLD images. In both the cases, the amplitude of the increase was correlated with the treatment outcomes. More interestingly, a synergistic treatment efficacy was observed when the PTT/PDT combination was applied, and the combination was associated with a greater ADC and increase than when either modality was used alone. In particular, the PTT/PDT condition that induced the most dramatic short-term increase of the ADC value (>70%) caused the most effective tumor control in the long-run, with 60% of the treated animals being tumor-free after 60 days. These results suggest the great promise of the combination of DWI and BOLD MRI as a tool for accurate monitoring and prognosis

  14. Pathophysiology of isoprostanes in the cardiovascular system: implications of isoprostane-mediated thromboxane A2 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Jochen; Ripperger, Anne; Frantz, Stefan; Ergün, Süleyman; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Benndorf, Ralf A

    2014-07-01

    Isoprostanes are free radical-catalysed PG-like products of unsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid, which are widely recognized as reliable markers of systemic lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in vivo. Moreover, activation of enzymes, such as COX-2, may contribute to isoprostane formation. Indeed, formation of isoprostanes is considerably increased in various diseases which have been linked to oxidative stress, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), and may predict the atherosclerotic burden and the risk of cardiovascular complications in the latter patients. In addition, several isoprostanes may directly contribute to the functional consequences of oxidant stress via activation of the TxA2 prostanoid receptor (TP), for example, by affecting endothelial cell function and regeneration, vascular tone, haemostasis and ischaemia/reperfusion injury. In this context, experimental and clinical data suggest that selected isoprostanes may represent important alternative activators of the TP receptor when endogenous TxA2 levels are low, for example, in aspirin-treated individuals with CVD. In this review, we will summarize the current understanding of isoprostane formation, biochemistry and (patho) physiology in the cardiovascular context. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Pathophysiology of isoprostanes in the cardiovascular system: implications of isoprostane-mediated thromboxane A2 receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Jochen; Ripperger, Anne; Frantz, Stefan; Ergün, Süleyman; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Benndorf, Ralf A

    2014-01-01

    Isoprostanes are free radical-catalysed PG-like products of unsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid, which are widely recognized as reliable markers of systemic lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in vivo. Moreover, activation of enzymes, such as COX-2, may contribute to isoprostane formation. Indeed, formation of isoprostanes is considerably increased in various diseases which have been linked to oxidative stress, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), and may predict the atherosclerotic burden and the risk of cardiovascular complications in the latter patients. In addition, several isoprostanes may directly contribute to the functional consequences of oxidant stress via activation of the TxA2 prostanoid receptor (TP), for example, by affecting endothelial cell function and regeneration, vascular tone, haemostasis and ischaemia/reperfusion injury. In this context, experimental and clinical data suggest that selected isoprostanes may represent important alternative activators of the TP receptor when endogenous TxA2 levels are low, for example, in aspirin-treated individuals with CVD. In this review, we will summarize the current understanding of isoprostane formation, biochemistry and (patho) physiology in the cardiovascular context. PMID:24646155

  16. Auxins action on Glycine max secretory phospholipase A2 is mediated by the interfacial properties imposed by the phytohormones.

    PubMed

    Mariani, María Elisa; Madoery, Ricardo Román; Fidelio, Gerardo Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) are soluble enzymes that catalyze the conversion of phospholipids to lysophospholipids and free fatty acids at membrane interfaces. The effect of IAA and IPA auxins over the activity of recombinant sPLA2 isoforms from Glycine max was studied using membrane model systems including mixed micelles and Langmuir lipid monolayers. Both phytohormones stimulate the activity of both plant sPLA2 using DLPC/Triton mixed micelles as substrate. To elucidate the mechanism of action of the phytohormones, we showed that both auxins are able to self-penetrate lipid monolayers and cause an increment in surface pressure and an expansion of lipid/phytohormone mixed interfaces. The stimulating effect of auxins over phospholipase A2 activity was still present when using Langmuir mixed monolayers as organized substrate regardless of sPLA2 source (plant or animal). All the data suggest that the stimulating effect of auxins over sPLA2 is due to a more favorable interfacial environment rather to a direct effect over the enzyme. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. MicroRNA-31 inhibits RhoA-mediated tumor invasion and chemotherapy resistance in MKN-45 gastric adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Korourian, Alireza; Roudi, Raheleh; Shariftabrizi, Ahmad; Madjd, Zahra

    2017-12-01

    microRNAs are small single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules which modify gene expression by silencing potential target genes. The aberrant expression of RhoA, a small GTPase protein of Rho family, is involved in gastric cancer tumorigenesis. Since miR-31 is a pleomorphic molecule, we evaluated the miR-31/RhoA axis in inducing the malignant phenotype of gastric cancer cells MKN-45. Also, the clinicopathological significance of RhoA was investigated in a well-defined collection of gastric carcinomas which were embedded in tissue microarray blocks. Induction of miR-31 in MKN-45 followed by suppression of RhoA expression resulted in increased sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil, inhibition of cell proliferation, and invasion compared to the control groups. Immunohistochemical analysis in gastric adenocarcinoma patients' samples showed significantly higher expression of RhoA in diffuse versus intestinal subtype tumors ( P = 0.009), poorly differentiated versus well and moderately differentiated tumors ( P = 0.03) and the presence of vascular invasion versus the absence of vascular invasion ( P = 0.04). Our findings suggest a critical role for miR-31, as a tumor suppressor gene, in gastric cancer tumorigenesis by targeting the RhoA. Impact statement Gastric cancer ranks as the third leading cause of cancer-associated deaths worldwide. The RhoA gene encodes a small GTPase protein of Rho family (RhoA) that its dysregulation is associated with cell motility and invasion. A strong line of evidence supports the regulation of RhoA by a number of miRs, including miR-31 in tumors. Our findings revealed that miR-31 is involved in gastric cancer tumorigenesis as a tumor suppressor gene. Through down-regulation of RhoA, miR-31 decreased cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in gastric cancer cells. In addition, induction of miR-31 increased sensitivity to 5-FU; thus, increasing its tissue concentrations could be a potential target for treatment of gastric cancer in the

  18. MicroRNA-31 inhibits RhoA-mediated tumor invasion and chemotherapy resistance in MKN-45 gastric adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Korourian, Alireza; Roudi, Raheleh; Shariftabrizi, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    microRNAs are small single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules which modify gene expression by silencing potential target genes. The aberrant expression of RhoA, a small GTPase protein of Rho family, is involved in gastric cancer tumorigenesis. Since miR-31 is a pleomorphic molecule, we evaluated the miR-31/RhoA axis in inducing the malignant phenotype of gastric cancer cells MKN-45. Also, the clinicopathological significance of RhoA was investigated in a well-defined collection of gastric carcinomas which were embedded in tissue microarray blocks. Induction of miR-31 in MKN-45 followed by suppression of RhoA expression resulted in increased sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil, inhibition of cell proliferation, and invasion compared to the control groups. Immunohistochemical analysis in gastric adenocarcinoma patients’ samples showed significantly higher expression of RhoA in diffuse versus intestinal subtype tumors (P = 0.009), poorly differentiated versus well and moderately differentiated tumors (P = 0.03) and the presence of vascular invasion versus the absence of vascular invasion (P = 0.04). Our findings suggest a critical role for miR-31, as a tumor suppressor gene, in gastric cancer tumorigenesis by targeting the RhoA. Impact statement Gastric cancer ranks as the third leading cause of cancer-associated deaths worldwide. The RhoA gene encodes a small GTPase protein of Rho family (RhoA) that its dysregulation is associated with cell motility and invasion. A strong line of evidence supports the regulation of RhoA by a number of miRs, including miR-31 in tumors. Our findings revealed that miR-31 is involved in gastric cancer tumorigenesis as a tumor suppressor gene. Through down-regulation of RhoA, miR-31 decreased cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in gastric cancer cells. In addition, induction of miR-31 increased sensitivity to 5-FU; thus, increasing its tissue concentrations could be a potential target for treatment of gastric cancer in the

  19. Macrophages control vascular stem/progenitor cell plasticity through tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated nuclear factor-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Mei Mei; Chen, Yikuan; Margariti, Andriani; Winkler, Bernhard; Campagnolo, Paola; Potter, Claire; Hu, Yanhua; Xu, Qingbo

    2014-03-01

    Vascular lineage differentiation of stem/progenitor cells can contribute to both tissue repair and exacerbation of vascular diseases such as in vein grafts. The role of macrophages in controlling vascular progenitor differentiation is largely unknown and may play an important role in graft development. This study aims to identify the role of macrophages in vascular stem/progenitor cell differentiation and thereafter elucidate the mechanisms that are involved in the macrophage- mediated process. We provide in vitro evidence that macrophages can induce endothelial cell (EC) differentiation of the stem/progenitor cells while simultaneously inhibiting their smooth muscle cell differentiation. Mechanistically, both effects were mediated by macrophage-derived tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) via TNF-α receptor 1 and canonical nuclear factor-κB activation. Although the overexpression of p65 enhanced EC (or attenuated smooth muscle cell) differentiation, p65 or TNF-α receptor 1 knockdown using lentiviral short hairpin RNA inhibited EC (or rescued smooth muscle cell) differentiation in response to TNF-α. Furthermore, TNF-α-mediated EC differentiation was driven by direct binding of nuclear factor-κB (p65) to specific VE-cadherin promoter sequences. Subsequent experiments using an ex vivo decellularized vessel scaffold confirmed an increase in the number of ECs and reduction in smooth muscle cell marker expression in the presence of TNF-α. The lack of TNF-α in a knockout mouse model of vein graft decreased endothelialization and significantly increased thrombosis formation. Our study highlights the role of macrophages in directing vascular stem/progenitor cell lineage commitment through TNF-α-mediated TNF-α receptor 1 and nuclear factor-κB activation that is likely required for endothelial repair in vascular diseases such as vein graft.

  20. A2-purinoceptor-mediated relaxation in the guinea-pig coronary vasculature: a role for nitric oxide.

    PubMed Central

    Vials, A.; Burnstock, G.

    1993-01-01

    1. The Langendorff heart preparation was used to investigate the mechanism of action of the endothelium-dependent vasodilatation evoked by adenosine and its analogues in the guinea-pig coronary vasculature. 2. The relative order of potency of adenosine and its analogues in causing a reduction in perfusion pressure was D-5'-(N-ethylcarboxamide)adenosine (NECA) = 2-[p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenylethylamino]-5'-N- ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680)> R-N6-(2-phenylisopropyl)adenosine (R-PIA) = adenosine = 2-chloroadenosine (2-CA) > S-N6-(2-phenylisopropyl)adenosine (S-PIA) = N6-cyclopentyl-adenosine (CPA); thus suggesting the presence of A2-purinoceptors in this preparation. 3. 8-(p-Sulphophenyl)theophylline (8-PSPT; 3 x 10(-5) M) significantly reduced both the maximum amplitude and area of the vasodilatation produced in response to adenosine (5 x 10(-10) -5 x 10(-8) mol) without having any effect on the response to the P2-purinoceptor agonist, 2-methylthioATP. The relaxation induced by adenosine (5 x 10(-12) -5 x 10(-8) mol) was unaffected by the selective A1-purinoceptor antagonist 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX; 10(-8) M). This antagonist profile suggests that only A2-purinoceptors are present in the guinea-pig coronary vasculature. 4. The areas of the vasodilator response to adenosine (5 x 10(-10) -5 x 10(-7 mol), NECA (5 x 10(-12) -5 x 10(-7) mol) and CGS 21680 (5 x 10(-12) -5 x 10(-10) mol) were significantly reduced by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 3 x 10(-5) M).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8358543

  1. Characterisation of endogenous A2A and A2B receptor-mediated cyclic AMP responses in HEK 293 cells using the GloSensor™ biosensor: Evidence for an allosteric mechanism of action for the A2B-selective antagonist PSB 603.

    PubMed

    Goulding, Joelle; May, Lauren T; Hill, Stephen J

    2018-01-01

    Endogenous adenosine A 2B receptors (A 2B AR) mediate cAMP accumulation in HEK 293 cells. Here we have used a biosensor to investigate the mechanism of action of the A 2B AR antagonist PSB 603 in HEK 293 cells. The A 2A agonist CGS 21680 elicited a small response in these cells (circa 20% of that obtained with NECA), suggesting that they also contain a small population of A 2A receptors. The responses to NECA and adenosine were antagonised by PSB 603, but not by the selective A 2A AR antagonist SCH 58261. In contrast, CGS 21680 responses were not antagonised by high concentrations of PSB 603, but were sensitive to inhibition by SCH 58261. Analysis of the effect of increasing concentrations of PSB 603 on the response to NECA indicated a non-competitive mode of action yielding a marked reduction in the NECA E MAX with no significant effect on EC 50 values. Kinetics analysis of the effect of PSB 603 on the A 2B AR-mediated NECA responses confirmed a saturable effect that was consistent with an allosteric mode of antagonism. The possibility that PSB 603 acts as a negative allosteric modulator of A 2B AR suggests new approaches to the development of therapeutic agents to treat conditions where adenosine levels are high. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A tumor-promoting mechanism mediated by retrotransposon-encoded reverse transcriptase is active in human transformed cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Sciamanna, Ilaria; Gualtieri, Alberto; Cossetti, Cristina; Osimo, Emanuele Felice; Ferracin, Manuela; Macchia, Gianfranco; Aricò, Eleonora; Prosseda, Gianni; Vitullo, Patrizia; Misteli, Tom; Spadafora, Corrado

    2013-01-01

    LINE-1 elements make up the most abundant retrotransposon family in the human genome. Full-length LINE-1 elements encode a reverse transcriptase (RT) activity required for their own retrotranpsosition as well as that of non-autonomous Alu elements. LINE-1 are poorly expressed in normal cells and abundantly in cancer cells. Decreasing RT activity in cancer cells, by either LINE-1-specific RNA interference, or by RT inhibitory drugs, was previously found to reduce proliferation and promote differentiation and to antagonize tumor growth in animal models. Here we have investigated how RT exerts these global regulatory functions. We report that the RT inhibitor efavirenz (EFV) selectively downregulates proliferation of transformed cell lines, while exerting only mild effects on non-transformed cells; this differential sensitivity matches a differential RT abundance, which is high in the former and undetectable in the latter. Using CsCl density gradients, we selectively identify Alu and LINE-1 containing DNA:RNA hybrid molecules in cancer but not in normal cells. Remarkably, hybrid molecules fail to form in tumor cells treated with EFV under the same conditions that repress proliferation and induce the reprogramming of expression profiles of coding genes, microRNAs (miRNAs) and ultraconserved regions (UCRs). The RT-sensitive miRNAs and UCRs are significantly associated with Alu sequences. The results suggest that LINE-1-encoded RT governs the balance between single-stranded and double-stranded RNA production. In cancer cells the abundant RT reverse-transcribes retroelement-derived mRNAs forming RNA:DNA hybrids. We propose that this impairs the formation of double-stranded RNAs and the ensuing production of small regulatory RNAs, with a direct impact on gene expression. RT inhibition restores the ‘normal’ small RNA profile and the regulatory networks that depend on them. Thus, the retrotransposon-encoded RT drives a previously unrecognized mechanism crucial to the

  3. GPER mediates the angiocrine actions induced by IGF1 through the HIF-1α/VEGF pathway in the breast tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    De Francesco, Ernestina M; Sims, Andrew H; Maggiolini, Marcello; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P; Clarke, Robert B

    2017-12-06

    The G protein estrogen receptor GPER/GPR30 mediates estrogen action in breast cancer cells as well as in breast cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), which are key components of microenvironment driving tumor progression. GPER is a transcriptional target of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) and activates VEGF expression and angiogenesis in hypoxic breast tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, IGF1/IGF1R signaling, which has angiogenic effects, has been shown to activate GPER in breast cancer cells. We analyzed gene expression data from published studies representing almost 5000 breast cancer patients to investigate whether GPER and IGF1 signaling establish an angiocrine gene signature in breast cancer patients. Next, we used GPER-positive but estrogen receptor (ER)-negative primary CAF cells derived from patient breast tumours and SKBR3 breast cancer cells to investigate the role of GPER in the regulation of VEGF expression and angiogenesis triggered by IGF1. We performed gene expression and promoter studies, western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis, gene silencing strategies and endothelial tube formation assays to evaluate the involvement of the HIF-1α/GPER/VEGF signaling in the biological responses to IGF1. We first determined that GPER is co-expressed with IGF1R and with the vessel marker CD34 in human breast tumors (n = 4972). Next, we determined that IGF1/IGF1R signaling engages the ERK1/2 and AKT transduction pathways to induce the expression of HIF-1α and its targets GPER and VEGF. We found that a functional cooperation between HIF-1α and GPER is essential for the transcriptional activation of VEGF induced by IGF1. Finally, using conditioned medium from CAFs and SKBR3 cells stimulated with IGF1, we established that HIF-1α and GPER are both required for VEGF-induced human vascular endothelial cell tube formation. These findings shed new light on the essential role played by GPER in IGF1/IGF1R signaling that induces breast tumor

  4. Bone sialoprotein mediates the tumor cell-targeted prometastatic activity of TGF-β in a mouse model of breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Jeong-Seok; Suchar, Adam M.; Kang, Mi-Jin; Stuelten, Christina H.; Tang, Binwu; Michalowska, Aleksandra M.; Fisher, Larry W.; Fedarko, Neal S.; Jain, Alka; Pinkas, Jan; Lonning, Scott; Wakefield, Lalage M.

    2006-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-βs (TGF-βs) play a dual role in carcinogenesis, functioning as tumor suppressors early in the process, and then switching to act as pro-metastatic factors in late-stage disease. We have previously shown that high molecular weight TGF-β antagonists can suppress metastasis without the predicted toxicities (Yang et al., J. Clin. Invest. (2002) 109:1607-1615). To address the underlying mechanisms, we have used the 4T1 syngeneic mouse model of metastatic breast cancer. Treatment of mice with a monoclonal anti-TGF-β antibody (1D11) significantly suppressed metastasis of 4T1 cells to the lungs. When metastatic 4T1 cells were recovered from lungs of 1D11-treated and control mice, the most differentially expressed gene was found to be bone sialoprotein (Bsp). Immunostaining confirmed the loss of Bsp protein in 1D11-treated lung metastases, and TGF-β was shown to regulate and correlate with Bsp expression in vitro. Functionally, knockdown of Bsp in 4T1 cells reduced the ability of TGF-β to induce local collagen degradation and invasion in vitro, and treatment with recombinant BSP protected 4T1 cells from complement-mediated lysis. Finally, suppression of Bsp in 4T1 cells reduced metastasis in vivo. We conclude that Bsp is a plausible mediator of at least some of the tumor cell-targeted prometastatic activity of TGF-β in this model, and that Bsp expression in metastases can be successfully suppressed by systemic treatment with anti-TGF-β antibodies. PMID:16778210

  5. Hypoxia pathway and hypoxia-mediated extensive extramedullary hematopoiesis are involved in ursolic acid's anti-metastatic effect in 4T1 tumor bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jian-Li; Shui, Yan-Mei; Jiang, Wei; Huang, En-Yi; Shou, Qi-Yang; Ji, Xin; He, Bai-Cheng; Lv, Gui-Yuan; He, Tong-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxic in the tumor mass is leading to the myeloproliferative-like disease (leukemoid reaction) and anemia of body, which characterized by strong extensive extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) in spleen. As the key transcription factor of hypoxia, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) activates the expression of genes essential for EMH processes including enhanced blood cell production and angiogenesis. We found ursolic acid (UA), a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid, inhibited growth of breast cancer both in vivo and in vitro. The suppression was mediated through the inhibition of multiple cell pathways linked to inflammation, proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. UA also suppressed the leukemoid reaction and the EMH phenomenon of the tumor bearing mice without any significant suppression on body weight (i.p. by 20 mg/kg for 28 days). This is associated with the significant decrease in white blood cells (WBC), platelets (PLT) and spleen weight. During this process, we also detected the down-regulation of cell proliferative genes (PCNA, and β-catenin), and metastatic genes (VEGF, and HIF-1α), as well as the depression of nuclear protein intensity of HIF-1α. Furthermore, the expression of E2F1, p53 and MDM2 genes were increased in UA group when the VEGF and HIF-1α was over-expressed. Cancer cells were sensitive to UA treating after the silencing of HIF-1α and the response of Hypoxic pathway reporter to UA was suppressed when HIF-1α was over expressed. Overall, our results from experimental and predictive studies suggest that the anticancer activity of UA may be at least in part caused by suppressing the cancer hypoxia and hypoxia-mediated EMH. PMID:27708244

  6. Down-regulation of RBP-J mediated by microRNA-133a suppresses dendritic cells and functions as a potential tumor suppressor in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xuren; Han, Dong; Fan, Weimin

    2016-12-10

    In recent years, immunotherapy for the treatment of tumors have been established. Dendritic cells (DCs) are extremely efficient and professional antigen presenting cells (APCs), which are an important target for immune therapeutic interventions in cancer. In present study, we investigated whether RBP-J signaling regulated by miR-133a was involved in the DCs mediated tumor suppressor in osteosarcoma. DCs were isolated from 30 osteosarcoma patients and 30 healthy subjects. Mouse macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7 were cultured and osteosarcoma mouse model with injection of murine osteosarcoma cell line S180 were established. In osteosarcoma patients, miR-133a expression level of DCs was increased, and RBP-J expression in mRNA and protein levels were decreased. MiR-133a inhibitor promoted maturation and activation of DCs in osteosarcoma patients. In osteosarcoma mouse model, miR-133a mimic suppressed the maturation and activation of spleen DCs, while miR-133a inhibitor promoted them. Overexpression of miR-133a decreased therapeutic effect of DCs on osteosarcoma mice. In RAW264.7 cells, miR-133a was observed to target RBP-J and regulate its expression. MiR-133a mimic inhibited the maturation of DCs in cells exposed to LPS, the effect of which was reversed by overexpression of RBP-J. RBP-J mediated by miR-133a probably contributed to the regulation of DCs maturation and activation in osteosarcoma, which functioned as a therapeutic target for the immunotherapy in cancers. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. HBV-specific CD4+ cytotoxic T cells in hepatocellular carcinoma are less cytolytic toward tumor cells and suppress CD8+ T cell-mediated antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanzhi; Zhen, Shoumei; Song, Bin

    2017-08-01

    In East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, chronic infection is the main cause of the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, an aggressive cancer with low survival rate. Cytotoxic T cell-based immunotherapy is a promising treatment strategy. Here, we investigated the possibility of using HBV-specific CD4 + cytotoxic T cells to eliminate tumor cells. The naturally occurring HBV-specific cytotoxic CD4 + and CD8 + T cells were identified by HBV peptide pool stimulation. We found that in HBV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma patients, the HBV-specific cytotoxic CD4 + T cells and cytotoxic CD8 + T cells were present at similar numbers. But compared to the CD8 + cytotoxic T cells, the CD4 + cytotoxic T cells secreted less cytolytic factors granzyme A (GzmA) and granzyme B (GzmB), and were less effective at eliminating tumor cells. In addition, despite being able to secrete cytolytic factors, CD4 + T cells suppressed the cytotoxicity mediated by CD8 + T cells, even when CD4 + CD25 + regulator T cells were absent. Interestingly, we found that interleukin 10 (IL-10)-secreting Tr1 cells were enriched in the cytotoxic CD4 + T cells. Neutralization of IL-10 abrogated the suppression of CD8 + T cells by CD4 + CD25 - T cells. Neither the frequency nor the absolute number of HBV-specific CD4 + cytotoxic T cells were correlated with the clinical outcome of advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Together, this study demonstrated that in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma, CD4 + T cell-mediated cytotoxicity was present naturally in the host and had the potential to exert antitumor immunity, but its capacity was limited and was associated with immunoregulatory properties. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Tumor-Targeting Anti-CD20 Antibodies Mediate In Vitro Expansion of Memory Natural Killer Cells: Impact of CD16 Affinity Ligation Conditions and In Vivo Priming.

    PubMed

    Capuano, Cristina; Battella, Simone; Pighi, Chiara; Franchitti, Lavinia; Turriziani, Ombretta; Morrone, Stefania; Santoni, Angela; Galandrini, Ricciarda; Palmieri, Gabriella

    2018-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells represent a pivotal player of innate anti-tumor immune responses. The impact of environmental factors in shaping the representativity of different NK cell subsets is increasingly appreciated. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection profoundly affects NK cell compartment, as documented by the presence of a CD94/NKG2C + FcεRIγ - long-lived "memory" NK cell subset, endowed with enhanced CD16-dependent functional capabilities, in a fraction of HCMV-seropositive subjects. However, the requirements for memory NK cell pool establishment/maintenance and activation have not been fully characterized yet. Here, we describe the capability of anti-CD20 tumor-targeting therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to drive the selective in vitro expansion of memory NK cells and we show the impact of donor' HCMV serostatus and CD16 affinity ligation conditions on this event. In vitro expanded memory NK cells maintain the phenotypic and functional signature of their freshly isolated counterpart; furthermore, our data demonstrate that CD16 affinity ligation conditions differently affect memory NK cell proliferation and functional activation, as rituximab-mediated low-affinity ligation represents a superior proliferative stimulus, while high-affinity aggregation mediated by glycoengineered obinutuzumab results in improved multifunctional responses. Our work also expands the molecular and functional characterization of memory NK cells, and investigates the possible impact of CD16 functional allelic variants on their in vivo and in vitro expansions. These results reveal new insights in Ab-driven memory NK cell responses in a therapeutic setting and may ultimately inspire new NK cell-based intervention strategies against cancer, in which the enhanced responsiveness to mAb-bound target could significantly impact therapeutic efficacy.

  9. Mn complex-mediated enhancement of antitumor response through modulating myeloid-derived suppressor cells in drug-resistant tumor.

    PubMed

    Das, Satyajit; Banerjee, Kaushik; Roy, Susmita; Majumder, Saikat; Chatterjee, Mitali; Majumdar, Subrata; Choudhuri, Soumitra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment (TME) renders tumor cells more resistant to chemotherapy. However, effective immunomodulators for cancer therapy are still elusive. We hypothesized that Mn-N-(2-hydroxyacetophenone) glycinate (MnNG), reported to be an antitumor agent, can modulate the TME. Immunomodulatory effects of MnNG were performed through assessing Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells (MDSCs), Interferon-γ (Ifnγ)- and Interleukin-4 (Il4)-secreting Cluster of Differentiation 4 (Cd4)(+) T-cells by annexin V-binding assay in drug-resistant TME and T-cell proliferation following in vitro co-culture assay by flow cytometry. MnNG induced infiltration of Ifnγ-secreting Cd4(+) T-cells and reduces MDSC numbers in vivo. Furthermore, it modulated differentiation of MDSCs towards dendritic cells with up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and reversed the suppressive function of MDSC's that enhances T-helper cell 1 (Th1) response. MnNG treatment resulted in reduced expression of IL4, but enhanced expression of Ifnγ when Cd4(+) T-cells were co-cultured with MDSCs. MnNG modulates MDSCs differentiaton towards dendritic cells and enhances Th1 response in drug-resistant TME, leading to immunomodulatory efficacy. Copyright © 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  10. Intersection of FOXO- and RUNX1-mediated gene expression programs in single breast epithelial cells during morphogenesis and tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lixin; Brugge, Joan S; Janes, Kevin A

    2011-10-04

    Gene expression networks are complicated by the assortment of regulatory factors that bind DNA and modulate transcription combinatorially. Single-cell measurements can reveal biological mechanisms hidden by population averages, but their value has not been fully explored in the context of mRNA regulation. Here, we adapted a single-cell expression profiling technique to examine the gene expression program downstream of Forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factors during 3D breast epithelial acinar morphogenesis. By analyzing patterns of mRNA fluctuations among individual matrix-attached epithelial cells, we found that a subset of FOXO target genes was jointly regulated by the transcription factor Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1). Knockdown of RUNX1 causes hyperproliferation and abnormal morphogenesis, both of which require normal FOXO function. Down-regulating RUNX1 and FOXOs simultaneously causes widespread oxidative stress, which arrests proliferation and restores normal acinar morphology. In hormone-negative breast cancers lacking human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) amplification, we find that RUNX1 down-regulation is strongly associated with up-regulation of FOXO1, which may be required to support growth of RUNX1-negative tumors. The coordinate function of these two tumor suppressors may provide a failsafe mechanism that inhibits cancer progression.

  11. Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling promotes metastatic prostate cancer through microRNA-96-mediated downregulation of the tumor suppressor ETV6.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yuan-Chin; Chen, Wei-Yu; Siu, Man Kit; Tsai, Hong-Yuan; Yin, Juan Juan; Huang, Jiaoti; Liu, Yen-Nien

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that ETV6 serves as a tumor suppressor; however, its molecular regulation and cellular functions remain unclear. We used prostate cancer as a model system and demonstrated a molecular mechanism in which ETV6 can be regulated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling through microRNA-96 (miR-96)-mediated downregulation. In addition, EGFR acts as a transcriptional coactivator that binds to the promoter of primary miR-96 and transcriptionally regulates miR-96 levels. We analyzed two sets of clinical prostate cancer samples, confirmed association patterns that were consistent with the EGFR-miR-96-ETV6 signaling model and demonstrated that the reduced ETV6 levels were associated with malignant prostate cancer. Based on results derived from multiple approaches, we identified the biological functions of ETV6 as a tumor suppressor that inhibits proliferation and metastasis in prostate cancer. We present a molecular mechanism in which EGFR activation leads to the induction of miR-96 expression and suppression of ETV6, which contributes to prostate cancer progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. FGF2-mediated reciprocal tumor cell-endothelial cell interplay contributes to the growth of chemoresistant cells: a potential mechanism for superficial bladder cancer recurrence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yule; Zhu, Guodong; Wu, Kaijie; Gao, Yang; Zeng, Jin; Shi, Qi; Guo, Peng; Wang, Xinyang; Chang, Luke S; Li, Lei; He, Dalin

    2016-04-01

    Patients with superficial bladder cancer can be definitively cured by one single transurethral resection (TUR) with additional intravesical chemotherapy; however, up to 75 % of cases display frequent and multiple recurrences. One of the major causes of recurrence is that chemotherapeutic drugs used in intravesical regimens may induce chemoresistance. However, the mechanisms by which these chemoresistant cells develop into recurrent tumors remain unclear. Recent clinical evidence revealed that the expression of pro-angiogenic factor FGF2 was associated with early local relapse in patients with superficial bladder cancer. In this study, we conducted a preliminary investigation of the mechanisms of chemoresistant cells mediated bladder cancer recurrence, focusing on FGF2-initiated tumor cell-endothelial cell interaction on chemoresistant cancer cell growth. We found that the expression of FGF2 was increased in chemoresistant bladder cell lines and in bladder tissues after intravesical chemotherapy. Although chemoresistant bladder cells grow slower than parental cells, chemoresistant bladder cancer cells had stronger ability than parental cells to stimulate endothelial cell migration, growth, and tube formation by producing FGF2. Inversely, endothelial cells significantly promoted chemoresistant bladder cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. Thus, targeting chemotherapy-induced FGF2 upregulation may provide a promising approach to manage the recurrence of superficial bladder cancer.

  13. Vitamin B-6 Supplementation Could Mediate Antioxidant Capacity by Reducing Plasma Homocysteine Concentration in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Tumor Resection

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shao-Bin; Lin, Ping-Ting; Liu, Hsiao-Tien; Peng, Yi-Shan; Huang, Shih-Chien

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B-6 has a strong antioxidative effect. It would be useful to determine whether vitamin B-6 supplementation had effects on antioxidant capacities in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who had recently undergone tumor resection. Thirty-three HCC patients were randomly assigned to either the placebo (n = 16) group or the vitamin B-6 50 mg/d (n = 17) group for 12 weeks. Plasma pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, homocysteine, indicators of oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacities were measured. Plasma homocysteine in the vitamin B-6 group was significantly decreased at week 12, while the level of trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) was significantly increased at the end of the intervention period. Vitamin B-6 supplementation had a significant reducing effect on the change of plasma homocysteine (β = −2.4, p = 0.02) but not on the change of TEAC level after adjusting for potential confounders. The change of plasma homocysteine was significantly associated with the change of TEAC after adjusting for potential confounders (β = −162.0, p = 0.03). Vitamin B-6 supplementation seemed to mediate antioxidant capacity via reducing plasma homocysteine rather than having a direct antioxidative effect in HCC patients who had recently undergone tumor resection. The clinical trial number is NCT01964001, ClinicalTrials.gov. PMID:27051670

  14. Tumor endothelial marker 5 expression in endothelial cells during capillary morphogenesis is induced by the small GTPase Rac and mediates contact inhibition of cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Vallon, Mario, E-mail: m.vallon@arcor.de; Rohde, Franziska; Janssen, Klaus-Peter

    2010-02-01

    Tumor endothelial marker (TEM) 5 is an adhesion G-protein-coupled receptor upregulated in endothelial cells during tumor and physiologic angiogenesis. So far, the mechanisms leading to upregulation of TEM5 and its function during angiogenesis have not been identified. Here, we report that TEM5 expression in endothelial cells is induced during capillary-like network formation on Matrigel, during capillary morphogenesis in a three-dimensional collagen I matrix, and upon confluence on a two-dimensional matrix. TEM5 expression was not induced by a variety of soluble angiogenic factors, including VEGF and bFGF, in subconfluent endothelial cells. TEM5 upregulation was blocked by toxin B from Clostridium difficile,more » an inhibitor of the small GTPases Rho, Rac, and Cdc42. The Rho inhibitor C3 transferase from Clostridium botulinum did not affect TEM5 expression, whereas the Rac inhibitor NSC23766 suppressed TEM5 upregulation. An excess of the soluble TEM5 extracellular domain or an inhibitory monoclonal TEM5 antibody blocked contact inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation resulting in multilayered islands within the endothelial monolayer and increased vessel density during capillary formation. Based on our results we conclude that TEM5 expression during capillary morphogenesis is induced by the small GTPase Rac and mediates contact inhibition of proliferation in endothelial cells.« less

  15. The Ras-related Protein, Rap1A, Mediates Thrombin-stimulated, Integrin-dependent Glioblastoma Cell Proliferation and Tumor Growth*

    PubMed Central

    Sayyah, Jacqueline; Bartakova, Alena; Nogal, Nekeisha; Quilliam, Lawrence A.; Stupack, Dwayne G.; Brown, Joan Heller

    2014-01-01

    Rap1 is a Ras family GTPase with a well documented role in ERK/MAP kinase signaling and integrin activation. Stimulation of the G-protein-coupled receptor PAR-1 with thrombin in human 1321N1 glioblastoma cells led to a robust increase in Rap1 activation. This response was sustained for up to 6 h and mediated through RhoA and phospholipase D (PLD). Thrombin treatment also induced a 5-fold increase in cell adhesion to fibronectin, which was blocked by down-regulating PLD or Rap1A or by treatment with a β1 integrin neutralizing antibody. In addition, thrombin treatment led to increases in phospho-focal adhesion kinase (tyrosine 397), ERK1/2 phosphorylation and cell proliferation, which were significantly inhibited in cells treated with β1 integrin antibody or Rap1A siRNA. To assess the role of Rap1A in tumor formation in vivo, we compared growth of 1321N1 cells stably expressing control, Rap1A or Rap1B shRNA in a mouse xenograft model. Deletion of Rap1A, but not of Rap1B, reduced tumor mass by >70% relative to control. Similar observations were made with U373MG glioblastoma cells in which Rap1A was down-regulated. Collectively, these findings implicate a Rap1A/β1 integrin pathway, activated downstream of G-protein-coupled receptor stimulation and RhoA, in glioblastoma cell proliferation. Moreover, our data demonstrate a critical role for Rap1A in glioblastoma tumor growth in vivo. PMID:24790104

  16. The Ras-related protein, Rap1A, mediates thrombin-stimulated, integrin-dependent glioblastoma cell proliferation and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Sayyah, Jacqueline; Bartakova, Alena; Nogal, Nekeisha; Quilliam, Lawrence A; Stupack, Dwayne G; Brown, Joan Heller

    2014-06-20

    Rap1 is a Ras family GTPase with a well documented role in ERK/MAP kinase signaling and integrin activation. Stimulation of the G-protein-coupled receptor PAR-1 with thrombin in human 1321N1 glioblastoma cells led to a robust increase in Rap1 activation. This response was sustained for up to 6 h and mediated through RhoA and phospholipase D (PLD). Thrombin treatment also induced a 5-fold increase in cell adhesion to fibronectin, which was blocked by down-regulating PLD or Rap1A or by treatment with a β1 integrin neutralizing antibody. In addition, thrombin treatment led to increases in phospho-focal adhesion kinase (tyrosine 397), ERK1/2 phosphorylation and cell proliferation, which were significantly inhibited in cells treated with β1 integrin antibody or Rap1A siRNA. To assess the role of Rap1A in tumor formation in vivo, we compared growth of 1321N1 cells stably expressing control, Rap1A or Rap1B shRNA in a mouse xenograft model. Deletion of Rap1A, but not of Rap1B, reduced tumor mass by >70% relative to control. Similar observations were made with U373MG glioblastoma cells in which Rap1A was down-regulated. Collectively, these findings implicate a Rap1A/β1 integrin pathway, activated downstream of G-protein-coupled receptor stimulation and RhoA, in glioblastoma cell proliferation. Moreover, our data demonstrate a critical role for Rap1A in glioblastoma tumor growth in vivo. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. CD4 T cell-mediated masking effects of the immunogenicity of tumor-associated antigens are qualitatively and quantitatively different depending on the individual antigens.

    PubMed

    Okano, Shinji; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Yoshiya, Shohei; Yamashita, Yo-ichi; Harimoto, Norifumi; Ikegami, Toru; Shirabe, Ken; Harada, Mamoru; Yoshikai, Yasunobu; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    The use of cancer immunotherapy as part of multidisciplinary therapies for cancer is a promising strategy for the cure of advanced cancer patients. In cancer immunotherapy, the effective priming of tumor-associated antigen (TAA)-specific CD8+ T cells is essential, and therefore, the appropriate selection of the best peptide for targeting the cancer is a most important concern. One criticism in the selection of a TAA is the immunogenicity of the TAA, the vaccination of which effectively elicits clinical responses. However, the critical basic immunological factors that affect the differences in the immunogenicity of TAAs remain to be elucidated. Here we found that CD4 T-cell responses suppressed the immunogenicity of the concomitant TAA in a murine melanoma model in which intratumoral activated dendritic therapy (ITADT) was used for treatment of the established cancer, and we observed that the antitumor effects were largely dependent on the CD8 T-cell response. CD4 T-cell depletion simply enhanced the tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-2(180-188) peptide-specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) responses, and CD4 T-cell depletion provided immunogenicity for mgp100(25-33) peptide, to which a CTL response could not be detected at all in CD4 T-cell-intact mice in the early therapeutic phase. Further, the mgp100(25-33) peptide-specific CTL response again became undetectable after the recovery of CD4 T cells in previously CD4-depleted, tumor-eradicated mice, whereas the TRP-2(180-188) peptide-specific CTL response was still much stronger in CD4-depleted mice than in CD4-intact mice. These findings suggest that the CD4 T cell-mediated masking effects of the immunogenicity of tumor-associated antigens are qualitatively and quantitatively different depending on the individual antigens.

  18. CYP2F2-generated metabolites, not styrene oxide, are a key event mediating the mode of action of styrene-induced mouse lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Cruzan, G; Bus, J; Hotchkiss, J; Harkema, J; Banton, M; Sarang, S

    2012-02-01

    Styrene induces lung tumors in mice but not in rats. Although metabolism of styrene to 7,8-styrene oxide (SO) by CYP2E1 has been suggested as a mediator of styrene toxicity, lung toxicity is not attenuated in CYP2E1 knockout mice. However, styrene and/or SO metabolism by mouse lung Clara cell-localized CYP2F2 to ring-oxidized cytotoxic metabolite(s) has been postulated as a key metabolic gateway responsible for both lung toxicity and possible tumorigenicity. To test this hypothesis, the lung toxicity of styrene and SO was evaluated in C57BL/6 (WT) and CYP2F2⁻/⁻ knockout mice treated with styrene (400 mg/kg/day, gavage, or 200 or 400 mg/kg/day, ip) or S- or R-SO (200 mg/kg/day, ip) for 5 days. Styrene treated WT mice displayed significant necrosis and exfoliation of Clara cells, and cumulative BrdU-labeling index of S-phase cells was markedly increased in terminal bronchioles of WT mice exposed to styrene or S- or RSO. In contrast, Clara and terminal bronchiole cell toxicity was not observed in CYP2F2⁻/⁻ mice exposed to either styrene or SO. This study clearly demonstrates that the mouse lung toxicity of both styrene and SO is critically dependent on metabolism by CYP2F2. Importantly, the human isoform of CYP2F, CYP2F1, is expressed at much lower levels and likely does not catalyze significant styrene metabolism, supporting the hypothesis that styrene-induced mouse lung tumors may not quantitatively, or possibly qualitatively, predict lung tumor potential in humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cambrian origin of the CYP27C1-mediated vitamin A1-to-A2 switch, a key mechanism of vertebrate sensory plasticity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morshedian, Ala; Toomery, Matthew B.; Pollock, Gabriel E.; Frederiksen, Rikard; Enright, Jennifer; McCormick, Stephen; Cornwall, M. Carter; Fain, Gordon L.; Corbo, Joseph C.

    2017-01-01

    The spectral composition of ambient light varies across both space and time. Many species of jawed vertebrates adapt to this variation by tuning the sensitivity of their photoreceptors via the expression of CYP27C1, an enzyme that converts vitamin A1 into vitamin A2, thereby shifting the ratio of vitamin A1-based rhodopsin to red-shifted vitamin A2-based porphyropsin in the eye. Here, we show that the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a jawless vertebrate that diverged from jawed vertebrates during the Cambrian period (approx. 500 Ma), dynamically shifts its photoreceptor spectral sensitivity via vitamin A1-to-A2 chromophore exchange as it transitions between photically divergent aquatic habitats. We further show that this shift correlates with high-level expression of the lamprey orthologue of CYP27C1, specifically in the retinal pigment epithelium as in jawed vertebrates. Our results suggest that the CYP27C1-mediated vitamin A1-to-A2 switch is an evolutionarily ancient mechanism of sensory plasticity that appeared not long after the origin of vertebrates.

  20. The Mechanism of E2F/P130 Mediated Repression and Its Potential Tumor Suppressor Function in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    conserved PLDLS motif. JBC 273, 8549-8552 (1998). 4. Nibu, Y., Zhang, H., and Levine, M . Interaction of short-range repressors with Drosophila CtBP in...oncogenic transformation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 10467-10471 (1995). 11. Poortinga,G., Watanabe, M . & Parkhurst,S.M. Drosophila CtBP: A hairy...Levine, M . Groucho and dCtBP mediate separate pathways of transcriptional repression in the Drosophila embryo. Developmental Biology 96, 535-540 (1999). 13