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Sample records for a2 mediates progression

  1. KSHV-Mediated Angiogenesis in Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Purushothaman, Pravinkumar; Uppal, Timsy; Sarkar, Roni; Verma, Subhash C.

    2016-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is a malignant human oncovirus belonging to the gamma herpesvirus family. HHV-8 is closely linked to the pathogenesis of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) and two other B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases: primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and a plasmablastic variant of multicentric Castleman’s disease (MCD). KS is an invasive tumor of endothelial cells most commonly found in untreated HIV-AIDS or immuno-compromised individuals. KS tumors are highly vascularized and have abnormal, excessive neo-angiogenesis, inflammation, and proliferation of infected endothelial cells. KSHV directly induces angiogenesis in an autocrine and paracrine fashion through a complex interplay of various viral and cellular pro-angiogenic and inflammatory factors. KS is believed to originate due to a combination of KSHV’s efficient strategies for evading host immune systems and several pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory stimuli. In addition, KSHV infection of endothelial cells produces a wide array of viral oncoproteins with transforming capabilities that regulate multiple host-signaling pathways involved in the activation of angiogenesis. It is likely that the cellular-signaling pathways of angiogenesis and lymph-angiogenesis modulate the rate of tumorigenesis induction by KSHV. This review summarizes the current knowledge on regulating KSHV-mediated angiogenesis by integrating the findings reported thus far on the roles of host and viral genes in oncogenesis, recent developments in cell-culture/animal-model systems, and various anti-angiogenic therapies for treating KSHV-related lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:27447661

  2. Adenosine A2A Receptor Activation and Macrophage-mediated Experimental Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Gabriela E.; Truong, Luan D.; Li, Ping; Zhang, Ping; Du, Jie; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Feng, Lili

    2010-01-01

    In immune-induced inflammation, leukocytes are key mediators of tissue damage. Since A2A adenosine receptors (A2AR) are endogenous suppressors of inflammation, we examined cellular and molecular mechanisms of kidney damage to determine whether selective activation of A2AR will suppress inflammation in a rat model of glomerulonephritis. Activation of A2AR reduced the degree of kidney injury in both the acute inflammatory phase and the progressive phase of glomerulonephritis. This protection against acute and chronic inflammation was associated with suppression of the glomerular expression of the MDC/CCL22 chemokine and down-regulation of MIP-1α/CCL3, RANTES/CCL5, MIP-1β/CCL4, and MCP-1/CCL2 chemokines. The expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-4 and IL-10, also increased. The mechanism for these anti-inflammatory responses to the A2AR agonist was suppression of macrophages function. A2AR expression was increased in macrophages, macrophage-derived chemokines were reduced in response to the A2AR agonist, and chemokines not expressed in macrophages did not respond to A2AR activation. Thus, activation of the A2AR on macrophages inhibits immune-associated inflammation. In glomerulonephritis, A2AR activation modulates inflammation and tissue damage even in the progressive phase of glomerulonephritis. Accordingly, pharmacological activation of A2AR could be developed into a novel treatment for glomerulonephritis and other macrophage-related inflammatory diseases. PMID:17898087

  3. Mast cells mediate neutrophil recruitment during atherosclerotic plaque progression.

    PubMed

    Wezel, Anouk; Lagraauw, H Maxime; van der Velden, Daniël; de Jager, Saskia C A; Quax, Paul H A; Kuiper, Johan; Bot, Ilze

    2015-08-01

    Activated mast cells have been identified in the intima and perivascular tissue of human atherosclerotic plaques. As mast cells have been described to release a number of chemokines that mediate leukocyte fluxes, we propose that activated mast cells may play a pivotal role in leukocyte recruitment during atherosclerotic plaque progression. Systemic IgE-mediated mast cell activation in apoE(-/-)μMT mice resulted in an increase in atherosclerotic lesion size as compared to control mice, and interestingly, the number of neutrophils was highly increased in these lesions. In addition, peritoneal mast cell activation led to a massive neutrophil influx into the peritoneal cavity in C57Bl6 mice, whereas neutrophil numbers in mast cell deficient Kit(W(-sh)/W(-sh)) mice were not affected. Within the newly recruited neutrophil population, increased levels of CXCR2(+) and CXCR4(+) neutrophils were observed after mast cell activation. Indeed, mast cells were seen to contain and release CXCL1 and CXCL12, the ligands for CXCR2 and CXCR4. Intriguingly, peritoneal mast cell activation in combination with anti-CXCR2 receptor antagonist resulted in decreased neutrophil recruitment, thus establishing a prominent role for the CXCL1/CXCR2 axis in mast cell-mediated neutrophil recruitment. Our data suggest that chemokines, and in particular CXCL1, released from activated mast cells induce neutrophil recruitment to the site of inflammation, thereby aggravating the ongoing inflammatory response and thus affecting plaque progression and destabilization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. β-Arrestin2 mediates progression of murine primary myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Rein, Lindsay Am; Wisler, James W; Kim, Jihee; Theriot, Barbara; Huang, LiYin; Price, Trevor; Yang, Haeyoon; Chen, Minyong; Chen, Wei; Sipkins, Dorothy; Fedoriw, Yuri; Walker, Julia Kl; Premont, Richard T; Lefkowitz, Robert J

    2017-12-21

    Primary myelofibrosis is a myeloproliferative neoplasm associated with significant morbidity and mortality, for which effective therapies are lacking. β-Arrestins are multifunctional adaptor proteins involved in developmental signaling pathways. One isoform, β-arrestin2 (βarr2), has been implicated in initiation and progression of chronic myeloid leukemia, another myeloproliferative neoplasm closely related to primary myelofibrosis. Accordingly, we investigated the relationship between βarr2 and primary myelofibrosis. In a murine model of MPLW515L-mutant primary myelofibrosis, mice transplanted with donor βarr2-knockout (βarr2-/-) hematopoietic stem cells infected with MPL-mutant retrovirus did not develop myelofibrosis, whereas controls uniformly succumbed to disease. Although transplanted βarr2-/- cells homed properly to marrow, they did not repopulate long-term due to increased apoptosis and decreased self-renewal of βarr2-/- cells. In order to assess the effect of acute loss of βarr2 in established primary myelofibrosis in vivo, we utilized a tamoxifen-induced Cre-conditional βarr2-knockout mouse. Mice that received Cre (+) donor cells and developed myelofibrosis had significantly improved survival compared with controls. These data indicate that lack of antiapoptotic βarr2 mediates marrow failure of murine hematopoietic stem cells overexpressing MPLW515L. They also indicate that βarr2 is necessary for progression of primary myelofibrosis, suggesting that it may serve as a novel therapeutic target in this disease.

  5. β-Arrestin2 mediates progression of murine primary myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Rein, Lindsay A.M.; Wisler, James W.; Kim, Jihee; Theriot, Barbara; Huang, LiYin; Price, Trevor; Yang, Haeyoon; Chen, Wei; Sipkins, Dorothy; Fedoriw, Yuri; Walker, Julia K.L.; Premont, Richard T.; Lefkowitz, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Primary myelofibrosis is a myeloproliferative neoplasm associated with significant morbidity and mortality, for which effective therapies are lacking. β-Arrestins are multifunctional adaptor proteins involved in developmental signaling pathways. One isoform, β-arrestin2 (βarr2), has been implicated in initiation and progression of chronic myeloid leukemia, another myeloproliferative neoplasm closely related to primary myelofibrosis. Accordingly, we investigated the relationship between βarr2 and primary myelofibrosis. In a murine model of MPLW515L-mutant primary myelofibrosis, mice transplanted with donor βarr2-knockout (βarr2–/–) hematopoietic stem cells infected with MPL-mutant retrovirus did not develop myelofibrosis, whereas controls uniformly succumbed to disease. Although transplanted βarr2–/– cells homed properly to marrow, they did not repopulate long-term due to increased apoptosis and decreased self-renewal of βarr2–/– cells. In order to assess the effect of acute loss of βarr2 in established primary myelofibrosis in vivo, we utilized a tamoxifen-induced Cre-conditional βarr2-knockout mouse. Mice that received Cre (+) donor cells and developed myelofibrosis had significantly improved survival compared with controls. These data indicate that lack of antiapoptotic βarr2 mediates marrow failure of murine hematopoietic stem cells overexpressing MPLW515L. They also indicate that βarr2 is necessary for progression of primary myelofibrosis, suggesting that it may serve as a novel therapeutic target in this disease. PMID:29263312

  6. Magnetic-mediated hyperthermia for cancer treatment: Research progress and clinical trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ling-Yun; Liu, Jia-Yi; Ouyang, Wei-Wei; Li, Dan-Ye; Li, Li; Li, Li-Ya; Tang, Jin-Tian

    2013-10-01

    Research progress and frontiers of magnetic-mediated hyperthermia (MMH) are presented, along with clinical trials in Germany, the US, Japan, and China. Special attention is focused on MMH mediated by magnetic nanoparticles, and multifunctional magnetic devices for cancer multimodality treatment are also introduced.

  7. Implementation Planning and Progress on Physical Activity Goals: The Mediating Role of Life-Management Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugas, Michelle; Gaudreau, Patrick; Carraro, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    This 4-week prospective study examined whether the use of life-management strategies mediates the relationship between implementation planning and short-term progress on physical activity goals. In particular, the strategies of elective selection, compensation, and loss-based selection were disentangled to assess their specific mediating effects.…

  8. Inflammasome-mediated dysbiosis regulates progression of NAFLD and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Henao-Mejia, Jorge; Elinav, Eran; Jin, Cheng-Cheng; Hao, Liming; Mehal, Wajahat Z.; Strowig, Till; Thaiss, Christoph A.; Kau, Andrew L.; Eisenbarth, Stephanie C.; Jurczak, Michael J.; Camporez, Joao-Paulo; Shulman, Gerald I.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Hoffman, Hal M.; Flavell, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and the leading cause of chronic liver disease in the Western world. Twenty percent of NAFLD individuals develop chronic hepatic inflammation (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, NASH) associated with cirrhosis, portal hypertension and hepatocellular carcinoma, yet causes of progression from NAFLD to NASH remain obscure. Here, we show that the NLRP6 and NLRP3 inflammasomes and the effector protein IL-18 negatively regulate NAFLD/NASH progression, as well as multiple aspects of metabolic syndrome via modulation of the gut microbiota. Different animal models reveal that inflammasome deficiency-associated changes in the configuration of the gut microbiota are associated with exacerbated hepatic steatosis and inflammation through influx of TLR4 and TLR9 agonists into the portal circulation, leading to enhanced hepatic TNF-α expression that drives NASH progression. Furthermore, co-housing of inflammasome-deficient animals to wild type mice results in exacerbation of hepatic steatosis, glucose intolerance, and obesity. Thus, altered interactions between the gut microbiota and the host, produced by defective NLRP3 and NLRP6 inflammasome sensing, may govern the rate of progression of multiple metabolic syndrome-associated abnormalities, highlighting the central role of the microbiota in the pathogenesis of heretofore seemingly unrelated systemic auto-inflammatory and metabolic disorders. PMID:22297845

  9. Microbiota as a mediator of cancer progression and therapy.

    PubMed

    Pope, Jillian L; Tomkovich, Sarah; Yang, Ye; Jobin, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Complex and intricate circuitries regulate cellular proliferation, survival, and growth, and alterations of this network through genetic and epigenetic events result in aberrant cellular behaviors, often leading to carcinogenesis. Although specific germline mutations have been recognized as cancer inducers, the vast majority of neoplastic changes in humans occur through environmental exposure, lifestyle, and diet. An emerging concept in cancer biology implicates the microbiota as a powerful environmental factor modulating the carcinogenic process. For example, the intestinal microbiota influences cancer development or therapeutic responses through specific activities (immune responses, metabolites, microbial structures, and toxins). The numerous effects of microbiota on carcinogenesis, ranging from promoting, preventing, or even influencing therapeutic outcomes, highlight the complex relationship between the biota and the host. In this review, we discuss the latest findings on this complex microbial interaction with the host and highlight potential mechanisms by which the microbiota mediates such a wide impact on carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Microbiota as a mediator of cancer progression and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Jillian L.; Tomkovich, Sarah; Yang, Ye; Jobin, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Complex and intricate circuitries regulate cellular proliferation, survival, and growth, and alterations of this network through genetic and epigenetic events result in aberrant cellular behaviors, often leading to carcinogenesis. Although specific germline mutations have been recognized as cancer inducers, the vast majority of neoplastic changes in humans occur through environmental exposure, lifestyle, and diet. An emerging concept in cancer biology implicates the microbiota as a powerful environmental factor modulating the carcinogenic process. For example, the intestinal microbiota influences cancer development or therapeutic responses through specific activities (immune responses, metabolites, microbial structures, and toxins). The numerous effects of microbiota on carcinogenesis, ranging from promoting, preventing, or even influencing therapeutic outcomes, highlight the complex relationship between the biota and the host. In this review, we discuss the latest findings on this complex microbial interaction with the host and highlight potential mechanisms by which the microbiota mediates such a wide impact on carcinogenesis. PMID:27554797

  11. Receptor-mediated gene transfer vectors: progress towards genetic pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Molas, M; Gómez-Valadés, A G; Vidal-Alabró, A; Miguel-Turu, M; Bermudez, J; Bartrons, R; Perales, J C

    2003-10-01

    Although specific delivery to tissues and unique cell types in vivo has been demonstrated for many non-viral vectors, current methods are still inadequate for human applications, mainly because of limitations on their efficiencies. All the steps required for an efficient receptor-mediated gene transfer process may in principle be exploited to enhance targeted gene delivery. These steps are: DNA/vector binding, internalization, subcellular trafficking, vesicular escape, nuclear import, and unpacking either for transcription or other functions (i.e., antisense, RNA interference, etc.). The large variety of vector designs that are currently available, usually aimed at improving the efficiency of these steps, has complicated the evaluation of data obtained from specific derivatives of such vectors. The importance of the structure of the final vector and the consequences of design decisions at specific steps on the overall efficiency of the vector will be discussed in detail. We emphasize in this review that stability in serum and thus, proper bioavailability of vectors to their specific receptors may be the single greatest limiting factor on the overall gene transfer efficiency in vivo. We discuss current approaches to overcome the intrinsic instability of synthetic vectors in the blood. In this regard, a summary of the structural features of the vectors obtained from current protocols will be presented and their functional characteristics evaluated. Dissecting information on molecular conjugates obtained by such methodologies, when carefully evaluated, should provide important guidelines for the creation of effective, targeted and safe DNA therapeutics.

  12. Epigenetic modulators, modifiers and mediators in cancer aetiology and progression

    PubMed Central

    Feinberg, Andrew P.; Koldobskiy, Michael A.; Göndör, Anita

    2016-01-01

    This year is the tenth anniversary of the publication in this journal of a model suggesting the existence of ‘tumour progenitor genes’. These genes are epigenetically disrupted at the earliest stages of malignancies, even before mutations, and thus cause altered differentiation throughout tumour evolution. The past decade of discovery in cancer epigenetics has revealed a number of similarities between cancer genes and stem cell reprogramming genes, widespread mutations in epigenetic regulators, and the part played by chromatin structure in cellular plasticity in both development and cancer. In the light of these discoveries, we suggest here a framework for cancer epigenetics involving three types of genes: ‘epigenetic mediators’, corresponding to the tumour progenitor genes suggested earlier; ‘epigenetic modifiers’ of the mediators, which are frequently mutated in cancer; and ‘epigenetic modulators’ upstream of the modifiers, which are responsive to changes in the cellular environment and often linked to the nuclear architecture. We suggest that this classification is helpful in framing new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to cancer. PMID:26972587

  13. Progress of cereal transformation technology mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Hiei, Yukoh; Ishida, Yuji; Komari, Toshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Monocotyledonous plants were believed to be not transformable by the soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens until two decades ago, although convenient protocols for infection of leaf disks and subsequent regeneration of transgenic plants had been well established in a number of dicotyledonous species by then. This belief was reinforced by the fact that monocotyledons are mostly outside the host range of crown gall disease caused by the bacterium and by the failures in trials in monocotyledons to mimic the transformation protocols for dicotyledons. However, a key reason for the failure could have been the lack of active cell divisions at the wound sites in monocotyledons. The complexity and narrow optimal windows of critical factors, such as genotypes of plants, conditions of the plants from which explants are prepared, tissue culture methods and culture media, pre-treatments of explants, strains of A. tumefaciens, inducers of virulence genes, transformation vectors, selection marker genes and selective agents, kept technical hurdles high. Eventually it was demonstrated that rice and maize could be transformed by co-cultivating cells of callus cultures or immature embryos, which are actively dividing or about to divide, with A. tumefaciens. Subsequently, these initial difficulties were resolved one by one by many research groups, and the major cereals are now transformed quite efficiently. As many as 15 independent transgenic events may be regenerated from a single piece of immature embryo of rice. Maize transformation protocols are well established, and almost all transgenic events deregulated for commercialization after 2003 were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Wheat, barley, and sorghum are also among those plants that can be efficiently transformed by A. tumefaciens. PMID:25426132

  14. Progress of cereal transformation technology mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Hiei, Yukoh; Ishida, Yuji; Komari, Toshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Monocotyledonous plants were believed to be not transformable by the soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens until two decades ago, although convenient protocols for infection of leaf disks and subsequent regeneration of transgenic plants had been well established in a number of dicotyledonous species by then. This belief was reinforced by the fact that monocotyledons are mostly outside the host range of crown gall disease caused by the bacterium and by the failures in trials in monocotyledons to mimic the transformation protocols for dicotyledons. However, a key reason for the failure could have been the lack of active cell divisions at the wound sites in monocotyledons. The complexity and narrow optimal windows of critical factors, such as genotypes of plants, conditions of the plants from which explants are prepared, tissue culture methods and culture media, pre-treatments of explants, strains of A. tumefaciens, inducers of virulence genes, transformation vectors, selection marker genes and selective agents, kept technical hurdles high. Eventually it was demonstrated that rice and maize could be transformed by co-cultivating cells of callus cultures or immature embryos, which are actively dividing or about to divide, with A. tumefaciens. Subsequently, these initial difficulties were resolved one by one by many research groups, and the major cereals are now transformed quite efficiently. As many as 15 independent transgenic events may be regenerated from a single piece of immature embryo of rice. Maize transformation protocols are well established, and almost all transgenic events deregulated for commercialization after 2003 were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Wheat, barley, and sorghum are also among those plants that can be efficiently transformed by A. tumefaciens.

  15. Deletion of the EphA2 receptor exacerbates myocardial injury and the progression of ischemic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Wesley T; Griffin, William F; Kent, Susan D; Faiz, Filza; Hodges, Jonathan; Vuncannon, Jackson; Virag, Jitka A I

    2014-01-01

    EphrinA1-EphA-receptor signaling is protective during myocardial infarction (MI). The EphA2-receptor (EphA2-R) potentially mediates cardiomyocyte survival. To determine the role of the EphA2-R in acute non-reperfused myocardial injury in vivo, infarct size, inflammatory cell density, NF-κB, p-AKT/Akt, and MMP-2 protein levels, and changes in ephrinA1/EphA2-R gene expression profile were assessed 4 days post-MI in B6129 wild-type (WT) and EphA2-R-mutant (EphA2-R-M) mice lacking a functional EphA2-R. Fibrosis, capillary density, morphometry of left ventricular chamber and infarct dimensions, and cardiac function also were measured 4 weeks post-MI to determine the extent of ventricular remodeling. EphA2-R-M infarct size and area of residual necrosis were 31.7% and 113% greater than WT hearts, respectively. Neutrophil and macrophage infiltration were increased by 46% and 84% in EphA2-R-M hearts compared with WT, respectively. NF-κB protein expression was 1.9-fold greater in EphA2-R-M hearts at baseline and 56% less NF-κB after infarction compared with WT. EphA6 gene expression was 2.5-fold higher at baseline and increased 9.8-fold 4 days post-MI in EphA2-R-M hearts compared with WT. EphrinA1 gene expression in EphA2-R-M hearts was unchanged at baseline and decreased by 42% 4 days post-MI compared with WT hearts. EphA2-R-M hearts had 66.7% less expression of total Akt protein and 59% less p-Akt protein than WT hearts post-MI. EphA2-R-M hearts 4 weeks post-MI had increased chamber dilation and interstitial fibrosis and decreased MMP-2 expression and capillary density compared with WT. In conclusion, the EphA2-R is necessary to appropriately modulate the inflammatory response and severity of early injury during acute MI, thereby influencing the progression of ischemic cardiomyopathy.

  16. Deletion of the EphA2 receptor exacerbates myocardial injury and the progression of ischemic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    O'Neal, Wesley T.; Griffin, William F.; Kent, Susan D.; Faiz, Filza; Hodges, Jonathan; Vuncannon, Jackson; Virag, Jitka A. I.

    2014-01-01

    EphrinA1-EphA-receptor signaling is protective during myocardial infarction (MI). The EphA2-receptor (EphA2-R) potentially mediates cardiomyocyte survival. To determine the role of the EphA2-R in acute non-reperfused myocardial injury in vivo, infarct size, inflammatory cell density, NF-κB, p-AKT/Akt, and MMP-2 protein levels, and changes in ephrinA1/EphA2-R gene expression profile were assessed 4 days post-MI in B6129 wild-type (WT) and EphA2-R-mutant (EphA2-R-M) mice lacking a functional EphA2-R. Fibrosis, capillary density, morphometry of left ventricular chamber and infarct dimensions, and cardiac function also were measured 4 weeks post-MI to determine the extent of ventricular remodeling. EphA2-R-M infarct size and area of residual necrosis were 31.7% and 113% greater than WT hearts, respectively. Neutrophil and macrophage infiltration were increased by 46% and 84% in EphA2-R-M hearts compared with WT, respectively. NF-κB protein expression was 1.9-fold greater in EphA2-R-M hearts at baseline and 56% less NF-κB after infarction compared with WT. EphA6 gene expression was 2.5-fold higher at baseline and increased 9.8-fold 4 days post-MI in EphA2-R-M hearts compared with WT. EphrinA1 gene expression in EphA2-R-M hearts was unchanged at baseline and decreased by 42% 4 days post-MI compared with WT hearts. EphA2-R-M hearts had 66.7% less expression of total Akt protein and 59% less p-Akt protein than WT hearts post-MI. EphA2-R-M hearts 4 weeks post-MI had increased chamber dilation and interstitial fibrosis and decreased MMP-2 expression and capillary density compared with WT. In conclusion, the EphA2-R is necessary to appropriately modulate the inflammatory response and severity of early injury during acute MI, thereby influencing the progression of ischemic cardiomyopathy. PMID:24795639

  17. 2,3,7, 8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD)-MEDIATED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN FEMALE CYP1A-2 KNOCKOUT (CYP1A2-/-) MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-Mediated Oxidative Stress in Female CYP1A2 Knockout (CYP1A2-/-) Mice

    Deborah Burgin1, Janet Diliberto2, Linda Birnbaum2
    1UNC Toxicology; 2USEPA/ORD/NHEERL, RTP, NC

    Most of the effects due to TCDD exposure are mediated via...

  18. Annexin A2 is an independent prognostic biomarker for evaluating the malignant progression of laryngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shi; Xie, Chubo; Wu, Ping; He, Jian; Tang, Yaoyun; Xu, Jing; Zhao, Suping

    2017-01-01

    Due to the lack of a definite diagnosis, a frequent recurrence rate and resistance to chemotherapy or radiotherapy, the clinical outcome for patients with advanced laryngeal cancer has not improved over the last decade. Annexin A2 is associated with the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. In the present study, it was demonstrated using differential proteomics analysis that Annexin A2 is highly expressed in laryngeal carcinoma tissues and this was confirmed using immunohistochemistry, which demonstrated that the expression of Annexin A2 in laryngeal carcinoma tissues was significantly higher than in healthy adjacent tissue. In addition, its potential predictive value in the prognosis of patients with laryngeal carcinoma was evaluated. The results demonstrated that Annexin A2 expression was significantly associated with tumor size, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and clinical stage. In addition, higher Annexin A2 expression was associated with a poor prognosis of patients with laryngeal cancer. Thus, the results of the present study indicate that Annexin A2 expression is an independent prognostic biomarker for evaluating the malignant progression of laryngeal cancer. PMID:29285166

  19. Achievement goals and emotions: The mediational roles of perceived progress, control, and value.

    PubMed

    Hall, Nathan C; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Muis, Krista R; Ranellucci, John

    2016-06-01

    The link between achievement goals and achievement emotions is well established; however, research exploring potential mediators of this relationship is lacking. The control-value theory of achievement emotions (Pekrun, 2006, Educational Psychology Review, 18, 315) posits that perceptions of control and value mediate the relationship between achievement goals and achievement emotions, whereas the bidirectional theory of affect (Linnenbrink & Pintrich, 2002, Educational Psychologist, 37, 69) proposes that perceived progress mediates this relationship. The present study empirically evaluated three hypothesized mediators of the effects of achievement goals on learning-related emotions as proposed in the control-value theory and the bidirectional theory of affect. Undergraduate students (N = 273) from humanities, social science, and STEM disciplines participated. Participants completed web-based questionnaires evaluating academic achievement goals, perceptions of control, perceived task value, and achievement emotions. Results provided empirical support primarily for perceived progress as a mediator of mastery-approach goal effects on positive emotions (enjoyment, hope), showing indirect effects of mastery- and performance-approach goals on outcome-related emotions (hope, anxiety) via perceived control. Indirect effects of mastery- and performance-approach goals were further observed on anxiety via perceived value, with higher value levels predicting greater anxiety. Study findings partially support Linnenbrink and Pintrich's (2002, Educational Psychologist, 37, 69) bidirectional theory of affect while underscoring the potential for indirect effects of goals on emotions through perceived control as proposed by Pekrun (2006, Educational Psychology Review, 18, 315). © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  20. A2B Adenosine Receptor–Mediated Induction of IL-6 Promotes CKD

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yingbo; Zhang, Weiru; Wen, Jiaming; Zhang, Yujin; Kellems, Rodney E.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic elevation of adenosine, which occurs in the setting of repeated or prolonged tissue injury, can exacerbate cellular dysfunction, suggesting that it may contribute to the pathogenesis of CKD. Here, mice with chronically elevated levels of adenosine, resulting from a deficiency in adenosine deaminase (ADA), developed renal dysfunction and fibrosis. Both the administration of polyethylene glycol–modified ADA to reduce adenosine levels and the inhibition of the A2B adenosine receptor (A2BR) attenuated renal fibrosis and dysfunction. Furthermore, activation of A2BR promoted renal fibrosis in both mice infused with angiotensin II (Ang II) and mice subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). These three mouse models shared a similar profile of profibrotic gene expression in kidney tissue, suggesting that they share similar signaling pathways that lead to renal fibrosis. Finally, both genetic and pharmacologic approaches showed that the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 mediates adenosine-induced renal fibrosis downstream of A2BR. Taken together, these data suggest that A2BR-mediated induction of IL-6 contributes to renal fibrogenesis and shows potential therapeutic targets for CKD. PMID:21511827

  1. Annexin A2 Mediates the Localization of Measles Virus Matrix Protein at the Plasma Membrane.

    PubMed

    Koga, Ritsuko; Kubota, Marie; Hashiguchi, Takao; Yanagi, Yusuke; Ohno, Shinji

    2018-02-28

    Annexins are a family of structurally related proteins that bind negatively charged membrane phospholipids in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner. Annexin A2 (AnxA2), a member of the family, has been implicated in a variety of cellular functions including the organization of membrane domains, vesicular trafficking and cell-cell adhesion. AnxA2 generally forms the heterotetrameric complex with a small Ca 2+ -binding protein S100A10. Measles virus (MV), a member of the family Paramyxoviridae , is an enveloped virus with a nonsegmented negative strand RNA genome. Knockdown of AnxA2 greatly reduced MV growth in cells, without affecting its entry and viral RNA production. In MV-infected, AnxA2-knockdown cells, the expression level of the matrix (M) protein, but not other viral proteins, was reduced compared with that in control cells, and the distribution of the M protein at the plasma membrane was decreased. The M protein lines the inner surface of the envelope and plays an important role in virus assembly by connecting the nucleocapsid to the envelope proteins. The M protein bound to AnxA2 independently of AnxA2's phosphorylation or its association with S100A10, and was co-localized with AnxA2 within cells. Truncation of the N-terminal 10 amino acid residues, but not the N-terminal 5 residues, compromised the ability of the M protein to interact with AnxA2 and localize at the plasma membrane. These results indicate that AnxA2 mediates the localization of the MV M protein at the plasma membrane by interacting with its N-terminal region (especially residues at positions 6-10), thereby aiding in MV assembly. IMPORTANCE Measles virus (MV) is an important human pathogen, still claiming ∼ 100,000 lives per year despite the presence of effective vaccines, and causes occasional outbreaks even in developed countries. Replication of viruses largely relies on the functions of host cells. Our study revealed that the reduction of the host protein annexin A2 compromises the replication of

  2. Role of Protein Synthesis Initiation Factors in Dietary Soy Isoflavone-Mediated Effects on Breast Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    After 1 week of tumor inoculation, vehicle (10% ethanol, 90% corn oil ), 10 mg/kg body weight (BW) of daidzein, or combined soy isoflavones 10 mg/kg BW...Dietary Soy Isoflavone-Mediated Effects on Breast Cancer Progression. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Columba de la Parra Simental CONTRACTING...00935 Role of Protein Synthesis Initiation Factors in Dietary Soy Isoflavone-Mediated Effects on Breast Cancer Progression Columba de la Parra Simental

  3. Therapeutic effect of apatinib on overall survival is mediated by prolonged progression-free survival in advanced gastric cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Sipeng; Shi, Qianwen; Bai, Jianling; Li, Jin; Qin, Shukui; Yu, Hao; Chen, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Apatinib is reported to significantly improve the overall survival (OS) of patients with advanced gastric cancer who have previously failed second-line chemotherapy. However, it is not well understood whether apatinib acts by improving progression or by prolonging post-progression survival. Here, based on phase III clinical trial data, the mediating effect of apatinib on patient overall survival was systematically quantified, through progression-free survival (PFS), post-progression survival (PPS), and the disease control rate (DCR). PFS was the primary mediator of the association between apatinib treatment and OS, with an indirect-effect mean survival time ratio of 1.63 (95%CI 1.35-1.97), which mediated 93.5% of the treatment effect. The DCR was also a significant mediator among secondary efficacy endpoints, and had an indirect-effect mean survival time ratio of 1.47 (95%CI 1.20-1.79, 50.9% mediated). Both primary and other targets of the DCR had similar results. The results indicated that apatinib treatment prolongs progression-free survival rather than post-progression survival, and in turn, leads to improved overall survival. Additionally, our study highlights the value of mediation analysis in clinical trials in providing additional information to build upon traditional primary analysis. PMID:27793017

  4. Therapeutic effect of apatinib on overall survival is mediated by prolonged progression-free survival in advanced gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lihong; Wei, Yongyue; Shen, Sipeng; Shi, Qianwen; Bai, Jianling; Li, Jin; Qin, Shukui; Yu, Hao; Chen, Feng

    2017-04-25

    Apatinib is reported to significantly improve the overall survival (OS) of patients with advanced gastric cancer who have previously failed second-line chemotherapy. However, it is not well understood whether apatinib acts by improving progression or by prolonging post-progression survival. Here, based on phase III clinical trial data, the mediating effect of apatinib on patient overall survival was systematically quantified, through progression-free survival (PFS), post-progression survival (PPS), and the disease control rate (DCR). PFS was the primary mediator of the association between apatinib treatment and OS, with an indirect-effect mean survival time ratio of 1.63 (95%CI 1.35-1.97), which mediated 93.5% of the treatment effect. The DCR was also a significant mediator among secondary efficacy endpoints, and had an indirect-effect mean survival time ratio of 1.47 (95%CI 1.20-1.79, 50.9% mediated). Both primary and other targets of the DCR had similar results. The results indicated that apatinib treatment prolongs progression-free survival rather than post-progression survival, and in turn, leads to improved overall survival. Additionally, our study highlights the value of mediation analysis in clinical trials in providing additional information to build upon traditional primary analysis.

  5. Interleukin 1 amplifies receptor-mediated activation of phospholipase A2 in 3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Burch, R M; Connor, J R; Axelrod, J

    1988-01-01

    Human recombinant interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) and IL-1 beta stimulated prostaglandin E2 synthesis in 3T3 fibroblasts in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Enhanced prostaglandin E2 synthesis after IL-1 treatment was apparent by 1 hr and continued to increase for at least 2 days. Half-maximal stimulation occurred at 0.5 pM IL-1 alpha or IL-1 beta, and both interleukins were equally effective, with maximal stimulation occurring in response to 5-10 pM IL-1. In contrast to IL-1, bradykinin stimulation of prostaglandin E2 synthesis is rapid; its effect is maximal by 5 min. In cells that had been pretreated with IL-1 for 24 hr, prostaglandin E2 synthesis in response to bradykinin was amplified more than 10-fold. IL-1 also amplified the receptor-mediated formation of prostaglandin E2 by bombesin and thrombin. The lymphokine did not affect bradykinin receptor number or affinity. IL-1 treatment induced phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase but not phospholipase C or prostaglandin E isomerase. It also enhanced bradykinin-stimulated GTPase activity, suggesting possible induction of the GTP-binding regulatory protein coupled to the bradykinin receptor. Thus, IL-1 enhanced receptor-mediated release of prostaglandin E2 in response to bradykinin, bombesin, and thrombin by increasing the cellular levels of phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase, and GTP-binding regulatory protein(s). PMID:2901097

  6. EphA2 Receptor Signaling Mediates Inflammatory Responses in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji Young; Shin, Mi Hwa; Chung, Kyung Soo; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Ji Ye; Kang, Young Ae; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Park, Moo Suk

    2015-07-01

    Eph receptors and ephrin ligands have several functions including angiogenesis, cell migration, axon guidance, fluid homeostasis, oncogenesis, inflammation and injury repair. The EphA2 receptor potentially mediates the regulation of vascular permeability and inflammation in response to lung injury. Mice were divided into 3 experimental groups to study the role of EphA2 signaling in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury model i.e., IgG+phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) group (IgG instillation before PBS exposure), IgG+LPS group (IgG instillation before LPS exposure) and EphA2 monoclonal antibody (mAb)+LPS group (EphA2 mAb pretreatment before LPS exposure). EphA2 and ephrinA1 were upregulated in LPS-induced lung injury. The lung injury score of the EphA2 mAb+LPS group was lower than that of the IgG+LPS group (4.30±2.93 vs. 11.45±1.20, respectively; p=0.004). Cell counts (EphA2 mAb+LPS: 11.33×10(4)±8.84×10(4) vs. IgG+LPS: 208.0×10(4)±122.6×10(4); p=0.018) and total protein concentrations (EphA2 mAb+LPS: 0.52±0.41 mg/mL vs. IgG+LPS: 1.38±1.08 mg/mL; p=0.192) were decreased in EphA2 mAb+LPS group, as compared to the IgG+LPS group. In addition, EphA2 antagonism reduced the expression of phospho-p85, phosphoinositide 3-kinase 110γ, phospho-Akt, nuclear factor κB, and proinflammatory cytokines. This results of the study indicated a role for EphA2-ephrinA1 signaling in the pathogenesis of LPS-induced lung injury. Furthermore, EphA2 antagonism inhibits the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt pathway and attenuates inflammation.

  7. EphrinA2 Regulates Clathrin Mediated KSHV Endocytosis in Fibroblast Cells by Coordinating Integrin-Associated Signaling and c-Cbl Directed Polyubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Dipanjan; Chakraborty, Sayan; Bandyopadhyay, Chirosree; Valiya Veettil, Mohanan; Ansari, Mairaj Ahmed; Singh, Vivek Vikram; Chandran, Bala

    2013-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) interacts with human dermal endothelial cell surface tyrosine kinase EphrinA2 (EphA2) and integrins (α3β1 and αVβ3) in the lipid raft (LR) region, and EphA2 regulates macropinocytic virus entry by coordinating integrin-c-Cbl associated signaling. In contrast, KSHV enters human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells by LR-independent clathrin mediated endocytosis. The present studies conducted to identify the key molecules regulating KSHV entry in HFF cells showed that KSHV induces association with integrins (αVβ5, αVβ3 and α3β1) and EphA2 in non-LR regions early during infection and activates EphA2, which in turn associates with phosphorylated c-Cbl, myosin IIA, FAK, Src, and PI3-K, as well as clathrin and its adaptor AP2 and effector Epsin-15 proteins. EphA2 knockdown significantly reduced these signal inductions, virus internalization and gene expression. c-Cbl knockdown ablated the c-Cbl mediated K63 type polyubiquitination of EphA2 and clathrin association with EphA2 and KSHV. Mutations in EphA2's tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) or sterile alpha motif (SAM) abolished its interaction with c-Cbl. Mutations in tyrosine kinase binding (TKB) or RING finger (RF) domains of c-Cbl resulted in very poor association of c-Cbl with EphA2 and decreased EphA2 polyubiquitination. These studies demonstrated the contributions of these domains in EphA2 and c-Cbl association, EphA2 polyubiquitination and virus-EphA2 internalization. Collectively, these results revealed for the first time that EphA2 influences the tyrosine phosphorylation of clathrin, the role of EphA2 in clathrin mediated endocytosis of a virus, and c-Cbl mediated EphA2 polyubiquitination directing KSHV entry in HFF cells via coordinated signal induction and progression of endocytic events, all of which suggest that targeting EphA2 and c-Cbl could block KSHV entry and infection. PMID:23874206

  8. Ran GTPase promotes cancer progression via Met receptor-mediated downstream signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Hiu-Fung; Chan, Ka-Kui; Platt-Higgins, Angela; Dakir, El-Habib; Matchett, Kyle B.; Haggag, Yusuf Ahmed; Jithesh, Puthen V.; Habib, Tanwir; Faheem, Ahmed; Dean, Fennell A.; Morgan, Richard; Rudland, Philip S.; El-Tanani, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown previously that cancer cells with an activated oncogenic pathway, including Met activation, require Ran for growth and survival. Here, we show that knockdown of Ran leads to a reduction of Met receptor expression in several breast and lung cancer cell lines. This, in turn suppressed HGF expression and the Met-mediated activation of the Akt pathway, as well as cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. In a cell line model where Met amplification has previously been shown to contribute to gefitinib resistance, Ran knockdown sensitized cells to gefitinib-mediated inhibition of Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation and consequently reduced cell proliferation. We further demonstrate that Met reduction-mediated by knockdown of Ran, occurs at the post-transcriptional level, probably via a matrix metalloproteinase. Moreover, the level of immunoreactive Ran and Met are positively associated in human breast cancer specimens, suggesting that a high level of Ran may be a pre-requisite for Met overexpression. Interestingly, a high level of immunoreactive Ran dictates the prognostic significance of Met, indicating that the co-overexpression of Met and Ran may be associated with cancer progression and could be used in combination as a prognostic indicator. PMID:27716616

  9. NALP3-mediated inflammation is a principal cause of progressive renal failure in oxalate nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Knauf, Felix; Asplin, John R.; Granja, Ignacio; Schmidt, Insa M.; Moeckel, Gilbert; David, Rachel; Flavell, Richard A.; Aronson, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    Oxalate nephropathy with renal failure is caused by multiple disorders causing hyperoxaluria due to either overproduction of oxalate (primary hyperoxaluria) or excessive absorption of dietary oxalate (enteric hyperoxaluria). To study the etiology of renal failure in crystal-induced kidney disease, we created a model of progressive oxalate nephropathy by feeding mice a diet high in soluble oxalate (high oxalate in the absence of dietary calcium). Renal histology was characterized by intratubular calcium-oxalate crystal deposition with an inflammatory response in the surrounding interstitium. Oxalate nephropathy was not found in mice fed a high oxalate diet that also contained calcium. NALP3, also known as cryopyrin, has been implicated in crystal-associated diseases such as gout and silicosis. Mice fed the diet high in soluble oxalate demonstrated increased NALP3 expression in the kidney. Nalp3-null mice were completely protected from the progressive renal failure and death that occurred in wild-type mice fed the diet high in soluble oxalate. NALP3-deficiency did not affect oxalate homeostasis, thereby excluding differences in intestinal oxalate handling to explain the observed phenotype. Thus, progressive renal failure in oxalate nephropathy results primarily from NALP3-mediated inflammation. PMID:23739234

  10. Increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases mediates thromboxane A2-induced invasion in lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuling; Tai, Hsin-Hsiung

    2012-07-01

    Thromboxane A(2) receptor (TP) has been shown to play an important role in multiple aspects of cancer development including regulation of tumor growth, survival and metastasis. Here we report that TP mediates cancer cell invasion by inducing expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). TP agonist, I-BOP, significantly elevated MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9 and MMP-10 mRNA levels in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells overexpressing TPα or TPβ. The secretion of MMP-1 and MMP-9 in conditioned media was determined using Western blot analysis and zymographic assay. Signaling pathways of I-BOP-induced MMP-1 expression were examined in further detail as a model system for MMPs induction. Signaling molecules involved in I-BOP-induced MMP-1 expression were identified by using specific inhibitors including small interfering (si)-RNAs of signaling molecules and promoter reporter assay. The results indicate that I-BOP-induced MMP-1 expression is mediated by protein kinase C (PKC), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-activator protein-1(AP-1) and ERK-CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) pathways. I-BOP-induced cellular invasiveness of A549 cells expressing TPα or TPβ was determined by invasion assay. GM6001, a general inhibitor of MMPs, decreased basal and I-BOP-induced cell invasion. Knockdown of MMP-1 and MMP-9 by their respective siRNA partially reduced I-BOP-stimulated cell invasion suggesting that other MMPs induced by I-BOP were also involved. Our studies establish the relationship between TP and MMPs in cancer cell invasion and suggest that the thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2))-TP signaling is a potential therapeutic target for cancer invasion and metastasis.

  11. Group X Phospholipase A2 Stimulates the Proliferation of Colon Cancer Cells by Producing Various Lipid Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Surrel, Fanny; Jemel, Ikram; Boilard, Eric; Bollinger, James G.; Payré, Christine; Mounier, Carine M.; Talvinen, Kati A.; Laine, Veli J. O.; Nevalainen, Timo J.; Gelb, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    Among mammalian secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s), the group X enzyme has the most potent hydrolyzing capacity toward phosphatidylcholine, the major phospholipid of cell membrane and lipoproteins. This enzyme has recently been implicated in chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis and asthma and may also play a role in colon tumorigenesis. We show here that group X sPLA2 [mouse (m)GX] is one of the most highly expressed PLA2 in the mouse colon and that recombinant mouse and human enzymes stimulate proliferation and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation of various colon cell lines, including Colon-26 cancer cells. Among various recombinant sPLA2s, mGX is the most potent enzyme to stimulate cell proliferation. Based on the use of sPLA2 inhibitors, catalytic site mutants, and small interfering RNA silencing of cytosolic PLA2α and M-type sPLA2 receptor, we demonstrate that mGX promotes cell proliferation independently of the receptor and via its intrinsic catalytic activity and production of free arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids, which are mitogenic by themselves. mGX can also elicit the production of large amounts of prostaglandin E2 and other eicosanoids from Colon-26 cells, but these lipid mediators do not play a role in mGX-induced cell proliferation because inhibitors of cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases do not prevent sPLA2 mitogenic effects. Together, our results indicate that group X sPLA2 may play an important role in colon tumorigenesis by promoting cancer cell proliferation and releasing various lipid mediators involved in other key events in cancer progression. PMID:19602573

  12. Group X phospholipase A2 stimulates the proliferation of colon cancer cells by producing various lipid mediators.

    PubMed

    Surrel, Fanny; Jemel, Ikram; Boilard, Eric; Bollinger, James G; Payré, Christine; Mounier, Carine M; Talvinen, Kati A; Laine, Veli J O; Nevalainen, Timo J; Gelb, Michael H; Lambeau, Gérard

    2009-10-01

    Among mammalian secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA(2)s), the group X enzyme has the most potent hydrolyzing capacity toward phosphatidylcholine, the major phospholipid of cell membrane and lipoproteins. This enzyme has recently been implicated in chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis and asthma and may also play a role in colon tumorigenesis. We show here that group X sPLA(2) [mouse (m)GX] is one of the most highly expressed PLA(2) in the mouse colon and that recombinant mouse and human enzymes stimulate proliferation and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation of various colon cell lines, including Colon-26 cancer cells. Among various recombinant sPLA(2)s, mGX is the most potent enzyme to stimulate cell proliferation. Based on the use of sPLA(2) inhibitors, catalytic site mutants, and small interfering RNA silencing of cytosolic PLA(2)alpha and M-type sPLA(2) receptor, we demonstrate that mGX promotes cell proliferation independently of the receptor and via its intrinsic catalytic activity and production of free arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids, which are mitogenic by themselves. mGX can also elicit the production of large amounts of prostaglandin E2 and other eicosanoids from Colon-26 cells, but these lipid mediators do not play a role in mGX-induced cell proliferation because inhibitors of cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases do not prevent sPLA(2) mitogenic effects. Together, our results indicate that group X sPLA(2) may play an important role in colon tumorigenesis by promoting cancer cell proliferation and releasing various lipid mediators involved in other key events in cancer progression.

  13. Nitric oxide mediates insect cellular immunity via phospholipase A2 activation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    After infection or invasion is recognized, biochemical mediators act in signaling insect immune functions. These include biogenic amines, insect cytokines, eicosanoids and nitric oxide (NO). Treating insects or isolated hemocyte populations with different mediators often leads to similar results. Se...

  14. The Contrasting Role of the Mediator Subunit MED30 in the Progression of Bladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Syring, Isabella; Weiten, Richard; Müller, Tim; Schmidt, Doris; Steiner, Susanne; Kristiansen, Glen; Müller, Stefan C; Ellinger, Jörg

    2017-12-01

    The Mediator complex is a key regulator of gene transcription, and several studies have demonstrated altered expression of particular subunits in diverse human diseases, especially cancer. To date, nothing is known about the role of MED30 in bladder cancer. We, therefore, performed an RNA expression and survival analysis of the subunit MED30 in 537 samples of bladder cancer by using the database cBioPortal. To validate these data on the protein level, we practiced immunohistochemical staining against MED30 on a tissue microarray containing 210 samples of all tumour stages and performed survival analyses. For functional analysis, the siRNA-mediated knockdown of MED30 was performed in the cell lines T24 and TCCSUP followed by proliferation, migration, and invasion assays. On the mRNA and protein levels, higher expression of MED30 is associated with better patient survival. In accordance with this, advanced T- and N-stages showed lower expression of MED30. In contrast, knockdown of MED30 led to reduction of the tumour parameters proliferation, migration, and invasion in the BCa cell lines. MED30 appears to be integrated in the progression of the urothelial tumour in the bladder. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  15. Oestrogen receptor-mediated expression of Olfactomedin 4 regulates the progression of endometrial adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Chao; Liu, Xubin; Liang, Shuang; Yang, Zheng; Xia, Meng; Wang, Liantang; Chen, Shangwu; Yu, Li

    2014-01-01

    Endometrial adenocarcinoma is the most common tumour of the female genital tract in developed countries, and oestrogen receptor (ER) signalling plays a pivotal role in its pathogenesis. When we used bioinformatics tools to search for the genes contributing to gynecological cancers, the expression of Olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) was found by digital differential display to be associated with differentiation of endometrial adenocarcinoma. Aberrant expression of OLFM4 has been primarily reported in tumours of the digestive system. The mechanism of OLFM4 in tumuorigenesis is elusive. We investigated OLFM4 expression in endometrium, analysed the association of OLFM4 with ER signalling in endometrial adenocarcinoma, and examined the roles of OLFM4 in endometrial adenocarcinoma. Expression of OLFM4 was increased during endometrial carcinogenesis, linked to the differentiation of endometrioid adenocarcinoma, and positively related to the expression of oestrogen receptor-α (ERα) and progesterone receptor. Moreover, ERα-mediated signalling regulated expression of OLFM4, and knockdown of OLFM4 enhanced proliferation, migration and invasion of endometrial carcinoma cells. Down-regulation of OLFM4 was associated with decreased cumulative survival rate of patients with endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Our data suggested that impairment of ERα signal-mediated OLFM4 expression promoted the malignant progression of endometrioid adenocarcinoma, which may have significance for the therapy of this carcinoma. PMID:24495253

  16. Leupaxin acts as a mediator in prostate carcinoma progression through deregulation of p120catenin expression.

    PubMed

    Kaulfuss, S; von Hardenberg, S; Schweyer, S; Herr, A M; Laccone, F; Wolf, S; Burfeind, P

    2009-11-12

    Recently, we could show that the focal adhesion protein leupaxin (LPXN) is expressed in human prostate carcinomas (PCa) and induces invasiveness of androgen-independent PCa cells. In this study we show that LPXN enhanced the progression of existing PCa in vivo by breeding transgenic mice with prostate-specific LPXN expression and TRAMP mice (transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate). Double transgenic LPXN/TRAMP mice showed a significant increase in poorly differentiated PCa and distant metastases as compared with control TRAMP mice. Additional studies on primary PCa cells generated from both transgenic backgrounds confirmed the connection regarding LPXN overexpression and increased motility and invasiveness of PCa cells. One mediator of LPXN-induced invasion was found to be the cell-cell adhesion protein p120catenin (p120CTN). Both in vitro and in vivo experiments revealed that p120CTN expression negatively correlates with LPXN expression, followed by a redistribution of beta-catenin. Downregulation of LPXN using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) resulted in a membranous localization of beta-catenin, whereas strong nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin was observed in p120CTN knockdown cells leading to enhanced transcription of the beta-catenin target gene matrix metalloprotease-7. In conclusion, the present results indicate that LPXN enhances the progression of PCa through downregulation of p120CTN expression and that LPXN could function as a marker for aggressive PCa in the future.

  17. From goal motivation to goal progress: the mediating role of coping in the Self-Concordance Model.

    PubMed

    Gaudreau, Patrick; Carraro, Natasha; Miranda, Dave

    2012-01-01

    The present studies examined the mediating role of self-regulatory mechanisms in the relationship between goal motivation and goal progress in the Self-Concordance Model. First, a systematic review, using meta-analytical path analysis, supported the mediating role of effort and action planning in the positive association between autonomous goal motivation and goal progress. Second, results from two additional empirical studies, using structural equation modeling, lent credence to the mediating role of coping in the relationship between goal motivation and goal progress of university students. Autonomous goal motivation was positively associated with task-oriented coping, which predicted greater goal progress during midterm exams (Study 1, N=702) and at the end of the semester in a different sample (Study 2, N=167). Controlled goal motivation was associated with greater disengagement-oriented coping (Study 1 and Study 2) and lesser use of task-oriented coping (Study 2), which reduced goal progress. These results held up after controlling for perceived stress (Study 2). Our findings highlight the importance of coping in the "inception-to-attainment" goal process because autonomous goal motivation indirectly rather than directly predicts goal progress of university students through their usage of task-oriented coping.

  18. Emerging and Diverse Functions of the EphA2 Noncanonical Pathway in Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Sakurai, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular receptor A2 (EphA2) receptor tyrosine kinase controls multiple physiological processes to maintain homeostasis in normal cells. In many types of solid tumors, it has been reported that EphA2 is overexpressed and plays a critical role in oncogenic signaling. However, in recent years, the opposing functions of EphA2 have been explained by the canonical and noncanonical signaling pathways. Ligand- and tyrosine kinase-dependent EphA2 activation (the canonical pathway) inhibits cancer cell proliferation and motility. In contrast, ligand- and tyrosine kinase-independent EphA2 signaling (the noncanonical pathway) promotes tumor survival and metastasis and controls acquired drug resistance and maintenance of cancer stem cell-like properties. Evidence has accumulated showing that the EphA2 noncanonical pathway is mainly regulated by inflammatory cytokines and growth factors via phosphorylation at Ser-897 in the intracellular C-tail region via some serine/threonine kinases, including p90 ribosomal S6 kinase. In this review, we focus on the regulation of Ser-897 phosphorylation and its functional importance in tumor malignancy and discuss future therapeutic targeting.

  19. Exploration of new perspectives and limitations in Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer technology. Progress report, [June 1, 1992-- May 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Marton, L.

    1994-12-31

    This report describes progress aimed at constructing gene-transfer technology for Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. Most actual effort as described herein has so far been directed at exploring new perspectives and limitations in Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer. Accomplishments are described using a core homologous gene targeting vector.

  20. Exosomes-mediated transfer of long noncoding RNA ZFAS1 promotes gastric cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lei; Liang, Wei; Fu, Min; Huang, Zhen-Hua; Li, Xia; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Peng; Qian, Hui; Jiang, Peng-Cheng; Xu, Wen-Rong; Zhang, Xu

    2017-06-01

    ZFAS1 is a newly identified long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) that promotes tumor growth and metastasis. Exosomes mediate cellular communications in cancer by transmitting active molecules. The presence of ZFAS1 in the circulating exosomes and the roles of exosomal ZFAS1 in gastric cancer (GC) remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential roles of exosomal ZFAS1 in GC. The expression of ZFAS1 was examined in the tumor tissues, serum samples, serum exosomes of GC patients and cell lines using qRT-PCR. The correlation between ZFAS1 expression and the clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed. The characteristics of exosomes were identified using transmission electron microscope (TEM), Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA), and western blot. The biological roles of ZFAS1 in GC cell growth and mobility were investigated using cell counting, cell colony formation, and transwell migration assay. The potential mechanism of ZFAS1 was demonstrated using flow cytometry, western blot, and qRT-PCR. ZFAS1 expression was elevated in GC cells, tumor tissues, serum and serum exosomes of GC patients. The increased ZFAS1 expression was significantly correlated with lymphatic metastasis and TNM stage. ZFAS1 knockdown inhibited the proliferation and migration of GC cells by suppressing cell cycle progression, inducing apoptosis, and inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). On the contrary, ZFAS1 overexpression promoted the proliferation and migration of GC cells. Moreover, ZFAS1 was present in exosomes and could be transmitted by exosomes to enhance GC cell proliferation and migration. ZFAS1 could be delivered by exosomes to promote GC progression, which suggests that ZFAS1 may serve as a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for GC.

  1. Phytochrome-mediated synthesis of novel growth inhibitors, A-2α and β, and dwarfism in peas.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, H; Hashimoto, T

    1990-05-01

    Variations in the content of A-2α and β, novel endogenous growth inhibitors, andcis,trans- andtrans, trans-xanthoxins were determined in 6- or 7-d-old, dark-grown seedlings of peas (Pisum sativum L. cvs. Progress No. 9, dwarf, and Alaska, tall) under various treatments with red light (R), and compared with R-induced growth inhibition. After transfer of the plants to continuous R the contents of the A-2s in cv. Progress increased after a 20-min lag, and reached plateaus after 12 h, whereas they remained almost unchanged in darkness. Both the rates of increase of the A-2s and the plateau levels were proportional to the logarithm of the irradiance applied. After a 10-min R pulse, the contents of both A-2α and β increased with the same rapidity to reach peaks after 6 h, and then gradually decreased to the initial levels after about 24 h. The effect of R was shown to be phytochrome-dependent, being nullified by far-red light. The level of neithercis,trans- nortrans,trans-xanthoxin showed such a close correlation with growth inhibition, although both xanthoxins increased as a result of phytochrome action. It is highly suggestive that the A-2s, rather than the xanthoxins, are responsible for phytochrome-dependent growth inhibition in cv. Progress. In cv. Alaska, in contrast, R-induced increase of the A-2s was rapid but slight, and could not explain the transient growth inhibition, which was found to be as large as that in cv. Progress shortly after the onset of R. The large content of the A-2s in cv. Progress in the steady state under continuous R, compared with that in cv. Alaska, may explain the dwarfism of cv. Progress.

  2. Group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 (GIIA) mediates apoptotic death during NMDA receptor activation in rat primary cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Chiricozzi, Elena; Fernandez-Fernandez, Seila; Nardicchi, Vincenza; Almeida, Angeles; Bolaños, Juan Pedro; Goracci, Gianfrancesco

    2010-03-01

    Phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)) participate in neuronal death signalling pathways because of their ability to release lipid mediators, although the contribution of each isoform and mechanism of neurotoxicity are still elusive. Using a novel fluorogenic method to assess changes in a PLA(2) activity by flow cytometry, here we show that the group IIA secretory phospholipase A(2) isoform (GIIA) was specifically activated in cortical neurons following stimulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor subtype (NMDAR). For activation, GIIA required Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, and inhibition of its activity fully prevented NMDAR-mediated neuronal apoptotic death. Superoxide, nitric oxide or peroxynitrite donors stimulated GIIA activity, which mediated neuronal death. Intriguingly, we also found that GIIA activity induced mitochondrial superoxide production after NMDAR stimulation. These results reveal a novel role for GIIA in excitotoxicity both as target and producer of superoxide in a positive-loop of activation that may contribute to the propagation of neurodegeneration.

  3. The eukaryotic translation elongation factor eEF1A2 induces neoplastic properties and mediates tumorigenic effects of ZNF217 in precursor cells of human ovarian carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yu; Wong, Nicholas; Guan, Yinghui

    2008-04-25

    Ovarian epithelial carcinomas (OEC) frequently exhibit amplifications at the 20q13 locus which is the site of several oncogenes, including the eukaryotic elongation factor EEF1A2 and the transcription factor ZNF217. We reported previously that overexpressed ZNF217 induces neoplastic characteristics in precursor cells of OEC. Unexpectedly, ZNF217, which is a transcriptional repressor, enhanced expression of eEF1A2. In this study, array comparative genomic hybridization, single nucleotide polymorphism and Affymetrix analysis of ZNF217-overexpressing cell lines confirmed consistently increased expression of eEF1A2 but not of other oncogenes, and revealed early changes in EEF1A2 gene copy numbers and increased expression at crisis during immortalization. We definedmore » the influence of eEF1A2 overexpression on immortalized ovarian surface epithelial cells, and investigated interrelationships between effects of ZNF217 and eEF1A2 on cellular phenotypes. Lentivirally induced eEF1A2 overexpression caused delayed crisis, apoptosis resistance and increases in serum-independence, saturation densities, and anchorage independence. siRNA to eEF1A2 reversed apoptosis resistance and reduced anchorage independence in eEF1A2-overexpressing lines. Remarkably, siRNA to eEF1A2 was equally efficient in inhibiting both anchorage independence and resistance to apoptosis conferred by ZNF217 overexpression. Our data define neoplastic properties that are caused by eEF1A2 in nontumorigenic ovarian cancer precursor cells, and suggest that eEF1A2 plays a role in mediating ZNF217-induced neoplastic progression.« less

  4. Progress

    Cancer.gov

    Through its Annual Report to the Nation and other reports and publications, the National Cancer Institute – leader of the National Cancer Program – marks the progress that’s been made by the cancer research community.

  5. State-Level Point-of-Sale Tobacco News Coverage and Policy Progression Over a 2-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Myers, Allison E; Southwell, Brian G; Ribisl, Kurt M; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Bowling, J Michael; Lytle, Leslie A

    2018-01-01

    Mass media content may play an important role in policy change. However, the empirical relationship between media advocacy efforts and tobacco control policy success has rarely been studied. We examined the extent to which newspaper content characteristics (volume, slant, frame, source, use of evidence, and degree of localization) that have been identified as important in past descriptive studies were associated with policy progression over a 2-year period in the context of point-of-sale (POS) tobacco control. We used regression analyses to test the relationships between newspaper content and policy progression from 2012 to 2014. The dependent variable was the level of implementation of state-level POS tobacco control policies at Time 2. Independent variables were newspaper article characteristics (volume, slant, frame, source, use of evidence, and degree of localization) and were collected via content analysis of the articles. State-level policy environment contextual variables were examined as confounders. Positive, significant bivariate relationships exist between characteristics of news content (e.g., high overall volume, public health source present, local quote and local angle present, and pro-tobacco control slant present) and Time 2 POS score. However, in a multivariate model controlling for other factors, significant relationships did not hold. Newspaper coverage can be a marker of POS policy progression. Whether media can influence policy implementation remains an important question. Future work should continue to tease out and confirm the unique characteristics of media content that are most associated with subsequent policy progression, in order to inform media advocacy efforts.

  6. AAV-mediated pancreatic overexpression of Igf1 counteracts progression to autoimmune diabetes in mice.

    PubMed

    Mallol, Cristina; Casana, Estefania; Jimenez, Veronica; Casellas, Alba; Haurigot, Virginia; Jambrina, Claudia; Sacristan, Victor; Morró, Meritxell; Agudo, Judith; Vilà, Laia; Bosch, Fatima

    2017-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes is characterized by autoimmune destruction of β-cells leading to severe insulin deficiency. Although many improvements have been made in recent years, exogenous insulin therapy is still imperfect; new therapeutic approaches, focusing on preserving/expanding β-cell mass and/or blocking the autoimmune process that destroys islets, should be developed. The main objective of this work was to test in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, which spontaneously develop autoimmune diabetes, the effects of local expression of Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), a potent mitogenic and pro-survival factor for β-cells with immunomodulatory properties. Transgenic NOD mice overexpressing IGF1 specifically in β-cells (NOD-IGF1) were generated and phenotyped. In addition, miRT-containing, IGF1-encoding adeno-associated viruses (AAV) of serotype 8 (AAV8-IGF1-dmiRT) were produced and administered to 4- or 11-week-old non-transgenic NOD females through intraductal delivery. Several histological, immunological, and metabolic parameters were measured to monitor disease over a period of 28-30 weeks. In transgenic mice, local IGF1 expression led to long-term suppression of diabetes onset and robust protection of β-cell mass from the autoimmune insult. AAV-mediated pancreatic-specific overexpression of IGF1 in adult animals also dramatically reduced diabetes incidence, both when vectors were delivered before pathology onset or once insulitis was established. Transgenic NOD-IGF1 and AAV8-IGF1-dmiRT-treated NOD animals had much less islet infiltration than controls, preserved β-cell mass, and normal insulinemia. Transgenic and AAV-treated islets showed less expression of antigen-presenting molecules, inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines important for tissue-specific homing of effector T cells, suggesting IGF1 modulated islet autoimmunity in NOD mice. Local expression of Igf1 by AAV-mediated gene transfer counteracts progression to diabetes in NOD mice. This study suggests a

  7. Aspirin delays mesothelioma growth by inhibiting HMGB1-mediated tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Pellegrini, L; Napolitano, A; Giorgi, C; Jube, S; Preti, A; Jennings, C J; De Marchis, F; Flores, E G; Larson, D; Pagano, I; Tanji, M; Powers, A; Kanodia, S; Gaudino, G; Pastorino, S; Pass, H I; Pinton, P; Bianchi, M E; Carbone, M

    2015-06-11

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is an inflammatory molecule that has a critical role in the initiation and progression of malignant mesothelioma (MM). Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA) is the most widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that reduces the incidence, metastatic potential and mortality of many inflammation-induced cancers. We hypothesized that ASA may exert anticancer properties in MM by abrogating the carcinogenic effects of HMGB1. Using HMGB1-secreting and -non-secreting human MM cell lines, we determined whether aspirin inhibited the hallmarks of HMGB1-induced MM cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Our data demonstrated that ASA and its metabolite, salicylic acid (SA), inhibit motility, migration, invasion and anchorage-independent colony formation of MM cells via a novel HMGB1-mediated mechanism. ASA/SA, at serum concentrations comparable to those achieved in humans taking therapeutic doses of aspirin, and BoxA, a specific inhibitor of HMGB1, markedly reduced MM growth in xenograft mice and significantly improved survival of treated animals. The effects of ASA and BoxA were cyclooxygenase-2 independent and were not additive, consistent with both acting via inhibition of HMGB1 activity. Our findings provide a rationale for the well documented, yet poorly understood antitumorigenic activity of aspirin, which we show proceeds via HMGB1 inhibition. Moreover, the use of BoxA appears to allow a more efficient HMGB1 targeting while eluding the known gastrointestinal side effects of ASA. Our findings are directly relevant to MM. Given the emerging importance of HMGB1 and its tumor-promoting functions in many cancer types, and of aspirin in cancer prevention and therapy, our investigation is poised to provide broadly applicable information.

  8. Targeting EphA2 impairs cell cycle progression and growth of basal-like/triple-negative breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Song, W; Hwang, Y; Youngblood, V M; Cook, R S; Balko, J M; Chen, J; Brantley-Sieders, D M

    2017-10-05

    Basal-like/triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are among the most aggressive forms of breast cancer, and disproportionally affects young premenopausal women and women of African descent. Patients with TNBC suffer a poor prognosis due in part to a lack of molecularly targeted therapies, which represents a critical barrier for effective treatment. Here, we identify EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase as a clinically relevant target for TNBC. EphA2 expression is enriched in the basal-like molecular subtype in human breast cancers. Loss of EphA2 function in both human and genetically engineered mouse models of TNBC reduced tumor growth in culture and in vivo. Mechanistically, targeting EphA2 impaired cell cycle progression through S-phase via downregulation of c-Myc and stabilization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27/KIP1. A small molecule kinase inhibitor of EphA2 effectively suppressed tumor cell growth in vivo, including TNBC patient-derived xenografts. Thus, our data identify EphA2 as a novel molecular target for TNBC.

  9. Targeting EphA2 impairs cell cycle progression and growth of basal-like/triple-negative breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Song, W; Hwang, Y; Youngblood, V M; Cook, R S; Balko, J M; Chen, J; Brantley-Sieders, D M

    2017-01-01

    Basal-like/triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are among the most aggressive forms of breast cancer, and disproportionally affects young premenopausal women and women of African descent. Patients with TNBC suffer a poor prognosis due in part to a lack of molecularly targeted therapies, which represents a critical barrier for effective treatment. Here, we identify EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase as a clinically relevant target for TNBC. EphA2 expression is enriched in the basal-like molecular subtype in human breast cancers. Loss of EphA2 function in both human and genetically engineered mouse models of TNBC reduced tumor growth in culture and in vivo. Mechanistically, targeting EphA2 impaired cell cycle progression through S-phase via downregulation of c-Myc and stabilization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27/KIP1. A small molecule kinase inhibitor of EphA2 effectively suppressed tumor cell growth in vivo, including TNBC patient-derived xenografts. Thus, our data identify EphA2 as a novel molecular target for TNBC. PMID:28581527

  10. Up-regulation of ribosome biogenesis by MIR196A2 genetic variation promotes endometriosis development and progression.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cherry Yin-Yi; Lai, Ming-Tsung; Chen, Yi; Yang, Ching-Wen; Chang, Hui-Wen; Lu, Cheng-Chan; Chen, Chih-Mei; Chan, Carmen; Chung, Ching; Tseng, Chun-Cheng; Hwang, Tritium; Sheu, Jim Jinn-Chyuan; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2016-11-22

    Aberrant miRNA expression has been reported in endometriosis and miRNA gene polymorphisms have been linked to cancer. Because certain ovarian cancers arise from endometriosis, we genotyped seven cancer-related miRNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (MiRSNPs) to investigate their possible roles in endometriosis. Genetic variants in MIR196A2 (rs11614913) and MIR100 (rs1834306) were found to be associated with endometriosis development and related clinical phenotypes, such as infertility and pain. Downstream analysis of the MIR196A2 risk allele revealed upregulation of rRNA editing and protein synthesis genes, suggesting hyper-activation of ribosome biogenesis as a driving force for endometriosis progression. Clinical studies confirmed higher levels of small nucleolar RNAs and ribosomal proteins in atypical endometriosis lesions, and this was more pronounced in the associated ovarian clear cell carcinomas. Treating ovarian clear cells with CX5461, an RNA polymerase I inhibitor, suppressed cell growth and mobility followed by cell cycle arrest at G2/M stage and apoptosis. Our study thus uncovered a novel tumorigenesis pathway triggered by the cancer-related MIR196A2 risk allele during endometriosis development and progression. We suggest that anti-RNA polymerase I therapy may be efficacious for treating endometriosis and associated malignancies.

  11. Regulatory T-lymphocytes mediate amyotrophic lateral sclerosis progression and survival

    PubMed Central

    Henkel, Jenny S; Beers, David R; Wen, Shixiang; Rivera, Andreana L; Toennis, Karen M; Appel, Joan E; Zhao, Weihua; Moore, Dan H; Powell, Suzanne Z; Appel, Stanley H

    2013-01-01

    In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mice, regulatory T-lymphocytes (Tregs) are neuroprotective, slowing disease progression. To address whether Tregs and FoxP3, a transcription factor required for Treg function, similarly influence progression rates of ALS patients, T-lymphocytes from patients were assessed by flow cytometry. Both numbers of Tregs and their FoxP3 protein expressions were reduced in rapidly progressing ALS patients and inversely correlated with progression rates. The mRNA levels of FoxP3, TGF-β, IL4 and Gata3, a Th2 transcription factor, were reduced in rapidly progressing patients and inversely correlated with progression rates. Both FoxP3 and Gata3 were accurate indicators of progression rates. No differences in IL10, Tbx21, a Th1 transcription factor or IFN-γ expression were found between slow and rapidly progressing patients. A 3.5-year prospective study with a second larger cohort revealed that early reduced FoxP3 levels were indicative of progression rates at collection and predictive of future rapid progression and attenuated survival. Collectively, these data suggest that Tregs and Th2 lymphocytes influence disease progression rates. Importantly, early reduced FoxP3 levels could be used to identify rapidly progressing patients. PMID:23143995

  12. Achievement Goals and Emotions: The Mediational Roles of Perceived Progress, Control, and Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Nathan C.; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Muis, Krista R.; Ranellucci, John

    2016-01-01

    Background: The link between achievement goals and achievement emotions is well established; however, research exploring potential mediators of this relationship is lacking. The control-value theory of achievement emotions (Pekrun, 2006, "Educational Psychology Review," 18, 315) posits that perceptions of control and value mediate the…

  13. Defocus Incorporated Soft Contact (DISC) lens slows myopia progression in Hong Kong Chinese schoolchildren: a 2-year randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Carly Siu Yin; Tang, Wing Chun; Tse, Dennis Yan-Yin; Tang, Ying Yung; To, Chi Ho

    2014-01-01

    Aims To determine if ‘Defocus Incorporated Soft Contact’ (DISC) lens wear slows childhood myopia progression. Methods A 2-year double-blind randomised controlled trial was carried out in 221 children aged 8–13 years, with myopia between −1.00 and −5.00 Dioptres (D) and astigmatism ≤1.00 D. Subjects were randomly assigned to the DISC (n=111) or single vision (SV; n=110) contact lens group. DISC lenses incorporated concentric rings, which provided an addition of +2.50 D, alternating with the normal distance correction. Refractive error (cycloplegic autorefraction) and axial length were measured at 6-month intervals. Differences between groups were analysed using unpaired t test. Results In total, 128 children completed the study, n=65 in the DISC group and n=63 in the SV group. Myopia progressed 25% more slowly for children in the DISC group compared with those in the control group (0.30 D/year; 95% CI −0.71 to −0.47 vs 0.4 D/year; 95% CI −0.93 to −0.65, p=0.031). Likewise, there was less axial elongation for children in the DISC versus SV groups (0.13 mm/year; 95% CI 0.20 to 0.31 vs 0.18 mm/year; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.43, p=0.009). Treatment effect correlated positively with DISC lens wearing time (r=0.342; p=0.005). Indeed, myopia in children who wore the DISC lenses for five or more hours/day progressed 46% (mean difference=−0.382 D, p=0.001; 95% CI −0.59 to −0.17) less than those in the SV group. Conclusions The daily wearing of DISC lens significantly slowed myopia progression and axial elongation in Hong Kong schoolchildren. The findings demonstrated that simultaneous clear vision with constant myopic defocus can retard myopia progression. PMID:24169657

  14. Inhibition of plasmin-mediated TAFI activation may affect development but not progression of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, Katherine; Revill, Charlotte; Macrae, Fraser; Bailey, Marc; Yuldasheva, Nadira; Wheatcroft, Stephen; Butlin, Roger; Foster, Richard; Scott, D. Julian; Gils, Ann; Ariёns, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Objective Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) reduces the breakdown of fibrin clots through its action as an indirect inhibitor of plasmin. Studies in TAFI-deficient mice have implicated a potential role for TAFI in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) disease. The role of TAFI inhibition on AAA formation in adult ApoE-/- mice is unknown. The aim of this paper was to investigate the effects of TAFI inhibition on AAA development and progression. Methods Using the Angiotensin II model of AAA, male ApoE-/- mice were infused with Angiotensin II 750ng/kg/min with or without a monoclonal antibody inhibitor of plasmin-mediated activation of TAFI, MA-TCK26D6, or a competitive small molecule inhibitor of TAFI, UK-396082. Results Inhibition of TAFI in the Angiotensin II model resulted in a decrease in the mortality associated with AAA rupture (from 40.0% to 16.6% with MA-TCK26D6 (log-rank Mantel Cox test p = 0.16), and 8.3% with UK-396082 (log-rank Mantel Cox test p = 0.05)). Inhibition of plasmin-mediated TAFI activation reduced the incidence of AAA from 52.4% to 30.0%. However, late treatment with MA-TCK26D6 once AAA were already established had no effect on the progression of AAA in this model. Conclusions The formation of intra-mural thrombus is responsible for the dissection and early rupture in the angiotensin II model of AAA, and this process can be prevented through inhibition of TAFI. Late treatment with a TAFI inhibitor does not prevent AAA progression. These data may indicate a role for inhibition of plasmin-mediated TAFI activation in the early stages of AAA development, but not in its progression. PMID:28472123

  15. Myristoylation of Src kinase mediates Src-induced and high-fat diet-accelerated prostate tumor progression in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungjin; Yang, Xiangkun; Li, Qianjin; Wu, Meng; Costyn, Leah; Beharry, Zanna; Bartlett, Michael G; Cai, Houjian

    2017-11-10

    Exogenous fatty acids provide substrates for energy production and biogenesis of the cytoplasmic membrane, but they also enhance cellular signaling during cancer cell proliferation. However, it remains controversial whether dietary fatty acids are correlated with tumor progression. In this study, we demonstrate that increased Src kinase activity is associated with high-fat diet-accelerated progression of prostate tumors and that Src kinases mediate this pathological process. Moreover, in the in vivo prostate regeneration assay, host SCID mice carrying Src(Y529F)-transduced regeneration tissues were fed a low-fat diet or a high-fat diet and treated with vehicle or dasatinib. The high-fat diet not only accelerated Src-induced prostate tumorigenesis in mice but also compromised the inhibitory effect of the anticancer drug dasatinib on Src kinase oncogenic potential in vivo We further show that myristoylation of Src kinase is essential to facilitate Src-induced and high-fat diet-accelerated tumor progression. Mechanistically, metabolism of exogenous myristic acid increased the biosynthesis of myristoyl CoA and myristoylated Src and promoted Src kinase-mediated oncogenic signaling in human cells. Of the fatty acids tested, only exogenous myristic acid contributed to increased intracellular myristoyl CoA levels. Our results suggest that targeting Src kinase myristoylation, which is required for Src kinase association at the cellular membrane, blocks dietary fat-accelerated tumorigenesis in vivo Our findings uncover the molecular basis of how the metabolism of myristic acid stimulates high-fat diet-mediated prostate tumor progression. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Mechanisms involved in hemoglobin-mediated oxidation of lipids in washed fish muscle and inhibitory effects of phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Tatiyaborworntham, Nantawat; Richards, Mark P

    2018-05-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) is a lipid oxidation promoter in fish muscle. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2; EC 3.1.1.4) is linked to an increased resistance to lipid oxidation of frozen-thawed cod fillets via an unknown mechanism. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism of Hb-mediated lipid oxidation with a focus on ferryl Hb and methemoglobin (metHb), the pro-oxidative Hb species, and to examine how porcine pancreatic PLA2 inhibits Hb-mediated lipid oxidation in washed cod muscle (WCM). Lipid hydroperoxides (LOOHs) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured as primary and secondary lipid oxidation products, respectively. The formation of metHb and ferryl Hb was also monitored. Ferryl Hb and metHb formed during the Hb-mediated lipid oxidation. PLA2 inhibited the formation of LOOHs and TBARS and suppressed the formation of metHb and ferryl Hb. WCM was pre-oxidized by hemin to increase the amount of LOOHs. PLA2 promoted the depletion of LOOHs in the pre-oxidized WCM with limited TBARS formation at the expense of the heme moiety of Hb. The results of the present study suggest that ferryl Hb may play a role in Hb-mediated lipid oxidation and that PLA2 from pig pancreas may work together with Hb as a novel antioxidant with an ability to remove pre-formed LOOHs from a lipid substrate. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Akt-mediated phosphorylation of CDK2 regulates its dual role in cell cycle progression and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Maddika, Subbareddy; Ande, Sudharsana Rao; Wiechec, Emilia; Hansen, Lise Lotte; Wesselborg, Sebastian; Los, Marek

    2008-04-01

    Here, we show that CDK2, an S-phase cyclin-dependent kinase, is a novel target for Akt during cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Akt phosphorylates CDK2 at threonine 39 residue both in vitro and in vivo. Although CDK2 threonine 39 phosphorylation mediated by Akt enhances cyclin-A binding, it is dispensable for its basal binding and the kinase activity. In addition, for the first time, we report a transient nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of Akt during specific stages of the cell cycle, in particular during the late S and G2 phases. The Akt that is re-localized to the nucleus phosphorylates CDK2 and causes the temporary cytoplasmic localization of the CDK2-cyclin-A complex. The CDK2 cytoplasmic redistribution is required for cell progression from S to G2-M phase, because the CDK2 T39A mutant, which lacks the phosphorylation site and is defective in cytoplasmic localization, severely affects cell cycle progression at the transition from S to G2-M. Interestingly, we also show that the Akt/CDK2 pathway is constitutively activated by some anticancer drugs, such as methotrexate and docetaxel, and under these conditions it promotes, rather than represses, cell death. Thus, the constitutive activation of the Akt/CDK2 pathway and changed subcellular localization promotes apoptosis. By contrast, the transient, physiological Akt/CDK2 activation is necessary for cell cycle progression.

  18. EphrinA1-EphA2 interaction-mediated apoptosis and Flt3L-induced immunotherapy inhibits tumor growth in a breast cancer mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Manish; Vemula, Sai V.; Sharma, Anurag; Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Mittal, Shalini; Bangari, Dinesh S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2 is overexpressed in several types of cancers and is currently being pursued as a target for breast cancer therapeutics. The EphA2 ligand EphrinA1 induces EphA2 phosphorylation and intracellular internalization and degradation, thus inhibiting tumor progression. The hematopoietic growth factor, FMS-like tyrosine kinase receptor ligand (Flt3L), promotes expansion and mobilization of functional dendritic cells. Methods We tested the EphrinA1-EphA2 interaction in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells focusing on the receptor-ligand-mediated apoptosis of breast cancer cells. In order to determine whether the EphrinA1-EphA2 interaction-associated apoptosis and Flt3L-mediated immunotherapy would have an additive effect in inhibiting tumor growth, we used an immunocompetent mouse model of breast cancer to evaluate intratumoral (i.t.) inoculation strategies with human adenovirus (HAd) vectors expressing either EphrinA1 (HAd-EphrinA1-Fc), Flt3L (HAd-Flt3L) or a combination of EphrinA1-Fc + Flt3L (HAd-EphrinA1-Fc + HAd-Flt3L). Results In vitro analysis demonstrated that an EphrinA1-EphA2 interaction led to apoptosis-related changes in breast cancer cells. In vivo, three i.t. inoculations of HAd-EphrinA1-Fc showed potent inhibition of tumor growth. Furthermore, increased inhibition in tumor growth was observed with the combination of HAd-EphrinA1-Fc and HAd-Flt3L accompanied by the generation of an anti-tumor adaptive immune response. Conclusions The results indicating induction of apoptosis and inhibition of mammary tumor growth show the potential therapeutic benefits of HAd-EphrinA1-Fc. In combination with HAd-Flt3L, this represents a promising strategy to effectively induce mammary tumor regression by HAd vector-based therapy. PMID:22228563

  19. EphA2/Ephrin-A1 Mediate Corneal Epithelial Cell Compartmentalization via ADAM10 Regulation of EGFR Signaling.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Nihal; Ventrella, Rosa; Peng, Han; Pal-Ghosh, Sonali; Arvanitis, Constadina; Rappoport, Joshua Z; Mitchell, Brian J; Stepp, Mary Ann; Lavker, Robert M; Getsios, Spiro

    2018-01-01

    Progenitor cells of the limbal epithelium reside in a discrete area peripheral to the more differentiated corneal epithelium and maintain tissue homeostasis. What regulates the limbal-corneal epithelial boundary is a major unanswered question. Ephrin-A1 ligand is enriched in the limbal epithelium, whereas EphA2 receptor is concentrated in the corneal epithelium. This reciprocal pattern led us to assess the role of ephrin-A1 and EphA2 in limbal-corneal epithelial boundary organization. EphA2-expressing corneal epithelial cells engineered to express ephrin-A1 were used to study boundary formation in vitro in a manner that mimicked the relative abundance of these juxtamembrane signaling proteins in the limbal and corneal epithelium in vivo. Interaction of these two distinct cell populations following initial seeding into discrete culture compartments was assessed by live cell imaging. Immunofluoresence and immunoblotting was used to evaluate the contribution of downstream growth factor signaling and cell-cell adhesion systems to boundary formation at sites of heterotypic contact between ephrin-A1 and EphA2 expressing cells. Ephrin-A1-expressing cells impeded and reversed the migration of EphA2-expressing corneal epithelial cells upon heterotypic contact formation leading to coordinated migration of the two cell populations in the direction of an ephrin-A1-expressing leading front. Genetic silencing and pharmacologic inhibitor studies demonstrated that the ability of ephrin-A1 to direct migration of EphA2-expressing cells depended on an a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10 (ADAM10) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway that limited E-cadherin-mediated adhesion at heterotypic boundaries. Ephrin-A1/EphA2 signaling complexes play a key role in limbal-corneal epithelial compartmentalization and the response of these tissues to injury.

  20. EphA2/Ephrin-A1 Mediate Corneal Epithelial Cell Compartmentalization via ADAM10 Regulation of EGFR Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Nihal; Ventrella, Rosa; Peng, Han; Pal-Ghosh, Sonali; Arvanitis, Constadina; Rappoport, Joshua Z.; Mitchell, Brian J.; Stepp, Mary Ann; Lavker, Robert M.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Progenitor cells of the limbal epithelium reside in a discrete area peripheral to the more differentiated corneal epithelium and maintain tissue homeostasis. What regulates the limbal–corneal epithelial boundary is a major unanswered question. Ephrin-A1 ligand is enriched in the limbal epithelium, whereas EphA2 receptor is concentrated in the corneal epithelium. This reciprocal pattern led us to assess the role of ephrin-A1 and EphA2 in limbal–corneal epithelial boundary organization. Methods EphA2-expressing corneal epithelial cells engineered to express ephrin-A1 were used to study boundary formation in vitro in a manner that mimicked the relative abundance of these juxtamembrane signaling proteins in the limbal and corneal epithelium in vivo. Interaction of these two distinct cell populations following initial seeding into discrete culture compartments was assessed by live cell imaging. Immunofluoresence and immunoblotting was used to evaluate the contribution of downstream growth factor signaling and cell–cell adhesion systems to boundary formation at sites of heterotypic contact between ephrin-A1 and EphA2 expressing cells. Results Ephrin-A1–expressing cells impeded and reversed the migration of EphA2-expressing corneal epithelial cells upon heterotypic contact formation leading to coordinated migration of the two cell populations in the direction of an ephrin-A1–expressing leading front. Genetic silencing and pharmacologic inhibitor studies demonstrated that the ability of ephrin-A1 to direct migration of EphA2-expressing cells depended on an a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10 (ADAM10) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway that limited E-cadherin–mediated adhesion at heterotypic boundaries. Conclusions Ephrin-A1/EphA2 signaling complexes play a key role in limbal–corneal epithelial compartmentalization and the response of these tissues to injury. PMID:29351356

  1. A 2-Oxoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase Mediates the Biosynthesis of Glucoraphasatin in Radish1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Li, Feng; Fukino, Nobuko; Ohara, Takayoshi; Nishio, Takeshi; Ishida, Masahiko

    2017-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) are secondary metabolites whose degradation products confer intrinsic flavors and aromas to Brassicaceae vegetables. Several structures of GSLs are known in the Brassicaceae, and the biosynthetic pathway and regulatory networks have been elucidated in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). GSLs are precursors of chemical defense substances against herbivorous pests. Specific GSLs can act as feeding blockers or stimulants, depending on the pest species. Natural selection has led to diversity in the GSL composition even within individual species. However, in radish (Raphanus sativus), glucoraphasatin (4-methylthio-3-butenyl glucosinolate) accounts for more than 90% of the total GSLs, and little compositional variation is observed. Because glucoraphasatin is not contained in other members of the Brassicaceae, like Arabidopsis and cabbage (Brassica oleracea), the biosynthetic pathways for glucoraphasatin remain unclear. In this report, we identified and characterized a gene encoding GLUCORAPHASATIN SYNTHASE 1 (GRS1) by genetic mapping using a mutant that genetically lacks glucoraphasatin. Transgenic Arabidopsis, which overexpressed GRS1 cDNA, accumulated glucoraphasatin in the leaves. GRS1 encodes a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase, and it is abundantly expressed in the leaf. To further investigate the biosynthesis and transportation of GSLs in radish, we grafted a grs1 plant onto a wild-type plant. The grafting experiment revealed a leaf-to-root long-distance glucoraphasatin transport system in radish and showed that the composition of GSLs differed among the organs. Based on these observations, we propose a characteristic biosynthesis pathway for glucoraphasatin in radish. Our results should be useful in metabolite engineering for breeding of high-value vegetables. PMID:28100450

  2. Concordance of CCR5 genotypes that influence cell-mediated immunity and HIV-1 disease progression rates.

    PubMed

    Catano, Gabriel; Chykarenko, Zoya A; Mangano, Andrea; Anaya, J-M; He, Weijing; Smith, Alison; Bologna, Rosa; Sen, Luisa; Clark, Robert A; Lloyd, Andrew; Shostakovich-Koretskaya, Ludmila; Ahuja, Sunil K

    2011-01-15

    We used cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity responses, a powerful in vivo measure of cell-mediated immunity, to evaluate the relationships among cell-mediated immunity, AIDS, and polymorphisms in CCR5, the HIV-1 coreceptor. There was high concordance between CCR5 polymorphisms and haplotype pairs that influenced delayed-type hypersensitivity responses in healthy persons and HIV disease progression. In the cohorts examined, CCR5 genotypes containing -2459G/G (HHA/HHA, HHA/HHC, HHC/HHC) or -2459A/A (HHE/HHE) associated with salutary or detrimental delayed-type hypersensitivity and AIDS phenotypes, respectively. Accordingly, the CCR5-Δ32 allele, when paired with non-Δ32-bearing haplotypes that correlate with low (HHA, HHC) versus high (HHE) CCR5 transcriptional activity, associates with disease retardation or acceleration, respectively. Thus, the associations of CCR5-Δ32 heterozygosity partly reflect the effect of the non-▵32 haplotype in a background of CCR5 haploinsufficiency. The correlations of increased delayed-type hypersensitivity with -2459G/G-containing CCR5 genotypes, reduced CCR5 expression, decreased viral replication, and disease retardation suggest that CCR5 may influence HIV infection and AIDS, at least in part, through effects on cell-mediated immunity.

  3. Multimodal imaging of central retinal disease progression in a 2 year mean follow up of Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Sujirakul, Tharikarn; Lin, Michael K.; Duong, Jimmy; Wei, Ying; Lopez-Pintado, Sara; Tsang, Stephen H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the rate of progression and optimal follow up time in patients with advanced stage retinitis pigmentosa (RP) comparing the use of fundus autofluorescence imaging and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Design Retrospective analysis of progression rate. Methods Longitudinal imaging follow up in 71 patients with retinitis pigmentosa was studied using the main outcome measurements of hyperautofluoresent ring horizontal diameter and vertical diameter along with ellipsoid zone line width from spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Test-retest reliability and the rate of progression were calculated. The interaction between the progression rates was tested for sex, age, mode of inheritance, and baseline measurement size. Symmetry of left and right eye progression rate was also tested. Results Significant progression was observed in >75% of patients during the 2 year mean follow up. The mean annual progression rates of ellipsoid zone line, and hyperautofluorescent ring horizontal diameter and vertical diameter were 0.45° (4.9%), 0.51° (4.1%), and 0.42° (4.0%), respectively. The e llipsoid zone line width, and hyperautofluorescent ring horizontal diameter and vertical diameter had low test-retest variabilities of 8.9%, 9.5% and 9.6%, respectively. This study is the first to demonstrate asymmetrical structural progression rate between right and left eye, which was found in 19% of patients. The rate of progression was significantly slower as the disease approached the fovea, supporting the theory that RP progresses in an exponential fashion. No significant interaction between progression rate and patient age, sex, or mode of inheritance was observed. Conclusions Fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography detect progression in patients with RP reliably and with strong correlation. These parameters may be useful alongside functional assessments as the outcome measurements for future therapeutic trials. Follow-up at 1 year

  4. CD117/c-kit in Cancer Stem Cell-Mediated Progression and Therapeutic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Young, Tyler R.; Mobley, Mary E.

    2018-01-01

    Metastasis is the primary cause of cancer patient morbidity and mortality, but due to persisting gaps in our knowledge, it remains untreatable. Metastases often occur as patient tumors progress or recur after initial therapy. Tumor recurrence at the primary site may be driven by a cancer stem-like cell or tumor progenitor cell, while recurrence at a secondary site is driven by metastatic cancer stem cells or metastasis-initiating cells. Ongoing efforts are aimed at identifying and characterizing these stem-like cells driving recurrence and metastasis. One potential marker for the cancer stem-like cell subpopulation is CD117/c-kit, a tyrosine kinase receptor associated with cancer progression and normal stem cell maintenance. Further, activation of CD117 by its ligand stem cell factor (SCF; kit ligand) in the progenitor cell niche stimulates several signaling pathways driving proliferation, survival, and migration. This review examines evidence that the SCF/CD117 signaling axis may contribute to the control of cancer progression through the regulation of stemness and resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. PMID:29518044

  5. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor–Mediated Islet Hypervascularization and Inflammation Contribute to Progressive Reduction of β-Cell Mass

    PubMed Central

    Agudo, Judith; Ayuso, Eduard; Jimenez, Veronica; Casellas, Alba; Mallol, Cristina; Salavert, Ariana; Tafuro, Sabrina; Obach, Mercè; Ruzo, Albert; Moya, Marta; Pujol, Anna; Bosch, Fatima

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) results from insulin resistance and inadequate insulin secretion. Insulin resistance initially causes compensatory islet hyperplasia that progresses to islet disorganization and altered vascularization, inflammation, and, finally, decreased functional β-cell mass and hyperglycemia. The precise mechanism(s) underlying β-cell failure remain to be elucidated. In this study, we show that in insulin-resistant high-fat diet-fed mice, the enhanced islet vascularization and inflammation was parallel to an increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF). To elucidate the role of VEGF in these processes, we have genetically engineered β-cells to overexpress VEGF (in transgenic mice or after adeno-associated viral vector-mediated gene transfer). We found that sustained increases in β-cell VEGF levels led to disorganized, hypervascularized, and fibrotic islets, progressive macrophage infiltration, and proinflammatory cytokine production, including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β. This resulted in impaired insulin secretion, decreased β-cell mass, and hyperglycemia with age. These results indicate that sustained VEGF upregulation may participate in the initiation of a process leading to β-cell failure and further suggest that compensatory islet hyperplasia and hypervascularization may contribute to progressive inflammation and β-cell mass loss during T2D. PMID:22961079

  6. CD98hc (SLC3A2) Loss Protects Against Ras-Driven Tumorigenesis by Modulating Integrin-Mediated Mechanotransduction

    PubMed Central

    Estrach, Soline; Lee, Sin-Ae; Boulter, Etienne; Pisano, Sabrina; Errante, Aurélia; Tissot, Floriane S.; Cailleteau, Laurence; Pons, Catherine; Ginsberg, Mark H.; Féral, Chloé C.

    2016-01-01

    CD98hc (SLC3A2) is the heavy chain component of the dimeric transmembrane glycoprotein CD98, which comprises the large neutral amino acid transporter LAT1 (SLC7A5) in cells. Overexpression of CD98hc occurs widely in cancer cells, and is associated with poor prognosis clinically, but its exact contributions to tumorigenesis are uncertain. In this study, we showed that that genetic deficiency of CD98hc protects against Ras-driven skin carcinogenesis. Deleting CD98hc after tumor induction was also sufficient to cause regression of existing tumors. Investigations into the basis for these effects defined two new functions of CD98hc that contribute to epithelial cancer beyond an intrinsic effect on CD98hc on tumor cell proliferation. First, CD98hc increased the stiffness of the tumor microenvironment. Second, CD98hc amplified the capacity of cells to respond to matrix rigidity, an essential factor in tumor development. Mechanistically, CD98hc mediated this stiffness-sensing by increasing Rho kinase (ROCK) activity, resulting in increased transcription mediated by YAP/TAZ, a nuclear relay for mechanical signals. Our results suggest that CD98hc contributes to carcinogenesis by amplifying a positive feedback loop which increases both extracellular matrix stiffness and resulting cellular responses. This work supports a rationale to explore the use of CD98hc inhibitors as cancer therapeutics, PMID:25267066

  7. LPA1 receptor-mediated thromboxane A2 release is responsible for lysophosphatidic acid-induced vascular smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Dancs, Péter Tibor; Ruisanchez, Éva; Balogh, Andrea; Panta, Cecília Rita; Miklós, Zsuzsanna; Nüsing, Rolf M; Aoki, Junken; Chun, Jerold; Offermanns, Stefan; Tigyi, Gábor; Benyó, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has been recognized recently as an endothelium-dependent vasodilator, but several lines of evidence indicate that it may also stimulate vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), thereby contributing to vasoregulation and remodeling. In the present study, mRNA expression of all 6 LPA receptor genes was detected in murine aortic VSMCs, with the highest levels of LPA 1 , LPA 2 , LPA 4 , and LPA 6 In endothelium-denuded thoracic aorta (TA) and abdominal aorta (AA) segments, 1-oleoyl-LPA and the LPA 1-3 agonist VPC31143 induced dose-dependent vasoconstriction. VPC31143-induced AA contraction was sensitive to pertussis toxin (PTX), the LPA 1&3 antagonist Ki16425, and genetic deletion of LPA 1 but not that of LPA 2 or inhibition of LPA 3 , by diacylglycerol pyrophosphate. Surprisingly, vasoconstriction was also diminished in vessels lacking cyclooxygenase-1 [COX1 knockout (KO)] or the thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptor (TP KO). VPC31143 increased thromboxane A 2 (TXA 2 ) release from TA of wild-type, TP-KO, and LPA 2 -KO mice but not from LPA 1 -KO or COX1-KO mice, and PTX blocked this effect. Our findings indicate that LPA causes vasoconstriction in VSMCs, mediated by LPA 1 -, G i -, and COX1-dependent autocrine/paracrine TXA 2 release and consequent TP activation. We propose that this new-found interaction between the LPA/LPA 1 and TXA 2 /TP pathways plays significant roles in vasoregulation, hemostasis, thrombosis, and vascular remodeling.-Dancs, P. T., Ruisanchez, E., Balogh, A., Panta, C. R., Miklós, Z., Nüsing, R. M., Aoki, J., Chun, J., Offermanns, S., Tigyi, G., Benyó, Z. LPA 1 receptor-mediated thromboxane A 2 release is responsible for lysophosphatidic acid-induced vascular smooth muscle contraction. © FASEB.

  8. Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease Affects HDL Impact on Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL)-Mediated VLDL Lipolysis Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Ćwiklińska, Agnieska; Cackowska, Monika; Wieczorek, Ewa; Król, Ewa; Kowalski, Robert; Kuchta, Agnieszka; Kortas-Stempak, Barbara; Gliwińska, Anna; Dąbkowski, Kamil; Zielińska, Justyna; Dębska-Ślizień, Alicja; Jankowski, Maciej

    2018-06-15

    Hypertriglyceridaemia (HTG) and reduction and dysfunction of high density lipoprotein (HDL) are common lipid disturbances in chronic kidney disease (CKD). HTG in CKD is caused mainly by the decreased efficiency of lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-mediated very low density lipoprotein triglyceride (VLDL-TG) lipolysis. It has not been clarified whether HDL dysfunction in CKD contributes directly to HTG development; thus, the aim of this study was to assess the impact of CKD progression on the ability of HDL to enhance LPL-mediated VLDL-TG lipolysis efficiency. VLDL was isolated from non-dialysis patients in CKD stages 3 and 4 and from non-CKD patients. The VLDL was incubated with LPL at the constant LPL:VLDL-TG ratio, in the absence or presence of HDL. After incubation, the VLDL was separated and the percentage (%) of hydrolyzed TG was calculated. HDL presence increased the lipolysis efficiency of VLDL isolated from CKD and non-CKD patients, for the VLDL-TG> 50 mg/dl. Its effect was dependent on the VLDL-TG and HDL-cholesterol concentrations in the reaction mixtures: the higher the concentrations of VLDL-TG and HDL-cholesterol, the greater the effect. The positive impact of HDL on VLDL lipolysis was modified by CKD progression: the percentage of lipolyzed VLDL-TG in the presence of HDL decreased with a reduction in eGFR (r=0.43, p=0.009), and for patients with stage 4 CKD, no positive impact of HDL on lipolysis was observed. The percentage of lipolyzed TG correlated negatively with apoE and apoCs content in VLDL, and positively with HDL-apoCII, as well as with VLDL and HDL apoCII/ apoCIII ratios. The progression of CKD was associated with unfavourable changes in VLDL and HDL composition; apoE and apoCs levels increased in VLDL with a decrease in eGFR whereas the HDL-cholesterol level decreased. The progression of CKD affects lipoprotein composition and properties, and modulates the positive impact of HDL on VLDL lipolysis efficiency. In CKD patients, HDL deficiency and

  9. R-loop-mediated genomic instability is caused by impairment of replication fork progression

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Wenjian; Guan, Zhishuang; Liu, Jie; Gui, Ting; Shen, Keng; Manley, James L.; Li, Xialu

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptional R loops are anomalous RNA:DNA hybrids that have been detected in organisms from bacteria to humans. These structures have been shown in eukaryotes to result in DNA damage and rearrangements; however, the mechanisms underlying these effects have remained largely unknown. To investigate this, we first show that R-loop formation induces chromosomal DNA rearrangements and recombination in Escherichia coli, just as it does in eukaryotes. More importantly, we then show that R-loop formation causes DNA replication fork stalling, and that this in fact underlies the effects of R loops on genomic stability. Strikingly, we found that attenuation of replication strongly suppresses R-loop-mediated DNA rearrangements in both E. coli and HeLa cells. Our findings thus provide a direct demonstration that R-loop formation impairs DNA replication and that this is responsible for the deleterious effects of R loops on genome stability from bacteria to humans. PMID:21979917

  10. Recent Progress in Photocatalysis Mediated by Colloidal II-VI Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Wilker, Molly B; Schnitzenbaumer, Kyle J; Dukovic, Gordana

    2012-01-01

    The use of photoexcited electrons and holes in semiconductor nanocrystals as reduction and oxidation reagents is an intriguing way of harvesting photon energy to drive chemical reactions. This review focuses on recent research efforts to understand and control the photocatalytic processes mediated by colloidal II-VI nanocrystalline materials, such as cadmium and zinc chalcogenides. First, we highlight how nanocrystal properties govern the rates and efficiencies of charge-transfer processes relevant to photocatalysis. We then describe the use of nanocrystal catalyst heterostructures for fuel-forming reactions, most commonly H2 generation. Finally, we review the use of nanocrystal photocatalysis as a synthetic tool for metal–semiconductor nano-heterostructures. PMID:24115781

  11. Altered miRNA expression in aniline-mediated cell cycle progression in rat spleen.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gangduo; Wang, Jianling; Khan, M Firoze

    2017-09-01

    Aniline exposure is associated with toxicity to the spleen, however, early molecular events in aniline-induced cell cycle progression in the spleen remain unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in tumor development by modulating key cell cycle regulators and controlling cell proliferation. This study was, therefore, undertaken on the expression of miRNAs, regulation of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) in an experimental condition that precedes a tumorigenic response. Male SD rats were treated with aniline (1 mmol/kg/day by gavage) for 7 days, and expression of miRNAs, cyclins and CDKs in rat spleens were analyzed. Microarray and/or qPCR analyses showed that aniline exposure led to significantly decreased miRNA expression of let-7a, miR-24, miR-34c, miR-100, miR-125b, and greatly increased miR-181a. The aberrant expression of miRNAs was associated with significantly increased protein expression of cyclins A, B1, D3 and E. Furthermore, remarkably enhanced expression of CDKs like CDK1, CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, especially p-CDK1 and p-CDK2 as well as alternations in the expression of pRB, p27, and CDC25A in the spleens of aniline-treated rats was also observed. The data suggest that aniline exposure leads to aberrant expression of miRNAs in the spleen which could be important in the regulation of cell cycle proteins. Our findings, thus, provide new insight into the role of miRNAs in cell cycle progression, which may contribute to aniline-induced tumorigenic response in the spleen.

  12. Matrix metalloproteinase-2: A key regulator in coagulation proteases mediated human breast cancer progression through autocrine signaling.

    PubMed

    Das, Kaushik; Prasad, Ramesh; Ansari, Shabbir Ahmed; Roy, Abhishek; Mukherjee, Ashis; Sen, Prosenjit

    2018-06-02

    Cell invasion is attributed to the synthesis and secretion of proteolytically active matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) by tumor cells to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) and promote metastasis. The role of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in human breast cancer migration/invasion via MMP-2 up-regulation remains ill-defined; hence we investigated whether TF-FVIIa/trypsin-mediated PAR2 activation induces MMP-2 expression in human breast cancer. MMP-2 expression and the signaling mechanisms were analyzed by western blotting and RT-PCR. MMP-2 activity was measured by gelatin zymography. Cell invasion was analyzed by transwell invasion assay whereas; wound healing assay was performed to understand the cell migratory potential. Here, we highlight that TF-FVIIa/trypsin-mediated PAR2 activation leads to enhanced MMP-2 expression in human breast cancer cells contributing to tumor progression. Knock-down of PAR2 abrogated TF-FVIIa/trypsin-induced up-regulation of MMP-2. Again, genetic manipulation of AKT or inhibition of NF-ĸB suggested that PAR2-mediated enhanced MMP-2 expression is dependent on the PI3K-AKT-NF-ĸB pathway. We also reveal that TF, PAR2, and MMP-2 are over-expressed in invasive breast carcinoma tissues as compared to normal. Knock-down of MMP-2 significantly impeded TF-FVIIa/trypsin-induced cell invasion. Further, we report that MMP-2 activates p38 MAPK-MK2-HSP27 signaling axis that leads to actin polymerization and induces cell migration. Pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK or MK2 attenuates MMP-2-induced cell migration. The study delineates a novel signaling pathway by which PAR2-induced MMP-2 expression regulates human breast cancer cell migration/invasion. Understanding these mechanistic details will certainly help to identify crucial targets for therapeutic interventions in breast cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Autocrine Complement Inhibits IL10-Dependent T-Cell Mediated Antitumor Immunity to Promote Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Sun, Sheng-Nan; Liu, Qing; Yu, Yang-Yang; Guo, Jian; Wang, Kun; Xing, Bao-Cai; Zheng, Qing-Feng; Campa, Michael J.; Patz, Edward F.; Li, Shi-You; He, You-Wen

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to its inhibitory effects on many cells, IL-10 activates CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and enhances their antitumor activity. However, CD8+ TILs do not routinely express IL-10 as autocrine complement C3 inhibits IL-10 production through complement receptors C3aR and C5aR. CD8+ TILs from C3-deficient mice, however, express IL-10 and exhibit enhanced effector function. C3-deficient mice are resistant to tumor development in a T cell- and IL-10-dependent manner; human TILs expanded with IL-2 plus IL-10 increase the killing of primary tumors in vitro compared to IL-2 treated TILs. Complement-mediated inhibition of antitumor immunity is independent of the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint pathway. Our findings suggest that complement receptors C3aR and C5aR expressed on CD8+ TILs represent a novel class of immune checkpoints that could be targeted for tumor immunotherapy. Moreover, incorporation of IL-10 in the expansion of TILs and in gene-engineered T cells for adoptive cell therapy enhances their antitumor efficacy. PMID:27297552

  14. CCND1-CDK4-mediated cell cycle progression provides a competitive advantage for human hematopoietic stem cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mende, Nicole; Kuchen, Erika E; Lesche, Mathias; Grinenko, Tatyana; Kokkaliaris, Konstantinos D; Hanenberg, Helmut; Lindemann, Dirk; Dahl, Andreas; Platz, Alexander; Höfer, Thomas; Calegari, Federico; Waskow, Claudia

    2015-07-27

    Maintenance of stem cell properties is associated with reduced proliferation. However, in mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), loss of quiescence results in a wide range of phenotypes, ranging from functional failure to extensive self-renewal. It remains unknown whether the function of human HSCs is controlled by the kinetics of cell cycle progression. Using human HSCs and human progenitor cells (HSPCs), we report here that elevated levels of CCND1-CDK4 complexes promoted the transit from G0 to G1 and shortened the G1 cell cycle phase, resulting in protection from differentiation-inducing signals in vitro and increasing human leukocyte engraftment in vivo. Further, CCND1-CDK4 overexpression conferred a competitive advantage without impacting HSPC numbers. In contrast, accelerated cell cycle progression mediated by elevated levels of CCNE1-CDK2 led to the loss of functional HSPCs in vivo. Collectively, these data suggest that the transition kinetics through the early cell cycle phases are key regulators of human HSPC function and important for lifelong hematopoiesis. © 2015 Mende et al.

  15. Progressive pulmonary fibrosis is mediated by TGF-β isoform 1 but not TGF-β3

    PubMed Central

    Ask, Kjetil; Bonniaud, Philippe; Maass, Katja; Eickelberg, Oliver; Margetts, Peter J; Warburton, David; Groffen, John; Gauldie, Jack; Kolb, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Tissue repair is a well orchestrated biological process involving numerous soluble mediators, and an imbalance between these factors may result in impaired repair and fibrosis. Transforming growth factor (TGF) β is a key profibrotic element in this process and it is thought that its three isoforms act in a similar way. Here, we report that TGF-β3 administered to rat lungs using transient overexpression initiates profibrotic effects similar to those elicited by TGF-β1, but causes less severe and progressive changes. The data suggest that TGF-β3 does not lead to inhibition of matrix degradation in the same way as TGF-β1, resulting in non-fibrotic tissue repair. Further, TGF-β3 is able to downregulate TGF-β1 induced gene expression, suggesting a regulatory role of TGF-β3. TGF-β3 overexpression results in an upregulation of Smad proteins similar to TGF-β1, but is less efficient in inducing the ALK 5 and TGF-β type II receptor (TβRII). We provide evidence that this difference may contribute to the progressive nature of TGF-β1 induced fibrotic response, in contrast to the limited fibrosis observed following TGF-β3 overexpression. TGF-β3 is important in “normal wound healing”, but is outbalanced by TGF-β1 in “fibrotic wound healing” in the lung. PMID:17931953

  16. Tumor Progression Is Mediated by Thymosin-β4 through a TGFβ/MRTF Signaling Axis.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Ken'ichiro

    2018-05-01

    Although enhanced thymosin β4 (TMSB4X/Tβ4) expression is associated with tumor progression and metastasis, its tumor-promoting functions remain largely unknown. Here, it is demonstrated that TGFβ facilitates Tβ4 expression and leads to the activation of myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTF), which are coactivators of serum response factor (SRF) and regulate the expression of genes critical for the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor metastasis. In murine mammary gland cells (NMuMG), Tβ4 upregulation is required for full induction of a MRTF-regulated EMT gene expression program after TGFβ stimulation. Tβ4 levels are transcriptionally regulated via the novel cis -acting element AGACAAAG, which interacts with Smad and T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) to synergistically activate the Tβ4 promoter downstream of TGFβ. Murine skin melanoma cells (B16F0 and B16F1) also show the expression regulation of Tβ4 by Smad and TCF/LEF. Tβ4-knockout B16F1 (Tβ4 KO) clones show significantly diminished expression level of tumor-associated genes, which is regulated by the TGFβ/MRTFs pathway. In multiple human cancers, Tβ4 levels correlate positively with TGFβ1 and the tumor-associated gene expression levels through processes that respectively depend on TGFβ receptor 1 (TGFBR1) and MRTF expression. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses demonstrate that high Tβ4 expression associates with poor prognosis in an SRF expression-dependent manner in several cancers. In mice, Tβ4 KO clones show significantly decreased experimental metastatic potential; furthermore, ectopic expression of constitutively active MRTF-A fully restores the diminished metastatic activity. In conclusion, the TGFβ/Tβ4/MRTF/SRF pathway is critical for metastasis and tumor progression. Implications: These findings define a molecular mechanism underlying a tumor-promoting function of thymosin β4 through activation of MRTF/SRF signaling. Mol Cancer Res; 16(5); 880-93.

  17. The phzA2-G2 Transcript Exhibits Direct RsmA-Mediated Activation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa M18

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Bin; Shen, Huifeng; Lu, Zhi John; Liu, Haiming; Xu, Yuquan

    2014-01-01

    In bacteria, RNA-binding proteins of the RsmA/CsrA family act as post-transcriptional regulators that modulate translation initiation at target transcripts. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa genome contains two phenazine biosynthetic (phz) gene clusters, phzA1-G1 (phz1) and phzA2-G2 (phz2), each of which is responsible for phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) biosynthesis. In the present study, we show that RsmA exhibits differential gene regulation on two phz clusters in P. aeruginosa M18 at the post-transcriptional level. Based on the sequence analysis, four GGA motifs, the potential RsmA binding sites, are found on the 5′-untranslated region (UTR) of the phz2 transcript. Studies with a series of lacZ reporter fusions, and gel mobility shift assays suggest that the third GGA motif (S3), located 21 nucleotides upstream of the Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence, is involved in direct RsmA-mediated activation of phz2 expression. We therefore propose a novel model in which the binding of RsmA to the target S3 results in the destabilization of the stem-loop structure and the enhancement of ribosome access. This model could be fully supported by RNA structure prediction, free energy calculations, and nucleotide replacement studies. In contrast, various RsmA-mediated translation repression mechanisms have been identified in which RsmA binds near the SD sequence of target transcripts, thereby blocking ribosome access. Similarly, RsmA is shown to negatively regulate phz1 expression. Our new findings suggest that the differential regulation exerted by RsmA on the two phz clusters may confer an advantage to P. aeruginosa over other pseudomonads containing only a single phz cluster in their genomes. PMID:24586939

  18. Progression of fibromyalgia: results from a 2-year observational fibromyalgia and chronic pain study in the US

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Edgar H; McElroy, Heather J; Udall, Margarita; Masters, Elizabeth T; Mann, Rachael M; Schaefer, Caroline P; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Clair, Andrew G; Hopps, Markay; Daniel, Shoshana R; Mease, Philip; Silverman, Stuart L; Staud, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Background A previous fibromyalgia (FM) research reports that 20%–47% of diagnosed patients may not meet the study definition of FM 1–2 years after diagnosis. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the progression of FM in a geographically diverse cohort over a 2-year time period. Methods This cohort study followed 226 subjects recruited online to assess FM and chronic widespread pain (CWP) diagnosis stability over time. At enrollment (baseline), subjects provided informed consent, completed an online questionnaire consisting of the London Fibromyalgia Epidemiology Study Screening Questionnaire to screen for CWP (bilateral pain above/below waist lasting ≥1 week in the past 3 months), visited a site for physician evaluation for FM, and completed a questionnaire with validated patient-reported outcome instruments. Subjects were classified into mutually exclusive groups: FM+CWP+ (screened positive for CWP and received physician diagnosis of FM), FM−CWP+ (screened positive for CWP but did not receive physician diagnosis of FM), and FM−CWP− (screened negative for CWP). Approximately 2 years later (follow-up), subjects were reassessed at the same study site and completed a questionnaire with the same patient-reported outcomes. Results Seventy-six FM+CWP+ subjects completed assessments at both time points; 56 (73.7%) met the FM study definition at follow-up. Twenty subjects no longer met the FM study definition (eleven became FM−CWP− and nine became FM−CWP+). Ten subjects (two from FM−CWP− and eight from FM−CWP+) transitioned into the FM+CWP+ group at follow-up; they reported more tender points and pain interference with sleep and worse physical function at baseline compared with subjects who did not transition to FM+CWP+. Most (76.7%) of the subjects who transitioned into/out of FM+CWP+ experienced changes in CWP, number of positive tender points, or both. Conclusion The results suggest that some FM+CWP+ patients experience

  19. Progression of fibromyalgia: results from a 2-year observational fibromyalgia and chronic pain study in the US.

    PubMed

    Adams, Edgar H; McElroy, Heather J; Udall, Margarita; Masters, Elizabeth T; Mann, Rachael M; Schaefer, Caroline P; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Clair, Andrew G; Hopps, Markay; Daniel, Shoshana R; Mease, Philip; Silverman, Stuart L; Staud, Roland

    2016-01-01

    A previous fibromyalgia (FM) research reports that 20%-47% of diagnosed patients may not meet the study definition of FM 1-2 years after diagnosis. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the progression of FM in a geographically diverse cohort over a 2-year time period. This cohort study followed 226 subjects recruited online to assess FM and chronic widespread pain (CWP) diagnosis stability over time. At enrollment (baseline), subjects provided informed consent, completed an online questionnaire consisting of the London Fibromyalgia Epidemiology Study Screening Questionnaire to screen for CWP (bilateral pain above/below waist lasting ≥1 week in the past 3 months), visited a site for physician evaluation for FM, and completed a questionnaire with validated patient-reported outcome instruments. Subjects were classified into mutually exclusive groups: FM+CWP+ (screened positive for CWP and received physician diagnosis of FM), FM-CWP+ (screened positive for CWP but did not receive physician diagnosis of FM), and FM-CWP- (screened negative for CWP). Approximately 2 years later (follow-up), subjects were reassessed at the same study site and completed a questionnaire with the same patient-reported outcomes. Seventy-six FM+CWP+ subjects completed assessments at both time points; 56 (73.7%) met the FM study definition at follow-up. Twenty subjects no longer met the FM study definition (eleven became FM-CWP- and nine became FM-CWP+). Ten subjects (two from FM-CWP- and eight from FM-CWP+) transitioned into the FM+CWP+ group at follow-up; they reported more tender points and pain interference with sleep and worse physical function at baseline compared with subjects who did not transition to FM+CWP+. Most (76.7%) of the subjects who transitioned into/out of FM+CWP+ experienced changes in CWP, number of positive tender points, or both. The results suggest that some FM+CWP+ patients experience fluctuation in symptoms over time, which may reflect the

  20. The impact of cow's milk-mediated mTORC1-signaling in the initiation and progression of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is dependent on androgen receptor signaling and aberrations of the PI3K-Akt-mTORC1 pathway mediating excessive and sustained growth signaling. The nutrient-sensitive kinase mTORC1 is upregulated in nearly 100% of advanced human PCas. Oncogenic mTORC1 signaling activates key subsets of mRNAs that cooperate in distinct steps of PCa initiation and progression. Epidemiological evidence points to increased dairy protein consumption as a major dietary risk factor for the development of PCa. mTORC1 is a master regulator of protein synthesis, lipid synthesis and autophagy pathways that couple nutrient sensing to cell growth and cancer. This review provides evidence that PCa initiation and progression are promoted by cow´s milk, but not human milk, stimulation of mTORC1 signaling. Mammalian milk is presented as an endocrine signaling system, which activates mTORC1, promotes cell growth and proliferation and suppresses autophagy. Naturally, milk-mediated mTORC1 signaling is restricted only to the postnatal growth phase of mammals. However, persistent consumption of cow´s milk proteins in humans provide highly insulinotropic branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) provided by milk´s fast hydrolysable whey proteins, which elevate postprandial plasma insulin levels, and increase hepatic IGF-1 plasma concentrations by casein-derived amino acids. BCAAs, insulin and IGF-1 are pivotal activating signals of mTORC1. Increased cow´s milk protein-mediated mTORC1 signaling along with constant exposure to commercial cow´s milk estrogens derived from pregnant cows may explain the observed association between high dairy consumption and increased risk of PCa in Westernized societies. As well-balanced mTORC1-signaling plays an important role in appropriate prostate morphogenesis and differentiation, exaggerated mTORC1-signaling by high cow´s milk consumption predominantly during critical growth phases of prostate development and differentiation may exert long

  1. Baseline Performance Predicts tDCS-Mediated Improvements in Language Symptoms in Primary Progressive Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    McConathey, Eric M.; White, Nicole C.; Gervits, Felix; Ash, Sherry; Coslett, H. Branch; Grossman, Murray; Hamilton, Roy H.

    2017-01-01

    Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by insidious irreversible loss of language abilities. Prior studies suggest that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) directed toward language areas of the brain may help to ameliorate symptoms of PPA. In the present sham-controlled study, we examined whether tDCS could be used to enhance language abilities (e.g., picture naming) in individuals with PPA variants primarily characterized by difficulties with speech production (non-fluent and logopenic). Participants were recruited from the Penn Frontotemporal Dementia Center to receive 10 days of both real and sham tDCS (counter-balanced, full-crossover design; participants were naïve to stimulation condition). A battery of language tests was administered at baseline, immediately post-tDCS (real and sham), and 6 weeks and 12 weeks following stimulation. When we accounted for individuals’ baseline performance, our analyses demonstrated a stratification of tDCS effects. Individuals who performed worse at baseline showed tDCS-related improvements in global language performance, grammatical comprehension and semantic processing. Individuals who performed better at baseline showed a slight tDCS-related benefit on our speech repetition metric. Real tDCS may improve language performance in some individuals with PPA. Severity of deficits at baseline may be an important factor in predicting which patients will respond positively to language-targeted tDCS therapies. Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02928848 PMID:28713256

  2. Autocrine Complement Inhibits IL10-Dependent T-cell-Mediated Antitumor Immunity to Promote Tumor Progression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Sun, Sheng-Nan; Liu, Qing; Yu, Yang-Yang; Guo, Jian; Wang, Kun; Xing, Bao-Cai; Zheng, Qing-Feng; Campa, Michael J; Patz, Edward F; Li, Shi-You; He, You-Wen

    2016-09-01

    In contrast to its inhibitory effects on many cells, IL10 activates CD8(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and enhances their antitumor activity. However, CD8(+) TILs do not routinely express IL10, as autocrine complement C3 inhibits IL10 production through complement receptors C3aR and C5aR. CD8(+) TILs from C3-deficient mice, however, express IL10 and exhibit enhanced effector function. C3-deficient mice are resistant to tumor development in a T-cell- and IL10-dependent manner; human TILs expanded with IL2 plus IL10 increase the killing of primary tumors in vitro compared with IL2-treated TILs. Complement-mediated inhibition of antitumor immunity is independent of the programmed death 1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) immune checkpoint pathway. Our findings suggest that complement receptors C3aR and C5aR expressed on CD8(+) TILs represent a novel class of immune checkpoints that could be targeted for tumor immunotherapy. Moreover, incorporation of IL10 in the expansion of TILs and in gene-engineered T cells for adoptive cell therapy enhances their antitumor efficacy. Our data suggest novel strategies to enhance immunotherapies: a combined blockade of complement signaling by antagonists to C3aR, C5aR, and anti-PD-1 to enhance anti-PD-1 efficacy; a targeted IL10 delivery to CD8(+) TILs using anti-PD-1-IL10 or anti-CTLA4-IL10 fusion proteins; and the addition of IL10 in TIL expansion for adoptive cellular therapy. Cancer Discov; 6(9); 1022-35. ©2016 AACR.See related commentary by Peng et al., p. 953This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 932. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. L-Boronophenylalanine-Mediated Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Malignant Glioma Progressing After External Beam Radiation Therapy: A Phase I Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kankaanranta, Leena; Seppaelae, Tiina; Koivunoro, Hanna

    Purpose: To investigate the safety of boronophenylalanine-mediated boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in the treatment of malignant gliomas that progress after surgery and conventional external beam radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Adult patients who had histologically confirmed malignant glioma that had progressed after surgery and external beam radiotherapy were eligible for this Phase I study, provided that >6 months had elapsed from the last date of radiation therapy. The first 10 patients received a fixed dose, 290 mg/kg, of L-boronophenylalanine-fructose (L-BPA-F) as a 2-hour infusion before neutron irradiation, and the remaining patients were treated with escalating doses of L-BPA-F, eithermore » 350 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, or 450 mg/kg, using 3 patients on each dose level. Adverse effects were assessed using National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria version 2.0. Results: Twenty-two patients entered the study. Twenty subjects had glioblastoma, and 2 patients had anaplastic astrocytoma, and the median cumulative dose of prior external beam radiotherapy was 59.4 Gy. The maximally tolerated L-BPA-F dose was reached at the 450 mg/kg level, where 4 of 6 patients treated had a grade 3 adverse event. Patients who were given >290 mg/kg of L-BPA-F received a higher estimated average planning target volume dose than those who received 290 mg/kg (median, 36 vs. 31 Gy [W, i.e., a weighted dose]; p = 0.018). The median survival time following BNCT was 7 months. Conclusions: BNCT administered with an L-BPA-F dose of up to 400 mg/kg as a 2-hour infusion is feasible in the treatment of malignant gliomas that recur after conventional radiation therapy.« less

  4. miRNA-558 promotes gastric cancer progression through attenuating Smad4-mediated repression of heparanase expression.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Liduan; Jiao, Wanju; Song, Huajie; Qu, Hongxia; Li, Dan; Mei, Hong; Chen, Yajun; Yang, Feng; Li, Huanhuan; Huang, Kai; Tong, Qiangsong

    2016-09-29

    Previous studies have indicated that as the only mammalian endo-β-D-glucuronidase, heparanase (HPSE) is up-regulated and associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer, while the underlying mechanisms still remain to be determined. Herein, through integrative analysis of public datasets, we found microRNA-558 (miR-558) and SMAD family member 4 (Smad4) as the crucial transcription regulators of HPSE expression in gastric cancer, with their adjacent target sites within the promoter of HPSE. We identified that endogenous miR-558 activated the transcription and expression of HPSE in gastric cancer cell lines. In contrast, Smad4 suppressed the nascent transcription and expression of HPSE via directly binding to its promoter. Mechanistically, miR-558 recognized its complementary site within HPSE promoter to decrease the binding of Smad4 in an Argonaute 1-dependent manner. Ectopic expression or knockdown experiments indicated that miR-558 promoted the in vitro and in vivo tumorigenesis and aggressiveness of gastric cancer cell lines via attenuating Smad4-mediated repression of HPSE expression. In clinical gastric cancer specimens, up-regulation of miR-558 and down-regulation of Smad4 were positively correlated with HPSE expression. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that miR-558 and Smad4 were associated with unfavourable and favourable outcome of gastric cancer patients, respectively. Therefore, these findings demonstrate that miR-558 facilitates the progression of gastric cancer through directly targeting the HPSE promoter to attenuate Smad4-mediated repression of HPSE expression.

  5. miRNA-558 promotes gastric cancer progression through attenuating Smad4-mediated repression of heparanase expression

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Liduan; Jiao, Wanju; Song, Huajie; Qu, Hongxia; Li, Dan; Mei, Hong; Chen, Yajun; Yang, Feng; Li, Huanhuan; Huang, Kai; Tong, Qiangsong

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that as the only mammalian endo-β-D-glucuronidase, heparanase (HPSE) is up-regulated and associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer, while the underlying mechanisms still remain to be determined. Herein, through integrative analysis of public datasets, we found microRNA-558 (miR-558) and SMAD family member 4 (Smad4) as the crucial transcription regulators of HPSE expression in gastric cancer, with their adjacent target sites within the promoter of HPSE. We identified that endogenous miR-558 activated the transcription and expression of HPSE in gastric cancer cell lines. In contrast, Smad4 suppressed the nascent transcription and expression of HPSE via directly binding to its promoter. Mechanistically, miR-558 recognized its complementary site within HPSE promoter to decrease the binding of Smad4 in an Argonaute 1-dependent manner. Ectopic expression or knockdown experiments indicated that miR-558 promoted the in vitro and in vivo tumorigenesis and aggressiveness of gastric cancer cell lines via attenuating Smad4-mediated repression of HPSE expression. In clinical gastric cancer specimens, up-regulation of miR-558 and down-regulation of Smad4 were positively correlated with HPSE expression. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis revealed that miR-558 and Smad4 were associated with unfavourable and favourable outcome of gastric cancer patients, respectively. Therefore, these findings demonstrate that miR-558 facilitates the progression of gastric cancer through directly targeting the HPSE promoter to attenuate Smad4-mediated repression of HPSE expression. PMID:27685626

  6. HESI admission assessment (A(2)) examination scores, program progression, and NCLEX-RN success in baccalaureate nursing: an exploratory study of dependable academic indicators of success.

    PubMed

    Hinderer, Katherine A; DiBartolo, Mary C; Walsh, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to meet the demand for well-educated, high-quality nurses, schools of nursing seek to admit those candidates most likely to have both timely progression and first-time success on the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN). Finding the right combination of academic indicators, which are most predictive of success, continues to be an ongoing challenge for entry-level baccalaureate nursing programs across the United States. This pilot study explored the relationship of a standardized admission examination, the Health Education Systems, Inc. (HESI) Admission Assessment (A(2)) Examination to preadmission grade point average (GPA), science GPA, and nursing GPA using a retrospective descriptive design. In addition, the predictive ability of the A(2) Examination, preadmission GPA, and science GPA related to timely progression and NCLEX-RN success were explored. In a sample of 89 students, no relationship was found between the A(2) Examination and preadmission GPA or science GPA. The A(2) Examination was correlated with nursing GPA and NCLEX-RN success but not with timely progression. Further studies are needed to explore the utility and predictive ability of standardized examinations such as the A(2) Examination and the contribution of such examinations to evidence-based admission decision making. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Protein kinase A can block EphA2 receptor-mediated cell repulsion by increasing EphA2 S897 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Barquilla, Antonio; Lamberto, Ilaria; Noberini, Roberta; Heynen-Genel, Susanne; Brill, Laurence M; Pasquale, Elena B

    2016-09-01

    The EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase plays key roles in tissue homeostasis and disease processes such as cancer, pathological angiogenesis, and inflammation through two distinct signaling mechanisms. EphA2 "canonical" signaling involves ephrin-A ligand binding, tyrosine autophosphorylation, and kinase activity; EphA2 "noncanonical" signaling involves phosphorylation of serine 897 (S897) by AKT and RSK kinases. To identify small molecules counteracting EphA2 canonical signaling, we developed a high-content screening platform measuring inhibition of ephrin-A1-induced PC3 prostate cancer cell retraction. Surprisingly, most hits from a screened collection of pharmacologically active compounds are agents that elevate intracellular cAMP by activating G protein-coupled receptors such as the β2-adrenoceptor. We found that cAMP promotes phosphorylation of S897 by protein kinase A (PKA) as well as increases the phosphorylation of several nearby serine/threonine residues, which constitute a phosphorylation hotspot. Whereas EphA2 canonical and noncanonical signaling have been viewed as mutually exclusive, we show that S897 phosphorylation by PKA can coexist with EphA2 tyrosine phosphorylation and block cell retraction induced by EphA2 kinase activity. Our findings reveal a novel paradigm in EphA2 function involving the interplay of canonical and noncanonical signaling and highlight the ability of the β2-adrenoceptor/cAMP/PKA axis to rewire EphA2 signaling in a subset of cancer cells. © 2016 Barquilla et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  8. Protein kinase A can block EphA2 receptor–mediated cell repulsion by increasing EphA2 S897 phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Barquilla, Antonio; Lamberto, Ilaria; Noberini, Roberta; Heynen-Genel, Susanne; Brill, Laurence M.; Pasquale, Elena B.

    2016-01-01

    The EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase plays key roles in tissue homeostasis and disease processes such as cancer, pathological angiogenesis, and inflammation through two distinct signaling mechanisms. EphA2 “canonical” signaling involves ephrin-A ligand binding, tyrosine autophosphorylation, and kinase activity; EphA2 “noncanonical” signaling involves phosphorylation of serine 897 (S897) by AKT and RSK kinases. To identify small molecules counteracting EphA2 canonical signaling, we developed a high-content screening platform measuring inhibition of ephrin-A1–induced PC3 prostate cancer cell retraction. Surprisingly, most hits from a screened collection of pharmacologically active compounds are agents that elevate intracellular cAMP by activating G protein–coupled receptors such as the β2-adrenoceptor. We found that cAMP promotes phosphorylation of S897 by protein kinase A (PKA) as well as increases the phosphorylation of several nearby serine/threonine residues, which constitute a phosphorylation hotspot. Whereas EphA2 canonical and noncanonical signaling have been viewed as mutually exclusive, we show that S897 phosphorylation by PKA can coexist with EphA2 tyrosine phosphorylation and block cell retraction induced by EphA2 kinase activity. Our findings reveal a novel paradigm in EphA2 function involving the interplay of canonical and noncanonical signaling and highlight the ability of the β2-adrenoceptor/cAMP/PKA axis to rewire EphA2 signaling in a subset of cancer cells. PMID:27385333

  9. Mapping methyl jasmonate-mediated transcriptional reprogramming of metabolism and cell cycle progression in cultured Arabidopsis cells

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, Laurens; Morreel, Kris; De Witte, Emilie; Lammertyn, Freya; Van Montagu, Marc; Boerjan, Wout; Inzé, Dirk; Goossens, Alain

    2008-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are plant-specific signaling molecules that steer a diverse set of physiological and developmental processes. Pathogen attack and wounding inflicted by herbivores induce the biosynthesis of these hormones, triggering defense responses both locally and systemically. We report on alterations in the transcriptome of a fast-dividing cell culture of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana after exogenous application of methyl JA (MeJA). Early MeJA response genes encoded the JA biosynthesis pathway proteins and key regulators of MeJA responses, including most JA ZIM domain proteins and MYC2, together with transcriptional regulators with potential, but yet unknown, functions in MeJA signaling. In a second transcriptional wave, MeJA reprogrammed cellular metabolism and cell cycle progression. Up-regulation of the monolignol biosynthesis gene set resulted in an increased production of monolignols and oligolignols, the building blocks of lignin. Simultaneously, MeJA repressed activation of M-phase genes, arresting the cell cycle in G2. MeJA-responsive transcription factors were screened for their involvement in early signaling events, in particular the regulation of JA biosynthesis. Parallel screens based on yeast one-hybrid and transient transactivation assays identified both positive (MYC2 and the AP2/ERF factor ORA47) and negative (the C2H2 Zn finger proteins STZ/ZAT10 and AZF2) regulators, revealing a complex control of the JA autoregulatory loop and possibly other MeJA-mediated downstream processes. PMID:18216250

  10. SGK2 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma progression and mediates GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling in HCC cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junying; Zhang, Guangdong; Lv, Yanping; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Ying, Cui; Yang, Suocheng; Kong, Xin; Yu, Yanzhang

    2017-06-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway is one of the most commonly altered pathways in human cancers. The serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK) family of serine/threonine kinases consists of three isoforms, SGK1, SGK2, and SGK3. This family of kinases is highly homologous to the AKT kinase family, sharing similar upstream activators and downstream targets. Few studies have investigated the role of SGK2 in hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we report that SGK2 expression levels were upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and human hepatoma cell lines compared to the adjacent normal liver tissues and a normal hepatocyte line, respectively. We found that downregulated SGK2 inhibits cell migration and invasive potential of hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines (SMMC-7721 and Huh-7).We also found that downregulated SGK2 suppressed the expression level of unphosphorylated (activated) glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta. In addition, SGK2 downregulation decreased the dephosphorylation (activation) of β-catenin by preventing its proteasomal degradation in the hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. These findings suggest that SGK2 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma progression and mediates glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta/β-catenin signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

  11. Pseudolaric acid B attenuates atherosclerosis progression and inflammation by suppressing PPARγ-mediated NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Tan; Wang, Wei; Li, Yu-Xiu; Li, Xiao; Ji, Wen-Jie; Ma, Yong-Qiang; Chen, Hong; Zhao, Ji-Hong; Zhou, Xin

    2018-06-01

    Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease of large arteries characterized with chronic inflammation and aberrant immune response. Pseudolaric acid B (PB) has been found to exert multiple effects by inhibiting inflammatory response. However, there is no comprehensive assessment of the effects of PB on atherosclerosis using relevant in vivo and in vitro models. Male ApoE -/- mice were treated with PB orally with a high fat diet (HFD) to clarify its anti-atherosclerotic activities. RAW264.7 macrophage line, a well-accepted cell model of atherosclerosis, was used to investigate anti-inflammatory effects and molecular mechanisms of PB. PB significantly attenuated atherosclerotic lesions by modulating plasma lipid profiles as well as inhibiting inflammatory responses in macrophages of atherosclerotic mice. Meanwhile, PB markedly suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and regulated cholesterol efflux related genes in oxidative low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-loaded macrophages. The cellular uptake of Dil-labeled ox-LDL was significantly inhibited by PB either. Moreover, the ability of PB to suppress nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) was confirmed using luciferase reporter assays. Conversely, the selective PPARγ antagonist GW9662 reversed the influence of PB in macrophages. Together, these findings indicate that PB exerts its protective effects on atherosclerosis by inhibiting macrophage-mediated inflammatory response and cellular ox-LDL uptake, and promoting cholesterol efflux by suppressing NF-κB activation PPARγ-dependently. Therefore, PB may be a promising agent for inflammatory and atherosclerotic diseases. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Hair Cell Loss, Spiral Ganglion Degeneration, and Progressive Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Mice with Targeted Deletion of Slc44a2/Ctl2.

    PubMed

    Kommareddi, Pavan; Nair, Thankam; Kakaraparthi, Bala Naveen; Galano, Maria M; Miller, Danielle; Laczkovich, Irina; Thomas, Trey; Lu, Lillian; Rule, Kelli; Kabara, Lisa; Kanicki, Ariane; Hughes, Elizabeth D; Jones, Julie M; Hoenerhoff, Mark; Fisher, Susan G; Altschuler, Richard A; Dolan, David; Kohrman, David C; Saunders, Thomas L; Carey, Thomas E

    2015-12-01

    SLC44A2 (solute carrier 44a2), also known as CTL2 (choline transporter-like protein 2), is expressed in many supporting cell types in the cochlea and is implicated in hair cell survival and antibody-induced hearing loss. In mice with the mixed C57BL/6-129 background, homozygous deletion of Slc44a2 exons 3–10 (Slc44a2(Δ/Δ)resulted in high-frequency hearing loss and hair cell death. To reduce effects associated with age-related hearing loss (ARHL) in these strains, mice carrying the Slc44a2Δ allele were backcrossed to the ARHL-resistant FVB/NJ strain and evaluated after backcross seven(N7) (99 % FVB). Slc44a2(Δ/Δ) mice produced abnormally spliced Slc44a2 transcripts that contain a frame shift and premature stop codons. Neither full-length SLC44A2 nor a putative truncated protein could be detected in Slc44a2(Δ/Δ) mice, suggesting a likely null allele. Auditory brain stem responses (ABRs) of mice carrying the Slc44a2Δ allele on an FVB/NJ genetic background were tested longitudinally between the ages of 2 and 10 months. By 6 months of age,Slc44a2(Δ/Δ) mice exhibited hearing loss at 32 kHz,but at 12 and 24 kHz had sound thresholds similar to those of wild-type Slc44a2(+/+) and heterozygous +/Slc44a2Δ mice. After 6 months of age, Slc44a2(Δ/Δ) mutants exhibited progressive hearing loss at all frequencies and +/Slc44a2(Δ) mice exhibited moderate threshold elevations at high frequency. Histologic evaluation of Slc44a2(Δ/Δ) mice revealed extensive hair cell and spiral ganglion cell loss, especially in the basal turn of the cochlea. We conclude that Slc44a2 function is required for long-term hair cell survival and maintenance of hearing.

  13. WE-AB-BRB-08: Progress Towards a 2D OSL Dosimetry System Using Al2O3:C Films

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, M F; Yukihara, E; Schnell, E

    Purpose: To develop a 2D dosimetry system based on the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C films for medical applications. Methods: A 2D laser scanning OSL reader was built for readout of newly developed Al2O3:C films (Landauer Inc.). An image reconstruction algorithm was developed to correct for inherent effects introduced by reader design and detector properties. The system was tested using irradiations with photon and carbon ion beams. A calibration was obtained using a 6 MV photon beam from clinical accelerator and the dose measurement precision was tested using a range of doses and different dose distributions (flatmore » field and wedge field). The dynamic range and performance of the system in the presence of large dose gradients was also tested using 430 MeV/u {sup 12}C single and multiple pencil beams. All irradiations were performed with Gafchromic EBT3 film for comparison. Results: Preliminary results demonstrate a near-linear OSL dose response to photon fields and the ability to measure dose in dose distributions such as flat field and wedge field. Tests using {sup 12}C pencil beam demonstrate ability to measure doses over four orders of magnitude. The dose profiles measured by the OSL film generally agreed well with that measured by the EBT3 film. The OSL image signal-to-noise ratio obtained in the current conditions require further improvement. On the other hand, EBT3 films had large uncertainties in the low dose region due to film-to-film or intra-film variation in the background. Conclusion: A 2D OSL dosimetry system was developed and initial tests have demonstrated a wide dynamic range as well as good agreement between the delivered and measured doses. The low background, wide dynamic range and wide range of linearity in dose response observed for the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C OSL film can be beneficial for dosimetry in radiation therapy applications, especially for small field dosimetry. This work has been funded by Landauer

  14. Progression of growth in the external ear from birth to maturity: a 2-year follow-up study in India.

    PubMed

    Purkait, Ruma

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to follow the growth dynamics of auricular dimensions from birth to the age of 18 years. The norms of dimensions at different ages, the peak growth period and the maturity age of the dimensions are essential information to Physicians for early clinical diagnosis or for deciding the optimal time for surgery to correct abnormalities. For this study, 2,147 children belonging to central Indian population were measured in at least three sequential sessions. Eight dimensions including the physiognomic length and width of the ear and its morphologic width; conchal length, width, and depth; and lobular length and width were measured using anthropometric technique. Three new dimensions (tragal length and height and maximum width of the antihelix) were introduced in the study. Three indices (auricular, conchal, and lobular) also were derived. Most dimensions exhibited very rapid growth during the first 3-6 months of infancy and thereafter proceeded at a slow pace until adulthood. The smaller dimensions (conchal depth, tragal height, and maximum width of the antihelix) increased continuously throughout the growth period. At birth, most of the dimensions were 52-76 % of their adult size, while tragal length and height were less than half their adult size. Unlike the other dimensions, the lobule length was smaller in males, probably due to the higher frequency of hypoplastic and bow-shaped lobules among them. The width dimensions matured earlier, at 5.6-11 years, whereas the maturity age of lengths varied from 12 to 16 years. The data generated in the current study will be useful to Physicians as a guideline in correcting auricular deformity and in constructing age progression charts of the external ear. Knowledge concerning the maturation age of the ear will help law enforcement authorities in deciding when to use it for establishing personal identification. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description

  15. Progressive thermopreconditioning attenuates rat cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury by mitochondria-mediated antioxidant and antiapoptotic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chien, Chen-Yen; Chien, Chiang-Ting; Wang, Shoei-Shen

    2014-08-01

    Progressive thermal preconditioning (PTP) provides vascular protection with less hemodynamic fluctuations, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and oxidative stress compared with whole body hyperthermia. We suggest PTP might efficiently diminish cardiac ischemia/reperfusion-induced apoptosis and autophagy injury. A total of 67 male Wistar rats were divided into a non-PTP control group, 24 or 72 hours after a single cycle or 3 consecutive cycles of PTP in a 42°C water bath (1-24, 1-72, 3-24, and 3-72 groups). We measured the cardiac O2(-) amount in vivo in response to left anterior descending coronary artery ligation for 2 hours and reperfusion for 3 hours. Cardiac function and injury were determined by microcirculation, electrocardiography, and infarct size. The PTP-induced protective effects on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase gp91-mediated oxidative stress, ER stress, and apoptosis- and autophagy-related mechanisms were examined using Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Coronary arterial ischemia/reperfusion depressed cardiac microcirculation, induced ST-segment elevation and increased infarct size in non-PTP and PTP rats. Ischemia/reperfusion enhanced the cardiac O2(-) levels by enhanced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase gp91 expression, cytosolic cytochrome C release, and decreased mitochondrial Bcl-2 expression. Cardiac injury activated ER stress-78-kDa glucose-regulated protein expression, increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, cleaved caspase 3 expression and poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase fragments, leading to apoptosis formation, and promoted LC3-II expression, resulting in autophagy formation. PTP treatment elevated heat shock protein 70, heat shock protein 32, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and manganese superoxide dismutase in the rat heart, especially in the 3-72 group. PTP treatment significantly restored cardiac microcirculation, decreased oxidative stress, ER stress, apoptosis, autophagy, and infarct size. PTP significantly reduced cardiac

  16. Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity Effector-Enhanced EphA2 Agonist Monoclonal Antibody Demonstrates Potent Activity against Human Tumors1

    PubMed Central

    Bruckheimer, Elizabeth M; Fazenbaker, Christine A; Gallagher, Sandra; Mulgrew, Kathy; Fuhrmann, Stacy; Coffman, Karen T; Walsh, William; Ready, Shannon; Cook, Kim; Damschroder, Melissa; Kinch, Michael; Kiener, Peter A; Woods, Rob; Gao, Changshou; Dall'Acqua, William; Wu, Herren; Coats, Steven

    2009-01-01

    EphA2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase that has been shown to be overexpressed in a variety of human tumor types. Previous studies demonstrated that agonist monoclonal antibodies targeting EphA2 induced the internalization and degradation of the receptor, thereby abolishing its oncogenic effects. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity of EphA2 effector-enhanced agonist monoclonal antibodies was evaluated. With tumor cell lines and healthy human peripheral blood monocytes, the EphA2 antibodies demonstrated ∼80% tumor cell killing. In a dose-dependent manner, natural killer (NK) cells were required for the in vitro ADCC activity and became activated as demonstrated by the induction of cell surface expression of CD107a. To assess the role of NK cells on antitumor efficacy in vivo, the EphA2 antibodies were evaluated in xenograft models in severe compromised immunodeficient (SCID) mice (which have functional NK cells and monocytes) and SCID nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice (which largely lack functional NK cells and monocytes). Dosing of EphA2 antibody in the SCID murine tumor model resulted in a 6.2-fold reduction in tumor volume, whereas the SCID/nonobese diabetic model showed a 1.6-fold reduction over the isotype controls. Together, these results demonstrate that the anti-EphA2 monoclonal antibodies may function through at least two mechanisms of action: EphA2 receptor activation and ADCC-mediated activity. These novel EphA2 monoclonal antibodies provide additional means by which host effector mechanisms can be activated for selective destruction of EphA2-expressing tumor cells. PMID:19484140

  17. Renal protection from ischemia mediated by A2A adenosine receptors on bone marrow–derived cells

    PubMed Central

    Day, Yuan-Ji; Huang, Liping; McDuffie, Marcia J.; Rosin, Diane L.; Ye, Hong; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Fink, J. Stephen; Linden, Joel; Okusa, Mark D.

    2003-01-01

    Activation of A2A adenosine receptors (A2ARs) protects kidneys from ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). A2ARs are expressed on bone marrow–derived (BM-derived) cells and renal smooth muscle, epithelial, and endothelial cells. To measure the contribution of A2ARs on BM-derived cells in suppressing renal IRI, we examined the effects of a selective agonist of A2ARs, ATL146e, in chimeric mice in which BM was ablated by lethal radiation and reconstituted with donor BM cells derived from GFP, A2AR-KO, or WT mice to produce GFP→WT, A2A-KO→WT, or WT→WT mouse chimera. We found little or no repopulation of renal vascular endothelial cells by donor BM with or without renal IRI. ATL146e had no effect on IRI in A2A-KO mice or A2A-KO→WT chimera, but reduced the rise in plasma creatinine from IRI by 75% in WT mice and by 60% in WT→WT chimera. ATL146e reduced the induction of IL-6, IL-1β, IL-1ra, and TGF-α mRNA in WT→WT mice but not in A2A-KO→WT mice. Plasma creatinine was significantly greater in A2A-KO than in WT mice after IRI, suggesting some renal protection by endogenous adenosine. We conclude that protection from renal IRI by A2AR agonists or endogenous adenosine requires activation of receptors expressed on BM-derived cells. PMID:12975473

  18. Secretory phospholipase A{sub 2}-mediated progression of hepatotoxicity initiated by acetaminophen is exacerbated in the absence of hepatic COX-2

    SciTech Connect

    Bhave, Vishakha S.; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; Latendresse, John R.

    2011-03-15

    We have previously reported that among the other death proteins, hepatic secretory phospholipase A{sub 2} (sPLA{sub 2}) is a leading mediator of progression of liver injury initiated by CCl{sub 4} in rats. The aim of our present study was to test the hypothesis that increased hepatic sPLA{sub 2} released after acetaminophen (APAP) challenge mediates progression of liver injury in wild type (WT) and COX-2 knockout (KO) mice. COX-2 WT and KO mice were administered a normally non lethal dose (400 mg/kg) of acetaminophen. The COX-2 KO mice suffered 60% mortality compared to 100% survival of the WT mice, suggesting highermore » susceptibility of COX-2 KO mice to sPLA{sub 2}-mediated progression of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Liver injury was significantly higher at later time points in the KO mice compared to the WT mice indicating that the abatement of progression of injury requires the presence of COX-2. This difference in hepatotoxicity was not due to increased bioactivation of acetaminophen as indicated by unchanged cyp2E1 protein and covalently bound {sup 14}C-APAP in the livers of KO mice. Hepatic sPLA{sub 2} activity and plasma TNF-{alpha} were significantly higher after APAP administration in the KO mice. This was accompanied by a corresponding fall in hepatic PGE{sub 2} and lower compensatory liver regeneration and repair ({sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation) in the KO mice. These results suggest that hindered compensatory tissue repair and poor resolution of inflammation for want of beneficial prostaglandins render the liver very vulnerable to sPLA{sub 2}-mediated progression of liver injury. These findings are consistent with the destructive role of sPLA{sub 2} in the progression and expansion of tissue injury as a result of continued hydrolytic breakdown of plasma membrane phospholipids of perinecrotic hepatocytes unless mitigated by sufficient co-induction of COX-2.« less

  19. Overexpression and correlation of HIF-2α, VEGFA and EphA2 in residual hepatocellular carcinoma following high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment: Implications for tumor recurrence and progression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lun; Zhang, You-Shun; Ye, Meng-Liang; Shen, Feng; Liu, Wei; Hu, Hong-Sheng; Li, Sheng-Wei; Wu, Hong-Wei; Chen, Qin-Hua; Zhou, Wen-Bo

    2017-06-01

    Rapid growth of residual tumors can occur as a result of their recurrence and progression. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-2 subunit α (HIF-2α), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular A2 (EphA2) and angiogenesis in residual hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), following treatment with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation, in order to investigate the association between protein expression and tumor recurrence and growth. Athymic BALB/c (nu/nu) mice were subcutaneously inoculated with the HCC cell line HepG2, in order to create xenograft tumors. Approximately 30 days post-inoculation, eight mice were treated with HIFU, whereas eight mice received no treatment and acted as the control group. Residual tumor tissues were obtained from the experimental groups after one month. Levels of HIF-2α, VEGFA, EphA2 and cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31) expression was measured by immunohistochemical staining. CD31-positive vascular endothelial cells were counted to calculate microvascular density (MVD), and western blot analysis was performed to determine levels of HIF-2α, VEGFA, and EphA2 protein. It was found that the expression levels of HIF-2α, VEGFA, EphA2, and MVD proteins in residual HCC tissues were significantly higher than in the control group tissues (P<0.05). Tumor MVD was strongly correlated with VEGFA (R=0.957, P<0.01) and EphA2 (R=0.993, P<0.01) protein expression levels. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between HIF-2α and EphA2 expression (R=0.991, P<0.01). The correlation between VEGFA and EphA2 expression was also positive (R=0.985, P<0.01). These data suggest that overexpression of HIF-2α, VEGFA and EphA2 is related to angiogenesis in residual HCC following HIFU ablation, potentially via their association with key mediators of recurrence.

  20. EphA2 modulates radiosensitive of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated signal pathways.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qiao; Li, Xiangjun; Cao, Peiguo

    2015-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the role of EPH receptor A2 (EphA2) in the modulation of radiosensitivity of hepatic cellular cancer (HCC) cells and to determine whether p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) signaling mediated EphA2 function in this respect. The protein expressions of EphA2 and phosphorylated p38MAPK were tested in HCC and normal hepatic tissues. In HCC 97H cells, EphA2 was overexpressed and knocked out by transfection with EphA2 expression vector and EphA2-ShRNA, respectively, prior to cell exposure to low-dose irradiation. Significantly upregulated EphA2 and phosphorylated p38MAPK were observed in HCC tissues, compared with those in normal hepatic tissues. Low-dose irradiation (1 Gy) only caused minor damage to HCC 97H cells, as assessed by alterations in cell viability, apoptosis rate, and cell healing capacity (p = 0.072, p = 0.078, and p = 0.069 respectively). However, EphA2 knock-out in HCC 97H cells induced significant reduction in cell viability and cell healing capacity after these cells were subjected to low-dose irradiation. Apoptosis rate underwent dramatic increase (p < 0.01). By contrast, EphA2 overexpression in HCC 97H cells reversed these effects and enhanced cell colony formation rate, thus displaying remarkable attenuation of radiosensitivity of HCC 97H cells. Further, SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38MAPK, was added to HCC 97H cells over-expressing EphA2. The effect of EphA2 overexpression on the radiosensitivity of HCC 97H cells was abrogated. Thus, the present study indicates that EphA2 have the ability to negatively regulate the radiosensitivity of HCC 97H cells, which mainly depends on 38MAPK-mediated signal pathways. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  1. Slc3a2 Mediates Branched-Chain Amino-Acid-Dependent Maintenance of Regulatory T Cells.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Kayo; Kinoshita, Makoto; Kayama, Hisako; Nagamori, Shushi; Kongpracha, Pornparn; Umemoto, Eiji; Okumura, Ryu; Kurakawa, Takashi; Murakami, Mari; Mikami, Norihisa; Shintani, Yasunori; Ueno, Satoko; Andou, Ayatoshi; Ito, Morihiro; Tsumura, Hideki; Yasutomo, Koji; Ozono, Keiichi; Takashima, Seiji; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2017-11-14

    Foxp3 + regulatory T (Treg) cells, which suppress immune responses, are highly proliferative in vivo. However, it remains unclear how the active replication of Treg cells is maintained in vivo. Here, we show that branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), including isoleucine, are required for maintenance of the proliferative state of Treg cells via the amino acid transporter Slc3a2-dependent metabolic reprogramming. Mice fed BCAA-reduced diets showed decreased numbers of Foxp3 + Treg cells with defective in vivo proliferative capacity. Mice lacking Slc3a2 specifically in Foxp3 + Treg cells showed impaired in vivo replication and decreased numbers of Treg cells. Slc3a2-deficient Treg cells showed impaired isoleucine-induced activation of the mTORC1 pathway and an altered metabolic state. Slc3a2 mutant mice did not show an isoleucine-induced increase of Treg cells in vivo and exhibited multi-organ inflammation. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that BCAA controls Treg cell maintenance via Slc3a2-dependent metabolic regulation. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neutrophil-derived 5′-Adenosine Monophosphate Promotes Endothelial Barrier Function via CD73-mediated Conversion to Adenosine and Endothelial A2B Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, Paul F.; Taylor, Cormac T.; Stahl, Gregory L.; Colgan, Sean P.

    1998-01-01

    During episodes of inflammation, polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) transendothelial migration has the potential to disturb vascular barrier function and give rise to intravascular fluid extravasation and edema. However, little is known regarding innate mechanisms that dampen fluid loss during PMN-endothelial interactions. Using an in vitro endothelial paracellular permeability model, we observed a PMN-mediated decrease in endothelial paracellular permeability. A similar decrease was elicited by cell-free supernatants from activated PMN (FMLP 10−6 M), suggesting the presence of a PMN-derived soluble mediator(s). Biophysical and biochemical analysis of PMN supernatants revealed a role for PMN-derived 5′-adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and its metabolite, adenosine, in modulation of endothelial paracellular permeability. Supernatants from activated PMN contained micromolar concentrations of bioactive 5′-AMP and adenosine. Furthermore, exposure of endothelial monolayers to authentic 5′-AMP and adenosine increased endothelial barrier function more than twofold in both human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human microvascular endothelial cells. 5′-AMP bioactivity required endothelial CD73-mediated conversion of 5′-AMP to adenosine via its 5′-ectonucleotidase activity. Decreased endothelial paracellular permeability occurred through adenosine A2B receptor activation and was accompanied by a parallel increase in intracellular cAMP. We conclude that activated PMN release soluble mediators, such as 5′-AMP and adenosine, that promote endothelial barrier function. During inflammation, this pathway may limit potentially deleterious increases in endothelial paracellular permeability and could serve as a basic mechanism of endothelial resealing during PMN transendothelial migration. PMID:9782120

  3. A genome-wide loss-of-function screen identifies SLC26A2 as a novel mediator of TRAIL resistance

    PubMed Central

    Dimberg, Lina Y.; Towers, Christina G.; Behbakht, Kian; Hotz, Taylor J.; Kim, Jihye; Fosmire, Susan; Porter, Christopher C.; Tan, Aik-Choon; Thorburn, Andrew; Ford, Heide L.

    2017-01-01

    TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a potent death-inducing ligand that mediates apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway and serves as an important endogenous tumor suppressor mechanism. Because tumor cells are often killed by TRAIL and normal cells are not, drugs that activate the TRAIL pathway have been thought to have potential clinical value. However, to date, most TRAIL-related clinical trials have largely failed due to the tumor cells having intrinsic or acquired resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Previous studies to identify resistance mechanisms have focused on targeted analysis of the canonical apoptosis pathway and other known regulators of TRAIL receptor signaling. To identify novel mechanisms of TRAIL resistance in an unbiased way, we performed a genome wide shRNA screen for genes that regulate TRAIL sensitivity in sub-lines that had been selected for acquired TRAIL resistance. This screen identified previously unknown mediators of TRAIL resistance including Angiotensin II Receptor 2, Crk-like protein, T-Box Transcription Factor 2 and solute carrier family 26 member 2 (SLC26A2). SLC26A2 downregulates the TRAIL receptors, DR4 and DR5, and this downregulation is associated with resistance to TRAIL. Its expression is high in numerous tumor types compared to normal cells, and in breast cancer, SLC26A2 is associated with a significant decrease in relapse free survival. PMID:28108622

  4. Crosstalk between the Unfolded Protein Response and NF-κB-Mediated Inflammation in the Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Gaile L.; Dickhout, Jeffrey G.

    2015-01-01

    The chronic inflammatory response is emerging as an important therapeutic target in progressive chronic kidney disease. A key transcription factor in the induction of chronic inflammation is NF-κB. Recent studies have demonstrated that sustained activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) can initiate this NF-κB signaling phenomenon and thereby induce chronic kidney disease progression. A key factor influencing chronic kidney disease progression is proteinuria and this condition has now been demonstrated to induce sustained UPR activation. This review details the crosstalk between the UPR and NF-κB pathways as pertinent to chronic kidney disease. We present potential tools to study this phenomenon as well as potential therapeutics that are emerging to regulate the UPR. These therapeutics may prevent inflammation specifically induced in the kidney due to proteinuria-induced sustained UPR activation. PMID:25977931

  5. Presynaptic facilitatory adenosine A2A receptors mediate fade induced by neuromuscular relaxants that exhibit anticholinesterase activity.

    PubMed

    Bornia, Elaine Cs; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo; Alves-Do-Prado, Wilson

    2011-03-01

    1. Pancuronium, cisatracurium and vecuronium are antinicotinic agents that, in contrast with d-tubocurarine and hexamethonium, exhibit anticholinesterase activity. Pancuronium-, cisatracurium- and vecuronium-induced fade results from blockade of facilitatory nicotinic receptors on motor nerves, but fade produced by such agents also depends on the presynaptic activation of inhibitory muscarinic M2 receptors by acetylcholine released from motor nerve terminals and activation of inhibitory adenosine A1 receptors by adenosine released from motor nerves and muscles. The participation of presynaptic facilitatory A2A receptors in fade caused by pancuronium, cisatracurium and vecuronium has not yet been investigated. In the present study, we determined the effects of ZM241385, an antagonist of presynaptic facilitatory A2A receptors, on fade produced by these neuromuscular relaxants in the rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND) preparation. 2. The muscles were stimulated indirectly at 75±3Hz to induce a sustained tetanizing muscular contraction. The lowest concentration at which each antinicotinic agent produced fade without modifying initial tetanic tension (presynaptic action) was determined. 3. d-Tubocurarine-induced fade occurred only at 55 nmol/L, a concentration that also reduced maximal tetanic tension (post-synaptic action). At 10 nmol/L, ZM 241385 alone did not produce fade, but it did attenuate pancuronium (0.32 μmol/L)-, cisatracurium (0.32 μmol/L)- and vecuronium (0.36 μmol/L)-induced fade. 4. The fade induced by the 'pure' antinicotinic agents d-tubocurarine (55 nmol/L) and hexamethonium (413 μmol/L) was not altered by 10 nmol/L ZM 241385, indicating that presynaptic adenosine A2A receptors play a significant role in the fade produced by antinicotinic agents when such agents have anticholinesterase activity. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Pathophysiology of isoprostanes in the cardiovascular system: implications of isoprostane-mediated thromboxane A2 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Jochen; Ripperger, Anne; Frantz, Stefan; Ergün, Süleyman; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Benndorf, Ralf A

    2014-07-01

    Isoprostanes are free radical-catalysed PG-like products of unsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid, which are widely recognized as reliable markers of systemic lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in vivo. Moreover, activation of enzymes, such as COX-2, may contribute to isoprostane formation. Indeed, formation of isoprostanes is considerably increased in various diseases which have been linked to oxidative stress, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), and may predict the atherosclerotic burden and the risk of cardiovascular complications in the latter patients. In addition, several isoprostanes may directly contribute to the functional consequences of oxidant stress via activation of the TxA2 prostanoid receptor (TP), for example, by affecting endothelial cell function and regeneration, vascular tone, haemostasis and ischaemia/reperfusion injury. In this context, experimental and clinical data suggest that selected isoprostanes may represent important alternative activators of the TP receptor when endogenous TxA2 levels are low, for example, in aspirin-treated individuals with CVD. In this review, we will summarize the current understanding of isoprostane formation, biochemistry and (patho) physiology in the cardiovascular context. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Pathophysiology of isoprostanes in the cardiovascular system: implications of isoprostane-mediated thromboxane A2 receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Jochen; Ripperger, Anne; Frantz, Stefan; Ergün, Süleyman; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Benndorf, Ralf A

    2014-01-01

    Isoprostanes are free radical-catalysed PG-like products of unsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid, which are widely recognized as reliable markers of systemic lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in vivo. Moreover, activation of enzymes, such as COX-2, may contribute to isoprostane formation. Indeed, formation of isoprostanes is considerably increased in various diseases which have been linked to oxidative stress, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), and may predict the atherosclerotic burden and the risk of cardiovascular complications in the latter patients. In addition, several isoprostanes may directly contribute to the functional consequences of oxidant stress via activation of the TxA2 prostanoid receptor (TP), for example, by affecting endothelial cell function and regeneration, vascular tone, haemostasis and ischaemia/reperfusion injury. In this context, experimental and clinical data suggest that selected isoprostanes may represent important alternative activators of the TP receptor when endogenous TxA2 levels are low, for example, in aspirin-treated individuals with CVD. In this review, we will summarize the current understanding of isoprostane formation, biochemistry and (patho) physiology in the cardiovascular context. PMID:24646155

  8. Auxins action on Glycine max secretory phospholipase A2 is mediated by the interfacial properties imposed by the phytohormones.

    PubMed

    Mariani, María Elisa; Madoery, Ricardo Román; Fidelio, Gerardo Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) are soluble enzymes that catalyze the conversion of phospholipids to lysophospholipids and free fatty acids at membrane interfaces. The effect of IAA and IPA auxins over the activity of recombinant sPLA2 isoforms from Glycine max was studied using membrane model systems including mixed micelles and Langmuir lipid monolayers. Both phytohormones stimulate the activity of both plant sPLA2 using DLPC/Triton mixed micelles as substrate. To elucidate the mechanism of action of the phytohormones, we showed that both auxins are able to self-penetrate lipid monolayers and cause an increment in surface pressure and an expansion of lipid/phytohormone mixed interfaces. The stimulating effect of auxins over phospholipase A2 activity was still present when using Langmuir mixed monolayers as organized substrate regardless of sPLA2 source (plant or animal). All the data suggest that the stimulating effect of auxins over sPLA2 is due to a more favorable interfacial environment rather to a direct effect over the enzyme. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The human TLR4 variant D299G mediates inflammation-associated cancer progression in the intestinal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Homeostatic TLR4 signaling protects the intestinal epithelium in health. Evidence suggests that perturbed TLR4 signaling is linked to carcinogenesis. We have recently demonstrated that the common human TLR4 variant D299G exerts pro-inflammatory effects and drives malignant tumor progression in human colon cancer. PMID:24073372

  10. The human TLR4 variant D299G mediates inflammation-associated cancer progression in the intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Cario, Elke

    2013-07-01

    Homeostatic TLR4 signaling protects the intestinal epithelium in health. Evidence suggests that perturbed TLR4 signaling is linked to carcinogenesis. We have recently demonstrated that the common human TLR4 variant D299G exerts pro-inflammatory effects and drives malignant tumor progression in human colon cancer.

  11. Beta-adrenergic signaling promotes tumor angiogenesis and prostate cancer progression through HDAC2-mediated suppression of thrombospondin-1.

    PubMed

    Hulsurkar, M; Li, Z; Zhang, Y; Li, X; Zheng, D; Li, W

    2017-03-01

    Chronic behavioral stress and beta-adrenergic signaling have been shown to promote cancer progression, whose underlying mechanisms are largely unclear, especially the involvement of epigenetic regulation. Histone deacetylase-2 (HDAC2), an epigenetic regulator, is critical for stress-induced cardiac hypertrophy. It is unknown whether it is necessary for beta-adrenergic signaling-promoted cancer progression. Using xenograft models, we showed that chronic behavioral stress and beta-adrenergic signaling promote angiogenesis and prostate cancer progression. HDAC2 was induced by beta-adrenergic signaling in vitro and in mouse xenografts. We next uncovered that HDAC2 is a direct target of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) that is activated by beta-adrenergic signaling. Notably, HDAC2 is necessary for beta-adrenergic signaling to induce angiogenesis. We further demonstrated that, upon CREB activation, HDAC2 represses thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), a potent angiogenesis inhibitor, through epigenetic regulation. Together, these data establish a novel pathway that HDAC2 and TSP1 act downstream of CREB activation in beta-adrenergic signaling to promote cancer progression.

  12. Antibody-Mediated Targeting of Alpha PDGF Receptor to Inhibit the Progression of Skeletal Micro-Metastases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    8217 Affiliatio athology an e, Philadelp ponding Au ysiology, D MS 488, P 2-2299; E-m .1158/1078- American A ancer Respose : Platelet-derived growth factor...their metastatic growth. The resulting increase in tu- ass will recruit and activate a progressively higher er of osteoclasts, thereby generating a self

  13. A2-purinoceptor-mediated relaxation in the guinea-pig coronary vasculature: a role for nitric oxide.

    PubMed Central

    Vials, A.; Burnstock, G.

    1993-01-01

    1. The Langendorff heart preparation was used to investigate the mechanism of action of the endothelium-dependent vasodilatation evoked by adenosine and its analogues in the guinea-pig coronary vasculature. 2. The relative order of potency of adenosine and its analogues in causing a reduction in perfusion pressure was D-5'-(N-ethylcarboxamide)adenosine (NECA) = 2-[p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenylethylamino]-5'-N- ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680)> R-N6-(2-phenylisopropyl)adenosine (R-PIA) = adenosine = 2-chloroadenosine (2-CA) > S-N6-(2-phenylisopropyl)adenosine (S-PIA) = N6-cyclopentyl-adenosine (CPA); thus suggesting the presence of A2-purinoceptors in this preparation. 3. 8-(p-Sulphophenyl)theophylline (8-PSPT; 3 x 10(-5) M) significantly reduced both the maximum amplitude and area of the vasodilatation produced in response to adenosine (5 x 10(-10) -5 x 10(-8) mol) without having any effect on the response to the P2-purinoceptor agonist, 2-methylthioATP. The relaxation induced by adenosine (5 x 10(-12) -5 x 10(-8) mol) was unaffected by the selective A1-purinoceptor antagonist 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX; 10(-8) M). This antagonist profile suggests that only A2-purinoceptors are present in the guinea-pig coronary vasculature. 4. The areas of the vasodilator response to adenosine (5 x 10(-10) -5 x 10(-7 mol), NECA (5 x 10(-12) -5 x 10(-7) mol) and CGS 21680 (5 x 10(-12) -5 x 10(-10) mol) were significantly reduced by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 3 x 10(-5) M).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8358543

  14. Characterisation of endogenous A2A and A2B receptor-mediated cyclic AMP responses in HEK 293 cells using the GloSensor™ biosensor: Evidence for an allosteric mechanism of action for the A2B-selective antagonist PSB 603.

    PubMed

    Goulding, Joelle; May, Lauren T; Hill, Stephen J

    2018-01-01

    Endogenous adenosine A 2B receptors (A 2B AR) mediate cAMP accumulation in HEK 293 cells. Here we have used a biosensor to investigate the mechanism of action of the A 2B AR antagonist PSB 603 in HEK 293 cells. The A 2A agonist CGS 21680 elicited a small response in these cells (circa 20% of that obtained with NECA), suggesting that they also contain a small population of A 2A receptors. The responses to NECA and adenosine were antagonised by PSB 603, but not by the selective A 2A AR antagonist SCH 58261. In contrast, CGS 21680 responses were not antagonised by high concentrations of PSB 603, but were sensitive to inhibition by SCH 58261. Analysis of the effect of increasing concentrations of PSB 603 on the response to NECA indicated a non-competitive mode of action yielding a marked reduction in the NECA E MAX with no significant effect on EC 50 values. Kinetics analysis of the effect of PSB 603 on the A 2B AR-mediated NECA responses confirmed a saturable effect that was consistent with an allosteric mode of antagonism. The possibility that PSB 603 acts as a negative allosteric modulator of A 2B AR suggests new approaches to the development of therapeutic agents to treat conditions where adenosine levels are high. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Suppression of PLCβ2 by Endotoxin Plays a Role in the Adenosine A2A Receptor-Mediated Switch of Macrophages from an Inflammatory to an Angiogenic Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Grinberg, Stan; Hasko, Gyorgy; Wu, Dianqing; Leibovich, Samuel Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, 4, 7, and 9 agonists, together with adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) agonists, switch macrophages from an inflammatory (M1) to an angiogenic (M2-like) phenotype. This switch involves induction of A2ARs by TLR agonists, down-regulation of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin-12, and up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-10 expression. We show here that the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces rapid and specific post-transcriptional down-regulation of phospholipase C(PLC)β1 and β2 expression in macrophages by de-stabilizing their mRNAs. The PLCβ inhibitor U73122 down-regulates TNFα expression by macrophages, and in the presence of A2AR agonists, up-regulates VEGF, mimicking the synergistic action of LPS with A2AR agonists. Selective down-regulation of PLCβ2, but not PLCβ1, using small-interfering RNA resulted in increased VEGF expression in response to A2AR agonists, but did not suppress TNFα expression. Macrophages from PLCβ2−/− mice also expressed increased VEGF in response to A2AR agonists. LPS-mediated suppression of PLCβ1 and β2 is MyD88-dependent. In a model of endotoxic shock, LPS (35 μg/mouse, i.p.) suppressed PLCβ1 and β2 expression in spleen, liver, and lung of wild-type but not MyD88−/− mice. These studies indicate that LPS suppresses PLCβ1 and β2 expression in macrophages in vitro and in several tissues in vivo. These results suggest that suppression of PLCβ2 plays an important role in switching M1 macrophages into an M2-like state. PMID:19850892

  16. Focal status epilepticus and progressive dyskinesia: A novel phenotype for glycine receptor antibody-mediated neurological disease in children.

    PubMed

    Chan, D W S; Thomas, T; Lim, M; Ling, S; Woodhall, M; Vincent, A

    2017-03-01

    Antibody-associated disorders of the central nervous system are increasingly recognised in adults and children. Some are known to be paraneoplastic, whereas in others an infective trigger is postulated. They include disorders associated with antibodies to N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), voltage-gated potassium channel-complexes (VGKC-complex), GABA B receptor or glycine receptor (GlyR). With antibodies to NMDAR or VGKC-complexes, distinct clinical patterns are well characterised, but as more antibodies are discovered, the spectra of associated disorders are evolving. GlyR antibodies have been detected in patients with progressive encephalopathy with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM), or stiff man syndrome, both rare but disabling conditions. We report a case of a young child with focal seizures and progressive dyskinesia in whom GlyR antibodies were detected. Anticonvulsants and immunotherapy were effective in treating both the seizures and movement disorder with good neurological outcome and with a decline in the patient's serum GlyR-Ab titres. Glycine receptor antibodies are associated with focal status epilepticus and seizures, encephalopathy and progressive dyskinesia and should be evaluated in autoimmune encephalitis. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cambrian origin of the CYP27C1-mediated vitamin A1-to-A2 switch, a key mechanism of vertebrate sensory plasticity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morshedian, Ala; Toomery, Matthew B.; Pollock, Gabriel E.; Frederiksen, Rikard; Enright, Jennifer; McCormick, Stephen; Cornwall, M. Carter; Fain, Gordon L.; Corbo, Joseph C.

    2017-01-01

    The spectral composition of ambient light varies across both space and time. Many species of jawed vertebrates adapt to this variation by tuning the sensitivity of their photoreceptors via the expression of CYP27C1, an enzyme that converts vitamin A1 into vitamin A2, thereby shifting the ratio of vitamin A1-based rhodopsin to red-shifted vitamin A2-based porphyropsin in the eye. Here, we show that the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a jawless vertebrate that diverged from jawed vertebrates during the Cambrian period (approx. 500 Ma), dynamically shifts its photoreceptor spectral sensitivity via vitamin A1-to-A2 chromophore exchange as it transitions between photically divergent aquatic habitats. We further show that this shift correlates with high-level expression of the lamprey orthologue of CYP27C1, specifically in the retinal pigment epithelium as in jawed vertebrates. Our results suggest that the CYP27C1-mediated vitamin A1-to-A2 switch is an evolutionarily ancient mechanism of sensory plasticity that appeared not long after the origin of vertebrates.

  18. Ectopic expression of UGT84A2 delayed flowering by indole-3-butyric acid-mediated transcriptional repression of ARF6 and ARF8 genes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gui-Zhi; Jin, Shang-Hui; Li, Pan; Jiang, Xiao-Yi; Li, Yan-Jie; Hou, Bing-Kai

    2017-12-01

    Ectopic expression of auxin glycosyltransferase UGT84A2 in Arabidopsis can delay flowering through increased indole-3-butyric acid and suppressed transcription of ARF6, ARF8 and flowering-related genes FT, SOC1, AP1 and LFY. Auxins are critical regulators for plant growth and developmental processes. Auxin homeostasis is thus an important issue for plant biology. Here, we identified an indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-specific glycosyltransferase, UGT84A2, and characterized its role in Arabidopsis flowering development. UGT84A2 could catalyze the glycosylation of IBA, but not indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). UGT84A2 transcription expression was clearly induced by IBA. When ectopically expressing in Arabidopsis, UGT84A2 caused obvious delay in flowering. Correspondingly, the increase of IBA level, the down-regulation of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 6 (ARF6) and ARF8, and the down-regulation of flowering-related genes such as FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO1(SOC1), APETALA1 (AP1), and LEAFY(LFY) were observed in transgenic plants. When exogenously applying IBA to wild-type plants, the late flowering phenotype, the down-regulation of ARF6, ARF8 and flowering-related genes recurred. We examined the arf6arf8 double mutants and found that the expression of flowering-related genes was also substantially decreased in these mutants. Together, our results suggest that glycosyltransferase UGT84A2 may be involved in flowering regulation through indole-3-butyric acid-mediated transcriptional repression of ARF6, ARF8 and downstream flowering pathway genes.

  19. MS5 Mediates Early Meiotic Progression and Its Natural Variants May Have Applications for Hybrid Production in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Qiang; Shen, Yi; Li, Xi; Lu, Wei; Wang, Xiang; Han, Xue; Dong, Faming; Wan, Lili; Yang, Guangsheng; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2016-01-01

    During meiotic prophase I, chromatin undergoes dynamic changes to establish a structural basis for essential meiotic events. However, the mechanism that coordinates chromosome structure and meiotic progression remains poorly understood in plants. Here, we characterized a spontaneous sterile mutant MS5bMS5b in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and found its meiotic chromosomes were arrested at leptotene. MS5 is preferentially expressed in reproductive organs and encodes a Brassica-specific protein carrying conserved coiled-coil and DUF626 domains with unknown function. MS5 is essential for pairing of homologs in meiosis, but not necessary for the initiation of DNA double-strand breaks. The distribution of the axis element-associated protein ASY1 occurs independently of MS5, but localization of the meiotic cohesion subunit SYN1 requires functional MS5. Furthermore, both the central element of the synaptonemal complex and the recombination element do not properly form in MS5bMS5b mutants. Our results demonstrate that MS5 participates in progression of meiosis during early prophase I and its allelic variants lead to differences in fertility, which may provide a promising strategy for pollination control for heterosis breeding. PMID:27194707

  20. xCT (SLC7A11)-mediated metabolic reprogramming promotes non-small cell lung cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiangming; Qian, Jun; Rahman, S M Jamshedur; Siska, Peter J; Zou, Yong; Harris, Bradford K; Hoeksema, Megan D; Trenary, Irina A; Heidi, Chen; Eisenberg, Rosana; Rathmell, Jeffrey C; Young, Jamey D; Massion, Pierre P

    2018-05-23

    Many tumors increase uptake and dependence on glucose, cystine or glutamine. These basic observations on cancer cell metabolism have opened multiple new diagnostic and therapeutic avenues in cancer research. Recent studies demonstrated that smoking could induce the expression of xCT (SLC7A11) in oral cancer cells, suggesting that overexpression of xCT may support lung tumor progression. We hypothesized that overexpression of xCT occurs in lung cancer cells to satisfy the metabolic requirements for growth and survival. Our results demonstrated that 1) xCT was highly expressed at the cytoplasmic membrane in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 2) the expression of xCT was correlated with advanced stage and predicted a worse 5-year survival, 3) targeting xCT transport activity in xCT overexpressing NSCLC cells with sulfasalazine decreased cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and in vivo and 4) increased dependence on glutamine was observed in xCT overexpressed normal airway epithelial cells. These results suggested that xCT regulate metabolic requirements during lung cancer progression and be a potential therapeutic target in NSCLC.

  1. Recent advances in the identification of Tat-mediated transactivation inhibitors: progressing toward a functional cure of HIV.

    PubMed

    Tabarrini, Oriana; Desantis, Jenny; Massari, Serena

    2016-01-01

    The current anti-HIV combination therapy does not eradicate the virus that persists mainly in quiescent infected CD4(+) T cells as a latent integrated provirus that resumes after therapy interruption. The Tat-mediated transactivation (TMT) is a critical step in the HIV replication cycle that could give the opportunity to reduce the size of latent reservoirs. More than two decades of research led to the identification of various TMT inhibitors. While none of them met the criteria to reach the market, the search for a suitable TMT inhibitor is still actively pursued. Really promising compounds, including one in a Phase III clinical trial, have been recently identified, thus warranting an update.

  2. Populational equilibrium through exosome-mediated Wnt signaling in tumor progression of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Koch, Raphael; Demant, Martin; Aung, Thiha; Diering, Nina; Cicholas, Anna; Chapuy, Bjoern; Wenzel, Dirk; Lahmann, Marlen; Güntsch, Annemarie; Kiecke, Christina; Becker, Sabrina; Hupfeld, Timo; Venkataramani, Vivek; Ziepert, Marita; Opitz, Lennart; Klapper, Wolfram; Trümper, Lorenz; Wulf, Gerald G

    2014-04-03

    Tumors are composed of phenotypically heterogeneous cell populations. The nongenomic mechanisms underlying transitions and interactions between cell populations are largely unknown. Here, we show that diffuse large B-cell lymphomas possess a self-organized infrastructure comprising side population (SP) and non-SP cells, where transitions between clonogenic states are modulated by exosome-mediated Wnt signaling. DNA methylation modulated SP-non-SP transitions and was correlated with the reciprocal expressions of Wnt signaling pathway agonist Wnt3a in SP cells and the antagonist secreted frizzled-related protein 4 in non-SP cells. Lymphoma SP cells exhibited autonomous clonogenicity and exported Wnt3a via exosomes to neighboring cells, thus modulating population equilibrium in the tumor.

  3. The HLA-A2 Restricted T Cell Epitope HCV Core35–44 Stabilizes HLA-E Expression and Inhibits Cytolysis Mediated by Natural Killer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nattermann, Jacob; Nischalke, Hans Dieter; Hofmeister, Valeska; Ahlenstiel, Golo; Zimmermann, Henning; Leifeld, Ludger; Weiss, Elisabeth H.; Sauerbruch, Tilman; Spengler, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    Impaired activity of natural killer cells has been proposed as a mechanism contributing to viral persistence in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Natural cytotoxicity is regulated by interactions of HLA-E with inhibitory CD94/NKG2A receptors on natural killer (NK) cells. Here, we studied whether HCV core encodes peptides that bind to HLA-E and inhibit natural cytotoxicity. We analyzed 30 HCV core-derived peptides. Peptide-induced stabilization of HLA-E expression was measured flow cytometrically after incubating HLA-E-transfected cells with peptides. NK cell function was studied with a 51chromium-release-assay. Intrahepatic HLA-E expression was analyzed by an indirect immunoperoxidase technique and flow cytometry of isolated cells using a HLA-E-specific antibody. We identified peptide aa35–44, a well-characterized HLA-A2 restricted T cell epitope, as a peptide stabilizing HLA-E expression and thereby inhibiting NK cell-mediated lysis. Blocking experiments confirmed that this inhibitory effect of peptide aa35–44 on natural cytotoxicity was mediated via interactions between CD94/NKG2A receptors and enhanced HLA-E expression. In line with these in vitro data we found enhanced intrahepatic HLA-E expression on antigen-presenting cells in HCV-infected patients. Our data indicate the existence of T cell epitopes that can be recognized by HLA-A2 and HLA-E. This dual recognition may contribute to viral persistence in hepatitis C. PMID:15681828

  4. Baicalein suppresses the androgen receptor (AR)-mediated prostate cancer progression via inhibiting the AR N-C dimerization and AR-coactivators interaction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Defeng; Chen, Qiulu; Liu, Yalin; Wen, Xingqiao

    2017-12-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression. Androgen deprivation therapy with antiandrogens to reduce androgen biosynthesis or prevent androgens from binding to AR are widely used to suppress AR-mediated PCa growth. However, most of ADT may eventually fail with development of the castration resistance after 12-24 months. Here we found that a natural product baicalein can effectively suppress the PCa progression via targeting the androgen-induced AR transactivation with little effect to AR protein expression. PCa cells including LNCaP, CWR22Rv1, C4-2, PC-3, and DU145, were treated with baicalein and luciferase assay was used to evaluate their effect on the AR transactivation. Cell growth and IC 50 were determined by MTT assay after 48 hrs treatment. RT-PCR was used to evaluate the mRNA levels of AR target genes including PSA, TMPRSS2, and TMEPA1. Western blot was used to determine AR and PSA protein expression. The natural product of baicalein can selectively inhibit AR transactivation with little effect on the other nuclear receptors, including ERα, and GR. At a low concentration, 2.5 μM of baicalein effectively suppresses the growth of AR-positive PCa cells, and has little effect on AR-negative PCa cells. Mechanism dissection suggest that baicalein can suppress AR target genes (PSA, TMPRSS2, and TMEPA1) expression in both androgen responsive LNCaP cells and castration resistant CWR22Rv1 cells, that may involve the inhibiting the AR N/C dimerization and AR-coactivators interaction. Baicalein may be developed as an effective anti-AR therapy via its ability to inhibit AR transactivation and AR-mediated PCa cell growth.

  5. Activated PAR-2 regulates pancreatic cancer progression through ILK/HIF-α-induced TGF-α expression and MEK/VEGF-A-mediated angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Li-Hsun; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Lai, Chin-Yu; Tsai, An-Chi; Teng, Che-Ming

    2013-08-01

    Tissue factor initiates the process of thrombosis and activates cell signaling through protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2). The aim of this study was to investigate the pathological role of PAR-2 signaling in pancreatic cancer. We first demonstrated that activated PAR-2 up-regulated the protein expression of both hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and HIF-2α, resulting in enhanced transcription of transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α). Down-regulation of HIFs-α by siRNA or YC-1, an HIF inhibitor, resulted in depleted levels of TGF-α protein. Furthermore, PAR-2, through integrin-linked kinase (ILK) signaling, including the p-AKT, promoted HIF protein expression. Diminishing ILK by siRNA decreased the levels of PAR-2-induced p-AKT, HIFs-α, and TGF-α; our results suggest that ILK is involved in the PAR-2-mediated TGF-α via an HIF-α-dependent pathway. Furthermore, the culture medium from PAR-2-treated pancreatic cancer cells enhanced human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation and tube formation, which was blocked by the MEK inhibitor, PD98059. We also found that activated PAR-2 enhanced tumor angiogenesis through the release of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) from cancer cells, independent of the ILK/HIFs-α pathways. Consistent with microarray analysis, activated PAR-2 induced TGF-A and VEGF-A gene expression. In conclusion, the activation of PAR-2 signaling induced human pancreatic cancer progression through the induction of TGF-α expression by ILK/HIFs-α, as well as through MEK/VEGF-A-mediated angiogenesis, and it plays a role in the interaction between cancer progression and cancer-related thrombosis. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. CD147 promotes liver fibrosis progression via VEGF-A/VEGFR2 signalling-mediated cross-talk between hepatocytes and sinusoidal endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhaoyong; Qu, Kai; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Qichao; Qu, Ping; Xu, Xinsen; Yuan, Peng; Huang, Xiaojun; Shao, Yongping; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Hongxin; Xing, Jinliang

    2015-10-01

    Although previous evidence indicates close involvement of CD147 in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis, the underlying molecular mechanisms and its therapeutic value remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the biological roles of CD147 in liver fibrosis and assessed its therapeutic value as a target molecule in the CCl4-induced liver fibrosis mouse model. We found that CD147 was highly expressed in both hepatocytes and SECs (sinusoidal endothelial cells) in fibrotic liver tissues. Additionally, it was significantly associated with the fibrosis stage. TGF-β1 (transforming growth factor β1) was found to be mainly responsible for the up-regulation of CD147. Bioinformatic and experimental data suggest a functional link between CD147 expression and VEGF-A (vascular endothelial growth factor A)/VEGR-2 (VEGF receptor 2) signalling-mediated angiogenesis in fibrotic liver tissues. Furthermore, we observed that the CD147-induced activation of the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt signalling pathway promotes the production of VEGF-A in hepatocytes and expression of VEGFR-2 in SECs, which was found to enhance the angiogenic capability of SECs. Finally, our data indicate that blocking of CD147 using an mAb (monoclonal antibody) attenuated liver fibrosis progression via inhibition of VEGF-A/VEGFR-2 signalling and subsequent amelioration of microvascular abnormality in the CCl4-induced mouse model. Our findings suggest a novel functional mechanism that CD147 may promote liver fibrosis progression via inducing the VEGF-A/VEGFR-2 signalling pathway-mediated cross-talk between hepatocytes and SECs. New strategies based on the intervention of CD147 can be expected for prevention of liver fibrosis. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  7. G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) mediates NSCLC progression induced by 17β-estradiol (E2) and selective agonist G1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changyu; Liao, Yongde; Fan, Sheng; Tang, Hexiao; Jiang, Zhixiao; Zhou, Bo; Xiong, Jing; Zhou, Sheng; Zou, Man; Wang, Jianmiao

    2015-04-01

    Estrogen classically drives lung cancer development via estrogen receptor β (ERβ). However, fulvestrant, an anti-estrogen-based endocrine therapeutic treatment, shows limited effects for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in phase II clinical trials. G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), a third estrogen receptor that binds to estrogen, has been found to be activated by fulvestrant, stimulating the progression of breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers. We here demonstrated that cytoplasm-GPER (cGPER) (80.49 %) and nucleus-GPER (53.05 %) were detected by immunohistochemical analysis in NSCLC samples. cGPER expression was related to stages IIIA-IV, lymph node metastasis, and poorly differentiated NSCLC. Selective agonist G1 and 17β-estradiol (E2) promoted the GPER-mediated proliferation, invasion, and migration of NSCLC cells. Additionally, in vitro administration of E2 and G1 increased the number of tumor nodules, tumor grade, and tumor index in a urethane-induced adenocarcinoma model. Importantly, the pro-tumorigenic effects of GPER induced by E2 were significantly reduced by co-administering the GPER inhibitor G15 and the ERβ inhibitor fulvestrant, as compared to administering fulvestrant alone both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the phosphorylation of MAPK and Akt was involved in E2/G1-induced GPER activation. In conclusion, our results indicated that a pro-tumor function of GPER exists that mediated E2-/G1-dependent NSCLC progression and showed better efficiency regarding the co-targeting of GPER and ERβ, providing a rationale for further investigation of anti-estrogen clinical therapy.

  8. Elimination of Dog-Mediated Human Rabies Deaths by 2030: Needs Assessment and Alternatives for Progress Based on Dog Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Ryan M; Undurraga, Eduardo A; Blanton, Jesse D; Cleaton, Julie; Franka, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Rabies imposes a substantial burden to about half of the world population. The World Health Organization (WHO), World Organization for Animal Health, and the Food and Agriculture Organization have set the goal of eliminating dog-mediated human rabies deaths by 2030. This could be achieved largely by massive administration of post-exposure prophylaxis-in perpetuity-, through elimination of dog rabies, or combining both. Here, we focused on the resources needed for the elimination of dog rabies virus by 2030. Drawing from multiple datasets, including national dog vaccination campaigns, rabies literature, and expert opinion, we developed a model considering country-specific current dog vaccination capacity to estimate the years and resources required to achieve dog rabies elimination by 2030. Resources were determined based on four factors: (a) country development status, (b) dog vaccination costs, (c) dog rabies vaccine availability, and (d) existing animal health workers. Our calculations were based on the WHO's estimate that vaccinating 70% of the dog population for seven consecutive years would eliminate rabies. If dog rabies vaccine production remains at 2015 levels, we estimate that there will be a cumulative shortage of about 7.5 billion doses to meet expected demand to achieve dog rabies elimination. We estimated a present cost of $6,300 million to eliminate dog rabies in all endemic countries, equivalent to a $3,900 million gap compared to current spending. To eliminate dog rabies, the vaccination workforce may suffice if all public health veterinarians in endemic countries were to dedicate 3 months each year to dog rabies vaccination. We discuss implications of potential technology improvements, including population management, vaccine price reduction, and increases in dog-vaccinating capacities. Our results highlight the resources needed to achieve elimination of dog-mediated human rabies deaths by 2030. As exemplified by multiple successful disease

  9. Rapid Steroid Hormone Actions Initiated at the Cell Surface and the Receptors that Mediate Them with an Emphasis on Recent Progress in Fish Models

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the classic genomic mechanism of steroid action mediated by activation of intracellular nuclear receptors, there is now extensive evidence that steroids also activate receptors on the cell surface to initiate rapid intracellular signaling and biological responses that are often nongenomic. Recent progress in our understanding of rapid, cell surface-initiated actions of estrogens, progestins, androgens and corticosteroids and the identities of the membrane receptors that act as their intermediaries is briefly reviewed with a special emphasis on studies in teleost fish. Two recently discovered novel proteins with seven-transmembrane domains, G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), and membrane progestin receptors (mPRs) have the ligand binding and signaling characteristics of estrogen and progestin membrane receptors, respectively, but their functional significance is disputed by some researchers. GPR30 is expressed on the cell surface of fish oocytes and mediates estrogen inhibition of oocyte maturation. mPRα is also expressed on the oocyte cell surface and is the intermediary in progestin induction of oocyte maturation in fish. Recent results suggest there is cross-talk between these two hormonal pathways and that there is reciprocal down-regulation of GPR30 and mPRα expression by estrogens and progestins at different phases of oocyte development to regulate the onset of oocyte maturation. There is also evidence in fish that mPRs are involved in progestin induction of sperm hypermotility and anti-apoptotic actions in ovarian follicle cells. Nonclassical androgen and corticosteroid actions have also been described in fish models but the membrane receptors mediating these actions have not been identified. PMID:22154643

  10. Inhibition of AQP1 Hampers Osteosarcoma and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression Mediated by Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Pelagalli, Alessandra; Nardelli, Anna; Fontanella, Raffaela; Zannetti, Antonella

    2016-07-11

    The complex cross-talk between tumor cells and their surrounding stromal environment plays a key role in the pathogenesis of cancer. Among several cell types that constitute the tumor stroma, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) selectively migrate toward the tumor microenvironment and contribute to the active formation of tumor-associated stroma. Therefore, here we elucidate the involvement of BM-MSCs to promote osteosarcoma (OS) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells migration and invasion and deepening the role of specific pathways. We analyzed the function of aquaporin 1 (AQP1), a water channel known to promote metastasis and neoangiogenes. AQP1 protein levels were analyzed in OS (U2OS) and HCC (SNU-398) cells exposed to conditioned medium from BM-MSCs. Tumor cell migration and invasion in response to BM-MSC conditioned medium were evaluated through a wound healing assay and Boyden chamber, respectively. The results showed that the AQP1 level was increased in both tumor cell lines after treatment with BM-MSC conditioned medium. Moreover, BM-MSCs-mediated tumor cell migration and invasion were hampered after treatment with AQP1 inhibitor. These data suggest that the recruitment of human BM-MSCs into the tumor microenvironment might cause OS and HCC cell migration and invasion through involvement of AQP1.

  11. Glioma progression through the prism of heat shock protein mediated extracellular matrix remodeling and epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, Y; Biswas, Angana; Mandal, Mahitosh

    2017-10-15

    Glial tumor is one of the intrinsic brain tumors with high migratory and infiltrative potential. This essentially contributes to the overall poor prognosis by circumvention of conventional treatment regimen in glioma. The underlying mechanism in gliomagenesis is bestowed by two processes- Extracellular matrix (ECM) Remodeling and Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Heat Shock Family of proteins (HSPs), commonly known as "molecular chaperons" are documented to be upregulated in glioma. A positive correlation also exists between elevated expression of HSPs and invasive capacity of glial tumor. HSPs overexpression leads to mutational changes in glioma, which ultimately drive cells towards EMT, ECM modification, malignancy and invasion. Differential expression of HSPs - a factor providing cytoprotection to glioma cells, also contributes towards its radioresistance /chemoresistance. Various evidences also display upregulation of EMT and ECM markers by various heat shock inducing proteins e.g. HSF-1. The aim of this review is to study in detail the role of HSPs in EMT and ECM leading to radioresistance/chemoresistance of glioma cells. The existing treatment regimen for glioma could be enhanced by targeting HSPs through immunotherapy, miRNA and exosome mediated strategies. This could be envisaged by better understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying glial tumorigenesis in relation to EMT and ECM remodeling under HSPs influence. Our review might showcase fresh potential for the development of next generation therapeutics for effective glioma management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promote head and neck cancer progression through Periostin-mediated phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuanxia; Feng, Xiaoxia; Wang, Baixiang; Wang, Xinhua; Wang, Chaowei; Yu, Mengfei; Cao, Guifen; Wang, Huiming

    2018-03-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSC) have been shown to be recruited to the tumor microenvironment and exert a tumor-promoting effect in a variety of cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms related to the tumor-promoting effect of BMMSC on head and neck cancer (HNC) are not clear. In this study, we investigated Periostin (POSTN) and its roles in the tumor-promoting effect of BMMSC on HNC. In vitro analysis of HNC cells cultured in BMMSC-conditioned media (MSC-CM) showed that MSC-CM significantly promoted cancer progression by enhancing cell proliferation, migration, epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT), and altering expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins and inhibition of apoptosis. Moreover, MSC-CM promoted the expression of POSTN and POSTN promoted HNC progression through the activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. In a murine model of HNC, we found that BMMSC promoted tumor growth, invasion, metastasis and enhanced the expression of POSTN and EMT in tumor tissues. Clinical sample analysis further confirmed that the expression of POSTN and N-cadherin were correlated with pathological grade and lymph node metastasis of HNC. In conclusion, this study indicated that BMMSC promoted proliferation, invasion, survival, tumorigenicity and migration of head and neck cancer through POSTN-mediated PI3K/Akt/mTOR activation. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  13. Non-hematopoietic PAR-2 is essential for matriptase-driven pre-malignant progression and potentiation of ras-mediated squamous cell carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Katiuchia Uzzun; Friis, Stine; Konkel, Joanne E.; Godiksen, Sine; Hatakeyama, Marcia; Hansen, Karina K.; Rogatto, Silvia Regina; Szabo, Roman; Vogel, Lotte K.; Chen, Wanjun; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Bugge, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    The membrane-anchored serine protease, matriptase, is consistently dysregulated in a range of human carcinomas, and high matriptase activity correlates with poor prognosis. Furthermore, matriptase is unique among tumor-associated proteases in that epithelial stem cell expression of the protease suffices to induce malignant transformation. Here, we use genetic epistasis analysis to identify proteinase-activated receptor (PAR)-2-dependent inflammatory signaling as an essential component of matriptase-mediated oncogenesis. In cell-based assays, matriptase was a potent activator of PAR-2, and PAR-2 activation by matriptase caused robust induction of NFκB through Gαi. Importantly, genetic elimination of PAR-2 from mice completely prevented matriptase-induced pre-malignant progression, including inflammatory cytokine production, inflammatory cell recruitment, epidermal hyperplasia, and dermal fibrosis. Selective ablation of PAR-2 from bone marrow-derived cells did not prevent matriptase-driven pre-malignant progression, indicating that matriptase activates keratinocyte stem cell PAR-2 to elicit its pro-inflammatory and pro-tumorigenic effects. When combined with previous studies, our data suggest that dual induction of PAR-2-NFκB inflammatory signaling and PI3K-Akt-mTor survival/proliferative signaling underlies the transforming potential of matriptase and may contribute to pro-tumorigenic signaling in human epithelial carcinogenesis. PMID:24469043

  14. Non-hematopoietic PAR-2 is essential for matriptase-driven pre-malignant progression and potentiation of ras-mediated squamous cell carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sales, K U; Friis, S; Konkel, J E; Godiksen, S; Hatakeyama, M; Hansen, K K; Rogatto, S R; Szabo, R; Vogel, L K; Chen, W; Gutkind, J S; Bugge, T H

    2015-01-15

    The membrane-anchored serine protease, matriptase, is consistently dysregulated in a range of human carcinomas, and high matriptase activity correlates with poor prognosis. Furthermore, matriptase is unique among tumor-associated proteases in that epithelial stem cell expression of the protease suffices to induce malignant transformation. Here, we use genetic epistasis analysis to identify proteinase-activated receptor (PAR)-2-dependent inflammatory signaling as an essential component of matriptase-mediated oncogenesis. In cell-based assays, matriptase was a potent activator of PAR-2, and PAR-2 activation by matriptase caused robust induction of nuclear factor (NF)κB through Gαi. Importantly, genetic elimination of PAR-2 from mice completely prevented matriptase-induced pre-malignant progression, including inflammatory cytokine production, inflammatory cell recruitment, epidermal hyperplasia and dermal fibrosis. Selective ablation of PAR-2 from bone marrow-derived cells did not prevent matriptase-driven pre-malignant progression, indicating that matriptase activates keratinocyte stem cell PAR-2 to elicit its pro-inflammatory and pro-tumorigenic effects. When combined with previous studies, our data suggest that dual induction of PAR-2-NFκB inflammatory signaling and PI3K-Akt-mTor survival/proliferative signaling underlies the transforming potential of matriptase and may contribute to pro-tumorigenic signaling in human epithelial carcinogenesis.

  15. CCND1–CDK4–mediated cell cycle progression provides a competitive advantage for human hematopoietic stem cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mende, Nicole; Kuchen, Erika E.; Lesche, Mathias; Grinenko, Tatyana; Kokkaliaris, Konstantinos D.; Hanenberg, Helmut; Lindemann, Dirk; Dahl, Andreas; Platz, Alexander; Höfer, Thomas; Calegari, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of stem cell properties is associated with reduced proliferation. However, in mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), loss of quiescence results in a wide range of phenotypes, ranging from functional failure to extensive self-renewal. It remains unknown whether the function of human HSCs is controlled by the kinetics of cell cycle progression. Using human HSCs and human progenitor cells (HSPCs), we report here that elevated levels of CCND1–CDK4 complexes promoted the transit from G0 to G1 and shortened the G1 cell cycle phase, resulting in protection from differentiation-inducing signals in vitro and increasing human leukocyte engraftment in vivo. Further, CCND1–CDK4 overexpression conferred a competitive advantage without impacting HSPC numbers. In contrast, accelerated cell cycle progression mediated by elevated levels of CCNE1–CDK2 led to the loss of functional HSPCs in vivo. Collectively, these data suggest that the transition kinetics through the early cell cycle phases are key regulators of human HSPC function and important for lifelong hematopoiesis. PMID:26150472

  16. Differential DNA hypermethylation of critical genes mediates the stage-specific tobacco smoke-induced neoplastic progression of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Russo, Andrea L; Thiagalingam, Arunthathi; Pan, Hongjie; Califano, Joseph; Cheng, Kuang-hung; Ponte, Jose F; Chinnappan, Dharmaraj; Nemani, Pratima; Sidransky, David; Thiagalingam, Sam

    2005-04-01

    Promoter DNA methylation status of six genes in samples derived from 27 bronchial epithelial cells and matching blood samples from 22 former/current smokers and five nonsmokers as well as 49 primary non-small cell lung cancer samples with corresponding blood controls was determined using methylation-specific PCR (MSP). Lung tumor tissues showed a significantly higher frequency of promoter DNA methylation in p16, MGMT, and DAPK (P < 0.05; Fisher's exact test). p16 promoter DNA methylation in tumors was observed at consistently higher levels when compared with all the other samples analyzed (P = 0.001; Fisher's exact test). ECAD and DAPK exhibited statistically insignificant differences in their levels of DNA methylation among the tumors and bronchial epithelial cells from the smokers. Interestingly, similar levels of methylation were observed in bronchial epithelial cells and corresponding blood from smokers for all four genes (ECAD, p16, MGMT, and DAPK) that showed smoking/lung cancer-associated methylation changes. In summary, our data suggest that targeted DNA methylation silencing of ECAD and DAPK occurs in the early stages and that of p16 and MGMT in the later stages of lung cancer progression. We also provide preliminary evidence that peripheral lymphocytes could potentially be used as a surrogate for bronchial epithelial cells to detect altered DNA methylation in smokers.

  17. SENP1-mediated NEMO deSUMOylation in adipocytes limits inflammatory responses and type-1 diabetes progression

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Lan; Zhou, Huanjiao Jenny; Zhang, Haifeng; Qin, Lingfeng; Hwa, John; Yun, Zhong; Ji, Weidong; Min, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Adipocyte dysfunction correlates with the development of diabetes. Here we show that mice with a adipocyte-specific deletion of the SUMO-specific protease SENP1 gene develop symptoms of type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), including hyperglycaemia and glucose intolerance with mild insulin resistance. Peri-pancreatic adipocytes from SENP1-deficient mice exhibit heightened NF-κB activity and production of proinflammatory cytokines, which induce CCL5 expression in adjacent pancreatic islets and direct cytotoxic effects on pancreatic islets. Mechanistic studies show that SENP1 deletion in adipocytes enhances SUMOylation of the NF-κB essential molecule, NEMO, at lysine 277/309, leading to increased NF-κB activity, cytokine production and pancreatic inflammation. We further show that NF-κB inhibitors could inhibit pre-diabetic cytokine production, β-cell damages and ameliorate the T1DM phenotype in SENP1-deficient mice. Feeding a high-fat diet augments both type-1 and type-2 diabetes phenotypes in SENP1-deficient mice, consistent with the effects on adipocyte-derived NF-κB and cytokine signalling. Our study reveals previously unrecognized mechanism regulating the onset and progression of T1DM associated with adipocyte dysfunction. PMID:26596471

  18. SENP1-mediated NEMO deSUMOylation in adipocytes limits inflammatory responses and type-1 diabetes progression.

    PubMed

    Shao, Lan; Zhou, Huanjiao Jenny; Zhang, Haifeng; Qin, Lingfeng; Hwa, John; Yun, Zhong; Ji, Weidong; Min, Wang

    2015-11-24

    Adipocyte dysfunction correlates with the development of diabetes. Here we show that mice with a adipocyte-specific deletion of the SUMO-specific protease SENP1 gene develop symptoms of type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), including hyperglycaemia and glucose intolerance with mild insulin resistance. Peri-pancreatic adipocytes from SENP1-deficient mice exhibit heightened NF-κB activity and production of proinflammatory cytokines, which induce CCL5 expression in adjacent pancreatic islets and direct cytotoxic effects on pancreatic islets. Mechanistic studies show that SENP1 deletion in adipocytes enhances SUMOylation of the NF-κB essential molecule, NEMO, at lysine 277/309, leading to increased NF-κB activity, cytokine production and pancreatic inflammation. We further show that NF-κB inhibitors could inhibit pre-diabetic cytokine production, β-cell damages and ameliorate the T1DM phenotype in SENP1-deficient mice. Feeding a high-fat diet augments both type-1 and type-2 diabetes phenotypes in SENP1-deficient mice, consistent with the effects on adipocyte-derived NF-κB and cytokine signalling. Our study reveals previously unrecognized mechanism regulating the onset and progression of T1DM associated with adipocyte dysfunction.

  19. Intersection of FOXO- and RUNX1-mediated gene expression programs in single breast epithelial cells during morphogenesis and tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lixin; Brugge, Joan S; Janes, Kevin A

    2011-10-04

    Gene expression networks are complicated by the assortment of regulatory factors that bind DNA and modulate transcription combinatorially. Single-cell measurements can reveal biological mechanisms hidden by population averages, but their value has not been fully explored in the context of mRNA regulation. Here, we adapted a single-cell expression profiling technique to examine the gene expression program downstream of Forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factors during 3D breast epithelial acinar morphogenesis. By analyzing patterns of mRNA fluctuations among individual matrix-attached epithelial cells, we found that a subset of FOXO target genes was jointly regulated by the transcription factor Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1). Knockdown of RUNX1 causes hyperproliferation and abnormal morphogenesis, both of which require normal FOXO function. Down-regulating RUNX1 and FOXOs simultaneously causes widespread oxidative stress, which arrests proliferation and restores normal acinar morphology. In hormone-negative breast cancers lacking human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) amplification, we find that RUNX1 down-regulation is strongly associated with up-regulation of FOXO1, which may be required to support growth of RUNX1-negative tumors. The coordinate function of these two tumor suppressors may provide a failsafe mechanism that inhibits cancer progression.

  20. Macrophage activation by heparanase is mediated by TLR-2 and TLR-4 and associates with plaque progression.

    PubMed

    Blich, Miry; Golan, Amnon; Arvatz, Gil; Sebbag, Anat; Shafat, Itay; Sabo, Edmond; Cohen-Kaplan, Victoria; Petcherski, Sirouch; Avniel-Polak, Shani; Eitan, Amnon; Hammerman, Haim; Aronson, Doron; Axelman, Elena; Ilan, Neta; Nussbaum, Gabriel; Vlodavsky, Israel

    2013-02-01

    Factors and mechanisms that activate macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques are incompletely understood. We examined the capacity of heparanase to activate macrophages. Highly purified heparanase was added to mouse peritoneal macrophages and macrophage-like J774 cells, and the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, matrix metalloproteinase-9, interlukin-1, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 were evaluated by ELISA. Gene expression was determined by RT-PCR. Cells collected from Toll-like receptor-2 and Toll-like receptor-4 knockout mice were evaluated similarly. Heparanase levels in the plasma of patients with acute myocardial infarction, stable angina, and healthy subjects were determined by ELISA. Immunohistochemistry was applied to detect the expression of heparanase in control specimens and specimens of patients with stable angina or acute myocardial infarction. Addition or overexpression of heparanase variants resulted in marked increase in tumor necrosis factor-α, matrix metalloproteinase-9, interlukin-1, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels. Mouse peritoneal macrophages harvested from Toll-like receptor-2 or Toll-like receptor-4 knockout mice were not activated by heparanase. Plasma heparanase level was higher in patients with acute myocardial infarction, compared with patients with stable angina and healthy subjects. Pathologic coronary specimens obtained from vulnerable plaques showed increased heparanase staining compared with specimens of stable plaque and controls. Heparanase activates macrophages, resulting in marked induction of cytokine expression associated with plaque progression toward vulnerability.

  1. CXCL16/CXCR6 chemokine signaling mediates breast cancer progression by pERK1/2-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gang; Wang, Xiumin; Wang, Jinglong; Zu, Lidong; Cheng, Guangcun; Hao, Mingang; Sun, Xueqing; Xue, Yunjing; Lu, Jinsong; Wang, Jianhua

    2015-06-10

    Our previous studies demonstrate that CXCL6/CXCR6 chemokine axis induces prostate cancer progression by the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway; however, its role and mechanisms underlying invasiveness and metastasis of breast cancer are yet to be elucidated. In this investigation, CXCR6 protein expression was examined using high-density tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry. Expression of CXCR6 shows a higher epithelial staining in breast cancer nest site and metastatic lymph node than the normal breast tissue, suggesting that CXCR6 may be involved in breast cancer (BC) development. In vitro and in vivo experiments indicate that overexpression of CXCR6 in BC cells has a marked effect on increasing cell migration, invasion and metastasis. In contrast, reduction of CXCR6 expression by shRNAs in these cells greatly reduce its invasion and metastasis ability. Mechanistic analyses show that CXCL16/CXCR6 chemokine axis is capable of modulating activation of RhoA through activating ERK1/2 signaling pathway, which then inhibits the activity of cofilin, thereby enhancing the stability of F-actin, responsible for invasiveness and metastasis of BC. Taken together, our data shows for the first time that the CXCR6 / ERK1/2/ RhoA / cofilin /F-actin pathway plays a central role in the development of BC. Targeting the signaling pathway may prove beneficial to prevent metastasis and provide a more effective therapeutic strategy for BC.

  2. CXCL16/CXCR6 chemokine signaling mediates breast cancer progression by pERK1/2-dependent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Gang; Wang, Xiumin; Wang, Jinglong; Zu, Lidong; Cheng, Guangcun; Hao, Mingang; Sun, Xueqing; Xue, Yunjing; Lu, Jinsong; Wang, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrate that CXCL6/CXCR6 chemokine axis induces prostate cancer progression by the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway; however, its role and mechanisms underlying invasiveness and metastasis of breast cancer are yet to be elucidated. In this investigation, CXCR6 protein expression was examined using high-density tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry. Expression of CXCR6 shows a higher epithelial staining in breast cancer nest site and metastatic lymph node than the normal breast tissue, suggesting that CXCR6 may be involved in breast cancer (BC) development. In vitro and in vivo experiments indicate that overexpression of CXCR6 in BC cells has a marked effect on increasing cell migration, invasion and metastasis. In contrast, reduction of CXCR6 expression by shRNAs in these cells greatly reduce its invasion and metastasis ability. Mechanistic analyses show that CXCL16/CXCR6 chemokine axis is capable of modulating activation of RhoA through activating ERK1/2 signaling pathway, which then inhibits the activity of cofilin, thereby enhancing the stability of F-actin, responsible for invasiveness and metastasis of BC. Taken together, our data shows for the first time that the CXCR6 / ERK1/2/ RhoA / cofilin /F-actin pathway plays a central role in the development of BC. Targeting the signaling pathway may prove beneficial to prevent metastasis and provide a more effective therapeutic strategy for BC. PMID:25909173

  3. Human soluble phospholipase A2 receptor is an inhibitor of the integrin-mediated cell migratory response to collagen-I.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazunori; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Yosuke; Fujioka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Takamitsu; Nakamura, Kazuto; Obata, Jun-Ei; Kugiyama, Kiyotaka

    2018-05-23

    Murine membrane-bound phospholipase A 2 receptor 1 (PLA 2 R) is shed and released into plasma in a soluble form that retains all of the extracellular domains. Relatively little is known about human PLA 2 R. This study examined whether human soluble PLA 2 R may have biological functions and whether soluble PLA 2 R may exist in human plasma. Here, we showed that human recombinant soluble PLA 2 R (rsPLA 2 R) bound to collagen-I and inhibited interaction of collagen-I with the extracellular domain of integrin β1 on the cell surface of HEK293 cells. As a result, rsPLA 2 R suppressed integrin β1-mediated migratory responses of HEK293 cells to collagen-I in Boyden chamber experiments. Inhibition of phosphorylation of FAK Tyr397 was also observed. Similar results were obtained with experiments using soluble PLA 2 R released from HEK293 cells transfected with a construct encoding human soluble PLA 2 R. rsPLA 2 R lacking the fibronectin-like type II (FNII) domain had no inhibitory effects on cell responses to collagen-I, suggesting an important role of the FNII domain in the interaction of rsPLA 2 R with collagen-I. In addition, rsPLA 2 R suppressed the migratory response to collagen-IV and binding of collagen-IV to the cell surface of human podocytes that endogenously express membrane-bound full-length PLA 2 R. Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting showed the existence of immuno-reactive PLA 2 R in human plasma. In conclusion, human recombinant soluble PLA 2 R inhibits integrin β1-mediated cell responses to collagens. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether immuno-reactive PLA 2 R in human plasma has the same properties as rsPLA 2 R.

  4. Temporal Association of HLA-B*81:01- and HLA-B*39:10-Mediated HIV-1 p24 Sequence Evolution with Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Ntale, R. S.; Chopera, D. R.; Ngandu, N. K.; Assis de Rosa, D.; Zembe, L.; Gamieldien, H.; Mlotshwa, M.; Werner, L.; Woodman, Z.; Mlisana, K.; Abdool Karim, S.; Gray, C. M.

    2012-01-01

    HLA-B*81:01 and HLA-B*39:10 alleles have been associated with viremic control in HIV-1 subtype C infection. Both alleles restrict the TL9 epitope in p24 Gag, and cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated escape mutations in this epitope have been associated with an in vitro fitness cost to the virus. We investigated the timing and impact of mutations in the TL9 epitope on disease progression in five B*81:01- and two B*39:10-positive subtype C-infected individuals. Whereas both B*39:10 participants sampled at 2 months postinfection had viruses with mutations in the TL9 epitope, in three of the five (3/5) B*81:01 participants, TL9 escape mutations were only detected 10 months after infection, taking an additional 10 to 15 months to reach fixation. In the two remaining B*81:01 individuals, one carried a TL9 escape variant at 2 weeks postinfection, whereas no escape mutations were detected in the virus from the other participant for up to 33 months postinfection, despite CTL targeting of the epitope. In all participants, escape mutations in TL9 were linked to coevolving residues in the region of Gag known to be associated with host tropism. Late escape in TL9, together with coevolution of putative compensatory mutations, coincided with a spontaneous increase in viral loads in two individuals who were otherwise controlling the infection. These results provide in vivo evidence of the detrimental impact of B*81:01-mediated viral evolution, in a single Gag p24 epitope, on the control of viremia. PMID:22933291

  5. Beneficial Role of Erythrocyte Adenosine A2B Receptor-Mediated AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Activation in High-Altitude Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Zhang, Yujin; Wu, Hongyu; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Yegutkin, Gennady G; Song, Anren; Sun, Kaiqi; Li, Jessica; Cheng, Ning-Yuan; Huang, Aji; Edward Wen, Yuan; Weng, Ting Ting; Luo, Fayong; Nemkov, Travis; Sun, Hong; Kellems, Rodney E; Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Hansen, Kirk C; Zhao, Bihong; Subudhi, Andrew W; Jameson-Van Houten, Sonja; Julian, Colleen G; Lovering, Andrew T; Eltzschig, Holger K; Blackburn, Michael R; Roach, Robert C; Xia, Yang

    2016-08-02

    High altitude is a challenging condition caused by insufficient oxygen supply. Inability to adjust to hypoxia may lead to pulmonary edema, stroke, cardiovascular dysfunction, and even death. Thus, understanding the molecular basis of adaptation to high altitude may reveal novel therapeutics to counteract the detrimental consequences of hypoxia. Using high-throughput, unbiased metabolomic profiling, we report that the metabolic pathway responsible for production of erythrocyte 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG), a negative allosteric regulator of hemoglobin-O2 binding affinity, was significantly induced in 21 healthy humans within 2 hours of arrival at 5260 m and further increased after 16 days at 5260 m. This finding led us to discover that plasma adenosine concentrations and soluble CD73 activity rapidly increased at high altitude and were associated with elevated erythrocyte 2,3-BPG levels and O2 releasing capacity. Mouse genetic studies demonstrated that elevated CD73 contributed to hypoxia-induced adenosine accumulation and that elevated adenosine-mediated erythrocyte A2B adenosine receptor activation was beneficial by inducing 2,3-BPG production and triggering O2 release to prevent multiple tissue hypoxia, inflammation, and pulmonary vascular leakage. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that erythrocyte AMP-activated protein kinase was activated in humans at high altitude and that AMP-activated protein kinase is a key protein functioning downstream of the A2B adenosine receptor, phosphorylating and activating BPG mutase and thus inducing 2,3-BPG production and O2 release from erythrocytes. Significantly, preclinical studies demonstrated that activation of AMP-activated protein kinase enhanced BPG mutase activation, 2,3-BPG production, and O2 release capacity in CD73-deficient mice, in erythrocyte-specific A2B adenosine receptor knockouts, and in wild-type mice and in turn reduced tissue hypoxia and inflammation. Together, human and mouse studies reveal novel

  6. Release inhibitory receptors activation favours the A2A-adenosine receptor-mediated facilitation of noradrenaline release in isolated rat tail artery

    PubMed Central

    Fresco, Paula; Diniz, Carmen; Queiroz, Glória; Gonçalves, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    Interactions between A2A-adenosine receptors and α2-, A1- and P2- release-inhibitory receptors, on the modulation of noradrenaline release were studied in isolated rat tail artery. Preparations were labelled with [3H]-noradrenaline, superfused with desipramine-containing medium, and stimulated electrically (100 pulses at 5 Hz or 20 pulses at 50 Hz).Blockade of α2-autoreceptors with yohimbine (1 μM) increased tritium overflow elicited by 100 pulses at 5 Hz but not by 20 pulses at 50 Hz.The selective A2A-receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680; 1 – 100 nM) enhanced tritium overflow elicited by 100 pulses at 5 Hz. Yohimbine prevented the effect of CGS 21680, which was restored by the A1-receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA; 100 nM) or by the P2-receptor agonist 2-methylthioadenosine triphosphate (2-MeSATP; 80 μM).CGS 21680 (100 nM) failed to increase tritium overflow elicited by 20 pulses at 50 Hz. The α2-adrenoceptor agonist 5-bromo-6-(2-imidazolin-2-ylamino)-quinoxaline (UK 14304; 30 nM), the A1-receptor agonist CPA (100 nM) or the P2-receptor agonist 2-MeSATP (80 μM) reduced tritium overflow. In the presence of these agonists CGS 21680 elicited a facilitation of tritium overflow.Blockade of potassium channels with tetraethylammonium (TEA; 5 mM) increased tritium overflow elicited by 100 pulses at 5 Hz to values similar to those obtained in the presence of yohimbine but did not prevent the effect of CGS 21680 (100 nM) on tritium overflow.It is concluded that, in isolated rat tail artery, the facilitation of noradrenaline release mediated by A2A-adenosine receptors is favoured by activation of release inhibitory receptors. PMID:12010771

  7. Inhibition of discoidin domain receptor 2-mediated lung cancer cells progression by gold nanoparticle-aptamer-assisted delivery of peptides containing transmembrane-juxtamembrane 1/2 domain

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Daehwan; Yeom, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Boeun

    The delivery of biologically functional peptides into mammalian cells can be a direct and effective method for cancer therapy and treatment of other diseases. Discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) is a collagen-induced receptor tyrosine kinase recently identified as a novel therapeutic target in lung cancer. In this study, we report that peptides containing the functional domain of DDR2 can be efficiently delivered into lung malignant cancer cells via a gold nanoparticle-DNA aptamer conjugate (AuNP-Apt)-based system. Peptide delivery resulted in the abrogation of DDR2 activation triggered by collagen. Moreover, the peptide delivered by the AuNP-Apt system inhibited cancer cell proliferation andmore » invasion mediated by DDR2 activation. Thus, these results suggest that peptide loaded onto AuNP-Apt conjugates can be used for the development of peptide-based biomedical applications for the treatment of DDR2-positive cancer. - Highlights: • TM-JM1/2 peptides are efficiently delivered into cells by AuNP-Apt-conjugates. • TM-JM1/2 peptides loaded onto AuNP-Apt conjugates inhibit DDR2 activation. • Inhibition of DDR2 activation by TM-JM1/2 peptides decreases tumor progression.« less

  8. Different patterns of myopia prevalence and progression between internal migrant and local resident school children in Shanghai, China: a 2-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yingyan; Lin, Senlin; Zhu, Jianfeng; Xu, Xun; Lu, Lina; Zhao, Rong; Zhao, Huijuan; Li, Qiangqiang; Hou, Zhiyuan; He, Xiangui; Zou, Haidong

    2018-02-23

    In 2010, there were ~ 36 million migrant children under 18 y old in China. This study compared patterns of myopia prevalence and progression between migrant and resident children. Eight hundred forty-two migrant children from 2 migrant schools and 1081 from 2 local schools in Baoshan District, Shanghai, were randomly chosen. Baseline measurements were taken on children in grades one through four, and children in grades one and two were followed for 2 y. The children underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examinations, including cycloplegic refraction and axial length. The average time per week spent on homework and outdoor activities were investigated. Migrant children in grades one and two showed a lower myopia prevalence than resident children; however, from grades three to four, the prevalence accelerated and exceeded that of residents. In the follow-up, the myopia incidence did not significantly change from grades one to two in resident children but was significantly higher in grade two in migrant children. Correspondingly, for migrant children, increased progression of refraction and axial length was observed; however, it decreased in resident children. The average time spent on homework increased from grades two to three in parallel with the acceleration of myopia prevalence for migrant children; however, the time spent outdoors did not correspondingly change. The patterns of myopia prevalence and progression are different between migrant and non-migrant children. The acceleration of myopia in migrant children might be a result of a change in their environment, such as intensive education pressure.

  9. Caffeine Inhibits the Activation of Hepatic Stellate Cells Induced by Acetaldehyde via Adenosine A2A Receptor Mediated by the cAMP/PKA/SRC/ERK1/2/P38 MAPK Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wanzhi; Wang, Qi; Zhao, Han; Yang, Feng; Lv, Xiongwen; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation is an essential event during alcoholic liver fibrosis. Evidence suggests that adenosine aggravates liver fibrosis via the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR). Caffeine, which is being widely consumed during daily life, inhibits the action of adenosine. In this study, we attempted to validate the hypothesis that caffeine influences acetaldehyde-induced HSC activation by acting on A2AR. Acetaldehyde at 50, 100, 200, and 400 μM significantly increased HSC-T6 cells proliferation, and cell proliferation reached a maximum at 48 h after exposure to 200 μM acetaldehyde. Caffeine and the A2AR antagonist ZM241385 decreased the cell viability and inhibited the expression of procollagen type I and type III in acetaldehyde-induced HSC-T6 cells. In addition, the inhibitory effect of caffeine on the expression of procollagen type I was regulated by A2AR-mediated signal pathway involving cAMP, PKA, SRC, and ERK1/2. Interestingly, caffeine’s inhibitory effect on the expression of procollagen type III may depend upon the A2AR-mediated P38 MAPK-dependent pathway. Conclusions: Caffeine significantly inhibited acetaldehyde-induced HSC-T6 cells activation by distinct A2AR mediated signal pathway via inhibition of cAMP-PKA-SRC-ERK1/2 for procollagen type I and via P38 MAPK for procollagen type III. PMID:24682220

  10. CYP2E1-dependent and leptin-mediated hepatic CD57 expression on CD8 + T cells aid progression of environment-linked nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Seth, Ratanesh Kumar; Das, Suvarthi; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    Environmental toxins induce a novel CYP2E1/leptin signaling axis in liver. This in turn activates a poorly characterized innate immune response that contributes to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) progression. To identify the relevant subsets of T-lymphocytes in CYP2E1-dependent, environment-linked NASH, we utilized a model of diet induced obese (DIO) mice that are chronically exposed to bromodichloromethane. Mice deficient in CYP2E1, leptin (ob/ob mice), or both T and B cells (Pfp/Rag2 double knockout (KO) mice) were used to delineate the role of each of these factors in metabolic oxidative stress-induced T cell activation. Results revealed that elevated levels of lipid peroxidation, tyrosyl radicalmore » formation, mitochondrial tyrosine nitration and hepatic leptin as a consequence of metabolic oxidative stress caused increased levels of hepatic CD57, a marker of peripheral blood lymphocytes including NKT cells. CD8 + CD57 + cytotoxic T cells but not CD4 + CD57 + cells were significantly decreased in mice lacking CYP2E1 and leptin. There was a significant increase in the levels of T cell cytokines IL-2, IL-1β, and IFN-γ in bromodichloromethane exposed DIO mice but not in mice that lacked CYP2E1, leptin or T and B cells. Apoptosis as evidenced by TUNEL assay and levels of cleaved caspase-3 was significantly lower in leptin and Pfp/Rag2 KO mice and highly correlated with protection from NASH. The results described above suggest that higher levels of oxidative stress-induced leptin mediated CD8 + CD57 + T cells play an important role in the development of NASH. It also provides a novel insight of immune dysregulation and may be a key biomarker in NASH. - Highlights: • Metabolic oxidative stress caused increased levels of hepatic CD57 expression. • CD8+ CD57+ cytotoxic T cells were decreased in mice lacking CYP2E1 and leptin. • There was a significant increase in T cell cytokines in toxin-treated mice. • Apoptosis was significantly lower in leptin and

  11. DR4 mediates the progression, invasion, metastasis and survival of colorectal cancer through the Sp1/NF1 switch axis on genomic locus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shenshen; Meng, Qingtao; Zhang, Chengcheng; Sun, Hao; Lu, Runze; Gao, Na; Yang, Hongbao; Li, Xiaobo; Aschner, Michael; Chen, Rui

    2018-07-15

    The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), -397G > T (rs13278062) polymorphism, in the promoter of Death Receptor 4 (DR4) had been reported to be associated with a significantly increased risk for bladder cancer. However, the association of this SNP with the risk of colorectal cancer has not been reported. In this study, we performed a case-control study in 1,078 colorectal cancer patients and 1,175 matched healthy controls to evaluate the association of the potential functional genetic variants in DR4 with risk and survival of colorectal cancer. PCR-TaqMan were used to genotype the rs13278062, rs1000294 and rs2235126 polymorphisms. We found that subjects carrying the rs13278062 GT/TT genotypes had a significantly lower risk and increased survival time when compared to the GG genotype. We also constructed the rs13278062 GT/TT genotype in SW480 and SW620 cells (rs13278062 is GG in both cell lines) with the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Flow cytometry experiments showed that the rs13278062 TT genotype promoted apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. In vitro and in vivo experiments established that the rs13278062 G to T mutation inhibited carcinogenesis and metastasis of colorectal cancer. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed that the rs13278062 G > T polymorphism altered the binding affinity of the transcription factors Sp1/NF1 to the rs13278062 mutation region. Immunohistochemistry, western blot, and qPCR corroborated that the rs13278062 GT/TT genotypes increased the expression of DR4 protein in colorectal cancer tissues and cells. In conclusion, these findings indicate that DR4 mediated progression, invasion, metastasis and survival of colorectal cancer via the Sp1/NF1 switch axis on genomics locus. © 2018 UICC.

  12. Proteomics Identification of Annexin A2 as a Key Mediator in the Metastasis and Proangiogenesis of Endometrial Cells in Human Adenomyosis*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shengtao; Yi, Tao; Liu, Rui; Bian, Ce; Qi, Xiaorong; He, Xiang; Wang, Kui; Li, Jingyi; Zhao, Xia; Huang, Canhua; Wei, Yuquan

    2012-01-01

    Adenomyosis is a common estrogen-dependent disorder of females characterized by a downward extension of the endometrium into the uterine myometrium and neovascularization in ectopic lesions. It accounts for chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, and infertility in 8.8–61.5% women worldwide. However, the molecular mechanisms for adenomyosis development remain poorly elucidated. Here, we utilized a two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/MS-based proteomics analysis to compare and identify differentially expressed proteins in matched ectopic and eutopic endometrium of adenomyosis patients. A total of 93 significantly altered proteins were identified by tandem MS analysis. Further cluster analysis revealed a group of estrogen-responsive proteins as dysregulated in adenomyosis, among which annexin A2, a member of annexin family proteins, was found up-regulated most significantly in the ectopic endometrium of adenomyosis compared with its eutopic counterpart. Overexpression of ANXA2 was validated in ectopic lesions of human adenomyosis and was found to be tightly correlated with markers of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and dysmenorrhea severity of adenomyosis patients. Functional analysis demonstrated that estrogen could remarkably up-regulate ANXA2 and induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition in an in vitro adenomyosis model. Enforced expression of ANXA2 could mediate phenotypic mesenchymal-like cellular changes, with structural and functional alterations in a β-catenin/T-cell factor (Tcf) signaling-associated manner, which could be reversed by inhibition of ANXA2 expression. We also proved that enforced expression of ANXA2 enhanced the proangiogenic capacity of adenomyotic endometrial cells through HIF-1α/VEGF-A pathway. In vivo, we demonstrated that ANXA2 inhibition abrogated endometrial tissue growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis in an adenomyosis nude mice model and significantly alleviated hyperalgesia. Taken together, our data

  13. Functional Validation of H2 Relaxin, and its Downstream Effectors, as Mediators, Therapeutic Targets and Potential Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    contribute to CR growth. Inhibition of PKA attenuated RLN2-mediated AR activity, inhibited proliferation and caused a small but significant increase in...detection of p53 abnormalities and increases their predictive value. BJU Int 94: 996–1002. Silvertown JD, Geddes BJ, Summerlee AJ. (2003). Adenovirus ...in facilitating H2 relaxin-mediated CR growth of CaP cells. Inhibition of PKA attenuated RLN2-mediated AR activity, inhibited proliferation and

  14. 3-(Fur-2-yl)-10-(2-phenylethyl)-[1,2,4]triazino[4,3-a]benzimidazol-4(10H)-one, a novel adenosine receptor antagonist with A(2A)-mediated neuroprotective effects.

    PubMed

    Scatena, Alessia; Fornai, Francesco; Trincavelli, Maria Letizia; Taliani, Sabrina; Daniele, Simona; Pugliesi, Isabella; Cosconati, Sandro; Martini, Claudia; Da Settimo, Federico

    2011-09-21

    In this study, compound FTBI (3-(2-furyl)-10-(2-phenylethyl)[1,2,4]triazino[4,3-a]benzimidazol-4(10H)-one) was selected from a small library of triazinobenzimidazole derivatives as a potent A(2A) adenosine receptor (AR) antagonist and tested for its neuroprotective effects against two different kinds of dopaminergic neurotoxins, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) and methamphetamine (METH), in rat PC12 and in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell lines. FTBI, in a concentration range corresponding to its affinity for A(2A) AR subtype, significantly increased the number of viable PC12 cells after their exposure to METH and, to a similar extent, to MPP+, as demonstrated in both trypan blue exclusion assay and in cytological staining. These neuroprotective effects were also observed with a classical A(2A) AR antagonist, ZM241385, and appeared to be completely counteracted by the AR agonist, NECA, supporting A(2A) ARs are directly involved in FTBI-mediated effects. Similarly, in human SH-SY5Y cells, FTBI was able to prevent cell toxicity induced by MPP+ and METH, showing that this A(2A) AR antagonist has a neuroprotective effect independently by the specific cell model. Altogether these results demonstrate that the A(2A) AR blockade mediates cell protection against neurotoxicity induced by dopaminergic neurotoxins in dopamine containing cells, supporting the potential use of A(2A) AR antagonists in dopaminergic degenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease.

  15. miR-489 inhibits proliferation, cell cycle progression and induces apoptosis of glioma cells via targeting SPIN1-mediated PI3K/AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Ma, Xiaolin; Wang, Yanpeng; Li, Guohua

    2017-09-01

    microRNA-489 (miR-489), a newly identified tumor-related miRNA, functions as an oncogene or tumor suppressor via regulating growth and metastasis of human cancers. But, the clinical significance, biological function and underlying mechanisms of miR-489 in glioma remain rarely known. Here, we showed that the levels of miR-489 in glioma tissues were notably underexpressed compared to corresponding non-tumor tissues. In accordance, the relative levels of miR-489 were decreased in glioma cell lines compared with NHA cells. Kaplan-Meier plots indicated that miR-489 low expressing glioma patients showed a prominent shorter overall survival. In addition, miR-489 overexpression prohibited proliferation and cell cycle progression, and promoted apoptosis in U251 cells. While, miR-489 knockdown showed opposite effects on these cellular processes of U87 cells. In vivo experiments demonstrated that miR-489 restoration reduced the tumor volume and weight of subcutaneous glioma xenografts in nude mice. Notably, Spindlin 1 (SPIN1) was inversely and directly regulated by miR-489 in glioma cells. A negative correlation between the expression of miR-489 and SPIN1 mRNA was confirmed in glioma tissues. Interestingly, miR-489 inversely modulated activation of PI3K/AKT pathway and expression of downstream targets including p-mTOR, Cyclin D1 and BCL-XL. SPIN1 re-expression abolished the effects of miR-489 on U251 cells with enhanced activation of PI3K/AKT pathway and malignant phenotype. Meanwhile, AKT inhibitor MK-2206 blocked activation of PI3K/AKT pathway and resulted in reduced proliferation, cell cycle arrest and increased apoptosis in miR-489 down-regulating U87 cells. Altogether, our data support that miR-489 loss facilitates malignant phenotype of glioma cells probably via SPIN1-mediated PI3K/AKT pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Dissecting the expression of EEF1A1/2 genes in human prostate cancer cells: the potential of EEF1A2 as a hallmark for prostate transformation and progression.

    PubMed

    Scaggiante, B; Dapas, B; Bonin, S; Grassi, M; Zennaro, C; Farra, R; Cristiano, L; Siracusano, S; Zanconati, F; Giansante, C; Grassi, G

    2012-01-03

    In prostate adenocarcinoma, the dissection of the expression behaviour of the eukaryotic elongation factors (eEF1A1/2) has not yet fully elucidated. The EEF1A1/A2 expressions were investigated by real-time PCR, western blotting (cytoplasmic and cytoskeletal/nuclear-enriched fractions) and immunofluorescence in the androgen-responsive LNCaP and the non-responsive DU-145 and PC-3 cells, displaying a low, moderate and high aggressive phenotype, respectively. Targeted experiments were also conducted in the androgen-responsive 22Rv1, a cell line marking the progression towards androgen-refractory tumour. The non-tumourigenic prostate PZHPV-7 cell line was the control. Compared with PZHPV-7, cancer cells showed no major variations in EEF1A1 mRNA; eEF1A1 protein increased only in cytoskeletal/nuclear fraction. On the contrary, a significant rise of EEF1A2 mRNA and protein were found, with the highest levels detected in LNCaP. Eukaryotic elongation factor 1A2 immunostaining confirmed the western blotting results. Pilot evaluation in archive prostate tissues showed the presence of EEF1A2 mRNA in near all neoplastic and perineoplastic but not in normal samples or in benign adenoma; in contrast, EEF1A1 mRNA was everywhere detectable. Eukaryotic elongation factor 1A2 switch-on, observed in cultured tumour prostate cells and in human prostate tumour samples, may represent a feature of prostate cancer; in contrast, a minor involvement is assigned to EEF1A1. These observations suggest to consider EEF1A2 as a marker for prostate cell transformation and/or possibly as a hallmark of cancer progression.

  17. Adenosine A2A receptors modulate the dopamine D2 receptor-mediated inhibition of synaptic transmission in the mouse prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Real, Joana I; Simões, Ana Patrícia; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Ferreira, Samira G; Rial, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    Prefrontal cortex (PFC) circuits are modulated by dopamine acting on D 1 - and D 2 -like receptors, which are pharmacologically exploited to manage neuropsychiatric conditions. Adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2 A R) also control PFC-related responses and A 2 A R antagonists are potential anti-psychotic drugs. As tight antagonistic A 2 A R-D 2 R and synergistic A 2 A R-D 1 R interactions occur in other brain regions, we now investigated the crosstalk between A 2 A R and D 1 /D 2 R controlling synaptic transmission between layers II/III and V in mouse PFC coronal slices. Dopamine decreased synaptic transmission, a presynaptic effect based on the parallel increase in paired-pulse responses. Dopamine inhibition was prevented by the D 2 R-like antagonist sulpiride but not by the D 1 R antagonist SCH23390 and was mimicked by the D 2 R agonist sumanirole, but not by the agonists of either D 4 R (A-412997) or D 3 R (PD128907). Dopamine inhibition was prevented by the A 2 A R antagonist, SCH58261, and attenuated in A 2 A R knockout mice. Accordingly, triple-labelling immunocytochemistry experiments revealed the co-localization of A 2 A R and D 2 R immunoreactivity in glutamatergic (vGluT1-positive) nerve terminals of the PFC. This reported positive A 2 A R-D 2 R interaction controlling PFC synaptic transmission provides a mechanistic justification for the anti-psychotic potential of A 2 A R antagonists. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The role of Fas ligand and transforming growth factor beta in tumor progression: molecular mechanisms of immune privilege via Fas-mediated apoptosis and potential targets for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ryungsa; Emi, Manabu; Tanabe, Kazuaki; Uchida, Yoko; Toge, Tetsuya

    2004-06-01

    Despite the fact that expression of Fas ligand (FasL) in cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and in natural killer (NK) cells plays an important role in Fas-mediated tumor killing, During tumor progression FasL-expressing tumor cells are involved in counterattacking to kill tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Soluble FasL levels also increase with tumor progression in solid tumors, and this increase inhibits Fas-mediated tumor killing by CTLs and NK cells. The increased expression of FasL in tumor cells is associated with decreased expression of Fas; and the promoter region of the FASL gene is regulated by transcription factors, such as neuronal factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and AP-1, in the tumor microenvironment. Although the ratio of FasL expression to Fas expression in tumor cells is not strongly related to the induction of apoptosis in TILs, increased expression of FasL is associated with decreased Fas levels in tumor cells that can escape immune surveillance and facilitate tumor progression and metastasis. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a potent growth inhibitor and has tumor-suppressing activity in the early phases of carcinogenesis. During subsequent tumor progression, the increased secretion of TGF-beta by both tumor cells and, in a paracrine fashion, stromal cells, is involved in the enhancement of tumor invasion and metastasis accompanied by immunosuppression. Herein, the authors review the clinical significance of FasL and TGF-beta expression patterns as features of immune privilege accompanying tumor progression in the tumor microenvironment. Potential strategies for identifying which molecules can serve as targets for effective antitumor therapy also are discussed. Copyright 2004 American Cancer Society.

  19. Culture as a mediator of gene-environment interaction: Cultural consonance, childhood adversity, a 2A serotonin receptor polymorphism, and depression in urban Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dressler, William W; Balieiro, Mauro C; Ferreira de Araújo, Luiza; Silva, Wilson A; Ernesto Dos Santos, José

    2016-07-01

    Research on gene-environment interaction was facilitated by breakthroughs in molecular biology in the late 20th century, especially in the study of mental health. There is a reliable interaction between candidate genes for depression and childhood adversity in relation to mental health outcomes. The aim of this paper is to explore the role of culture in this process in an urban community in Brazil. The specific cultural factor examined is cultural consonance, or the degree to which individuals are able to successfully incorporate salient cultural models into their own beliefs and behaviors. It was hypothesized that cultural consonance in family life would mediate the interaction of genotype and childhood adversity. In a study of 402 adult Brazilians from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds, conducted from 2011 to 2014, the interaction of reported childhood adversity and a polymorphism in the 2A serotonin receptor was associated with higher depressive symptoms. Further analysis showed that the gene-environment interaction was mediated by cultural consonance in family life, and that these effects were more pronounced in lower social class neighborhoods. The findings reinforce the role of the serotonergic system in the regulation of stress response and learning and memory, and how these processes in turn interact with environmental events and circumstances. Furthermore, these results suggest that gene-environment interaction models should incorporate a wider range of environmental experience and more complex pathways to better understand how genes and the environment combine to influence mental health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. MCAM, as a novel receptor for S100A8/A9, mediates progression of malignant melanoma through prominent activation of NF-κB and ROS formation upon ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Ruma, I Made Winarsa; Putranto, Endy Widya; Kondo, Eisaku; Murata, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Masami; Huang, Peng; Kinoshita, Rie; Futami, Junichiro; Inoue, Yusuke; Yamauchi, Akira; Sumardika, I Wayan; Youyi, Chen; Yamamoto, Ken-Ichi; Nasu, Yasutomo; Nishibori, Masahiro; Hibino, Toshihiko; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo

    2016-08-01

    The dynamic interaction between tumor cells and their microenvironment induces a proinflammatory milieu that drives cancer development and progression. The S100A8/A9 complex has been implicated in chronic inflammation, tumor development, and progression. The cancer microenvironment contributes to the up-regulation of this protein complex in many invasive tumors, which is associated with the formation of pre-metastatic niches and poor prognosis. Changing adhesive preference of cancer cells is at the core of the metastatic process that governs the reciprocal interactions of cancer cells with the extracellular matrices and neighboring stromal cells. Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) have been confirmed to have high-level expression in various highly invasive tumors. The expression and function of CAMs are profoundly influenced by the extracellular milieu. S100A8/A9 mediates its effects by binding to cell surface receptors, such as heparan sulfate, TLR4 and RAGE on immune and tumor cells. RAGE has recently been identified as an adhesion molecule and has considerably high identity and similarity to ALCAM and MCAM, which are frequently over-expressed on metastatic malignant melanoma cells. In this study, we demonstrated that ALCAM and MCAM also function as S100A8/A9 receptors as does RAGE and induce malignant melanoma progression by NF-κB activation and ROS formation. Notably, MCAM not only activated NF-κB more prominently than ALCAM and RAGE did but also mediated intracellular signaling for the formation of lung metastasis. MCAM is known to be involved in malignant melanoma development and progression through several mechanisms. Therefore, MCAM is a potential effective target in malignant melanoma treatment.

  1. A Novel Occulta-Type Spina Bifida Mediated by Murine Double Heterozygotes EphA2 and EphA4 Receptor Tyrosine Kinases.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Nor Linda; Mohd-Zin, Siti W; Ahmad-Annuar, Azlina; Abdul-Aziz, Noraishah M

    2017-01-01

    Members of the Eph receptor tyrosine kinase have previously been implicated in cranial neural tube development. Failure of neural tube closure leads to the devastating conditions known as anencephaly and spina bifida. EphA2 and EphA4 are expressed at the tips of the closing spinal neural folds prior and during neural tube closure. We investigated the possible role of murine EphA2 and EphA4 during the last step of primary neural tube closure, which is adhesion and fusion. The individual mouse knockouts of EphA2 and EphA4 per se do not exhibit neural tube defects (NTDs). The embryos generated by the crossing of double heterozygotes Epha2 tm1Jrui/+ Epha4 rb-2J/+ displayed NTDs with a wide degree of severity including close exencephaly and close spina bifida (spina bifida occulta). Interestingly, mutants displaying NTDs had skin covering the underlying lesion. The tissue sections revealed the elevated neural folds had not adhered and fused. The phenotypes seen in Epha2 tm1Jrui/+ Epha4 rb-2J/+ double heterozygous embryos suggest both genes play a compensatory role with each other in the adhesion and fusion of the neural tube. In this study, there exists a >50% penetrance of NTDs in the mouse mutants, which genetically have a single allele each of EphA2 and EphA4 absent.

  2. A Novel Occulta-Type Spina Bifida Mediated by Murine Double Heterozygotes EphA2 and EphA4 Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Nor Linda; Mohd-Zin, Siti W.; Ahmad-Annuar, Azlina; Abdul-Aziz, Noraishah M.

    2017-01-01

    Members of the Eph receptor tyrosine kinase have previously been implicated in cranial neural tube development. Failure of neural tube closure leads to the devastating conditions known as anencephaly and spina bifida. EphA2 and EphA4 are expressed at the tips of the closing spinal neural folds prior and during neural tube closure. We investigated the possible role of murine EphA2 and EphA4 during the last step of primary neural tube closure, which is adhesion and fusion. The individual mouse knockouts of EphA2 and EphA4 per se do not exhibit neural tube defects (NTDs). The embryos generated by the crossing of double heterozygotes Epha2tm1Jrui/+Epha4rb-2J/+ displayed NTDs with a wide degree of severity including close exencephaly and close spina bifida (spina bifida occulta). Interestingly, mutants displaying NTDs had skin covering the underlying lesion. The tissue sections revealed the elevated neural folds had not adhered and fused. The phenotypes seen in Epha2tm1Jrui/+Epha4rb-2J/+ double heterozygous embryos suggest both genes play a compensatory role with each other in the adhesion and fusion of the neural tube. In this study, there exists a >50% penetrance of NTDs in the mouse mutants, which genetically have a single allele each of EphA2 and EphA4 absent. PMID:29312933

  3. Purinoceptor modulation of noradrenaline release in rat tail artery: tonic modulation mediated by inhibitory P2Y- and facilitatory A2A-purinoceptors.

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, J.; Queiroz, G.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of analogues of adenosine and ATP on noradrenaline release elicited by electrical stimulation (5 Hz, 2700 pulses) were studied in superfused preparations of rat tail artery. The effects of purinoceptor antagonists, of adenosine deaminase and of adenosine uptake blockade were also examined. Noradrenaline was measured by h.p.l.c. electrochemical detection. 2. The A1-adenosine receptor agonist, N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA; 0.1-100 nM) reduced, whereas the A2A-receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680; 3-30 nM) increased evoked noradrenaline overflow. These effects were antagonized by the A1-adenosine receptor antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX; 20 nM) and the A2-adenosine receptor antagonist, 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX; 100 nM), respectively. The P2Y-purinoceptor agonist, 2-methylthio-ATP (1-100 microM) reduced noradrenaline overflow, an effect prevented by the P2-purinoceptor antagonist, cibacron blue 3GA (100 microM) and suramin (100 microM). 3. Adenosine deaminase (2 u ml-1), DMPX (100 nM) and inhibition of adenosine uptake with S-(p-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBTI; 50 nM) decreased evoked noradrenaline overflow. DPCPX alone did not change noradrenaline overflow but prevented the inhibition caused by NBTI. The P2Y-purinoceptor antagonist, cibacron blue 3GA (100 microM) increased evoked noradrenaline overflow as did suramin, a non-selective P2-antagonist. 4. It is concluded that, in rat tail artery, inhibitory (A1 and P2Y) and facilitatory (A2A) purinoceptors are present and modulate noradrenaline release evoked by electrical stimulation. Endogenous purines tonically modulate noradrenaline release through activation of inhibitory P2Y and facilitatory A2A purinoceptors, whereas a tonic activation of inhibitory A1 purinoceptors seems to be prevented by adenosine uptake. PMID:8825357

  4. PacCYP707A2 negatively regulates cherry fruit ripening while PacCYP707A1 mediates drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Dai, Shengjie; Sun, Yufei; Yuan, Bing; Kai, Wenbin; Pei, Yuelin; He, Suihuan; Liang, Bin; Zhang, Yushu; Leng, Ping

    2015-07-01

    Sweet cherry is a non-climacteric fruit and its ripening is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) during fruit development. In this study, four cDNAs (PacCYP707A1-4) encoding 8'-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA, were identified in sweet cherry fruits using tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and particle bombardment approaches. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed significant down-regulation of target gene transcripts in VIGS-treated cherry fruits. In PacCYP707A2-RNAi-treated fruits, ripening and fruit colouring were promoted relative to control fruits, and both ABA accumulation and PacNCED1 transcript levels were up-regulated by 140%. Silencing of PacCYP707A2 by VIGS significantly altered the transcripts of both ABA-responsive and ripening-related genes, including the ABA metabolism-associated genes NCED and CYP707A, the anthocyanin synthesis genes PacCHS, PacCHI, PacF3H, PacDFR, PacANS, and PacUFGT, the ethylene biosynthesis gene PacACO1, and the transcription factor PacMYBA. The promoter of PacMYBA responded more strongly to PacCYP707A2-RNAi-treated fruits than to PacCYP707A1-RNAi-treated fruits. By contrast, silencing of PacCYP707A1 stimulated a slight increase in fruit colouring and enhanced resistance to dehydration stress compared with control fruits. These results suggest that PacCYP707A2 is a key regulator of ABA catabolism that functions as a negative regulator of fruit ripening, while PacCYP707A1 regulates ABA content in response to dehydration during fruit development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. PacCYP707A2 negatively regulates cherry fruit ripening while PacCYP707A1 mediates drought tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Dai, Shengjie; Sun, Yufei; Yuan, Bing; Kai, Wenbin; Pei, Yuelin; He, Suihuan; Liang, Bin; Zhang, Yushu; Leng, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Sweet cherry is a non-climacteric fruit and its ripening is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) during fruit development. In this study, four cDNAs (PacCYP707A1–4) encoding 8′-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA, were identified in sweet cherry fruits using tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and particle bombardment approaches. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed significant down-regulation of target gene transcripts in VIGS-treated cherry fruits. In PacCYP707A2-RNAi-treated fruits, ripening and fruit colouring were promoted relative to control fruits, and both ABA accumulation and PacNCED1 transcript levels were up-regulated by 140%. Silencing of PacCYP707A2 by VIGS significantly altered the transcripts of both ABA-responsive and ripening-related genes, including the ABA metabolism-associated genes NCED and CYP707A, the anthocyanin synthesis genes PacCHS, PacCHI, PacF3H, PacDFR, PacANS, and PacUFGT, the ethylene biosynthesis gene PacACO1, and the transcription factor PacMYBA. The promoter of PacMYBA responded more strongly to PacCYP707A2-RNAi-treated fruits than to PacCYP707A1-RNAi-treated fruits. By contrast, silencing of PacCYP707A1 stimulated a slight increase in fruit colouring and enhanced resistance to dehydration stress compared with control fruits. These results suggest that PacCYP707A2 is a key regulator of ABA catabolism that functions as a negative regulator of fruit ripening, while PacCYP707A1 regulates ABA content in response to dehydration during fruit development. PMID:25956880

  6. Alpha 2-adrenergic receptor stimulation of phospholipase A2 and of adenylate cyclase in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells is mediated by different mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.B.; Halenda, S.P.; Bylund, D.B.

    1991-02-01

    The effect of alpha 2-adrenergic receptor activation on adenylate cyclase activity in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected with the alpha 2A-adrenergic receptor gene is biphasic. At lower concentrations of epinephrine forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production is inhibited, but at higher concentrations the inhibition is reversed. Both of these effects are blocked by the alpha 2 antagonist yohimbine but not by the alpha 1 antagonist prazosin. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin attenuates inhibition at lower concentrations of epinephrine and greatly potentiates forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production at higher concentrations of epinephrine. alpha 2-Adrenergic receptor stimulation also causes arachidonic acid mobilization, presumably via phospholipasemore » A2. This effect is blocked by yohimbine, quinacrine, removal of extracellular Ca2+, and pretreatment with pertussis toxin. Quinacrine and removal of extracellular Ca2+, in contrast, have no effect on the enhanced forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production. Thus, it appears that the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor in these cells can simultaneously activate distinct signal transduction systems; inhibition of adenylate cyclase and stimulation of phospholipase A2, both via G1, and potentiation of cyclic AMP production by a different (pertussis toxin-insensitive) mechanism.« less

  7. Using a modified Learning Potential Assessment Device and Mediated Learning Experiences to Assess Minority Student Progress and Program Goals in an Undergraduate Research Based Geoscience Program Serving American Indians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, L. W.

    2002-12-01

    During the initiation of a new program at the University of North Dakota designed to promote American Indians to engage in geoscience research and complete geoscience related degrees, an evaluation procedure utilizing a modified Learning Potential Assessment Device (LPAD) and Mediated Learning Experiences (MLE) to assess minority student progress was implemented. The program, called Indians Into Geosciences (INGEOS), utilized a modified form of the Learning Potential Assessment Device first to assess cultural factors, determination, and other baseline information, and second, utilized a series of Mediated Learning Experiences to enhance minority students' opportunities in a culturally appropriate, culturally diverse, and scientifically challenging manner in an effort to prepare students for competitive research careers in the geosciences. All of the LPADs and MLEs corresponded directly to the three goals or eight objectives of INGEOS. The three goals of the INGEOS program are: 1) increasing the number of American Indians earning degrees at all levels, 2) engaging American Indians in challenging and technically based scientific research, and 3) preparing American Indians for successful geoscience careers through multicultural community involvement. The eight objectives of the INGEOS program, called the Eight Points of Success, are: 1) spiritual health, 2) social health, 3) physical health, 4) mental health, 5) financial management, 6) research involvement, 7) technical exposure, and 8) multicultural community education. The INGEOS program goals were evaluated strictly quantitatively utilizing a variety of data sources such as grade point averages, number of credits earned, research project information, and developed products. The INGEOS Program goals reflected a combined quantitative score of all participants, whereas the objectives reflected qualitative measures and are specific for each INGEOS participant. Initial results indicate that those participants which

  8. Blueberry and malvidin inhibit cell cycle progression and induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis by abrogating the JAK/STAT-3 signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Baba, Abdul Basit; Nivetha, Ramesh; Chattopadhyay, Indranil; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2017-11-01

    Blueberries, a rich source of anthocyanins have attracted considerable attention as functional foods that confer immense health benefits including anticancer properties. Herein, we assessed the potential of blueberry and its major constituent malvidin to target STAT-3, a potentially druggable oncogenic transcription factor with high therapeutic index. We demonstrate that blueberry abrogates the JAK/STAT-3 pathway and modulates downstream targets that influence cell proliferation and apoptosis in a hamster model of oral oncogenesis. Further, we provide mechanistic evidence that blueberry and malvidin function as STAT-3 inhibitors in the oral cancer cell line SCC131. Blueberry and malvidin suppressed STAT-3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation thereby inducing cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. However, the combination of blueberry and malvidin with the STAT-3 inhibitor S3I-201 was more efficacious in STAT-3 inhibition relative to single agents. The present study has provided leads for the development of novel combinations of compounds that can serve as inhibitors of STAT-mediated oncogenic signalling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fallen Angels or Risen Apes? A Tale of the Intricate Complexities of Imbalanced Immune Responses in the Pathogenesis and Progression of Immune-Mediated and Viral Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ondondo, Beatrice Omusiro

    2014-01-01

    Excessive immune responses directed against foreign pathogens, self-antigens, or commensal microflora can cause cancer establishment and progression if the execution of tight immuno-regulatory mechanisms fails. On the other hand, induction of potent tumor antigen-specific immune responses together with stimulation of the innate immune system is a pre-requisite for effective anti-tumor immunity, and if suppressed by the strong immuno-regulatory mechanisms can lead to cancer progression. Therefore, it is crucial that the inevitable co-existence of these fundamental, yet conflicting roles of immune-regulatory cells is carefully streamlined as imbalances can be detrimental to the host. Infection with chronic persistent viruses is characterized by severe immune dysfunction resulting in T cell exhaustion and sometimes deletion of antigen-specific T cells. More often, this is due to increased immuno-regulatory processes, which are triggered to down-regulate immune responses and limit immunopathology. However, such heightened levels of immune disruption cause a concomitant loss of tumor immune-surveillance and create a permissive microenvironment for cancer establishment and progression, as demonstrated by increased incidences of cancer in immunosuppressed hosts. Paradoxically, while some cancers arise as a consequence of increased immuno-regulatory mechanisms that inhibit protective immune responses and impinge on tumor surveillance, other cancers arise due to impaired immuno-regulatory mechanisms and failure to limit pathogenic inflammatory responses. This intricate complexity, where immuno-regulatory cells can be beneficial in certain immune settings but detrimental in other settings underscores the need for carefully formulated interventions to equilibrate the balance between immuno-stimulatory and immuno-regulatory processes. PMID:24639678

  10. Energy stress-induced lncRNA HAND2-AS1 represses HIF1α-mediated energy metabolism and inhibits osteosarcoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yao; Zhu, Xiaojun; Xu, Yanyang; Tang, Qinglian; Huang, Zongwen; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Lu, Jinchang; Song, Guohui; Xu, Huaiyuan; Deng, Chuangzhong; Wang, Jin

    2018-01-01

    During recent years, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been recognized as key regulators in the development and progression of human cancers, however, their roles in osteosarcoma metabolism are still not well understood. The present study aims to investigate the expression profiles and potential modulation of specific lncRNA(s) in osteosarcoma metabolism. The high-throughput Hiseq sequencing was performed to screen for abnormally expressed lncRNAs in osteosarcoma cells cultured under glucose starvation condition, and lncRNA HAND2-AS1 was eventually identified as one that was significantly up-regulated when compared with normal cultured cells. Mechanistic investigations indicated that knockdown of HAND2-AS1 abrogated the energy stress-induced effect on cell apoptosis and proliferation, and promoted osteosarcoma progression. Moreover, knockdown of HAND2-AS1 promoted glucose uptake, lactate production, and the expression level of a serious of enzymes that involved in energy metabolism. Subsequently, RNA pull-down and RNA immuneprecipitation revealed that, upon energy stress, HAND2-AS1 regulated osteosarcoma metabolism through sequestering FBP1 from binding to HIF1α, thereby releasing HIF1α expression and promoting the protein level. Taken together, our integrated approach reveals a regulatory mechanism by lncRNA HAND2-AS1 to control energy metabolism and tumor development in osteosarcoma. Thus, HAND2-AS1 may be a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for the repression of osteosarcoma metabolism. PMID:29637006

  11. Loss of Mitochondrial Ndufs4 in Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons Mediates Progressive Motor Impairment in a Mouse Model of Leigh Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Byron; Hui, Jessica; Montgomery, Kelsey S; Gella, Alejandro; Bolea, Irene; Sanz, Elisenda; Palmiter, Richard D; Quintana, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Inability of mitochondria to generate energy leads to severe and often fatal myoencephalopathies. Among these, Leigh syndrome (LS) is one of the most common childhood mitochondrial diseases; it is characterized by hypotonia, failure to thrive, respiratory insufficiency and progressive mental and motor dysfunction, leading to early death. Basal ganglia nuclei, including the striatum, are affected in LS patients. However, neither the identity of the affected cell types in the striatum nor their contribution to the disease has been established. Here, we used a mouse model of LS lacking Ndufs4 , a mitochondrial complex I subunit, to confirm that loss of complex I, but not complex II, alters respiration in the striatum. To assess the role of striatal dysfunction in the pathology, we selectively inactivated Ndufs4 in the striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs), which account for over 95% of striatal neurons. Our results show that lack of Ndufs4 in MSNs causes a non-fatal progressive motor impairment without affecting the cognitive function of mice. Furthermore, no inflammatory responses or neuronal loss were observed up to 6 months of age. Hence, complex I deficiency in MSNs contributes to the motor deficits observed in LS, but not to the neural degeneration, suggesting that other neuronal populations drive the plethora of clinical signs in LS.

  12. DNA Methylation Mediated Downregulation of miR-449c Controls Osteosarcoma Cell Cycle Progression by Directly Targeting Oncogene c-Myc

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Li, Hua; Zhao, Xueling; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Caiguo; Zhang, Fan

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical regulators of gene expression, and they have broad roles in the pathogenesis of different diseases including cancer. Limited studies and expression profiles of miRNAs are available in human osteosarcoma cells. By applying a miRNA microarray analysis, we observed a number of miRNAs with abnormal expression in cancerous tissues from osteosarcoma patients. Of particular interest in this study was miR-449c, which was significantly downregulated in osteosarcoma cells and patients, and its expression was negatively correlated with tumor size and tumor MSTS stages. Ectopic expression of miR-449c significantly inhibited osteosarcoma cell proliferation and colony formation ability, and caused cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Further analysis identified that miR-449c was able to directly target the oncogene c-Myc and negatively regulated its expression. Overexpression of c-Myc partially reversed miR-449c-mimic-inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation. Moreover, DNA hypermethylation was observed in two CpG islands adjacent to the genomic locus of miR-449c in osteosarcoma cells. Conversely, treatment with the DNA methylation inhibitor AZA caused induction of miR-449c. In conclusion, our results support a model that DNA methylation mediates downregulation of miR-449c, diminishing miR-449c mediated inhibition of c-Myc and thus leading to the activation of downstream targets, eventually contributing to osteosarcoma tumorigenesis. PMID:28924385

  13. Decrease in self-esteem mediates the association between symptoms of social phobia and depression in middle adolescence in a sex-specific manner: a 2-year follow-up of a prospective population cohort study.

    PubMed

    Väänänen, Juha-Matti; Isomaa, Rasmus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Fröjd, Sari; Helminen, Mika; Marttunen, Mauri

    2014-03-19

    Social phobia and depression are common, highly comorbid disorders in middle adolescence. The mechanism underlying this comorbidity, however, is unclear. Decrease in self-esteem caused by the initial disorder might play a decisive role in the development of the subsequent disorder. The present study aimed to determine whether the association between symptoms of social phobia and depression is mediated by decrease in self-esteem in mid-adolescent girls and boys. As a part of the prospective Adolescent Mental Health Cohort (AMCH), subjects of this study were 9th grade pupils (mean age, 15.5) responding to a survey conducted in 2002-2003 (T1) and to a 2-year follow-up survey in 2004-2005 (T2) (N = 2070, mean age 17.6 years, 54.5% girls). Symptoms of social phobia without symptoms of depression at age 15 and symptoms of depression at age 17 were associated only among boys, and this association was mediated by decrease in self-esteem. Symptoms of depression without symptoms of social phobia at age 15 and symptoms of social phobia at age 17 were associated only among girls, and this association was partially mediated by decrease in self-esteem. Decrease in self-esteem plays a decisive role in the association between social phobia and depression. Self-esteem should be a key focus in interventions for adolescents suffering from social phobia or depression. Efficient intervention for the first disorder might help to prevent the decline in self-esteem and thus the incidence of the subsequent disorder. These findings are based on a sample of Finnish adolescents and should be confirmed in other jurisdictions or in more ethnically diverse samples.

  14. Decrease in self-esteem mediates the association between symptoms of social phobia and depression in middle adolescence in a sex-specific manner: a 2-year follow-up of a prospective population cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Social phobia and depression are common, highly comorbid disorders in middle adolescence. The mechanism underlying this comorbidity, however, is unclear. Decrease in self-esteem caused by the initial disorder might play a decisive role in the development of the subsequent disorder. The present study aimed to determine whether the association between symptoms of social phobia and depression is mediated by decrease in self-esteem in mid-adolescent girls and boys. Methods As a part of the prospective Adolescent Mental Health Cohort (AMCH), subjects of this study were 9th grade pupils (mean age, 15.5) responding to a survey conducted in 2002–2003 (T1) and to a 2-year follow-up survey in 2004–2005 (T2) (N = 2070, mean age 17.6 years, 54.5% girls). Results Symptoms of social phobia without symptoms of depression at age 15 and symptoms of depression at age 17 were associated only among boys, and this association was mediated by decrease in self-esteem. Symptoms of depression without symptoms of social phobia at age 15 and symptoms of social phobia at age 17 were associated only among girls, and this association was partially mediated by decrease in self-esteem. Conclusions Decrease in self-esteem plays a decisive role in the association between social phobia and depression. Self-esteem should be a key focus in interventions for adolescents suffering from social phobia or depression. Efficient intervention for the first disorder might help to prevent the decline in self-esteem and thus the incidence of the subsequent disorder. These findings are based on a sample of Finnish adolescents and should be confirmed in other jurisdictions or in more ethnically diverse samples. PMID:24641987

  15. Modulation of basal cell fate during productive and transforming HPV-16 infection is mediated by progressive E6-driven depletion of Notch.

    PubMed

    Kranjec, Christian; Holleywood, Christina; Libert, Diane; Griffin, Heather; Mahmood, Radma; Isaacson, Erin; Doorbar, John

    2017-08-01

    In stratified epithelia such as the epidermis, homeostasis is maintained by the proliferation of cells in the lower epithelial layers and the concomitant loss of differentiated cells from the epithelial surface. These differentiating keratinocytes progressively stratify and form a self-regenerating multi-layered barrier that protects the underlying dermis. In such tissue, the continual loss and replacement of differentiated cells also limits the accumulation of oncogenic mutations within the tissue. Inactivating mutations in key driver genes, such as TP53 and NOTCH1, reduce the proportion of differentiating cells allowing for the long-term persistence of expanding mutant clones in the tissue. Here we show that through the expression of E6, HPV-16 prevents the early fate commitment of human keratinocytes towards differentiation and confers a strong growth advantage to human keratinocytes. When E6 is expressed either alone or with E7, it promotes keratinocyte proliferation at high cell densities, through the combined inactivation of p53 and Notch1. In organotypic raft culture, the activity of E6 is restricted to the basal layer of the epithelium and is enhanced during the progression from productive to abortive or transforming HPV-16 infection. Consistent with this, the expression of p53 and cleaved Notch1 becomes progressively more disrupted, and is associated with increased basal cell density and reduced commitment to differentiation. The expression of cleaved Notch1 is similarly disrupted also in HPV-16-positive cervical lesions, depending on neoplastic grade. When taken together, these data depict an important role of high-risk E6 in promoting the persistence of infected keratinocytes in the basal and parabasal layers through the inactivation of gene products that are commonly mutated in non-HPV-associated neoplastic squamous epithelia. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great

  16. LACTB, a novel epigenetic silenced tumor suppressor, inhibits colorectal cancer progression by attenuating MDM2-mediated p53 ubiquitination and degradation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Kaixuan; Chen, Xiaoxiang; Hu, Xiuxiu; Liu, Xiangxiang; Xu, Tao; Sun, Huiling; Pan, Yuqin; He, Bangshun; Wang, Shukui

    2018-06-13

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common aggressive malignancies. Like other solid tumors, inactivation of tumor suppressor genes and activation of oncogenes occur during CRC development and progression. Recently, a novel tumor suppressor, LACTB, was proposed to inhibit tumor progression, but the functional and clinical significance of this tumor suppressor in CRC remains unexplored. Herein, we found LACTB was significantly downregulated in CRC due to promoter methylation and histone deacetylation, which was associated with metastasis and advanced clinical stage. CRC patients with low LACTB expression had poorer overall survival and LACTB also determined to be an independent prognostic factor for poorer outcome. Ectopic expression of LACTB suppressed CRC cells proliferation, migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in vitro and inhibited CRC growth and metastasis in vivo, while knockout of LACTB by CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technique resulted in an opposite phenotype. Interestingly, LACTB could exert antitumorigenic effect only in HCT116 and HCT8 cells harboring wild-type TP53, but not in HT29 and SW480 cells harboring mutant TP53 or HCT116 p53 -/- cells. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that LACTB could directly bind to the C terminus of p53 to inhibit p53 degradation by preventing MDM2 from interacting with p53. Moreover, ablation of p53 attenuated the antitumorigenic effects of LACTB overexpression in CRC. Collectively, our findings successfully demonstrate for the first time that LACTB is a novel epigenetic silenced tumor suppressor through modulating the stability of p53, supporting the pursuit of LACTB as a potential therapeutic target for CRC.

  17. Defects in chromosome congression and mitotic progression in KIF18A-deficient cells are partly mediated through impaired functions of CENP-E.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Yao, Yixin; Xu, Han-Zhang; Wang, Zhu-Gang; Lu, Luo; Dai, Wei

    2009-08-15

    KIF18A, a molecular motor, is an essential component in the regulation of orderly chromosome congression by attenuation of the kinetochore oscillation amplitude at the midzone during mitosis in vertebrate cells. Here we report that KIF18A depletion resulted in mitotic arrest which was accompanied by the presence of unaligned chromosomes in HeLa cells. This resembles the phenotype induced by an impaired function of CENP-E, also a mitotic kinesin essential for the formation of the mitotic spindles. Our further analysis showed that KIF18A depletion caused specific downregulation of CENP-E. Downregulation of CENP-E as the result of KIF18A silencing was not due to reduced transcription but primarily due to the enhanced protein degradation. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed that KIF18A physically interacted with CENP-E and BubR1 during mitosis. Ectopic expression of the wild-type tail domain of CENP-E, but not a corresponding mutant, significantly suppressed chromosome congression defects in mitotic cells. Together, our studies strongly suggest that chromosome congression defects as the result of KIF18A depletion is at least in part mediated through destabilizing kinetochore CENP-E.

  18. Functional relevance of “seed” and “non-seed” sequences in microRNA-mediated promotion of C. elegans developmental progression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huibin; Artiles, Karen L.; Fire, Andrew Z.

    2015-01-01

    The founding heterochronic microRNAs, lin-4 and let-7, together with their validated targets and well-characterized phenotypes in C. elegans, offer an opportunity to test functionality of microRNAs in a developmental context. In this study, we defined sequence requirements at the microRNA level for these two microRNAs, evaluating lin-4 and let-7 mutant microRNAs for their ability to support temporal development under conditions where the wild-type lin-4 and let-7 gene products are absent. For lin-4, we found a strong requirement for seed sequences, with function drastically affected by several central mutations in the seed sequence, while rescue was retained by a set of mutations peripheral to the seed. let-7 rescuing activity was retained to a surprising degree by a variety of central seed mutations, while several non-seed mutant effects support potential noncanonical contributions to let-7 function. Taken together, this work illustrates both the functional partnership between seed and non-seed sequences in mediating C. elegans temporal development and a diversity among microRNA effectors in the contributions of seed and non-seed regions to activity. PMID:26385508

  19. Polyplex-mediated inhibition of chemokine receptor CXCR4 and chromatin-remodeling enzyme NCOA3 impedes pancreatic cancer progression and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Kumar, Sushil; Rachagani, Satyanarayana; Sajja, Balasrinivasa R; Xie, Ying; Hang, Yu; Jain, Maneesh; Li, Jing; Boska, Michael D; Batra, Surinder K; Oupický, David

    2016-09-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies due to intense desmoplasia, extreme hypoxia and inherent chemoresistance. Studies have implicated the expression of chemokine receptor CXCR4 and nuclear receptor co-activator-3 (NCOA3) in the development of desmoplasia and metastatic spread of PC. Using a series of polymeric CXCR4 antagonists (PCX), we optimized formulation of PCX/siNCOA3 polyplexes to simultaneously target CXCR4 and NCOA3 in PC. Cholesterol-modified PCX showed maximum CXCR4 antagonism, NCOA3 silencing and inhibition of PC cell migration in vitro. The optimized PCX/siNCOA3 polyplexes were used in evaluating antitumor and antimetastatic activity in orthotopic mouse model of metastatic PC. The polyplexes displayed significant inhibition of primary tumor growth, which was accompanied by a decrease in tumor necrosis and increased tumor perfusion. The polyplexes also showed significant antimetastatic effect and effective suppression of metastasis to distant organs. Overall, dual-function PCX/siNCOA3 polyplexes can effectively regulate tumor microenvironment to decrease progression and dissemination of PC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Progressive cell-mediated changes in articular cartilage and bone in mice are initiated by a single session of controlled cyclic compressive loading

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Frank C.; Dragomir, Cecilia L.; Plumb, Darren A.; Hsia, Allison W.; Adebayo, Olufunmilayo O.; Goldring, Steven R.; Wright, Timothy M.; Goldring, Mary B.; van der Meulen, Marjolein C.H.

    2017-01-01

    We previously showed that repetitive cyclic loading of the mouse knee joint causes changes that recapitulate the features of osteoarthritis (OA) in humans. By applying a single loading session, we characterized the temporal progression of the structural and compositional changes in subchondral bone and articular cartilage. We applied loading during a single 5-minute session to the left tibia of adult (26-week-old) C57Bl/6 male mice at a peak load of 9.0N for 1200 cycles. Knee joints were collected at times 0, 1, and 2 weeks after loading. The changes in articular cartilage and subchondral bone were analyzed by histology, immunohistochemistry (caspase-3 and cathepsin K), and microcomputed tomography. At time 0, no change was evident in chondrocyte viability or cartilage or subchondral bone integrity. However, cartilage pathology demonstrated by localized thinning and proteoglycan loss occurred at 1 and 2 weeks after the single session of loading. Transient cancellous bone loss was evident at 1 week, associated with increased osteoclast number. Bone loss was reversed to control levels at 2 weeks. We observed formation of fibrous and cartilaginous tissues at the joint margins at 1 and 2 weeks. Our findings demonstrate that a single session of noninvasive loading leads to the development of OA-like morphological and cellular alterations in articular cartilage and subchondral bone. The loss in subchondral trabecular bone mass and thickness returns to control levels at 2 weeks, whereas the cartilage thinning and proteoglycan loss persist. PMID:26896841

  1. Galectin-1 mediates TGF-β-induced transformation from normal fibroblasts into carcinoma-associated fibroblasts and promotes tumor progression in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Lingyan; Xu, Cong; Guan, Zhonghai; Su, Xingyun; Xu, Zhenzhen; Cao, Jiang; Teng, Lisong

    2016-01-01

    Rcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a major constituent of the tumor microenvironment. Cancer cells can induce the transformation from normal fibroblasts (NFs) into CAFs, reciprocally, CAFs promote tumor invasion and proliferation. TGF-β has been the mostly accepted factor to fuel NFs transformation into CAFs. Galectin-1 (Gal1) is highly upregulated in CAFs of multiple human cancers, and overexpression of Gal1 in CAFs promotes tumor progression. The effect of Gal1 on TGF-β-induced CAFs activation has not yet been established in gastric cancer (GC). In this study, we show that Gal1 expression in stroma is positively related to TGF-β in epithelial cells by retrospective analysis of GC patient samples. Meanwhile, conditioned media (CMs) from gastric cancer cells induce expression of both Gal1 and the CAFs marker alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in NFs via TGF-β secretion. Knockdown of Gal1 prevents TGF-β-induced the conversion of NFs to CAFs. CMs from fibroblasts overexpressing Gal1 inhibits cancer cells apoptosis, promotes migration and invasion in vitro. Thus, Gal1 is significantly involved in the development of tumor-promoting microenvironment by enhancing TGF-β signaling in a positive feedback loop. Targeting Gal1 in tumor stroma should be considered as a potential therapeutic target for GC. PMID:27186290

  2. Distinct Signaling Pathways Mediate Stimulation of Cell Cycle Progression and Prevention of Apoptotic Cell Death by Estrogen in Rat Pituitary Tumor PR1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Caporali, Simona; Imai, Manami; Altucci, Lucia; Cancemi, Massimo; Caristi, Silvana; Cicatiello, Luigi; Matarese, Filomena; Penta, Roberta; Sarkar, Dipak K.; Bresciani, Francesco; Weisz, Alessandro

    2003-01-01

    Estrogens control cell growth and viability in target cells via an interplay of genomic and extragenomic pathways not yet elucidated. Here, we show evidence that cell proliferation and survival are differentially regulated by estrogen in rat pituitary tumor PR1 cells. Pico- to femtomolar concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E2) are sufficient to foster PR1 cell proliferation, whereas nanomolar concentrations of the same are needed to prevent cell death that occurs at a high rate in these cells in the absence of hormone. Activation of endogenous (PRL) or transfected estrogen-responsive genes occurs at the same, higher concentrations of E2 required to promote cell survival, whereas stimulation of cyclin D3 expression and DNA synthesis occur at lower E2 concentrations. Similarly, the pure antiestrogen ICI 182,780 inhibits estrogen response element-dependent trans-activation and cell death more effectively than cyclin-cdk activity, G1-S transition, or DNA synthesis rate. In antiestrogen-treated and/or estrogen-deprived cells, death is due predominantly to apoptosis. Estrogen-induced cell survival, but not E2-dependent cell cycle progression, can be prevented by an inhibitor of c-Src kinase or by blockade of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway. These data indicate the coexistence of two distinguishable estrogen signaling pathways in PR1 cells, characterized by different functions and sensitivity to hormones and antihormones. PMID:12960425

  3. Inhibitory Effects of Vinpocetine on the Progression of Atherosclerosis Are Mediated by Akt/NF-κB Dependent Mechanisms in apoE-/- Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Jianhui; Peng, Wenhui; Li, Hailing; Lu, Yuyan; Wang, Ke; Fan, Fan; Li, Shuang; Xu, Yawei

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies have found additional roles for vinpocetine, a potent phosphodiesterase type I inhibitor, in anti-proliferation and anti-inflammation of vascular smooth muscle cells and cancer cells via different mechanisms. In this study, we attempted to investigate whether vinpocetine protected against atherosclerotic development in apoE-/- mice and explore the underlying anti-atherogenic mechanisms in macrophages. Methodology/Principal Findings Vinpocetine markedly decreased atherosclerotic lesion size in apoE-/- mice measured by oil red O. Masson’s trichrome staining and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that vinpocetine significantly increased the thickness of fibrous cap, reduced the size of lipid-rich necrotic core and attenuated inflammation. In vitro experiments exhibited a significant decrease in monocyte adhesion treated with vinpocetine. Further, active TNF-α, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression induced by ox-LDL were attenuated by vinpocetine in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, ox-LDL-induced reactive oxygen species were significantly repressed by vinpocetine. Both western blot and luciferase activity assay showed that vinpocetine inhibited the enhanced Akt, IKKα/β, IκBα phosphorylation and NF-κB activity induced by ox-LDL, and the inhibition of NF-κB activity was partly caused by Akt dephosphorylation. However, knockdown of PDE1B did not affect Akt, IKKα/β and IκBα phosphorylation. Conclusions These results suggest that vinpocetine exerts anti-atherogenic effects through inhibition of monocyte adhesion, oxidative stress and inflammatory response, which are mediated by Akt/NF-κB dependent pathway but independent of PDE1 blockade in macrophages. PMID:24349299

  4. Inhibitory effects of vinpocetine on the progression of atherosclerosis are mediated by Akt/NF-κB dependent mechanisms in apoE-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jianhui; Peng, Wenhui; Li, Hailing; Lu, Yuyan; Wang, Ke; Fan, Fan; Li, Shuang; Xu, Yawei

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have found additional roles for vinpocetine, a potent phosphodiesterase type I inhibitor, in anti-proliferation and anti-inflammation of vascular smooth muscle cells and cancer cells via different mechanisms. In this study, we attempted to investigate whether vinpocetine protected against atherosclerotic development in apoE(-/-) mice and explore the underlying anti-atherogenic mechanisms in macrophages. Vinpocetine markedly decreased atherosclerotic lesion size in apoE(-/-) mice measured by oil red O. Masson's trichrome staining and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that vinpocetine significantly increased the thickness of fibrous cap, reduced the size of lipid-rich necrotic core and attenuated inflammation. In vitro experiments exhibited a significant decrease in monocyte adhesion treated with vinpocetine. Further, active TNF-α, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression induced by ox-LDL were attenuated by vinpocetine in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, ox-LDL-induced reactive oxygen species were significantly repressed by vinpocetine. Both western blot and luciferase activity assay showed that vinpocetine inhibited the enhanced Akt, IKKα/β, IκBα phosphorylation and NF-κB activity induced by ox-LDL, and the inhibition of NF-κB activity was partly caused by Akt dephosphorylation. However, knockdown of PDE1B did not affect Akt, IKKα/β and IκBα phosphorylation. These results suggest that vinpocetine exerts anti-atherogenic effects through inhibition of monocyte adhesion, oxidative stress and inflammatory response, which are mediated by Akt/NF-κB dependent pathway but independent of PDE1 blockade in macrophages.

  5. Progressive cell-mediated changes in articular cartilage and bone in mice are initiated by a single session of controlled cyclic compressive loading.

    PubMed

    Ko, Frank C; Dragomir, Cecilia L; Plumb, Darren A; Hsia, Allison W; Adebayo, Olufunmilayo O; Goldring, Steven R; Wright, Timothy M; Goldring, Mary B; van der Meulen, Marjolein C H

    2016-11-01

    We previously showed that repetitive cyclic loading of the mouse knee joint causes changes that recapitulate the features of osteoarthritis (OA) in humans. By applying a single loading session, we characterized the temporal progression of the structural and compositional changes in subchondral bone and articular cartilage. We applied loading during a single 5-minute session to the left tibia of adult (26-week-old) C57Bl/6 male mice at a peak load of 9.0N for 1,200 cycles. Knee joints were collected at times 0, 1, and 2 weeks after loading. The changes in articular cartilage and subchondral bone were analyzed by histology, immunohistochemistry (caspase-3 and cathepsin K), and microcomputed tomography. At time 0, no change was evident in chondrocyte viability or cartilage or subchondral bone integrity. However, cartilage pathology demonstrated by localized thinning and proteoglycan loss occurred at 1 and 2 weeks after the single session of loading. Transient cancellous bone loss was evident at 1 week, associated with increased osteoclast number. Bone loss was reversed to control levels at 2 weeks. We observed formation of fibrous and cartilaginous tissues at the joint margins at 1 and 2 weeks. Our findings demonstrate that a single session of noninvasive loading leads to the development of OA-like morphological and cellular alterations in articular cartilage and subchondral bone. The loss in subchondral trabecular bone mass and thickness returns to control levels at 2 weeks, whereas the cartilage thinning and proteoglycan loss persist. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1941-1949, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Progressive Motor Deficit is Mediated by the Denervation of Neuromuscular Junctions and Axonal Degeneration in Transgenic Mice Expressing Mutant (P301S) Tau Protein.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhuoran; Valkenburg, Femke; Hornix, Betty E; Mantingh-Otter, Ietje; Zhou, Xingdong; Mari, Muriel; Reggiori, Fulvio; Van Dam, Debby; Eggen, Bart J L; De Deyn, Peter P; Boddeke, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Tauopathies include a variety of neurodegenerative diseases associated with the pathological aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau, resulting in progressive cognitive decline and motor impairment. The underlying mechanism for motor deficits related to tauopathy is not yet fully understood. Here, we use a novel transgenic tau mouse line, Tau 58/4, with enhanced neuron-specific expression of P301S mutant tau to investigate the motor abnormalities in association with the peripheral nervous system. Using stationary beam, gait, and rotarod tests, motor deficits were found in Tau 58/4 mice already 3 months after birth, which deteriorated during aging. Hyperphosphorylated tau was detected in the cell bodies and axons of motor neurons. At the age of 9 and 12 months, significant denervation of the neuromuscular junction in the extensor digitorum longus muscle was observed in Tau 58/4 mice, compared to wild-type mice. Muscle hypotrophy was observed in Tau 58/4 mice at 9 and 12 months. Using electron microscopy, we observed ultrastructural changes in the sciatic nerve of 12-month-old Tau 58/4 mice indicative of the loss of large axonal fibers and hypomyelination (assessed by g-ratio). We conclude that the accumulated hyperphosphorylated tau in the axon terminals may induce dying-back axonal degeneration, myelin abnormalities, neuromuscular junction denervation, and muscular atrophy, which may be the mechanisms responsible for the deterioration of the motor function in Tau 58/4 mice. Tau 58/4 mice represent an interesting neuromuscular degeneration model, and the pathological mechanisms might be responsible for motor signs observed in some human tauopathies.

  7. Thyrotropin-induced hydrogen peroxide production in FRTL-5 thyroid cells is mediated not by adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate, but by Ca2+ signaling followed by phospholipase-A2 activation and potentiated by an adenosine derivative.

    PubMed

    Kimura, T; Okajima, F; Sho, K; Kobayashi, I; Kondo, Y

    1995-01-01

    The production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an essential process for iodide organification is a key reaction in TSH-induced thyroid hormone synthesis. Here we characterize the signal transduction pathway involved in TSH-induced H2O2 production in FRTL-5 thyroid cells. At higher than 1 nM TSH, N6-(L-2-phenylisopropyl)adenosine (PIA), an adenosine receptor agonist having, by itself, no influence on H2O2 generation, potentiated this TSH action, whereas the TSH increase and PIA addition reduced cAMP accumulation. RO 20-1724, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, amplified the TSH-induced cAMP accumulation, but did not change H2O2 generation in the whole range of TSH used. Ca(2+)-mobilizing agonists, GTP and ATP, also induced H2O2 production without stimulating cAMP accumulation. Chelation of intracellular Ca2+ markedly inhibited the TSH action, but intracellular Ca2+ increases by either thapsigargin or ionomycin mimicking it. All of the findings show the participation of Ca2+, but not cAMP, in the action of TSH. Desensitization of protein kinase-C (PKC) did not influence the receptor-mediated H2O2 production, suggesting the reduced importance of PKC activation compared to Ca2+ signaling to the reaction. A rise in intracellular Ca2+ independent of receptor activation also induced H2O2 production as well as arachidonate release, and both were potentiated by PIA. In addition, inhibitors of phospholipase-A2 and the arachidonate metabolic pathway depressed H2O2 generation, suggesting the participation of an arachidonate cascade in the Ca(2+)-dependent H2O2 production. Lipoxygenase inhibitors depressed the Ca2+ action without influencing arachidonate release, suggesting the involvement of a lipoxygenase product(s) of arachidonate in the Ca(2+)-signaling mechanism. In conclusion, in FRTL-5 cells, TSH-induced H2O2 production is mediated not by cAMP, but by the phospholipase-C/Ca2+ cascade, possibly followed by the Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipase-A2/arachidonate cascade. PIA

  8. miR-200b and miR-200c as prognostic factors and mediators of gastric cancer cell progression.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hailin; Deng, Min; Tang, Yunyun; Xie, Xinhua; Guo, Jiaoli; Kong, Yanan; Ye, Feng; Su, Qi; Xie, Xiaoming

    2013-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinicopathologic significance and potential role of miR-200b and miR-200c in the development and progression of gastric cancer. We examined miR-200b and miR-200c expression in 36 paired normal and stomach tumor specimens, as well as gastric cancer cell lines, by quantitative real-time PCR. In addition, miR-200b and miR-200c were detected by ISH using gastric cancer tissue microarrays, and the association between miR-200b and miR-200c levels and clinicopathologic factors and prognosis were analyzed. A luciferase assay was conducted for target evaluation. The functional effects of miR-200b and miR-200c on gastric cancer cells were validated by a cell proliferation assay and cell invasion and migration assays. miR-200b and miR-200c were downregulated in the gastric cancer specimens and cell lines tested. miR-200b and miR-200c levels were significantly correlated with the clinical stage, T stage, lymph node metastasis, and survival of patients. Ectopic expression of miR-200b and miR-200c impaired cell growth and invasion. In addition, when overexpressed, miR-200b and miR-200c commonly directly targeted DNMT3A, DNMT3B, and SP1 (a transactivator of the DNMT1 gene), which resulted in marked reduction of the expression of DNA methyltransferases DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B at the protein level. This effect, in turn, led to a decrease in global DNA methylation and reexpression of p16, RASS1A1, and E-cadherin via promoter DNA hypomethylation. Our findings suggest that miR-200b and miR-200c, as valuable markers of gastric cancer prognosis, may be a promising approach to human gastric cancer treatment. ©2013 AACR.

  9. Four Proteins Encoded in the gspB-secY2A2 Operon of Streptococcus gordonii Mediate the Intracellular Glycosylation of the Platelet-Binding Protein GspB

    PubMed Central

    Takamatsu, Daisuke; Bensing, Barbara A.; Sullam, Paul M.

    2004-01-01

    Platelet binding by Streptococcus gordonii strain M99 is mediated predominantly by the cell surface glycoprotein GspB. This adhesin consists of a putative N-terminal signal peptide, two serine-rich regions (SRR1 and SRR2), a basic region between SRR1 and SRR2, and a C-terminal cell wall anchoring domain. The glycosylation of GspB is mediated at least in part by Gly and Nss, which are encoded in the secY2A2 locus immediately downstream of gspB. This region also encodes two proteins (Gtf and Orf4) that are required for the expression of GspB but whose functions have not been delineated. In this study, we further characterized the roles of Gly, Nss, Gtf, and Orf4 by investigating the expression and glycosylation of a series of glutathione S-transferase-GspB fusion proteins in M99 and in gly, nss, gtf, and orf4 mutants. Compared with fusion proteins expressed in the wild-type background, fusion proteins expressed in the mutant strain backgrounds showed altered electrophoretic mobility. In addition, the fusion proteins formed insoluble aggregates in protoplasts of the gtf and orf4 mutants. Glycan detection and lectin blot analysis revealed that SRR1 and SRR2 were glycosylated but that the basic region was unmodified. When the fusion protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, glycosylation of this protein was observed only in the presence of both gtf and orf4. These results demonstrate that Gly, Nss, Gtf, and Orf4 are all involved in the intracellular glycosylation of SRRs. Moreover, Gtf and Orf4 are essential for glycosylation, which in turn is important for the solubility of GspB. PMID:15489421

  10. The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid inhibits proliferation and progression of non-small cell lung cancer cells through the reactive oxygen species-mediated inactivation of the PI3K /Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yuanqin; Sui, Chengguang; Meng, Fandong; Ma, Ping; Jiang, Youhong

    2017-05-03

    Docosahexaenoic acid(DHA) inhibits tumor growth and progression in various cancers, including lung cancer. However, the mechanisms involved remain unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism of DHA in inhibiting progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in vitro. The proliferation of A549 was tested by MTT, and cell apoptosis was analysed using flow cytometer. The migration and invasion were examined respectively by wound healing assay and Transwell invasion assay. The level of ROS (reactive oxygen species, ROS) was checked by DCF (dichlorodihydrofluorescein, DCF) production in cells. The apoptosis associated protein (caspase-3, PARP,Bax,Bcl-2 and survivin) and metastases associated proteins including HEF1, MMP9 and VEGF were detected by Western blot, and the same method was used in the expression of PI3K and Akt. DHA inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of A549 cells. Moreover, it suppressed the invasion and metastasis of A549 cells, while downregulating the levels of metastasis-associated proteins, including HEF1, matrix metallopeptidase (MMP9), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), in a dose -dependent manner. In addition, DHA inactivated Akt phosphorylation. All of these responses were associated with the accumulation of intracellular ROS. DHA downregulated the level of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, while the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) reversed the effect of DHA, which further validated our findings. The present study demonstrates that DHA inhibits the development of non-small lung tumors through an ROS-mediated inactivation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  11. Progress Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2018-05-15

    This report summarizes the annual progress of EPA’s Clean Air Markets Programs such as the Acid Rain Program (ARP) and the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR). EPA systematically collects data on emissions, compliance, and environmental effects, these data are highlighted in our Progress Reports.

  12. Progress Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2018-05-16

    This report summarizes the annual progress of EPA’s Clean Air Markets Programs such as the Acid Rain Program (ARP) and the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR). EPA systematically collects data on emissions, compliance, and environmental effects, these data are highlighted in our Progress Reports.

  13. Phase I trial of p28 (NSC745104), a non-HDM2-mediated peptide inhibitor of p53 ubiquitination in pediatric patients with recurrent or progressive central nervous system tumors: A Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium Study.

    PubMed

    Lulla, Rishi R; Goldman, Stewart; Yamada, Tohru; Beattie, Craig W; Bressler, Linda; Pacini, Michael; Pollack, Ian F; Fisher, Paul Graham; Packer, Roger J; Dunkel, Ira J; Dhall, Girish; Wu, Shengjie; Onar, Arzu; Boyett, James M; Fouladi, Maryam

    2016-09-01

    p53 is a promising target in human cancer. p28 is a cell-penetrating peptide that preferentially enters cancer cells and binds to both wild-type and mutant p53 protein, inhibiting COP1-mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. This results in increased levels of p53, which induces cell cycle arrest at G2/M. We conducted a phase I study to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) and describe the dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) and pharmacokinetics (PKs) of p28 in children. Children aged 3-21 years with recurrent or progressive central nervous system tumors were eligible. Intravenous p28 was administered 3 times weekly for 4 consecutive weeks of a 6-week cycle at 4.16 mg/kg/dose (the adult recommended phase II dose) using a rolling-6 study design. Expression status of p53 was characterized by immunohistochemistry, and serum PK parameters were established on the second dose. Of the 18 eligible patients enrolled in the study, 12 completed the DLT monitoring period and were evaluable for toxicity. p28 was well-tolerated; 7 participants received ≥2 courses, and the most common adverse event attributed to the drug was transient grade 1 infusion-related reaction. PK analysis revealed a profile similar to adults; however, an increased area under the curve was observed in pediatric patients. High p53 expression in tumor cell nuclei was observed in 6 of 12 available tissue samples. There were no objective responses; 2 participants remained stable on the study for >4 cycles. This phase I study demonstrated that p28 is well-tolerated in children with recurrent CNS malignancies at the adult recommended phase II dose. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Coagulation factor VIIa-mediated protease-activated receptor 2 activation leads to β-catenin accumulation via the AKT/GSK3β pathway and contributes to breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Roy, Abhishek; Ansari, Shabbir A; Das, Kaushik; Prasad, Ramesh; Bhattacharya, Anindita; Mallik, Suman; Mukherjee, Ashis; Sen, Prosenjit

    2017-08-18

    Cell migration and invasion are very characteristic features of cancer cells that promote metastasis, which is one of the most common causes of mortality among cancer patients. Emerging evidence has shown that coagulation factors can directly mediate cancer-associated complications either by enhancing thrombus formation or by initiating various signaling events leading to metastatic cancer progression. It is well established that, apart from its distinct role in blood coagulation, coagulation factor FVIIa enhances aggressive behaviors of breast cancer cells, but the underlying signaling mechanisms still remain elusive. To this end, we investigated FVIIa's role in the migration and invasiveness of the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Consistent with previous observations, we observed that FVIIa increased the migratory and invasive potential of these cells. We also provide molecular evidence that protease-activated receptor 2 activation followed by PI3K-AKT activation and GSK3β inactivation is involved in these processes and that β-catenin, a well known tumor-regulatory protein, contributes to this signaling pathway. The pivotal role of β-catenin was further indicated by the up-regulation of its downstream targets cyclin D1, c-Myc, COX-2, MMP-7, MMP-14, and Claudin-1. β-Catenin knockdown almost completely attenuated the FVIIa-induced enhancement of breast cancer migration and invasion. These findings provide a new perspective to counteract the invasive behavior of breast cancer, indicating that blocking PI3K-AKT pathway-dependent β-catenin accumulation may represent a potential therapeutic approach to control breast cancer. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Phase I trial of p28 (NSC745104), a non-HDM2-mediated peptide inhibitor of p53 ubiquitination in pediatric patients with recurrent or progressive central nervous system tumors: A Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium Study

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Stewart; Yamada, Tohru; Beattie, Craig W.; Bressler, Linda; Pacini, Michael; Pollack, Ian F.; Fisher, Paul Graham; Packer, Roger J.; Dunkel, Ira J.; Dhall, Girish; Wu, Shengjie; Onar, Arzu; Boyett, James M.; Fouladi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background p53 is a promising target in human cancer. p28 is a cell-penetrating peptide that preferentially enters cancer cells and binds to both wild-type and mutant p53 protein, inhibiting COP1-mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. This results in increased levels of p53, which induces cell cycle arrest at G2/M. We conducted a phase I study to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) and describe the dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) and pharmacokinetics (PKs) of p28 in children. Methods Children aged 3–21 years with recurrent or progressive central nervous system tumors were eligible. Intravenous p28 was administered 3 times weekly for 4 consecutive weeks of a 6-week cycle at 4.16 mg/kg/dose (the adult recommended phase II dose) using a rolling-6 study design. Expression status of p53 was characterized by immunohistochemistry, and serum PK parameters were established on the second dose. Results Of the 18 eligible patients enrolled in the study, 12 completed the DLT monitoring period and were evaluable for toxicity. p28 was well-tolerated; 7 participants received ≥2 courses, and the most common adverse event attributed to the drug was transient grade 1 infusion-related reaction. PK analysis revealed a profile similar to adults; however, an increased area under the curve was observed in pediatric patients. High p53 expression in tumor cell nuclei was observed in 6 of 12 available tissue samples. There were no objective responses; 2 participants remained stable on the study for >4 cycles. Conclusions This phase I study demonstrated that p28 is well-tolerated in children with recurrent CNS malignancies at the adult recommended phase II dose. PMID:27022131

  16. Clinical and cost-effectiveness of progressive exercise compared with best practice advice, with or without corticosteroid injection, for the treatment of rotator cuff disorders: protocol for a 2x2 factorial randomised controlled trial (the GRASP trial)

    PubMed Central

    Hopewell, Sally; Keene, David J; Maia Schlüssel, Michael; Dritsaki, Melina; Dutton, Susan; Carr, Andrew; Hamilton, William; Hansen, Zara; Jaggi, Anju; Littlewood, Chris; Soutakbar, Hessam; Heine, Peter; Cureton, Lucy; Barker, Karen; Lamb, Sarah E

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Shoulder pain is very common, with around 70% of cases due to disorders of the rotator cuff. Despite widespread provision of physiotherapy, there is uncertainty about which type of exercise and delivery mechanisms are associated with best outcomes. There is also uncertainty around the long-term benefits and harms of corticosteroid injection therapy, which is often used in addition to physiotherapy. The Getting it Right: Addressing Shoulder Pain trial will assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of individually tailored, progressive exercise compared with best practice advice, with or without corticosteroid injection, in adults with a rotator cuff disorder. Methods and analysis We are conducting a large multicentre randomised controlled trial (2×2 factorial design). We will recruit adults ≥18 years with a new episode of shoulder pain attributable to a rotator cuff disorder as per British Elbow and Shoulder Society guidelines, not currently receiving physiotherapy or being considered for surgery, from at least eight UK National Health Service primary care-based musculoskeletal and related physiotherapy services. Participants (n=704) will be randomised (centralised computer-generated 1:1:1:1 allocation ratio) to one of four interventions: (1) progressive exercise (≤6 physiotherapy sessions); (2) best practice advice (one physiotherapy session); (3) corticosteroid injection then progressive exercise (≤6 sessions) or (4) corticosteroid injection then best practice advice (one session). The primary outcome is the mean difference in Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) total score at 12 months. Secondary outcomes are: pain and function SPADI subdomains; health-related quality of life (Five-Level version of the EuroQol EQ-5D-5L); sleep disturbance; return to activity; global impression of change; health resource use; out-of-pocket expenses; work disability. A parallel within-trial economic evaluation will be conducted. The primary analysis will

  17. Clinical and cost-effectiveness of progressive exercise compared with best practice advice, with or without corticosteroid injection, for the treatment of rotator cuff disorders: protocol for a 2x2 factorial randomised controlled trial (the GRASP trial).

    PubMed

    Hopewell, Sally; Keene, David J; Maia Schlüssel, Michael; Dritsaki, Melina; Dutton, Susan; Carr, Andrew; Hamilton, William; Hansen, Zara; Jaggi, Anju; Littlewood, Chris; Soutakbar, Hessam; Heine, Peter; Cureton, Lucy; Barker, Karen; Lamb, Sarah E

    2017-07-17

    Shoulder pain is very common, with around 70% of cases due to disorders of the rotator cuff. Despite widespread provision of physiotherapy, there is uncertainty about which type of exercise and delivery mechanisms are associated with best outcomes. There is also uncertainty around the long-term benefits and harms of corticosteroid injection therapy, which is often used in addition to physiotherapy. The Getting it Right: Addressing Shoulder Pain trial will assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of individually tailored, progressive exercise compared with best practice advice, with or without corticosteroid injection, in adults with a rotator cuff disorder. We are conducting a large multicentre randomised controlled trial (2×2 factorial design). We will recruit adults ≥18 years with a new episode of shoulder pain attributable to a rotator cuff disorder as per British Elbow and Shoulder Society guidelines, not currently receiving physiotherapy or being considered for surgery, from at least eight UK National Health Service primary care-based musculoskeletal and related physiotherapy services. Participants (n=704) will be randomised (centralised computer-generated 1:1:1:1 allocation ratio) to one of four interventions: (1) progressive exercise (≤6 physiotherapy sessions); (2) best practice advice (one physiotherapy session); (3) corticosteroid injection then progressive exercise (≤6 sessions) or (4) corticosteroid injection then best practice advice (one session). The primary outcome is the mean difference in Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) total score at 12 months. Secondary outcomes are: pain and function SPADI subdomains; health-related quality of life (Five-Level version of the EuroQol EQ-5D-5L); sleep disturbance; return to activity; global impression of change; health resource use; out-of-pocket expenses; work disability. A parallel within-trial economic evaluation will be conducted. The primary analysis will be intention to treat. Research

  18. Flexible Mediation Analysis With Multiple Mediators.

    PubMed

    Steen, Johan; Loeys, Tom; Moerkerke, Beatrijs; Vansteelandt, Stijn

    2017-07-15

    The advent of counterfactual-based mediation analysis has triggered enormous progress on how, and under what assumptions, one may disentangle path-specific effects upon combining arbitrary (possibly nonlinear) models for mediator and outcome. However, current developments have largely focused on single mediators because required identification assumptions prohibit simple extensions to settings with multiple mediators that may depend on one another. In this article, we propose a procedure for obtaining fine-grained decompositions that may still be recovered from observed data in such complex settings. We first show that existing analytical approaches target specific instances of a more general set of decompositions and may therefore fail to provide a comprehensive assessment of the processes that underpin cause-effect relationships between exposure and outcome. We then outline conditions for obtaining the remaining set of decompositions. Because the number of targeted decompositions increases rapidly with the number of mediators, we introduce natural effects models along with estimation methods that allow for flexible and parsimonious modeling. Our procedure can easily be implemented using off-the-shelf software and is illustrated using a reanalysis of the World Health Organization's Large Analysis and Review of European Housing and Health Status (WHO-LARES) study on the effect of mold exposure on mental health (2002-2003). © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Mediation Analysis with Multiple Mediators

    PubMed Central

    VanderWeele, T.J.; Vansteelandt, S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the causal inference literature on mediation have extended traditional approaches to direct and indirect effects to settings that allow for interactions and non-linearities. In this paper, these approaches from causal inference are further extended to settings in which multiple mediators may be of interest. Two analytic approaches, one based on regression and one based on weighting are proposed to estimate the effect mediated through multiple mediators and the effects through other pathways. The approaches proposed here accommodate exposure-mediator interactions and, to a certain extent, mediator-mediator interactions as well. The methods handle binary or continuous mediators and binary, continuous or count outcomes. When the mediators affect one another, the strategy of trying to assess direct and indirect effects one mediator at a time will in general fail; the approach given in this paper can still be used. A characterization is moreover given as to when the sum of the mediated effects for multiple mediators considered separately will be equal to the mediated effect of all of the mediators considered jointly. The approach proposed in this paper is robust to unmeasured common causes of two or more mediators. PMID:25580377

  20. Mediation Analysis with Multiple Mediators.

    PubMed

    VanderWeele, T J; Vansteelandt, S

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the causal inference literature on mediation have extended traditional approaches to direct and indirect effects to settings that allow for interactions and non-linearities. In this paper, these approaches from causal inference are further extended to settings in which multiple mediators may be of interest. Two analytic approaches, one based on regression and one based on weighting are proposed to estimate the effect mediated through multiple mediators and the effects through other pathways. The approaches proposed here accommodate exposure-mediator interactions and, to a certain extent, mediator-mediator interactions as well. The methods handle binary or continuous mediators and binary, continuous or count outcomes. When the mediators affect one another, the strategy of trying to assess direct and indirect effects one mediator at a time will in general fail; the approach given in this paper can still be used. A characterization is moreover given as to when the sum of the mediated effects for multiple mediators considered separately will be equal to the mediated effect of all of the mediators considered jointly. The approach proposed in this paper is robust to unmeasured common causes of two or more mediators.

  1. Causal mediation analysis with multiple mediators.

    PubMed

    Daniel, R M; De Stavola, B L; Cousens, S N; Vansteelandt, S

    2015-03-01

    In diverse fields of empirical research-including many in the biological sciences-attempts are made to decompose the effect of an exposure on an outcome into its effects via a number of different pathways. For example, we may wish to separate the effect of heavy alcohol consumption on systolic blood pressure (SBP) into effects via body mass index (BMI), via gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and via other pathways. Much progress has been made, mainly due to contributions from the field of causal inference, in understanding the precise nature of statistical estimands that capture such intuitive effects, the assumptions under which they can be identified, and statistical methods for doing so. These contributions have focused almost entirely on settings with a single mediator, or a set of mediators considered en bloc; in many applications, however, researchers attempt a much more ambitious decomposition into numerous path-specific effects through many mediators. In this article, we give counterfactual definitions of such path-specific estimands in settings with multiple mediators, when earlier mediators may affect later ones, showing that there are many ways in which decomposition can be done. We discuss the strong assumptions under which the effects are identified, suggesting a sensitivity analysis approach when a particular subset of the assumptions cannot be justified. These ideas are illustrated using data on alcohol consumption, SBP, BMI, and GGT from the Izhevsk Family Study. We aim to bridge the gap from "single mediator theory" to "multiple mediator practice," highlighting the ambitious nature of this endeavor and giving practical suggestions on how to proceed. © 2014 The Authors Biometrics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Biometric Society.

  2. Autonomy Support and Intrinsic Goal Progress Expectancy and Its Links to Longitudinal Study Effort and Subjective Wellbeing: The Differential Mediating Effect of Intrinsic and Identified Regulations and the Moderator Effects of Effort and Intrinsic Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waaler, Rune; Halvari, Halgeir; Skjesol, Knut; Bagoien, Tor Egil

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested a self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) process model of subjective wellbeing among students at Norwegian Folk High Schools. In this model the authors hypothesized that students' intrinsic goal progress expectancy in the chosen study activity and perceived autonomy support from teachers would be positively associated…

  3. Rare Autosomal Recessive Cardiac Valvular Form of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Results from Mutations in the COL1A2 Gene That Activate the Nonsense-Mediated RNA Decay Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Schwarze, Ulrike; Hata, Ryu-Ichiro; McKusick, Victor A.; Shinkai, Hiroshi; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Pyeritz, Reed E.; Byers, Peter H.

    2004-01-01

    Splice site mutations in the COL1A2 gene of type I collagen can give rise to forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) because of partial or complete skipping of exon 6, as well as to mild, moderate, or lethal forms of osteogenesis imperfecta as a consequence of skipping of other exons. We identified three unrelated individuals with a rare recessively inherited form of EDS (characterized by joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility, and cardiac valvular defects); in two of them, COL1A2 messenger RNA (mRNA) instability results from compound heterozygosity for splice site mutations in the COL1A2 gene, and, in the third, it results from homozygosity for a nonsense codon. The splice site mutations led to use of cryptic splice donor sites, creation of a downstream premature termination codon, and extremely unstable mRNA. In the wild-type allele, the two introns (IVS11 and IVS24) in which these mutations occurred were usually spliced slowly in relation to their respective immediate upstream introns. In the mutant alleles, the upstream intron was removed, so that exon skipping could not occur. In the context of the mutation in IVS24, computer-generated folding of a short stretch of mRNA surrounding the mutation site demonstrated realignment of the relationships between the donor and acceptor sites that could facilitate use of a cryptic donor site. These findings suggest that the order of intron removal is an important variable in prediction of mutation outcome at splice sites and that folding of the nascent mRNA could be one element that contributes to determination of order of splicing. The complete absence of proα2(I) chains has the surprising effect of producing cardiac valvular disease without bone involvement. PMID:15077201

  4. Rare autosomal recessive cardiac valvular form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome results from mutations in the COL1A2 gene that activate the nonsense-mediated RNA decay pathway.

    PubMed

    Schwarze, Ulrike; Hata, Ryu-Ichiro; McKusick, Victor A; Shinkai, Hiroshi; Hoyme, H Eugene; Pyeritz, Reed E; Byers, Peter H

    2004-05-01

    Splice site mutations in the COL1A2 gene of type I collagen can give rise to forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) because of partial or complete skipping of exon 6, as well as to mild, moderate, or lethal forms of osteogenesis imperfecta as a consequence of skipping of other exons. We identified three unrelated individuals with a rare recessively inherited form of EDS (characterized by joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility, and cardiac valvular defects); in two of them, COL1A2 messenger RNA (mRNA) instability results from compound heterozygosity for splice site mutations in the COL1A2 gene, and, in the third, it results from homozygosity for a nonsense codon. The splice site mutations led to use of cryptic splice donor sites, creation of a downstream premature termination codon, and extremely unstable mRNA. In the wild-type allele, the two introns (IVS11 and IVS24) in which these mutations occurred were usually spliced slowly in relation to their respective immediate upstream introns. In the mutant alleles, the upstream intron was removed, so that exon skipping could not occur. In the context of the mutation in IVS24, computer-generated folding of a short stretch of mRNA surrounding the mutation site demonstrated realignment of the relationships between the donor and acceptor sites that could facilitate use of a cryptic donor site. These findings suggest that the order of intron removal is an important variable in prediction of mutation outcome at splice sites and that folding of the nascent mRNA could be one element that contributes to determination of order of splicing. The complete absence of pro alpha 2(I) chains has the surprising effect of producing cardiac valvular disease without bone involvement.

  5. EDITORIAL: Catalysing progress Catalysing progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Examples of the merits of blue-sky research in the history of science are legion. The invention of the laser, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, is an excellent example. When it was invented it was considered to be 'a solution waiting for a problem', and yet the level to which it has now infiltrated our day-to-day technological landscape speaks volumes. At the same time it is also true to say that the direction of research is also at times rightly influenced by the needs and concerns of the general public. Over recent years, growing concerns about the environment have had a noticeable effect on research in nanotechnology, motivating work on a range of topics from green nanomaterial synthesis [1] to high-efficiency solar cells [2] and hydrogen storage [3]. The impact of the world's energy consumption on the welfare of the planet is now an enduring and well founded concern. In the face of an instinctive reluctance to curtail habits of comfort and convenience and the appendages of culture and consumerism, research into renewable and more efficient energy sources seem an encouraging approach to alleviating an impending energy crisis. Fuel cells present one alternative to traditional combustion cells that have huge benefits in terms of the efficiency of energy conversion and the limited harmful emissions. In last week's issue of Nanotechnology, Chuan-Jian Zhong and colleagues at the State University of New York at Binghamton in the USA presented an overview of research on nanostructured catalysts in fuel cells [4]. The topical review includes insights into the interactions between nanoparticles and between nanoparticles and their substrate as well as control over the composition and nanostructure of catalysts. The review also serves to highlight how the flourishing of nanotechnology research has heralded great progress in the exploitation of catalysts with nanostructures ingeniously controlled to maximize surface area and optimize energetics for synthesis

  6. Silencing of CD40 in vivo reduces progression of experimental atherogenesis through an NF-κB/miR-125b axis and reveals new potential mediators in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hueso, Miguel; De Ramon, Laura; Navarro, Estanislao; Ripoll, Elia; Cruzado, Josep M; Grinyo, Josep M; Torras, Joan

    2016-12-01

    CD40/CD40L signaling exerts a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis, and microRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators in vascular inflammation and plaque formation. In this work, we investigated mRNA/miRNA expression during progression of atherosclerotic lesions through CD40 silencing. We silenced CD40 with a specific siRNA in ApoE -/- mice and compared expression of mRNA/miRNA in ascending aorta with scrambled treated mice. siRNA-CD40 treated mice significantly reduced the extension and severity of atherosclerotic lesions, as well as the number of F4/80 + , galectin-3 + macrophages and NF-κB + cells in the intima. Genome-wide mRNA/miRNA profiling allowed the identification of transcripts, which were significantly upregulated during atherosclerosis; among them, miR-125b and miR-30a, Xpr1, a regulator of macrophage differentiation, Taf3, a core transcription factor and the NF-κB activator Ikkβ, whereas, the NF-κB inhibitor Ikbα was downregulated during disease progression. All those changes were reversed upon CD40 silencing. Interestingly, TAF3, XPR1 and miR-125b were also overexpressed in human atherosclerotic plaques. Murine Taf3 and Xpr1 were detected in the perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), and Taf3 also in intimal foam cells. Finally, expression of miR-125b was regulated by the CD40-NF-κB signaling axis in RAW264.7 macrophages. CD40 silencing with a specific siRNA ameliorates progression of experimental atherosclerosis in ApoE -/- mice, and evidences a role for NF-κB, Taf3, Xpr1, and miR-125b in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The group VIA calcium-independent phospholipase A2 and NFATc4 pathway mediates IL-1β-induced expression of chemokines CCL2 and CXCL10 in rat fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kuwata, Hiroshi; Yuzurihara, Chihiro; Kinoshita, Natsumi; Taki, Yuki; Ikegami, Yuki; Washio, Sana; Hirakawa, Yushi; Yoda, Emiko; Aiuchi, Toshihiro; Itabe, Hiroyuki; Nakatani, Yoshihito; Hara, Shuntaro

    2018-06-01

    Chemokines are secreted proteins that regulate cell migration and are involved in inflammatory and immune responses. Here, we sought to define the functional crosstalk between the lipid signaling and chemokine signaling. We obtained evidence that the induction of some chemokines is regulated by group VIA calcium-independent phospholipase A 2 β (iPLA 2 β) in IL-1β-stimulated rat fibroblastic 3Y1 cells. Treatment of 3Y1 cells with IL-1β elicited an increased release of chemotactic factor(s) for monocytic THP-1 cells into culture medium in a time-dependent manner. Inhibitor studies revealed that an intracellular PLA 2 inhibitor, arachidonoyl trifluoromethyl ketone (AACOCF 3 ), but not the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, attenuated the release of chemotactic factor(s). The chemotactic activity was inactivated by treatment with either heat or proteinase K, suggesting this chemotactic factor(s) is a proteinaceous factor(s). We purified the chemotactic factor(s) from the conditioned medium of IL-1β-stimulated 3Y1 cells using a heparin column and identified several chemokines, including CCL2 and CXCL10. The inducible expressions of CCL2 and CXCL10 were significantly attenuated by pretreatment with AACOCF 3 . Gene silencing using siRNA revealed that the inductions of CCL2 and CXCL10 were attenuated by iPLA 2 β knockdown. Additionally, the transcriptional activation of nuclear factor of activated T-cell proteins (NFATs), but not nuclear factor-κB, by IL-1β stimulation was markedly attenuated by the iPLA 2 inhibitor bromoenol lactone, and NFATc4 knockdown markedly attenuated the IL-1β-induced expression of both CCL2 and CXCL10. Collectively, these results indicated that iPLA 2 β plays roles in IL-1β-induced chemokine expression, in part via NFATc4 signaling. © 2018 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  8. EphB6 promotes anoikis by modulating EphA2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Akada, Mai; Harada, Kohei; Negishi, Manabu; Katoh, Hironori

    2014-12-01

    Anoikis is a specific type of apoptosis induced by detachment of epithelial cells from extracellular matrix, and acquiring resistance to anoikis is an important step that enables cancer cells to metastasize. EphA2, which is overexpressed in a variety of human cancers, is phosphorylated by Akt on serine 897 and mediates ligand ephrin-independent promotion of anoikis resistance through the RhoG activator Ephexin4. EphB6 is frequently silenced in invasive and metastatic cancers; however, its role in cancer progression is poorly understood. Here we show that EphB6 interacts with EphA2 and suppresses EphA2-mediated promotion of anoikis resistance in MCF7 breast cancer cells. On the other hand, knockdown of EphB6 promotes anoikis resistance. We further show that expression of EphB6 decreases serine 897 phosphorylation of EphA2 and suppresses EphA2-Ephexin4 interaction and the RhoG activation. These findings implicate EphB6 as a negative regulator of EphA2 oncogenic signaling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mediator Deathwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Tony

    2005-01-01

    The most discussed and analyzed form of deathwork is the dyadic "therapist" [double arrow] "client" relationship, but this far from exhausts the various types of professional work involving the dead. Mediator deathwork is where the professional gleans or constructs information about the dead, edits and polishes it, and publicly…

  10. Fludarabine inhibits STAT1-mediated up-regulation of caspase-3 expression in dexamethasone-induced osteoblasts apoptosis and slows the progression of steroid-induced avascular necrosis of the femoral head in rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhenhua; Zheng, Wenhao; Tang, Qian; Cheng, Liang; Li, Hang; Ni, Wenfei; Pan, Xiaoyun

    2017-08-01

    Steroid-induced avascular necrosis of the femoral head (SANFH) is a major limitation of long-term or excessive clinical administration of glucocorticoids. Fludarabine, which is a compound used to treat various hematological malignancies, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acts by down-regulating signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) by inhibiting STAT1 phosphorylation in both normal and cancer cells. This study assessed the effects of fludarabine in vitro (primary murine osteoblasts) and in vivo (rat SANFH model). In vitro, pretreatment with fludarabine significantly inhibited Dexamethasone (Dex)-induced apoptosis in osteoblasts, which was examined by TUNEL staining. Treatment with Dex caused a remarkable decrease in the expression of Bcl-2; an increase in cytochrome c release; activation of BAX, caspase-9, and caspase-3; and an obvious enhancement in STAT1 phosphorylation. However, treatment resulted in the up-regulation of caspase-3 expression. Enhanced P-STAT1 activity and up-regulation of caspase-3 expression were also observed in osteoblasts. In vivo, the subchondral trabeculae in fludarabine-treated rats exhibited less bone loss and a lower ratio of empty lacunae. Taken together, our results suggest that STAT1-mediated up-regulation of caspase-3 is involved in osteoblast apoptosis induced by Dex and indicates that fludarabine may serve as a potential agent for the treatment of SANFH.

  11. Tyrosine kinase activity of EphA2 promotes its S897 phosphorylation and glioblastoma cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Hamaoka, Yuho; Negishi, Manabu; Katoh, Hironori

    2018-05-23

    EphA2, a member of the Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases, has been reported to promote tumor malignancy through phosphorylation of serine 897 (S897). Here, we found that overexpression of wild-type EphA2 induced S897 phosphorylation through ERK activation without growth factors or cytokines and promoted glioblastoma cell proliferation. However, overexpression of a kinase-inactive mutant of EphA2 failed to induce ERK activation, S897 phosphorylation, and promotion of glioblastoma cell proliferation. These data suggest that when overexpressed, EphA2 induces ERK activation through its tyrosine kinase activity, leading to S897 phosphorylation and promotion of glioblastoma cell proliferation. Our findings provide a new insight into how EphA2 mediates glioblastoma progression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Progression of hypertension and kidney disease in aging fawn-hooded rats is mediated by enhanced influence of renin-angiotensin system and suppression of nitric oxide system and epoxyeicosanoids.

    PubMed

    Doleželová, Šárka; Jíchová, Šárka; Husková, Zuzana; Vojtíšková, Alžběta; Kujal, Petr; Hošková, Lenka; Kautzner, Josef; Sadowski, Janusz; Červenka, Luděk; Kopkan, Libor

    The fawn-hooded hypertensive (FHH) rat serves as a genetic model of spontaneous hypertension associated with glomerular hyperfiltration and proteinuria. However, the knowledge of the natural course of hypertension and kidney disease in FHH rats remains fragmentary and the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear. In this study, over the animals' lifetime, we followed the survival rate, blood pressure (telemetry), indices of kidney damage, the activity of renin-angiotensin (RAS) and nitric oxide (NO) systems, and CYP450-epoxygenase products (EETs). Compared to normotensive controls, no elevation of plasma and renal RAS was observed in prehypertensive and hypertensive FHH rats; however, RAS inhibition significantly reduced systolic blood pressure (137 ± 9 to 116 ± 8, and 159 ± 8 to 126 ± 4 mmHg, respectively) and proteinuria (62 ± 2 to 37 ± 3, and 132 ± 8 to 87 ± 5 mg/day, respectively). Moreover, pharmacological RAS inhibition reduced angiotensin (ANG) II and increased ANG 1-7 in the kidney and thereby may have delayed the progression of kidney disease. Furthermore, renal NO and EETs declined in the aging FHH rats but not in the control strain. The present results, especially the demonstration of exaggerated vascular responsiveness to ANG II, indicate that RAS may contribute to the development of hypertension and kidney disease in FHH rats. The activity of factors opposing the development of hypertension and protecting the kidney declined with age in this model. Therefore, therapeutic enhancement of this activity besides RAS inhibition could be attempted in the therapy of human hypertension associated with kidney disease.

  13. The adenosine A2A receptor — Myocardial protectant and coronary target in endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Reichelt, Melissa E.; Ashton, Kevin J.; Tan, Xing Lin; Mustafa, S. Jamal; Ledent, Catherine; Delbridge, Lea M.D.; Hofmann, Polly A.; Headrick, John P.; Morrison, R. Ray

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiac injury and dysfunction are contributors to disease progression and mortality in sepsis. This study evaluated the cardiovascular role of intrinsic A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR) activity during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Methods We assessed the impact of 24 h of LPS challenge (20 mg/kg, IP) on cardiac injury, coronary function and inflammatory mediator levels in Wild-Type (WT) mice and mice lacking functional A2AARs (A2AAR KO). Results Cardiac injury was evident in LPS-treated WTs, with ∼7-fold elevation in serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI), and significant ventricular and coronary dysfunction. Absence of A2AARs increased LPS-provoked cTnI release at 24 h by 3-fold without additional demise of contraction function. Importantly, A2AAR deletion per se emulated detrimental effects of LPS on coronary function, and LPS was without effect in coronary vessels lacking A2AARs. Effects of A2AAR KO were independent of major shifts in circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and haptoglobin. Cytokine responses were largely insensitive to A2AAR deletion; substantial LPS-induced elevations (up to 100-fold) in IFN-γ and IL-10 were unaltered in A2AAR KO mice, as were levels of IL-4 and TNF-α. However, late elevations in IL-2 and IL-5 were differentially modulated by A2AAR KO (IL-2 reduced, IL-5 increased). Data demonstrate that in the context of LPS-triggered cardiac and coronary injury, A2AAR activity protects myocardial viability without modifying contractile dysfunction, and selectively modulates cytokine (IL-2, IL-5) release. A2AARs also appear to be targeted by LPS in the coronary vasculature. Conclusions These experimental data suggest that preservation of A2AAR functionality might provide therapeutic benefit in human sepsis. PMID:22192288

  14. Progressive taxation, income inequality, and happiness.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Kushlev, Kostadin; Schimmack, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Income inequality has become one of the more widely debated social issues today. The current article explores the role of progressive taxation in income inequality and happiness. Using historical data in the United States from 1962 to 2014, we found that income inequality was substantially smaller in years when the income tax was more progressive (i.e., a higher tax rate for higher income brackets), even when controlling for variables like stock market performance and unemployment rate. Time lag analyses further showed that higher progressive taxation predicted increasingly lower income inequality up to 5 years later. Data from the General Social Survey (1972-2014; N = 59,599) with U.S. residents (hereafter referred to as "Americans") showed that during years with higher progressive taxation rates, less wealthy Americans-those in the lowest 40% of the income distribution-tended to be happier, whereas the richest 20% were not significantly less happy. Mediational analyses confirmed that the association of progressive taxation with the happiness of less wealthy Americans can be explained by lower income inequality in years with higher progressive taxation. A separate sample of Americans polled online (N = 373) correctly predicted the positive association between progressive taxation and the happiness of poorer Americans but incorrectly expected a strong negative association between progressive taxation and the happiness of richer Americans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Cancer cachexia: mediators, signaling, and metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Fearon, Kenneth C H; Glass, David J; Guttridge, Denis C

    2012-08-08

    Cancer cachexia is characterized by a significant reduction in body weight resulting predominantly from loss of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Cachexia causes reduced cancer treatment tolerance and reduced quality and length of life, and remains an unmet medical need. Therapeutic progress has been impeded, in part, by the marked heterogeneity of mediators, signaling, and metabolic pathways both within and between model systems and the clinical syndrome. Recent progress in understanding conserved, molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle atrophy/hypertrophy has provided a downstream platform for circumventing the variations and redundancy in upstream mediators and may ultimately translate into new targeted therapies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reconstructing Progressive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Andy

    2013-01-01

    The work of Colonel Francis W. Parker, the man whom Dewey called "the father of progressive education," provides a starting point for reconstructing the loose ambiguities of progressive education into a coherent social and educational philosophy. Although progressives have claimed their approach is more humane and sensitive to children, we need…

  17. Castration Induced Neuroendocrine Mediated Progression of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Recurrence. Lont, A.P. et al. J. Uro 2006;176:580. 5. 2006 Cambio AJ, Evans CP. Outcomes and quality of life issues in the pharmacological...epithelial cells. BMC Cancer 1, 19. [104] Flowers LO , Subramaniam PS, and Johnson HM (2005). A SOCS-1 peptide mimetic inhibits both constitutive and...the BTK/ITK/TEC/TXK family lo - cated in chromosome Xp22.2. Oncogene 9, 3683–3688. [119] Qiu Y, Robinson D, Pretlow TG, and Kung HJ (1998). Etk/Bmx, a

  18. Castration Induced Neuroendocrine Mediated Progression of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    neoplasia in NRP-152 and NRP-154 rat prostatic epithelial cells. BMC Cancer 1, 19. [104] Flowers LO, Subramaniam PS, and Johnson HM (2005). A SOCS-1...metastases without effects on cell motility or growth. EMBO J 21: 6289–6302. Hennequin LF, Allen J, Breed J, Curwen J, Fennell M, Green TP et al. (2006). N...Knocking down Etk expression with its specific siRNA inhibits LNCaP cell proliferation (29, 42), and prostates from Etk transgenic mice exhibit

  19. Castration-Induced Neuroendocrine Mediated Progression of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    findings from a retrospective analysis of health plan data. J. Urol., 171:2250-2254. 4. 2004 Evans, C.P. Evidence - based medicine for the urologist...but MVAC justified in the evidence - based medicine era? Curr. Opinion Urol., in press. 6 Principal Investigator: Christopher P. Evans, M.D. 10.2005

  20. Progressive supranuclear palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... dystonia; Richardson-Steele-Olszewski syndrome; Palsy - progressive supranuclear Images Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system References Jankovic J. Parkinson disease and other movement disorders. In: Daroff ...

  1. Fear of progression.

    PubMed

    Herschbach, Peter; Dinkel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Fear of progression (or fear of recurrence) is an appropriate, rational response to the real threat of cancer and cancer treatments. However, elevated levels of fear of progression can become dysfunctional, affecting well-being, quality of life, and social functioning. Research has shown that fear of progression is one of the most frequent distress symptoms of patients with cancer and with other chronic diseases. As a clear consensus concerning clinically relevant states of fear of progression is currently lacking, it is difficult to provide a valid estimate of the rate of cancer patients who clearly suffer from fear of progression. However, recent systematic reviews suggest that probably 50 % of cancer patients experience moderate to severe fear of progression. Furthermore, many patients express unmet needs in dealing with the fear of cancer spreading. These results underline the necessity to provide effective psychological treatments for clinical levels of fear of progression. A few psychosocial interventions for treating fear of progression have been developed so far. Our own, targeted intervention study showed that dysfunctional fear of progression can be effectively treated with a brief group therapy.

  2. EphA2 enhances the proliferation and invasion ability of LNCaP prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peijie; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Qiuquan; Bai, Peiming

    2014-07-01

    EphA2 is persistently overexpressed and functionally changed in numerous human cancers. However, to the best of our knowledge, the role that EphA2 plays in prostate cancer is not entirely clear. To investigate the roles of EphA2 in the development and progression of prostate cancer, the present study initially evaluated the roles of the EphA2 protein in LNCaP prostate cancer cells using recombinant plasmid, western blot analysis, flow cytometry, Matrigel invasion chamber and the cell counting kit-8 assay. An immunohistochemistry assay was also conducted to observe the effects of EphA2 in prostate cancer tissues. The results demonstrated that the LNCaP human prostate cancer cells that were transfected with pcDNA3.1(+) plasmid-mediated pcDNA3.1(+)-EphA2, markedly enhanced the cell growth and invasion in vitro . Additionally, EphA2 was overexpressed in prostate cancer specimens and the expression of EphA2 was significantly associated with Gleason grade, total prostate-specific antigen, advanced clinical stage and lymph node metastasis. Collectively, these results demonstrate that EphA2 is involved in malignant cell behavior and is a potential therapeutic target in human prostate cancer.

  3. EphA2 enhances the proliferation and invasion ability of LNCaP prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, PEIJIE; HUANG, YAN; ZHANG, BO; WANG, QIUQUAN; BAI, PEIMING

    2014-01-01

    EphA2 is persistently overexpressed and functionally changed in numerous human cancers. However, to the best of our knowledge, the role that EphA2 plays in prostate cancer is not entirely clear. To investigate the roles of EphA2 in the development and progression of prostate cancer, the present study initially evaluated the roles of the EphA2 protein in LNCaP prostate cancer cells using recombinant plasmid, western blot analysis, flow cytometry, Matrigel invasion chamber and the cell counting kit-8 assay. An immunohistochemistry assay was also conducted to observe the effects of EphA2 in prostate cancer tissues. The results demonstrated that the LNCaP human prostate cancer cells that were transfected with pcDNA3.1(+) plasmid-mediated pcDNA3.1(+)-EphA2, markedly enhanced the cell growth and invasion in vitro. Additionally, EphA2 was overexpressed in prostate cancer specimens and the expression of EphA2 was significantly associated with Gleason grade, total prostate-specific antigen, advanced clinical stage and lymph node metastasis. Collectively, these results demonstrate that EphA2 is involved in malignant cell behavior and is a potential therapeutic target in human prostate cancer. PMID:24959216

  4. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wilensky, Robert L; Macphee, Colin H

    2009-10-01

    There is substantial data from over 50 000 patients that increased lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) mass or activity is associated with an increased risk of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndromes and ischemic stroke. However, only recently have data emerged demonstrating a role of Lp-PLA2 in development of advanced coronary artery disease. Indeed, Lp-PLA2 may be an important link between lipid homeostasis and the vascular inflammatory response. Lp-PLA2, also known as platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, rapidly cleaves oxidized phosphatidylcholine molecules produced during the oxidation of LDL and atherogenic lipoprotein Lp(a), generating the soluble proinflammatory and proapoptotic lipid mediators, lyso-phosphatidylcholine and oxidized nonesterified fatty acids. These proinflammatory lipids play an important role in the development of atherosclerotic necrotic cores, the substrate for acute unstable coronary disease by recruiting and activating leukocytes/macrophages, inducing apoptosis and impairing the subsequent removal of dead cells. Selective inhibition of Lp-PLA2 reduces development of necrotic cores and may result in stabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. Recent data have shown that immune pathways play a major role in the development and progression of high-risk atherosclerosis, which leads to ischemic sudden death, myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndromes and ischemic strokes. Persistent and sustained macrophage apoptosis appears to play a major role in the resulting local inflammatory response in part by effects elicited by Lp-PLA2. Selective inhibition of Lp-PLA2 has been postulated to reduce necrotic core progression and the clinical sequelae of advanced, unstable atherosclerosis.

  5. E-cadherin suppression accelerates squamous cell carcinoma progression in three-dimensional, human tissue constructs.

    PubMed

    Margulis, Alexander; Zhang, Weitian; Alt-Holland, Addy; Crawford, Howard C; Fusenig, Norbert E; Garlick, Jonathan A

    2005-03-01

    We studied the link between loss of E-cadherin-mediated adhesion and acquisition of malignant properties in three-dimensional, human tissue constructs that mimicked the initial stages of squamous cell cancer progression. Suppression of E-cadherin expression in early-stage, skin-derived tumor cells (HaCaT-II-4) was induced by cytoplasmic sequestration of beta-catenin upon stable expression of a dominant-negative E-cadherin fusion protein (H-2Kd-Ecad). In monolayer cultures, expression of H-2Kd-Ecad resulted in decreased levels of E-cadherin, redistribution of beta-catenin to the cytoplasm, and complete loss of intercellular adhesion when compared with control II-4 cells. This was accompanied by a 7-fold decrease in beta-catenin-mediated transcription and a 12-fold increase in cell migration. In three-dimensional constructs, E-cadherin-deficient tissues showed disruption of architecture, loss of adherens junctional proteins from cell contacts, and focal tumor cell invasion. Invasion was linked to activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-mediated degradation of basement membrane in H-2Kd-Ecad-expressing tissue constructs that was blocked by MMP inhibition (GM6001). Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed a 2.5-fold increase in MMP-2 and an 8-fold increase in MMP-9 in cells expressing the H-2Kd-Ecad fusion protein when compared with controls, and gel zymography showed increased MMP protein levels. Following surface transplantation of three-dimensional tissues, suppression of E-cadherin expression greatly accelerated tumorigenesis in vivo by inducing a switch to high-grade carcinomas that resulted in a 5-fold increase in tumor size after 4 weeks. Suppression of E-cadherin expression and loss of its function fundamentally modified squamous cell carcinoma progression by activating a highly invasive, aggressive tumor phenotype, whereas maintenance of E-cadherin prevented invasion in vitro and limited tumor progression in vivo.

  6. EphA2 silencing in nasopharyngeal carcinoma leads to decreased proliferation, invasion and increased sensitization to paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    TAN, PINGQING; LIU, YONG; YU, CHANGYUN; SU, ZHONGWU; LI, GUO; ZHOU, XIAOJUAN; HUANG, DONGHAI; ZHANG, XIN; QIU, YUANZHENG; TIAN, YONGQUAN

    2012-01-01

    EphA2 is frequently overexpressed and functionally altered in a variety of human cancers. However, its roles in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remain unclear. To investigate the roles of EphA2 in the development and progression of NPC, we initially evaluated the expression pattern of EphA2 protein in NPC tissues using western blotting and CCK-8 assay. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and invasion assay were conducted to observe the effects of EphA2 inhibition in vivo. Our results demonstrated that EphA2 was overexpressed in NPC specimens and the expression of EphA2 was significantly associated with T classification, advanced clinical stage and lymph node metastasis. Moreover, human NPC 5-8F cells were infected with lentiviral vector-mediated EphA2-specific shRNA, which resulted in the significant inhibition of cell growth, invasion of 5-8F cells and markedly enhanced the sensitivity of 5-8F cells to the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel in vitro. Collectively, our results demonstrate that EphA2 is involved in malignant cell behavior and is a potential therapeutic target in human NPC. PMID:23741245

  7. E. coli derived Von Willebrand Factor-A2 domain FRET proteins that quantify ADAMTS13 activity

    PubMed Central

    Dayananda, Kannayakanahalli M.; Gogia, Shobhit; Neelamegham, Sriram

    2010-01-01

    The cleavage of the A2-domain of Von Willebrand Factor (VWF) by the metalloprotease ADAMTS13 regulates VWF size and platelet thrombosis rates. Reduction or inhibition of this enzyme activity leads to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). We generated a set of novel molecules called VWF-A2 FRET proteins’, where variants of YFP (Venus) and CFP (Cerulean) flank either the entire VWF-A2 domain (175 amino acids) or truncated fragments (141, 113, 77 amino acids) of this domain. These proteins were expressed in E. coli in soluble form, and they exhibited Fluorescence/Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) properties. Results show that introduction of Venus/Cerulean itself did not alter the ability of VWF-A2 to undergo ADAMTS13 mediated cleavage. The smallest FRET protein, XS-VWF, detected plasma ADAMTS13 activity down to 10% of normal levels. Tests of acquired and inherited TTP could be completed within 30 min. VWF-A2 conformation changed progressively, and not abruptly, upon increasing urea concentration. While proteins with 77 and 113 VWF-A2 residues were cleaved in the absence of denaturant, 4M urea was required for the efficient cleavage of larger constructs. Overall, VWF-A2 FRET proteins can be applied both for the rapid diagnosis of plasma ADAMTS13 activity, and as a tool to study VWF-A2 conformation dynamics. PMID:21146487

  8. Foreign Language Analysis and Recognition (FLARe) Initial Progress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-29

    University Language Modeling ToolKit CoMMA Count Mediated Morphological Analysis CRUD Create, Read , Update & Delete CPAN Comprehensive Perl Archive...DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 October 2010 – 30 September 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Foreign Language Analysis and Recognition (FLARe) Initial Progress...AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2012-0165 FOREIGN LANGUAGE ANALYSIS AND RECOGNITION (FLARE) INITIAL PROGRESS Brian M. Ore

  9. Function and regulation of the Mediator complex.

    PubMed

    Conaway, Ronald C; Conaway, Joan Weliky

    2011-04-01

    Over the past few years, advances in biochemical and genetic studies of the structure and function of the Mediator complex have shed new light on its subunit architecture and its mechanism of action in transcription by RNA polymerase II (pol II). The development of improved methods for reconstitution of recombinant Mediator subassemblies is enabling more in-depth analyses of basic features of the mechanisms by which Mediator interacts with and controls the activity of pol II and the general initiation factors. The discovery and characterization of multiple, functionally distinct forms of Mediator characterized by the presence or absence of the Cdk8 kinase module have led to new insights into how Mediator functions in both Pol II transcription activation and repression. Finally, progress in studies of the mechanisms by which the transcriptional activation domains (ADs) of DNA binding transcription factors target Mediator have brought to light unexpected complexities in the way Mediator participates in signal transduction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Progress for the Paralyzed

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: NIBIB Robotics Progress for the Paralyzed Past Issues / Spring 2013 ... Paralyzed —The expanding options for paralyzed individuals include: robotic arms spinal cord stimulation improved prosthetic limbs restored ...

  11. Teaching "The Pilgrim's Progress"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batson, E. Beatrice

    1973-01-01

    The Pilgrim's Progress, apart from its hortatory religious nature, has imaginative, creative power to command the attention of English teachers at the college level and is discussed in terms of the classroom. (Editor)

  12. Primary Progressive Aphasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... condition has three types, which cause different symptoms. Semantic variant primary progressive aphasia Symptoms include these difficulties: ... a not-for-profit organization and proceeds from Web advertising help support our mission. Mayo Clinic does ...

  13. Progression of Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  14. Genistein Ameliorates Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease by Targeting the Thromboxane A2 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenzhe; Chen, Junliang; Mao, Jinyan; Li, Hongling; Wang, Mingfu; Zhang, Hao; Li, Haitao; Chen, Wei

    2018-06-13

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now a public health issue worldwide, but no drug has yet received approval. Genistein, an isoflavonoid derived from soybean, ameliorates high-fat-diet-induced NAFLD in mice, but the molecular underpinnings remain largely elusive. Arachidonic acid (AA) is a major ingredient of animal fats, and the AA cascade has been implicated in chronic inflammation. In this study, we investigated whether genistein was against NAFLD by targeting the AA cascade. Using a mouse model, we showed that genistein supplementation improved high-fat-diet-induced NAFLD by normalizing hepatomegaly, liver steatosis, aminotransferase abnormalities, and glucose tolerance. The thromboxane A 2 (TXA 2 ) pathway was aberrantly active in NAFLD, evidenced by an elevation of circulating TXA 2 and hepatic thromboxane A 2 receptor expression. Mechanistically, we found that genistein directly targeted cyclooxygenase-1 activity as well as its downstream TXA 2 biosynthesis, while the TXA 2 pathway might mediate NAFLD progression by impairing insulin sensitivity. Taken together, our study revealed a crucial pathophysiological role of the TXA 2 pathway in NAFLD and provided an explanation as to how genistein was against NAFLD progression.

  15. Disease progression and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Holford, Nick

    2013-06-01

    The concepts of disease progression are discussed in the context of neurological disorders. The importance of understanding the time course of the response to inactive (placebo) treatment is discussed. Disease progression and response to placebo treatment both need to be considered before drug effects can be reliably identified. Criteria for distinguishing between symptomatic and disease modifying drug effects are proposed and used to interpret the results of clinical trials in pain, depression, schizophrenia, stroke, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.

  16. Causal mediation analysis with a latent mediator.

    PubMed

    Albert, Jeffrey M; Geng, Cuiyu; Nelson, Suchitra

    2016-05-01

    Health researchers are often interested in assessing the direct effect of a treatment or exposure on an outcome variable, as well as its indirect (or mediation) effect through an intermediate variable (or mediator). For an outcome following a nonlinear model, the mediation formula may be used to estimate causally interpretable mediation effects. This method, like others, assumes that the mediator is observed. However, as is common in structural equations modeling, we may wish to consider a latent (unobserved) mediator. We follow a potential outcomes framework and assume a generalized structural equations model (GSEM). We provide maximum-likelihood estimation of GSEM parameters using an approximate Monte Carlo EM algorithm, coupled with a mediation formula approach to estimate natural direct and indirect effects. The method relies on an untestable sequential ignorability assumption; we assess robustness to this assumption by adapting a recently proposed method for sensitivity analysis. Simulation studies show good properties of the proposed estimators in plausible scenarios. Our method is applied to a study of the effect of mother education on occurrence of adolescent dental caries, in which we examine possible mediation through latent oral health behavior. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. [Progressive visual agnosia].

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Azusa; Futamura, Akinori; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2011-10-01

    Progressive visual agnosia was discovered in the 20th century following the discovery of classical non-progressive visual agnosia. In contrast to the classical type, which is caused by cerebral vascular disease or traumatic injury, progressive visual agnosia is a symptom of neurological degeneration. The condition of progressive visual loss, including visual agnosia, and posterior cerebral atrophy was named posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) by Benson et al. (1988). Progressive visual agnosia is also observed in semantic dementia (SD) and other degenerative diseases, but there is a difference in the subtype of visual agnosia associated with these diseases. Lissauer (1890) classified visual agnosia into apperceptive and associative types, and it in most cases, PCA is associated with the apperceptive type. However, SD patients exhibit symptoms of associative visual agnosia before changing to those of semantic memory disorder. Insights into progressive visual agnosia have helped us understand the visual system and discover how we "perceive" the outer world neuronally, with regard to consciousness. Although PCA is a type of atypical dementia, its diagnosis is important to enable patients to live better lives with appropriate functional support.

  18. Progressive solitary sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Timothy J.; Weinshenker, Brian G.; Kantarci, Orhun H.; Schmalstieg, William F.; Paz Soldan, M. Mateo; Flanagan, Eoin P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To report patients with progressive motor impairment resulting from an isolated CNS demyelinating lesion in cerebral, brainstem, or spinal cord white matter that we call progressive solitary sclerosis. Methods: Thirty patients were identified with (1) progressive motor impairment for over 1 year with a single radiologically identified CNS demyelinating lesion along corticospinal tracts, (2) absence of other demyelinating CNS lesions, and (3) no history of relapses affecting other CNS pathways. Twenty-five were followed prospectively in our multiple sclerosis (MS) clinic and 5 were identified retrospectively from our progressive MS database. Patients were excluded if an alternative etiology for progressive motor impairment was found. Multiple brain and spinal cord MRI were reviewed by a neuroradiologist blinded to the clinical details. Results: The patients' median age was 48.5 years (range 23–71) and 15 (50%) were women. The median follow-up from symptom onset was 100 months (range 15–343 months). All had insidiously progressive upper motor neuron weakness attributable to the solitary demyelinating lesion found on MRI. Clinical presentations were hemiparesis/monoparesis (n = 24), quadriparesis (n = 5), and paraparesis (n = 1). Solitary MRI lesions involved cervical spinal cord (n = 18), cervico-medullary/brainstem region (n = 6), thoracic spinal cord (n = 4), and subcortical white matter (n = 2). CSF abnormalities consistent with MS were found in 13 of 26 (50%). Demyelinating disease was confirmed pathologically in 2 (biopsy, 1; autopsy, 1). Conclusions: Progressive solitary sclerosis results from an isolated CNS demyelinating lesion. Future revisions to MS diagnostic criteria could incorporate this presentation of demyelinating disease. PMID:27638926

  19. Intracellular targeting of annexin A2 inhibits tumor cell adhesion, migration, and in vivo grafting.

    PubMed

    Staquicini, Daniela I; Rangel, Roberto; Guzman-Rojas, Liliana; Staquicini, Fernanda I; Dobroff, Andrey S; Tarleton, Christy A; Ozbun, Michelle A; Kolonin, Mikhail G; Gelovani, Juri G; Marchiò, Serena; Sidman, Richard L; Hajjar, Katherine A; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2017-06-26

    Cytoskeletal-associated proteins play an active role in coordinating the adhesion and migration machinery in cancer progression. To identify functional protein networks and potential inhibitors, we screened an internalizing phage (iPhage) display library in tumor cells, and selected LGRFYAASG as a cytosol-targeting peptide. By affinity purification and mass spectrometry, intracellular annexin A2 was identified as the corresponding binding protein. Consistently, annexin A2 and a cell-internalizing, penetratin-fused version of the selected peptide (LGRFYAASG-pen) co-localized and specifically accumulated in the cytoplasm at the cell edges and cell-cell contacts. Functionally, tumor cells incubated with LGRFYAASG-pen showed disruption of filamentous actin, focal adhesions and caveolae-mediated membrane trafficking, resulting in impaired cell adhesion and migration in vitro. These effects were paralleled by a decrease in the phosphorylation of both focal adhesion kinase (Fak) and protein kinase B (Akt). Likewise, tumor cells pretreated with LGRFYAASG-pen exhibited an impaired capacity to colonize the lungs in vivo in several mouse models. Together, our findings demonstrate an unrecognized functional link between intracellular annexin A2 and tumor cell adhesion, migration and in vivo grafting. Moreover, this work uncovers a new peptide motif that binds to and inhibits intracellular annexin A2 as a candidate therapeutic lead for potential translation into clinical applications.

  20. Bayesian Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Ying; MacKinnon, David P.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we propose Bayesian analysis of mediation effects. Compared with conventional frequentist mediation analysis, the Bayesian approach has several advantages. First, it allows researchers to incorporate prior information into the mediation analysis, thus potentially improving the efficiency of estimates. Second, under the Bayesian…

  1. Outcome progress letter types

    PubMed Central

    Lingley-Pottie, Patricia; Janz, Teresa; McGrath, Patrick J.; Cunningham, Charles; MacLean, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine health care professional and parental preferences for receiving progress letters from a pediatric mental health program between a traditional text-only format and a version in which information was presented using graphs and tables with limited text. Design Mailed survey. Setting Nova Scotia. Participants Parents (n = 98) of children who received treatment from and health care professionals (n = 74) who referred patients to the Strongest Families Program (formerly the Family Help Program) were eligible. Most of the health care professionals were family practitioners (83.8%). Main outcome measures Preference between 2 letters that contained the same content (including progress in the program, results from a questionnaire, and resolved and ongoing problems) in different formats—one using text only, the other using graphs as well as text. Results In total, 83.8% of health professionals and 76.5% of parents indicated that they preferred to receive feedback in letters containing information in graphical format. Background and demographic information did not predict preferences. Parents preferred to receive progress letters at the beginning, midway through, and at the end of treatment, and health professionals preferred to receive progress letters at the beginning and end of treatment. Conclusion When receiving progress letters from a pediatric mental health program, health care professionals and parents preferred to receive letters that used graphs to help convey information. PMID:22170209

  2. TNF blockers inhibit spinal radiographic progression in ankylosing spondylitis by reducing disease activity: results from the Swiss Clinical Quality Management cohort.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Christoph; Scherer, Almut; Baraliakos, Xenofon; de Hooge, Manouk; Micheroli, Raphael; Exer, Pascale; Kissling, Rudolf O; Tamborrini, Giorgio; Wildi, Lukas M; Nissen, Michael J; Zufferey, Pascal; Bernhard, Jürg; Weber, Ulrich; Landewé, Robert B M; van der Heijde, Désirée; Ciurea, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    To analyse the impact of tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFis) on spinal radiographic progression in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Patients with AS in the Swiss Clinical Quality Management cohort with up to 10 years of follow-up and radiographic assessments every 2 years were included. Radiographs were scored by two readers according to the modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spine Score (mSASSS) with known chronology. The relationship between TNFi use before a 2-year radiographic interval and progression within the interval was investigated using binomial generalised estimating equation models with adjustment for potential confounding and multiple imputation of missing values. Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) was regarded as mediating the effect of TNFi on progression and added to the model in a sensitivity analysis. A total of 432 patients with AS contributed to data for 616 radiographic intervals. Radiographic progression was defined as an increase in ≥2 mSASSS units in 2 years. Mean (SD) mSASSS increase was 0.9 (2.6) units in 2 years. Prior use of TNFi reduced the odds of progression by 50% (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.88) in the multivariable analysis. While no direct effect of TNFi on progression was present in an analysis including time-varying ASDAS (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.34 to 1.08), the indirect effect, via a reduction in ASDAS, was statistically significant (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.97). TNFis are associated with a reduction of spinal radiographic progression in patients with AS. This effect seems mediated through the inhibiting effect of TNFi on disease activity. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. TNF blockers inhibit spinal radiographic progression in ankylosing spondylitis by reducing disease activity: results from the Swiss Clinical Quality Management cohort

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Christoph; Scherer, Almut; de Hooge, Manouk; Micheroli, Raphael; Exer, Pascale; Kissling, Rudolf O; Tamborrini, Giorgio; Wildi, Lukas M; Nissen, Michael J; Zufferey, Pascal; Bernhard, Jürg; Weber, Ulrich; Landewé, Robert B M; Ciurea, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To analyse the impact of tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFis) on spinal radiographic progression in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods Patients with AS in the Swiss Clinical Quality Management cohort with up to 10 years of follow-up and radiographic assessments every 2 years were included. Radiographs were scored by two readers according to the modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spine Score (mSASSS) with known chronology. The relationship between TNFi use before a 2-year radiographic interval and progression within the interval was investigated using binomial generalised estimating equation models with adjustment for potential confounding and multiple imputation of missing values. Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) was regarded as mediating the effect of TNFi on progression and added to the model in a sensitivity analysis. Results A total of 432 patients with AS contributed to data for 616 radiographic intervals. Radiographic progression was defined as an increase in ≥2 mSASSS units in 2 years. Mean (SD) mSASSS increase was 0.9 (2.6) units in 2 years. Prior use of TNFi reduced the odds of progression by 50% (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.88) in the multivariable analysis. While no direct effect of TNFi on progression was present in an analysis including time-varying ASDAS (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.34 to 1.08), the indirect effect, via a reduction in ASDAS, was statistically significant (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.97). Conclusion TNFis are associated with a reduction of spinal radiographic progression in patients with AS. This effect seems mediated through the inhibiting effect of TNFi on disease activity. PMID:28939631

  4. Progressive pigmentary purpura.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Jeremy A; Mundi, Jyoti; Chu, Julie; Patel, Rishi; Meehan, Shane; Greenspan, Alan H; Stein, Jennifer

    2011-10-15

    A 58-year-old man presented for evaluation and treatment of non-tender, non-pruritic, annular patches on the right temple and frontal aspect of the scalp that reddened with exercise. A biopsy specimen showed a purpuric dermatitis with features of lymphocytic vasculitis; a diagnosis of exercise-induced progressive pigmentary purpura was made. Whereas progressive pigmentary purpura is purported to be caused by exercise, other similar appearing entities are associated with exercise, namely exercise-induced vasculitis (EIV). EIV may be considered as an acute microcirculatory deficiency and thermoregulation decompensation that occurs after episodes of exhaustive major muscular activity or after unusual or excessive exercise. The combination of age greater than 50 years, heat, and prolonged exercise are the most potent contributing factors. This is the first report of exercise-induced progressive pigmentary purpura.

  5. ISS Progress 24 Rollout

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-01-16

    JSC2007-E-03079 (16 Jan. 2007) --- Roll-out of the Progress 24 vehicle occurred on schedule at 7:00 a.m., Jan. 16, 2007 (local time) at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan. Progress 24 bears on the side of the Soyuz launch vehicle the name of Sergei Korolev, the "Great Designer" of Soviet spacecraft, whose 100th birthday was celebrated on Jan. 12. A portrait of him is painted on the external payload fairing. Korolev, named in his memory, is now the suburb of Moscow where the Russian Mission Control Center resides. After it reaches orbit, a series of pre-programmed engine firings will lead to the automated docking of Progress 24 to the now-vacant Pirs Docking Compartment at 9:00 p.m. CST on Jan. 19. (6:00 a.m. on Jan. 20, Moscow time). Photo Credit: NASA

  6. [Various pathways leading to the progression of chronic liver diseases].

    PubMed

    Egresi, Anna; Lengyel, Gabriella; Somogyi, Anikó; Blázovics, Anna; Hagymási, Krisztina

    2016-02-21

    As the result of various effects (viruses, metabolic diseases, nutritional factors, toxic agents, autoimmune processes) abnormal liver function, liver steatosis and connective tissue remodeling may develop. Progression of this process is complex including various pathways and a number of factors. The authors summarize the factors involved in the progression of chronic liver disease. They describe the role of cells and the produced inflammatory mediators and cytokines, as well as the relationship between the disease and the intestinal flora. They emphasize the role of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in disease progression. Insulin resistance and micro-elements (iron, copper) in relation to liver damage are also discussed, and genetic and epigenetic aspects underlying disease progression are summarized. Discovery of novel treatment options, assessment of the effectiveness of treatment, as well as the success and proper timing of liver transplantation may depend on a better understanding of the process of disease progression.

  7. Progressive taxation and the subjective well-being of nations.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Schimmack, Ulrich; Diener, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Gallup World Poll, we examined whether progressive taxation is associated with increased levels of subjective well-being. Consistent with Rawls's theory of justice, our results showed that progressive taxation was positively associated with the subjective well-being of nations. However, the overall tax rate and government spending were not associated with the subjective well-being of nations. Furthermore, controlling for the wealth of nations and income inequality, we found that respondents living in a nation with more-progressive taxation evaluated their lives as closer to the best possible life and reported having more positive and less negative daily experiences than did respondents living in a nation with less-progressive taxation. Finally, we found that the association between more-progressive taxation and higher levels of subjective well-being was mediated by citizens' satisfaction with public goods, such as education and public transportation.

  8. ISS Progress 24 Rollout

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-01-16

    JSC2007-E-03082 (16 Jan. 2007) --- Roll-out of the Progress 24 vehicle occurred on schedule at 7:00 a.m., Jan. 16, 2007 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan. The vehicle was in the vertical and hard-down at the pad by 9:30 a.m. The gantry towers were placed around the vehicle shortly thereafter. Progress is targeted for launch on Jan. 18, 2007 for a two-day trip to the International Space Station carrying 2 1/2 tons of food, fuel and supplies for the Expedition 14 crew. Photo Credit: NASA

  9. Bayesian dynamic mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Yuan, Ying

    2017-12-01

    Most existing methods for mediation analysis assume that mediation is a stationary, time-invariant process, which overlooks the inherently dynamic nature of many human psychological processes and behavioral activities. In this article, we consider mediation as a dynamic process that continuously changes over time. We propose Bayesian multilevel time-varying coefficient models to describe and estimate such dynamic mediation effects. By taking the nonparametric penalized spline approach, the proposed method is flexible and able to accommodate any shape of the relationship between time and mediation effects. Simulation studies show that the proposed method works well and faithfully reflects the true nature of the mediation process. By modeling mediation effect nonparametrically as a continuous function of time, our method provides a valuable tool to help researchers obtain a more complete understanding of the dynamic nature of the mediation process underlying psychological and behavioral phenomena. We also briefly discuss an alternative approach of using dynamic autoregressive mediation model to estimate the dynamic mediation effect. The computer code is provided to implement the proposed Bayesian dynamic mediation analysis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. "Paideia," Progress, Puzzlement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrachovec, Herbert

    2018-01-01

    Platonic "paideia" is a mainstream concept in traditional philosophy and humanistic circles generally. It is closely connected with social progress brought about by the dynamics of enlightenment and self-fulfillment, symbolized by the allegory of the cave. The main contention of this paper is that the philosophical grammar of this simile…

  11. Progress Toward Civil Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Franklin

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, is stated to discuss aspects of progress toward achieving racial equality in the past 10 years and to develop strategies for the decade ahead, was given by the Chairman of the New York State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights.…

  12. Assessing Pupils' Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollerton, Mike

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author explores what Assessing Pupils' Progress (APP) is about. He contends that the predilection for testing is a catastrophe as far as the teaching and learning of mathematics is concerned; it is an outcome of the drive for collecting so-called "data" on pupils. What those people, who should know better, either choose to…

  13. Opportunities and progress.

    PubMed

    Litchfield, John H

    2014-01-01

    In this review, I cover my professional experiences in food science and technology and related areas of applied and industrial microbiology over the span of my career. It emphasizes opportunities and technological problems that I encountered together with my progress in follow-up development of products and processes.

  14. Learning Progressions & Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Joyce M.; de los Santos, Elizabeth X.; Anderson, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    Our society is currently having serious debates about sources of energy and global climate change. But do students (and the public) have the requisite knowledge to engage these issues as informed citizenry? The learning-progression research summarized here indicates that only 10% of high school students typically have a level of understanding…

  15. Task Progression Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Stu; Baxter, Karen; Waller, Cassandra

    2017-01-01

    Teachers are often challenged with trying to determine the most effective way of developing task progression. Following developmentally appropriate steps that will lead to effective skill development can facilitate student learning. Using the acronym NEMWPT--which stands for No equipment, Equipment, Movement, Wall work, Partners, and Teams--may…

  16. Basic Measures of Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Julia; Ling, Thomson; Moore, Eric; Halle, Tamara; Hair, Beth; Moore, Kris; Zaslow, Marty

    This document provides a compilation of measures of progress toward school readiness and three contributing conditions as used in several local, state, and national surveys. The report begins with a legend listing the surveys examined, their acronyms, and contact information. The remainder of the report, in tabular format, lists measures of…

  17. Response: Progress Takes Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rist, Marilee C.

    1984-01-01

    Although declining enrollment and administrative seniority have hampered efforts to eliminate sex discrimination in employment practices in three Long Island, New York, school systems (Commack, Smithtown, and Bay Shore), progress is being made. Because of the Reagan administration's lack of support for affirmative action, however, litigation…

  18. Scales of Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Lee Ann

    2018-01-01

    What is Goal Attainment Scaling? In this article, Lee Ann Jung defines it as a way to measure a student's progress toward an individualized goal. Instead of measuring a skill at a set time (for instance, on a test or other assignment), Goal Attainment Scaling tracks the steps a student takes over the course of a year in a targeted skill. Together,…

  19. Enhancement in Specific CD8+ T cell Recognition of EphA2+ Tumors In Vitro and In Vivo After Treatment with Ligand Agonists1

    PubMed Central

    Wesa, Amy K.; Herrem, Christopher J.; Mandic, Maja; Taylor, Jennifer L.; Vasquez, Cecilia; Kawabe, Mayumi; Tatsumi, Tomohide; Leibowitz, Michael S.; Finke, James H.; Bukowski, Ronald M.; Bruckheimer, Elizabeth; Kinch, Michael S.; Storkus, Walter J.

    2012-01-01

    The EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) is an attractive therapeutic target that is commonly overexpressed on solid tumors, with the degree of overexpression associated with disease progression, metastatic potential and poor prognosis. Agonistic monoclonal antibodies or ligand (ephrinA1)-Fc fusion protein are capable of inducing EphA2 internalization and degradation, thereby (at least transiently) eliminating the influence of this oncoprotein. We and others have also shown that EphA2 contains multiple peptide epitopes that can be recognized by effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells isolated from tumor-bearing patients. Herein, we show that “agonist” reagents that trigger the proteasome-dependent degradation of tumor cell EphA2 result in the improved presentation of peptides derived from (both the extracellular and intracellular domains of) EphA2 in MHC class I complexes expressed on the tumor cell membrane for at least 48h, as manifest by increased recognition by EphA2-specific CD8+ T cells in vitro. We also observed that while delivery of ephrinA1-Fc fusion protein or agonist mAb into EphA2+ tumor lesions promotes EphA2 degradation in situ, this single administration of agent does not dramatically alter tumor progression in a Hu-SCID model. However, when combined with the adoptive transfer of normally non-therapeutic (human) anti-EphA2 CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), this dual agent regimen results in complete tumor eradication. These results suggest that strategies targeting the conditional proteasome-mediated destruction of tumor cell EphA2 may enable EphA2-specific CD8+ T cells (of modest functional avidity) to realize improved therapeutic potential. PMID:19017961

  20. Progress in Organization Development Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Nancy C.; Porras, Jerry I.

    1982-01-01

    Describes major areas of progress in organization development (OD): progress in operationalizing the concept of change; progress in improving measurement; and progress in designing statistical procedures used to analyze OD intervention data. Suggests recent research developments point to a more solid base on which to build OD practice and theory.…

  1. EphA2 Receptor Unliganded Dimers Suppress EphA2 Pro-tumorigenic Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Deo R.; Ahmed, Fozia; King, Christopher; Gupta, Nisha; Salotto, Matt; Pasquale, Elena B.; Hristova, Kalina

    2015-01-01

    The EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase promotes cell migration and cancer malignancy through a ligand- and kinase-independent distinctive mechanism that has been linked to high Ser-897 phosphorylation and low tyrosine phosphorylation. Here, we demonstrate that EphA2 forms dimers in the plasma membrane of HEK293T cells in the absence of ephrin ligand binding, suggesting that the current seeding mechanism model of EphA2 activation is incomplete. We also characterize a dimerization-deficient EphA2 mutant that shows enhanced ability to promote cell migration, concomitant with increased Ser-897 phosphorylation and decreased tyrosine phosphorylation compared with EphA2 wild type. Our data reveal a correlation between unliganded dimerization and tumorigenic signaling and suggest that EphA2 pro-tumorigenic activity is mediated by the EphA2 monomer. Thus, a therapeutic strategy that aims at the stabilization of EphA2 dimers may be beneficial for the treatment of cancers linked to EphA2 overexpression. PMID:26363067

  2. EphA2 Receptor Unliganded Dimers Suppress EphA2 Pro-tumorigenic Signaling.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deo R; Ahmed, Fozia; King, Christopher; Gupta, Nisha; Salotto, Matt; Pasquale, Elena B; Hristova, Kalina

    2015-11-06

    The EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase promotes cell migration and cancer malignancy through a ligand- and kinase-independent distinctive mechanism that has been linked to high Ser-897 phosphorylation and low tyrosine phosphorylation. Here, we demonstrate that EphA2 forms dimers in the plasma membrane of HEK293T cells in the absence of ephrin ligand binding, suggesting that the current seeding mechanism model of EphA2 activation is incomplete. We also characterize a dimerization-deficient EphA2 mutant that shows enhanced ability to promote cell migration, concomitant with increased Ser-897 phosphorylation and decreased tyrosine phosphorylation compared with EphA2 wild type. Our data reveal a correlation between unliganded dimerization and tumorigenic signaling and suggest that EphA2 pro-tumorigenic activity is mediated by the EphA2 monomer. Thus, a therapeutic strategy that aims at the stabilization of EphA2 dimers may be beneficial for the treatment of cancers linked to EphA2 overexpression. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. The power of mediation.

    PubMed

    Zerkin, A J

    1999-01-01

    There is a range of intervention strategies and procedures designed to assist parties in reaching agreement, from negotiation, over which parties have complete control, to arbitration, the process over which they have the least control. In the middle of this spectrum is mediation. Simply put, mediation is assisted negotiation. A mediator is an impartial person (or team) that works with the parties, mostly together and sometimes separately, to help them reach an agreement to resolve a dispute. The cornerstones of mediation are impartiality and confidentiality. The logic of mediation is that disputants can easily fall into many pitfalls trying to resolve a dispute without help. This article explores these common barriers to effective direct negotiations--such as overestimating the likelihood of prevailing through power, litigation, or arbitration--and presents a case study describing how a complex set of problems was resolved through mediation.

  4. TLR5 signaling, commensal microbiota and systemic tumor promoting inflammation: the three parcae of malignant progression.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Melanie R; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R

    2015-08-01

    We have reported that TLR5-mediated recognition of commensal microbiota modulates systemic tumor-promoting inflammation and malignant progression of tumors at distal locations. Approximately 7-10% of the general population harbors a deleterious single nucleotide polymorphism in TLR5, implicating a novel role for genetic variation during the initiation and progression of cancer.

  5. The Progressive Era.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    The American College of Dentists was founded in 1920 for the purpose of encouraging young dentists to continue study and to apply science to their practices. This ideal emerged in the Progressive Era, which lasted roughly from 1895 to 1920. The animating spirit of this period was that the human condition could be improved and that the way to achieve this was through science and the use of experts working together. The Progressive Era saw inventions, such as automobiles and airplanes, telephone and radio, that required mass production and brought people together. It also spawned many political and legislative innovations that we now take for granted. Among these are the Food and Drug Administration, the Department of Commerce, and the Federal Trade Commission. Workers' compensation and other social protections were introduced, as were city commissions; the income tax; women's suffrage; and initiative, referendum, and recall. Medicine, for the first time, became an effective way to treat disease as it developed a scientific foundation.

  6. Progressive compressive imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evladov, Sergei; Levi, Ofer; Stern, Adrian

    2012-06-01

    We have designed and built a working automatic progressive sampling imaging system based on the vector sensor concept, which utilizes a unique sampling scheme of Radon projections. This sampling scheme makes it possible to progressively add information resulting in tradeoff between compression and the quality of reconstruction. The uniqueness of our sampling is that in any moment of the acquisition process the reconstruction can produce a reasonable version of the image. The advantage of the gradual addition of the samples is seen when the sparsity rate of the object is unknown, and thus the number of needed measurements. We have developed the iterative algorithm OSO (Ordered Sets Optimization) which employs our sampling scheme for creation of nearly uniform distributed sets of samples, which allows the reconstruction of Mega-Pixel images. We present the good quality reconstruction from compressed data ratios of 1:20.

  7. Rapidly Progressive Maxillary Atelectasis.

    PubMed

    Elkhatib, Ahmad; McMullen, Kyle; Hachem, Ralph Abi; Carrau, Ricardo L; Mastros, Nicholas

    2017-07-01

    Report of a patient with rapidly progressive maxillary atelectasis documented by sequential imaging. A 51-year-old man, presented with left periorbital and retro-orbital pain associated with left nasal obstruction. An initial computed tomographic (CT) scan of the paranasal sinuses failed to reveal any significant abnormality. A subsequent CT scan, indicated for recurrence of symptoms 11 months later, showed significant maxillary atelectasis. An uncinectomy, maxillary antrostomy, and anterior ethmoidectomy resulted in a complete resolution of the symptoms. Chronic maxillary atelectasis is most commonly a consequence of chronic rhinosinusitis. All previous reports have indicated a chronic process but lacked documentation of the course of the disease. This report documents a patient of rapidly progressive chronic maxillary atelectasis with CT scans that demonstrate changes in the maxillary sinus (from normal to atelectatic) within 11 months.

  8. Progress 33P undock

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-30

    ISS020-E-015987 (30 June 2009) --- An unpiloted ISS Progress 33 cargo craft, filled with trash and unneeded items, departs from the International Space Station?s Pirs Docking Compartment at 1:30 p.m. (CDT) on June 30, 2009. The Progress was commanded into a parking orbit for its re-rendezvous with the ISS on July 12, approaching to within 10-15 meters of the Zvezda Service Module to test new automated rendezvous equipment mounted on Zvezda during a pair of spacewalks earlier this month by Gennady Padalka and Mike Barratt that will be used to guide the new Mini-Research Module-2 (MRM2) to an unpiloted docking to the zenith port of Zvezda later this year. MRM2 will serve as a new docking port for Russian spacecraft and an additional airlock for spacewalks conducted out of the Russian segment.

  9. Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Porto, Fábio Henrique de Gobbi; Machado, Gislaine Cristina Lopes; Morillo, Lilian Schafirovits; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi

    2010-01-01

    Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction (PPCD) is an insidious syndrome characterized by prominent disorders of higher visual processing. It affects both dorsal (occipito-parietal) and ventral (occipito-temporal) pathways, disturbing visuospatial processing and visual recognition, respectively. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman presenting with progressive impairment of visual functions. Neurologic examination showed agraphia, alexia, hemispatial neglect (left side visual extinction), complete Balint’s syndrome and visual agnosia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed circumscribed atrophy involving the bilateral parieto-occipital regions, slightly more predominant to the right. Our aim was to describe a case of this syndrome, to present a video showing the main abnormalities, and to discuss this unusual presentation of dementia. We believe this article can contribute by improving the recognition of PPCD. PMID:29213665

  10. Progress In Holographic Cinematography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smigielski, P.; Fagot, H.; Albe, F.

    1986-06-01

    Two important progresses were achieved for the first time: 1) recording of single exposure cineholograms of living bodies on a 126-mm film, at a frequency of 25 holograms per second. Limitations of 3-D movies by holography are described. 2) recording of double-exposure cineholograms of reflecting objects, a loudspeaker membrane and the vertex cranii of a bald-headed man. These experiments show the interest of interferometric cineholography for industrial applications.

  11. Xenon Feed System Progress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    From - To) 13-06-2006 Technical Paper 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER F04611-00-C-0055 Xenon Feed System Progress (Preprint) 5b. GRANT...propulsion xenon feed system for a flight technology demonstration program. Major accomplishments include: 1) Utilization of the Moog...successfully fed xenon to a 200 watt Hall Effect Thruster in a Technology Demonstration Program. The feed system has demonstrated throttling of xenon

  12. Progress 47P Redocking

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-29

    ISS032-E-010629 (28 July 2012) --- The unpiloted Russian Progress 47 resupply spacecraft is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 32 crew member as it approaches the International Space Station for re-docking on July 28, 2012. The cargo ship temporarily undocked on July 22 in order to test the new Kurs-NA automated rendezvous system. Station solar array panels are visible in the foreground.

  13. ISABELLE: a progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H

    This paper discusses the ISABELLE project, which has the objective of constructing a high-energy proton colliding beam facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The major technical features of the intersecting storage accelerators with their projected performance are described. Application of over 1000 superconducting magnets in the two rings represents the salient characteristic of the machine. The status of the entire project, the technical progress made so far, and difficulties encountered are reviewed.

  14. COSMIC monthly progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of January 1994. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are discussed. Marketing and customer service activities in this period are presented as is the progress report of NASTRAN maintenance and support. Tables of disseminations and budget summary conclude the report.

  15. Primary Progressive Speech Abulia.

    PubMed

    Milano, Nicholas J; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2015-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive language impairment. The three variants of PPA include the nonfluent/agrammatic, semantic, and logopenic types. The goal of this report is to describe two patients with a loss of speech initiation that was associated with bilateral medial frontal atrophy. Two patients with progressive speech deficits were evaluated and their examinations revealed a paucity of spontaneous speech; however their naming, repetition, reading, and writing were all normal. The patients had no evidence of agrammatism or apraxia of speech but did have impaired speech fluency. In addition to impaired production of propositional spontaneous speech, these patients had impaired production of automatic speech (e.g., reciting the Lord's Prayer) and singing. Structural brain imaging revealed bilateral medial frontal atrophy in both patients. These patients' language deficits are consistent with a PPA, but they are in the pattern of a dynamic aphasia. Whereas the signs-symptoms of dynamic aphasia have been previously described, to our knowledge these are the first cases associated with predominantly bilateral medial frontal atrophy that impaired both propositional and automatic speech. Thus, this profile may represent a new variant of PPA.

  16. Progress and challenges in TB vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Gerald; Casimiro, Danilo; Neyrolles, Olivier; Williams, Ann; Kaufmann, Stefan H.E.; McShane, Helen; Hatherill, Mark; Fletcher, Helen A

    2018-01-01

    The Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccine can provide decades of protection against tuberculosis (TB) disease, and although imperfect, BCG is proof that vaccine mediated protection against TB is a possibility. A new TB vaccine is, therefore, an inevitability; the question is how long will it take us to get there? We have made substantial progress in the development of vaccine platforms, in the identification of antigens and of immune correlates of risk of TB disease. We have also standardized animal models to enable head-to-head comparison and selection of candidate TB vaccines for further development.  To extend our understanding of the safety and immunogenicity of TB vaccines we have performed experimental medicine studies to explore route of administration and have begun to develop controlled human infection models. Driven by a desire to reduce the length and cost of human efficacy trials we have applied novel approaches to later stage clinical development, exploring alternative clinical endpoints to prevention of disease outcomes. Here, global leaders in TB vaccine development discuss the progress made and the challenges that remain. What emerges is that, despite scientific progress, few vaccine candidates have entered clinical trials in the last 5 years and few vaccines in clinical trials have progressed to efficacy trials. Crucially, we have undervalued the knowledge gained from our “failed” trials and fostered a culture of risk aversion that has limited new funding for clinical TB vaccine development. The unintended consequence of this abundance of caution is lack of diversity of new TB vaccine candidates and stagnation of the clinical pipeline. We have a variety of new vaccine platform technologies, mycobacterial antigens and animal and human models.  However, we will not encourage progression of vaccine candidates into clinical trials unless we evaluate and embrace risk in pursuit of vaccine development. PMID:29568497

  17. Progress and challenges in TB vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Voss, Gerald; Casimiro, Danilo; Neyrolles, Olivier; Williams, Ann; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; McShane, Helen; Hatherill, Mark; Fletcher, Helen A

    2018-01-01

    The Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccine can provide decades of protection against tuberculosis (TB) disease, and although imperfect, BCG is proof that vaccine mediated protection against TB is a possibility. A new TB vaccine is, therefore, an inevitability; the question is how long will it take us to get there? We have made substantial progress in the development of vaccine platforms, in the identification of antigens and of immune correlates of risk of TB disease. We have also standardized animal models to enable head-to-head comparison and selection of candidate TB vaccines for further development.  To extend our understanding of the safety and immunogenicity of TB vaccines we have performed experimental medicine studies to explore route of administration and have begun to develop controlled human infection models. Driven by a desire to reduce the length and cost of human efficacy trials we have applied novel approaches to later stage clinical development, exploring alternative clinical endpoints to prevention of disease outcomes. Here, global leaders in TB vaccine development discuss the progress made and the challenges that remain. What emerges is that, despite scientific progress, few vaccine candidates have entered clinical trials in the last 5 years and few vaccines in clinical trials have progressed to efficacy trials. Crucially, we have undervalued the knowledge gained from our "failed" trials and fostered a culture of risk aversion that has limited new funding for clinical TB vaccine development. The unintended consequence of this abundance of caution is lack of diversity of new TB vaccine candidates and stagnation of the clinical pipeline. We have a variety of new vaccine platform technologies, mycobacterial antigens and animal and human models.  However, we will not encourage progression of vaccine candidates into clinical trials unless we evaluate and embrace risk in pursuit of vaccine development.

  18. Evaluation of keratoconus progression.

    PubMed

    Shajari, Mehdi; Steinwender, Gernot; Herrmann, Kim; Kubiak, Kate Barbara; Pavlovic, Ivana; Plawetzki, Elena; Schmack, Ingo; Kohnen, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    To define variables for the evaluation of keratoconus progression and to determine cut-off values. In this retrospective cohort study (2010-2016), 265 eyes of 165 patients diagnosed with keratoconus underwent two Scheimpflug measurements (Pentacam) that took place 1 year apart ±3 months. Variables used for keratoconus detection were evaluated for progression and a correlation analysis was performed. By logistic regression analysis, a keratoconus progression index (KPI) was defined. Receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was performed and Youden Index calculated to determine cut-off values. Variables used for keratoconus detection showed a weak correlation with each other (eg, correlation r=0.245 between RPImin and Kmax, p<0.001). Therefore, we used parameters that took several variables into consideration (eg, D-index, index of surface variance, index for height asymmetry, KPI). KPI was defined by logistic regression and consisted of a Pachymin coefficient of -0.78 (p=0.001), a maximum elevation of back surface coefficient of 0.27 and coefficient of corneal curvature at the zone 3 mm away from the thinnest point on the posterior corneal surface of -12.44 (both p<0.001). The two variables with the highest Youden Index in the ROC analysis were D-index and KPI: D-index had a cut-off of 0.4175 (70.6% sensitivity) and Youden Index of 0.606. Cut-off for KPI was -0.78196 (84.7% sensitivity) and a Youden Index of 0.747; both 90% specificity. Keratoconus progression should be defined by evaluating parameters that consider several corneal changes; we suggest D-index and KPI to detect progression. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. GPRC6A regulates prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Pi, Min; Quarles, L. Darryl

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND GPRC6A is a nutrient sensing GPCR that is activated in vitro by a variety of ligands, including amino acids, calcium, zinc, osteocalcin (OC) and testosterone. The association between nutritional factors and risk of prostate cancer, the finding of increased expression of OC in prostate cancer cells and the association between GPRC6A and risk of prostate cancer in Japanese men implicates a role of GPRC6A in prostate cancer. METHODS We examined if GPRC6A is expressed in human prostate cancer cell lines and used siRNA-mediated knockdown GPRC6A expression in prostate cancer cells to explore the function of GPRC6A in vitro. To assess the role GPRC6A in prostate cancer progression in vivo we intercrossed Gprc6a−/− mice onto the TRAMP mouse prostate cancer model. RESULTS GPRC6A transcripts were markedly increased in prostate cancer cell lines 22Rv1, PC-3 and LNCaP, compared to the normal prostate RWPE-1 cell line. In addition, a panel of GPRC6A ligands, including calcium, OC, and arginine, exhibited in prostate cancer cell lines a dose-dependent stimulation of ERK activity, cell proliferation, chemotaxis, and prostate specific antigen and Runx 2 gene expression. These responses were inhibited by siRNA-mediated knockdown of GPRC6A. Finally, transfer of Gprc6a deficiency onto a TRAMP mouse model of prostate cancer significantly retarded prostate cancer progression and improved survival of compound Gprc6a−/−/TRAMP mice. CONCLUSIONS GPRC6A is a novel molecular target for regulating prostate growth and cancer progression. Increments in GPRC6A may augment the ability of prostate cancer cells to proliferate in response to dietary and bone derived ligands. PMID:21681779

  20. Teaching Mediated Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses approaches to teaching a mediated public relations course, emphasizing the World Wide Web. Outlines five course objectives, assignments and activities, evaluation, texts, and lecture topics. Argues that students mastering these course objectives will understand ethical issues relating to media use, using mediated technology in public…

  1. The multitalented Mediator complex.

    PubMed

    Carlsten, Jonas O P; Zhu, Xuefeng; Gustafsson, Claes M

    2013-11-01

    The Mediator complex is needed for regulated transcription of RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-dependent genes. Initially, Mediator was only seen as a protein bridge that conveyed regulatory information from enhancers to the promoter. Later studies have added many other functions to the Mediator repertoire. Indeed, recent findings show that Mediator influences nearly all stages of transcription and coordinates these events with concomitant changes in chromatin organization. We review the multitude of activities associated with Mediator and discuss how this complex coordinates transcription with other cellular events. We also discuss the inherent difficulties associated with in vivo characterization of a coactivator complex that can indirectly affect diverse cellular processes via changes in gene transcription. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Research progress on fascioliasis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Cheng, Na; Zhou, Yan; Xu, Xue-Nian

    2013-06-01

    Fascioliasis is an important zoonosis caused by Fasciola spp. It can cause pathological damages to human liver and gallbladder, as well as economic loss in animal husbandry. Fascioliasis can be easily misdiagnosed with other hepatobiliary diseases. The appearance of resistance to triclabendazole is an issue problem for fascioliasis control. Therefore, research for better diagnostic methods, effective drugs and vaccines become to the focus of fascioliasis control. This article summarizes the progress on epidemiological status, diagnostic method, therapy, drug resistance, vaccine and omics of fascioliasis.

  3. Mathieu Progressive Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrei, B. Utkin

    2011-10-01

    A new family of exact solutions to the wave equation representing relatively undistorted progressive waves is constructed using separation of variables in the elliptic cylindrical coordinates and one of the Bateman transforms. The general form of this Bateman transform in an orthogonal curvilinear cylindrical coordinate system is discussed and a specific problem of physical feasibility of the obtained solutions, connected with their dependence on the cyclic coordinate, is addressed. The limiting case of zero eccentricity, in which the elliptic cylindrical coordinates turn into their circular cylindrical counterparts, is shown to correspond to the focused wave modes of the Bessel-Gauss type.

  4. Post Kalman progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnabend, David

    1995-01-01

    In a paper here last year, an idea was put forward that much greater performance could be obtained from an observer, relative to a Kalman filter if more general performance indices were adopted, and the full power spectra of all the noises were employed. The considerable progress since then is reported here. Included are an extension of the theory to regulators, direct calculation of the theory's fundamental quantities - the noise effect integrals - for several theoretical spectra, and direct derivations of the Riccati equations of LQG (Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian) and Kalman theory yielding new insights.

  5. Annual Progress Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-20

    Jamming strategies. D W 3 k 4 2 i t-iew or I oev Be is o ~5e TU SS ia Y LA P 16CUTV10’:F-,n-zv fam o& nm.o ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT for Office of Naval...7:ectrtcal Enineering and :ne j drtinateo lc.aqce ’_aboratory :nlersit )t :llinol$ It rbana-ChampaLgn -roana, Illinois ild~l Abstract La the...11 treat the related problems of -ioLsa ncortaincy. robust Winner filtering and minimax icace estima- n eac,, case :nere la Assumed to is sois

  6. Hsp90 is an essential regulator of EphA2 receptor stability and signaling: Implications for cancer cell migration and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Annamalai, Balasubramaniam; Liu, Xueguang; Gopal, Udhayakumar; Isaacs, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    A subset of Eph receptors and their corresponding ligands are commonly expressed in tumor cells, where they mediate biological processes such as cell migration and adhesion, while their expression in endothelial cells promotes angiogenesis. In particular, the tumor-specific upregulation of EphA2 confers properties of increased cellular motility, invasiveness, tumor angiogenesis, and tumor progression, and its overexpression correlates with poor prognosis in several cancer types. The cellular chaperone Hsp90 also plays a significant role in regulating cell migration and angiogenesis, although the full repertoire of motility driving proteins dependent upon Hsp90 function remain poorly defined. We explored the hypothesis that Hsp90 may regulate the activity of EphA2 and examined the potential relationship between EphA2 receptor signaling and chaperone function. We demonstrate that geldanamycin (GA), an Hsp90 antagonist, dramatically destabilizes newly synthesized EphA2 protein and diminishes receptor levels in a proteasome-dependent pathway. In addition, GA treatment impairs EphA2 signaling, as evidenced by a decrease in ligand-dependent receptor phosphorylation and subsequent cell rounding. Therefore, Hsp90 exerts a dual role in regulating the stability of nascent EphA2 protein, and maintaining the signaling capacity of the mature receptor. Our findings also suggest that the GA-dependent mitigation of EphA2 signaling in receptor-overexpressing cancer cells may be sufficient to recapitulate the anti-motility effects of this drug. Finally, the identification of a pharmacologic approach to suppress EphA2 expression and signaling highlights the attractive possibility that Hsp90 inhibitors may have clinical utility in antagonizing EphA2-dependent tumorigenic progression. PMID:19567782

  7. Novel approaches to mitigating parathion toxicity: targeting cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism with menadione.

    PubMed

    Jan, Yi-Hua; Richardson, Jason R; Baker, Angela A; Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E; Laskin, Debra L; Laskin, Jeffrey D

    2016-08-01

    Accidental or intentional exposures to parathion, an organophosphorus (OP) pesticide, can cause severe poisoning in humans. Parathion toxicity is dependent on its metabolism by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system to paraoxon (diethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate), a highly poisonous nerve agent and potent inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase. We have been investigating inhibitors of CYP-mediated bioactivation of OPs as a method of preventing or reversing progressive parathion toxicity. It is well recognized that NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, an enzyme required for the transfer of electrons to CYPs, mediates chemical redox cycling. In this process, the enzyme diverts electrons from CYPs to support chemical redox cycling, which results in inhibition of CYP-mediated biotransformation. Using menadione as the redox-cycling chemical, we discovered that this enzymatic reaction blocks metabolic activation of parathion in rat and human liver microsomes and in recombinant CYPs important to parathion metabolism, including CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4. Administration of menadione to rats reduces metabolism of parathion, as well as parathion-induced inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity. This resulted in inhibition of parathion neurotoxicity. Menadione has relatively low toxicity and is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for other indications. Its ability to block parathion metabolism makes it an attractive therapeutic candidate to mitigate parathion-induced neurotoxicity. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Novel approaches to mitigating parathion toxicity: targeting cytochrome P450–mediated metabolism with menadione

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Yi-Hua; Richardson, Jason R.; Baker, Angela A.; Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Accidental or intentional exposures to parathion, an organophosphorus (OP) pesticide, can cause severe poisoning in humans. Parathion toxicity is dependent on its metabolism by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system to paraoxon (diethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate), a highly poisonous nerve agent and potent inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). We have been investigating inhibitors of CYP-mediated bioactivation of OPs as a method of preventing or reversing progressive parathion toxicity. It is well recognized that NADPH–cytochrome P450 reductase, an enzyme required for the transfer of electrons to CYPs, mediates chemical redox cycling. In this process, the enzyme diverts electrons from CYPs to support chemical redox cycling, which results in inhibition of CYP-mediated biotransformation. Using menadione as the redox-cycling chemical, we discovered that this enzymatic reaction blocks metabolic activation of parathion in rat and human liver microsomes and in recombinant CYPs important to parathion metabolism, including CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4. Administration of menadione to rats reduces metabolism of parathion, as well as parathion-induced inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity. This resulted in inhibition of parathion neurotoxicity. Menadione has relatively low toxicity and is approved by the FDA for other indications. Its ability to block parathion metabolism makes it an attractive therapeutic candidate to mitigate parathion-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:27441453

  9. Vitamin K3 (menadione) redox cycling inhibits cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism and inhibits parathion intoxication.

    PubMed

    Jan, Yi-Hua; Richardson, Jason R; Baker, Angela A; Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E; Laskin, Debra L; Laskin, Jeffrey D

    2015-10-01

    Parathion, a widely used organophosphate insecticide, is considered a high priority chemical threat. Parathion toxicity is dependent on its metabolism by the cytochrome P450 system to paraoxon (diethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate), a cytotoxic metabolite. As an effective inhibitor of cholinesterases, paraoxon causes the accumulation of acetylcholine in synapses and overstimulation of nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors, leading to characteristic signs of organophosphate poisoning. Inhibition of parathion metabolism to paraoxon represents a potential approach to counter parathion toxicity. Herein, we demonstrate that menadione (methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, vitamin K3) is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of parathion. Menadione is active in redox cycling, a reaction mediated by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase that preferentially uses electrons from NADPH at the expense of their supply to the P450s. Using human recombinant CYP 1A2, 2B6, 3A4 and human liver microsomes, menadione was found to inhibit the formation of paraoxon from parathion. Administration of menadione bisulfite (40mg/kg, ip) to rats also reduced parathion-induced inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity, as well as parathion-induced tremors and the progression of other signs and symptoms of parathion poisoning. These data suggest that redox cycling compounds, such as menadione, have the potential to effectively mitigate the toxicity of organophosphorus pesticides including parathion which require cytochrome P450-mediated activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ghrelin and cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tsung-Chieh; Hsiao, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Ghrelin is a small peptide with 28 amino acids, and has been characterized as the ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). In addition to its original function in stimulating pituitary growth hormone release, ghrelin is multifunctional and plays a role in the regulation of energy balance, gastric acid release, appetite, insulin secretion, gastric motility and the turnover of gastric and intestinal mucosa. The discovery of ghrelin and GHSR expression beyond normal tissues suggests its role other than physiological function. Emerging evidences have revealed ghrelin's function in regulating several processes related to cancer progression, especially in metastasis and proliferation. We further show the relative GHRL and GHSR expression in pan-cancers from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), suggesting the potential pathological role of the axis in cancers. This review focuses on ghrelin's biological function in cancer progression, and reveals its clinical significance especially the impact on cancer patient outcome. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Rapidly Progressive Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Geschwind, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review: This article presents a practical and informative approach to the evaluation of a patient with a rapidly progressive dementia (RPD). Recent Findings: Prion diseases are the prototypical causes of RPD, but reversible causes of RPD might mimic prion disease and should always be considered in a differential diagnosis. Aside from prion diseases, the most common causes of RPD are atypical presentations of other neurodegenerative disorders, curable disorders including autoimmune encephalopathies, as well as some infections, and neoplasms. Numerous recent case reports suggest dural arterial venous fistulas sometimes cause RPDs. Summary: RPDs, in which patients typically develop dementia over weeks to months, require an alternative differential than the slowly progressive dementias that occur over a few years. Because of their rapid decline, patients with RPDs necessitate urgent evaluation and often require an extensive workup, typically with multiple tests being sent or performed concurrently. Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, perhaps the prototypical RPD, is often the first diagnosis many neurologists consider when treating a patient with rapid cognitive decline. Many conditions other than prion disease, however, including numerous reversible or curable conditions, can present as an RPD. This chapter discusses some of the major etiologies for RPDs and offers an algorithm for diagnosis. PMID:27042906

  12. Progress in computational toxicology.

    PubMed

    Ekins, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Computational methods have been widely applied to toxicology across pharmaceutical, consumer product and environmental fields over the past decade. Progress in computational toxicology is now reviewed. A literature review was performed on computational models for hepatotoxicity (e.g. for drug-induced liver injury (DILI)), cardiotoxicity, renal toxicity and genotoxicity. In addition various publications have been highlighted that use machine learning methods. Several computational toxicology model datasets from past publications were used to compare Bayesian and Support Vector Machine (SVM) learning methods. The increasing amounts of data for defined toxicology endpoints have enabled machine learning models that have been increasingly used for predictions. It is shown that across many different models Bayesian and SVM perform similarly based on cross validation data. Considerable progress has been made in computational toxicology in a decade in both model development and availability of larger scale or 'big data' models. The future efforts in toxicology data generation will likely provide us with hundreds of thousands of compounds that are readily accessible for machine learning models. These models will cover relevant chemistry space for pharmaceutical, consumer product and environmental applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prospects for mirage mediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Aaron; Thaler, Jesse

    2006-09-01

    Mirage mediation reduces the fine-tuning in the minimal supersymmetric standard model by dynamically arranging a cancellation between anomaly-mediated and modulus-mediated supersymmetry breaking. We explore the conditions under which a mirage ``messenger scale'' is generated near the weak scale and the little hierarchy problem is solved. We do this by explicitly including the dynamics of the SUSY-breaking sector needed to cancel the cosmological constant. The most plausible scenario for generating a low mirage scale does not readily admit an extra-dimensional interpretation. We also review the possibilities for solving the μ/Bμ problem in such theories, a potential hidden source of fine-tuning.

  14. Polyarene mediators for mediated redox flow battery

    DOEpatents

    Delnick, Frank M.; Ingersoll, David; Liang, Chengdu

    2018-01-02

    The fundamental charge storage mechanisms in a number of currently studied high energy redox couples are based on intercalation, conversion, or displacement reactions. With exception to certain metal-air chemistries, most often the active redox materials are stored physically in the electrochemical cell stack thereby lowering the practical gravimetric and volumetric energy density as a tradeoff to achieve reasonable power density. In a general embodiment, a mediated redox flow battery includes a series of secondary organic molecules that form highly reduced anionic radicals as reaction mediator pairs for the reduction and oxidation of primary high capacity redox species ex situ from the electrochemical cell stack. Arenes are reduced to stable anionic radicals that in turn reduce a primary anode to the charged state. The primary anode is then discharged using a second lower potential (more positive) arene. Compatible separators and solvents are also disclosed herein.

  15. CCS52A2/FZR1, a cell cycle regulator, is an essential factor for shoot apical meristem maintenance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yajie; Ye, Wei; Li, Beibei; Zhou, Xiaojing; Cui, Yuhai; Running, Mark P; Liu, Kede

    2012-08-08

    Cell division and cell fate decisions regulate organ formation and function in plant growth and development. It is still unclear how specific meristematic regulatory networks operate with the cell cycle machinery to translate stem cell identity and maintenance into cellular behavior. In this study, we address these questions by analysis of a shoot apex defective mutant, namely xcm9. Phenotypic analysis of the xcm9 mutant reveals concomitant premature termination of floral shoots with frequent bifurcation of the shoot apices, stems, and flowers. Microscopic observations show irregular cell organization in shoot apical meristems of xcm9. Positional cloning revealed that xcm9 is a loss of function allele of the CCS52A2/FZR1 gene, which has previously been implicated in root development. Expression analysis demonstrated that CCS52A2 maintains a higher transcriptional expression level in actively dividing tissue. Genetic studies indicated that the CCS52A2 gene functions together with WUSCHEL (WUS) and CLAVATA3 (CLV3) in regulating the development of the shoot meristem, and also contributes to this regulation together with the chromatin remodeling pathway. In addition, fewer xcm9 cells express CYCLIN B1:1, showing that cell cycle progression is disrupted in the mutant. We propose that the CCS52A2 gene is a mediator that functions together with meristematic genes to regulate meristem organization, and cross-functions with chromatin regulators in cell cycle progression during shoot apical meristem development.

  16. Mediators, Moderators, and Tests for Mediation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-09

    relation between level of poor performance and degree of intended persistence for high self - esteem individuals, and (b) ability attributions mediate...the relation between level of poor performance and degree of intended persistence for low self - esteem individuals. The proposed causal models are shown...in Figure Ia. Individuals are first given a self - esteem ouestionnaire and then blocked (subgrouped) into high self - esteems or lcw self - esteems , the

  17. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, John D.

    1986-01-01

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock, comprising passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feedstock to glucose; cooling said dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, then feeding said dilute acid stream serially through a plurality of prehydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose; and cooling the dilute acid stream containing glucose after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  18. Progressive upper limb prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Lake, Chris; Dodson, Robert

    2006-02-01

    The field of upper extremity prosthetics is a constantly changing arena as researchers and prosthetists strive to bridge the gap between prosthetic reality and upper limb physiology. With the further development of implantable neurologic sensing devices and targeted muscle innervation (discussed elsewhere in this issue), the challenge of limited input to control vast outputs promises to become a historical footnote in the future annals of upper limb prosthetics. Soon multidextrous terminal devices, such as that found in the iLimb system(Touch EMAS, Inc., Edinburgh, UK), will be a clinical reality (Fig. 22). Successful prosthetic care depends on good communication and cooperation among the surgeon, the amputee, the rehabilitation team, and the scientists harnessing the power of technology to solve real-life challenges. If the progress to date is any indication, amputees of the future will find their dreams limited only by their imagination.

  19. Progress Towards International Repositories

    SciTech Connect

    McCombie, C.; Chapman, N.

    2002-02-27

    The nuclear fuel cycle is designed to be very international, with some specialist activities (e.g. fuel fabrication, reprocessing, etc.) being confined to a few countries. Nevertheless, political and public opposition has in the past been faced by proposals to internationalise the back-end of the cycle, in particular waste disposal. Attitudes, however, have been changing recently and there is now more acceptance of the general concept of shared repositories and of specific proposals such as that of Pangea. However, as for national facilities, progress towards implementation of shared repositories will be gradual. Moreover, the best vehicle for promoting the concept maymore » not be a commercial type of organization. Consequently the Pangea project team are currently establishing a widely based Association for this purpose.« less

  20. Predicting periodontitis progression?

    PubMed

    Ferraiolo, Debra M

    2016-03-01

    Cochrane Library, Ovid, Medline, Embase and LILACS were searched using no language restrictions and included information up to July 2014. Bibliographic references of included articles and related review articles were hand searched. On-line hand searching of recent issues of key periodontal journals was performed (Journal of Clinical Periodontology, Journal of Dental Research, Journal of Periodontal Research, Journal of Periodontology, Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry). Prospective and retrospective cohort studies were used for answering the question of prediction since there were no randomised controlled trials on this topic. Risk of bias was assessed using the validated Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale for non-randomised studies. Cross-sectional studies were included in the summary of currently reported risk assessment tools but not for risk of progression of disease, due to the inability to properly assess bias in these types of studies. Titles and abstracts were scanned by two reviewers independently.Full reports were obtained for those articles meeting inclusion criteria or those with insufficient information in the title to make a decision. Any published risk assessment tool was considered. The tool was defined to include any composite measure of patient-level risk directed towards determining the probability for further disease progression in adults with periodontitis. Periodontitis was defined to include both chronic and aggressive forms in the adult population. Outcomes included changes in attachment levels and/or deepening of periodontal pockets in millimeters in study populations undergoing supportive periodontal therapy. Data extraction was performed independently and in collaboration by two reviewers; completed evidence tables were reviewed by three reviewers. Studies were each given a descriptive summary to assess the quantity of data as well as further assessment of study variations within study characteristics. This also allowed for

  1. Progress and Potential

    PubMed Central

    Haspel, Richard L.; Olsen, Randall J.; Berry, Anna; Hill, Charles E.; Pfeifer, John D.; Schrijver, Iris; Kaul, Karen L.

    2014-01-01

    Context Genomic medicine is revolutionizing patient care. Physicians in areas as diverse as oncology, obstetrics, and infectious disease have begun using next-generation sequencing assays as standard diagnostic tools. Objective To review the role of pathologists in genomic testing as well as current educational programs and future training needs in genomic pathology. Data Sources Published literature as well as personal experience based on committee membership and genomic pathology curricular design. Conclusion Pathologists, as the directors of the clinical laboratories, must be prepared to integrate genomic testing into their practice. The pathology community has made significant progress in genomics-related education. A continued coordinated and proactive effort will ensure a future vital role for pathologists in the evolving health care system and also the best possible patient care. PMID:24678680

  2. Progressive Band Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Kevin; Chang, Chein-I

    2009-01-01

    Progressive band selection (PBS) reduces spectral redundancy without significant loss of information, thereby reducing hyperspectral image data volume and processing time. Used onboard a spacecraft, it can also reduce image downlink time. PBS prioritizes an image's spectral bands according to priority scores that measure their significance to a specific application. Then it uses one of three methods to select an appropriate number of the most useful bands. Key challenges for PBS include selecting an appropriate criterion to generate band priority scores, and determining how many bands should be retained in the reduced image. The image's Virtual Dimensionality (VD), once computed, is a reasonable estimate of the latter. We describe the major design details of PBS and test PBS in a land classification experiment.

  3. Progress in protein crystallography.

    PubMed

    Dauter, Zbigniew; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Macromolecular crystallography evolved enormously from the pioneering days, when structures were solved by "wizards" performing all complicated procedures almost by hand. In the current situation crystal structures of large systems can be often solved very effectively by various powerful automatic programs in days or hours, or even minutes. Such progress is to a large extent coupled to the advances in many other fields, such as genetic engineering, computer technology, availability of synchrotron beam lines and many other techniques, creating the highly interdisciplinary science of macromolecular crystallography. Due to this unprecedented success crystallography is often treated as one of the analytical methods and practiced by researchers interested in structures of macromolecules, but not highly competent in the procedures involved in the process of structure determination. One should therefore take into account that the contemporary, highly automatic systems can produce results almost without human intervention, but the resulting structures must be carefully checked and validated before their release into the public domain.

  4. Soyuz and Progress Spacecrafts

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-07

    ISS030-E-126655 (7 March, 2012) --- This photograph, taken by one of the Expedition 30 crew members aboard the International Space Station from approximately 240 miles above the southeastern Tasman Sea, is believed to be the one millionth still image recorded by space station crews. The view, from over a point centered at 46.56 degrees south latitude and 164.33 degrees east longitude, focuses on an area just west of the south end of South Island, New Zealand and was taken about 3:19 a.m. New Zealand time, March 7, 2012. Illumination and the relative motion of features in the overall series of photos suggest that the view is towards the south to southeast with the approaching dawn to the left and a strong band of Aurora Australis, from left to right. A Russian Soyuz and a Russian Progress vehicle are seen center and right in the foreground, respectively.

  5. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, J.D.

    1985-01-10

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process is disclosed for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock. It comprises passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with feed stock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feed stock to glucose. The cooled dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, serially fed through a plurality of pre-hydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose. The dilute acid stream containing glucose is cooled after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  6. Advances in refractory ulcerative colitis treatment: A new therapeutic target, Annexin A2

    PubMed Central

    Tanida, Satoshi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Ozeki, Keiji; Katano, Takahito; Kataoka, Hiromi; Kamiya, Takeshi; Joh, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Medical treatment has progressed significantly over the past decade towards achieving and maintaining clinical remission in patients with refractory ulcerative colitis (UC). Proposed mediators of inflammation in UC include pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-2, and the cell-surface adhesive molecule integrin α4β7. Conventional therapeutics for active UC include 5-aminosalicylic acid, corticosteroids and purine analogues (azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine). Patients who fail to respond to conventional therapy are treated with agents such as the calicineurin inhibitors cyclosporine and tacrolimus, the TNF-α inhibitors infliximab or adalimumab, or a neutralizing antibody (vedolizumab) directed against integrin α4β7. These therapeutic agents are of benefit for patients with refractory UC, but are not universally effective. Our recent research on TNF-α shedding demonstrated that inhibition of annexin (ANX) A2 may be a new therapeutic strategy for the prevention of TNF-α shedding during inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) inflammation. In this review, we provide an overview of therapeutic treatments that are effective and currently available for UC patients, as well as some that are likely to be available in the near future. We also propose the potential of ANX A2 as a new molecular target for IBD treatment. PMID:26269667

  7. Conceptions of Progress: How Is Progress Perceived? Mainstream versus Alternative Conceptions of Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Itay, Anat

    2009-01-01

    Progress is a powerful political concept, encompassing different and sometimes contradictory conceptions. This paper examines the results of a survey on progress conducted at the OECD World Forum entitled "Measuring and Fostering the Progress of Societies" held in Istanbul in June 2007. First, a distinction is drawn between the two approaches to…

  8. Progressive Precision Surface Design

    SciTech Connect

    Duchaineau, M; Joy, KJ

    2002-01-11

    We introduce a novel wavelet decomposition algorithm that makes a number of powerful new surface design operations practical. Wavelets, and hierarchical representations generally, have held promise to facilitate a variety of design tasks in a unified way by approximating results very precisely, thus avoiding a proliferation of undergirding mathematical representations. However, traditional wavelet decomposition is defined from fine to coarse resolution, thus limiting its efficiency for highly precise surface manipulation when attempting to create new non-local editing methods. Our key contribution is the progressive wavelet decomposition algorithm, a general-purpose coarse-to-fine method for hierarchical fitting, based in this paper on anmore » underlying multiresolution representation called dyadic splines. The algorithm requests input via a generic interval query mechanism, allowing a wide variety of non-local operations to be quickly implemented. The algorithm performs work proportionate to the tiny compressed output size, rather than to some arbitrarily high resolution that would otherwise be required, thus increasing performance by several orders of magnitude. We describe several design operations that are made tractable because of the progressive decomposition. Free-form pasting is a generalization of the traditional control-mesh edit, but for which the shape of the change is completely general and where the shape can be placed using a free-form deformation within the surface domain. Smoothing and roughening operations are enhanced so that an arbitrary loop in the domain specifies the area of effect. Finally, the sculpting effect of moving a tool shape along a path is simulated.« less

  9. Making mediation work.

    PubMed

    Arif, Zeba

    2016-10-26

    Mediation can be an effective way of solving conflict between staff members. It signifies a willingness for people to work together to discuss their differences in a constructive way, before going down the official grievance route.

  10. Disruption of GluA2 phosphorylation potentiates stress responsivity.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Alexandra S; Fosnocht, Anne Q; Lucerne, Kelsey E; Briand, Lisa A

    2017-08-30

    Cocaine addiction is characterized by persistent craving and addicts frequently relapse even after long periods of abstinence. Exposure to stress can precipitate relapse in humans and rodents. Stress and drug use can lead to common alterations in synaptic plasticity and these commonalities may contribute to the ability of stress to elicit relapse. These common changes in synaptic plasticity are mediated, in part, by alterations in the trafficking and stabilization of AMPA receptors. Exposure to both cocaine and stress can lead to alterations in protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of GluA2 AMPA subunits and thus alter the trafficking of GluA2-containing AMPARs. However, it is not clear what role AMPAR trafficking plays in the interactions between stress and cocaine. The current study utilized a mouse with a point mutation within the GluA2 subunit c-terminus resulting in a disruption of PKC-mediated GluA2 phosphorylation to examine stress responsivity. Although no differences were seen in the response to a forced swim stress in naïve mice, GluA2 K882A knock-in mice exhibited an increased stress response following cocaine self-administration. Furthermore, we demonstrated that disrupting GluA2 phosphorylation increases vulnerability to stress-induced reinstatement of both cocaine seeking and cocaine-conditioned reward. Finally, GluA2 K882A knock-in mice exhibit an increased vulnerability to social defeat as indicated by increased social avoidance. Taken together these results indicate that disrupting GluA2 phosphorylation leads to increased responsivity to acute stress following cocaine exposure and increased vulnerability to chronic stress. These results highlight the GluA2 phosphorylation site as a novel target for the stress-related disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Teacher stress research: problems and progress.

    PubMed

    Pithers, R T

    1995-12-01

    There is a reasonably large body of published research evidence available which indicates that teaching is a 'highly' or 'extremely highly' stressful occupation for up to one-third of its professionals. Generalisations such as this one, however, are wrought with problems. These problems, for instance, range from confusion about the definition of stress through to how it is to be measured. They include methodological problems inherent in some of the research used to examine the area of teacher stress and as well include, for example, confusion about the effect of mediating variables in the production of stress and strain. This paper examines some of the more important pervasive research problems in current research on teacher stress and makes some suggestions for research progress.

  12. Progress in Attosecond Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienberger, R.; Krausz, F.

    Fundamental processes in atoms, molecules, as well as condensed matter are triggered or mediated by the motion of electrons inside or between atoms. Electronic dynamics on atomic length scales tends to unfold within tens to thousands of attoseconds (1 as = 10-18 s). Recent breakthroughs in laser science are now opening the door to watching and controlling these hitherto inaccessible microscopic dynamics. The key to accessing the attosecond time domain is the control of the electric field of (visible) light, which varies its strength and direction within less than a femtosecond (1 fs = 1000 as). Atoms exposed to a few oscillation cycles of intense laser light are able to emit a single XUV burst lasting less than 1 fs. Full control of the evolution of the electromagnetic field in laser pulses comprising a few wave cycles have recently allowed the reproducible generation and measurement of isolated 250-as XUV pulses, constituting the shortest reproducible events and fastest measurement to date. These tools have enabled us to visualize the oscillating electric field of visible light with an attosecond "oscilloscope" and observing the motion of electrons in and around atoms in real time. Recent experiments hold promise for the development of an attosecond hard X-ray source, which may pave the way toward 4D electron imaging with subatomic resolution in space and time.

  13. Involvement of neutral endopeptidase in neoplastic progression.

    PubMed

    Sumitomo, Makoto; Shen, Ruoqian; Nanus, David M

    2005-08-01

    Neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP) is a 90-110 kDa cell surface cell surface peptidase that is normally expressed by numerous tissues, including prostate, kidney, intestine, endometrium, adrenal glands and lung. This enzyme cleaves peptide bonds on the amino side of hydrophobic amino acids and inactivates a variety of physiologically active peptides, including atrial natriuretic factor, substance P, bradykinin, oxytocin, Leu- and Met-enkephalins, neurotensin, bombesin, endothelin-1, and bombesin-like peptides. NEP reduces the local concentration of peptide available for receptor binding and signal transduction. Loss or decreases in NEP expression have been reported in a variety of malignancies. Reduced NEP may promote peptide-mediated proliferation by allowing accumulation of higher peptide concentrations at the cell surface, and facilitate the development or progression of neoplasia. We have used prostate cancer as model in which to study the involvement of NEP in malignancy. Using a variety of experimental approaches, including recombinant NEP, cell lines expressing wild-type and mutant NEP protein, and cell lines expressing NEP protein with a mutated cytoplasmic domain, we have examined the effects of NEP on cell migration and cell survival. We have shown that the effects of NEP are mediated by its ability to catalytically inactivate substrates such as bombesin and endothelin-1, but also through direct protein-protein interaction with other protein such as Lyn kinase [which associates with the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) resulting in NEP-Lyn-PI3-K protein complex], ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins, and the PTEN tumor suppressor protein. We review the mechanisms of NEP's tumor suppressive action and how NEP loss contributes to tumor progression.

  14. Progress in neuromorphic photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira de Lima, Thomas; Shastri, Bhavin J.; Tait, Alexander N.; Nahmias, Mitchell A.; Prucnal, Paul R.

    2017-03-01

    As society's appetite for information continues to grow, so does our need to process this information with increasing speed and versatility. Many believe that the one-size-fits-all solution of digital electronics is becoming a limiting factor in certain areas such as data links, cognitive radio, and ultrafast control. Analog photonic devices have found relatively simple signal processing niches where electronics can no longer provide sufficient speed and reconfigurability. Recently, the landscape for commercially manufacturable photonic chips has been changing rapidly and now promises to achieve economies of scale previously enjoyed solely by microelectronics. By bridging the mathematical prowess of artificial neural networks to the underlying physics of optoelectronic devices, neuromorphic photonics could breach new domains of information processing demanding significant complexity, low cost, and unmatched speed. In this article, we review the progress in neuromorphic photonics, focusing on photonic integrated devices. The challenges and design rules for optoelectronic instantiation of artificial neurons are presented. The proposed photonic architecture revolves around the processing network node composed of two parts: a nonlinear element and a network interface. We then survey excitable lasers in the recent literature as candidates for the nonlinear node and microring-resonator weight banks as the network interface. Finally, we compare metrics between neuromorphic electronics and neuromorphic photonics and discuss potential applications.

  15. Progressive myoclonic epilepsies

    PubMed Central

    Michelucci, Roberto; Canafoglia, Laura; Striano, Pasquale; Gambardella, Antonio; Magaudda, Adriana; Tinuper, Paolo; La Neve, Angela; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Visani, Elisa; Panzica, Ferruccio; Avanzini, Giuliano; Tassinari, Carlo Alberto; Bianchi, Amedeo; Zara, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To define the clinical spectrum and etiology of progressive myoclonic epilepsies (PMEs) in Italy using a database developed by the Genetics Commission of the Italian League against Epilepsy. Methods: We collected clinical and laboratory data from patients referred to 25 Italian epilepsy centers regardless of whether a positive causative factor was identified. PMEs of undetermined origins were grouped using 2-step cluster analysis. Results: We collected clinical data from 204 patients, including 77 with a diagnosis of Unverricht-Lundborg disease and 37 with a diagnosis of Lafora body disease; 31 patients had PMEs due to rarer genetic causes, mainly neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. Two more patients had celiac disease. Despite extensive investigation, we found no definitive etiology for 57 patients. Cluster analysis indicated that these patients could be grouped into 2 clusters defined by age at disease onset, age at myoclonus onset, previous psychomotor delay, seizure characteristics, photosensitivity, associated signs other than those included in the cardinal definition of PME, and pathologic MRI findings. Conclusions: Information concerning the distribution of different genetic causes of PMEs may provide a framework for an updated diagnostic workup. Phenotypes of the patients with PME of undetermined cause varied widely. The presence of separate clusters suggests that novel forms of PME are yet to be clinically and genetically characterized. PMID:24384641

  16. Redox-Mediated and Ionizing-Radiation-Induced Inflammatory Mediators in Prostate Cancer Development and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Lu; Holley, Aaron K.; Zhao, Yanming; St. Clair, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Radiation therapy is widely used for treatment of prostate cancer. Radiation can directly damage biologically important molecules; however, most effects of radiation-mediated cell killing are derived from the generated free radicals that alter cellular redox status. Multiple proinflammatory mediators can also influence redox status in irradiated cells and the surrounding microenvironment, thereby affecting prostate cancer progression and radiotherapy efficiency. Recent Advances: Ionizing radiation (IR)–generated oxidative stress can regulate and be regulated by the production of proinflammatory mediators. Depending on the type and stage of the prostate cancer cells, these proinflammatory mediators may lead to different biological consequences ranging from cell death to development of radioresistance. Critical Issues: Tumors are heterogeneous and dynamic communication occurs between stromal and prostate cancer cells, and complicated redox-regulated mechanisms exist in the tumor microenvironment. Thus, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory strategies should be carefully evaluated for each patient at different stages of the disease to maximize therapeutic benefits while minimizing unintended side effects. Future Directions: Compared with normal cells, tumor cells are usually under higher oxidative stress and secrete more proinflammatory mediators. Thus, redox status is often less adaptive in tumor cells than in their normal counterparts. This difference can be exploited in a search for new cancer therapeutics and treatment regimes that selectively activate cell death pathways in tumor cells with minimal unintended consequences in terms of chemo- and radio-resistance in tumor cells and toxicity in normal tissues. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1481–1500. PMID:24093432

  17. ISS Progress 68 Docking Coverage

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-10-16

    The unpiloted Russian ISS Progress 68 cargo craft arrived at the International Space Station Oct. 16 on a resupply mission following a two day journey following its launch from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The Progress delivered almost three tons of food, fuel and supplies for the Expedition 53 crew. The Progress automatically linked up to the Pirs Docking Compartment, where it will remain until next March.

  18. Zolpidem in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Dash, Sandip K

    2013-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by motor symptoms, postural instability, personality changes, and cognitive impairment. There is no effective treatment for this disorder. Reduced neurotransmission of GABA in the striatum and globus pallidus may contribute to the symptoms of motor and cognitive symptoms seen in PSP. Zolpidem is a GABA agonist of the benzodiazepine subreceptor BZ1. Here a nondiabetic, normotensive case of PSP is (Progressive Supranuclear Palsy) described, which showed improvement in swallowing, speech, and gaze paresis after zolpidem therapy and possible mechanism of actions are discussed. However, more trials are needed with large number of patients to confirm the effectiveness of zolpidem in progressive supranuclear palsy.

  19. Might Progress Assessments Hinder Equitable Progress? Evidence from England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcott, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Prior research has highlighted the importance of educational achievement throughout school in predicting subsequent progression to higher education in England. However, progress assessments may not only demonstrate students' prior academic achievement but also influence their future achievement. I compare students who have received different…

  20. Vitamin K3 (menadione) redox cycling inhibits cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism and inhibits parathion intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Jan, Yi-Hua; Richardson, Jason R., E-mail: jricha3@eohsi.rutgers.edu; Baker, Angela A.

    Parathion, a widely used organophosphate insecticide, is considered a high priority chemical threat. Parathion toxicity is dependent on its metabolism by the cytochrome P450 system to paraoxon (diethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate), a cytotoxic metabolite. As an effective inhibitor of cholinesterases, paraoxon causes the accumulation of acetylcholine in synapses and overstimulation of nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors, leading to characteristic signs of organophosphate poisoning. Inhibition of parathion metabolism to paraoxon represents a potential approach to counter parathion toxicity. Herein, we demonstrate that menadione (methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, vitamin K3) is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of parathion. Menadione is active in redox cycling,more » a reaction mediated by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase that preferentially uses electrons from NADPH at the expense of their supply to the P450s. Using human recombinant CYP 1A2, 2B6, 3A4 and human liver microsomes, menadione was found to inhibit the formation of paraoxon from parathion. Administration of menadione bisulfite (40 mg/kg, ip) to rats also reduced parathion-induced inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity, as well as parathion-induced tremors and the progression of other signs and symptoms of parathion poisoning. These data suggest that redox cycling compounds, such as menadione, have the potential to effectively mitigate the toxicity of organophosphorus pesticides including parathion which require cytochrome P450-mediated activation. - Highlights: • Menadione redox cycles with cytochrome P450 reductase and generates reactive oxygen species. • Redox cycling inhibits cytochrome P450-mediated parathion metabolism. • Short term administration of menadione inhibits parathion toxicity by inhibiting paraoxon formation.« less

  1. Progression of Diabetic Capillary Occlusion: A Model

    PubMed Central

    Gens, John Scott; Glazier, James A.; Burns, Stephen A.; Gast, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    An explanatory computational model is developed of the contiguous areas of retinal capillary loss which play a large role in diabetic maculapathy and diabetic retinal neovascularization. Strictly random leukocyte mediated capillary occlusion cannot explain the occurrence of large contiguous areas of retinal ischemia. Therefore occlusion of an individual capillary must increase the probability of occlusion of surrounding capillaries. A retinal perifoveal vascular sector as well as a peripheral retinal capillary network and a deleted hexagonal capillary network are modelled using Compucell3D. The perifoveal modelling produces a pattern of spreading capillary loss with associated macular edema. In the peripheral network, spreading ischemia results from the progressive loss of the ladder capillaries which connect peripheral arterioles and venules. System blood flow was elevated in the macular model before a later reduction in flow in cases with progression of capillary occlusions. Simulations differing only in initial vascular network structures but with identical dynamics for oxygen, growth factors and vascular occlusions, replicate key clinical observations of ischemia and macular edema in the posterior pole and ischemia in the retinal periphery. The simulation results also seem consistent with quantitative data on macular blood flow and qualitative data on venous oxygenation. One computational model applied to distinct capillary networks in different retinal regions yielded results comparable to clinical observations in those regions. PMID:27300722

  2. The Thermochronologist's Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeitler, P. K.

    2011-12-01

    We owe our current understanding of thermochronology less to a series of revolutionary insights than to a somewhat uneven intellectual pilgrimage that over fifty years has progressed in fits and starts. Though hampered at times by overenthusiasm, oversimplification, and misunderstandings, on balance the field advanced thanks to a blend of curiosity-driven research, tool-building motivated by new ideas about Earth science, and improvements in technology. But now that we've exploited most radiogenic systems and the major minerals that host them, and now that our models can devour CPU time along with the best of them, are we done? Have we reached peak thermochron? The answer of course is no, and papers in this session will demonstrate what new technologies and techniques might have to offer in the coming years. However, I will argue that the discipline as a whole has matured to a point where if thermochronology is to remain a mainstream tool as opposed to a weekend sport, we need to get serious about several challenges. The most fundamental challenge is that current geodynamic models (and even more complex models we can envision coding) have outpaced our meagre stockpile of kinetic calibrations, our understanding of detailed isotope systematics, and our ability to generate data with sufficient throughput. These issues will not be addressed adequately through the business-as-usual approach that brought us to our current knowledge, and some community effort will probably be needed to coordinate the hard work that will be required. But any serious attempt to answer important questions with accurate thermal histories that have low and well-defined uncertainties will require that we actually know the kinetics for the specific samples we are analyzing, that we fully understand scatter in the data, that we work with the large sample numbers that are required for some problems like landscape evolution, and that inversion tools fully explore the important aspects of both the

  3. Methods for the isolation and identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in complex mixtures and the determination of their possible toxicity by means of a host mediated bioassay technique. Progress report, July 1, 1976--February 1, 1977. [Cultured mouse leumemia cell bioassay system

    SciTech Connect

    Lipsky, S.R.; Alexander, G.; McMurray, W.

    1977-02-01

    Techniques were developed to produce excellent high performance glass capillary columns for gas chromatographic analyses of a wide range of complex mixtures of organic compounds, including those containing a wide array of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) derived from a coal liquefaction process. Work was begun to assess the potential mutogenicity and/or carcinogenicity of the various isolated PAH fractions utilizing a unique host mediated bioassay system. Preliminary results indicate that further efforts will be required to determine dose response parameters of cultured mouse leukemia cells, as well as suitable vehicles for the satisfactory introduction of certain PAH fractions into this particularmore » bioassay system.« less

  4. Causal mediation analysis with multiple causally non-ordered mediators.

    PubMed

    Taguri, Masataka; Featherstone, John; Cheng, Jing

    2018-01-01

    In many health studies, researchers are interested in estimating the treatment effects on the outcome around and through an intermediate variable. Such causal mediation analyses aim to understand the mechanisms that explain the treatment effect. Although multiple mediators are often involved in real studies, most of the literature considered mediation analyses with one mediator at a time. In this article, we consider mediation analyses when there are causally non-ordered multiple mediators. Even if the mediators do not affect each other, the sum of two indirect effects through the two mediators considered separately may diverge from the joint natural indirect effect when there are additive interactions between the effects of the two mediators on the outcome. Therefore, we derive an equation for the joint natural indirect effect based on the individual mediation effects and their interactive effect, which helps us understand how the mediation effect works through the two mediators and relative contributions of the mediators and their interaction. We also discuss an extension for three mediators. The proposed method is illustrated using data from a randomized trial on the prevention of dental caries.

  5. Gold Nanoparticle Mediated Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Joao Paulo Mattos; Figueroa, Elizabeth Raquel; Drezek, Rebekah Anna

    2013-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the field of cancer immunotherapy, where the goal is to activate or modulate the body’s immune response against cancer. However, current immunotherapy approaches exhibit limitations of safety and efficacy due to systemic delivery. In this context, the use of nanotechnology for the delivery of cancer vaccines and immune adjuvants presents a number of advantages such as targeted delivery to immune cells, enhanced therapeutic effect, and reduced adverse outcomes. Recently, gold nanoparticles (AuNP) have been explored as immunotherapy carriers, creating new AuNP applications that merit a critical overview. This review highlights recent advances in the development of AuNP mediated immunotherapies that harness AuNP biodistribution, optical properties and their ability to deliver macromolecules such as peptides and oligonucleotides. It has been demonstrated that the use of AuNP carriers can improve the delivery and safety of immunotherapy agents, and that AuNP immunotherapies are well suited for synergistic combination therapy with existing cancer therapies like photothermal ablation. PMID:24103304

  6. Immune-Mediated Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Generali, Elena; Folci, Marco; Selmi, Carlo; Riboldi, Piersandro

    2017-01-01

    The heart involvement in systemic autoimmune diseases represents a growing burden for patients and health systems. Cardiac function can be impaired as a consequence of systemic conditions and manifests with threatening clinical pictures or chronic myocardial damage. Direct injuries are mediated by the presence of inflammatory infiltrate which, even though unusual, is one of the most danger manifestations requiring prompt recognition and treatment. On the other hand, a not well-managed inflammatory status leads to accelerated atherosclerosis that precipitates ischemic disease. All cardiac structures may be damaged with different grades of intensity; moreover, lesions can appear simultaneously or more frequently at a short distance from each other leading to the onset of varied clinical pictures. The pathogenesis of heart damages in systemic autoimmune conditions is not yet completely understood for the great part of situations, even if several mechanisms have been investigated. The principal biochemical circuits refer to the damaging role of autoantibodies on cardiac tissues and the precipitation of immune complexes on endocardium. These events are finally responsible of inflammatory infiltration which leads to subsequent worsening of the previous damage. For these reasons, it appears of paramount importance a regular and deepened cardiovascular assessment to prevent a progressive evolution toward heart failure in patient affected by autoimmune diseases.

  7. The Progress of Nations, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This report summarizes the latest available statistics on international progress on children's well-being. Each section of the report contains a commentary, related statistics, and a discussion on progress and disparity in the section's particular area. Following a foreword by United Nations Secretary-General Kofi A. Annan, the sections of the…

  8. Career Progress of Merit Scholars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watley, Donivan J.

    National Merit Scholars, chosen in 1956 and 1957, were studied to assess career progress made by highly gifted students 7 to 8 years after they had entered college and to identify factors that possibly contributed to the differential progress observed. Before entering college, each of the 368 subjects was asked what level of education he intended…

  9. The Progress of Nations, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This report summarizes the latest available statistics on international progress on children's well-being. Each of the report's sections contains a commentary, related statistics, and a discussion on progress and disparity in the section's particular area. Following a foreword by United Nations Secretary-General Kofi A. Annan, the sections of the…

  10. Scientific progress: Knowledge versus understanding.

    PubMed

    Dellsén, Finnur

    2016-04-01

    What is scientific progress? On Alexander Bird's epistemic account of scientific progress, an episode in science is progressive precisely when there is more scientific knowledge at the end of the episode than at the beginning. Using Bird's epistemic account as a foil, this paper develops an alternative understanding-based account on which an episode in science is progressive precisely when scientists grasp how to correctly explain or predict more aspects of the world at the end of the episode than at the beginning. This account is shown to be superior to the epistemic account by examining cases in which knowledge and understanding come apart. In these cases, it is argued that scientific progress matches increases in scientific understanding rather than accumulations of knowledge. In addition, considerations having to do with minimalist idealizations, pragmatic virtues, and epistemic value all favor this understanding-based account over its epistemic counterpart. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A 2-Year Progress Report of the AACAP-Harvard Macy Teaching Scholars Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Jeffrey; Stubbe, Dorothy E.; Hanson, Mark; Al-Mateen, Cheryl S.; Cuccio, Anne; Dingle, Arden D.; Glowinski, Anne; Guthrie, Elizabeth; Kelley, Kathy; Malloy, Erin M.; Mehlinger, Renee; O'Melia, Anne; Shatkin, Jess; Anders, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) has partnered with the Harvard Macy Program for Healthcare Educators so that selected child and adolescent psychiatry academic faculty might enhance their teaching expertise in order to possibly enhance recruitment of medical students into child and adolescent psychiatry.…

  12. Mediation analysis with time varying exposures and mediators

    PubMed Central

    VanderWeele, Tyler J.; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary In this paper we consider causal mediation analysis when exposures and mediators vary over time. We give non-parametric identification results, discuss parametric implementation, and also provide a weighting approach to direct and indirect effects based on combining the results of two marginal structural models. We also discuss how our results give rise to a causal interpretation of the effect estimates produced from longitudinal structural equation models. When there are time-varying confounders affected by prior exposure and mediator, natural direct and indirect effects are not identified. However, we define a randomized interventional analogue of natural direct and indirect effects that are identified in this setting. The formula that identifies these effects we refer to as the “mediational g-formula.” When there is no mediation, the mediational g-formula reduces to Robins’ regular g-formula for longitudinal data. When there are no time-varying confounders affected by prior exposure and mediator values, then the mediational g-formula reduces to a longitudinal version of Pearl’s mediation formula. However, the mediational g-formula itself can accommodate both mediation and time-varying confounders and constitutes a general approach to mediation analysis with time-varying exposures and mediators. PMID:28824285

  13. Mediation analysis with time varying exposures and mediators.

    PubMed

    VanderWeele, Tyler J; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we consider causal mediation analysis when exposures and mediators vary over time. We give non-parametric identification results, discuss parametric implementation, and also provide a weighting approach to direct and indirect effects based on combining the results of two marginal structural models. We also discuss how our results give rise to a causal interpretation of the effect estimates produced from longitudinal structural equation models. When there are time-varying confounders affected by prior exposure and mediator, natural direct and indirect effects are not identified. However, we define a randomized interventional analogue of natural direct and indirect effects that are identified in this setting. The formula that identifies these effects we refer to as the "mediational g-formula." When there is no mediation, the mediational g-formula reduces to Robins' regular g-formula for longitudinal data. When there are no time-varying confounders affected by prior exposure and mediator values, then the mediational g-formula reduces to a longitudinal version of Pearl's mediation formula. However, the mediational g-formula itself can accommodate both mediation and time-varying confounders and constitutes a general approach to mediation analysis with time-varying exposures and mediators.

  14. Phenomenologically Investigating Mediated "Nature"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Tony E.

    2005-01-01

    During the summer of 2001 I worked as a bartender in Wyoming, two miles east of Yellowstone National Park. This opportunity provided me with unique experiences of "the wilderness" and as a result, allowed me to become aware of intricacies of living within a primarily simulated and mass mediated culture, i.e., the United States. Following…

  15. [Research advance on role of Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) in tumor progression].

    PubMed

    Fan, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Gang; Ma, Ding

    2009-03-01

    Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is originally identified as the cellular receptor of 2-and 5-type adenoviruses. Many researches have suggested that CAR can affect the growth, adhesive ability and cytoskeleton of tumor cells, and has complicated functions in metastasis and invasion of tumors. Moreover, the expression of CAR has close relationship with tumor prognosis and cytoreduction mediated by adenoviruses. CAR has become a new hotspot in the research on mechanism of tumor progression and gene therapy. Our review focuses on the structure and function of CAR and its role in mediating occurrence and progression of tumor.

  16. Alcohol Safety Program progress. Volume 2, State program progress

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1979-06-01

    This report focuses on the efforts of states and communities to reduce drunk driving as a major factor in traffic crashes. It examines general indications of progress in that have been established in those regions since 1970.

  17. Defining active progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sellebjerg, Finn; Börnsen, Lars; Ammitzbøll, Cecilie; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Hjermind, Lena Elisabeth; von Essen, Marina; Ratzer, Rikke Lenhard; Soelberg Sørensen, Per; Romme Christensen, Jeppe

    2017-11-01

    It is unknown whether disease activity according to consensus criteria (magnetic resonance imaging activity or clinical relapses) associate with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) changes in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). To compare CSF biomarkers in active and inactive progressive MS according to consensus criteria. Neurofilament light chain (NFL), myelin basic protein (MBP), IgG-index, chitinase-3-like-1 (CHI3L1), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), chemokine CXCL13, terminal complement complex, leukocyte counts and nitric oxide metabolites were measured in primary ( n = 26) and secondary progressive MS ( n = 26) and healthy controls ( n = 24). Progressive MS patients had higher CSF cell counts, IgG-index, CHI3L1, MMP-9, CXCL13, NFL and MBP concentrations. Active patients were younger and had higher NFL, CXCL13 and MMP-9 concentrations than inactive patients. Patients with active disease according to consensus criteria or detectable CXCL13 or MMP-9 in CSF were defined as having combined active progressive MS. These patients had increased CSF cell counts, IgG-index and MBP, NFL and CHI3L1 concentrations. Combined inactive patients only had increased IgG-index and MBP concentrations. Patients with combined active progressive MS show evidence of inflammation, demyelination and neuronal/axonal damage, whereas the remaining patients mainly show evidence of active demyelination. This challenges the idea that neurodegeneration independent of inflammation is crucial in disease progression.

  18. Progress 28 supply vehicle approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-02-07

    ISS016-E-027761 (7 Feb. 2008) --- Backdropped by a colorful Earth, an unpiloted Progress supply vehicle approaches the International Space Station. Progress 28 resupply craft launched at 7:03 a.m. (CST) on Feb. 5, 2008 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan to deliver more than 2.5 tons of food, fuel, oxygen and other supplies to the Expedition 16 crewmembers onboard the station. Progress automatically docked to the Pirs Docking Compartment at 8:30 a.m. (CST) on Feb. 7.

  19. Progress 28 supply vehicle approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-02-07

    ISS016-E-027815 (7 Feb. 2008) --- Backdropped by a colorful Earth, an unpiloted Progress supply vehicle approaches the International Space Station. Progress 28 resupply craft launched at 7:03 a.m. (CST) on Feb. 5, 2008 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan to deliver more than 2.5 tons of food, fuel, oxygen and other supplies to the Expedition 16 crewmembers onboard the station. Progress automatically docked to the Pirs Docking Compartment at 8:30 a.m. (CST) on Feb. 7.

  20. Mediation analysis with multiple versions of the mediator.

    PubMed

    Vanderweele, Tyler J

    2012-05-01

    The causal inference literature has provided definitions of direct and indirect effects based on counterfactuals that generalize the approach found in the social science literature. However, these definitions presuppose well-defined hypothetical interventions on the mediator. In many settings, there may be multiple ways to fix the mediator to a particular value, and these various hypothetical interventions may have very different implications for the outcome of interest. In this paper, we consider mediation analysis when multiple versions of the mediator are present. Specifically, we consider the problem of attempting to decompose a total effect of an exposure on an outcome into the portion through the intermediate and the portion through other pathways. We consider the setting in which there are multiple versions of the mediator but the investigator has access only to data on the particular measurement, not information on which version of the mediator may have brought that value about. We show that the quantity that is estimated as a natural indirect effect using only the available data does indeed have an interpretation as a particular type of mediated effect; however, the quantity estimated as a natural direct effect, in fact, captures both a true direct effect and an effect of the exposure on the outcome mediated through the effect of the version of the mediator that is not captured by the mediator measurement. The results are illustrated using 2 examples from the literature, one in which the versions of the mediator are unknown and another in which the mediator itself has been dichotomized.

  1. Mediation analysis with multiple versions of the mediator

    PubMed Central

    VanderWeele, Tyler J.

    2013-01-01

    The causal inference literature has provided definitions of direct and indirect effects based on counterfactuals that generalize the approach found in the social science literature. However, these definitions presuppose well defined hypothetical interventions on the mediator. In many settings there may be multiple ways to fix the mediator to a particular value and these different hypothetical interventions may have very different implications for the outcome of interest. In this paper we consider mediation analysis when multiple versions of the mediator are present. Specifically, we consider the problem of attempting to decompose a total effect of an exposure on an outcome into the portion through the intermediate and the portion through other pathways. We consider the setting in which there are multiple versions of the mediator but the investigator only has access to data on the particular measurement, not which version of the mediator may have brought that value about. We show that the quantity that is estimated as a natural indirect effect using only the available data does indeed have an interpretation as a particular type of mediated effect; however, the quantity estimated as a natural direct effect in fact captures both a true direct effect and an effect of the exposure on the outcome mediated through the effect of the version of the mediator that is not captured by the mediator measurement. The results are illustrated using two examples from the literature, one in which the versions of the mediator are unknown and another in which the mediator itself has been dichotomized. PMID:22475830

  2. Interventional Effects for Mediation Analysis with Multiple Mediators.

    PubMed

    Vansteelandt, Stijn; Daniel, Rhian M

    2017-03-01

    The mediation formula for the identification of natural (in)direct effects has facilitated mediation analyses that better respect the nature of the data, with greater consideration of the need for confounding control. The default assumptions on which it relies are strong, however. In particular, they are known to be violated when confounders of the mediator-outcome association are affected by the exposure. This complicates extensions of counterfactual-based mediation analysis to settings that involve repeatedly measured mediators, or multiple correlated mediators. VanderWeele, Vansteelandt, and Robins introduced so-called interventional (in)direct effects. These can be identified under much weaker conditions than natural (in)direct effects, but have the drawback of not adding up to the total effect. In this article, we adapt their proposal to achieve an exact decomposition of the total effect, and extend it to the multiple mediator setting. Interestingly, the proposed effects capture the path-specific effects of an exposure on an outcome that are mediated by distinct mediators, even when-as often-the structural dependence between the multiple mediators is unknown, for instance, when the direction of the causal effects between the mediators is unknown, or there may be unmeasured common causes of the mediators.

  3. Neuroprotective strategies against calpain-mediated neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz-Unal, Aysegul; Korulu, Sirin; Karabay, Arzu

    2015-01-01

    Calpains are calcium-dependent proteolytic enzymes that have deleterious effects on neurons upon their pathological over-activation. According to the results of numerous studies to date, there is no doubt that abnormal calpain activation triggers activation and progression of apoptotic processes in neurodegeneration, leading to neuronal death. Thus, it is very crucial to unravel all the aspects of calpain-mediated neurodegeneration in order to protect neurons through eliminating or at least minimizing its lethal effects. Protecting neurons against calpain-activated apoptosis basically requires developing effective, reliable, and most importantly, therapeutically applicable approaches to succeed. From this aspect, the most significant studies focusing on preventing calpain-mediated neurodegeneration include blocking the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor activities, which are closely related to calpain activation; directly inhibiting calpain itself via intrinsic or synthetic calpain inhibitors, or inhibiting its downstream processes; and utilizing the neuroprotectant steroid hormone estrogen and its receptors. In this review, the most remarkable neuroprotective strategies for calpain-mediated neurodegeneration are categorized and summarized with respect to their advantages and disadvantages over one another, in terms of their efficiency and applicability as a therapeutic regimen in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25709452

  4. The A2b adenosine receptor antagonist PSB-603 promotes oxidative phosphorylation and ROS production in colorectal cancer cells via adenosine receptor-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mølck, Christina; Ryall, James; Failla, Laura M; Coates, Janine L; Pascussi, Jean-Marc; Heath, Joan K; Stewart, Gregory; Hollande, Frédéric

    2016-12-01

    Adenosine is a multifaceted regulator of tumor progression. It modulates immune cell activity as well as acting directly on tumor cells. The A 2b adenosine receptor (A 2b -AR) is thought to be an important mediator of these effects. In this study we sought to analyze the contribution of the A 2b -AR to the behavior of colorectal cancer cells. The A 2b -AR antagonist PSB-603 changed cellular redox state without affecting cellular viability. Quantification of cellular bioenergetics demonstrated that PSB-603 increased basal oxygen consumption rates, indicative of enhanced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Unexpectedly, pharmacological and genetic approaches to antagonize AR-related signalling of PSB-603 did not abolish the response, suggesting that it was AR-independent. PSB-603 also induced acute increases in reactive oxygen species, and PSB-603 synergized with chemotherapy treatment to increase colorectal cancer cell death, consistent with the known link between cellular metabolism and chemotherapy response. PSB-603 alters cellular metabolism in colorectal cancer cells and increases their sensitivity to chemotherapy. Although requiring more mechanistic insight into its A 2b -AR-independent activity, our results show that PSB-603 may have clinical value as an anti-colorectal cancer therapeutic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sunburn | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  6. Introduction | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  7. Diagnosis | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  8. Acknowledgments | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  9. Benzene | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  10. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  11. Nitrate | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  12. Radon | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  13. Prevention | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  14. Arsenic | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  15. Cadmium | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  16. Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  17. Home | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  18. Highlights | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  19. Progress Reports-HDSC/OWP

    Science.gov Websites

    - March 2017 October - December 2016 If you would like to subscribe to the HDSC List-Server and receive future announcements of progress report on current projects click here. If you would like earlier

  20. Mortality | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  1. Survival | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  2. Incidence | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  3. Weight | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  4. Public Attitudes to Technological Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Eliot

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the probable changes in public attitudes toward science and technology as a result of the engineering accidents of 1979. Results of national polls conducted to identify public confidence in technological progress are included. (HM)

  5. [Pharmacotherapy of Parkinson's disease: progress or regress?].

    PubMed

    Pytka, Karolina; Zygmunt, Małgorzata; Filipek, Barbara

    2013-07-24

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive disease of the central nervous system (CNS), characterized by a slow loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, leading to significant decrease in dopamine (DA) levels in the striatum. Currently used drugs, such as levodopa (L-DOPA), amantadine, dopamine agonists (D) or anticholinergic drugs, are not effective enough, and do not eliminate the causes of disease. Many research centers are conducting research on new forms of currently used drugs (e.g. Duodopa, XP21279, IPX066), new drugs of already known groups (e.g. safinamide), medicines that suppress side effects of L-DOPA (e.g. AFQ056, fipamezole), and, finally, compounds with a novel mechanism of action (e.g. PMY50028, A2A receptor antagonists). A lot of scientific reports indicate an important role of A2A receptors in the regulation of the central movement system, so a new group of compounds - selective antagonists of A2A receptors (e.g. istradefylline, preladenant, SYN115) - has been developed and their potential use in PD has been examined. Clinical studies of A2A receptor antagonists have shown that this group of compounds can shorten off periods and at the same time they do not worsen dyskinesias in patients with PD. Moreover, there is ongoing research on new forms of treatment, such as gene therapy. Attempts to apply the viral vector AAV-2, which will be able to infect neurons with a variety of genes, including the gene of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), neurturin (NTN), or aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, are currently being carried out. The results of phase I and II clinical studies showed some efficacy of this form of treatment, but the method requires further studies. An analysis of potential future therapies of Parkinson's disease suggests that some progress in this field has been made.

  6. Current Directions in Mediation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    MacKinnon, David P.; Fairchild, Amanda J.

    2010-01-01

    Mediating variables continue to play an important role in psychological theory and research. A mediating variable transmits the effect of an antecedent variable on to a dependent variable, thereby providing more detailed understanding of relations among variables. Methods to assess mediation have been an active area of research for the last two decades. This paper describes the current state of methods to investigate mediating variables. PMID:20157637

  7. Expedition 15 Progress 26 Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-08-02

    JSC2007-E-41113(2 Aug. 2007) --- The ISS Progress 26 launched Aug. 2 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on time at 12:33:46 pm (CDT) and 11:33:46 pm, Baikonur time. Ascent was nominal and by the book. Once in orbit, the Progress separated from the third stage of the booster and all appendages and antennas were deployed on time. Photo Credit: NASA/Mark Bowman

  8. [Mediation in schools].

    PubMed

    Mickley, Angela

    2006-01-01

    In this article the guiding questions concern the objectives and effectiveness of introducing mediation into an existing school culture of dominance, competition and selection. In addition the necessity will be shown of combining conflict resolution with organisational development and the introduction of a consensual ethics and behaviour code to attain sustainable results in creating a constructive and healthy school environment. Given scarce resources and little time the decisive role of artistic methods will be looked at in providing young people with flexible methods of expressing and negotiating their interests in a changing environment of values and power structures. Some aspects of the development of nonviolent communication, conflict resolution and mediation methods in schools in Germany will be focused on with special emphasis on the type of intervention used and its long term sustainable effects.

  9. Interventional effects for mediation analysis with multiple mediators

    PubMed Central

    Vansteelandt, Stijn; Daniel, Rhian M.

    2016-01-01

    The mediation formula for the identification of natural (in)direct effects has facilitated mediation analyses that better respect the nature of the data, with greater consideration of the need for confounding control. The default assumptions on which it relies are strong, however. In particular, they are known to be violated when confounders of the mediator–outcome association are affected by the exposure. This complicates extensions of counterfactual-based mediation analysis to settings that involve repeatedly measured mediators, or multiple correlated mediators. VanderWeele, Vansteelandt, and Robins21 introduced so-called interventional (in)direct effects. These can be identified under much weaker conditions than natural (in)direct effects, but have the drawback of not adding up to the total effect. In this article, we adapt their proposal in order to achieve an exact decomposition of the total effect, and extend it to the multiple mediator setting. Interestingly, the proposed effects capture the path-specific effects of an exposure on an outcome that are mediated by distinct mediators, even when – as often – the structural dependence between the multiple mediators is unknown; for instance, when the direction of the causal effects between the mediators is unknown, or there may be unmeasured common causes of the mediators. PMID:27922534

  10. Causal Mediation Analysis of Survival Outcome with Multiple Mediators.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yen-Tsung; Yang, Hwai-I

    2017-05-01

    Mediation analyses have been a popular approach to investigate the effect of an exposure on an outcome through a mediator. Mediation models with multiple mediators have been proposed for continuous and dichotomous outcomes. However, development of multimediator models for survival outcomes is still limited. We present methods for multimediator analyses using three survival models: Aalen additive hazard models, Cox proportional hazard models, and semiparametric probit models. Effects through mediators can be characterized by path-specific effects, for which definitions and identifiability assumptions are provided. We derive closed-form expressions for path-specific effects for the three models, which are intuitively interpreted using a causal diagram. Mediation analyses using Cox models under the rare-outcome assumption and Aalen additive hazard models consider effects on log hazard ratio and hazard difference, respectively; analyses using semiparametric probit models consider effects on difference in transformed survival time and survival probability. The three models were applied to a hepatitis study where we investigated effects of hepatitis C on liver cancer incidence mediated through baseline and/or follow-up hepatitis B viral load. The three methods show consistent results on respective effect scales, which suggest an adverse estimated effect of hepatitis C on liver cancer not mediated through hepatitis B, and a protective estimated effect mediated through the baseline (and possibly follow-up) of hepatitis B viral load. Causal mediation analyses of survival outcome with multiple mediators are developed for additive hazard and proportional hazard and probit models with utility demonstrated in a hepatitis study.

  11. Lopsided gauge mediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Simone, Andrea; Franceschini, Roberto; Giudice, Gian Francesco; Pappadopulo, Duccio; Rattazzi, Riccardo

    2011-05-01

    It has been recently pointed out that the unavoidable tuning among supersymmetric parameters required to raise the Higgs boson mass beyond its experimental limit opens up new avenues for dealing with the so called μ- B μ problem of gauge mediation. In fact, it allows for accommodating, with no further parameter tuning, large values of B μ and of the other Higgs-sector soft masses, as predicted in models where both μ and B μ are generated at one-loop order. This class of models, called Lopsided Gauge Mediation, offers an interesting alternative to conventional gauge mediation and is characterized by a strikingly different phenomenology, with light higgsinos, very large Higgs pseudoscalar mass, and moderately light sleptons. We discuss general parametric relations involving the fine-tuning of the model and various observables such as the chargino mass and the value of tan β. We build an explicit model and we study the constraints coming from LEP and Tevatron. We show that in spite of new interactions between the Higgs and the messenger superfields, the theory can remain perturbative up to very large scales, thus retaining gauge coupling unification.

  12. Refining a Learning Progression of Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Jian-Xin; Guo, Yu-Ying; Neumann, Knut

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a revised learning progression for the energy concept and initial findings on diverse progressions among subgroups of sample students. The revised learning progression describes how students progress towards an understanding of the energy concept along two progress variables identified from previous studies--key ideas about…

  13. Vaccination with EphA2-derived T cell-epitopes promotes immunity against both EphA2-expressing and EphA2-negative tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, Manabu; Kuwashima, Naruo; Tatsumi, Tomohide; Dusak, Jill E; Nishimura, Fumihiko; Reilly, Karlyne M; Storkus, Walter J; Okada, Hideho

    2004-01-01

    Background A novel tyrosine kinase receptor EphA2 is expressed at high levels in advanced and metastatic cancers. We examined whether vaccinations with synthetic mouse EphA2 (mEphA2)-derived peptides that serve as T cell epitopes could induce protective and therapeutic anti-tumor immunity. Methods C57BL/6 mice received subcutaneous (s.c.) vaccinations with bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with synthetic peptides recognized by CD8+ (mEphA2671–679, mEphA2682–689) and CD4+ (mEphA230–44) T cells. Splenocytes (SPCs) were harvested from primed mice to assess the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses against syngeneic glioma, sarcoma and melanoma cell lines. The ability of these vaccines to prevent or treat tumor (s.c. injected MCA205 sarcoma or B16 melanoma; i.v. injected B16-BL6) establishment/progression was then assessed. Results Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with mEphA2-derived peptides induced specific CTL responses in SPCs. Vaccination with mEPhA2 peptides, but not control ovalbumin (OVA) peptides, prevented the establishment or prevented the growth of EphA2+ or EphA2-negative syngeneic tumors in both s.c. and lung metastasis models. Conclusions These data indicate that mEphA2 can serve as an attractive target against which to direct anti-tumor immunity. The ability of mEphA2 vaccines to impact EphA2-negative tumors such as the B16 melanoma may suggest that such beneficial immunity may be directed against alternative EphA2+ target cells, such as the tumor-associated vascular endothelial cells. PMID:15563374

  14. Design approaches to experimental mediation.

    PubMed

    Pirlott, Angela G; MacKinnon, David P

    2016-09-01

    Identifying causal mechanisms has become a cornerstone of experimental social psychology, and editors in top social psychology journals champion the use of mediation methods, particularly innovative ones when possible (e.g. Halberstadt, 2010, Smith, 2012). Commonly, studies in experimental social psychology randomly assign participants to levels of the independent variable and measure the mediating and dependent variables, and the mediator is assumed to causally affect the dependent variable. However, participants are not randomly assigned to levels of the mediating variable(s), i.e., the relationship between the mediating and dependent variables is correlational. Although researchers likely know that correlational studies pose a risk of confounding, this problem seems forgotten when thinking about experimental designs randomly assigning participants to levels of the independent variable and measuring the mediator (i.e., "measurement-of-mediation" designs). Experimentally manipulating the mediator provides an approach to solving these problems, yet these methods contain their own set of challenges (e.g., Bullock, Green, & Ha, 2010). We describe types of experimental manipulations targeting the mediator (manipulations demonstrating a causal effect of the mediator on the dependent variable and manipulations targeting the strength of the causal effect of the mediator) and types of experimental designs (double randomization, concurrent double randomization, and parallel), provide published examples of the designs, and discuss the strengths and challenges of each design. Therefore, the goals of this paper include providing a practical guide to manipulation-of-mediator designs in light of their challenges and encouraging researchers to use more rigorous approaches to mediation because manipulation-of-mediator designs strengthen the ability to infer causality of the mediating variable on the dependent variable.

  15. Pattern-Recognition Receptor Signaling Regulator mRNA Expression in Humans and Mice, and in Transient Inflammation or Progressive Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Günthner, Roman; Kumar, Vankayala Ramaiah Santhosh; Lorenz, Georg; Anders, Hans-Joachim; Lech, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    The cell type-, organ-, and species-specific expression of the pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) are well described but little is known about the respective expression profiles of their negative regulators. We therefore determined the mRNA expression levels of A20, CYLD, DUBA, ST2, CD180, SIGIRR, TANK, SOCS1, SOCS3, SHIP, IRAK-M, DOK1, DOK2, SHP1, SHP2, TOLLIP, IRF4, SIKE, NLRX1, ERBIN, CENTB1, and Clec4a2 in human and mouse solid organs. Humans and mice displayed significant differences between their respective mRNA expression patterns of these factors. Additionally, we characterized their expression profiles in mononuclear blood cells upon bacterial endotoxin, which showed a consistent induction of A20, SOCS3, IRAK-M, and Clec4a2 in human and murine cells. Furthermore, we studied the expression pattern in transient kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury versus post-ischemic atrophy and fibrosis in mice. A20, CD180, ST2, SOCS1, SOCS3, SHIP, IRAK-M, DOK1, DOK2, IRF4, CENTB1, and Clec4a2 were all induced, albeit at different times of injury and repair. Progressive fibrosis was associated with a persistent induction of these factors. Thus, the organ- and species-specific expression patterns need to be considered in the design and interpretation of studies related to PRR-mediated innate immunity, which seems to be involved in tissue injury, tissue regeneration and in progressive tissue scarring. PMID:24009023

  16. Signaling by Antibodies: Recent Progress

    PubMed Central

    Bournazos, Stylianos; Wang, Taia T.; Dahan, Rony; Maamary, Jad; Ravetch, Jeffrey V.

    2017-01-01

    IgG antibodies mediate a diversity of immune functions by coupling of antigen specificity through the Fab domain to signal transduction via Fc-Fc receptor interactions. Indeed, balanced IgG signaling through Type I and Type II Fc receptors is required for the control of pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory processes. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms that govern IgG-Fc receptor interactions, highlighting the diversity of Fc receptor-mediated effector functions that regulate immunity and inflammation, as well as determine susceptibility to infection and autoimmunity, and responsiveness to antibody-based therapeutics, and vaccine responses. PMID:28446061

  17. Activated Omentum Slows Progression of CKD

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Gomez, Ignacio; Pancholi, Nishit; Patel, Jilpa; Gudehithlu, Krishnamurthy P.; Sethupathi, Periannan; Hart, Peter; Dunea, George; Arruda, Jose A.L.

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells show promise in the treatment of AKI but do not survive long term after injection. However, organ repair has been achieved by extending and attaching the omentum, a fatty tissue lying above the stomach containing stem cells, to various organs. To examine whether fusing the omentum to a subtotally nephrectomized kidney could slow the progression of CKD, we used two groups of rats: an experimental group undergoing 5/6 nephrectomy only and a control group undergoing 5/6 nephrectomy and complete omentectomy. Polydextran gel particles were administered intraperitoneally before suture only in the experimental group to facilitate the fusion of the omentum to the injured kidney. After 12 weeks, experimental rats exhibited omentum fused to the remnant kidney and had lower plasma creatinine and urea nitrogen levels; less glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial injury, and extracellular matrix; and reduced thickening of basement membranes compared with controls. A fusion zone formed between the injured kidney and the omentum contained abundant stem cells expressing stem cell antigen-1, Wilms’ tumor 1 (WT-1), and CD34, suggesting active, healing tissue. Furthermore, kidney extracts from experimental rats showed increases in expression levels of growth factors involved in renal repair, the number of proliferating cells, especially at the injured edge, the number of WT-1–positive cells in the glomeruli, and WT-1 gene expression. These results suggest that contact between the omentum and injured kidney slows the progression of CKD in the remnant organ, and this effect appears to be mediated by the presence of omental stem cells and their secretory products. PMID:24627352

  18. Nitric oxide-mediated pathogenesis during nicotine and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R G; Magwere, T

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is formed by different cell types in response to a variety of physiological and patho-physiological stimuli. The intake of nicotine and/or alcohol has patho-physiological effects on organ function, and the progression of alcohol-/tobacco-related diseases seem to be directly influenced by NO-mediated mechanisms. Nicotine has an adverse influence on blood vessel functionality, repair and maintenance. Chronic nicotine exposure augments atherosclerosis by enhancing the production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages which then activate atherogenic NF-kB target genes in aortic lesions. Alcohol produces NO which speeds up the apoptosis of neutrophils. Alcohol sensitizes the liver to endotoxemic shock. Nitrosative stress and increased basal levels of NO contribute to tumour growth. The progression of disease seems to be directed via a definite NO-mediated mechanism. This review gives an insight into how intake of tobacco and alcohol may affect quality of life.

  19. Incorporating nonlinearity into mediation analyses.

    PubMed

    Knafl, George J; Knafl, Kathleen A; Grey, Margaret; Dixon, Jane; Deatrick, Janet A; Gallo, Agatha M

    2017-03-21

    Mediation is an important issue considered in the behavioral, medical, and social sciences. It addresses situations where the effect of a predictor variable X on an outcome variable Y is explained to some extent by an intervening, mediator variable M. Methods for addressing mediation have been available for some time. While these methods continue to undergo refinement, the relationships underlying mediation are commonly treated as linear in the outcome Y, the predictor X, and the mediator M. These relationships, however, can be nonlinear. Methods are needed for assessing when mediation relationships can be treated as linear and for estimating them when they are nonlinear. Existing adaptive regression methods based on fractional polynomials are extended here to address nonlinearity in mediation relationships, but assuming those relationships are monotonic as would be consistent with theories about directionality of such relationships. Example monotonic mediation analyses are provided assessing linear and monotonic mediation of the effect of family functioning (X) on a child's adaptation (Y) to a chronic condition by the difficulty (M) for the family in managing the child's condition. Example moderated monotonic mediation and simulation analyses are also presented. Adaptive methods provide an effective way to incorporate possibly nonlinear monotonicity into mediation relationships.

  20. What carries a mediation process? Configural analysis of mediation.

    PubMed

    von Eye, Alexander; Mun, Eun Young; Mair, Patrick

    2009-09-01

    Mediation is a process that links a predictor and a criterion via a mediator variable. Mediation can be full or partial. This well-established definition operates at the level of variables even if they are categorical. In this article, two new approaches to the analysis of mediation are proposed. Both of these approaches focus on the analysis of categorical variables. The first involves mediation analysis at the level of configurations instead of variables. Thus, mediation can be incorporated into the arsenal of methods of analysis for person-oriented research. Second, it is proposed that Configural Frequency Analysis (CFA) can be used for both exploration and confirmation of mediation relationships among categorical variables. The implications of using CFA are first that mediation hypotheses can be tested at the level of individual configurations instead of variables. Second, this approach leaves the door open for different types of mediation processes to exist within the same set. Using a data example, it is illustrated that aggregate-level analysis can overlook mediation processes that operate at the level of individual configurations.

  1. The Progressive Development of Early Embodied Algebraic Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radford, Luis

    2014-06-01

    In this article I present some results from a 5-year longitudinal investigation with young students about the genesis of embodied, non-symbolic algebraic thinking and its progressive transition to culturally evolved forms of symbolic thinking. The investigation draws on a cultural-historical theory of teaching and learning—the theory of objectification. Within this theory, thinking is conceived of as a form of reflection and action that is simultaneously material and ideal: It includes inner and outer speech, sensuous forms of imagination and visualisation, gestures, rhythm, and their intertwinement with material culture (symbols, artifacts, etc.). The theory articulates a cultural view of development as an unfolding dialectic process between culturally and historically constituted forms of mathematical knowing and semiotically mediated classroom activity. Looking at the experimental data through these theoretical lenses reveals a developmental path where embodied forms of thinking are sublated or subsumed into more sophisticated ones through the mediation of properly designed classroom activity.

  2. Progress Monitoring in Grade 5 Science for Low Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannest, Kimberly J.; Parker, Richard; Dyer, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    This article presents procedures and results from a 2-year project developing science key vocabulary (KV) short tests suitable for progress monitoring Grade 5 science in Texas public schools using computer-generated, -administered, and -scored assessments. KV items included KV definitions and important usages in a multiple-choice cloze format. A…

  3. Pleiotropic AT1 receptor signaling pathways mediating physiological and pathogenic actions of angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Hunyady, László; Catt, Kevin J

    2006-05-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) activates a wide spectrum of signaling responses via the AT1 receptor (AT1R) that mediate its physiological control of blood pressure, thirst, and sodium balance and its diverse pathological actions in cardiovascular, renal, and other cell types. Ang II-induced AT1R activation via Gq/11 stimulates phospholipases A2, C, and D, and activates inositol trisphosphate/Ca2+ signaling, protein kinase C isoforms, and MAPKs, as well as several tyrosine kinases (Pyk2, Src, Tyk2, FAK), scaffold proteins (G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein 1, p130Cas, paxillin, vinculin), receptor tyrosine kinases, and the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway. The AT1R also signals via Gi/o and G11/12 and stimulates G protein-independent signaling pathways, such as beta-arrestin-mediated MAPK activation and the Jak/STAT. Alterations in homo- or heterodimerization of the AT1R may also contribute to its pathophysiological roles. Many of the deleterious actions of AT1R activation are initiated by locally generated, rather than circulating, Ang II and are concomitant with the harmful effects of aldosterone in the cardiovascular system. AT1R-mediated overproduction of reactive oxygen species has potent growth-promoting, proinflammatory, and profibrotic actions by exerting positive feedback effects that amplify its signaling in cardiovascular cells, leukocytes, and monocytes. In addition to its roles in cardiovascular and renal disease, agonist-induced activation of the AT1R also participates in the development of metabolic diseases and promotes tumor progression and metastasis through its growth-promoting and proangiogenic activities. The recognition of Ang II's pathogenic actions is leading to novel clinical applications of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and AT1R antagonists, in addition to their established therapeutic actions in essential hypertension.

  4. High amylose resistant starch diet ameliorates oxidative stress, inflammation, and progression of chronic kidney disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Inflammation is a major mediator of CKD progression and is partly driven by altered gut microbiome and intestinal barrier disruption, events which are caused by: urea influx in the intestine resulting in dominance of urease-possessing bacteria; disruption of epithelial barrier by urea-derived ammoni...

  5. A resistant starch fiber diet ameliorates oxidative stress, inflammation, and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Inflammation is a constant feature and a major mediator of CKD progression. It is, in part, driven by altered gut microbiome and disruption of intestinal epithelial barrier, events which are primarily caused by: 1- urea influx in the intestine resulting in dominance of urease-possessing bacteria; 2-...

  6. Progress Revisited: The Quality of (Work)Life of Women Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Teachers' Federation, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This study explores the elusive concept of "Quality of Life" of women teachers in Canada. It is clear that both gender and profession mediate quality of life and overlap in ways researchers are just beginning to understand. The experiences of men have been the yardstick against which women's progress in the teaching profession has been…

  7. Rapidly Progressive Quadriplegia and Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Wynn, DonRaphael; McCorquodale, Donald; Peters, Angela; Juster-Switlyk, Kelsey; Smith, Gordon; Ansari, Safdar

    2016-11-01

    A woman aged 77 years was transferred to our neurocritical care unit for evaluation and treatment of rapidly progressive motor weakness and encephalopathy. Examination revealed an ability to follow simple commands only and abnormal movements, including myoclonus, tongue and orofacial dyskinesias, and opsoclonus. Imaging study findings were initially unremarkable, but when repeated, they demonstrated enhancement of the cauda equina nerve roots, trigeminal nerve, and pachymeninges. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed mildly elevated white blood cell count and protein levels. Serial electrodiagnostic testing demonstrated a rapidly progressive diffuse sensory motor axonopathy, and electroencephalogram findings progressed from generalized slowing to bilateral periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges. Critical details of her recent history prompted a diagnostic biopsy. Over time, the patient became completely unresponsive with no further abnormal movements and ultimately died. The differential diagnosis, pathological findings, and diagnosis are discussed with a brief review of a well-known yet rare diagnosis.

  8. Damage progression in Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnetyan, Levon

    1996-01-01

    A computational simulation tool is used to evaluate the various stages of damage progression in composite materials during Iosipescu sheat testing. Unidirectional composite specimens with either the major or minor material axis in the load direction are considered. Damage progression characteristics are described for each specimen using two types of boundary conditions. A procedure is outlined regarding the use of computational simulation in composites testing. Iosipescu shear testing using the V-notched beam specimen is a convenient method to measure both shear strength and shear stiffness simultaneously. The evaluation of composite test response can be made more productive and informative via computational simulation of progressive damage and fracture. Computational simulation performs a complete evaluation of laminated composite fracture via assessment of ply and subply level damage/fracture processes.

  9. DNA-Mediated Electrochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Gorodetsky, Alon A.; Buzzeo, Marisa C.

    2009-01-01

    The base pair stack of DNA has been demonstrated as a medium for long range charge transport chemistry both in solution and at DNA-modified surfaces. This chemistry is exquisitely sensitive to structural perturbations in the base pair stack as occur with lesions, single base mismatches, and protein binding. We have exploited this sensitivity for the development of reliable electrochemical assays based on DNA charge transport at self-assembled DNA monolayers. Here we discuss the characteristic features, applications, and advantages of DNA-mediated electrochemistry. PMID:18980370

  10. Recent Observational Progress on Accretion Disks Around Compact Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jon M.

    2016-04-01

    Studies of accretion disks around black holes and neutron stars over the last ten years have made remarkable progress. Our understanding of disk evolution as a function of mass accretion rate is pushing toward a consensus on thin/thick disk transitions; an apparent switching between disk-driven outflow modes has emerged; and monitoring observations have revealed complex spectral energy distributions wherein disk reprocessing must be important. Detailed studies of disk winds, in particular, have the potential to reveal the basic physical processes that mediate disk accretion, and to connect with numerical simulations. This talk will review these developments and look ahead to the potential of Astro-H.

  11. Hypothesis test of mediation effect in causal mediation model with high-dimensional continuous mediators.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yen-Tsung; Pan, Wen-Chi

    2016-06-01

    Causal mediation modeling has become a popular approach for studying the effect of an exposure on an outcome through a mediator. However, current methods are not applicable to the setting with a large number of mediators. We propose a testing procedure for mediation effects of high-dimensional continuous mediators. We characterize the marginal mediation effect, the multivariate component-wise mediation effects, and the L2 norm of the component-wise effects, and develop a Monte-Carlo procedure for evaluating their statistical significance. To accommodate the setting with a large number of mediators and a small sample size, we further propose a transformation model using the spectral decomposition. Under the transformation model, mediation effects can be estimated using a series of regression models with a univariate transformed mediator, and examined by our proposed testing procedure. Extensive simulation studies are conducted to assess the performance of our methods for continuous and dichotomous outcomes. We apply the methods to analyze genomic data investigating the effect of microRNA miR-223 on a dichotomous survival status of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We identify nine gene ontology sets with expression values that significantly mediate the effect of miR-223 on GBM survival. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  12. 45 CFR 16.18 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mediation. 16.18 Section 16.18 Public Welfare... BOARD § 16.18 Mediation. (a) In cases pending before the Board. If the Board decides that mediation... mediation techniques and will provide or assist in selecting a mediator. The mediator may take any steps...

  13. Relation between the axial length and lenticular progressive myopia.

    PubMed

    Lin, H-Y; Chang, C-W; Wang, H-Z; Tsai, R-K

    2005-08-01

    To investigate the possible risk factors associated with lenticular progressive myopia and to compare the differences between patients with lenticular progressive myopias and senile cataracts. We retrospectively reviewed cases that had been diagnosed as lenticular progressive myopia with a discrete nuclear sclerotic cataract and progressive myopic changes in one hospital from January 1998 to February 2003. A total of 47 eyes of 35 patients were enrolled in this study. In all, 32 eyes of 29 cases of common senile cataract receiving cataract extraction surgery during the study period were randomly chosen (every four cases in time sequence within a 2-month period by two ophthalmologists' clinic in 2002) as the control group. We compared the preoperative refraction status, keratometry (K-values) and axial lengths between these two groups. The possible ocular or systemic associating diseases were also investigated in the study group. In the lenticular progressive myopia group, the mean age at surgery (52.9+/-9.2 years) is younger than that in the senile cataract group (68.1+/-7.3 years). The mean axial length in the study group (25.68+/-1.93 mm) is statistically significant longer than that in the control group (22.97+/-0.83 mm) (P<0.0001). Besides, patients with lenticular progressive myopia had significantly lower mean K-values (43.25+/-1.42 diopters) than patients with senile cataracts (44.25+/-1.28 diopters) (P<0.01). There were no other ocular or systemic diseases closely associated with lenticular progressive myopia. Patients with nuclear cataract combined with lenticular progressive myopia have longer axial length than patients with senile cataract. The longer axial length may be one of the important risk factors predisposing to lenticular progressive myopia.

  14. Measuring Progressions: Assessment Structures Underlying a Learning Progression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This article describes some of the underlying conceptualizations that have gone into the work of the BEAR Center in the development of learning progressions. The core of all of these developments has been the construct map, which is the first building block in the BEAR Assessment System (BAS). After introducing the concept of a learning…

  15. Thematic Progression in a Cardiologist's Text: Context, Frames and Progression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Robert T.

    Thematic progression (TP) is examined in the text of a communication between a cardiologist and a general practitioner concerning a patient, offering a clinical diagnosis of the patient's condition. Analysis of the discourse looks at the field, tenor, and mode of the communication as a context for TP. The methods of analysis are first described,…

  16. Receptor-Mediated Drug Delivery Systems Targeting to Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shanshan; Meng, Ying; Li, Chengyi; Qian, Min; Huang, Rongqin

    2015-01-01

    Glioma has been considered to be the most frequent primary tumor within the central nervous system (CNS). The complexity of glioma, especially the existence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), makes the survival and prognosis of glioma remain poor even after a standard treatment based on surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. This provides a rationale for the development of some novel therapeutic strategies. Among them, receptor-mediated drug delivery is a specific pattern taking advantage of differential expression of receptors between tumors and normal tissues. The strategy can actively transport drugs, such as small molecular drugs, gene medicines, and therapeutic proteins to glioma while minimizing adverse reactions. This review will summarize recent progress on receptor-mediated drug delivery systems targeting to glioma, and conclude the challenges and prospects of receptor-mediated glioma-targeted therapy for future applications. PMID:28344260

  17. Identifying mediating factors of moral reasoning in science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeidler, Dana L.; Schafer, Larry E.

    The purpose of this research was to examine how science content knowledge, moral reasoning ability, attitudes, and past experiences mediate the formation of moral judgments on environmental dilemmas. The study was conducted in two phases using environmental science majors and nonscience majors of college age. Phase One determined if environmental science majors exhibited higher levels of moral reasoning on nontechnical environmental social issues than on general social issues and examined the extent to which possible mediating factors accounted for differences in moral reasoning. Phase Two was qualitative in nature, the purpose of which was to observe and identify trends in conversations between subjects as to how certain mediating factors are revealed as people form moral judgments. The framework on which this study was constructed incorporates a progressive educational position; a position that views science education as being interdisciplinary, and a social means to a social end.

  18. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chia-Yu; Chang, Cheng-Chi; Prakash, Ekambaranellore; Kuo, Min-Liang

    2008-11-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a member of the CCN family of secreted, matrix-associated proteins encoded by immediate early genes that play various roles in angiogenesis and tumor growth. CCN family proteins share uniform modular structure which mediates various cellular functions such as regulation of cell division, chemotaxis, apoptosis, adhesion, motility, angiogenesis, neoplastic transformation, and ion transport. Recently, CTGF expression has been shown to be associated with tumor development and progression. There is growing body of evidence that CTGF may regulate cancer cell migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and anoikis. In this review, we will highlight the influence of CTGF expression on the biological behavior and progression of various cancer cells, as well as its regulation on various types of protein signals and their mechanisms.

  19. Progress in high-level exploratory vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Matthew

    1993-08-01

    We have been exploring the hypothesis that vision is an explanatory process, in which causal and functional reasoning about potential motion plays an intimate role in mediating the activity of low-level visual processes. In particular, we have explored two of the consequences of this view for the construction of purposeful vision systems: Causal and design knowledge can be used to (1) drive focus of attention, and (2) choose between ambiguous image interpretations. An important result of visual understanding is an explanation of the scene's causal structure: How action is originated, constrained, and prevented, and what will happen in the immediate future. In everyday visual experience, most action takes the form of motion, and most causal analysis takes the form of dynamical analysis. This is even true of static scenes, where much of a scene's interest lies in how possible motions are arrested. This paper describes our progress in developing domain theories and visual processes for the understanding of various kinds of structured scenes, including structures built out of children's constructive toys and simple mechanical devices.

  20. Progressive fracture of fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvin, T. B.; Ginty, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    Refined models and procedures are described for determining progressive composite fracture in graphite/epoxy angleplied laminates. Lewis Research Center capabilities are utilized including the Real Time Ultrasonic C Scan (RUSCAN) experimental facility and the Composite Durability Structural Analysis (CODSTRAN) computer code. The CODSTRAN computer code is used to predict the fracture progression based on composite mechanics, finite element stress analysis, and fracture criteria modules. The RUSCAN facility, CODSTRAN computer code, and scanning electron microscope are used to determine durability and identify failure mechanisms in graphite/epoxy composites.

  1. Docking Mechanism on Progress 52

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-03

    ISS038-E-041175 (3 Feb. 2014) --- This close-up view shows the docking mechanism of the unpiloted Russian ISS Progress 52 resupply ship as it undocks from the International Space Station's Pirs Docking Compartment at 11:21 a.m. (EST) on Feb. 3, 2014. The Progress backed away to a safe distance from the orbital complex to begin several days of tests to study thermal effects of space on its attitude control system. Filled with trash and other unneeded items, the Russian resupply ship will be commanded to re-enter Earth's atmosphere Feb. 11 and disintegrate harmlessly over the Pacific Ocean.

  2. Shuttle Risk Progression by Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlin, Teri; Kahn, Joe; Thigpen, Eric; Zhu, Tony; Lo, Yohon

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the early mission risk and progression of risk as a vehicle gains insights through flight is important: . a) To the Shuttle Program to understand the impact of re-designs and operational changes on risk. . b) To new programs to understand reliability growth and first flight risk. . Estimation of Shuttle Risk Progression by flight: . a) Uses Shuttle Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SPRA) and current knowledge to calculate early vehicle risk. . b) Shows impact of major Shuttle upgrades. . c) Can be used to understand first flight risk for new programs.

  3. Kurs antenna on the Progress

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-11-23

    ISS014-E-07953 (22 Nov. 2006) ---This photo shows the position of the KURS antennae on 23 Progress as seen by spacewalkers Michael Lopez-Alegria and Mikhail Tyurin during Russian EVA 17 on Nov. 22. During docking of the Progress to the International Space Station on Oct. 26, 2006, flight controllers were unable to confirm if the antenna had retracted as commanded. On the right-hand side of the photo, there is a visible clearance between the antennae's satellite dish and handrail 2745 on the ISS Service Module.

  4. Progression of choroid plexus papilloma.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Rana S; Wang, Yi Yuen; McKelvie, Penny A; O'Brien, Brendan

    2013-12-01

    Choroid plexus papillomas are rare neoplasms that arise from choroid plexus epithelium. The World Health Organization classification describes three histological grades. Grade I is choroid plexus papilloma, grade II is atypical choroid plexus papilloma and grade III is choroid plexus carcinoma. Progression between grades is rare but documented. We present two adult cases, a 53-year-old female and a 70-year-old male, who demonstrated clear interval histological progression from grade I choroid plexus papilloma to higher grades. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Progress 23 supply vehicle approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-10-26

    ISS014-E-06544 (26 Oct. 2006) --- Backdropped by a blue and white Earth, an unpiloted Progress supply vehicle approaches the International Space Station. Progress docked to the aft port of the Zvezda Service Module at 9:29 a.m. (CDT) on Oct. 26. The spacecraft used the automated Kurs system to dock at the aft port of the Zvezda service module. Expedition 14 flight engineer Mikhail Tyurin stood by at the manual Toru docking system controls, but the automated system functioned as designed and manual intervention was not needed.

  6. Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    In support of the Obama Administration's Climate Action Plan, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Agriculture jointly released the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report, updating the federal government's progress to reduce methane emissions through biogas systems since the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap was completed by the three agencies in July 2014. The report highlights actions taken, outlines challenges and opportunities, and identifies next steps to the growth of a robust biogas industry.

  7. Host and Viral Factors in HIV-Mediated Bystander Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Himanshu; Joshi, Anjali

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections lead to a progressive loss of CD4 T cells primarily via the process of apoptosis. With a limited number of infected cells and vastly disproportionate apoptosis in HIV infected patients, it is believed that apoptosis of uninfected bystander cells plays a significant role in this process. Disease progression in HIV infected individuals is highly variable suggesting that both host and viral factors may influence HIV mediated apoptosis. Amongst the viral factors, the role of Envelope (Env) glycoprotein in bystander apoptosis is well documented. Recent evidence on the variability in apoptosis induction by primary patient derived Envs underscores the role of Env glycoprotein in HIV disease. Amongst the host factors, the role of C-C Chemokine Receptor type 5 (CCR5), a coreceptor for HIV Env, is also becoming increasingly evident. Polymorphisms in the CCR5 gene and promoter affect CCR5 cell surface expression and correlate with both apoptosis and CD4 loss. Finally, chronic immune activation in HIV infections induces multiple defects in the immune system and has recently been shown to accelerate HIV Env mediated CD4 apoptosis. Consequently, those factors that affect CCR5 expression and/or immune activation in turn indirectly regulate HIV mediated apoptosis making this phenomenon both complex and multifactorial. This review explores the complex role of various host and viral factors in determining HIV mediated bystander apoptosis. PMID:28829402

  8. Effective control of acute myeloid leukaemia and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia progression by telomerase specific adoptive T-cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Sandri, Sara; De Sanctis, Francesco; Lamolinara, Alessia; Boschi, Federico; Poffe, Ornella; Trovato, Rosalinda; Fiore, Alessandra; Sartori, Sara; Sbarbati, Andrea; Bondanza, Attilio; Cesaro, Simone; Krampera, Mauro; Scupoli, Maria T; Nishimura, Michael I; Iezzi, Manuela; Sartoris, Silvia; Bronte, Vincenzo; Ugel, Stefano

    2017-10-20

    Telomerase (TERT) is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that preserves the molecular organization at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. Since TERT deregulation is a common step in leukaemia, treatments targeting telomerase might be useful for the therapy of hematologic malignancies. Despite a large spectrum of potential drugs, their bench-to-bedside translation is quite limited, with only a therapeutic vaccine in the clinic and a telomerase inhibitor at late stage of preclinical validation. We recently demonstrated that the adoptive transfer of T cell transduced with an HLA-A2-restricted T-cell receptor (TCR), which recognize human TERT with high avidity, controls human B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) progression without severe side-effects in humanized mice. In the present report, we show the ability of our approach to limit the progression of more aggressive leukemic pathologies, such as acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL). Together, our findings demonstrate that TERT-based adoptive cell therapy is a concrete platform of T cell-mediated immunotherapy for leukaemia treatment.

  9. Effective control of acute myeloid leukaemia and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia progression by telomerase specific adoptive T-cell therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lamolinara, Alessia; Boschi, Federico; Poffe, Ornella; Trovato, Rosalinda; Fiore, Alessandra; Sartori, Sara; Sbarbati, Andrea; Bondanza, Attilio; Cesaro, Simone; Krampera, Mauro; Scupoli, Maria T.; Nishimura, Michael I.; Iezzi, Manuela; Sartoris, Silvia; Bronte, Vincenzo; Ugel, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Telomerase (TERT) is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that preserves the molecular organization at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. Since TERT deregulation is a common step in leukaemia, treatments targeting telomerase might be useful for the therapy of hematologic malignancies. Despite a large spectrum of potential drugs, their bench-to-bedside translation is quite limited, with only a therapeutic vaccine in the clinic and a telomerase inhibitor at late stage of preclinical validation. We recently demonstrated that the adoptive transfer of T cell transduced with an HLA-A2-restricted T-cell receptor (TCR), which recognize human TERT with high avidity, controls human B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) progression without severe side-effects in humanized mice. In the present report, we show the ability of our approach to limit the progression of more aggressive leukemic pathologies, such as acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL). Together, our findings demonstrate that TERT-based adoptive cell therapy is a concrete platform of T cell-mediated immunotherapy for leukaemia treatment. PMID:29152058

  10. Enable, mediate, advocate.

    PubMed

    Saan, Hans; Wise, Marilyn

    2011-12-01

    The authors of the Ottawa Charter selected the words enable, mediate and advocate to describe the core activities in what was, in 1986, the new Public Health. This article considers these concepts and the values and ideas upon which they were based. We discuss their relevance in the current context within which health promotion is being conducted, and discuss the implications of changes in the health agenda, media and globalization for practice. We consider developments within health promotion since 1986: its central role in policy rhetoric, the increasing understanding of complexities and the interlinkage with many other societal processes. So the three core activities are reviewed: they still fit well with the main health promotion challenges, but should be refreshed by new ideas and values. As the role of health promotion in the political arena has grown we have become part of the policy establishment and that is a mixed blessing. Making way for community advocates is now our challenge. Enabling requires greater sensitivity to power relations involved and an understanding of the role of health literacy. Mediating keeps its central role as it bridges vital interests of parties. We conclude that these core concepts in the Ottawa Charter need no serious revision. There are, however, lessons from the last 25 years that point to ways to address present and future challenges with greater sensitivity and effectiveness. We invite the next generation to avoid canonizing this text: as is true of every heritage, the heirs must decide on its use.

  11. Mediators of Oligodendrocyte Differentiation During Remyelination

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jigisha R.; Klein, Robyn S.

    2011-01-01

    Myelin, a dielectric sheath that wraps large axons in the central and peripheral nervous systems, is essential for proper conductance of axon potentials. In multiple sclerosis (MS), autoimmune-mediated damage to myelin within the central nervous system (CNS) leads to progressive disability primarily due to limited endogenous repair of demyelination with associated axonal pathology. While treatments are available to limit demyelination, no treatments are available to promote myelin repair. Studies examining the molecular mechanisms that promote remyelination are therefore essential for identifying therapeutic targets to promote myelin repair and thereby limit disability in MS. Here, we present our current understanding of the critical extracellular and intracellular pathways that regulate the remyelinating capabilities of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) within the adult CNS. PMID:21539842

  12. Mediation Analysis: A Practitioner's Guide.

    PubMed

    VanderWeele, Tyler J

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of recent developments in mediation analysis, that is, analyses used to assess the relative magnitude of different pathways and mechanisms by which an exposure may affect an outcome. Traditional approaches to mediation in the biomedical and social sciences are described. Attention is given to the confounding assumptions required for a causal interpretation of direct and indirect effect estimates. Methods from the causal inference literature to conduct mediation in the presence of exposure-mediator interactions, binary outcomes, binary mediators, and case-control study designs are presented. Sensitivity analysis techniques for unmeasured confounding and measurement error are introduced. Discussion is given to extensions to time-to-event outcomes and multiple mediators. Further flexible modeling strategies arising from the precise counterfactual definitions of direct and indirect effects are also described. The focus throughout is on methodology that is easily implementable in practice across a broad range of potential applications.

  13. HARVARD PROJECT PHYSICS PROGRESS REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA.

    THIS REPORT OF HARVARD PROJECT PHYSICS PRESENTS DRAFTS OF THREE SPEECHES DELIVERED TO THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF PHYSICS TEACHERS (AAPT) MEETING, FEBRUARY, 1967. THE ADDRESS BY GERALD HOLTON DEALS WITH THE AIMS AND PROGRESS OF THE PROJECT. DISCUSSED ARE (1) PROJECT PARTICIPANTS, (2) AIMS AND CONTENT, (3) THE NEW EMPHASIS, (4) SURVEY OF COURSE…

  14. The Vicissitudes of "Progressive Television."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Ien

    This document analyzes and evaluates dilemmas and difficulties in developing/implementing "progressive television," a kind of television that seeks to transgress the boundaries of dominant (mainstream) television by proposing a new constellation of television production and consumption. The ideal is described as a television that tries…

  15. Progress: Its Glories and Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Steven Pinker, a cognitive psychologist and linguist at Harvard and a savant of big ideas, is one of the latest to take on the idea of progress. He does it under the aegis of "enlightenment," which comes down to a kind of holy trinity of reason, science, and humanism. His new book, Enlightenment Now: The Case for Reason, Science, Humanism, and Progress, is ambitious and cantankerous and heady with hope. On the whole, Pinker makes a good case for the benefits of progress, but with an overdose of feel-good prose. His greatest failure comes in exaggerating the threats to science and in avoiding some problems altogether. He ignores its complexity, its shadows, its creation of new problems raised by its solutions to old ones. Pinker has a particular animus against bioethics, and he misses what has been, I would argue, at the heart of bioethics from its beginning fifty or so years ago. Bioethics was prompted by a new class of medical dilemmas that require a difficult balancing of harms and benefits. Most of them are still with us, and most of them are the result of the progress of postwar medical research and fast-changing clinical practices. © 2018 The Hastings Center.

  16. Solar Energy: Progress and Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

    This report discusses many of the economic and policy questions related to the widespread introduction of solar power, presents recent progress in developing solar technologies and advancing their economic feasibility, and reviews some recommendations that have been made for achieving the early introduction and sustained application of solar…

  17. [Eugenics: progress or backward movement?].

    PubMed

    González de Cancino, Emilssen

    2007-01-01

    Throughout this article there is a critical analysis of how genetics presents a dilemma for "human progress". So much so, that the legal world aims to create unequivocal norms and guarantees in relation with eugenics in order to avoid attempting against human dignity. The document makes the reader reflect on the ethical problems that eugenics can entail.

  18. Blue Origin Facility - Construction Progress

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-21

    Construction is progressing on Blue Origin's 750,000-square-foot facility being built at Exploration Park on NASA Kennedy Space Center property in Florida. Blue Origin will use the factory to manufacture its two-stage super-heavy-lift New Glenn launch vehicle and launch the vehicles from Space Launch Complex 46 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  19. National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) recently unveiled a new Web site about the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), the "Nation's Report Card." This site (http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard) provides easy access to a wealth of assessment information about the condition of education in the United States,…

  20. [Progress on suxamethonium chloride analysis].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ming-Zhe; Cheng, Xiang-Wei; Chu, Jian-Xin

    2013-12-01

    Abstract: Suxamethonium chloride is a depolarizing muscle relaxant used in general anesthesia. In overdose, it causes adverse reactions such as bradycardia, arrhythmia, cardiac arrest, and death. The article reviews the progress on testing methods of suxamethonium chloride such as infrared spectroscopy, chemical color reaction, chemical titration, enzyme electrode, chromatography and mass spectrometry.

  1. Monitoring Students' Academic & Disciplinary Progression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Fred; Kellogg, Larry J.

    This document outlines the objectives and procedures of a program at a New Mexico school district whose purpose is to enable school personnel to systematically monitor students' academic and disciplinary progression. The objectives of the program are to diagnose academic or disciplinary problems and prescribe remedies, to establish an oncampus…

  2. Baltimore Community Schools: Promise & Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durham, Rachel E.; Connolly, Faith

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the interim progress of the Baltimore Community School (CommSch) strategy by examining outcomes for the 2014-15 school year. Results show that CommSch parents more often reported being connected with community resources by school staff compared to parents at other schools. They also were more likely to report that school…

  3. The Future of Progressive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, William

    2008-01-01

    What David J. Ferrero has called "the Hundred Year's War between "progressives" and "traditionalists"" continues unabated in the twenty-first century. Undoubtedly, current initiatives in public education favor those who support traditional approaches, yet many critics believe inflexible state tests are restricting…

  4. Measuring research progress in photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, B.; Mcguire, P.

    1986-01-01

    The role and some results of the project analysis and integration function in the Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project are presented. Activities included supporting the decision-making process, preparation of plans for project direction, setting goals for project activities, measuring progress within the project, and the development and maintenance of analytical models.

  5. Significant Ideas and Progressive Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gwen; Mitchell, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Ideas are not one-time "Eureka" moments, but are parts of concepts progressing forward. Sometimes years pass before ideas are implemented. They then resurface, connect with other ideas, and move policies ahead. Meanwhile, the idea remains alive in the field, influencing decisions and goals. Ideas build on one another when implemented. The field of…

  6. Progress Update: Stack Project Complete

    ScienceCinema

    Cody, Tom

    2017-12-12

    Progress update from the Savannah River Site. The 75 foot 293 F Stack, built for plutonium production, was cut down to size in order to prevent injury or release of toxic material if the structure were to collapse due to harsh weather.

  7. Does monitoring goal progress promote goal attainment? A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Harkin, Benjamin; Webb, Thomas L; Chang, Betty P I; Prestwich, Andrew; Conner, Mark; Kellar, Ian; Benn, Yael; Sheeran, Paschal

    2016-02-01

    Control theory and other frameworks for understanding self-regulation suggest that monitoring goal progress is a crucial process that intervenes between setting and attaining a goal, and helps to ensure that goals are translated into action. However, the impact of progress monitoring interventions on rates of behavioral performance and goal attainment has yet to be quantified. A systematic literature search identified 138 studies (N = 19,951) that randomly allocated participants to an intervention designed to promote monitoring of goal progress versus a control condition. All studies reported the effects of the treatment on (a) the frequency of progress monitoring and (b) subsequent goal attainment. A random effects model revealed that, on average, interventions were successful at increasing the frequency of monitoring goal progress (d+ = 1.98, 95% CI [1.71, 2.24]) and promoted goal attainment (d+ = 0.40, 95% CI [0.32, 0.48]). Furthermore, changes in the frequency of progress monitoring mediated the effect of the interventions on goal attainment. Moderation tests revealed that progress monitoring had larger effects on goal attainment when the outcomes were reported or made public, and when the information was physically recorded. Taken together, the findings suggest that monitoring goal progress is an effective self-regulation strategy, and that interventions that increase the frequency of progress monitoring are likely to promote behavior change. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Asymmetry of cortical decline in subtypes of primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Rogalski, Emily; Cobia, Derin; Martersteck, Adam; Rademaker, Alfred; Wieneke, Christina; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M-Marsel

    2014-09-23

    The aim of this study was to provide quantitative measures of changes in cortical atrophy over a 2-year period associated with 3 subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) using whole-brain vertex-wise and region-of-interest (ROI) neuroimaging methods. The purpose was to quantitate disease progression, establish an empirical basis for clinical expectations, and provide outcome measures for therapeutic trials. Changes in cortical thickness and volume loss as well as neuropsychological performance were assessed at baseline and 2-year follow-up in 26 patients who fulfilled criteria for logopenic (8 patients), agrammatic (10 patients), and semantic (8 patients) PPA subtypes. Whole-brain vertex-wise and ROI imaging analysis were conducted using the FreeSurfer longitudinal pipeline. Clinical deficits and cortical atrophy patterns showed distinct patterns of change among the subtypes over 2 years. Results confirmed that progression for each of the 3 subtypes showed left greater than right hemisphere asymmetry. An ROI analysis also revealed that progression was greater within, rather than outside, the language network. Preferential neurodegeneration of the left hemisphere language network is a common denominator for all 3 PPA subtypes, even as the disease progresses. Using a focal cortical language network ROI as an outcome measure of disease progression appears to be more sensitive than whole-brain or ventricular volume measures of change and may be helpful for designing future clinical trials in PPA. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  9. Asymmetry of cortical decline in subtypes of primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Cobia, Derin; Martersteck, Adam; Rademaker, Alfred; Wieneke, Christina; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M.-Marsel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to provide quantitative measures of changes in cortical atrophy over a 2-year period associated with 3 subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) using whole-brain vertex-wise and region-of-interest (ROI) neuroimaging methods. The purpose was to quantitate disease progression, establish an empirical basis for clinical expectations, and provide outcome measures for therapeutic trials. Methods: Changes in cortical thickness and volume loss as well as neuropsychological performance were assessed at baseline and 2-year follow-up in 26 patients who fulfilled criteria for logopenic (8 patients), agrammatic (10 patients), and semantic (8 patients) PPA subtypes. Whole-brain vertex-wise and ROI imaging analysis were conducted using the FreeSurfer longitudinal pipeline. Results: Clinical deficits and cortical atrophy patterns showed distinct patterns of change among the subtypes over 2 years. Results confirmed that progression for each of the 3 subtypes showed left greater than right hemisphere asymmetry. An ROI analysis also revealed that progression was greater within, rather than outside, the language network. Conclusions: Preferential neurodegeneration of the left hemisphere language network is a common denominator for all 3 PPA subtypes, even as the disease progresses. Using a focal cortical language network ROI as an outcome measure of disease progression appears to be more sensitive than whole-brain or ventricular volume measures of change and may be helpful for designing future clinical trials in PPA. PMID:25165386

  10. Exploratory Mediation Analysis via Regularization

    PubMed Central

    Serang, Sarfaraz; Jacobucci, Ross; Brimhall, Kim C.; Grimm, Kevin J.

    2017-01-01

    Exploratory mediation analysis refers to a class of methods used to identify a set of potential mediators of a process of interest. Despite its exploratory nature, conventional approaches are rooted in confirmatory traditions, and as such have limitations in exploratory contexts. We propose a two-stage approach called exploratory mediation analysis via regularization (XMed) to better address these concerns. We demonstrate that this approach is able to correctly identify mediators more often than conventional approaches and that its estimates are unbiased. Finally, this approach is illustrated through an empirical example examining the relationship between college acceptance and enrollment. PMID:29225454

  11. 40 CFR 35.6650 - Progress reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Progress reports. 35.6650 Section 35... Actions Reports Required Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6650 Progress reports. (a) Reporting frequency. The recipient must submit progress reports as specified in the Cooperative Agreement. Progress reports...

  12. 40 CFR 35.6650 - Progress reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Progress reports. 35.6650 Section 35... Actions Reports Required Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6650 Progress reports. (a) Reporting frequency. The recipient must submit progress reports as specified in the Cooperative Agreement. Progress reports...

  13. Protein- mediated enamel mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Enamel is a hard nanocomposite bioceramic with significant resilience that protects the mammalian tooth from external physical and chemical damages. The remarkable mechanical properties of enamel are associated with its hierarchical structural organization and its thorough connection with underlying dentin. This dynamic mineralizing system offers scientists a wealth of information that allows the study of basic principals of organic matrix-mediated biomineralization and can potentially be utilized in the fields of material science and engineering for development and design of biomimetic materials. This chapter will provide a brief overview of enamel hierarchical structure and properties as well as the process and stages of amelogenesis. Particular emphasis is given to current knowledge of extracellular matrix protein and proteinases, and the structural chemistry of the matrix components and their putative functions. The chapter will conclude by discussing the potential of enamel for regrowth. PMID:22652761

  14. Soluble lymphocytic mediators

    PubMed Central

    Pick, E.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of a number of drugs on the production of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) by antigen-stimulated sensitized guinea-pig lymph node cells was studied. The drugs were present during the entire culture period and eliminated from supernatants by dialysis. It was found that MIF secretion is inhibited by exogenous dibutyryl cyclic AMP and by theophylline and chlorphenesin, two agents raising the endogenous level of cyclic AMP. On the other hand, isoproterenol, which stimulates cyclic AMP generation in several tissues, did not block MIF production. The formation of the mediator was also suppressed by the microfilament-affecting drug, cytochalasin B. The microtubular disruptive agents, colchicine and vinblastine sulphate, did not influence MIF production. It is concluded that: (a) endogenous cyclic AMP may act as a regulator of MIF production; (b) the activity of contractile microfilaments is probably required for MIF formation; and (c) microtubules are not involved in the secretory process. PMID:4369184

  15. Functional interaction of TRPV4 channel protein with annexin A2 in DRG.

    PubMed

    Ning, Liping; Wang, Chuanwei; Ding, Xinli; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Xuping; Yue, Shouwei

    2012-09-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is a Ca(2+)-permeable, non-selective cation channel that is involved in the transmission of pain signals mediated by dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Annexin A2 belongs to a class of membrane-binding proteins that plays an important role in the regulation of ion channels. Nevertheless, little is known about the interaction between them in DRG. In this paper, we evaluated the functional interaction of TRPV4 with annexin A2 in DRG. We have used immunocytochemistry and co-immunoprecipitation assays to investigate the interaction between annexin A2 and TRPV4 in DRG. The role of annexin A2 in the regulation of TRPV4 activity in DRG was further verified by measurement of intracellular free calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)) and substance P (SP) release. First, annexin A2 was showed partial co-localization with TRPV4 in DRG neurons. Then, annexin A2 and TRPV4 were co-precipitated with each other in DRG lysates. Furthermore, the downregulation of annexin A2 using specific small interfering RNA significantly inhibited Ca(2+) influx and SP mediated by TRPV4. Our results provide evidence that annexin A2 is associated with TRPV4 and regulates TRPV4-mediated Ca(2+) influx and SP release in DRG neurons. The objective of this work is to determine the influence of annexin A2 on TRPV4 in DRG neurons, which may be the basis for treatment of pain relief.

  16. Endosome-mediated autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Kondylis, Vangelis; van Nispen tot Pannerden, Hezder E.; van Dijk, Suzanne; ten Broeke, Toine; Wubbolts, Richard; Geerts, Willie J.; Seinen, Cor; Mutis, Tuna; Heijnen, Harry F.G.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of TLR signaling has been shown to induce autophagy in antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Using high-resolution microscopy approaches, we show that in LPS-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs), autophagosomes emerge from MHC class II compartments (MIICs) and harbor both the molecular machinery for antigen processing and the autophagosome markers LC3 and ATG16L1. This ENdosome-Mediated Autophagy (ENMA) appears to be the major type of autophagy in DCs, as similar structures were observed upon established autophagy-inducing conditions (nutrient deprivation, rapamycin) and under basal conditions in the presence of bafilomycin A1. Autophagosome formation was not significantly affected in DCs expressing ATG4BC74A mutant and atg4b−/− bone marrow DCs, but the degradation of the autophagy substrate SQSTM1/p62 was largely impaired. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the previously described DC aggresome-like LPS-induced structures (DALIS) contain vesicular membranes, and in addition to SQSTM1 and ubiquitin, they are positive for LC3. LC3 localization on DALIS is independent of its lipidation. MIIC-driven autophagosomes preferentially engulf the LPS-induced SQSTM1-positive DALIS, which become later degraded in autolysosomes. DALIS-associated membranes also contain ATG16L1, ATG9 and the Q-SNARE VTI1B, suggesting that they may represent (at least in part) a membrane reservoir for autophagosome expansion. We propose that ENMA constitutes an unconventional, APC-specific type of autophagy, which mediates the processing and presentation of cytosolic antigens by MHC class II machinery, and/or the selective clearance of toxic by-products of elevated ROS/RNS production in activated DCs, thereby promoting their survival. PMID:23481895

  17. Progression of language decline and cortical atrophy in subtypes of primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Rogalski, E; Cobia, D; Harrison, T M; Wieneke, C; Weintraub, S; Mesulam, M-M

    2011-05-24

    To examine the longitudinal course of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) over a 2-year period and to offer quantitative ranges of expected change that could be used to guide the design and evaluation of therapeutic intervention trials. Regional changes of cortical thickness and whole-brain cortical volume loss as well as neuropsychological language performance were assessed at baseline and 2 years later in 13 rigorously characterized patients who fulfilled research criteria for logopenic, agrammatic, and semantic PPA subtypes (6 PPA-L, 3 PPA-G, and 4 PPA-S). There was substantial progression of clinical deficits and cortical atrophy over 2 years. Neuropsychological language performance patterns lost the sharp distinctions that differentiated one PPA variant from another. Nonetheless, the subtype-specific differential impairment of word comprehension vs grammatical processing was largely maintained. Peak atrophy sites spread beyond the initial distinctive locations that characterized each of the 3 subtypes and displayed a more convergent distribution encompassing all 3 major components of the language network: the inferior frontal gyrus, the temporoparietal junction, and lateral temporal cortex. Despite the progression, overall peak atrophy remained lateralized to the left hemisphere. The results suggest that the unique features, which sharply differentiate the PPA variants at the early to middle stages, may lose their distinctiveness as the degeneration becomes more severe. Given the substantial atrophy over 2 years, PPA clinical trials may require fewer patients and shorter study durations than Alzheimer disease trials to detect significant therapeutic effects.

  18. Progression of language decline and cortical atrophy in subtypes of primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Cobia, D.; Harrison, T.M.; Wieneke, C.; Weintraub, S.; Mesulam, M.-M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the longitudinal course of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) over a 2-year period and to offer quantitative ranges of expected change that could be used to guide the design and evaluation of therapeutic intervention trials. Methods: Regional changes of cortical thickness and whole-brain cortical volume loss as well as neuropsychological language performance were assessed at baseline and 2 years later in 13 rigorously characterized patients who fulfilled research criteria for logopenic, agrammatic, and semantic PPA subtypes (6 PPA-L, 3 PPA-G, and 4 PPA-S). Results: There was substantial progression of clinical deficits and cortical atrophy over 2 years. Neuropsychological language performance patterns lost the sharp distinctions that differentiated one PPA variant from another. Nonetheless, the subtype-specific differential impairment of word comprehension vs grammatical processing was largely maintained. Peak atrophy sites spread beyond the initial distinctive locations that characterized each of the 3 subtypes and displayed a more convergent distribution encompassing all 3 major components of the language network: the inferior frontal gyrus, the temporoparietal junction, and lateral temporal cortex. Despite the progression, overall peak atrophy remained lateralized to the left hemisphere. Conclusions: The results suggest that the unique features, which sharply differentiate the PPA variants at the early to middle stages, may lose their distinctiveness as the degeneration becomes more severe. Given the substantial atrophy over 2 years, PPA clinical trials may require fewer patients and shorter study durations than Alzheimer disease trials to detect significant therapeutic effects. PMID:21606451

  19. Students, Teachers, and Schools as Sources of Variability, Integrity, and Sustainability in Implementing Progress Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolt, Daniel M.; Ysseldyke, Jim; Patterson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    A three-level variance decomposition analysis was used to examine the sources of variability in implementation of a technology-enhanced progress monitoring system within each year of a 2-year study using a randomized-controlled design. We show that results of technology-enhanced progress monitoring are not necessarily a measure of student…

  20. Microalgal mediation of ripple mobility.

    PubMed

    Friend, P L; Lucas, C H; Holligan, P M; Collins, M B

    2008-01-01

    The interaction between physical and biological factors responsible for the cessation of ripple migration on a sandy intertidal flat was examined during a microalgal bloom period in late winter/early spring, as part of a wider study into the biostabilisation of intertidal sediments. Ripple positions and ripple geometry were monitored, and surface sediment was sampled, at weekly intervals over a 5-week period. Ripples remained in the same position for at least 4 weeks, during which time there was a progressive reduction in bedform height (smoothing) and deposition of some 1.5 cm sediment, mainly in the ripple troughs (surface levelling). The mean chlorophyll a (chl a) sediment content was 6.0 microg gDW(-1) (DW: dry weight) (0-1 mm depth fraction), with a maximum value of 7.4 microg gDW(-1) half way through the bloom. Mean colloidal-S carbohydrate (S: saline extraction) content was 131 microg GE gDW(-1) (GE: glucose equivalent) (0-1 mm), with a maximum of 261 microg GE gDW(-1 )towards the end of the bloom. Important accessory pigments were peridinin (indicative of dinophytes) and fucoxanthin (diatoms). Stepwise multiple regression showed that peridinin was the best predictor of chl a. For the first time, in situ evidence for the mediation of (wave) ripple migration by microalgae is provided. Results indicate that diatoms, and quite possibly dinophytes, can have a significant effect on intertidal flat ripple mobility on a temporal scale of weeks. In addition, microalgal effects appear capable of effecting a reduction in bed roughness on a spatial scale of up to 10(-2 )m, with a subsequent reduction in bottom stress and bed erodability. It is suggested that a unique combination of environmental conditions, in conjunction with the microalgal bloom(s), promoted the initial cessation of ripple movement, and that stationary-phase, diatom-derived extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) (and possibly dinophyte-derived EPS) may have prolonged the condition. It is reasonable

  1. Progress of MICE RFCC Module

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; Bowring, D.; DeMello, A.

    2012-05-20

    Recent progress on the design and fabrication of the RFCC (RF and superconducting Coupling Coil) module for the international MICE (Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment) are reported. The MICE ionization cooling channel has two RFCC modules, each having four 201- MHz normal conducting RF cavities surrounded by one superconducting coupling coil (solenoid) magnet. The magnet is designed to be cooled by three cryocoolers. Fabrication of the RF cavities is complete; preparation for the cavity electro-polishing, low power RF measurements, and tuning are in progress at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Fabrication of the cold mass of the first coupling coil magnetmore » has been completed in China and the cold mass arrived at LBNL in late 2011. Preparations for testing the cold mass are currently under way at Fermilab. Plans for the RFCC module assembly and integration are being developed and are described.« less

  2. Progress Toward National Aeronautics Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Carlo J.; Sehra, Arun K.

    1999-01-01

    NASA has made definitive progress towards achieving several bold U.S. goals in aeronautics related to air breathing engines. The advanced technologies developed towards these goals span applications from general aviation to large subsonic and supersonic aircraft. The proof of successful technology development is demonstrated through successful technology transfer to U.S. industry and projected fleet impact. Specific examples of progress are discussed that quantifies the achievement towards these goals. In addition, a more detailed vision for NASA aeronautics is defined and key strategic issues are explored which invite international and national debate and involvement especially in reduced environmental impact for subsonic and supersonic aircraft, dramatic new capabilities in general aviation engines, and reduced development cycle time and costs.

  3. Progressive transmission of road network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Bo; Ai, Tinghua; Tang, Xinming; Li, Zhen

    2009-10-01

    The progressive transmission of vector map data requires efficient multi-scale data model to process the data into hierarchical structure. This paper presents such a data structure of road network without redundancy of geometry for progressive transmission. For a given scale, the road network display has to settle two questions. One is which road objects to be represented and the other is what geometric details to be visualized for the selected roads. This paper combines the Töpfer law and the BLG-tree structure into a multi-scale representation matrix to answer simultaneously the above two questions. In the matrix, rows from top to bottom represent the roads in the sequence of descending classification of traffic and length, which can support the Töpfer law to retrieve the more important roads. In a row, columns record one road by a linear BLG-tree to provide good line graphics.

  4. Progress 42 re-entry

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-29

    ISS029-E-034092 (29 Oct. 2011) --- This unusual photograph, captured by one of the Expedition 29 crew members aboard the International Space Station, highlights the reentry plasma trail (center) of Progress 42P (M-10M) supply vehicle. Progress 42P docked at the space station on April 29, 2011, and was undocked and de-orbited approximately 183 days later on Oct. 29, 2011. The ISS was located over the southern Pacific Ocean when this image was taken. Light from the rising sun illuminates the curvature of the Earth limb (horizon line) at top, but does not completely overwhelm the airglow visible at image top left. Airglow is caused by light emitted at specific wavelengths by atoms and molecules excited by ultraviolet radiation in the upper atmosphere.

  5. Cultural Neuroscience: Progress and Promise

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Cheon, Bobby K.; Pornpattanangkul, Narun; Mrazek, Alissa J.; Blizinsky, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    The nature and origin of human diversity has been a source of intellectual curiosity since the beginning of human history. Contemporary advances in cultural and biological sciences provide unique opportunities for the emerging field of cultural neuroscience. Research in cultural neuroscience examines how cultural and genetic diversity shape the human mind, brain and behavior across multiple time scales: situation, ontogeny and phylogeny. Recent progress in cultural neuroscience provides novel theoretical frameworks for understanding the complex interaction of environmental, cultural and genetic factors in the production of adaptive human behavior. Here, we provide a brief history of cultural neuroscience, theoretical and methodological advances, as well as empirical evidence of the promise of and progress in the field. Implications of this research for population health disparities and public policy are discussed. PMID:23914126

  6. Kurs antenna on the Progress

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-02-22

    ISS014-E-14451 (22 Feb. 2007) --- A close-up view of the Kurs antenna on the Progress vehicle docked to the International Space Station's Zvezda Service Module was photographed during a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) on Feb. 22, 2007. During the 6-hour, 18-minute spacewalk, astronaut Michael E. Lopez-Alegria (out of frame), Expedition 14 commander and NASA space station science officer; and cosmonaut Mikhail Tyurin (out of frame), flight engineer representing Russia's Federal Space Agency, were able to retract the stuck antenna which did not properly retract when the Progress docked to the station on Oct. 26, 2006. Moving the antenna was necessary to ensure it would not interfere with the undocking scheduled in April.

  7. Progress on alternative energy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couch, H. T.

    1982-03-01

    Progress in the year 1981 toward the development of energy systems suitable for replacing petroleum products combustion and growing in use to fulfill a near term expansion in energy use is reviewed. Coal is noted to be a potentially heavy pollution source, and the presence of environmentally acceptable methods of use such as fluidized-bed combustion and gasification and liquefaction reached the prototype stage in 1981, MHD power generation was achieved in two U.S. plants, with severe corrosion problems remaining unsolved for the electrodes. Solar flat plate collectors sales amounted to 20 million sq ft in 1981, and solar thermal electric conversion systems with central receivers neared completion. Solar cells are progressing toward DOE goals of $.70/peak W by 1986, while wind energy conversion sales were 2000 machines in 1981, and the industry is regarded as maturing. Finally, geothermal, OTEC, and fusion systems are reviewed.

  8. Damage Progression in Bolted Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnetyan, Levon; Chamis, Christos C.; Gotsis, Pascal K.

    1998-01-01

    Structural durability, damage tolerance, and progressive fracture characteristics of bolted graphite/epoxy composite laminates are evaluated via computational simulation. Constituent material properties and stress and strain limits are scaled up to the structure level to evaluate the overall damage and fracture propagation for bolted composites. Single and double bolted composite specimens with various widths and bolt spacings are evaluated. The effect of bolt spacing is investigated with regard to the structural durability of a bolted joint. Damage initiation, growth, accumulation, and propagation to fracture are included in the simulations. Results show the damage progression sequence and structural fracture resistance during different degradation stages. A procedure is outlined for the use of computational simulation data in the assessment of damage tolerance, determination of sensitive parameters affecting fracture, and interpretation of experimental results with insight for design decisions.

  9. Damage Progression in Bolted Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnetyan, Levon; Chamis, Christos; Gotsis, Pascal K.

    1998-01-01

    Structural durability,damage tolerance,and progressive fracture characteristics of bolted graphite/epoxy composite laminates are evaluated via computational simulation. Constituent material properties and stress and strain limits are scaled up to the structure level to evaluate the overall damage and fracture propagation for bolted composites. Single and double bolted composite specimens with various widths and bolt spacings are evaluated. The effect of bolt spacing is investigated with regard to the structural durability of a bolted joint. Damage initiation, growth, accumulation, and propagation to fracture are included in the simulations. Results show the damage progression sequence and structural fracture resistance during different degradation stages. A procedure is outlined for the use of computational simulation data in the assessment of damage tolerance, determination of sensitive parameters affecting fracture, and interpretation of experimental results with insight for design decisions.

  10. Revolution and progress in medicine.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, William

    2015-02-01

    This paper adapts Kuhn's conceptual framework to developmental episodes in the theory and practice of medicine. Previous attempts to understand the reception of Ignaz Semmelweis's work on puerperal fever in Kuhnian terms are used as a starting point. The author identifies some limitations of these attempts and proposes a new way of understanding the core Kuhnian notions of "paradigm," "progress," and "revolution" in the context of a socially embedded technoscience such as medicine.

  11. Rapidly progressive idiopathic lenticular astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Tint, Naing L; Jayaswal, Rakesh; Masood, Imran; Maharajan, V Senthil

    2007-02-01

    A myopic 43-year-old woman with early nuclear sclerotic cataract developed more than 11.0 diopters (D) of astigmatism over a 6-month period. This was found to be lenticular in origin. Phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation was performed, resulting in residual astigmatism of 0.75 D. To our knowledge, this is the first case of rapidly progressive lenticular astigmatism in an otherwise healthy eye with early nuclear sclerotic cataract.

  12. Progress in NTHMP Hazard Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gonzalez, F.I.; Titov, V.V.; Mofjeld, H.O.; Venturato, A.J.; Simmons, R.S.; Hansen, R.; Combellick, Rodney; Eisner, R.K.; Hoirup, D.F.; Yanagi, B.S.; Yong, S.; Darienzo, M.; Priest, G.R.; Crawford, G.L.; Walsh, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Hazard Assessment component of the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program has completed 22 modeling efforts covering 113 coastal communities with an estimated population of 1.2 million residents that are at risk. Twenty-three evacuation maps have also been completed. Important improvements in organizational structure have been made with the addition of two State geotechnical agency representatives to Steering Group membership, and progress has been made on other improvements suggested by program reviewers. ?? Springer 2005.

  13. PROGRESS IN ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA

    PubMed Central

    Kadia, Tapan M.; Ravandi, Farhad; O’Brien, Susan; Cortes, Jorge; Kantarjian, Hagop M.

    2014-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Steady gains in clinical research and a renaissance of genomics in leukemia have led to improved outcomes. The recognition of tremendous heterogeneity in AML has allowed individualized treatments of specific disease entities within the context of patient age, cytogenetics, and mutational analysis. The following is a comprehensive review of the current state of AML therapy and a roadmap of our approach to these distinct disease entities. PMID:25441110

  14. Ongoing Progress in Spacecraft Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, Dave (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This publication is a collection of papers presented at the Mars Mission Research Center workshop on Ongoing Progress in Spacecraft Controls. The technical program addressed additional Mars mission control problems that currently exist in robotic missions in addition to human missions. Topics include control systems design in the presence of large time delays, fuel-optimal propulsive control, and adaptive control to handle a variety of unknown conditions.

  15. Recent progress of quantum annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Sei

    2015-03-10

    We review the recent progress of quantum annealing. Quantum annealing was proposed as a method to solve generic optimization problems. Recently a Canadian company has drawn a great deal of attention, as it has commercialized a quantum computer based on quantum annealing. Although the performance of quantum annealing is not sufficiently understood, it is likely that quantum annealing will be a practical method both on a conventional computer and on a quantum computer.

  16. Progress on SOFIA primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyl, Roland; Tarreau, Michel

    2000-06-01

    REOSC, SAGEM Group, has a significant contribution to the SOFIA project with the design and fabrication of the 2.7-m primary mirror and its fixtures as well as the M3 mirror tower assembly. This paper will primarily report the progress made on the primary mirror design and the first important manufacturing step: its lightweighting by machining pockets from the rear side of the blank.

  17. Theorizing with/out "Mediators".

    PubMed

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Jornet, Alfredo

    2017-01-05

    Mediation is one of the most often cited concepts in current cultural-historical theory literature, in which cultural actions and artifacts are often characterized as mediators standing between situational stimuli and behavioral responses. Most often presented as a means to overcome Cartesian dualism between subject and object, and between individual and society, some scholars have nonetheless raised criticism suggesting that such mediators are problematic for a dialectical psychology that takes a unit analysis (monist) approach. In fact, Spinoza develops a monist theory of mind and body that goes without and even excludes every form of mediation. In this study, we follow up on the latter criticisms and explore what we consider to be problematic uses of the notion of mediation as an analytical construct in the literature. We elaborate an empirically grounded discussion on the ways the concept of mediation may lead to dualistic readings; and we offer an alternative account where the notion of mediator is not needed. We conclude discussing prospects for and implications of a cultural-historical theory where the notion of mediation no longer is invoked to account for human action and development.

  18. Progress on youth reproductive health.

    PubMed

    1998-06-01

    The first round table meeting to review progress in implementing the Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development was convened in April 1998 to consider progress on adolescent reproductive health and rights. The 30 participants from 24 countries concluded that while many countries have made progress, attitudes still need to be changed among those who continue to believe that provision of reproductive health services to adolescents leads to promiscuity. The topics considered during the meeting included: 1) improving accessibility and quality of information and services; 2) creating an "enabling environment" for adolescent reproductive health; 3) enhancing the role of parents and schools in providing sex education; 4) using national laws and policies to protect youth health and rights; and 5) mobilizing private sector and private foundation resources. The round table recommended that adolescent reproductive health programs 1) involve diverse groups of young people in the development of programs, services, and materials; 2) cooperate with a wide variety of other agencies; 3) encourage open discussions of sexuality; 4) train youth as peer counselors; 5) hire youth as paid staff; 6) use a range of quality communication resources; 7) train health care professionals who deal with adolescents; 8) develop evaluation indicators for social and emotional well-being; 9) increase youth access to the formal health sector; and 10) use the visibility of women's groups to promote young women's interests. The round table also asked UN agencies to strengthen their support for youth programs.

  19. Progress in myeloma stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Richard Dela; Tricot, Guido; Zangari, Maurizio; Zhan, Fenghuang

    2011-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematologic malignancy in the United States and affects about 4 in 100,000 Americans. Even though much progress has been made in MM therapy, MM remains an incurable disease for the vast majority of patients. The existence of MM stem cell is considered one of the major causes of MM drug-resistance, leading to relapse. This highlights the importance and urgency of developing approaches to target MM stem cells. However, very little is known about the molecular characteristics of the MM stem cells, which makes it difficult to target MM stem cells therapeutically. Evidence of the existence of a myeloma stem cell has been provided by Matsui et al. showing that the CD138- and CD20+ fraction, which is a minor population of the MM cells, has a greater clonogenic potential and has the phenotype of a memory B-cell (CD19+, CD27+). In this review, we report recent progress of cell surface markers in cancer stem cells, especially in myeloma and the molecular mechanisms related to drug resistance and myeloma disease progression. PMID:22432075

  20. Information Loss from Technological Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    Progress in electronics and optics offers faster computers, and rapid communication via the internet that is matched by ever larger and evolving storage systems. Instinctively one assumes that this must be totally beneficial. However advances in software and storage media are progressing in ways which are frequently incompatible with earlier systems and the economics and commercial pressures rarely guarantee total compatibility with earlier systems. Instead, the industries actively choose to force the users to purchase new systems and software. Thus we are moving forward with new technological variants that may have access to only the most recent systems and we will have lost earlier alternatives. The reality is that increased processing speed and storage capacity are matched by an equally rapid decline in the access and survival lifetime of older information. This pattern is not limited to modern electronic systems but is evident throughout history from writing on stone and clay tablets to papyrus and paper. It is equally evident in image systems from painting, through film, to magnetic tapes and digital cameras. In sound recording we have variously progressed from wax discs to vinyl, magnetic tape and CD formats. In each case the need for better definition and greater capacity has forced the earlier systems into oblivion. Indeed proposed interactive music systems could similarly relegate music CDs to specialist collections. The article will track some of the examples and discuss the consequences as well as noting that this information loss is further compounded by developments in language and changes in cultural views of different societies.

  1. 32 CFR 776.38 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mediation. 776.38 Section 776.38 National... Professional Conduct § 776.38 Mediation. (a) Mediation: (1) A covered attorney may act as a mediator between... mediation, including the advantages and risks involved, and the effect on the attorney-client...

  2. 44 CFR 7.942 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mediation. 7.942 Section 7..., Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 7.942 Mediation. (a) FEMA will promptly refer to a mediation agency... participate in the mediation process to the extent necessary to reach an agreement or for the mediator to make...

  3. 24 CFR 3288.35 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mediation. 3288.35 Section 3288.35...-Administered States § 3288.35 Mediation. (a) Mediator. The dispute resolution provider will provide for the... identifies any other party that should be included in the mediation, the mediator will contact the other...

  4. 34 CFR 81.13 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mediation. 81.13 Section 81.13 Education Office of the... Mediation. (a) Voluntary mediation is available for proceedings that are pending before the OALJ. (b) A... mediation by filing a motion with the ALJ assigned to the case. The OALJ arranges for a mediator if the...

  5. 22 CFR 143.33 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mediation. 143.33 Section 143.33 Foreign... Mediation. (a) Referral of complaints for mediation. The agency will refer to the Federal Mediation and... participate in the mediation process to the extent necessary to reach an agreement or make an informed...

  6. 29 CFR 1202.1 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mediation. 1202.1 Section 1202.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.1 Mediation. The mediation..., or where conferences are refused. The National Mediation Board may proffer its services in case any...

  7. 29 CFR 1203.1 - Mediation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mediation services. 1203.1 Section 1203.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD APPLICATIONS FOR SERVICE § 1203.1 Mediation services. Applications for the mediation services of the National Mediation Board under section 5, First, of the Railway...

  8. 29 CFR 35.32 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mediation. 35.32 Section 35.32 Labor Office of the Secretary... Mediation. (a) Referral to mediation. CRC will promptly refer to the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service or the mediation agency designated by the Secretary of Health and Human Services under 45 CFR part...

  9. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  10. Nanoparticle mediated micromotor motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mei; Liu, Limei; Gao, Wenlong; Su, Miaoda; Ge, Ya; Shi, Lili; Zhang, Hui; Dong, Bin; Li, Christopher Y.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we report the utilization of nanoparticles to mediate the motion of a polymer single crystal catalytic micromotor. Micromotors have been fabricated by directly self-assembling functional nanoparticles (platinum and iron oxide nanoparticles) onto one or both sides of two-dimensional polymer single crystals. We show that the moving velocity of these micromotors in fluids can be readily tuned by controlling the nanoparticles' surface wettability and catalytic activity. A 3 times velocity increase has been achieved for a hydrophobic micromotor as opposed to the hydrophilic ones. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the catalytic activity of platinum nanoparticles inside the micromotor can be enhanced by their synergetic interactions with iron oxide nanoparticles and an electric field. Both strategies lead to dramatically increased moving velocities, with the highest value reaching ~200 μm s-1. By decreasing the nanoparticles' surface wettability and increasing their catalytic activity, a maximum of a ~10-fold increase in the moving speed of the nanoparticle based micromotor can be achieved. Our results demonstrate the advantages of using nanoparticles in micromotor systems.In this paper, we report the utilization of nanoparticles to mediate the motion of a polymer single crystal catalytic micromotor. Micromotors have been fabricated by directly self-assembling functional nanoparticles (platinum and iron oxide nanoparticles) onto one or both sides of two-dimensional polymer single crystals. We show that the moving velocity of these micromotors in fluids can be readily tuned by controlling the nanoparticles' surface wettability and catalytic activity. A 3 times velocity increase has been achieved for a hydrophobic micromotor as opposed to the hydrophilic ones. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the catalytic activity of platinum nanoparticles inside the micromotor can be enhanced by their synergetic interactions with iron oxide nanoparticles and an electric

  11. Inflammasome mediated autoinflammatory disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Shruti P.; Cassel, Suzanne L.

    2013-01-01

    The nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat containing (NLR) family of receptors are members of the innate immune system with a critical role in host defense. These molecules are key to driving inflammatory responses to abnormal cellular conditions. A number of the NLRs serve this role upon activation by forming a multi-protein complex called an inflammasome. The inflammasome drives the processing and release of cytokines such as the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. The important function of NLR molecules in autoinflammatory disorders has recently been recognized in part through the identification of the role of IL-1β in pathogenesis of several autoinflammatory diseases. Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) were the first autoinflammatory disorders found to be directly mediated by dysfunctional inflammasome activation. This finding has subsequently led to studies in both murine models and humans that have revealed several other inflammatory conditions associated with activation of NLR containing inflammasomes. Understanding of the molecular pathophysiology of these autoinflammatory disorders has further guided the successful development of targeted therapy against IL-1. In this review, we will provide an overview of the inflammasomes and describe the important role they play in the development and manifestations of autoinflammatory diseases. PMID:20861596

  12. Nanoparticle mediated micromotor motion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Liu, Limei; Gao, Wenlong; Su, Miaoda; Ge, Ya; Shi, Lili; Zhang, Hui; Dong, Bin; Li, Christopher Y

    2015-03-21

    In this paper, we report the utilization of nanoparticles to mediate the motion of a polymer single crystal catalytic micromotor. Micromotors have been fabricated by directly self-assembling functional nanoparticles (platinum and iron oxide nanoparticles) onto one or both sides of two-dimensional polymer single crystals. We show that the moving velocity of these micromotors in fluids can be readily tuned by controlling the nanoparticles' surface wettability and catalytic activity. A 3 times velocity increase has been achieved for a hydrophobic micromotor as opposed to the hydrophilic ones. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the catalytic activity of platinum nanoparticles inside the micromotor can be enhanced by their synergetic interactions with iron oxide nanoparticles and an electric field. Both strategies lead to dramatically increased moving velocities, with the highest value reaching ∼200 μm s(-1). By decreasing the nanoparticles' surface wettability and increasing their catalytic activity, a maximum of a ∼10-fold increase in the moving speed of the nanoparticle based micromotor can be achieved. Our results demonstrate the advantages of using nanoparticles in micromotor systems.

  13. Ethics and mediation.

    PubMed

    Patthoff, D E

    1993-12-01

    Ethics dialogue in this case is first used as a framework to initiate reflection on which forms of conflict resolution are appropriate in specific situations. This helps in planning and strategies, but does not guarantee what the outcome will actually be. Ethics dialogue, however, can also be used as a form of conflict resolution. For example, when the patient in the story wants to avoid revealing the names of her past dentists, an ethical framework could be presented that would respect her autonomy (an ethical term) and her right to privacy (a legal term), while still addressing your need to determine if the primary problem is of an ethical or dental nature, and if your role is to be that of a healing mediator or a healing dentist. This same form of conflict resolution could also be applied elsewhere in the story. For example, ethics dialogue would have been appropriate during the consultation between you and the endodontist, or between you and the patient, prior to the lawyer's formal request for the patient's records. It is difficult, however, for you to reduce conflict through an ethical dialogue once the lawyer requests information from you because, at that point, the adjudication process has already begun. The ethical reflection exercise will, however, help you negotiate through the adjudication process by providing a solid ethical reference point concerning conflict resolution. The February issue's ethics column will provide a framework for evaluating the forms of power available in conflict resolution in terms of justice.

  14. Syndromes of Rapidly Progressive Cognitive Decline-Our Experience

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Viswanathan, Lakshminarayanapuram Gopal; Pai, Anupama Ramakanth; Wahatule, Rahul; Alladi, Suvarna

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dementias are fairly slowly progressive degenerative diseases of brain for which treatment options are very less and carry a lot of burden on family and society. A small percentage of them are rapidly progressive and mostly carry a different course outcome. However, there are no definite criteria other than the time line for these patients. Aims: The aim of this was to identify and categorize the causes and course of rapidly progressive dementias seen in our center. Settings and Design: Patients who presented with rapid deterioration of cognitive functions within weeks to 1 year between 2011 and December 2016 were evaluated. Patients and Methods: All patients underwent all mandatory tests for dementia including brain imaging. Complete vasculitis workup, autoimmune encephalitis profile including Voltage Gated Potassium Channel, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor, glutamic acid-decarboxylase, thyroid-peroxidase antibody, cerebrospinal fluid, and other special tests such as duodenal biopsy and paraneoplastic workup were done based on clinical indications. Results and Conclusions: Out of 144 patients 42 had immune-mediated encephalopathy, 18 had Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, 3 had Vitamin B12 deficiency, 63 had infection with neurocysticercosis, 7 had tuberculosis, 2 had HIV, 1 had herpes simplex encephalitis, 1 had neurosyphilis, 1 Whipples disease, 1 had Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis, 1 had Mass lesion, 3 had Frontotemporal dementia, and 3 had small vessel disease. Good majority of these patients have infective and immune-mediated causes and less number belong to degenerative group. Therefore, caution is needed to look for treatable cause as it carries a different treatment options and outcome. PMID:28936074

  15. Gender hormones and the progression of experimental polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Stringer, Kenneth D; Komers, Radko; Osman, Shukri A; Oyama, Terry T; Lindsley, Jessie N; Anderson, Sharon

    2005-10-01

    Male gender is a risk factor for progression of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), clinically and in the Han:SPRD rat model. Orchiectomy limits progression, but mechanisms of the detrimental effect of androgen, and/or beneficial effects of estrogen, are not known. This protocol tested the hypothesis that male gender (intact androgen status) promotes progression, while female gender (intact estrogen status) is protective; and that these disease-modifying effects are due to changes in expression of known fibrotic mediators. Studies were performed in male and female noncystic control (+/+) and cystic (+/-) rats subjected to orchiectomy, ovariectomy, or sham operation. At 12 weeks of age, renal function was measured. Blood and kidneys were taken for measurement of plasma and renal renin, endothelin (ET-1), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), using biochemical, protein expression, and immunohistochemical methods. Cystic male rats exhibited significantly reduced glomerular filtration (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) rates, with suppression of plasma and renal renin, up-regulation of renal ET-1 and eNOS, and down-regulation of renal VEGF expression. Orchiectomy attenuated the fall in GFR and ERPF, while numerically limiting changes in eNOS and VEGF. Female rats exhibited less cystic growth, with normal renin status, lesser elevation of renal ET-1, and proportionately lesser changes in VEGF and eNOS. Ovariectomy led to higher blood pressure and reduced GFR and ERPF, with a trend toward upregulation of ET-1, and significant down-regulation of VEGF and eNOS. Female gender is protective, but ovariectomy attenuates the protective effect of female gender, in association with changes in renal expression of ET-1, VEGF, and eNOS. The accelerated disease in male rats can be attenuated by orchiectomy and consequent changes in expression of disease mediators.

  16. Neuroprotective effects of curcumin on endothelin-1 mediated cell death in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Stankowska, Dorota L; Krishnamoorthy, Vignesh R; Ellis, Dorette Z; Krishnamoorthy, Raghu R

    2017-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of hippocampal neurons leading to memory deficits and cognitive decline. Studies suggest that levels of the vasoactive peptide endothelin-1 (ET-1) are increased in the brain tissue of Alzheimer's patients. Curcumin, the main ingredient of the spice turmeric, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and neuroprotective effects. However, the mechanisms underlying some of these beneficial effects are not completely understood. The objective of this study was to determine if curcumin could protect hippocampal neurons from ET-1 mediated cell death and examine the involvement of c-Jun in this pathway. Primary hippocampal neurons from rat pups were isolated using a previously published protocol. Viability of the cells was measured by the live/dead assay. Immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses were performed to analyze c-Jun levels in hippocampal neurons treated with either ET-1 or a combination of ET-1 and curcumin. Apoptotic changes were evaluated by immunoblot detection of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved fodrin, and a caspase 3/7 activation assay. ET-1 treatment produced a 2-fold increase in the levels of c-Jun as determined by an immunoblot analysis in hippocampal neurons. Co-treatment with curcumin significantly attenuated the ET-1 mediated increase in c-Jun levels. ET-1 caused increased neuronal cell death of hippocampal neurons indicated by elevation of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved fodrin and an increased activity of caspases 3 and 7 which was attenuated by co-treatment with curcumin. Blockade of JNK, an upstream effector of c-Jun by specific inhibitor SP600125 did not fully protect from ET-1 mediated activation of pro-apoptotic enzymes in primary hippocampal cells. Our data suggests that one mechanism by which curcumin protects against ET-1-mediated cell death is through blocking an increase in c-Jun levels. Other possible mechanisms include decreasing pro

  17. Cannabinoid administration attenuates the progression of simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Molina, Patricia E; Winsauer, Peter; Zhang, Ping; Walker, Edith; Birke, Leslie; Amedee, Angela; Stouwe, Curtis Vande; Troxclair, Dana; McGoey, Robin; Varner, Kurt; Byerley, Lauri; LaMotte, Lynn

    2011-06-01

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), the primary psychoactive component in marijuana, is FDA approved to ameliorate AIDS-associated wasting. Because cannabinoid receptors are expressed on cells of the immune system, chronic Δ(9)-THC use may impact HIV disease progression. We examined the impact of chronic Δ(9)-THC administration (0.32 mg/kg im, 2 × daily), starting 28 days prior to inoculation with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV(mac251); 100 TCID(50)/ml, iv), on immune and metabolic indicators of disease during the initial 6 month asymptomatic phase of infection in rhesus macaques. SIV(mac251) inoculation resulted in measurable viral load, decreased lymphocyte CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio, and increased CD8(+) proliferation. Δ(9)-THC treatment of SIV-infected animals produced minor to no effects in these parameters. However, chronic Δ(9)-THC administration decreased early mortality from SIV infection (p = 0.039), and this was associated with attenuation of plasma and CSF viral load and retention of body mass (p = NS). In vitro, Δ(9)-THC (10 μm) decreased SIV (10 TCID(50)) viral replication in MT4-R5 cells. These results indicate that chronic Δ(9)-THC does not increase viral load or aggravate morbidity and may actually ameliorate SIV disease progression. We speculate that reduced levels of SIV, retention of body mass, and attenuation of inflammation are likely mechanisms for Δ(9)-THC-mediated modulation of disease progression that warrant further study.

  18. Clinical progression in Parkinson disease and the neurobiology of axons.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsiao-Chun; Ulane, Christina M; Burke, Robert E

    2010-06-01

    Despite tremendous growth in recent years in our knowledge of the molecular basis of Parkinson disease (PD) and the molecular pathways of cell injury and death, we remain without therapies that forestall disease progression. Although there are many possible explanations for this lack of success, one is that experimental therapeutics to date have not adequately focused on an important component of the disease process, that of axon degeneration. It remains unknown what neuronal compartment, either the soma or the axon, is involved at disease onset, although some have proposed that it is the axons and their terminals that take the initial brunt of injury. Nevertheless, this concept has not been formally incorporated into many of the current theories of disease pathogenesis, and it has not achieved a wide consensus. More importantly, in view of growing evidence that the molecular mechanisms of axon degeneration are separate and distinct from the canonical pathways of programmed cell death that mediate soma destruction, the possibility of early involvement of axons in PD has not been adequately emphasized as a rationale to explore the neurobiology of axons for novel therapeutic targets. We propose that ongoing degeneration of axons, not cell bodies, is the primary determinant of clinically apparent progression of disease, and that future experimental therapeutics intended to forestall disease progression will benefit from a new focus on the distinct mechanisms of axon degeneration.

  19. Pericyte contractility controls endothelial cell cycle progression and sprouting: insights into angiogenic switch mechanics.

    PubMed

    Durham, Jennifer T; Surks, Howard K; Dulmovits, Brian M; Herman, Ira M

    2014-11-01

    Microvascular stability and regulation of capillary tonus are regulated by pericytes and their interactions with endothelial cells (EC). While the RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway has been implicated in modulation of pericyte contractility, in part via regulation of the myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP), the mechanisms linking Rho GTPase activity with actomyosin-based contraction and the cytoskeleton are equivocal. Recently, the myosin phosphatase-RhoA-interacting protein (MRIP) was shown to mediate the RhoA/ROCK-directed MLCP inactivation in vascular smooth muscle. Here we report that MRIP directly interacts with the β-actin-specific capping protein βcap73. Furthermore, manipulation of MRIP expression influences pericyte contractility, with MRIP silencing inducing cytoskeletal remodeling and cellular hypertrophy. MRIP knockdown induces a repositioning of βcap73 from the leading edge to stress fibers; thus MRIP-silenced pericytes increase F-actin-driven cell spreading twofold. These hypertrophied and cytoskeleton-enriched pericytes demonstrate a 2.2-fold increase in contractility upon MRIP knockdown when cells are plated on a deformable substrate. In turn, silencing pericyte MRIP significantly affects EC cycle progression and angiogenic activation. When MRIP-silenced pericytes are cocultured with capillary EC, there is a 2.0-fold increase in EC cycle entry. Furthermore, in three-dimensional models of injury and repair, silencing pericyte MRIP results in a 1.6-fold elevation of total tube area due to EC network formation and increased angiogenic sprouting. The pivotal role of MRIP expression in governing pericyte contractile phenotype and endothelial growth should lend important new insights into how chemomechanical signaling pathways control the "angiogenic switch" and pathological angiogenic induction. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  20. [Research progress on wetland ecotourism].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Long; Lu, Lin

    2009-06-01

    Wetland is rich in biodiversity and cultural diversity, possessing higher tourism value and environmental education and community participation functions. Wetland ecotourism reflects the sustainable development of tourism economy and wetland protection, having received great concern from governments and scholars at home and abroad. This paper summarized the related theories and practices, discussed the research advances in wetland ecotourism from the aspects of significance, progress, contents, methods and results, and pointed out the important research fields in the future, aimed to accelerate the development of wetland ecotourism research and to provide reference about the resources exploitation, environment protection, and scientific administration of wetland and related scenic areas.

  1. Biobehavioral Influences on Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Costanzo, Erin S.; Sood, Anil K.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis This review focuses on the contributions of stress-related behavioral factors to cancer growth and metastasis and the biobehavioral mechanisms underlying these relationships. We describe behavioral factors that are important in modulation of the stress response and the pivotal role of neuroendocrine regulation in the downstream alteration of physiological pathways relevant to cancer control, including the cellular immune response, inflammation, and tumor angiogenesis, invasion, and cell-signaling pathways. Consequences for cancer progression and metastasis, as well as quality of life, are delineated. Finally, behavioral and pharmacological interventions for cancer patients with the potential to alter these biobehavioral pathways are discussed. PMID:21094927

  2. Recent Progress in SERS Biosensing

    PubMed Central

    Bantz, Kyle C.; Meyer, Audrey F.; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Im, Hyungsoon; Kurtuluş, Özge; Lee, Si Hoon; Lindquist, Nathan C.

    2011-01-01

    This perspective gives an overview of recent developments in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for biosensing. We focus this review on SERS papers published in the last 10 years and to specific applications of detecting biological analytes. Both intrinsic and extrinsic SERS biosensing schemes have been employed to detect and identify small molecules, nucleic acids, lipids, peptides, and proteins, as well as for in vivo and cellular sensing. Current SERS substrate technologies along with a series of advancements in surface chemistry, sample preparation, intrinsic/extrinsic signal transduction schemes, and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy are discussed. The progress covered herein shows great promise for widespread adoption of SERS biosensing. PMID:21509385

  3. Progress towards autonomous, intelligent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry; Heer, Ewald

    1987-01-01

    An aggressive program has been initiated to develop, integrate, and implement autonomous systems technologies starting with today's expert systems and evolving to autonomous, intelligent systems by the end of the 1990s. This program includes core technology developments and demonstration projects for technology evaluation and validation. This paper discusses key operational frameworks in the content of systems autonomy applications and then identifies major technological challenges, primarily in artificial intelligence areas. Program content and progress made towards critical technologies and demonstrations that have been initiated to achieve the required future capabilities in the year 2000 era are discussed.

  4. Recent progress in tidal modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vial, F.; Forbes, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Recent contributions to tidal theory during the last five years are reviewed. Specific areas where recent progress has occurred include: the action of mean wind and dissipation on tides, interactions of other waves with tides, the use of TGCM in tidal studies. Furthermore, attention is put on the nonlinear interaction between semidiurnal and diurnal tides. Finally, more realistic thermal excitation and background wind and temperature models have been developed in the past few years. This has led to new month-to-month numerical simulations of the semidiurnal tide. Some results using these models are presented and compared with ATMAP tidal climatologies.

  5. Theory investigation progress of DMAZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hui; Mu, Xiaogang; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Xuanjun

    2017-05-01

    The recent progress in the theoretical study of N, N-dimethyl-2-azidoethylamine (DMAZ), a new type of azide fuel, is summarized. Thermodynamic Properties (such as Enthalpy-of-Formation, Enthalpy-of-Vaporization, and Enthalpy-of-Sublimation), conformers, Spectrums, the Henry's constant, ignition delay et al. are studied by Density Functional Theory (DFT). It is proved that DMAZ has good performance with a density impulse 2.499 Ns/m3, and has a good application prospect in replacing the traditional hydrazine propellant methyl-hydrazine (MMH).

  6. Progress of the LASSO experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serene, B. E. H.

    1981-01-01

    The LASSO (Later Synchronisation from Stationary Orbit) experiment, designed to demonstrate the feasibility of achieving time synchronization between remote atomic clocks with an accuracy of one nanosecond or better by using laser techniques for the first time is described. The experiment uses groundbased laser stations and the SIRIO-2 geostationary satellite to be launched towards the end of 1981. The qualification of the LASSO on-board equipment is discussed with a brief description of the electrical and optical test equipment used. The progress of the operational organization is included.

  7. Progress toward hydrogen peroxide micropulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J C; Dittman, M D; Ledebuhr, A G

    1999-07-08

    A new self-pressurizing propulsion system has liquid thrusters and gas jet attitude control without heavy gas storage vessels. A pump boosts the pressure of a small fraction of the hydrogen peroxide, so that reacted propellant can controllably pressurize its own source tank. The warm decomposition gas also powers the pump and is supplied to the attitude control jets. The system has been incorporated into a prototype microsatellite for terrestrial maneuvering tests. Additional progress includes preliminary testing of a bipropellant thruster, and storage of unstabilized hydrogen peroxide in small sealed tanks.

  8. [Research Progress on Forensic Entomotoxicology].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-jiang; Zhai, Xian-dun; Guan, Ling; Mo, Yao-nan

    2015-06-01

    Forensic entomotoxicology is a branch of forensic medicine, which applies entomology, toxicology and other related studies to solve the poisoning cases. It has an obvious advantage in the investigation on poisoning death. Based on the expounding definition and research of entomotoxicology, this paper reviews research progress and application value in some aspects of forensic medicine, such as the effects of drugs/toxins on the growth and development of sarcosaphagous insects and the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the drugs/toxins in the poisoned body tissue.

  9. Genetic progression of malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Tímár, J; Vizkeleti, L; Doma, V; Barbai, T; Rásó, E

    2016-03-01

    Malignant melanoma of the skin is the most aggressive human cancer given that a primary tumor a few millimeters in diameter frequently has full metastatic competence. In view of that, revealing the genetic background of this potential may also help to better understand tumor dissemination in general. Genomic analyses have established the molecular classification of melanoma based on the most frequent driver oncogenic mutations (BRAF, NRAS, KIT) and have also revealed a long list of rare events, including mutations and amplifications as well as genetic microheterogeneity. At the moment, it is unclear whether any of these rare events have role in the metastasis initiation process since the major drivers do not have such a role. During lymphatic and hematogenous dissemination, the clonal selection process is evidently reflected by differences in oncogenic drivers in the metastases versus the primary tumor. Clonal selection is also evident during lymphatic progression, though the genetic background of this immunoselection is less clear. Genomic analyses of metastases identified further genetic alterations, some of which may correspond to metastasis maintenance genes. The natural genetic progression of melanoma can be modified by targeted (BRAF or MEK inhibitor) or immunotherapies. Some of the rare events in primary tumors may result in primary resistance, while further new genetic lesions develop during the acquired resistance to both targeted and immunotherapies. Only a few genetic lesions of the primary tumor are constant during natural or therapy-modulated progression. EGFR4 and NMDAR2 mutations, MITF and MET amplifications and PTEN loss can be considered as metastasis drivers. Furthermore, BRAF and MITF amplifications as well as PTEN loss are also responsible for resistance to targeted therapies, whereas NRAS mutation is the only founder genetic lesion showing any association with sensitivity to immunotherapies. Unfortunately, there are hardly any data on the

  10. Progress re-supply ship

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-01-14

    ISS01-324-002 (18 November 2000) --- A Progress supply ship linked up to the orbiting International Space Station (ISS) at 3:48 GMT, November 18, bringing Expedition 1 commander William M. Shepherd, pilot Yuri P. Gidzenko and flight engineer Sergei K. Krikalev two tons of food, clothing, hardware and holiday gifts from their families. The photograph was taken with a 35mm camera and the film was later handed over to the STS-97 crew members for return to Earth and subsequent processing.

  11. Progress Toward Cancer Data Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Robert L

    One of the recommendations of the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report from 2016 was the creation of a national cancer data ecosystem. We review some of the approaches for building cancer data ecosystems and some of the progress that has been made. A data commons is the colocation of data with cloud computing infrastructure and commonly used software services, tools, and applications for managing, integrating, analyzing, and sharing data to create an interoperable resource for the research community. We discuss data commons and their potential role in cancer data ecosystems and, in particular, how multiple data commons can interoperate to form part of the foundation for a cancer data ecosystem.

  12. Recent cryocooler progress in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsubara, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The progress of cryocoolers and related devices in Japan is reviewed. The Japanese National Railways has developed the light weight 4 K on-board refrigerators since 1977 as part of the MAGLEV train program. Superconducting and cryogenic fundamental technology was examined which included high performance cryocooler, magnetic refrigerator and superfluid refrigeration. Space cryogenics such as the cooling systems of IR-detectors was studied. Cryocooler for special applications such as cryopump, NMR-CT and JJ devices was investigated. Compact heat exchangers, high performance regenerators and reliable compressors are investigated as a critical component technology.

  13. Estimation of Causal Mediation Effects for a Dichotomous Outcome in Multiple-Mediator Models using the Mediation Formula

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Suchitra; Albert, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Mediators are intermediate variables in the causal pathway between an exposure and an outcome. Mediation analysis investigates the extent to which exposure effects occur through these variables, thus revealing causal mechanisms. In this paper, we consider the estimation of the mediation effect when the outcome is binary and multiple mediators of different types exist. We give a precise definition of the total mediation effect as well as decomposed mediation effects through individual or sets of mediators using the potential outcomes framework. We formulate a model of joint distribution (probit-normal) using continuous latent variables for any binary mediators to account for correlations among multiple mediators. A mediation formula approach is proposed to estimate the total mediation effect and decomposed mediation effects based on this parametric model. Estimation of mediation effects through individual or subsets of mediators requires an assumption involving the joint distribution of multiple counterfactuals. We conduct a simulation study that demonstrates low bias of mediation effect estimators for two-mediator models with various combinations of mediator types. The results also show that the power to detect a non-zero total mediation effect increases as the correlation coefficient between two mediators increases, while power for individual mediation effects reaches a maximum when the mediators are uncorrelated. We illustrate our approach by applying it to a retrospective cohort study of dental caries in adolescents with low and high socioeconomic status. Sensitivity analysis is performed to assess the robustness of conclusions regarding mediation effects when the assumption of no unmeasured mediator-outcome confounders is violated. PMID:23650048

  14. Estimation of causal mediation effects for a dichotomous outcome in multiple-mediator models using the mediation formula.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Nelson, Suchitra; Albert, Jeffrey M

    2013-10-30

    Mediators are intermediate variables in the causal pathway between an exposure and an outcome. Mediation analysis investigates the extent to which exposure effects occur through these variables, thus revealing causal mechanisms. In this paper, we consider the estimation of the mediation effect when the outcome is binary and multiple mediators of different types exist. We give a precise definition of the total mediation effect as well as decomposed mediation effects through individual or sets of mediators using the potential outcomes framework. We formulate a model of joint distribution (probit-normal) using continuous latent variables for any binary mediators to account for correlations among multiple mediators. A mediation formula approach is proposed to estimate the total mediation effect and decomposed mediation effects based on this parametric model. Estimation of mediation effects through individual or subsets of mediators requires an assumption involving the joint distribution of multiple counterfactuals. We conduct a simulation study that demonstrates low bias of mediation effect estimators for two-mediator models with various combinations of mediator types. The results also show that the power to detect a nonzero total mediation effect increases as the correlation coefficient between two mediators increases, whereas power for individual mediation effects reaches a maximum when the mediators are uncorrelated. We illustrate our approach by applying it to a retrospective cohort study of dental caries in adolescents with low and high socioeconomic status. Sensitivity analysis is performed to assess the robustness of conclusions regarding mediation effects when the assumption of no unmeasured mediator-outcome confounders is violated. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Reproducibility2020: Progress and priorities

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Leonard P.; Venugopalan, Gautham; Wisman, Rosann

    2017-01-01

    The preclinical research process is a cycle of idea generation, experimentation, and reporting of results. The biomedical research community relies on the reproducibility of published discoveries to create new lines of research and to translate research findings into therapeutic applications. Since 2012, when scientists from Amgen reported that they were able to reproduce only 6 of 53 “landmark” preclinical studies, the biomedical research community began discussing the scale of the reproducibility problem and developing initiatives to address critical challenges. Global Biological Standards Institute (GBSI) released the “Case for Standards” in 2013, one of the first comprehensive reports to address the rising concern of irreproducible biomedical research. Further attention was drawn to issues that limit scientific self-correction, including reporting and publication bias, underpowered studies, lack of open access to methods and data, and lack of clearly defined standards and guidelines in areas such as reagent validation. To evaluate the progress made towards reproducibility since 2013, GBSI identified and examined initiatives designed to advance quality and reproducibility. Through this process, we identified key roles for funders, journals, researchers and other stakeholders and recommended actions for future progress. This paper describes our findings and conclusions. PMID:28620458

  16. Statistical variation in progressive scrambling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Robert D.; Fox, Peter C.

    2004-07-01

    The two methods most often used to evaluate the robustness and predictivity of partial least squares (PLS) models are cross-validation and response randomization. Both methods may be overly optimistic for data sets that contain redundant observations, however. The kinds of perturbation analysis widely used for evaluating model stability in the context of ordinary least squares regression are only applicable when the descriptors are independent of each other and errors are independent and normally distributed; neither assumption holds for QSAR in general and for PLS in particular. Progressive scrambling is a novel, non-parametric approach to perturbing models in the response space in a way that does not disturb the underlying covariance structure of the data. Here, we introduce adjustments for two of the characteristic values produced by a progressive scrambling analysis - the deprecated predictivity (Q_s^{ast^2}) and standard error of prediction (SDEP s * ) - that correct for the effect of introduced perturbation. We also explore the statistical behavior of the adjusted values (Q_0^{ast^2} and SDEP 0 * ) and the sensitivity to perturbation (d q 2/d r yy ' 2). It is shown that the three statistics are all robust for stable PLS models, in terms of the stochastic component of their determination and of their variation due to sampling effects involved in training set selection.

  17. Progress in plant protoplast research.

    PubMed

    Eeckhaut, Tom; Lakshmanan, Prabhu Shankar; Deryckere, Dieter; Van Bockstaele, Erik; Van Huylenbroeck, Johan

    2013-12-01

    In this review we focus on recent progress in protoplast regeneration, symmetric and asymmetric hybridization and novel technology developments. Regeneration of new species and improved culture techniques opened new horizons for practical breeding in a number of crops. The importance of protoplast sources and embedding systems is discussed. The study of reactive oxygen species effects and DNA (de)condensation, along with thorough phytohormone monitoring, are in our opinion the most promising research topics in the further strive for rationalization of protoplast regeneration. Following, fusion and fragmentation progress is summarized. Genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic studies have led to better insights in fundamental processes such as cell wall formation, cell development and chromosome rearrangements in fusion products, whether or not obtained after irradiation. Advanced molecular screening methods of both genome and cytoplasmome facilitate efficient screening of both symmetric and asymmetric fusion products. We expect that emerging technologies as GISH, high resolution melting and next generation sequencing will pay major contributions to our insights of genome creation and stabilization, mainly after asymmetric hybridization. Finally, we demonstrate agricultural valorization of somatic hybridization through enumerating recent introgression of diverse traits in a number of commercial crops.

  18. Progressive Fracture of Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnetyan, Levon

    2001-01-01

    This report includes the results of a research in which the COmposite Durability STRuctural ANalysis (CODSTRAN) computational simulation capabilities were augmented and applied to various structures for demonstration of the new features and verification. The first chapter of this report provides an introduction to the computational simulation or virtual laboratory approach for the assessment of damage and fracture progression characteristics in composite structures. The second chapter outlines the details of the overall methodology used, including the failure criteria and the incremental/iterative loading procedure with the definitions of damage, fracture, and equilibrium states. The subsequent chapters each contain an augmented feature of the code and/or demonstration examples. All but one of the presented examples contains laminated composite structures with various fiber/matrix constituents. For each structure simulated, damage initiation and progression mechanisms are identified and the structural damage tolerance is quantified at various degradation stages. Many chapters contain the simulation of defective and defect free structures to evaluate the effects of existing defects on structural durability.

  19. NF-κB Mediates the Stimulation of Cytokine and Chemokine Expression by Human Articular Chondrocytes in Response to Fibronectin Fragments1

    PubMed Central

    Pulai, Judit I.; Chen, Hong; Im, Hee-Jeong; Kumar, Sanjay; Hanning, Charles; Hegde, Priti S.; Loeser, Richard F.

    2010-01-01

    Fibronectin fragments (FN-f) that bind to the α5β1 integrin stimulate chondrocyte-mediated cartilage destruction and could play an important role in the progression of arthritis. The objective of this study was to identify potential cytokine mediators of cartilage inflammation and destruction induced by FN-f and to investigate the mechanism of their stimulation. Human articular chondrocytes, isolated from normal ankle cartilage obtained from tissue donors, were treated with a 110-kDa FN-f in serum-free culture, and expression of various cytokine genes was analyzed by cDNA microarray and by a cytokine protein array. Compared with untreated control cultures, stimulation by FN-f resulted in a >2-fold increase in IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and growth-related oncogene β (GRO-β). Constitutive and FN-f-inducible expression of GRO-α and GRO-γ were also noted by RT-PCR and confirmed by immunoblotting. Previous reports of IL-1β expression induced by FN-f were also confirmed, while TNF expression was found to be very low. Inhibitor studies revealed that FN-f-induced stimulation of chondrocyte chemokine expression was dependent on NF-κB activity, but independent of IL-1 autocrine signaling. The ability of FN-f to stimulate chondrocyte expression of multiple proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines suggests that damage to the cartilage matrix is capable of inducing a proinflammatory state responsible for further progressive matrix destruction, which also includes the chemoattraction of inflammatory cells. Targeting the signaling pathways activated by FN-f may be an effective means of inhibiting production of multiple mediators of cartilage destruction. PMID:15843581

  20. Long-Term Teacher Orchestration of Technology-Mediated Collaborative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viilo, Marjut; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2018-01-01

    This explorative case study longitudinally examines teacher orchestration of an inquiry learning process in a technology-enhanced elementary classroom. A 13-month investigative study on cultural artifacts was conducted on 32 fourth grade students who progressed to the fifth grade during the project. The activities were mediated and documented…