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Sample records for a2 peroxidase expression

  1. Heterologous Expression of Peroxidases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Weert, Sandra; Lokman, B. Christien

    The industrial importance of peroxidases has led to much research in the past two decades on the development of a cost effective and efficient production process for peroxidases. Unfortunately, even today, no clear answers can be given to questions such as (1) should the peroxidase be expressed in bacteria, yeast, or fungi? (2) which is the optimal production strain (e.g., protease deficient, heme overproducing)? (3) which expression vector should be chosen? and (4) what purification method should be used? Strategies that have proven successful for one peroxidase can fail for another one; for each individual peroxidase, a new strategy has to be developed. This chapter gives an overview of the heterologous production of heme containing peroxidases in various systems. It focuses on the heterologous production of fungal peroxidases as they have been subject of considerable research for their industrial and environmental applications. An earlier study has also been performed by Conesa et al. [1] and is extended with recent proceedings.

  2. Flavocoxid Inhibits Phospholipase A2, Peroxidase Moieties of the Cyclooxygenases (COX), and 5-Lipoxygenase, Modifies COX-2 Gene Expression, and Acts as an Antioxidant

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Bruce P.; Bitto, Alessandra; Altavilla, Domenica; Squadrito, Francesco; Levy, Robert M.; Pillai, Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    The multiple mechanisms of action for flavocoxid relating to arachidonic acid (AA) formation and metabolism were studied in vitro. Flavocoxid titrated into rat peritoneal macrophage cultures inhibited cellular phospholipase A2 (PLA2) (IC50 = 60 μg/mL). In in vitro enzyme assays, flavocoxid showed little anti-cyclooxygenase (CO) activity on COX-1/-2 enzymes, but inhibited the COX-1 (IC50 = 12.3) and COX-2 (IC50 = 11.3 μg/mL) peroxidase (PO) moieties as well as 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) (IC50 = 110 μg/mL). No detectable 5-LOX inhibition was found for multiple traditional and COX-2 selective NSAIDs. Flavocoxid also exhibited strong and varied antioxidant capacities in vitro and decreased nitrite levels (IC50 = 38 μg/mL) in rat peritoneal macrophages. Finally, in contrast to celecoxib and ibuprofen, which upregulated the cox-2 gene, flavocoxid strongly decreased expression. This work suggests that clinically favourable effects of flavocoxid for management of osteoarthritis (OA) are achieved by simultaneous modification of multiple molecular pathways relating to AA metabolism, oxidative induction of inflammation, and neutralization of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:21765617

  3. Flavocoxid inhibits phospholipase A2, peroxidase moieties of the cyclooxygenases (COX), and 5-lipoxygenase, modifies COX-2 gene expression, and acts as an antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Bruce P; Bitto, Alessandra; Altavilla, Domenica; Squadrito, Francesco; Levy, Robert M; Pillai, Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    The multiple mechanisms of action for flavocoxid relating to arachidonic acid (AA) formation and metabolism were studied in vitro. Flavocoxid titrated into rat peritoneal macrophage cultures inhibited cellular phospholipase A2 (PLA(2)) (IC(50) = 60 μg/mL). In in vitro enzyme assays, flavocoxid showed little anti-cyclooxygenase (CO) activity on COX-1/-2 enzymes, but inhibited the COX-1 (IC(50) = 12.3) and COX-2 (IC(50) = 11.3 μg/mL) peroxidase (PO) moieties as well as 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) (IC(50) = 110 μg/mL). No detectable 5-LOX inhibition was found for multiple traditional and COX-2 selective NSAIDs. Flavocoxid also exhibited strong and varied antioxidant capacities in vitro and decreased nitrite levels (IC(50) = 38 μg/mL) in rat peritoneal macrophages. Finally, in contrast to celecoxib and ibuprofen, which upregulated the cox-2 gene, flavocoxid strongly decreased expression. This work suggests that clinically favourable effects of flavocoxid for management of osteoarthritis (OA) are achieved by simultaneous modification of multiple molecular pathways relating to AA metabolism, oxidative induction of inflammation, and neutralization of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  4. Wound-induced expression of horseradish peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Kawaoka, A; Kawamoto, T; Ohta, H; Sekine, M; Takano, M; Shinmyo, A

    1994-01-01

    Peroxidases have been implicated in the responses of plants to physiological stress and to pathogens. Wound-induced peroxidase of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) was studied. Total peroxidase activity was increased by wounding in cell wall fractions extracted from roots, stems and leaves of horseradish. On the other hand, wounding decreased the peroxidase activity in the soluble fraction from roots. The enzyme activities of the basic isozymes were induced by wounding in horseradish leaves based on data obtained by fractionation of crude enzyme in isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis followed by activity staining. We have previously isolated genomic clones for four peroxidase genes, namely, prxC1a, prxC1b, prxC2 and prxC3. Northern blot analysis using gene-specific probes showed that mRNA of prxC2, which encodes a basic isozyme, accumulated by wounding, while the mRNAs for other peroxidase genes were not induced. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants were transformed with four chimeric gene constructs, each consisting of a promoter from one of the peroxidase genes and the β-glucuronidase (GUS) structural gene. High level GUS activity induced in response to wounding was observed in tobacco plants containing the prxC2-GUS construct.

  5. Expression and refolding of tobacco anionic peroxidase from E. coli inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Hushpulian, D M; Savitski, P A; Rojkova, A M; Chubar, T A; Fechina, V A; Sakharov, I Yu; Lagrimini, L M; Tishkov, V I; Gazaryan, I G

    2003-11-01

    Coding DNA of the tobacco anionic peroxidase gene was cloned in pET40b vector. The problem of 11 arginine codons, rare in procaryotes, in the tobacco peroxidase gene was solved using E. coli BL21(DE3) Codon Plus strain. The expression level of the tobacco apo-peroxidase in the above strain was approximately 40% of the total E. coli protein. The tobacco peroxidase refolding was optimized based on the earlier developed protocol for horseradish peroxidase. The reactivation yield of recombinant tobacco enzyme was about 7% with the specific activity of 1100-1200 U/mg towards 2,2;-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS). It was shown that the reaction of ABTS oxidation by hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by recombinant tobacco peroxidase proceeds via the ping-pong kinetic mechanism as for the native enzyme. In the presence of calcium ions, the recombinant peroxidase exhibits a 2.5-fold decrease in the second order rate constant for hydrogen peroxide and 1.5-fold decrease for ABTS. Thus, calcium ions have an inhibitory effect on the recombinant enzyme like that observed earlier for the native tobacco peroxidase. The data demonstrate that the oligosaccharide part of the enzyme has no effect on the kinetic properties and calcium inhibition of tobacco peroxidase.

  6. Expression of glutathione peroxidase I gene in selenium-deficient rats.

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, A P; Hsu, B L; Reddy, P S; Li, N Q; Thyagaraju, K; Reddy, C C; Tam, M F; Tu, C P

    1988-01-01

    We have characterized a cDNA pGPX1211 encoding rat glutathione peroxidase I. The selenocysteine in the protein corresponded to a TGA codon in the coding region of the cDNA, similar to earlier findings in mouse and human genes, and a gene encoding the formate dehydrogenase from E. coli, another selenoenzyme. The rat GSH peroxidase I has a calculated subunit molecular weight of 22,155 daltons and shares 95% and 86% sequence homology with the mouse and human subunits, respectively. The 3'-noncoding sequence (greater than 930 bp) in pGPX1211 is much longer than that of the human sequences. We found that glutathione peroxidase I mRNA, but not the polypeptide, was expressed under nutritional stress of selenium deficiency where no glutathione peroxidase I activity can be detected. The failure of detecting any apoprotein for the glutathione peroxidase I under selenium deficiency and results published from other laboratories supports the proposal that selenium may be incorporated into the glutathione peroxidase I co-translationally. Images PMID:2838821

  7. Thiol peroxidases mediate specific genome-wide regulation of gene expression in response to hydrogen peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Koc, Ahmet; Agisheva, Natalia; Jacobsen, Michael; Kaya, Alaattin; Malinouski, Mikalai; Rutherford, Julian C.; Siu, Kam-Leung; Jin, Dong-Yan; Winge, Dennis R.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is thought to regulate cellular processes by direct oxidation of numerous cellular proteins, whereas antioxidants, most notably thiol peroxidases, are thought to reduce peroxides and inhibit H2O2 response. However, thiol peroxidases have also been implicated in activation of transcription factors and signaling. It remains unclear if these enzymes stimulate or inhibit redox regulation and whether this regulation is widespread or limited to a few cellular components. Herein, we found that Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking all eight thiol peroxidases were viable and withstood redox stresses. They transcriptionally responded to various redox treatments, but were unable to activate and repress gene expression in response to H2O2. Further studies involving redox transcription factors suggested that thiol peroxidases are major regulators of global gene expression in response to H2O2. The data suggest that thiol peroxidases sense and transfer oxidative signals to the signaling proteins and regulate transcription, whereas a direct interaction between H2O2 and other cellular proteins plays a secondary role. PMID:21282621

  8. Lignin-degrading peroxidases in white-rot fungus Trametes hirsuta 072. Absolute expression quantification of full multigene family

    PubMed Central

    Vasina, Daria V.; Moiseenko, Konstantin V.; Fedorova, Tatiana V.; Tyazhelova, Tatiana V.

    2017-01-01

    Ligninolytic heme peroxidases comprise an extensive family of enzymes, which production is characteristic for white-rot Basidiomycota. The majority of fungal heme peroxidases are encoded by multigene families that differentially express closely related proteins. Currently, there were very few attempts to characterize the complete multigene family of heme peroxidases in a single fungus. Here we are focusing on identification and characterization of peroxidase genes, which are transcribed and secreted by basidiomycete Trametes hirsuta 072, an efficient lignin degrader. The T. hirsuta genome contains 18 ligninolytic peroxidase genes encoding 9 putative lignin peroxidases (LiP), 7 putative short manganese peroxidases (MnP) and 2 putative versatile peroxidases (VP). Using ddPCR method we have quantified the absolute expression of the 18 peroxidase genes under different culture conditions and on different growth stages of basidiomycete. It was shown that only two genes (one MnP and one VP) were prevalently expressed as well as secreted into cultural broth under all conditions investigated. However their transcriptome and protein profiles differed in time depending on the effector used. The expression of other peroxidase genes revealed a significant variability, so one can propose the specific roles of these enzymes in fungal development and lifestyle. PMID:28301519

  9. The ligninolytic peroxidases in the genus Pleurotus: divergence in activities, expression, and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Knop, Doriv; Yarden, Oded; Hadar, Yitzhak

    2015-02-01

    Mushrooms of the genus Pleurotus are comprised of cultivated edible ligninolytic fungi with medicinal properties and a wide array of biotechnological and environmental applications. Like other white-rot fungi (WRF), they are able to grow on a variety of lignocellulosic biomass substrates and degrade both natural and anthropogenic aromatic compounds. This is due to the presence of the non-specific oxidative enzymatic systems, which are mainly consisted of lacasses, versatile peroxidases (VPs), and short manganese peroxidases (short-MnPs). Additional, less studied, peroxidase are dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs) and heme-thiolate peroxidases (HTPs). During the past two decades, substantial information has accumulated concerning the biochemistry, structure and function of the Pleurotus ligninolytic peroxidases, which are considered to play a key role in many biodegradation processes. The production of these enzymes is dependent on growth media composition, pH, and temperature as well as the growth phase of the fungus. Mn(2+) concentration differentially affects the expression of the different genes. It also severs as a preferred substrate for these preoxidases. Recently, sequencing of the Pleurotus ostreatus genome was completed, and a comprehensive picture of the ligninolytic peroxidase gene family, consisting of three VPs and six short-MnPs, has been established. Similar enzymes were also discovered and studied in other Pleurotus species. In addition, progress has been made in the development of molecular tools for targeted gene replacement, RNAi-based gene silencing and overexpression of genes of interest. These advances increase the fundamental understanding of the ligninolytic system and provide the opportunity for harnessing the unique attributes of these WRF for applied purposes.

  10. Efficient expression of a Phanerochaete chrysosporium manganese peroxidase gene in Aspergillus oryzae

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, P.; Whitwam, R.E.; Tien, Ming

    1996-03-01

    A manganese peroxidase (mnp1) from Phanerochaete chrysosporium was efficiently expressed in Aspergillus oryzae. Expression was achieved by fusing the mature cDNA of mnp1 with the A. oryzae Taka amylase promoter and secretion signal. The 3{prime} untranslated region of the glucoamylase gene of Asperigillus awamori provided the terminator. The recombinant protein (rMnP) was secreted in an active form, permitting rapid detection and purification. Physical and kinetic properties of rMnP were similar to those of the native protein. The A. oryzae expression system is well suited for both mechanistic and site-directed mutagenesis studies. 34 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Expression of a highly basic peroxidase gene in NaCl-adapted tomato cell suspensions.

    PubMed

    Medina, M I; Botella, M A; Quesada, M A; Valpuesta, V

    1997-05-05

    A tomato peroxidase gene, TPX2, that is only weakly expressed in the roots of young tomato seedlings is highly expressed in tomato suspension cells adapted to high external NaCl concentration. The protein encoded by this gene, with an isolectric point value of approximately 9.6, is found in the culture medium of the growing cells. Our data suggest that the expression of TPX2 in the salt-adapted cells is not the result of the elicitation imposed by the in vitro culture or the presence of high NaCl concentration in the medium.

  12. Biochemical properties of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) expressed in human breast and mammary-derived cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Godlewska, Marlena; Krasuska, Wanda

    2018-01-01

    Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is an enzyme and autoantigen expressed in thyroid and breast tissues. Thyroid TPO undergoes a complex maturation process however, nothing is known about post-translational modifications of breast-expressed TPO. In this study, we have investigated the biochemical properties of TPO expressed in normal and cancerous human breast tissues, and the maturation process and antigenicity of TPO present in a panel of human breast tissue-derived cell lines. We found that the molecular weight of breast TPO was slightly lower than that of thyroid TPO due to decreased glycosylation and as suggest results of Western blot also shorter amino acid chain. Breast TPO exhibit enzymatic activity and isoelectric point comparable to that of thyroid TPO. The biochemical properties of TPO expressed in mammary cell lines and normal thyrocytes are similar regarding glycan content, molecular weight and isoelectric point. However, no peroxidase activity and dimer formation was detected in any of these cell lines since the majority of TPO protein was localized in the cytoplasmic compartment, and the TPO expression at the cell surface was too low to detect its enzymatic activity. Lactoperoxidase, a protein highly homologous to TPO expressed also in breast tissues, does not influence the obtained data. TPO expressed in the cell lines was recognized by a broad panel of TPO-specific antibodies. Although some differences in biochemical properties between thyroid and breast TPO were observed, they do not seem to be critical for the overall three-dimensional structure. This conclusion is supported by the fact that TPO expressed in breast tissues and cell lines reacts well with conformation-sensitive antibodies. Taking into account a close resemblance between both proteins, especially high antigenicity, future studies should investigate the potential immunotherapies directed against breast-expressed TPO and its specific epitopes. PMID:29513734

  13. Biochemical properties of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) expressed in human breast and mammary-derived cell lines.

    PubMed

    Godlewska, Marlena; Krasuska, Wanda; Czarnocka, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is an enzyme and autoantigen expressed in thyroid and breast tissues. Thyroid TPO undergoes a complex maturation process however, nothing is known about post-translational modifications of breast-expressed TPO. In this study, we have investigated the biochemical properties of TPO expressed in normal and cancerous human breast tissues, and the maturation process and antigenicity of TPO present in a panel of human breast tissue-derived cell lines. We found that the molecular weight of breast TPO was slightly lower than that of thyroid TPO due to decreased glycosylation and as suggest results of Western blot also shorter amino acid chain. Breast TPO exhibit enzymatic activity and isoelectric point comparable to that of thyroid TPO. The biochemical properties of TPO expressed in mammary cell lines and normal thyrocytes are similar regarding glycan content, molecular weight and isoelectric point. However, no peroxidase activity and dimer formation was detected in any of these cell lines since the majority of TPO protein was localized in the cytoplasmic compartment, and the TPO expression at the cell surface was too low to detect its enzymatic activity. Lactoperoxidase, a protein highly homologous to TPO expressed also in breast tissues, does not influence the obtained data. TPO expressed in the cell lines was recognized by a broad panel of TPO-specific antibodies. Although some differences in biochemical properties between thyroid and breast TPO were observed, they do not seem to be critical for the overall three-dimensional structure. This conclusion is supported by the fact that TPO expressed in breast tissues and cell lines reacts well with conformation-sensitive antibodies. Taking into account a close resemblance between both proteins, especially high antigenicity, future studies should investigate the potential immunotherapies directed against breast-expressed TPO and its specific epitopes.

  14. Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) expressed in thyroid and breast tissues shows similar antigenic properties.

    PubMed

    Godlewska, Marlena; Arczewska, Katarzyna D; Rudzińska, Magdalena; Łyczkowska, Anna; Krasuska, Wanda; Hanusek, Karolina; Ruf, Jean; Kiedrowski, Mirosław; Czarnocka, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is essential for physiological function of the thyroid gland. The high prevalence of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs) in patients with breast cancer and their protective role had previously been demonstrated, indicating a link between breast cancer and thyroid autoimmunity. Recently, TPO was shown to be present in breast cancer tissue samples but its antigenicity has not been analyzed. In this study, we investigated TPO expression levels in a series of fifty-six breast cancer samples paired with normal (peri-tumoral) tissue and its antigenic activity using a panel of well-characterized murine anti-human TPOAbs. We have shown that TPO transcripts were present in both normal and cancer tissue samples, although the amounts in the latter were reduced. Additionally, we observed that TPO levels are lower in more advanced cancers. TPO protein expression was confirmed in all tissue samples, both normal and cancerous. We also found that the antigenicity of the immunodominant regions (IDRs) in breast TPO resembles that of thyroid TPO, which is crucial for effective interactions with human TPOAbs. Expression of TPO in breast cancer together with its antigenic activity may have beneficial effects in TPOAb-positive breast cancer patients. However, further studies are needed to confirm the beneficial role of TPOAbs and to better understand the underlying mechanism.

  15. Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) expressed in thyroid and breast tissues shows similar antigenic properties

    PubMed Central

    Godlewska, Marlena; Arczewska, Katarzyna D.; Rudzińska, Magdalena; Łyczkowska, Anna; Krasuska, Wanda; Hanusek, Karolina; Ruf, Jean; Kiedrowski, Mirosław

    2017-01-01

    Background Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is essential for physiological function of the thyroid gland. The high prevalence of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs) in patients with breast cancer and their protective role had previously been demonstrated, indicating a link between breast cancer and thyroid autoimmunity. Recently, TPO was shown to be present in breast cancer tissue samples but its antigenicity has not been analyzed. Methods In this study, we investigated TPO expression levels in a series of fifty-six breast cancer samples paired with normal (peri-tumoral) tissue and its antigenic activity using a panel of well-characterized murine anti-human TPOAbs. Results We have shown that TPO transcripts were present in both normal and cancer tissue samples, although the amounts in the latter were reduced. Additionally, we observed that TPO levels are lower in more advanced cancers. TPO protein expression was confirmed in all tissue samples, both normal and cancerous. We also found that the antigenicity of the immunodominant regions (IDRs) in breast TPO resembles that of thyroid TPO, which is crucial for effective interactions with human TPOAbs. Conclusions Expression of TPO in breast cancer together with its antigenic activity may have beneficial effects in TPOAb-positive breast cancer patients. However, further studies are needed to confirm the beneficial role of TPOAbs and to better understand the underlying mechanism. PMID:28575127

  16. Sequence and RT-PCR expression analysis of two peroxidases from Arabidopsis thaliana belonging to a novel evolutionary branch of plant peroxidases.

    PubMed

    Kjaersgård, I V; Jespersen, H M; Rasmussen, S K; Welinder, K G

    1997-03-01

    cDNA clones encoding two new Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidases, ATP 1a and ATP 2a, have been identified by searching the Arabidopsis database of expressed sequence tags (dbEST). They represent a novel branch of hitherto uncharacterized plant peroxidases which is only 35% identical in amino acid sequence to the well characterized group of basic plant peroxidases represented by the horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) isoperoxidases HRP C, HRP E5 and the similar Arabidopsis isoperoxidases ATP Ca, ATP Cb, and ATP Ea. However ATP 1a is 87% identical in amino acid sequence to a peroxidase encoded by an mRNA isolated from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). As cotton and Arabidopsis belong to rather diverse families (Malvaceae and Crucifereae, respectively), in contrast with Arabidopsis and horseradish (both Crucifereae), the high degree of sequence identity indicates that this novel type of peroxidase, albeit of unknown function, is likely to be widespread in plant species. The atp 1 and atp 2 types of cDNA sequences were the most redundant among the 28 different isoperoxidases identified among about 200 peroxidase encoding ESTs. Interestingly, 8 out of totally 38 EST sequences coding for ATP 1 showed three identical nucleotide substitutions. This variant form is designated ATP 1b. Similarly, six out of totally 16 EST sequences coding for ATP 2 showed a number of deletions and nucleotide changes. This variant form is designated ATP 2b. The selected EST clones are full-length and contain coding regions of 993 nucleotides for atp 1a, and 984 nucleotides for atp 2a. These regions show 61% DNA sequence identity. The predicted mature proteins ATP 1a, and ATP 2a are 57% identical in sequence and contain the structurally and functionally important residues, characteristic of the plant peroxidase superfamily. However, they do show two differences of importance to peroxidase catalysis: (1) the asparagine residue linked with the active site distal histidine via hydrogen bonding is absent

  17. Comparative Cold Shock Expression and Characterization of Fungal Dye-Decolorizing Peroxidases.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Christoph J; Zelena, Kateryna; Berger, Ralf G

    2016-08-01

    Dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs) from Auricularia auricula-judae, Bjerkandera adusta, Pleurotus ostreatus and Marasmius scorodonius (Basidiomycota) were expressed in Escherichia coli using the cold shock-inducible expression system pCOLD I DNA. Functional expression was achieved without the addition of hemin or the co-expression of any chaperones. The presence or absence of the native signal sequence had a strong impact on the success of the expression, but the effect was not consistent for the different DyPs. While BaDyP and AajDyP were stable at 50 °C, the more thermolabile MsP2 and PoDyp, upon catalytic intervention, lend themselves to more rapid thermal inactivation. The bleaching of norbixin (E 160b) using MsP2 was most efficient at pH 4.0, while BaDyP and AajDypP worked best in the weakly acidic to neutral range, indicating a choice of DyPs for a broad field of applications in different food matrices.

  18. Polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase expression in four pineapple varieties (Ananas comosus L.) after a chilling injury.

    PubMed

    Raimbault, Astrid-Kim; Marie-Alphonsine, Paul-Alex; Horry, Jean-Pierre; Francois-Haugrin, Madlyn; Romuald, Karell; Soler, Alain

    2011-01-12

    Pineapple internal browning (IB) is a chilling injury that produces enzymatic browning associated with flesh translucency. Pineapple biodiversity allowed the investigation of how polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities with their different isoforms are involved in the IB mechanism. Fruits of four varieties that expressed IB symptoms differently, Smooth Cayenne (SCay) and the hybrids MD2, Flhoran 41 (Flh 41), and Flhoran 53 (Flh 53), were stressed by cold. The susceptible varieties showed classical brown spots but different patterns of IB, whereas MD2 and controls showed no IB. Enzymatic activities were measured on fruit protein extracts and PPO and POD isoforms separated on mini-gels (PhastSystem). Only PPO activity was significantly enhanced in the presence of IB. Up to six PPO isoforms were identified in the susceptible varieties. PPO was barely detectable in the nonsusceptible variety MD2 and in controls. The number of PPO isoforms and the total PPO activity after chilling are varietal characteristics.

  19. Molecular Cloning and Tissue-Specific Expression of an Anionic Peroxidase in Zucchini1

    PubMed Central

    Carpin, Sabine; Crèvecoeur, Michèle; Greppin, Hubert; Penel, Claude

    1999-01-01

    A calcium-pectate-binding anionic isoperoxidase (APRX) from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) was purified and subjected to N-terminal amino acid microsequencing. The cDNA encoding this enzyme was obtained by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction from a cDNA library. It encoded a mature protein of 309 amino acids exhibiting all of the sequence characteristics of a plant peroxidase. Despite the presence of a C-terminal propeptide, APRX was found in the apoplast. APRX protein and mRNA were found in the root, hypocotyls, and cotyledons. In situ hybridization showed that the APRX-encoding gene was expressed in many different tissues. The strongest expression was observed in root epidermis and in some cells of the stele, in differentiating tracheary elements of hypocotyl, in the lower and upper epidermis, in the palisade parenchyma of cotyledons, and in lateral and adventitious root primordia. In the hypocotyl hook there was an asymmetric expression, with the inner part containing more transcripts than the outer part. Treatment with 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid reduced the expression of the APRX-encoding gene in the lower part of the hypocotyl. Our observations suggest that APRX could be involved in lignin formation and that the transcription of its gene was related to auxin level. PMID:10398715

  20. Transient Expression and Purification of Horseradish Peroxidase C in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Huddy, Suzanne M; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Meyers, Ann E; Weber, Brandon; Rybicki, Edward P

    2018-01-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is a commercially important reagent enzyme used in molecular biology and in the diagnostic product industry. It is typically purified from the roots of the horseradish ( Armoracia rusticana ); however, this crop is only available seasonally, yields are variable and often low, and the product is a mixture of isoenzymes. Engineering high-level expression in transiently transformed tobacco may offer a solution to these problems. In this study, a synthetic Nicotiana benthamiana codon-adapted full-length HRP isoenzyme gene as well as C-terminally truncated and both N- and C-terminally truncated versions of the HRP C gene were synthesized, and their expression in N. benthamiana was evaluated using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transient expression system. The influence on HRP C expression levels of co-infiltration with a silencing suppressor (NSs) construct was also evaluated. Highest HRP C levels were consistently obtained using either the full length or C-terminally truncated HRP C constructs. HRP C purification by ion exchange chromatography gave an overall yield of 54% with a Reinheitszahl value of >3 and a specific activity of 458 U/mg. The high level of HRP C production in N. benthamiana in just five days offers an alternative, viable, and scalable system for production of this commercially significant enzyme.

  1. Transient Expression and Purification of Horseradish Peroxidase C in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    Huddy, Suzanne M.; Hitzeroth, Inga I.; Weber, Brandon; Rybicki, Edward P.

    2018-01-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is a commercially important reagent enzyme used in molecular biology and in the diagnostic product industry. It is typically purified from the roots of the horseradish (Armoracia rusticana); however, this crop is only available seasonally, yields are variable and often low, and the product is a mixture of isoenzymes. Engineering high-level expression in transiently transformed tobacco may offer a solution to these problems. In this study, a synthetic Nicotiana benthamiana codon-adapted full-length HRP isoenzyme gene as well as C-terminally truncated and both N- and C-terminally truncated versions of the HRP C gene were synthesized, and their expression in N. benthamiana was evaluated using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient expression system. The influence on HRP C expression levels of co-infiltration with a silencing suppressor (NSs) construct was also evaluated. Highest HRP C levels were consistently obtained using either the full length or C-terminally truncated HRP C constructs. HRP C purification by ion exchange chromatography gave an overall yield of 54% with a Reinheitszahl value of >3 and a specific activity of 458 U/mg. The high level of HRP C production in N. benthamiana in just five days offers an alternative, viable, and scalable system for production of this commercially significant enzyme. PMID:29301255

  2. Techno-economic analysis of horseradish peroxidase production using a transient expression system in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Walwyn, David Richard; Huddy, Suzanne M; Rybicki, Edward P

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advantages of plant-based transient expression systems relative to microbial or mammalian cell systems, the commercial production of recombinant proteins using plants has not yet been achieved to any significant extent. One of the challenges has been the lack of published data on the costs of manufacture for products other than biopharmaceuticals. In this study, we report on the techno-economic analysis of the production of a standard commercial enzyme, namely, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), using a transient expression system in Nicotiana benthamiana. Based on the proven plant yield of 240 mg HRP/kg biomass, a biomass productivity of 15-kg biomass/m(2)/year and a process yield of 54 % (mg HRP product/mg HRP in biomass), it is apparent that HRP can be manufactured economically via transient expression in plants in a large-scale facility (>5 kg HRP/year). At this level, the process is competitive versus the existing technology (extraction of the enzyme from horseradish), and the product is of comparable or improved activity, containing only the preferred isoenzyme C. Production scale, protein yield and biomass productivity are found to be the most important determinants of overall viability.

  3. Rachiplusia nu larva as a biofactory to achieve high level expression of horseradish peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Romero, Lucía Virginia; Targovnik, Alexandra Marisa; Wolman, Federico Javier; Cascone, Osvaldo; Miranda, María Victoria

    2011-05-01

    A process based on orally-infected Rachiplusia nu larvae as biological factories for expression and one-step purification of horseradish peroxidase isozyme C (HRP-C) is described. The process allows obtaining high levels of pure HRP-C by membrane chromatography purification. The introduction of the partial polyhedrin homology sequence element in the target gene increased HRP-C expression level by 2.8-fold whereas it increased 1.8-fold when the larvae were reared at 27 °C instead of at 24 °C, summing up a 4.6-fold overall increase in the expression level. Additionally, HRP-C purification by membrane chromatography at a high flow rate greatly increase D the productivity without affecting the resolution. The V(max) and K(m) values of the recombinant HRP-C were similar to those of the HRP from Armoracia rusticana roots. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

  4. AhpA is a peroxidase expressed during biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Zwick, Joelie V; Noble, Sarah; Ellaicy, Yasser K; Coe, Gabrielle Dierker; Hakey, Dylan J; King, Alyssa N; Sadauskas, Alex J; Faulkner, Melinda J

    2017-02-01

    Organisms growing aerobically generate reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide. These reactive oxygen molecules damage enzymes and DNA, potentially causing cell death. In response, Bacillus subtilis produces at least nine potential peroxide-scavenging enzymes; two belong to the alkylhydroperoxide reductase (Ahp) class of peroxidases. Here, we explore the role of one of these Ahp homologs, AhpA. While previous studies demonstrated that AhpA can scavenge peroxides and thus defend cells against peroxides, they did not clarify when during growth the cell produces AhpA. The results presented here show that the expression of ahpA is regulated in a manner distinct from that of the other peroxide-scavenging enzymes in B. subtilis. While the primary Ahp, AhpC, is expressed during exponential growth and stationary phase, these studies demonstrate that the expression of ahpA is dependent on the transition-state regulator AbrB and the sporulation and biofilm formation transcription factor Spo0A. Furthermore, these results show that ahpA is specifically expressed during biofilm formation, and not during sporulation or stationary phase, suggesting that derepression of ahpA by AbrB requires a signal other than those present upon entry into stationary phase. Despite this expression pattern, ahpA mutant strains still form and maintain robust biofilms, even in the presence of peroxides. Thus, the role of AhpA with regard to protecting cells within biofilms from environmental stresses is still uncertain. These studies highlight the need to further study the Ahp homologs to better understand how they differ from one another and the unique roles they may play in oxidative stress resistance. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Peroxiredoxin 6 homodimerization and heterodimerization with glutathione S-transferase pi are required for its peroxidase but not phospholipase A2 activity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Suiping; Sorokina, Elena M; Harper, Sandra; Li, Haitao; Ralat, Luis; Dodia, Chandra; Speicher, David W; Feinstein, Sheldon I; Fisher, Aron B

    2016-05-01

    Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) is a unique 1-Cys member of the peroxiredoxin family with both GSH peroxidase and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activities. It is highly expressed in the lung where it plays an important role in antioxidant defense and lung surfactant metabolism. Glutathionylation of Prdx6 mediated by its heterodimerization with GSH S-transferase π (πGST) is required for its peroxidatic catalytic cycle. Recombinant human Prdx6 crystallizes as a homodimer and sedimentation equilibrium analysis confirmed that this protein exists as a high affinity dimer in solution. Based on measurement of molecular mass, dimeric Prdx6 that was oxidized to the sulfenic acid formed a sulfenylamide during storage. After examination of the dimer interface in the crystal structure, we postulated that the hydrophobic amino acids L145 and L148 play an important role in homodimerization of Prdx6 as well as in its heterodimerization with πGST. Oxidation of Prdx6 also was required for its heterodimerization. Sedimentation equilibrium analysis and the Duolink proximity ligation assay following mutation of the L145 and L148 residues of Prdx6 to Glu indicated greatly decreased dimerization propensity reflecting the loss of hydrophobic interactions between the protein monomers. Peroxidase activity was markedly reduced by mutation at either of the Leu sites and was essentially abolished by the double mutation, while PLA2 activity was unaffected. Decreased peroxidase activity following mutation of the interfacial leucines presumably is mediated via impaired heterodimerization of Prdx6 with πGST that is required for reduction and re-activation of the oxidized enzyme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Expressed Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Horseradish Peroxidase Identifies Co-Clustering Molecules in Individual Lipid Raft Domains

    PubMed Central

    Miyagawa-Yamaguchi, Arisa; Kotani, Norihiro; Honke, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Lipid rafts that are enriched in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins serve as a platform for important biological events. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of these events, identification of co-clustering molecules in individual raft domains is required. Here we describe an approach to this issue using the recently developed method termed enzyme-mediated activation of radical source (EMARS), by which molecules in the vicinity within 300 nm from horseradish peroxidase (HRP) set on the probed molecule are labeled. GPI-anchored HRP fusion proteins (HRP-GPIs), in which the GPI attachment signals derived from human decay accelerating factor and Thy-1 were separately connected to the C-terminus of HRP, were expressed in HeLa S3 cells, and the EMARS reaction was catalyzed by these expressed HRP-GPIs under a living condition. As a result, these different HRP-GPIs had differences in glycosylation and localization and formed distinct clusters. This novel approach distinguished molecular clusters associated with individual GPI-anchored proteins, suggesting that it can identify co-clustering molecules in individual raft domains. PMID:24671047

  7. Expression and characterization of recombinant bifunctional enzymes with glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities.

    PubMed

    Guan, Tuchen; Song, Jian; Wang, Yanan; Guo, Liying; Yuan, Lin; Zhao, Yingding; Gao, Yuan; Lin, Liangru; Wang, Yali; Wei, Jingyan

    2017-09-01

    To balance the production and decomposition of reactive oxygen species, living organisms have generated antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) are two important antioxidant enzymes. Apart from their catalytic functions, they protect each other, resulting in more efficient removal of reactive oxygen species, protection of cells against injury, and maintenance of the normal metabolism of reactive oxygen species. SOD catalyzes the dismutation of the superoxide anion (O 2 •- ) to oxygen (O 2 ) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). H 2 O 2 is then detoxified to water by GPx. In this study, human GPx1 Ser and the Alvinella pompejana SOD (ApSOD) gene were used to design and generate several recombinant proteins with both GPx and SOD activities by combining traditional fusion protein technology, a cysteine auxotrophic expression system, and a single protein production (SPP) system. Among the fusion proteins, Se-hGPx1 Ser -L-ApSOD exhibited the highest SOD and GPx activities. Additional research was conducted to better understand the properties of Se-hGPx1 Ser -L-ApSOD. The synergism of Se-hGPx1 Ser -L-ApSOD was evaluated by using an in vitro model. This research may facilitate future studies on the cooperation and catalytic mechanisms of GPx and SOD. We believe that the bifunctional enzyme has potential applications as a potent antioxidant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Transcriptional regulation of heat shock proteins and ascorbate peroxidase by CtHsfA2b from African bermudagrass conferring heat tolerance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiuyun; Huang, Wanlu; Yang, Zhimin; Liu, Jun; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress transcription factor A2s (HsfA2s) are key regulators in plant response to high temperature. Our objectives were to isolate an HsfA2 gene (CtHsfA2b) from a warm-season grass species, African bermudagrass (Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt-Davy), and to determine the physiological functions and transcriptional regulation of HsfA2 for improving heat tolerance. Gene expression analysis revealed that CtHsfA2b was heat-inducible and exhibited rapid response to increasing temperature. Ectopic expression of CtHsfA2b improved heat tolerance in Arabidopsis and restored heat-sensitive defects of Arabidopsis hsfa2 mutant, which was demonstrated by higher survival rate and photosynthetic parameters, and lower electrolyte leakage in transgenic plants compared to the WT or hsfa2 mutant. CtHsfA2b transgenic plants showed elevated transcriptional regulation of several downstream genes, including those encoding ascorbate peroxidase (AtApx2) and heat shock proteins [AtHsp18.1-CI, AtHsp22.0-ER, AtHsp25.3-P and AtHsp26.5-P(r), AtHsp70b and AtHsp101-3]. CtHsfA2b was found to bind to the heat shock element (HSE) on the promoter of AtApx2 and enhanced transcriptional activity of AtApx2. These results suggested that CtHsfA2b could play positive roles in heat protection by up-regulating antioxidant defense and chaperoning mechanisms. CtHsfA2b has the potential to be used as a candidate gene to genetically modify cool-season species for improving heat tolerance. PMID:27320381

  9. [Cloning, Expression and Immunodiagnostic Evaluation of the Fasciola gigantica Thioredoxin Peroxidase].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-qi; Zhou, Yan; Cheng, Na; Chen, Mu-xin; Ai, Lin; Liu, Yu-hua; Zhang, Jian-guo; Luo, Jia-jun; Xu, Xue-nian

    2015-04-01

    To immunoscreen the gene encoding thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx) from a cDNA library made from adult Fasciola gigantica worms, clone and express the gene, and evaluate the immunodiagnostic value of TPx recombinant protein. The A ZAP cDNA library was immunoscreened with pooled serum of fascioliasis gigantica patients. The obtained positive clones were sequenced and analyzed by multiple sequence alignment. The full-length (rFgTPx) and N-termianal truncated (rFgTPx_nt) sequence of FgTPx was subcloned into prokaryotic plasmid pET28a(+) with a non-fusion expression technique, respectively. The recombinant proteins of rFgTPx and rFgTPx_nt were purified by His-bind affinity column (Ni-NTA). rFgTPx and rFgTPx_nt were used in indirect ELISA to test the antibody response of the serum samples. Sera of 27 fascioliasis gigantica patients, 15 patients with schistosomaisis japonica, 15 clonorchiasis sinensis patients, and 32 healthy donors were tested by using the recombinant protein based ELISA. The TPx recombinant proteins were obtained through expression, purification and renaturation, the relative molecular mass of rFgTPx and rFgTPx_nt were Mr 30,000 and Mr 26,000, respectively. The total diagnostic coincidence rate, sensitivity and specificity of rFgTPx_nt-based ELISA was 87.6% (78/89), 66.7% (18/27), and 96.8% (60/62), respectively. The cross reaction with Schistosoma japonicum and Clonorchis sinensis was 0 and 1/15 for rFgTPx_nt, respectively. Before and after treatment, A450 value of the serum samples from fascioliasis patients was 0.233 ± 0.088 and 0.129 ± 0.072, respectively (t = 4.27, P < 0.01). The gene encoding TPx is expressed in the prokaryotic expression system. The recombinant protein shows proper sensitivity and high specificity for the serodiagnosis of Fasciola gigantica infection.

  10. Ectopic Expression of a Horseradish Peroxidase Enhances Growth Rate and Increases Oxidative Stress Resistance in Hybrid Aspen

    PubMed Central

    Kawaoka, Akiyoshi; Matsunaga, Etsuko; Endo, Saori; Kondo, Shinkichi; Yoshida, Kazuya; Shinmyo, Atsuhiko; Ebinuma, Hiroyasu

    2003-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that overexpression of the horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) peroxidase prxC1a gene stimulated the growth rate of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. Here, the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S::prxC1a construct was introduced into hybrid aspen (Populus sieboldii × Populus grandidentata). The growth rate of these transformed hybrid aspen plants was substantially increased under greenhouse conditions. The average stem length of transformed plants was 25% greater than that of control plants. There was no other obvious phenotypic difference between the transformed and control plants. Fast-growing transformed hybrid aspen showed high levels of expression of prxC1a and had elevated peroxidase activities toward guaiacol and ascorbate. However, there was no increase of the endogenous class I ascorbate peroxidase activities in the transformed plants by separate assay and activity staining of native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, calli derived from the transformed hybrid aspen grew faster than those from control plants and were resistant to the oxidative stress imposed by hydrogen peroxide. Therefore, enhanced peroxidase activity affects plant growth rate and oxidative stress resistance. PMID:12857800

  11. Ectopic expression of a horseradish peroxidase enhances growth rate and increases oxidative stress resistance in hybrid aspen.

    PubMed

    Kawaoka, Akiyoshi; Matsunaga, Etsuko; Endo, Saori; Kondo, Shinkichi; Yoshida, Kazuya; Shinmyo, Atsuhiko; Ebinuma, Hiroyasu

    2003-07-01

    We previously demonstrated that overexpression of the horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) peroxidase prxC1a gene stimulated the growth rate of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. Here, the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S::prxC1a construct was introduced into hybrid aspen (Populus sieboldii x Populus grandidentata). The growth rate of these transformed hybrid aspen plants was substantially increased under greenhouse conditions. The average stem length of transformed plants was 25% greater than that of control plants. There was no other obvious phenotypic difference between the transformed and control plants. Fast-growing transformed hybrid aspen showed high levels of expression of prxC1a and had elevated peroxidase activities toward guaiacol and ascorbate. However, there was no increase of the endogenous class I ascorbate peroxidase activities in the transformed plants by separate assay and activity staining of native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, calli derived from the transformed hybrid aspen grew faster than those from control plants and were resistant to the oxidative stress imposed by hydrogen peroxide. Therefore, enhanced peroxidase activity affects plant growth rate and oxidative stress resistance.

  12. Hairy root transgene expression analysis of a secretory peroxidase (PvPOX1) from common bean infected by Fusarium wilt.

    PubMed

    Xue, Renfeng; Wu, Xingbo; Wang, Yingjie; Zhuang, Yan; Chen, Jian; Wu, Jing; Ge, Weide; Wang, Lanfen; Wang, Shumin; Blair, Matthew W

    2017-07-01

    Plant peroxidases (POXs) are one of the most important redox enzymes in the defense responses. However, the large number of different plant POX genes makes it necessary to carefully confirm the function of each paralogous POX gene in specific tissues and disease interactions. Fusarium wilt is a devastating disease of common bean caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli. In this study, we evaluated a peroxidase gene, PvPOX1, from a resistant common bean genotype, CAAS260205 and provided direct evidence for PvPOX1's role in resistance by transforming the resistant allele into a susceptible common bean genotype, BRB130, via hairy root transformation using Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Analysis of PvPOX1 gene over-expressing hairy roots showed it increased resistance to Fusarium wilt both in the roots and the rest of transgenic plants. Meanwhile, the PvPOX1 expressive level, the peroxidase activity and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) accumulation were also enhanced in the interaction. The result showed that the PvPOX1 gene played an essential role in Fusarium wilt resistance through the occurrence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced hypersensitive response. Therefore, PvPOX1 expression was proven to be a valuable gene for further analysis which can strengthen host defense response against Fusarium wilt through a ROS activated resistance mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Expression, purification and crystallization of a dye-decolourizing peroxidase from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Rai, Amrita; Fedorov, Roman; Manstein, Dietmar J

    2014-02-01

    Dye-decolourizing peroxidases are haem-containing peroxidases with broad substrate specificity. Using H2O2 as an electron acceptor, they efficiently decolourize various dyes that are of industrial and environmental relevance, such as anthraquninone- and azo-based dyes. In this study, the dye-decolourizing peroxidase DdDyP from Dictyostelium discoideum was overexpressed in Escherichia coli strain Rosetta(DE3)pLysS, purified and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. A native crystal diffracted to 1.65 Å resolution and belonged to space group P4(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 141.03, c = 95.56 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The asymmetric unit contains two molecules.

  14. Transmutation of human glutathione transferase A2-2 with peroxidase activity into an efficient steroid isomerase.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Par L; Johansson, Ann-Sofie; Mannervik, Bengt

    2002-08-16

    A major goal in protein engineering is the tailor-making of enzymes for specified chemical reactions. Successful attempts have frequently been based on directed molecular evolution involving libraries of random mutants in which variants with desired properties were identified. For the engineering of enzymes with novel functions, it would be of great value if the necessary changes of the active site could be predicted and implemented. Such attempts based on the comparison of similar structures with different substrate selectivities have previously met with limited success. However, the present work shows that the knowledge-based redesign restricted to substrate-binding residues in human glutathione transferase A2-2 can introduce high steroid double-bond isomerase activity into the enzyme originally characterized by glutathione peroxidase activity. Both the catalytic center activity (k(cat)) and catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) match the values of the naturally evolved glutathione transferase A3-3, the most active steroid isomerase known in human tissues. The substrate selectivity of the mutated glutathione transferase was changed 7000-fold by five point mutations. This example demonstrates the functional plasticity of the glutathione transferase scaffold as well as the potential of rational active-site directed mutagenesis as a complement to DNA shuffling and other stochastic methods for the redesign of proteins with novel functions.

  15. NMR Studies of Peroxidases.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veitch, Nigel Charles

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. Peroxidases are a haem-containing group of enzymes with a wide diversity of function within biological systems. While a common characteristic is the ability to catalyse the conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water, it is the accompanying processes of hormone synthesis and degradation which have generated such a high level of interest. However, information at the molecular level is limited to a single well-resolved crystal structure, that of yeast cytochrome c peroxidase. This thesis presents a strategy for the investigation of peroxidase structure and function based on proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, a technique which has the ability to address aspects of both protein structure and protein dynamics in solution. The application of one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques has been developed in the context of plant peroxidases, notably the isoenzyme HRP-C derived from the horseradish root. Characterisation of the proton NMR spectra of HRP -C in resting and ligated states provided new information enabling the structure of the binding site for aromatic donor molecules, such as indole-3-propionic, ferulic and benzhydroxamic acids, to be resolved. In order to overcome difficulties encountered with a protein of the complexity of peroxidase, additional information was obtained from chemical shift parameters and the use of peroxidase variants produced by site-directed mutagenesis. A comparative study using NMR spectroscopy was undertaken for wild-type recombinant HRP-C expressed in Escherichia coli, and two protein variants with substitutions made to residues located on the distal side of the haem pocket, Phe41 to Val and Arg38 to Lys. NMR analyses of a plant peroxidase from barley grains and the fungal peroxidase from Coprinus cinereus were also successful using methods conceived with HRP-C. Examination of three specifically constructed recombinant protein variants of C. cinereus

  16. Profiling of wheat class III peroxidase genes derived from powdery mildew-attacked epidermis reveals distinct sequence-associated expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guosheng; Sheng, Xiaoyan; Greenshields, David L; Ogieglo, Adam; Kaminskyj, Susan; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Wei, Yangdou

    2005-07-01

    A cDNA library was constructed from leaf epidermis of diploid wheat (Triticum monococcum) infected with the powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) and was screened for genes encoding peroxidases. From 2,500 expressed sequence tags (ESTs), 36 cDNAs representing 10 peroxidase genes (designated TmPRX1 to TmPRX10) were isolated and further characterized. Alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences and phylogenetic clustering with peroxidases from other plant species demonstrated that these peroxidases fall into four distinct groups. Differential expression and tissue-specific localization among the members were observed during the B. graminis f. sp. tritici attack using Northern blots and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses. Consistent with its abundance in the EST collection, TmPRX1 expression showed the highest induction during pathogen attack and fluctuated in response to the fungal parasitic stages. TmPRX1 to TmPRX6 were expressed predominantly in mesophyll cells, whereas TmPRX7 to TmPRX10, which feature a putative C-terminal propeptide, were detectable mainly in epidermal cells. Using TmPRX8 as a representative, we demonstrated that its C-terminal propeptide was sufficient to target a green fluorescent protein fusion protein to the vacuoles in onion cells. Finally, differential expression profiles of the TmPRXs after abiotic stresses and signal molecule treatments were used to dissect the potential role of these peroxidases in multiple stress and defense pathways.

  17. An N-terminal peptide extension results in efficient expression, but not secretion, of a synthetic horseradish peroxidase gene in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Kis, Mihaly; Burbridge, Emma; Brock, Ian W; Heggie, Laura; Dix, Philip J; Kavanagh, Tony A

    2004-03-01

    Native horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) peroxidase, HRP (EC 1.11.1.7), isoenzyme C is synthesized with N-terminal and C-terminal peptide extensions, believed to be associated with protein targeting. This study aimed to explore the specific functions of these extensions, and to generate transgenic plants with expression patterns suitable for exploring the role of peroxidase in plant development and defence. Transgenic Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) plants expressing different versions of a synthetic horseradish peroxidase, HRP, isoenzyme C gene were constructed. The gene was engineered to include additional sequences coding for either the natural N-terminal or the C-terminal extension or both. These constructs were placed under the control of a constitutive promoter (CaMV-35S) or the tobacco RUBISCO-SSU light inducible promoter (SSU) and introduced into tobacco using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. To study the effects of the N- and C-terminal extensions, the localization of recombinant peroxidase was determined using biochemical and molecular techniques. Transgenic tobacco plants can exhibit a ten-fold increase in peroxidase activity compared with wild-type tobacco levels, and the majority of this activity is located in the symplast. The N-terminal extension is essential for the production of high levels of recombinant protein, while the C-terminal extension has little effect. Differences in levels of enzyme activity and recombinant protein are reflected in transcript levels. There is no evidence to support either preferential secretion or vacuolar targeting of recombinant peroxidase in this heterologous expression system. This leads us to question the postulated targeting roles of these peptide extensions. The N-terminal extension is essential for high level expression and appears to influence transcript stability or translational efficiency. Plants have been generated with greatly elevated cytosolic peroxidase activity, and smaller increases in apoplastic

  18. Increases of Catalase and Glutathione Peroxidase Expressions by Lacosamide Pretreatment Contributes to Neuroprotection Against Experimentally Induced Transient Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun Young; Park, Joon Ha; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich Na; Lee, Yun Lyul; Kim, In Hye; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Lee, Jae-Chul; Won, Moo-Ho; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Yan, Bing Chun; Hwang, In Koo; Cho, Jun Hwi; Kim, Young-Myeong; Kim, Sung Koo

    2016-09-01

    Lacosamide is a new antiepileptic drug which is widely used to treat partial-onset seizures. In this study, we examined the neuroprotective effect of lacosamide against transient ischemic damage and expressions of antioxidant enzymes such as Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1), Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD2), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region following 5 min of transient global cerebral ischemia in gerbils. We found that pre-treatment with 25 mg/kg lacosamide protected CA1 pyramidal neurons from transient global cerebral ischemic insult using hematoxylin-eosin staining and neuronal nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry. Transient ischemia dramatically changed expressions of SOD1, SOD2 and GPX, not CAT, in the CA1 pyramidal neurons. Lacosamide pre-treatment increased expressions of CAT and GPX, not SOD1 and 2, in the CA1 pyramidal neurons compared with controls, and their expressions induced by lacosamide pre-treatment were maintained after transient cerebral ischemia. In brief, pre-treatment with lacosamide protected hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons from ischemic damage induced by transient global cerebral ischemia, and the lacosamide-mediated neuroprotection may be closely related to increases of CAT and GPX expressions by lacosamide pre-treatment.

  19. Ligninolytic peroxidase genes in the oyster mushroom genome: heterologous expression, molecular structure, catalytic and stability properties, and lignin-degrading ability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The genome of Pleurotus ostreatus, an important edible mushroom and a model ligninolytic organism of interest in lignocellulose biorefineries due to its ability to delignify agricultural wastes, was sequenced with the purpose of identifying and characterizing the enzymes responsible for lignin degradation. Results Heterologous expression of the class II peroxidase genes, followed by kinetic studies, enabled their functional classification. The resulting inventory revealed the absence of lignin peroxidases (LiPs) and the presence of three versatile peroxidases (VPs) and six manganese peroxidases (MnPs), the crystal structures of two of them (VP1 and MnP4) were solved at 1.0 to 1.1 Å showing significant structural differences. Gene expansion supports the importance of both peroxidase types in the white-rot lifestyle of this fungus. Using a lignin model dimer and synthetic lignin, we showed that VP is able to degrade lignin. Moreover, the dual Mn-mediated and Mn-independent activity of P. ostreatus MnPs justifies their inclusion in a new peroxidase subfamily. The availability of the whole POD repertoire enabled investigation, at a biochemical level, of the existence of duplicated genes. Differences between isoenzymes are not limited to their kinetic constants. Surprising differences in their activity T50 and residual activity at both acidic and alkaline pH were observed. Directed mutagenesis and spectroscopic/structural information were combined to explain the catalytic and stability properties of the most interesting isoenzymes, and their evolutionary history was analyzed in the context of over 200 basidiomycete peroxidase sequences. Conclusions The analysis of the P. ostreatus genome shows a lignin-degrading system where the role generally played by LiP has been assumed by VP. Moreover, it enabled the first characterization of the complete set of peroxidase isoenzymes in a basidiomycete, revealing strong differences in stability properties and providing

  20. The membrane-tethered transcription factor ANAC089 serves as redox-dependent suppressor of stromal ascorbate peroxidase gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Peter; Seidel, Thorsten; Stöcker, Benedikt; Dietz, Karl-Josef

    2012-01-01

    The stromal ascorbate peroxidase (sAPX) functions as central element of the chloroplast antioxidant defense system. Its expression is under retrograde control of chloroplast signals including redox- and reactive oxygen species-linked cues. The sAPX promoter of Arabidopsis thaliana was dissected in transient reporter assays using mesophyll protoplasts. The study revealed regulatory elements up to –1868 upstream of the start codon. By yeast-one-hybrid screening, the transcription factor ANAC089 was identified to bind to the promoter fragment 2 (–1262 to –1646 bp upstream of translational initiation). Upon mutation of the cis-acting element CACG, binding of ANAC089 was abolished. Expression of a fused fluorescent protein version and comparison with known endomembrane markers localized ANAC089 to the trans-Golgi network and the ER. The transcription factor was released upon treatment with reducing agents and targeted to the nucleus. Transactivation assays using wild type and mutated versions of the promoter showed a partial suppression of reporter expression. The data indicate that ANAC089 functions in a negative retrograde loop, lowering sAPX expression if the cell encounters a highly reducing condition. This conclusion was supported by reciprocal transcript accumulation of ANAC089 and sAPX during acclimation to low, normal, and high light conditions. PMID:23162559

  1. [Enhancement of functional expression of wheat peroxidase WP1 in prokaryotic system by co-transforming with hemA and hemL of Esherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Shan, Liwei; Su, Shuaikun; Nan, Yanni; Guo, Zhongyu; Fan, Sanhong

    2012-07-01

    Wheat grain peroxidase 1 (WP1) belonged to class III plant peroxidase with cofactor heme, which not only has antifungal activity, but also influences the processing quality of flour. In order to enhance functional expression of WP1 in prokaryotic system by increasing endogenous heme synthesis, we constructed a recombinant plasmid pACYC-A-L containing hemA and hemL of Esherichia coli. Then, we co-transformed it into host strain T7 Express with secretive expression vector (pMAL-p4x-WP1) or non-secretive expression vector (pET21a-MBP-WP1), respectively. The MBP-WP1 fusion protein was further purified by amylose affinity chromatography and its peroxidase activity was assayed using 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) as substrate. At 12 h after induction at 28 degree, the extracellular 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) production of T7 Express/pACYC-A-L was up to 146.73 mg/L, simultaneously the extracellular porphrins also increased dramatically. The peroxidase activity of functional MBP-WP1 obtained from T7 Express/ (pACYC-A-L + pMAL-p4x-WP1) was 14.6-folds of that purified from T7 Express/ pET21a-MBP-WP1. This study not only successfully enhanced functional expression of wheat peroxidase 1 in Esherichia coli, but also provided beneficial references for other important proteins with cofactor heme.

  2. The glutathione peroxidase gene family of Lotus japonicus: characterization of genomic clones, expression analyses and immunolocalization in legumes.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Javier; Matamoros, Manuel A; Naya, Loreto; James, Euan K; Rouhier, Nicolas; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Becana, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Despite the multiple roles played by antioxidants in rhizobia-legume symbioses, little is known about glutathione peroxidases (GPXs) in legumes. Here the characterization of six GPX genes of Lotus japonicus is reported. Expression of GPX genes was analysed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in L. japonicus and Lotus corniculatus plants exposed to various treatments known to generate reactive oxygen and/or nitrogen species. LjGPX1 and LjGPX3 were the most abundantly expressed genes in leaves, roots and nodules. Compared with roots, LjGPX1 and LjGPX6 were highly expressed in leaves and LjGPX3 and LjGPX6 in nodules. In roots, salinity decreased GPX4 expression, aluminium decreased expression of the six genes, and cadmium caused up-regulation of GPX3, GPX4 and GPX5 after 1 h and down-regulation of GPX1, GPX2, GPX4 and GPX6 after 3-24 h. Exposure of roots to sodium nitroprusside (a nitric oxide donor) for 1 h increased the mRNA levels of GPX4 and GPX6 by 3.3- and 30-fold, respectively. Thereafter, the GPX6 mRNA level remained consistently higher than that of the control. Immunogold labelling revealed the presence of GPX proteins in root and nodule amyloplasts and in leaf chloroplasts of L. japonicus and other legumes. Labelling was associated with starch grains. These results underscore the differential regulation of GPX expression in response to cadmium, aluminium and nitric oxide, and strongly support a role for GPX6 and possibly other GPX genes in stress and/or metabolic signalling.

  3. EFFECTS OF A LIGNIN PEROXIDASE-EXPRESSING RECOMBINANT STREPTOMYCES LIVIDANS TK23.1 ON BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLING AND THE NUMBERS AND ACTIVITIES OF MICROORGANISMS IN SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A recombinant actinomycete, Streptomyces lividans TK23.1, expressing a pIJ702-encoded extracellular lignin peroxidase gene cloned from the chromosome of Streptomyces virodosporus T7A, was released into soil in flask- and microcosm-scale studies to determine its effects on humific...

  4. Expression of manganese peroxidase by Lentinula edodes and Lentinula boryana in solid state and submerged system fermentation.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Katia L; Costa, Alessandra; Helm, Cristiane V; De Lima, Edson A; Tavares, Lorena B B

    2013-09-01

    The production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass is referred as a second generation biofuel, whose processing is one of the most promising technologies under development. There are few available studies on the use of enzymes produced by fungi as active for the biodegradation of lignocellulosic biomass. However, the manganese peroxidase (MnP) enzyme presents high potential to degrade lignin and the basidiomycetes are the major producers of this oxidase. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating the ability of fungi Lentinula edodes and Lentinula boryana to produce this enzyme when cultivated in submerged fermentation system (SS) and also in solid-state fermentation system (SSF) containing Eucalyptus benthamii sawdust with or without corn cob meal. In the SS the greatest MnP expression occurred on the 25th day, being of 70 UI.L-1 for L. boryana and of 20 UI.L-1 for L. edodes. In the SSF, the best results were obtained on the 10th day for L. edodes, while for L. boryana it happened between the 20th and the 25th days, despite both species presented values close to 110 UI.L-1. Therefore, the results indicated that the studied fungi express the enzyme of interest and that its production is enhanced when cultivated in solid system.

  5. MicroRNAs as Potential Regulators of Glutathione Peroxidases Expression and Their Role in Obesity and Related Pathologies.

    PubMed

    Matoušková, Petra; Hanousková, Barbora; Skálová, Lenka

    2018-04-14

    Glutathione peroxidases (GPxs) belong to the eight-member family of phylogenetically related enzymes with different cellular localization, but distinct antioxidant function. Several GPxs are important selenoproteins. Dysregulated GPx expression is connected with severe pathologies, including obesity and diabetes. We performed a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis using the programs miRDB, miRanda, TargetScan, and Diana in the search for hypothetical microRNAs targeting 3'untranslated regions (3´UTR) of GPxs. We cross-referenced the literature for possible intersections between our results and available reports on identified microRNAs, with a special focus on the microRNAs related to oxidative stress, obesity, and related pathologies. We identified many microRNAs with an association with oxidative stress and obesity as putative regulators of GPxs. In particular, miR-185-5p was predicted by a larger number of programs to target six GPxs and thus could play the role as their master regulator. This microRNA was altered by selenium deficiency and can play a role as a feedback control of selenoproteins' expression. Through the bioinformatics analysis we revealed the potential connection of microRNAs, GPxs, obesity, and other redox imbalance related diseases.

  6. Gene architecture and expression analyses provide insights into the role of glutathione peroxidases (GPXs) in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Shivi; Himani; Sembi, Jaspreet K; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Glutathione peroxidases (GPXs) are redox sensor proteins that maintain a steady-state of H 2 O 2 in plant cells. They exhibit distinct sub-cellular localization and have diverse functionality in response to different stimuli. In this study, a total of 14 TaGPX genes and three splice variants were identified in the genome of Triticum aestivum and evaluated for various physicochemical properties. The TaGPX genes were scattered on the various chromosomes of the A, B, and D sub-genomes and clustered into five homeologous groups based on high sequence homology. The majority of genes were derived from the B sub-genome and localized on chromosome 2. The intron-exon organization, motif and domain architecture, and phylogenetic analyses revealed the conserved nature of TaGPXs. The occurrence of both development-related and stress-responsive cis-acting elements in the promoter region, the differential expression of these genes during various developmental stages, and the modulation of expression in the presence of biotic and abiotic stresses suggested their diverse role in T. aestivum. The majority of TaGPX genes showed higher expression in various leaf developmental stages. However, TaGPX1-A1 was upregulated in the presence of each abiotic stress treatment. A co-expression analysis revealed the interaction of TaGPXs with numerous development and stress-related genes, which indicated their vital role in numerous biological processes. Our study revealed the opportunities for further characterization of individual TaGPX proteins, which might be useful in designing future crop improvement strategies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. High animal fat intake enhances prostate cancer progression and reduces glutathione peroxidase 3 expression in early stages of TRAMP mice.

    PubMed

    Chang, Seo-Na; Han, Juhee; Abdelkader, Tamer Said; Kim, Tae-Hyoun; Lee, Ji Min; Song, Juha; Kim, Kyung-Sul; Park, Jong-Hwan; Park, Jae-Hak

    2014-09-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in Western men, and more men have been diagnosed at younger ages in recent years. A high-fat Western-style diet is a known risk factor for prostate cancer and increases oxidative stress. We evaluated the association between dietary animal fat and expression of antioxidant enzymes, particularly glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3), in the early stages of transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice. Six-week-old male nontransgenic and TRAMP mice were placed on high animal fat (45% Kcal fat) or control (10% Kcal fat) diets and sacrificed after 5 or 10 weeks. The histopathological score increased with age and high-fat diet consumption. The histopathological scores in dorsal and lateral lobes increased in the 10-week high-fat diet group (6.2±0.2 and 6.2±0.4, respectively) versus the 10-week control diet group (5.3±0.3 and 5.2±0.2, respectively). GPx3 decreased both at the mRNA and protein levels in mouse prostate. GPx3 mRNA expression decreased (∼36.27% and ∼23.91%, respectively) in the anterior and dorsolateral prostate of TRAMP mice fed a high-fat diet compared to TRAMP mice fed a control diet. Cholesterol treatment increased PC-3 human prostate cancer cell proliferation, decreased GPx3 mRNA and protein levels, and increased H2 O2 levels in culture medium. Moreover, increasing GPx3 mRNA expression by troglitazone in PC-3 cells decreased cell proliferation and lowered H2 O2 levels. Dietary fat enhances prostate cancer progression, possibly by suppressing GPx3 expression and increasing proliferation of prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) epithelial cells. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. An N‐terminal Peptide Extension Results in Efficient Expression, but not Secretion, of a Synthetic Horseradish Peroxidase Gene in Transgenic Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    KIS, MIHALY; BURBRIDGE, EMMA; BROCK, IAN W.; HEGGIE, LAURA; DIX, PHILIP J.; KAVANAGH, TONY A.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Native horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) peroxidase, HRP (EC 1.11.1.7), isoenzyme C is synthesized with N‐terminal and C‐terminal peptide extensions, believed to be associated with protein targeting. This study aimed to explore the specific functions of these extensions, and to generate transgenic plants with expression patterns suitable for exploring the role of peroxidase in plant development and defence. • Methods Transgenic Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) plants expressing different versions of a synthetic horseradish peroxidase, HRP, isoenzyme C gene were constructed. The gene was engineered to include additional sequences coding for either the natural N‐terminal or the C‐terminal extension or both. These constructs were placed under the control of a constitutive promoter (CaMV‐35S) or the tobacco RUBISCO‐SSU light inducible promoter (SSU) and introduced into tobacco using Agrobacterium‐mediated transformation. To study the effects of the N‐ and C‐terminal extensions, the localization of recombinant peroxidase was determined using biochemical and molecular techniques. • Key Results Transgenic tobacco plants can exhibit a ten‐fold increase in peroxidase activity compared with wild‐type tobacco levels, and the majority of this activity is located in the symplast. The N‐terminal extension is essential for the production of high levels of recombinant protein, while the C‐terminal extension has little effect. Differences in levels of enzyme activity and recombinant protein are reflected in transcript levels. • Conclusions There is no evidence to support either preferential secretion or vacuolar targeting of recombinant peroxidase in this heterologous expression system. This leads us to question the postulated targeting roles of these peptide extensions. The N‐terminal extension is essential for high level expression and appears to influence transcript stability or translational efficiency. Plants have been

  9. Expression and Activation of Horseradish Peroxidase-Protein A/G Fusion Protein in Silkworm Larvae for Diagnostic Purposes.

    PubMed

    Xxxx, Patmawati; Minamihata, Kosuke; Tatsuke, Tsuneyuki; Lee, Jae Man; Kusakabe, Takahiro; Kamiya, Noriho

    2018-06-01

    Recombinant protein production can create artificial proteins with desired functions by introducing genetic modifications to the target proteins. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) has been used extensively as a reporter enzyme in biotechnological applications; however, recombinant production of HRP has not been very successful, hampering the utilization of HRP with genetic modifications. A fusion protein comprising an antibody binding protein and HRP will be an ideal bio-probe for high-quality HRP-based diagnostic systems. A HRP-protein A/G fusion protein (HRP-pAG) is designed and its production in silkworm (Bombyx mori) is evaluated for the first time. HRP-pAG is expressed in a soluble apo form, and is activated successfully by incubating with hemin. The activated HRP-pAG is used directly for ELISA experiments and retains its activity over 20 days at 4 °C. Moreover, HRP-pAG is modified with biotin by the microbial transglutaminase (MTG) reaction. The biotinylated HRP-pAG is conjugated with streptavidin to form a HRP-pAG multimer and the multimeric HRP-pAG produced higher signals in the ELISA system than monomeric HRP-pAG. The successful production of recombinant HRP in silkworm will contribute to creating novel HRP-based bioconjugates as well as further functionalization of HRP by applying enzymatic post-translational modifications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Elevated expression of glutathione peroxidase in PC12 cells results in protection against methamphetamine but not MPTP toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hom, D G; Jiang, D; Hong, E J; Mo, J Q; Andersen, J K

    1997-06-01

    In vivo administration of either 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or methamphetamine (MA) produces damage to the dopaminergic nervous system which may be due in part to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The resistance of superoxide dismutase (SOD) over-expressing transgenic mice to the effects of both MPTP and MA suggests the involvement of superoxide in the resulting neurotoxicity of both compounds. Superoxide can be converted by SOD to hydrogen peroxide, which itself can cause cellular degeneration by reacting with free iron to produce highly reactive hydroxyl radicals resulting in damage to proteins, nucleic acids and membrane phospholipids. Hydrogen peroxide has also been reported to be produced via inhibition of NADH dehydrogenase by MPP + formed during oxidation of MPTP by MAO-B and by dopamine auto-oxidation following MA-induced dopamine release from synaptic vesicles within nerve terminals. To test whether hydrogen peroxide is an important factor in the toxicity of either of these two neurotoxins, we created clonal PC12 lines expressing elevated levels of the hydrogen peroxide-reducing enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx). Elevation of GSHPx levels in PC12 was found to diminish the rise in ROS levels and lipid peroxidation resulting from MA but not MPTP treatment. Elevated levels of GSHPx also appeared to prevent decreases in transport-mediated dopamine uptake produced via MA administration as well as to attenuate toxin-induced cell loss as measured by either MTT reduction or LDH release. Our data, therefore, suggest that hydrogen peroxide production likely contributes to MA toxicity in dopaminergic neurons.

  11. Selection for low or high primary dormancy in Lolium rigidum Gaud seeds results in constitutive differences in stress protein expression and peroxidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Goggin, Danica E.; Powles, Stephen B.; Steadman, Kathryn J.

    2011-01-01

    Seed dormancy in wild Lolium rigidum Gaud (annual ryegrass) populations is highly variable and not well characterized at the biochemical level. To identify some of the determinants of dormancy level in these seeds, the proteomes of subpopulations selected for low and high levels of primary dormancy were compared by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of extracts from mature, dry seeds. High-dormancy seeds showed higher expression of small heat shock proteins, enolase, and glyoxalase I than the low-dormancy seeds. The functional relevance of these differences in protein expression was confirmed by the fact that high-dormancy seeds were more tolerant to high temperatures imposed at imbibition and had consistently higher glyoxalase I activity over 0–42 d dark stratification. Higher expression of a putative glutathione peroxidase in low-dormancy seeds was not accompanied by higher activity, but these seeds had a slightly more oxidized glutathione pool and higher total peroxidase activity. Overall, these biochemical and physiological differences suggest that L. rigidum seeds selected for low dormancy are more prepared for rapid germination via peroxidase-mediated cell wall weakening, whilst seeds selected for high dormancy are constitutively prepared to survive environmental stresses, even in the absence of stress during seed development. PMID:20974739

  12. Heterologous Expression of Phanerochaete chrysoporium Glyoxal Oxidase and its Application for the Coupled Reaction with Manganese Peroxidase to Decolorize Malachite Green

    PubMed Central

    Son, Yu-Lim; Kim, Hyoun-Young; Thiyagarajan, Saravanakumar; Xu, Jing Jing

    2012-01-01

    cDNA of the glx1 gene encoding glyoxal oxidase (GLX) from Phanerochaete chrysosporium was isolated and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant GLX (rGLX) produces H2O2 over 7.0 nmol/min/mL using methyl glyoxal as a substrate. Use of rGLX as a generator of H2O2 improved the coupled reaction with recombinant manganese peroxidase resulting in decolorization of malachite green up to 150 µM within 90 min. PMID:23323052

  13. Expression and characteristics of manganese peroxidase from Ganoderma lucidum in Pichia pastoris and its application in the degradation of four dyes and phenol.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Guo, Meng-Yuan; Gao, Yan-Hua; Bai, Xiao-Hui; Zhou, Xuan-Wei

    2017-02-23

    Manganese peroxidase (MnP) of white rot basidiomycetes, an extracellular heme enzyme, is part of a peroxidase superfamily that is capable of degrading the different phenolic compounds. Ganoderma, a white rot basidiomycete widely distributed worldwide, could secrete lignin-modifying enzymes (LME), including laccase (Lac), lignin peroxidases (LiP) and MnP. After the selection of a G. lucidum strain from five Ganoderma strains, the 1092 bp full-length cDNA of the MnP gene, designated as G. lucidum MnP (GluMnP1), was cloned from the selected strain. We subsequently constructed an eukaryotic expression vector, pAO815:: GlMnP, and transferred it into Pichia pastoris SMD116. Recombinant GluMnP1 (rGluMnP1) was with a yield of 126 mg/L and a molecular weight of approximately 37.72 kDa and a specific enzyme activity of 524.61 U/L. The rGluMnP1 could be capable of the decolorization of four types of dyes and the degradation of phenol. Phenol and its principal degradation products including hydroquinone, pyrocatechol, resorcinol, benzoquinone, were detected successfully in the experiments. The rGluMnP1 could be effectively expressed in Pichia pastoris and with a higher oxidation activity. We infer that, in the initial stages of the reaction, the catechol-mediated cycle should be the principal route of enzymatic degradation of phenol and its oxidation products. This study highlights the potential industrial applications associated with the production of MnP by genetic engineering methods, and the application of industrial wastewater treatment.

  14. The effect of alcohol and hydrogen peroxide on liver hepcidin gene expression in mice lacking antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase-1 or catalase.

    PubMed

    Harrison-Findik, Duygu Dee; Lu, Sizhao

    2015-05-06

    This study investigates the regulation of hepcidin, the key iron-regulatory molecule, by alcohol and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in glutathione peroxidase-1 (gpx-1(-/-)) and catalase (catalase(-/-)) knockout mice. For alcohol studies, 10% ethanol was administered in the drinking water for 7 days. Gpx-1(-/-) displayed significantly higher hepatic H2O2 levels than catalase(-/-) compared to wild-type mice, as measured by 2'-7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). The basal level of liver hepcidin expression was attenuated in gpx-1(-/-) mice. Alcohol increased H2O2 production in catalase(-/-) and wild-type, but not gpx-1(-/-), mice. Hepcidin expression was inhibited in alcohol-fed catalase(-/-) and wild-type mice. In contrast, alcohol elevated hepcidin expression in gpx-1(-/-) mice. Gpx-1(-/-) mice also displayed higher level of basal liver CHOP protein expression than catalase(-/-) mice. Alcohol induced CHOP and to a lesser extent GRP78/BiP expression, but not XBP1 splicing or binding of CREBH to hepcidin gene promoter, in gpx-1(-/-) mice. The up-regulation of hepatic ATF4 mRNA levels, which was observed in gpx-1(-/-) mice, was attenuated by alcohol. In conclusion, our findings strongly suggest that H2O2 inhibits hepcidin expression in vivo. Synergistic induction of CHOP by alcohol and H2O2, in the absence of gpx-1, stimulates liver hepcidin gene expression by ER stress independent of CREBH.

  15. Molecular cloning of peroxidase cDNAs from dehydration-treated fibrous roots of sweetpotato and their differential expression in response to stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun-Hee; Yang, Kyoung-Sil; Kim, Cha Young; Ryu, Sun-Hwa; Song, Wan-Keun; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Bang, Jae-Wook; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2008-03-31

    Three peroxidase (POD) cDNAs were isolated from dehydration-treated fibrous roots of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) plant via the screening of a cDNA library, and their expressions were assessed to characterize functions of each POD in relation to environmental stress. Three PODs were divided into two groups, designated the basic PODs (swpb4, swpb5) and the anionic PODs (swpa7), on the basis of the pI values of mature proteins. Fluorescence microscope analysis indicated that three PODs are secreted into the extracellular space. RTPCR analysis revealed that POD genes have diverse expression patterns in a variety of plant tissues. Swpb4 was abundantly expressed in stem tissues, whereas the expression levels of swpb5 and swpa7 transcripts were high in fibrous and thick pigmented roots. Swpb4 and swpa7 showed abundant expression levels in suspension cultured cells. Three POD genes responded differently in the leaf and fibrous roots in response to a variety of stresses including dehydration, temperature stress, stress-associated chemicals, and pathogenic bacteria.

  16. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis, prokaryotic expression, and function prediction of foot-specific peroxidase in Hydra magnipapillata Chinese strain.

    PubMed

    Pan, H C; Yang, H Q; Zhao, F X; Qian, X C

    2014-08-28

    The cDNA sequence of foot-specific peroxidase PPOD1 from the Chinese strain of Hydra magnipapillata was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The cDNA sequence contained a coding region with an 873-bp open reading frame, a 31-bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 36-bp 3'-untranslated region. The structure prediction results showed that PPOD1 contains 10.34% of α-helix, 38.62% of extended strand, 12.41% of β-turn, and 38.62% of random coil. The structural core was α-helix at the N terminus. The GenBank protein blast server showed that PPOD1 contains 2 fascin-like domains. In addition, high-level PPOD1 activity was only present in the ectodermal epithelial cells located on the edge of the adhesive face of the basal disc, and that these cells extended lamellipodia and filopodia when the basal disc was tightly attached to a glass slide. The fascin-like domains of Hydra PPOD1 might contribute to the bundling of the actin filament of these cells, and hence, the formation of filopodia. In conclusion, these cells might play an important role in strengthening the adsorbability of the basal disc to substrates.

  17. Characterization and expression analysis of gene encoding heme peroxidase HPX15 in major Indian malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Kajla, Mithilesh; Kakani, Parik; Choudhury, Tania Pal; Gupta, Kuldeep; Gupta, Lalita; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2016-06-01

    The interaction of mosquito immune system with Plasmodium is critical in determining the vector competence. Thus, blocking the crucial mosquito molecules that regulate parasite development might be effective in controlling the disease transmission. In this study, we characterized a full-length AsHPX15 gene from the major Indian malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. This gene is true ortholog of Anopheles gambiae heme peroxidase AgHPX15 (AGAP013327), which modulates midgut immunity and regulates Plasmodium falciparum development. We found that AsHPX15 is highly induced in mosquito developmental stages and blood fed midguts. In addition, this is a lineage-specific gene that has identical features and 65-99% amino acids identity with other HPX15 genes present in eighteen worldwide-distributed anophelines. We discuss that the conserved HPX15 gene might serve as a common target to manipulate mosquito immunity and arresting Plasmodium development inside the vector host. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effect of Alcohol and Hydrogen Peroxide on Liver Hepcidin Gene Expression in Mice Lacking Antioxidant Enzymes, Glutathione Peroxidase-1 or Catalase

    PubMed Central

    Harrison-Findik, Duygu Dee; Lu, Sizhao

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the regulation of hepcidin, the key iron-regulatory molecule, by alcohol and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in glutathione peroxidase-1 (gpx-1−/−) and catalase (catalase−/−) knockout mice. For alcohol studies, 10% ethanol was administered in the drinking water for 7 days. Gpx-1−/− displayed significantly higher hepatic H2O2 levels than catalase−/− compared to wild-type mice, as measured by 2'-7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). The basal level of liver hepcidin expression was attenuated in gpx-1−/− mice. Alcohol increased H2O2 production in catalase−/− and wild-type, but not gpx-1−/−, mice. Hepcidin expression was inhibited in alcohol-fed catalase−/− and wild-type mice. In contrast, alcohol elevated hepcidin expression in gpx-1−/− mice. Gpx-1−/− mice also displayed higher level of basal liver CHOP protein expression than catalase−/− mice. Alcohol induced CHOP and to a lesser extent GRP78/BiP expression, but not XBP1 splicing or binding of CREBH to hepcidin gene promoter, in gpx-1−/− mice. The up-regulation of hepatic ATF4 mRNA levels, which was observed in gpx-1−/− mice, was attenuated by alcohol. In conclusion, our findings strongly suggest that H2O2 inhibits hepcidin expression in vivo. Synergistic induction of CHOP by alcohol and H2O2, in the absence of gpx-1, stimulates liver hepcidin gene expression by ER stress independent of CREBH. PMID:25955433

  19. Daily rhythms of catalase and glutathione peroxidase expression and activity are endogenously driven in the hippocampus and are modified by a vitamin A-free diet.

    PubMed

    Navigatore-Fonzo, Lorena S; Delgado, Silvia M; Gimenez, Maria Sofia; Anzulovich, Ana C

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in enzymatic antioxidant defense systems lead to a deficit of cognitive functions and altered hippocampal synaptic plasticity. The objectives of this study were to investigate endogenous rhythms of catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) expression and activity, as well as CREB1 mRNA, in the rat hippocampus, and to evaluate to which extent the vitamin A deficiency could affect those temporal patterns. Rats from control and vitamin A-deficient (VAD) groups received a diet containing 4000 IU of vitamin A/kg diet, or the same diet devoid of vitamin A, respectively, during 3 months. Rats were maintained under 12-hour-dark conditions, during 10 days before the sacrifice. Circadian rhythms of CAT, GPx, RXRγ, and CREB1 mRNA levels were determined by reverse transcriptrase polymerase chain reaction in hippocampus samples isolated every 4 hours during a 24-hour period. CAT and GPx enzymatic activities were also determined by kinetic assays. Regulatory regions of clock and antioxidant enzymes genes were scanned for E-box, RXRE, and CRE sites. E-box, RXRE, and CRE sites were found on regulatory regions of GPx and CAT genes, which display a circadian expression in the rat hippocampus. VAD phase shifted CAT, GPx, and RXRγ endogenous rhythms without affecting circadian expression of CREB1. CAT and GPx expression and enzymatic activity are circadian in the rat hippocampus. The VAD affected the temporal patterns antioxidant genes expression, probably by altering circadian rhythms of its RXR receptors and clock factors; thus, it would impair the temporal orchestration of hippocampal daily cognitive performance.

  20. Cissus quadrangularis ethanol extract upregulates superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in hydrogen peroxide-injured human ECV304 cells.

    PubMed

    Sapsrithong, Tarat; Kaewprem, Weeraya; Tongumpai, Sarunya; Nusuetrong, Punnee; Meksuriyen, Duangdeun

    2012-09-28

    Cissus quadrangularis has been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of hemorrhoid. However, the detailed mechanism of antioxidant defense of C. quadrangularis in endothelial cells under oxidative stress remains unclear. The present study aims to elucidate the protective role of ethanol extract of C. quadrangularis (CQE) including its constituents, quercetin and resveratrol, on hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-injured human umbilical vein endothelial ECV304 cells. Viability, genotoxicity and protein expression of ECV304 cells were analyzed by MTT, alkaline comet and Western blot, respectively. Production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined using dichlorofluorescein fluorescence dye. After exposing cells to CQE containing quercetin and resveratrol, DNA damage was not observed. CQE including quercetin and resveratrol significantly attenuated ROS in H(2)O(2)-injured ECV304 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The protein expression of superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) increased in the cells treated with CQE, quercetin or resveratrol prior to H(2)O(2) exposure, as compared with control. The results provide a molecular mechanism of C. quadrangularis, which could be partially related to quercetin and resveratrol, in restoring ROS in endothelial cells through the upregulation of Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, GPx and eNOS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Expression of an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) peroxidase gene in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana enhances resistance to NaCl and H2O2.

    PubMed

    Teng, K; Xiao, G Z; Guo, W E; Yuan, J B; Li, J; Chao, Y H; Han, L B

    2016-05-23

    Peroxidases (PODs) are enzymes that play important roles in catalyzing the reduction of H2O2 and the oxidation of various substrates. They function in many different and important biological processes, such as defense mechanisms, immune responses, and pathogeny. The POD genes have been cloned and identified in many plants, but their function in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is not known, to date. Based on the POD gene sequence (GenBank accession No. L36157.1), we cloned the POD gene in alfalfa, which was named MsPOD. MsPOD expression increased with increasing H2O2. The gene was expressed in all of the tissues, including the roots, stems, leaves, and flowers, particularly in stems and leaves under light/dark conditions. A subcellular analysis showed that MsPOD was localized outside the cells. Transgenic Arabidopsis with MsPOD exhibited increased resistance to H2O2 and NaCl. Moreover, POD activity in the transgenic plants was significantly higher than that in wild-type Arabidopsis. These results show that MsPOD plays an important role in resistance to H2O2 and NaCl.

  2. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the Met244Ala variant of catalase–peroxidase (KatG) from the haloarchaeon Haloarcula marismortui

    SciTech Connect

    Ten-i, Tomomi; Kumasaka, Takashi; Higuchi, Wataru

    2007-11-01

    The Met244Ala variant of the H. marismortui KatG enzyme was expressed in haloarchaeal host cells and purified to homogeneity. The variant was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with ammonium sulfate and NaCl as precipitants. The reddish-brown rod-shaped crystals obtained belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 315.24, b = 81.04, c = 74.77 Å, β = 99.81°. The covalent modification of the side chains of Trp95, Tyr218 and Met244 within the active site of Haloarcula marismortui catalase–peroxidase (KatG) appears to be common to all KatGs and has been demonstrated to be particularly significant formore » its bifunctionality [Smulevich et al. (2006 ▶), J. Inorg. Biochem.100, 568–585; Jakopitsch, Kolarich et al. (2003 ▶), FEBS Lett.552, 135–140; Jakopitsch, Auer et al. (2003 ▶), J. Biol. Chem.278, 20185–20191; Jakopitsch et al. (2004 ▶), J. Biol. Chem.279, 46082–46095; Regelsberger et al. (2001 ▶), Biochem. Soc. Trans.29, 99–105; Ghiladi, Knudsen et al. (2005 ▶), J. Biol. Chem.280, 22651–22663; Ghiladi, Medzihradzky et al. (2005 ▶), Biochemistry, 44, 15093–15105]. The Met244Ala variant of the H. marismortui KatG enzyme was expressed in haloarchaeal host cells and purified to homogeneity. The variant showed a complete loss of catalase activity, whereas the peroxidase activity of this mutant was highly enhanced owing to an increase in its affinity for the peroxidatic substrate. The variant was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with ammonium sulfate and NaCl as precipitants. The reddish-brown rod-shaped crystals obtained belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 315.24, b = 81.04, c = 74.77 Å, β = 99.81°. A crystal frozen using lithium sulfate as the cryoprotectant diffracted to beyond 2.0 Å resolution. Preliminary X-ray analysis suggests the presence of a dimer in the asymmetric unit.« less

  3. Peroxidase(s) in Environment Protection

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Neelam; Kanwar, Shamsher S.

    2013-01-01

    Industrial discharges of untreated effluents into water bodies and emissions into air have deteriorated the quality of water and air, respectively. The huge amount of pollutants derived from industrial activities represents a threat for the environment and ecologic equilibrium. Phenols and halogenated phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDC), pesticides, dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), industrial dyes, and other xenobiotics are among the most important pollutants. Peroxidases are enzymes that are able to transform a variety of compounds following a free radical mechanism, thereby yielding oxidized or polymerized products. The peroxidase transformation of these pollutants is accompanied by a reduction in their toxicity, due to loss of biological activity, reduction in the bioavailability, or the removal from aqueous phase, especially when the pollutant is found in water. The review describes the sources of peroxidases, the reactions catalyzed by them, and their applications in the management of pollutants in the environment. PMID:24453894

  4. Peroxidase(s) in environment protection.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Neelam; Kanwar, Shamsher S

    2013-01-01

    Industrial discharges of untreated effluents into water bodies and emissions into air have deteriorated the quality of water and air, respectively. The huge amount of pollutants derived from industrial activities represents a threat for the environment and ecologic equilibrium. Phenols and halogenated phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDC), pesticides, dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), industrial dyes, and other xenobiotics are among the most important pollutants. Peroxidases are enzymes that are able to transform a variety of compounds following a free radical mechanism, thereby yielding oxidized or polymerized products. The peroxidase transformation of these pollutants is accompanied by a reduction in their toxicity, due to loss of biological activity, reduction in the bioavailability, or the removal from aqueous phase, especially when the pollutant is found in water. The review describes the sources of peroxidases, the reactions catalyzed by them, and their applications in the management of pollutants in the environment.

  5. Increased expression of native cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase improves tolerance to oxidative and chilling stresses in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia; Yang, Jun; Duan, Xiaoguang; Jiang, Yueming; Zhang, Peng

    2014-08-05

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a tropical root crop, and is therefore, extremely sensitive to low temperature; its antioxidative response is pivotal for its survival under stress. Timely turnover of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells generated by chilling-induced oxidative damages, and scavenging can be achieved by non-enzymatic and enzymatic reactions in order to maintain ROS homeostasis. Transgenic cassava plants that co-express cytosolic superoxide dismutase (SOD), MeCu/ZnSOD, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), MeAPX2, were produced and tested for tolerance against oxidative and chilling stresses. The up-regulation of MeCu/ZnSOD and MeAPX2 expression was confirmed by the quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and enzymatic activity analyses in the leaves of transgenic cassava plant lines with a single-transgene integration site. Upon exposure to ROS-generating agents, 100 μM ROS-generating reagent methyl viologen and 0.5 M H₂O₂, higher levels of enzymatic activities of SOD and APX were detected in transgenic plants than the wild type. Consequently, the oxidative stress parameters, such as lipid peroxidation, chlorophyll degradation and H₂O₂ synthesis, were lower in the transgenic lines than the wild type. Tolerance to chilling stress at 4°C for 2 d was greater in transgenic cassava, as observed by the higher levels of SOD, catalase, and ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes (e.g., APX, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reducatase and glutathione reductase) and lower levels of malondialdehyde content. These results suggest that the expression of native cytosolic SOD and APX simultaneously activated the antioxidative defense mechanisms via cyclic ROS scavenging, thereby improving its tolerance to cold stress.

  6. Increased expression of native cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase improves tolerance to oxidative and chilling stresses in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a tropical root crop, and is therefore, extremely sensitive to low temperature; its antioxidative response is pivotal for its survival under stress. Timely turnover of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells generated by chilling-induced oxidative damages, and scavenging can be achieved by non-enzymatic and enzymatic reactions in order to maintain ROS homeostasis. Results Transgenic cassava plants that co-express cytosolic superoxide dismutase (SOD), MeCu/ZnSOD, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), MeAPX2, were produced and tested for tolerance against oxidative and chilling stresses. The up-regulation of MeCu/ZnSOD and MeAPX2 expression was confirmed by the quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and enzymatic activity analyses in the leaves of transgenic cassava plant lines with a single-transgene integration site. Upon exposure to ROS-generating agents, 100 μM ROS-generating reagent methyl viologen and 0.5 M H2O2, higher levels of enzymatic activities of SOD and APX were detected in transgenic plants than the wild type. Consequently, the oxidative stress parameters, such as lipid peroxidation, chlorophyll degradation and H2O2 synthesis, were lower in the transgenic lines than the wild type. Tolerance to chilling stress at 4°C for 2 d was greater in transgenic cassava, as observed by the higher levels of SOD, catalase, and ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes (e.g., APX, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reducatase and glutathione reductase) and lower levels of malondialdehyde content. Conclusions These results suggest that the expression of native cytosolic SOD and APX simultaneously activated the antioxidative defense mechanisms via cyclic ROS scavenging, thereby improving its tolerance to cold stress. PMID:25091029

  7. Expression of inactive glutathione peroxidase 4 leads to embryonic lethality, and inactivation of the Alox15 gene does not rescue such knock-in mice.

    PubMed

    Brütsch, Simone Hanna; Wang, Chi Chiu; Li, Lu; Stender, Hannelore; Neziroglu, Nilgün; Richter, Constanze; Kuhn, Hartmut; Borchert, Astrid

    2015-02-01

    Glutathione peroxidases (Gpx) and lipoxygenases (Alox) are functional counterplayers in the metabolism of hydroperoxy lipids that regulate cellular redox homeostasis. Gpx4 is a moonlighting protein that has been implicated not only as an enzyme in anti-oxidative defense, gene expression regulation, and programmed cell death, but also as a structural protein in spermatogenesis. Homozygous Gpx4 knock-out mice are not viable, but molecular reasons for intrauterine lethality are not completely understood. This study was aimed at investigating whether the lack of catalytic activity or the impaired function as structural protein is the dominant reason for embryonic lethality. We further explored whether the pro-oxidative enzyme mouse 12/15 lipoxygenase (Alox15) plays a major role in embryonic lethality of Gpx4-deficient mice. To achieve these goals, we first created knock-in mice, which express a catalytically inactive Gpx4 mutant (Sec46Ala). As homozygous Gpx4-knock-out mice Sec46Ala-Gpx4(+/+) knock-in animals are not viable but undergo intrauterine resorption between embryonic day 6 and 7 (E6-7). In contrast, heterozygous knock-in mice (Sec46Ala-Gpx4(-/+)) are viable, fertile and do not show major phenotypic alterations. Interestingly, homozygous Alox15 deficiency did not rescue the U46A-Gpx4(+/+) mice from embryonic lethality. In fact, when heterozygous U46A-Gpx4(-/+) mice were stepwise crossed into an Alox15-deficent background, no viable U46A-Gpx4(+/+)+Alox15(-/-) individuals were obtained. However, we were able to identify U46A-Gpx4(+/+)+Alox15(-/-) embryos in the state of resorption around E7. These data suggest that the lack of catalytic activity is the major reason for the embryonic lethality of Gpx4(-/-) mice and that systemic inactivation of the Alox15 gene does not rescue homozygous knock-in mice expressing catalytically silent Gpx4.

  8. Development of a fed-batch process for a recombinant Pichia pastoris Δoch1 strain expressing a plant peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Gmeiner, Christoph; Saadati, Amirhossein; Maresch, Daniel; Krasteva, Stanimira; Frank, Manuela; Altmann, Friedrich; Herwig, Christoph; Spadiut, Oliver

    2015-01-08

    Pichia pastoris is a prominent host for recombinant protein production, amongst other things due to its capability of glycosylation. However, N-linked glycans on recombinant proteins get hypermannosylated, causing problems in subsequent unit operations and medical applications. Hypermannosylation is triggered by an α-1,6-mannosyltransferase called OCH1. In a recent study, we knocked out OCH1 in a recombinant P. pastoris CBS7435 Mut(S) strain (Δoch1) expressing the biopharmaceutically relevant enzyme horseradish peroxidase. We characterized the strain in the controlled environment of a bioreactor in dynamic batch cultivations and identified the strain to be physiologically impaired. We faced cell cluster formation, cell lysis and uncontrollable foam formation.In the present study, we investigated the effects of the 3 process parameters temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen concentration on 1) cell physiology, 2) cell morphology, 3) cell lysis, 4) productivity and 5) product purity of the recombinant Δoch1 strain in a multivariate manner. Cultivation at 30°C resulted in low specific methanol uptake during adaptation and the risk of methanol accumulation during cultivation. Cell cluster formation was a function of the C-source rather than process parameters and went along with cell lysis. In terms of productivity and product purity a temperature of 20°C was highly beneficial. In summary, we determined cultivation conditions for a recombinant P. pastoris Δoch1 strain allowing high productivity and product purity.

  9. Bacterial extracellular lignin peroxidase

    DOEpatents

    Crawford, Donald L.; Ramachandra, Muralidhara

    1993-01-01

    A newly discovered lignin peroxidase enzyme is provided. The enzyme is obtained from a bacterial source and is capable of degrading the lignin portion of lignocellulose in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is extracellular, oxidative, inducible by lignin, larch wood xylan, or related substrates and capable of attacking certain lignin substructure chemical bonds that are not degradable by fungal lignin peroxidases.

  10. Glutathione Peroxidase 5 Is Expressed by the Entire Pig Male Genital Tract and Once in the Seminal Plasma Contributes to Sperm Survival and In Vivo Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Barranco, Isabel; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Perez-Patiño, Cristina; Vicente-Carrillo, Alejandro; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Ceron, Jose J.; Martinez, Emilio A.; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Roca, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione peroxidase-5 (GPX5) is an H2O2-scavenging enzyme identified in boar seminal plasma (SP). This study attempted to clarify its origin and role on sperm survival and fertility after artificial insemination (AI). GPX5 was expressed (Western blot and immunocytochemistry using a rabbit primary polyclonal antibody) in testes, epididymis and accessory sex glands (6 boars). SP-GPX5 concentration differed among boars (11 boars, P < 0.001), among ejaculates within boar (44 ejaculates, P < 0.001) and among portions within ejaculate (15 ejaculates). The first 10 mL of the sperm rich fraction (SRF, sperm-peak portion) had a significantly lower concentration (8.87 ± 0.78 ng/mL) than the rest of the SRF and the post-SRF (11.66 ± 0.79 and 12.37 ± 0.79 ng/mL, respectively, P < 0.005). Sperm motility of liquid-stored semen AI-doses (n = 44, at 15–17°C during 72h) declined faster in AI-doses with low concentrations of SP-GPX5 compared to those with high-levels. Boars (n = 11) with high SP-GPX5 showed higher farrowing rates and litter sizes than those with low SP-GPX5 (a total of 5,275 inseminated sows). In sum, GPX5 is widely expressed in the boar genital tract and its variable presence in SP shows a positive relationship with sperm quality and fertility outcomes of liquid-stored semen AI-doses. PMID:27627110

  11. Comparison of glutathione peroxidase 1 and iodothyronine deiodinase 1 mRNA expression in murine liver after feeding selenite or selenized yeast.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shunyi; Huang, Kehe; Gao, Jianzhong; Huang, Da; Cai, Tanxi; Pan, Cuiling

    2009-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to compare the effect of different selenium sources on the expression of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) and iodothyronine deiodinase 1 (Dio1) mRNA in mice by quantitative real-time PCR. A total of 60 male Kunming mice at average body weight of 20 g were allotted to three groups in a randomized complete block design, namely two treatments and one control. Mice in Group 1 were fed a basal diet as control, while mice in Groups 2 and 3 were fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.1mg/kg selenium as sodium selenite or selenized yeast, respectively. Whole feeding experiment lasted for 30 d. At the end of the feeding trial, liver mRNA levels of GPx1 and Dio1 were determined by quantitative real-time PCR, as well as growth performance, body composition, blood and GPx activity were determined. The results showed that no significant differences in overall growth performance and body composition, including body weight, body length, heart weight, kidney weight and liver weight, were found between the experimental groups (P>0.05). Blood GPx activity increased in all of the selenium supplemented groups compared with control group (P<0.01). However, blood GPx activity in selenized yeast group was higher than that in sodium selenite group (P<0.05). Liver mRNA levels of GPx1 and Dio1 also increased in the two selenium supplemented groups compared with the control group (P<0.05), while there was no significant difference between the sodium selenite and selenized yeast groups (P>0.05). In conclusion, selenium increased the mRNA expression of GPx1 and Dio1 genes in murine liver, and there was no significant difference between the organic or inorganic form of selenium used.

  12. The synergistic effect of beta-boswellic acid and Nurr1 overexpression on dopaminergic programming of antioxidant glutathione peroxidase-1-expressing murine embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Abasi, M; Massumi, M; Riazi, G; Amini, H

    2012-10-11

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder in which the nigro-striatal dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons have been selectively lost. Due to side effects of levodopa, a dopamine precursor drug, recently cell replacement therapy for PD has been considered. Lack of sufficient amounts of, embryos and ethical problems regarding the use of dopamine-rich embryonic neural cells have limited the application of these cells for PD cell therapy. Therefore, many investigators have focused on using the pluripotent stem cells to generate DAergic neurons. This study is aimed first to establish a mouse embryonic stem (mES) cell line that can stably co-express Nurr1 (Nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 2) transcription factor in order to efficiently generate DAergic neurons, and glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX-1) to protect the differentiated DAergic-like cells against oxidative stress. In addition to genetic engineering of ES cells, the effect of Beta-boswellic acid (BBA) on DAergic differentiation course of mES cells was sought in the present study. To that end, the feeder-independent CGR8 mouse embryonic stem cells were transduced by Nurr1- and GPX-1-harboring Lentiviruses and the generated Nurr1/GPX-1-expresssing ES clones were characterized and verified. Gene expression analyses demonstrated that BBA treatment and overexpression of Nurr1 has a synergistic effect on derivation of DAergic neurons from Nurr1/GPX-1-expressing ES cells. The differentiated cells could exclusively synthesize and secrete dopamine in response to stimuli. Overexpression of GPX-1 in genetically engineered Nurr1/GPX-1-ES cells increased the viability of these cells during their differentiation into CNS stem cells. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that Nurr1-overexpressing feeder-independent ES cells like the feeder-dependent ES cells, can be efficiently programmed into functional DAergic neurons and additional treatment of cells by BBA can even augment this efficiency. GPX-1

  13. Regulation of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis Protein Expression by Host T Cell Dependent Responses: Differential Expression of Oligopeptidase B, Tryparedoxin Peroxidase and HSP70 Isoforms in Amastigotes Isolated from BALB/c and BALB/c Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Priscila Camillo; Velasquez, Leonardo Garcia; Lepique, Ana Paula; de Rezende, Eloiza; Bonatto, José Matheus Camargo; Barcinski, Marcello Andre; Cunha-Neto, Edecio; Stolf, Beatriz Simonsen

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an important disease that affects 12 million people in 88 countries, with 2 million new cases every year. Leishmania amazonensis is an important agent in Brazil, leading to clinical forms varying from localized (LCL) to diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL). One interesting issue rarely analyzed is how host immune response affects Leishmania phenotype and virulence. Aiming to study the effect of host immune system on Leishmania proteins we compared proteomes of amastigotes isolated from BALB/c and BALB/c nude mice. The athymic nude mice may resemble patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, considered T-cell hyposensitive or anergic to Leishmania´s antigens. This work is the first to compare modifications in amastigotes’ proteomes driven by host immune response. Among the 44 differentially expressed spots, there were proteins related to oxidative/nitrosative stress and proteases. Some correspond to known Leishmania virulence factors such as OPB and tryparedoxin peroxidase. Specific isoforms of these two proteins were increased in parasites from nude mice, suggesting that T cells probably restrain their posttranslational modifications in BALB/c mice. On the other hand, an isoform of HSP70 was increased in amastigotes from BALB/c mice. We believe our study may allow identification of potential virulence factors and ways of regulating their expression. PMID:25692783

  14. Novel Applications of Peroxidase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rob, Abdul; Ball, Andrew S.; Tuncer, Munir; Wilson, Michael T.

    1997-02-01

    The article entitled "Novel Biocatalysts Will Work Even Better for Industry" published recently in this Journal (1) was informative and interesting. However it touched only briefly on the application of peroxidase as catalyst. Here, we would like to mention in more detail the novel applications of peroxidase in agricultural, paper pulp, water treatment, pharmaceutical, and medical situations. Firstly, the peroxidase isolated from Phanerochaete chyrosporium has been shown to detoxify herbicides such as atrazine to less toxic compounds and would certainly find potential application in agriculture (2). Secondly, the peroxidase produced by Streptomyces thermoviolaceus may find application in the paper pulp industry as a delignifying agent (3). Thirdly, it has been shown that extracellular peroxidase produced by Streptomyces avermitilis can remove the intense color from paper-mill effluent obtained after semichemical alkaline pulping of wheat straw (4), and thus this enzyme might find application as a catalyst in water treatment plants. Fourthly, the heme-containing horseradish peroxidase enzyme has been exploited in several diagnostic applications in pharmaceutics and medicine, such as the detection of human immunodeficiency virus and cystic fibrosis (5-10). Finally, recent work from our laboratory has suggested that thermophilic nonheme peroxidase produced by Thermomonospora fusca BD25 may find medical use in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction (11, 12). Literature Cited 1. Wiseman, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 55-58. 2. Mougin, C. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1994, 60, 705-708. 3. McCarthy A. J.; Peace, W.; Broda, P. Appl. Microbiol. Technol. 1985, 23, 238-244. 4. Hernandez, M; Rodriguez J; Soliveri, J; Copa, J. L; Perez, M. I; Arias, M. E. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1994, 60, 3909-3913. 5. Hopfer, S. M.; Aslanzadeh, J. Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci. 1995, 25, 475-480. 6. Suzuki, K; Iman, M. J. Virol. Methods 1995, 55, 347-356. 7. Nielsen, K. J. Immunoassay 1995, 16, 183-197. 8

  15. Lignin-degrading Peroxidases from Genome of Selective Ligninolytic Fungus Ceriporiopsis subverispora

    Treesearch

    Elena Fernandez-Fueyo; Francisco J. Ruiz-Duenas; Yuta Miki; Marta Jesus Martinez; Kenneth E. Hammel; Angel T. Martinez

    2012-01-01

    Background: The first genome of a selective lignin degrader is available. Results: Its screening shows 26 peroxidase genes, and 5 genes were heterologously expressed and the catalytic properties investigated. Conclusion: Two new peroxidases oxidize simple and dimeric lignin models and efficiently depolymerize lignin. Significance: Although lignin peroxidase and...

  16. Molecular Phylogeny of Heme Peroxidases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zámocký, Marcel; Obinger, Christian

    All currently available gene sequences of heme peroxidases can be phylogenetically divided in two superfamilies and three families. In this chapter, the phylogenetics and genomic distribution of each group are presented. Within the peroxidase-cyclooxygenase superfamily, the main evolutionary direction developed peroxidatic heme proteins involved in the innate immune defense system and in biosynthesis of (iodinated) hormones. The peroxidase-catalase superfamily is widely spread mainly among bacteria, fungi, and plants, and particularly in Class I led to the evolution of bifunctional catalase-peroxidases. Its numerous fungal representatives of Class II are involved in carbon recycling via lignin degradation, whereas Class III secretory peroxidases from algae and plants are included in various forms of secondary metabolism. The family of di-heme peroxidases are predominantly bacteria-inducible enzymes; however, a few corresponding genes were also detected in archaeal genomes. Four subfamilies of dyp-type peroxidases capable of degradation of various xenobiotics are abundant mainly among bacteria and fungi. Heme-haloperoxidase genes are widely spread among sac and club fungi, but corresponding genes were recently found also among oomycetes. All described families herein represent heme peroxidases of broad diversity in structure and function. Our accumulating knowledge about the evolution of various enzymatic functions and physiological roles can be exploited in future directed evolution approaches for engineering peroxidase genes de novo for various demands.

  17. Peroxidase gene discovery from the horseradish transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Näätsaari, Laura; Krainer, Florian W; Schubert, Michael; Glieder, Anton; Thallinger, Gerhard G

    2014-03-24

    Horseradish peroxidases (HRPs) from Armoracia rusticana have long been utilized as reporters in various diagnostic assays and histochemical stainings. Regardless of their increasing importance in the field of life sciences and suggested uses in medical applications, chemical synthesis and other industrial applications, the HRP isoenzymes, their substrate specificities and enzymatic properties are poorly characterized. Due to lacking sequence information of natural isoenzymes and the low levels of HRP expression in heterologous hosts, commercially available HRP is still extracted as a mixture of isoenzymes from the roots of A. rusticana. In this study, a normalized, size-selected A. rusticana transcriptome library was sequenced using 454 Titanium technology. The resulting reads were assembled into 14871 isotigs with an average length of 1133 bp. Sequence databases, ORF finding and ORF characterization were utilized to identify peroxidase genes from the 14871 isotigs generated by de novo assembly. The sequences were manually reviewed and verified with Sanger sequencing of PCR amplified genomic fragments, resulting in the discovery of 28 secretory peroxidases, 23 of them previously unknown. A total of 22 isoenzymes including allelic variants were successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris and showed peroxidase activity with at least one of the substrates tested, thus enabling their development into commercial pure isoenzymes. This study demonstrates that transcriptome sequencing combined with sequence motif search is a powerful concept for the discovery and quick supply of new enzymes and isoenzymes from any plant or other eukaryotic organisms. Identification and manual verification of the sequences of 28 HRP isoenzymes do not only contribute a set of peroxidases for industrial, biological and biomedical applications, but also provide valuable information on the reliability of the approach in identifying and characterizing a large group of isoenzymes.

  18. Peroxidase gene discovery from the horseradish transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Horseradish peroxidases (HRPs) from Armoracia rusticana have long been utilized as reporters in various diagnostic assays and histochemical stainings. Regardless of their increasing importance in the field of life sciences and suggested uses in medical applications, chemical synthesis and other industrial applications, the HRP isoenzymes, their substrate specificities and enzymatic properties are poorly characterized. Due to lacking sequence information of natural isoenzymes and the low levels of HRP expression in heterologous hosts, commercially available HRP is still extracted as a mixture of isoenzymes from the roots of A. rusticana. Results In this study, a normalized, size-selected A. rusticana transcriptome library was sequenced using 454 Titanium technology. The resulting reads were assembled into 14871 isotigs with an average length of 1133 bp. Sequence databases, ORF finding and ORF characterization were utilized to identify peroxidase genes from the 14871 isotigs generated by de novo assembly. The sequences were manually reviewed and verified with Sanger sequencing of PCR amplified genomic fragments, resulting in the discovery of 28 secretory peroxidases, 23 of them previously unknown. A total of 22 isoenzymes including allelic variants were successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris and showed peroxidase activity with at least one of the substrates tested, thus enabling their development into commercial pure isoenzymes. Conclusions This study demonstrates that transcriptome sequencing combined with sequence motif search is a powerful concept for the discovery and quick supply of new enzymes and isoenzymes from any plant or other eukaryotic organisms. Identification and manual verification of the sequences of 28 HRP isoenzymes do not only contribute a set of peroxidases for industrial, biological and biomedical applications, but also provide valuable information on the reliability of the approach in identifying and characterizing a large group

  19. Minimal influence of G-protein null mutations on ozone-induced changes in gene expression, foliar injury, gas exchange and peroxidase activity in Arabidopsis thaliana L

    PubMed Central

    Booker, Fitzgerald; Burkey, Kent; Morgan, Patrick; Fiscus, Edwin; Jones, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Ozone (O3) uptake by plants leads to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the intercellular space of leaves and induces signalling processes reported to involve the membrane-bound heterotrimeric G-protein complex. Therefore, potential G-protein-mediated response mechanisms to O3 were compared between Arabidopsis thaliana L. lines with null mutations in the α- and β-subunits (gpa1-4, agb1-2 and gpa1-4/agb1-2) and Col-0 wild-type plants. Plants were treated with a range of O3 concentrations (5, 125, 175 and 300 nL L−1) for 1 and 2 d in controlled environment chambers. Transcript levels of GPA1, AGB1 and RGS1 transiently increased in Col-0 exposed to 125 nL L−1 O3 compared with the 5 nL L−1 control treatment. However, silencing of α and β G-protein genes resulted in little alteration of many processes associated with O3 injury, including the induction of ROS-signalling genes, increased leaf tissue ion leakage, decreased net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, and increased peroxidase activity, especially in the leaf apoplast. These results indicated that many responses to O3 stress at physiological levels were not detectably influenced by α and β G-proteins. PMID:21988569

  20. Peroxidase Release Induced by Ozone in Sedum album Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Federico J.; Penel, Claude; Greppin, Hubert

    1984-01-01

    The effect of ozone was studied on the peroxidase activity from various compartments of Sedum album leaves (epidermis, intercellular fluid, residual cell material, and total cell material). The greatest increase following a 2-hour ozone exposure (0.4 microliters O3 per liter) was observed in extracellular peroxidases. Most of the main bands of peroxidase activity separated by isoelectric focusing exhibited an increase upon exposure to ozone. Incubation experiments with isolated peeled or unpeeled leaves showed that leaves from ozone-treated plants release much more peroxidases in the medium than untreated leaves. The withdrawal of Ca2+ ions reduced the level of extracellular peroxidase activity either in whole plants or in incubation experiments. This reduction and the activation obtained after addition of Ca2+ resulted from a direct requirement of Ca2+ by the enzyme and from an effect of Ca2+ on peroxidase secretion. The ionophore A23187 promoted an increase of extracellular peroxidase activity only in untreated plants. The release of peroxidases by untreated and ozone-treated leaves is considerably lowered by metabolic inhibitors (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and sodium azide) and by puromycin. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16663520

  1. Determination Hypoiodous Acid (HIO) By Peroxidase System Using Peroxidase Enzyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Baarri, A. N.; Legowo, A. M.; Widayat; Abduh, S. B. M.; Hadipernata, M.; Wisnubroto; Ardianti, D. K.; Susanto, M. N.; Yusuf, M.; Demasta, E. K.

    2018-02-01

    It has been understood that peroxidase enzyme including peroxidase serves as catalyzer to enzymatic reaction among hydrogen peroxide and halides, therefore this research was done for generating hypoiodous acid (HIO) from peroxidase system using peroxidase enzyme. Hydrogen peroxide, potassium iodide, and peroxidase enzyme were used to produce HIO. Determination the amount of formed HIO was done using 2,2'-azino-bis(3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) or ABTS as substrate through the colorimetric measurement of hydrogen peroxide residue during reaction process using at 412 nm. The result indicated that residual hydrogen peroxide showed the minimum concentration after 60 minutes reaction time. Because the reaction started at the beginning time of mixing, hydrogen peroxide was unable to be eliminated totally to produce HIO. The reaction of peroxidase system was able to determine the beginning of mixing process but the reaction process could not eliminate the initial concentration of hydrogen peroxide indicating the maximum amount of production of HIO could be determined. In conclusion, the less of H2O2, higher HIO obtained and peroxidase enzymes can accelerate the formation of HIO.

  2. DNA Methyl Transferase 1 Reduces Expression of SRD5A2 in the Aging Adult Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Rongbin; Wang, Zongwei; Bechis, Seth K.; Otsetov, Alexander G.; Hua, Shengyu; Wu, Shulin; Wu, Chin-Lee; Tabatabaei, Shahin; Olumi, Aria F.

    2016-01-01

    5-α Reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) is a critical enzyme for prostatic development and growth. Inhibition of SRD5A2 by finasteride is used commonly for the management of urinary obstruction caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia. Contrary to common belief, we have found that expression of SRD5A2 is variable and absent in one third of benign adult prostates. In human samples, absent SRD5A2 expression is associated with hypermethylation of the SRD5A2 promoter, and in vitro SRD5A2 promoter activity is suppressed by methylation. We show that methylation of SRD5A2 is regulated by DNA methyltransferase 1, and inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor α, NF-κB, and IL-6 regulate DNA methyltransferase 1 expression and thereby affect SRD5A2 promoter methylation and gene expression. Furthermore, we show that increasing age in mice and humans is associated with increased methylation of the SRD5A2 promoter and concomitantly decreased protein expression. Artificial induction of inflammation in prostate primary epithelial cells leads to hypermethylation of the SRD5A2 promoter and silencing of SRD5A2, whereas inhibition with tumor necrosis factor α inhibitor reactivates SRD5A2 expression. Therefore, expression of SRD5A2 is not static and ubiquitous in benign adult prostate tissues. Methylation and expression of SRD5A2 may be used as a gene signature to tailor therapies for more effective treatment of prostatic diseases. PMID:25700986

  3. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding a novel extracellular peroxidase from Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Collins, P J; O'Brien, M M; Dobson, A D

    1999-03-01

    The white rot basidiomycete Trametes versicolor secretes a large number of peroxidases which are believed to be involved in the degradation of polymeric lignin. These peroxidases have been classified previously as lignin peroxidases or manganese peroxidases (MnP). We have isolated a novel extracellular peroxidase-encoding cDNA sequence from T. versicolor CU1, the transcript levels of which are repressed by low concentrations of Mn2+ and induced by nitrogen and carbon but not induced in response to a range of stresses which have been reported to induce MnP expression.

  4. Cloning and Characterization of a cDNA Encoding a Novel Extracellular Peroxidase from Trametes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Patrick J.; O’Brien, Margaret M.; Dobson, Alan D. W.

    1999-01-01

    The white rot basidiomycete Trametes versicolor secretes a large number of peroxidases which are believed to be involved in the degradation of polymeric lignin. These peroxidases have been classified previously as lignin peroxidases or manganese peroxidases (MnP). We have isolated a novel extracellular peroxidase-encoding cDNA sequence from T. versicolor CU1, the transcript levels of which are repressed by low concentrations of Mn2+ and induced by nitrogen and carbon but not induced in response to a range of stresses which have been reported to induce MnP expression. PMID:10049906

  5. Regulation of LH/FSH expression by secretoglobin 3A2 in the mouse pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Miyano, Yuki; Tahara, Shigeyuki; Sakata, Ichiro; Sakai, Takafumi; Abe, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Shioko; Kurotani, Reiko

    2014-04-01

    Secretoglobin (SCGB) 3A2 was originally identified as a downstream target for the homeodomain transcription factor NKX2-1 in the lung. NKX2-1 plays a role in the genesis and expression of genes in the thyroid, lung and ventral forebrain; Nkx2-1-null mice have no thyroid and pituitary and severely hypoplastic lungs and hypothalamus. To demonstrate whether SCGB3A2 plays any role in pituitary hormone production, NKX2-1 and SCGB3A2 expression in the mouse pituitary gland was examined by immunohistochemical analysis and RT-PCR. NKX2-1 was localized in the posterior pituitary lobe, whereas SCGB3A2 was observed in both anterior and posterior lobes as shown by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Expression of CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs), which regulate mouse Scgb3a2 transcription, was also examined by RT-PCR. C/EBPβ, γ, δ and ζ were expressed in the adult mouse pituitary gland. SCGB3A2 was expressed in the anterior and posterior lobes from postnatal days 1 and 5, respectively and the areas where SCGB3A2 expression was found coincided with the area where FSH-secreting cells were found. Double-staining for SCGB3A2 and pituitary hormones revealed that SCGB3A2 was mainly localized in gonadotrophs in 49 % of FSH-secreting cells and 47 % of LH-secreting cells. In addition, SCGB3A2 dramatically inhibited LH and FSH mRNA expression in rat pituitary primary cell cultures. These results suggest that SCGB3A2 regulates FSH/LH production in the anterior pituitary lobe and that transcription factors other than NKX2-1 may regulate SCGB3A2 expression.

  6. Lignin-degrading Peroxidases from Genome of Selective Ligninolytic Fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora*

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Fueyo, Elena; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J.; Miki, Yuta; Martínez, María Jesús; Hammel, Kenneth E.; Martínez, Angel T.

    2012-01-01

    The white-rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora delignifies lignocellulose with high selectivity, but until now it has appeared to lack the specialized peroxidases, termed lignin peroxidases (LiPs) and versatile peroxidases (VPs), that are generally thought important for ligninolysis. We screened the recently sequenced C. subvermispora genome for genes that encode peroxidases with a potential ligninolytic role. A total of 26 peroxidase genes was apparent after a structural-functional classification based on homology modeling and a search for diagnostic catalytic amino acid residues. In addition to revealing the presence of nine heme-thiolate peroxidase superfamily members and the unexpected absence of the dye-decolorizing peroxidase superfamily, the search showed that the C. subvermispora genome encodes 16 class II enzymes in the plant-fungal-bacterial peroxidase superfamily, where LiPs and VPs are classified. The 16 encoded enzymes include 13 putative manganese peroxidases and one generic peroxidase but most notably two peroxidases containing the catalytic tryptophan characteristic of LiPs and VPs. We expressed these two enzymes in Escherichia coli and determined their substrate specificities on typical LiP/VP substrates, including nonphenolic lignin model monomers and dimers, as well as synthetic lignin. The results show that the two newly discovered C. subvermispora peroxidases are functionally competent LiPs and also suggest that they are phylogenetically and catalytically intermediate between classical LiPs and VPs. These results offer new insight into selective lignin degradation by C. subvermispora. PMID:22437835

  7. Vaccination with EphA2-derived T cell-epitopes promotes immunity against both EphA2-expressing and EphA2-negative tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, Manabu; Kuwashima, Naruo; Tatsumi, Tomohide; Dusak, Jill E; Nishimura, Fumihiko; Reilly, Karlyne M; Storkus, Walter J; Okada, Hideho

    2004-01-01

    Background A novel tyrosine kinase receptor EphA2 is expressed at high levels in advanced and metastatic cancers. We examined whether vaccinations with synthetic mouse EphA2 (mEphA2)-derived peptides that serve as T cell epitopes could induce protective and therapeutic anti-tumor immunity. Methods C57BL/6 mice received subcutaneous (s.c.) vaccinations with bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with synthetic peptides recognized by CD8+ (mEphA2671–679, mEphA2682–689) and CD4+ (mEphA230–44) T cells. Splenocytes (SPCs) were harvested from primed mice to assess the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses against syngeneic glioma, sarcoma and melanoma cell lines. The ability of these vaccines to prevent or treat tumor (s.c. injected MCA205 sarcoma or B16 melanoma; i.v. injected B16-BL6) establishment/progression was then assessed. Results Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with mEphA2-derived peptides induced specific CTL responses in SPCs. Vaccination with mEPhA2 peptides, but not control ovalbumin (OVA) peptides, prevented the establishment or prevented the growth of EphA2+ or EphA2-negative syngeneic tumors in both s.c. and lung metastasis models. Conclusions These data indicate that mEphA2 can serve as an attractive target against which to direct anti-tumor immunity. The ability of mEphA2 vaccines to impact EphA2-negative tumors such as the B16 melanoma may suggest that such beneficial immunity may be directed against alternative EphA2+ target cells, such as the tumor-associated vascular endothelial cells. PMID:15563374

  8. Detoxification and antioxidant effects of garlic and curcumin in Oreochromis niloticus injected with aflatoxin B₁ with reference to gene expression of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) by RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    El-Barbary, Manal I

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effects of both garlic and curcumin through evaluating their therapeutic properties as antioxidants on liver and kidney functions, hepatic antioxidants and GPx gene expression against aflatoxicosis of O. niloticus. In total, 180 of tilapia were divided into ten groups; T1 represented the negative control fed on a basal diet, and T2 was injected with a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of AFB1 (6 mg/kg b.w.). Fish in T3-T6 were fed on a basal diet supplemented with both garlic (T3 and T4) and curcumin (T5 and T6) at the two concentrations of 10 and 20 g/kg diet, respectively. Fish in T7-T10 groups were injected with AFB1 and fed on the garlic (T7 and T8) and curcumin (T9 and T10) dietaries. The results showed that AFB1 has significant potency for increasing the activity of plasma AST, ALT, creatinine and uric acid values, and hepatic MDA as well as for reducing the concentrations of plasma TP, AL, GL and hepatic activity of TAC, while AFB1 led to up-regulated GPx gene expression when compared to the control (T1). These harmful effects of AFB1 were alleviated due to the garlic and curcumin dietaries in some studied parameters. Garlic reflected the highest induction of gene expression (T7); however, curcumin showed significant down-regulated (T9). These results concluded that the effects of garlic were better than curcumin at the two concentrations and the low concentration of them is more beneficial than the high concentration when it used against AFB1 in O. niloticus.

  9. From sequence analysis of three novel ascorbate peroxidases from Arabidopsis thaliana to structure, function and evolution of seven types of ascorbate peroxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Jespersen, H M; Kjaersgård, I V; Ostergaard, L; Welinder, K G

    1997-01-01

    Ascorbate peroxidases are haem proteins that efficiently scavenge H2O2 in the cytosol and chloroplasts of plants. Database analyses retrieved 52 expressed sequence tags coding for Arabidopsis thaliana ascorbate peroxidases. Complete sequencing of non-redundant clones revealed three novel types in addition to the two cytosol types described previously in Arabidopsis. Analysis of sequence data available for all plant ascorbate peroxidases resulted in the following classification: two types of cytosol soluble ascorbate peroxidase designated cs1 and cs2; three types of cytosol membrane-bound ascorbate peroxidase, namely cm1, bound to microbodies via a C-terminal membrane-spanning segment, and cm2 and cm3, both of unknown location; two types of chloroplast ascorbate peroxidase with N-terminal transit sequences, the stromal ascorbate peroxidase (chs), and the thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase showing a C-terminal transmembrane segment and designated cht. Further comparison of the patterns of conserved residues and the crystal structure of pea ascorbate peroxidase showed that active site residues are conserved, and three peptide segments implicated in interaction with reducing substrate are similar, excepting cm2 and cm3 types. A change of Phe-175 in cytosol types to Trp-175 in chloroplast types might explain the greater ascorbate specificity of chloroplast compared with cytosol ascorbate peroxidases. Residues involved in homodimeric subunit interaction are conserved only in cs1, cs2 and cm1 types. The proximal cation (K+)-binding site observed in pea ascorbate peroxidase seems to be conserved. In addition, cm1, cm2, cm3, chs and cht ascorbate peroxidases contain Asp-43, Asn-57 and Ser-59, indicative of a distal monovalent cation site. The data support the hypothesis that present-day peroxidases evolved by an early gene duplication event. PMID:9291097

  10. Expression of EphA2 and Ephrin A-1 in carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Shaji; Knapp, Deborah W; Cheng, Liang; Snyder, Paul W; Mittal, Suresh K; Bangari, Dinesh S; Kinch, Michael; Wu, Lan; Dhariwal, Jay; Mohammed, Sulma I

    2006-01-15

    The EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase is believed to play a role in tumor growth and metastasis. The clinical significance of the expression of EphA2 was observed in breast, prostate, colon, skin, cervical, ovarian, and lung cancers. The purpose of this work was to determine the expression of EphA2 and its ligand, Ephrin A-1, and E-cadherin in carcinoma of the urinary bladder, and determine EphA2 as a new target for therapy in bladder cancer. EphA2 mRNA and protein expression was investigated by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot, respectively, in bladder cancer cell lines. In addition, the expression of EphA2, Ephrin A-1, and E-cadherin in tissues from patients with different stages of urinary bladder cancer was determined by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the ability of Ephrin A-1 to inhibit growth of bladder cancer cells was also investigated using an adenoviral delivery system. Western blot analysis showed high EphA2 expression in TCCSUP, T24, and UMUC-3 cell lines. In tissues, the staining intensity of EphA2 was less in normal urothelium but increased greatly in advancing stages of urothelial carcinoma (P < 0.05). Similarly, the staining intensity of Ephrin A-1 was low in normal tissues and high in cancerous tissues, but it was similar across the various stages of urothelial carcinoma (T(a)-T(4)). E-cadherin immunoreactivity decreased in urothelial cancer. Association of EphA2 and Ephrin A-1 expression was found to be significant between T(a) stage and T(1)-T(2) (P < 0.04) and T(a) and T(3)-T(4) stages (P < 0.0001). Adenovirus delivery of Ephrin A-1 inhibited proliferation of TCCSUP cells. EphA2 may serve as a novel target for bladder cancer therapy.

  11. An aryl-alcohol oxidase of Pleurotus sapidus: heterologous expression, characterization, and application in a 2-enzyme system.

    PubMed

    Galperin, Ilya; Javeed, Aysha; Luig, Hanno; Lochnit, Günter; Rühl, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Aryl-alcohol oxidases (AAOs) are enzymes supporting the degradation of lignin by fungal derived class II peroxidases produced by white-rot fungi. AAOs are able to generate H2O2 as a by-product via oxidation of an aryl-alcohol into its correspondent aldehyde. In this study, an AAO was heterologously expressed in a basidiomycete host for the first time. The gene for an AAO of the white-rot fungus Pleurotus sapidus, a close relative to the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus, was cloned into an expression vector and put under control of the promotor of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene 2 (gpdII) of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus. The expression vector was transformed into the model basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea, and several positive transformants were obtained. The best producing transformants were grown in shake-flasks and in a stirred tank reactor reaching enzymatic activities of up to 125 U L(-1) using veratryl alcohol as a substrate. The purified AAO was biochemically characterized and compared to the previously described native and recombinant AAOs from other Pleurotus species. In addition, a two-enzyme system comprising a dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP) from Mycetinis scorodonius and the P. sapidus AAO was successfully employed to bleach the anthraquinone dye Reactive Blue 5.

  12. Expression of a Catalytically Inactive Mutant Form of Glutathione Peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) Confers a Dominant-negative Effect in Male Fertility*

    PubMed Central

    Ingold, Irina; Aichler, Michaela; Yefremova, Elena; Roveri, Antonella; Buday, Katalin; Doll, Sebastian; Tasdemir, Adrianne; Hoffard, Nils; Wurst, Wolfgang; Walch, Axel; Ursini, Fulvio; Friedmann Angeli, José Pedro; Conrad, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    The selenoenzyme Gpx4 is essential for early embryogenesis and cell viability for its unique function to prevent phospholipid oxidation. Recently, the cytosolic form of Gpx4 was identified as an upstream regulator of a novel form of non-apoptotic cell death, called ferroptosis, whereas the mitochondrial isoform of Gpx4 was previously shown to be crucial for male fertility. Here, we generated and analyzed mice with a targeted mutation of the active site selenocysteine of Gpx4 (Gpx4_U46S). Mice homozygous for Gpx4_U46S died at the same embryonic stage (E7.5) as Gpx4−/− embryos as expected. Surprisingly, male mice heterozygous for Gpx4_U46S presented subfertility. Subfertility was manifested in a reduced number of litters from heterozygous breeding and an impairment of spermatozoa to fertilize oocytes in vitro. Morphologically, sperm isolated from heterozygous Gpx4_U46S mice revealed many structural abnormalities particularly in the spermatozoa midpiece due to improper oxidation and polymerization of sperm capsular proteins and malformation of the mitochondrial capsule surrounding and stabilizing sperm mitochondria. These findings are reminiscent of sperm isolated from selenium-deprived rodents or from mice specifically lacking mitochondrial Gpx4. Due to a strongly facilitated incorporation of Ser in the polypeptide chain as compared with selenocysteine at the UGA codon, expression of the catalytically inactive Gpx4_U46S was found to be strongly increased. Because the stability of the mitochondrial capsule of mature spermatozoa depends on the moonlighting function of Gpx4 both as an enzyme oxidizing capsular protein thiols and as a structural protein, tightly controlled expression of functional Gpx4 emerges as a key for full male fertility. PMID:25922076

  13. Antifungal effects of peroxidase systems.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, R I

    1969-08-01

    In the presence of hydrogen peroxide and either potassium iodide, sodium chloride, or potassium bromide, purified human myeloperoxidase was rapidly lethal to several species of Candida. Its candidacidal activity was inhibited by cyanide, fluoride, and azide, and by heat inactivation of the enzyme. A hydrogen peroxidegenerating system consisting of d-amino acid oxidase, flavine-adenine dinucleotide, and d-alanine could replace hydrogen peroxide in the candidacidal system. Horseradish peroxidase and human eosinophil granules also exerted candidacidal activity in the presence of iodide and hydrogen peroxide; however, unlike myeloperoxidase or neutrophil granules, these peroxidase sources were inactive when chloride replaced iodide. Cells of Saccharomyces, Geotrichum, and Rhodotorula species, and spores of Aspergillus fumigatus and A. niger were also killed by the combination of myeloperoxidase, iodide, and hydrogen peroxide. Peroxidases, functionally linked to hydrogen peroxide-generating systems, could provide phagocytic cells with the ability to kill many fungal species.

  14. EphA2 Expression Regulates Inflammation and Fibroproliferative Remodeling in Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Finney, Alexandra C; Funk, Steven D; Green, Jonette M; Yurdagul, Arif; Rana, Mohammad Atif; Pistorius, Rebecca; Henry, Miriam; Yurochko, Andrew; Pattillo, Christopher B; Traylor, James G; Chen, Jin; Woolard, Matthew D; Kevil, Christopher G; Orr, A Wayne

    2017-08-08

    Atherosclerotic plaque formation results from chronic inflammation and fibroproliferative remodeling in the vascular wall. We previously demonstrated that both human and mouse atherosclerotic plaques show elevated expression of EphA2, a guidance molecule involved in cell-cell interactions and tumorigenesis. Here, we assessed the role of EphA2 in atherosclerosis by deleting EphA2 in a mouse model of atherosclerosis (Apoe - /- ) and by assessing EphA2 function in multiple vascular cell culture models. After 8 to 16 weeks on a Western diet, male and female mice were assessed for atherosclerotic burden in the large vessels, and plasma lipid levels were analyzed. Despite enhanced weight gain and plasma lipid levels compared with Apoe -/- controls, EphA2 -/- Apoe -/- knockout mice show diminished atherosclerotic plaque formation, characterized by reduced proinflammatory gene expression and plaque macrophage content. Although plaque macrophages express EphA2, EphA2 deletion does not affect macrophage phenotype, inflammatory responses, and lipid uptake, and bone marrow chimeras suggest that hematopoietic EphA2 deletion does not affect plaque formation. In contrast, endothelial EphA2 knockdown significantly reduces monocyte firm adhesion under flow. In addition, EphA2 -/- Apoe -/- mice show reduced progression to advanced atherosclerotic plaques with diminished smooth muscle and collagen content. Consistent with this phenotype, EphA2 shows enhanced expression after smooth muscle transition to a synthetic phenotype, and EphA2 depletion reduces smooth muscle proliferation, mitogenic signaling, and extracellular matrix deposition both in atherosclerotic plaques and in vascular smooth muscle cells in culture. Together, these data identify a novel role for EphA2 in atherosclerosis, regulating both plaque inflammation and progression to advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Cell culture studies suggest that endothelial EphA2 contributes to atherosclerotic inflammation by promoting

  15. [Expression of EphA2 in Metastatic and Non-Metastatic Primary Uveal Melanoma].

    PubMed

    Vukoja, V; Brandenbusch, T; Tura, A; Nassar, K; Rohrbach, D J M; Lüke, M; Grisanti, S; Lüke, J

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about how the expression of Ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EphA2) influences cell-cell adhesion, migration, angiogenesis, and the formation of vasculogenic mimicry (VM) channels in uveal melanomas or how this may be related to the rate of metastasis. Paraffin embedded sections of 50 histopathologically well characterised primary uveal melanomas (mean largest tumour diameter: 16.3 mm) were evaluated with respect to the expression of EphA2. Systemic metastasis was detected in 29 patients. The remaining 21 patients were followed for a mean of 10 years. Tumour angiogensis was analysed by endoglin expression (CD105), the activity of the mature vascular system (von Willebrand factor) and the presence of VM (CD31/PAS staining). All uveal melanomas expressed EphA2, with a mean of 95.93 % positive cells ± SD: 6.3 %. There was no significant association between EphA2 and the rate of metastases (p = 0.196), endoglin expression (p = 0.652), VM (p = 0.267) or with any other clinical or histopathological factors (p < 0.05). However, there was significant up-regulation of EphA2 in the nucleus of the metastatic uveal melanoma subgroup, while cytoplasmatic localisation in the subgroup was associated with better prognosis (p = 0.006). There were low levels of EphA2 expression in the specific retinal layers, the ciliary and corneal epithelium, and the choroidal and corneal endothelium. Nuclear expression of EphA2 in this series of large tumours was significantly associated with an increased rate of metastasis. On the other hand, cytoplasmic localisation was associated with a better prognosis. As there was no correlation between EphA2 expression and angiogenesis, the mature vasculature or VM, EphA2 appears to become less important in the advanced stages of the disease. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Hall Effect Thruster Interactions Data From the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 Satellites. Part 11; Express/T-160E Project Express A2 and A3 Data Agreement Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.; Dunning, John (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80deg E. and 11deg W., respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3-99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.

  17. Hall Effect Thruster Interactions Data From the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 Satellites. Part 12; Express/T-160 Project Express A2 and A3 Sensors Operations Procedures Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunning, John (Technical Monitor); Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.

    2003-01-01

    This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80 deg. E. and 11 deg. W respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3 99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.

  18. Glutathione peroxidase: fact and fiction.

    PubMed

    Flohé, L

    The present knowledge of glutathione (GSH) peroxidase is briefly reviewed: GSH peroxidase has a molecular weight of about 85,000, consists of four apparently-identical subunits and contains four g atom of selenium/mol. The enzyme-bound selenium can undergo a substrate-induced redox change and is obviously essential for activity. In accordance with the assumption that a selenol group is reversibly oxidized during catalysis, ping-pong kinetics are observed. Limiting maximum velocities and Michaelis constants, indicating the formation of an enzyme-substrate complex, are not detectable. The enzyme is highly specific for GSH but reacts with many hydroperoxides. It can be deduced from the kinetic analysis of GSH peroxidase that in physiological conditions removal of hydroperoxide is largely independent of fluctuations in the cellular concentration of GSH. However, the system will abruptly collapse if the rate of hydroperoxide formation exceeds that of regeneration of GSH. By these considerations, the pathophysiological manifestation of disorders in GSH metabolism and pentose-phosphate shunt may be explained. With regard to its low specificity for hydroperoxides, GSH peroxidase could be involved in various metabolic events such as H2O2 removal in compartments low in catalase, hydroperoxide-mediated mutagenesis, protection of unsaturated lipids in biomembranes, prostaglandin biosynthesis, and regulation of prostacyclin formation.

  19. Hall Effect Thruster Interactions Data From the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.

    2003-01-01

    This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80 E. and 11 W., respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3 99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.

  20. Light controls phospholipase A2α and β gene expression in Citrus sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Hui-Ling; Burns, Jacqueline K.

    2010-01-01

    The low-molecular weight secretory phospholipase A2α (CssPLA2α) and β (CsPLA2β) cloned in this study exhibited diurnal rhythmicity in leaf tissue of Citrus sinensis. Only CssPLA2α displayed distinct diurnal patterns in fruit tissues. CssPLA2α and CsPLA2β diurnal expression exhibited periods of approximately 24 h; CssPLA2α amplitude averaged 990-fold in the leaf blades from field-grown trees, whereas CsPLA2β amplitude averaged 6.4-fold. Diurnal oscillation of CssPLA2α and CsPLA2β gene expression in the growth chamber experiments was markedly dampened 24 h after transfer to continuous light or dark conditions. CssPLA2α and CsPLA2β expressions were redundantly mediated by blue, green, red and red/far-red light, but blue light was a major factor affecting CssPLA2α and CsPLA2β expression. Total and low molecular weight CsPLA2 enzyme activity closely followed diurnal changes in CssPLA2α transcript expression in leaf blades of seedlings treated with low intensity blue light (24 μmol m−2 s−1). Compared with CssPLA2α basal expression, CsPLA2β expression was at least 10-fold higher. Diurnal fluctuation and light regulation of PLA2 gene expression and enzyme activity in citrus leaf and fruit tissues suggests that accompanying diurnal changes in lipophilic second messengers participate in the regulation of physiological processes associated with phospholipase A2 action. PMID:20388744

  1. Systematic characterization of the peroxidase gene family provides new insights into fungal pathogenicity in Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Albely Afifa; Park, Sook-Young; Sadat, Md. Abu; Kim, Seongbeom; Choi, Jaeyoung; Jeon, Junhyun; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Fungal pathogens have evolved antioxidant defense against reactive oxygen species produced as a part of host innate immunity. Recent studies proposed peroxidases as components of antioxidant defense system. However, the role of fungal peroxidases during interaction with host plants has not been explored at the genomic level. Here, we systematically identified peroxidase genes and analyzed their impact on fungal pathogenesis in a model plant pathogenic fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. Phylogeny reconstruction placed 27 putative peroxidase genes into 15 clades. Expression profiles showed that majority of them are responsive to in planta condition and in vitro H2O2. Our analysis of individual deletion mutants for seven selected genes including MoPRX1 revealed that these genes contribute to fungal development and/or pathogenesis. We identified significant and positive correlations among sensitivity to H2O2, peroxidase activity and fungal pathogenicity. In-depth analysis of MoPRX1 demonstrated that it is a functional ortholog of thioredoxin peroxidase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is required for detoxification of the oxidative burst within host cells. Transcriptional profiling of other peroxidases in ΔMoprx1 suggested interwoven nature of the peroxidase-mediated antioxidant defense system. The results from this study provide insight into the infection strategy built on evolutionarily conserved peroxidases in the rice blast fungus. PMID:26134974

  2. Wound-Induced Deposition of Polyphenols in Transgenic Plants Overexpressing Peroxidase 1

    PubMed Central

    Lagrimini, L. Mark

    1991-01-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants transformed with a chimeric tobacco anionic peroxidase gene have previously been shown to synthesize high levels of peroxidase in all tissues throughout the plant. One of several distinguishable phenotypes of transformed plants is the rapid browning of pith tissue upon wounding. Pith tissue from plants expressing high levels of peroxidase browned within 24 hours of wounding, while tissue from control plants did not brown as late as 7 days after wounding. A correlation between peroxidase activity and wound-induced browning was observed, whereas no relationship between polyphenol oxidase activity and browning was found. The purified tobacco anionic peroxidase was subjected to kinetic analysis with substrates which resemble the precursors of lignin or polyphenolic acid. The purified enzyme was found to readily polymerize phenolic acids in the presence of H2O2 via a modified ping-pong mechanism. The percentage of lignin and lignin-related polymers in cell walls was nearly twofold greater in pith tissue isolated from peroxidase-overproducer plants compared to control plants. Lignin deposition in wounded pith tissue from control plants closely followed the induction of peroxidase activity. However, wound-induced lignification occurred 24 to 48 hours sooner in plants overexpressing the anionic peroxidase. This suggests that the availability of peroxidase rather than substrate may delay polyphenol deposition in wounded tissue. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:16668224

  3. Increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases mediates thromboxane A2-induced invasion in lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuling; Tai, Hsin-Hsiung

    2012-07-01

    Thromboxane A(2) receptor (TP) has been shown to play an important role in multiple aspects of cancer development including regulation of tumor growth, survival and metastasis. Here we report that TP mediates cancer cell invasion by inducing expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). TP agonist, I-BOP, significantly elevated MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9 and MMP-10 mRNA levels in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells overexpressing TPα or TPβ. The secretion of MMP-1 and MMP-9 in conditioned media was determined using Western blot analysis and zymographic assay. Signaling pathways of I-BOP-induced MMP-1 expression were examined in further detail as a model system for MMPs induction. Signaling molecules involved in I-BOP-induced MMP-1 expression were identified by using specific inhibitors including small interfering (si)-RNAs of signaling molecules and promoter reporter assay. The results indicate that I-BOP-induced MMP-1 expression is mediated by protein kinase C (PKC), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-activator protein-1(AP-1) and ERK-CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) pathways. I-BOP-induced cellular invasiveness of A549 cells expressing TPα or TPβ was determined by invasion assay. GM6001, a general inhibitor of MMPs, decreased basal and I-BOP-induced cell invasion. Knockdown of MMP-1 and MMP-9 by their respective siRNA partially reduced I-BOP-stimulated cell invasion suggesting that other MMPs induced by I-BOP were also involved. Our studies establish the relationship between TP and MMPs in cancer cell invasion and suggest that the thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2))-TP signaling is a potential therapeutic target for cancer invasion and metastasis.

  4. Engineering Ascorbate Peroxidase Activity Into Cytochrome C Peroxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Meharenna, Y.T.; Oertel, P.; Bhaskar, B.

    2009-05-26

    Cytochrome c peroxidase (CCP) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) have very similar structures, and yet neither CCP nor APX exhibits each others activities with respect to reducing substrates. APX has a unique substrate binding site near the heme propionates where ascorbate H-bonds with a surface Arg and one heme propionate (Sharp et al. (2003) Nat. Struct. Biol. 10, 303--307). The corresponding region in CCP has a much longer surface loop, and the critical Arg residue that is required for ascorbate binding in APX is Asn in CCP. In order to convert CCP into an APX, the ascorbate-binding loop and critical argininemore » were engineered into CCP to give the CCP2APX mutant. The mutant crystal structure shows that the engineered site is nearly identical to that found in APX. While wild-type CCP shows no APX activity, CCP2APX catalyzes the peroxidation of ascorbate at a rate of {approx}12 min{sup -1}, indicating that the engineered ascorbate-binding loop can bind ascorbate.« less

  5. Enhanced Phospholipase A2 Group 3 Expression by Oxidative Stress Decreases the Insulin-Degrading Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Yui, Daishi; Nishida, Yoichiro; Nishina, Tomoko; Mogushi, Kaoru; Tajiri, Mio; Ishibashi, Satoru; Ajioka, Itsuki; Ishikawa, Kinya; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Murayama, Shigeo; Yokota, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has a ubiquitous role in neurodegenerative diseases and oxidative damage in specific regions of the brain is associated with selective neurodegeneration. We previously reported that Alzheimer disease (AD) model mice showed decreased insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) levels in the cerebrum and accelerated phenotypic features of AD when crossbred with alpha-tocopherol transfer protein knockout (Ttpa -/-) mice. To further investigate the role of chronic oxidative stress in AD pathophysiology, we performed DNA microarray analysis using young and aged wild-type mice and aged Ttpa -/- mice. Among the genes whose expression changed dramatically was Phospholipase A2 group 3 (Pla2g3); Pla2g3 was identified because of its expression profile of cerebral specific up-regulation by chronic oxidative stress in silico and in aged Ttpa -/- mice. Immunohistochemical studies also demonstrated that human astrocytic Pla2g3 expression was significantly increased in human AD brains compared with control brains. Moreover, transfection of HEK293 cells with human Pla2g3 decreased endogenous IDE expression in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings show a key role of Pla2g3 on the reduction of IDE, and suggest that cerebrum specific increase of Pla2g3 is involved in the initiation and/or progression of AD. PMID:26637123

  6. Silibinin down-regulates expression of secreted phospholipase A2 enzymes in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hagelgans, Albert; Nacke, Brit; Zamaraeva, Maria; Siegert, Gabriele; Menschikowski, Mario

    2014-04-01

    Silibinin, a naturally-occurring flavonoid produced by milk thistle, possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cancer-preventive activities. In the current study, we examined the effects of silibinin on the expression of secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) enzymes, especially those of group IIA (hGIIA), which play a crucial role in inflammation and carcinogenesis. The effects of silibinin on sPLA2 expressions in human HepG2 hepatoma and PC-3 prostate cancer cells were analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique. Silibinin inhibited the expression of hGIIA in unstimulated and cytokine-primed HepG2 and PC-3 cells. The mRNA levels of sPLA2 of groups IB, III and V were also significantly decreased by silibinin. Analyses of transcription factor activation suggest that nuclear factor-κB, but not specificity protein 1 (SP1) is implicated in the silibinin-mediated down-regulation of hGIIA. Silibinin exhibits inhibitory effects on basal and cytokine-induced expression of sPLA2s in cancer cells and therefore, may have the potential to protect against up-regulation of hGIIA and other sPLA2 isoforms during inflammation and cancer.

  7. Oxidative degradation of alkylphenols by horseradish peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Sakuyama, Hisae; Endo, Yasushi; Fujimoto, Kenshiro; Hatana, Yasuhiko

    2003-01-01

    Alkylphenols such as bisphenol A (2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane; BPA), p-nonylphenol (p-NP), and p-octylphenol (p-OP) that are known as endocrine disrupters were oxidized by horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) peroxidase (HRP) with H2O2. The optimal pHs for BPA, p-NP, and p-OP were 8.0, 7.0, and 5.0, respectively. The optimal temperature for BPA was 20 degrees C. Although BPA was rapidly degraded by HRP, its degradation depended on the concentration of HRP. Most of the oxidation products of BPA were polymers, although some 4-isopropenylphenol was produced. When male Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed to BPA, vitellogenin in the blood increased. However, no increased vitellogenin was observed in medaka exposed to HRP-oxidized BPA. The enzymatic oxidation of BPA using HRP was able to eliminate its estrogen-like activity.

  8. A Tomato Peroxidase Involved in the Synthesis of Lignin and Suberin1

    PubMed Central

    Quiroga, Mónica; Guerrero, Consuelo; Botella, Miguel A.; Barceló, Araceli; Amaya, Iraida; Medina, María I.; Alonso, Francisco J.; de Forchetti, Silvia Milrad; Tigier, Horacio; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2000-01-01

    The last step in the synthesis of lignin and suberin has been proposed to be catalyzed by peroxidases, although other proteins may also be involved. To determine which peroxidases are involved in the synthesis of lignin and suberin, five peroxidases from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) roots, representing the majority of the peroxidase activity in this organ, have been partially purified and characterized kinetically. The purified peroxidases with isoelectric point (pI) values of 3.6 and 9.6 showed the highest catalytic efficiency when the substrate used was syringaldazine, an analog of lignin monomer. Using a combination of transgenic expression and antibody recognition, we now show that the peroxidase pI 9.6 is probably encoded by TPX1, a tomato peroxidase gene we have previously isolated. In situ RNA hybridization revealed that TPX1 expression is restricted to cells undergoing synthesis of lignin and suberin. Salt stress has been reported to induce the synthesis of lignin and/or suberin. This stress applied to tomato caused changes in the expression pattern of TPX1 and induced the TPX1 protein. We propose that the TPX1 product is involved in the synthesis of lignin and suberin. PMID:10759507

  9. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of annexin A2 gene in sika deer antler tip.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yanling; Qu, Haomiao; Lu, Binshan; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Heping

    2018-04-01

    Molecular cloning and bioinformatics analysis of annexin A2 ( ANXA2 ) gene in sika deer antler tip were conducted. The role of ANXA2 gene in the growth and development of the antler were analyzed initially. The reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to clone the cDNA sequence of the ANXA2 gene from antler tip of sika deer ( Cervus Nippon hortulorum ) and the bioinformatics methods were applied to analyze the amino acid sequence of Anxa2 protein. The mRNA expression levels of the ANXA2 gene in different growth stages were examined by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR). The nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 1,020 bp encoding 339 amino acids long protein of calculated molecular weight 38.6 kDa and isoelectric point 6.09. Homologous sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Anxa2 mature protein of sika deer had the closest genetic distance with Cervus elaphus and Bos mutus . Real time RT-PCR results showed that the gene had differential expression levels in different growth stages, and the expression level of the ANXA2 gene was the highest at metaphase (rapid growing period). ANXA2 gene may promote the cell proliferation, and the finding suggested Anxa2 as an important candidate for regulating the growth and development of deer antler.

  10. Hair Follicular Expression and Function of Group X Secreted Phospholipase A2 in Mouse Skin*

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kei; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Isogai, Yuki; Miki, Yoshimi; Sato, Hiroyasu; Masuda, Seiko; Nishito, Yasumasa; Morioka, Kiyokazu; Ishimoto, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Noriko; Yokota, Yasunori; Hanasaki, Kohji; Ishikawa, Yukio; Ishii, Toshiharu; Kobayashi, Tetsuyuki; Fukami, Kiyoko; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Nakanishi, Hiroki; Taguchi, Ryo; Murakami, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Although perturbed lipid metabolism can often lead to skin abnormality, the role of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in skin homeostasis is poorly understood. In the present study we found that group X-secreted PLA2 (sPLA2-X) was expressed in the outermost epithelium of hair follicles in synchrony with the anagen phase of hair cycling. Transgenic mice overexpressing sPLA2-X (PLA2G10-Tg) displayed alopecia, which was accompanied by hair follicle distortion with reduced expression of genes related to hair development, during a postnatal hair cycle. Additionally, the epidermis and sebaceous glands of PLA2G10-Tg skin were hyperplasic. Proteolytic activation of sPLA2-X in PLA2G10-Tg skin was accompanied by preferential hydrolysis of phosphatidylethanolamine species with polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as elevated production of some if not all eicosanoids. Importantly, the skin of Pla2g10-deficient mice had abnormal hair follicles with noticeable reduction in a subset of hair genes, a hypoplasic outer root sheath, a reduced number of melanin granules, and unexpected up-regulation of prostanoid synthesis. Collectively, our study highlights the spatiotemporal expression of sPLA2-X in hair follicles, the presence of skin-specific machinery leading to sPLA2-X activation, a functional link of sPLA2-X with hair follicle homeostasis, and compartmentalization of the prostanoid pathway in hair follicles and epidermis. PMID:21266583

  11. High EphA2 protein expression in renal cell carcinoma is associated with a poor disease outcome.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinsheng; Zhang, Junxia; Cui, Liwen; Zhang, Huiran; Zhang, Shenglei; Bai, Yaling

    2014-08-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase, ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EphA2), is normally expressed at sites of cell-to-cell contact in adult epithelial tissues, however, recent studies have shown that it is also overexpressed in various types of epithelial carcinomas, with the greatest level of EphA2 expression observed in metastatic lesions. In the present study, the association between the expression of EphA2 and the outcome of RCC patients was assessed. The high expression level of EphA2 was identified by log-rank test for a statistically significant prediction of the RCC outcome. In an overall multivariate analysis, the high expression level of EphA2 was identified as an independent predictor of RCC outcome. The length of survival of the patients with high EphA2 expression was shorter than that of the patients with a low level of expression (relative risk, 2.304; 95% CI, 1.102-4.818; P=0.027). The analysis of the expression levels of EphA2 in tumor tissues may aid in the identification of the patient subgroup that are at a high risk of a poor disease outcome.

  12. Peroxidase enzymes regulate collagen extracellular matrix biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    DeNichilo, Mark O; Panagopoulos, Vasilios; Rayner, Timothy E; Borowicz, Romana A; Greenwood, John E; Evdokiou, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase are heme-containing enzymes often physically associated with fibrotic tissue and cancer in various organs, without any direct involvement in promoting fibroblast recruitment and extracellular matrix (ECM) biosynthesis at these sites. We report herein novel findings that show peroxidase enzymes possess a well-conserved profibrogenic capacity to stimulate the migration of fibroblastic cells and promote their ability to secrete collagenous proteins to generate a functional ECM both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic studies conducted using cultured fibroblasts show that these cells are capable of rapidly binding and internalizing both myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase. Peroxidase enzymes stimulate collagen biosynthesis at a post-translational level in a prolyl 4-hydroxylase-dependent manner that does not require ascorbic acid. This response was blocked by the irreversible myeloperoxidase inhibitor 4-amino-benzoic acid hydrazide, indicating peroxidase catalytic activity is essential for collagen biosynthesis. These results suggest that peroxidase enzymes, such as myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase, may play a fundamental role in regulating the recruitment of fibroblast and the biosynthesis of collagen ECM at sites of normal tissue repair and fibrosis, with enormous implications for many disease states where infiltrating inflammatory cells deposit peroxidases. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of fungal peroxidases in biological ligninolysis

    Treesearch

    Kenneth E. Hammel; Dan Cullen

    2008-01-01

    The degradation of lignin by filamentous fungi is a major route for the recycling of photosynthetically fixed carbon, and the oxidative mechanisms employed have potential biotechnological applications. The lignin peroxidases (LiPs), manganese peroxidases (MnPs), and closely related enzymes of white rot basidiomycetes are likely contributors to fungal ligninolysis. Many...

  14. AMPKα1 controls hepatocyte proliferation independently of energy balance by regulating Cyclin A2 expression.

    PubMed

    Merlen, Grégory; Gentric, Géraldine; Celton-Morizur, Séverine; Foretz, Marc; Guidotti, Jacques-Emmanuel; Fauveau, Véronique; Leclerc, Jocelyne; Viollet, Benoit; Desdouets, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved sensor of cellular energy status that contributes to restoration of energy homeostasis by slowing down ATP-consuming pathways and activating ATP-producing pathways. Unexpectedly, in different systems, AMPK is also required for proper cell division. In the current study, we evaluated the potential effect of the AMPK catalytic subunit, AMPKα1, on hepatocyte proliferation. Hepatocyte proliferation was determined in AMPKα1 knockout and wild-type mice in vivo after two thirds partial hepatectomy, and in vitro in primary hepatocyte cultures. The activities of metabolic and cell cycle-related signaling pathways were measured. After partial hepatectomy, hepatocytes proliferated rapidly, correlating with increased AMPK phosphorylation. Deletion of AMPKα1 delayed liver regeneration by impacting on G1/S transition phase. The proliferative defect of AMPKα1-deficient hepatocytes was cell autonomous, and independent of energy balance. The priming phase, lipid droplet accumulation, protein anabolic responses and growth factor activation after partial hepatectomy occurred normally in the absence of AMPKα1 activity. By contrast, mRNA and protein expression of cyclin A2, a key driver of S phase progression, were compromised in the absence of AMPK activity. Importantly, AMPKα1 controlled cyclin A2 transcription mainly through the ATF/CREB element. Our study highlights a novel role for AMPKα1 as a positive regulator of hepatocyte division occurring independently of energy balance. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Recents patents in the use of peroxidases.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Berenize; Torres, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Peroxidases are hemoenzymes with a wide range of applications, from fine chemical synthesis to environmental biocatalysis. These outstanding biocatalysts are able to catalyze reactions such as heteroatom oxidation (N- and S-oxidation), epoxidation, hydroxylation, and the oxidation of alcohols and indole, often giving high yields and enantiomeric excess values. This makes these biocatalysts very useful for application to several biotechnological processes. In this paper, recent advances and patents surrounding the use of peroxidases are reviewed, covering different aspects related to the applications of peroxidases and the modifications carried out to improve their functionality as biocatalysts.

  16. Increased expression of Apo-J and Omi/HtrA2 after Intracerebral Hemorrage in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Yang, Jing; Guo, Xiaoyan; Zheng, Xiaomei; Lv, Zhiyu; Shi, Chang Qing; Li, Xiaogang

    2018-03-23

    To investigate the changes of Apo-J and Omi/HtrA2 protein expression in rats with intracerebral hemorrage. 150 SD adult rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: (1) Normal Control (NC) group, (2) Sham group, (3) Intracerebral Hemorrage (ICH) group. The data were collected at 6h, 12h, 1d, 2d, 3d, 5d and 7d. Apoptosis was measured by Tunel staining. The distributions of the Apo-J and Omi/HtrA2 proteins were determined by immunohistochemical staining. The levels of Apo-J mRNA and Omi/HtrA2 mRNA expressions were examined by RT-PCR. Apoptosis in ICH group was higher than Sham and NC groups (p<0.05). Both the Apo-J and Omi/HtrA2 expression levels were increased in the peripheral region of hemorrhage, with a peak at 3d. The Apo-J mRNA level positively correlated with HtrA2 mRNA level in ICH group (r=0.883, p<0.001). The expressions of Apo-J and Omi/HtrA2 paralelly increased in peripheral region of rat cerebral hemorrhage. Local high expressed Apo-J in the peripheral regions might play a neuroprotective role by inhibiting apoptosis via Omi/HtrA2 pathway after hemorrhage. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. [The expression and clinical significance of EphA2 and E-cadherin in papillary thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Miao, Yuhua; Li, Xiaoming

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the expression and clinical significance of EphA2 and E cadherin proteins in papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues, and to explore the relationship between them. Using immunohistochemical SP/PV method, we detected the expression of EphA2 and E cadherin in tumors of 43 papillary thyroid carcinomas, 11 thyroid adenoma and 10 normal thyroid tissues, then studied their relationships with clinic pathological factors. The total positive rates of EphA2 and E cadherin expression were 58. 14% and 32. 56% in papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues, 18. 18% and 81. 81% in thyroid adenoma.tissues and they were 10. 00% and 100. 00% in normal thyroid tissues respectively. The positive expression of EphA2 in carcinoma tissues was higher than in the thyroid adenoma tissues and normal thyroid tissues (P<0. 05) and the positive expression of E cadherin in carcinoma tissues was lower than that in the thyroid adenoma tissues and normal thyroid tissues (P<0. 05). The positive expression of EphA2 and E cadherin was associated with lymph node metastasis and histological grade (P<0. 05), but it was not associated with all the clinic-pathological factors including age, sex and the tumor size (P>0. 05). In papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues, the expression of EphA2 was negatively correlated with the expression of E cadherin protein (r= -0. 416, P<0. 01). EphA2 and E cadherin may be involved in carcinogenesis and development of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  18. Efficient heterologous expression, functional characterization and molecular modeling of annular seabream digestive phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Smichi, Nabil; Othman, Houcemeddine; Achouri, Neila; Noiriel, Alexandre; Triki, Soumaya; Arondel, Vincent; Srairi-Abid, Najet; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Gargouri, Youssef; Miled, Nabil; Fendri, Ahmed

    2018-03-01

    Here we report the cDNA cloning of a phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) from five Sparidae species. The deduced amino acid sequences show high similarity with pancreatic PLA 2 . In addition, a phylogenetic tree derived from alignment of various available sequences revealed that Sparidae PLA 2 are closer to avian PLA 2 group IB than to mammals' ones. In order to understand the structure-function relationships of these enzymes, we report here the recombinant expression in E.coli, the refolding and characterization of His-tagged annular seabream PLA 2 (AsPLA 2 ). A single Ni-affinity chromatography step was used to obtain a highly purified recombinant AsPLA 2 with a molecular mass of 15kDa as attested by gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry data. The enzyme has a specific activity of 400U.mg -1 measured on phosphatidylcholine at pH 8.5 and 50°C. The enzyme high thermo-activity and thermo-stability make it a potential candidate in various biological applications. The 3D structure models of these enzymes were compared with structures of phylogenetically related pancreatic PLA 2 . By following these models and utilizing molecular dynamics simulations, the resistance of the AsPLA 2 at high temperatures was explained. Using the monomolecular film technique, AsPLA 2 was found to be active on various phospholipids spread at the air/water interface at a surface pressure between 12 and 25dyncm -1 . Interestingly, this enzyme was shown to be mostly active on dilauroyl-phosphatidylglycerol monolayers and this behavior was confirmed by molecular docking and dynamics simulations analysis. The discovery of a thermo-active new member of Sparidae PLA 2 , provides new insights on structure-activity relationships of fish PLA 2 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular Imaging and Quantitation of EphA2 Expression in Xenograft Models with 89Zr-DS-8895a.

    PubMed

    Burvenich, Ingrid J G; Parakh, Sagun; Gan, Hui K; Lee, Fook-Thean; Guo, Nancy; Rigopoulos, Angela; Lee, Sze-Ting; Gong, Sylvia; O'Keefe, Graeme J; Tochon-Danguy, Henri; Kotsuma, Masakatsu; Hasegawa, Jun; Senaldi, Giorgio; Scott, Andrew M

    2016-06-01

    Subtype A2 of the erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular tyrosine kinase (EphA2) cell surface receptor is expressed in a range of epithelial cancers. This study evaluated the molecular imaging of EphA2 expression in vivo in mouse tumor models using SPECT/MR and PET/MR and a humanized anti-EphA2 antibody, DS-8895a. DS-8895a was labeled with (111)In, (125)I, and (89)Zr and assessed for radiochemical purity, immunoreactivity (Lindmo analysis), antigen-binding affinity (Scatchard analysis), and serum stability in vitro. In vivo biodistribution, imaging, and pharmacokinetic studies were performed with SPECT/MR and PET/MR. A dose-escalation study was also performed to determine EphA2 receptor saturability through tissue and imaging quantitative analysis. All conjugates demonstrated good serum stability and specific binding to EphA2-expressing cells in vitro. In vivo biodistribution studies showed high uptake of (111)In-CHX-A″-DTPA-DS-8895a and (89)Zr-Df-Bz-NCS-DS-8895a in EphA2-expressing xenograft models, with no specific uptake in normal tissues. In comparison, retention of (125)I-DS-8895a in tumors was lower because of internalization of the radioconjugate and dehalogenation. These results were confirmed by SPECT/MR and PET/MR. EphA2 receptor saturation was observed at the 30 mg/kg dose. Molecular imaging of tumor uptake of DS-8895a allows noninvasive measurement of EphA2 expression in tumors in vivo and determination of receptor saturation. (89)Zr-Df-Bz-NCS-DS-8895a is suited for human bioimaging trials on the basis of superior imaging characteristics and will inform DS-8895a dose assessment and patient response evaluation in clinical trials. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  20. Paradoxical Role of DNA Methylation in Activation of FoxA2 Gene Expression during Endoderm Development*

    PubMed Central

    Bahar Halpern, Keren; Vana, Tal; Walker, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor FoxA2 is a master regulator of endoderm development and pancreatic beta cell gene expression. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the activation of the FoxA2 gene during differentiation, we have compared the epigenetic status of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), hESC-derived early endoderm stage cells (CXCR4+ cells), and pancreatic islet cells. Unexpectedly, a CpG island in the promoter region of the FoxA2 gene displayed paradoxically high levels of DNA methylation in expressing tissues (CXCR4+, islets) and low levels in nonexpressing tissues. This CpG island region was found to repress reporter gene expression and bind the Polycomb group protein SUZ12 and the DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)3b preferentially in undifferentiated hESCs as compared with CXCR4+ or islets cells. Consistent with this, activation of FoxA2 gene expression, but not CXCR4 or SOX17, was strongly inhibited by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine and by knockdown of DNMT3b. We hypothesize that in nonexpressing tissues, the lack of DNA methylation allows the binding of DNA methyltransferases and repressing proteins, such as Polycomb group proteins; upon differentiation, DNMT activation leads to CpG island methylation, causing loss of repressor protein binding. These results suggest a novel and unexpected role for DNA methylation in the activation of FoxA2 gene expression during differentiation. PMID:25016019

  1. Predicting Expressive Vocabulary Acquisition in Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandereet, Joke; Maes, Bea; Lembrechts, Dirk; Zink, Inge

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study's objectives were to describe expressive vocabulary acquisition in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and to examine specific pre- and early linguistic behaviors used to request and comment, chronological age, cognitive skills, and vocabulary comprehension as predictors of expressive vocabulary. Method: This study…

  2. SKCa Channels Blockage Increases the Expression of Adenosine A2A Receptor in Jurkat Human T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Regaya, Imed; Aidi-Knani, Sabrine; By, Youlet; Condo, Jocelyne; Gerolami, Victoria; Berge-Lefranc, Jean-Louis; Ben Hamida, Jeannette; Sabatier, Jean-Marc; Fenouillet, Emmanuel; Guieu, Régis

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Adenosine is a nucleoside displaying various biological effects via stimulation of four G-protein–coupled receptors, A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Adenosine also modulates voltage-gated (Kv) and small conductance calcium-activated (SKCa) potassium channels. The effect of these potassium channels on the expression of adenosine receptors is poorly understood. We evaluated the action of BgK (a natural Kv channel blocker) and Lei-Dab7 (a synthetic SKCa channel blocker) on the expression of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) in Jurkat human T cells. We found that Lei-Dab7, but not BgK, increased the maximal binding value of the tritiated ligand ZM241385 to A2AR in a dose-dependent manner (+45% at 5 nM; +70% at 50 nM as compared to control). These results were further confirmed by Western blotting using a specific monoclonal antibody to human A2AR. The ligand affinity-related dissociation constant and A2AR mRNA amount were not significantly modified by either drug. We suggest that modulation of SKCa channels can influence membrane expression of A2AR and thus has a therapeutic potential. PMID:23593569

  3. Impaired ATP6V0A2 expression contributes to Golgi dispersion and glycosylation changes in senescent cells.

    PubMed

    Udono, Miyako; Fujii, Kaoru; Harada, Gakuro; Tsuzuki, Yumi; Kadooka, Keishi; Zhang, Pingbo; Fujii, Hiroshi; Amano, Maho; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro; Tashiro, Kosuke; Kuhara, Satoru; Katakura, Yoshinori

    2015-11-27

    Many genes and signaling pathways have been found to be involved in cellular senescence program. In the present study, we have identified 16 senescence-associated genes by differential proteomic analysis of the normal human diploid fibroblast cell line, TIG-1, and focused on ATP6V0A2. The aim of this study is to clarify the role of ATP6V0A2, the causal gene for ARCL2, a syndrome of abnormal glycosylation and impaired Golgi trafficking, in cellular senescence program. Here we showed that ATP6V0A2 is critical for cellular senescence; impaired expression of ATP6V0A2 disperses the Golgi structure and triggers senescence, suggesting that ATP6V0A2 mediates these processes. FITC-lectin staining and glycoblotting revealed significantly different glycosylation structures in presenescent (young) and senescent (old) TIG-1 cells; reducing ATP6V0A2 expression in young TIG-1 cells yielded structures similar to those in old TIG-1 cells. Our results suggest that senescence-associated impaired expression of ATP6V0A2 triggers changes in Golgi structure and glycosylation in old TIG-1 cells, which demonstrates a role of ATP6V0A2 in cellular senescence program.

  4. Impaired ATP6V0A2 expression contributes to Golgi dispersion and glycosylation changes in senescent cells

    PubMed Central

    Udono, Miyako; Fujii, Kaoru; Harada, Gakuro; Tsuzuki, Yumi; Kadooka, Keishi; Zhang, Pingbo; Fujii, Hiroshi; Amano, Maho; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro; Tashiro, Kosuke; Kuhara, Satoru; Katakura, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Many genes and signaling pathways have been found to be involved in cellular senescence program. In the present study, we have identified 16 senescence-associated genes by differential proteomic analysis of the normal human diploid fibroblast cell line, TIG-1, and focused on ATP6V0A2. The aim of this study is to clarify the role of ATP6V0A2, the causal gene for ARCL2, a syndrome of abnormal glycosylation and impaired Golgi trafficking, in cellular senescence program. Here we showed that ATP6V0A2 is critical for cellular senescence; impaired expression of ATP6V0A2 disperses the Golgi structure and triggers senescence, suggesting that ATP6V0A2 mediates these processes. FITC-lectin staining and glycoblotting revealed significantly different glycosylation structures in presenescent (young) and senescent (old) TIG-1 cells; reducing ATP6V0A2 expression in young TIG-1 cells yielded structures similar to those in old TIG-1 cells. Our results suggest that senescence-associated impaired expression of ATP6V0A2 triggers changes in Golgi structure and glycosylation in old TIG-1 cells, which demonstrates a role of ATP6V0A2 in cellular senescence program. PMID:26611489

  5. Characterization of cellular protective effects of ATP13A2/PARK9 expression and alterations resulting from pathogenic mutants.

    PubMed

    Covy, Jason P; Waxman, Elisa A; Giasson, Benoit I

    2012-12-01

    Mutations in ATP13A2, which encodes a lysosomal P-type ATPase of unknown function, cause an autosomal recessive parkinsonian syndrome. With mammalian cells, we show that ATP13A2 expression protects against manganese and nickel toxicity, in addition to proteasomal, mitochondrial, and oxidative stress. Consistent with a recessive mode of inheritance of gene defects, disease-causing mutations F182L and G504R are prone to misfolding and do not protect against manganese and nickel toxicity because they are unstable as a result of degradation via the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD)-proteasome system. The protective effects of ATP13A2 expression are not due to inhibition of apoptotic pathways or a reduction in typical stress pathways, insofar as these pathways are still activated in challenged ATP13A2-expressing cells; however, these cells display a dramatic reduction in the accumulation of oxidized and damaged proteins. These data indicate that, contrary to a previous suggestion, ATP13A2 is unlikely to convey cellular resilience simply by acting as a lysosomal manganese transporter. Consistent with the recent identification of an ATP13A2 recessive mutation in Tibetan terriers that develop neurodegeneration with neuronal ceroid lipofucinoses, our data suggest that ATP13A2 may function to import a cofactor required for the function of a lysosome enzyme(s). Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Peroxidase Enzymes Regulate Collagen Biosynthesis and Matrix Mineralization by Cultured Human Osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    DeNichilo, Mark O; Shoubridge, Alexandra J; Panagopoulos, Vasilios; Liapis, Vasilios; Zysk, Aneta; Zinonos, Irene; Hay, Shelley; Atkins, Gerald J; Findlay, David M; Evdokiou, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The early recruitment of inflammatory cells to sites of bone fracture and trauma is a critical determinant in successful fracture healing. Released by infiltrating inflammatory cells, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) are heme-containing enzymes, whose functional involvement in bone repair has mainly been studied in the context of providing a mechanism for oxidative defense against invading microorganisms. We report here novel findings that show peroxidase enzymes have the capacity to stimulate osteoblastic cells to secrete collagen I protein and generate a mineralized extracellular matrix in vitro. Mechanistic studies conducted using cultured osteoblasts show that peroxidase enzymes stimulate collagen biosynthesis at a post-translational level in a prolyl hydroxylase-dependent manner, which does not require ascorbic acid. Our studies demonstrate that osteoblasts rapidly bind and internalize both MPO and EPO, and the catalytic activity of these peroxidase enzymes is essential to support collagen I biosynthesis and subsequent release of collagen by osteoblasts. We show that EPO is capable of regulating osteogenic gene expression and matrix mineralization in culture, suggesting that peroxidase enzymes may play an important role not only in normal bone repair, but also in the progression of pathological states where infiltrating inflammatory cells are known to deposit peroxidases.

  7. Halide peroxidase in tissues that interact with bacteria in the host squid Euprymna scolopes.

    PubMed

    Small, A L; McFall-Ngai, M J

    1999-03-15

    An enzyme with similarities to myeloperoxidase, the antimicrobial halide peroxidase in mammalian neutrophils, occurs abundantly in the light organ tissue of Euprymna scolopes, a squid that maintains a beneficial association with the luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Using three independent assays typically applied to the analysis of halide peroxidase enzymes, we directly compared the activity of the squid enzyme with that of human myeloperoxidase. One of these methods, the diethanolamine assay, confirmed that the squid peroxidase requires halide ions for its activity. The identification of a halide peroxidase in a cooperative bacterial association suggested that this type of enzyme can function not only to control pathogens, but also to modulate the interactions of host animals with their beneficial partners. To determine whether the squid peroxidase functions under both circumstances, we examined its distribution in a variety of host tissues, including those that typically interact with bacteria and those that do not. Tissues interacting with bacteria included those that have specific cooperative associations with bacteria (i.e., the light organ and accessory nidamental gland) and those that have transient nonspecific interactions with bacteria (i.e., the gills, which clear the cephalopod circulatory system of invading microorganisms). These bacteria-associated tissues were compared with the eye, digestive gland, white body, and ink-producing tissues, which do not typically interact directly with bacteria. Peroxidase enzyme assays, immunocytochemical localization, and DNA-RNA hybridizations showed that the halide-dependent peroxidase is consistently expressed in high concentration in tissues that interact bacteria. Elevated levels of the peroxidase were also found in the ink-producing tissues, which are known to have enzymatic pathways associated with antimicrobial activity. Taken together, these data suggest that the host uses a common biochemical response to

  8. Intrinsic Peroxidase-like Activity of Ficin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yufang; Shen, Dongjun; Long, Yijuan; Xie, Zhixiong; Zheng, Huzhi

    2017-02-01

    Ficin is classified as a sulfhydryl protease isolated from the latex of fig trees. In most cases, a particular enzyme fits a few types of substrate and catalyzes one type of reaction. In this investigation, we found sufficient proofs for the intrinsic peroxidase-like activity of ficin and designed experiments to examine its effectiveness in a variety of scenarios. Ficin can transform peroxidase substrates to colored products in the existence of H2O2. Our results also indicate that the active sites of peroxidase-like activity of ficin are different from that of protease, which reveals that one enzyme may catalyze more than one kind of substrate to perform different types of reactions. On the basis of these findings, H2O2 releasing from MCF-7 cells was detected successfully. Our findings support a wider application of ficin in biochemistry and open up the possibility of utilizing ficin as enzymatic mimics in biotechnology and environmental monitoring.

  9. Expression and inducibility of CYP1A1, 1A2, 1B1 by β-naphthoflavone and CYP2B22, CYP3As by rifampicin in heart regions and coronary arteries of pig.

    PubMed

    Messina, Andrea; Puccinelli, Emanuela; Gervasi, Pier Giovanni; Longo, Vincenzo

    2013-02-01

    In this study, the constitutive and inducible expression of the CYP genes (1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2B22, 3A22, 3A29 and 3A46), related transcriptional factors (AhR, CAR, PXR, and Nrf2) and the antioxidant enzymes SOD, catalase, GSSH-reductase and GSH-peroxidase were investigated in the liver, heart regions and coronary arteries of control pigs and pigs treated with β-naphthoflavone (βNF) or with rifampicin (RIF). Real-time PCR experiments and enzymatic or immunoblot assays showed that CYP1A1 was predominantly enhanced by βNF in a similar manner in all the heart regions, whereas antioxidant enzyme activity was not affected. The rifampicin treatment resulted in an induction of CYP2B22 and CYP3As, at the transcriptional, activity and protein level in liver but not in heart nor in the coronary arteries, despite the expression of CAR and PXR in the cardiac tissues. These results obtained in vivo suggest that pig cardiac tissues may represent a useful model for humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of CYP52A2A promoter to increase gene expression in yeast

    DOEpatents

    Craft, David L.; Wilson, C. Ron; Eirich, Dudley; Zhang, Yeyan

    2004-01-06

    A nucleic acid sequence including a CYP promoter operably linked to nucleic acid encoding a heterologous protein is provided to increase transcription of the nucleic acid. Expression vectors and host cells containing the nucleic acid sequence are also provided. The methods and compositions described herein are especially useful in the production of polycarboxylic acids by yeast cells.

  11. Age-Dependent Changes in Human Hepatic CYP2C8 and 1A2 Expression

    EPA Science Inventory

    Predicting age-specific metabolism of pyrethroids is important in evaluating age-related sensitivity. Our goal is to use an in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) approach to predict pyrethroid metabolism for different ages incorporating enzyme ontogeny and expressed enzyme ki...

  12. Activation of nuclear receptor NR5A2 increases Glut4 expression and glucose metabolism in muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bolado-Carrancio, A.; Riancho, J.A.; Sainz, J.

    Highlights: • NR5A2 expression in C2C12 is associated with myotube differentiation. • DLPC induces an increase in GLUT4 levels and glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. • In high glucose conditions the activation of NR5A2 inhibits fatty acids oxidation. - Abstract: NR5A2 is a nuclear receptor which regulates the expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, pluripotency maintenance and cell differentiation. It has been recently shown that DLPC, a NR5A2 ligand, prevents liver steatosis and improves insulin sensitivity in mouse models of insulin resistance, an effect that has been associated with changes in glucose and fatty acids metabolism in liver. Becausemore » skeletal muscle is a major tissue in clearing glucose from blood, we studied the effect of the activation of NR5A2 on muscle metabolism by using cultures of C2C12, a mouse-derived cell line widely used as a model of skeletal muscle. Treatment of C2C12 with DLPC resulted in increased levels of expression of GLUT4 and also of several genes related to glycolysis and glycogen metabolism. These changes were accompanied by an increased glucose uptake. In addition, the activation of NR5A2 produced a reduction in the oxidation of fatty acids, an effect which disappeared in low-glucose conditions. Our results suggest that NR5A2, mostly by enhancing glucose uptake, switches muscle cells into a state of glucose preference. The increased use of glucose by muscle might constitute another mechanism by which NR5A2 improves blood glucose levels and restores insulin sensitivity.« less

  13. Guaiacol Peroxidase Zymography for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkesman, Jeff; Castro, Diana; Contreras, Lellys M.; Kurz, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    This laboratory exercise presents a novel way to introduce undergraduate students to the specific detection of enzymatic activity by electrophoresis. First, students prepare a crude peroxidase extract and then analyze the homogenate via electrophoresis. Zymography, that is, a SDS-PAGE method to detect enzyme activity, is used to specifically…

  14. "Chitin-specific" peroxidases in plants.

    PubMed

    Maksimov, I V; Cherepanova, E A; Khairullin, R M

    2003-01-01

    The activity of various plant peroxidases and the ability of their individual isoforms to bind chitin was studied. Some increase in peroxidase activity was observed in crude extracts in the presence of chitin. Activated peroxidases of some species fell in the fraction not sorbed on chitin and those of other species can bind chitin. Only anionic isoperoxidases from oat (Avena sativa), rice (Oryza sativa), horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), garden radish (Raphanus sativus var. radicula), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum Link et Otto) were sorbed on chitin. Both anionic and cationic isoforms from pea (Pisum sativum), galega(Galega orientalis), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), and zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) were sorbed on chitin. Peroxidase activation under the influence of chitin was correlated to the processes that occur during hypersensitive reaction and lignification of sites, in which pathogenic fungus penetrates into a plant. The role of chitin-specific isoperoxidases in inhibition of fungal growth and connection of this phenomenon with structural characteristics of isoperoxidases are also discussed.

  15. Chracterization of class III peroxidases from switchgrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Class III peroxidases (CIIIPRX) catalyze the oxidation of monolignols, generate radicals, and ultimately lead to the formation of lignin. In general, CIIIPRX genes encode a large number of isozymes with ranges of in vitro substrate specificities. In order to elucidate the mode of substrate specifici...

  16. Boric acid increases the expression levels of human anion exchanger genes SLC4A2 and SLC4A3.

    PubMed

    Akbas, F; Aydin, Z

    2012-04-03

    Boron is an important micronutrient in plants and animals. The role of boron in living systems includes coordinated regulation of gene expression, growth and proliferation of higher plants and animals. There are several well-defined genes associated with boron transportation and tolerance in plants and these genes show close homology with human anion exchanger genes. Mutation of these genes also characterizes some genetic disorders. We investigated the toxic effects of boric acid on HEK293 cells and mRNA expression of anion exchanger (SLC4A1, SLC4A2 and SLC4A3) genes. Cytotoxicity of boric acid at different concentrations was tested by using the methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. Gene expression profiles were examined using quantitative real-time PCR. In the HEK293 cells, the nontoxic upper concentration of boric acid was 250 μM; more than 500 μM caused cytotoxicity. The 250 μM boric acid concentration increased gene expression level of SLC4A2 up to 8.6-fold and SLC4A3 up to 2.6-fold, after 36-h incubation. There was no significant effect of boric acid on SLC4A1 mRNA expression levels.

  17. Effect of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (Pg-LPS) on the expression of EphA2 in osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Gao, Aichao; Wang, Xichao; Yu, Haiyan; Li, Na; Hou, Yubo; Yu, Weixian

    2016-02-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) as the major pathogenic bacterium of chronic periodontitis can cause alveolar bone resorption. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is its main virulence factor. The Eph family plays an important role in maintaining bone homeostasis. In this study, the effects of P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (Pg-LPS) on the expression of EphA2 in osteoblasts and osteoclasts were investigated. MC3T3-E1 cells and RAW264.7 cells were separately cultured in osteoblast-conditioned medium and osteoclast-conditioned medium to induce their differentiation into osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with 1 μg/mL of Pg-LPS 3, 7, and 14 d later, while RAW264.7 cells were treated with 10 μg/mL of Pg-LPS 1, 3, and 5 d later. The results have shown that Pg-LPS increased the expression of EphA2 both in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, decreased the expression of osteogenic-related genes (ALP, Sp7), and increased the expression of osteoclast-related genes (MMP9, c-fos, ACP5, CtsK, and NFATc1). Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining illustrated that Pg-LPS promoted osteoclast differentiation and decreased the activity of alkaline phosphatase. Therefore, analysis indicates that, when treated with Pg-LPS, the expression of EphA2 is upregulated while the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts was reduced and increased, respectively. Our data suggest that EphA2 is closely related to the formation of osteoblasts and resorption of osteoclast and is likely to play an role in bone resorption induced in chronic periodontitis. These findings may provide information on new targets for prevention and treatment of chronic periodontitis.

  18. Differential expression levels of collagen 1A2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 4, and cathepsin B in intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Babu, R Arun; Paul, Pradip; Purushottam, Meera; Srinivas, Dwarakanath; Somanna, Sampath; Jain, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) express a variety of differentially expressed genes when compared to the normal artery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression level of a few genes in the aneurysm wall and to correlate them with various clinicoradiological factors. The mRNA level of collagen 1A2 (COL1A2), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 4 (TIMP4), and cathepsin B (CTSB) genes were studied in 23 aneurysmal walls and 19 superficial temporal arteries harvested from 23 patients undergoing clipping of IAs, by real-time polymerase chain reaction method. The mean fold change of COL1A2 gene between the aneurysm sample and the superficial temporal artery (STA) sample was 2.46 ± 0.12, that of TIMP4 gene was 0.31 ± 0, and that of CTSB gene was 31.47 ± 39.01. There was a positive correlation of TIMP4 expression level with maximum diameter of aneurysm (P = 0.008) and fundus of aneurysm (P = 0.012). The mean fold change of CTSB of patients who had preoperative hydrocephalus in the computed tomogram (CT) scan of the head at admission was 56.16 and that of the patients who did not have hydrocephalus was 13.51 (P = 0.008). The mean fold change of CTSB of patients who developed fresh postoperative deficits or worsening of the preexisting deficits was 23.64 and that of the patients who did not develop was 42.22 (P = 0.039). COL1A2 gene and CTSB genes were overexpressed, and TIMP4 gene was underexpressed in the aneurysmal sac compared to STA and their expression levels were associated with a few clinicoradiological factors.

  19. High-level expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae enables isolation and spectroscopic characterization of functional human adenosine A2a receptor

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Michelle A.; Lazarova, Tzvetana; Britton, Zachary T.; Robinson, Anne S.

    2007-01-01

    The G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a class of membrane proteins that trigger cellular responses to external stimuli, and are believed to be targets for nearly half of all pharmaceutical drugs on the market. However, little is known regarding their folding and cellular interactions, as well as what factors are crucial for their activity. Further structural characterization of GPCRs has largely been complicated by problems with expression, purification, and preservation of activity in vitro. Previously, we have demonstrated high-level expression (~4 mg/L of culture) of functional human adenosine A2a receptor fused to a green fluorescent protein (A2aR-GFP) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this work we re-engineered A2aR with a purification tag, developed an adequate purification scheme, and performed biophysical characterization on purified receptors. Milligram amounts per liter of culture of A2aR and A2aR-GFP were functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae, with a C-terminal deca-histidine tag. Lysis procedures were developed for optimal membrane protein solubilization and recovery through monitoring fluorescence of A2aR-GFP-His10. One-step purification of the protein was achieved through immobilized metal affinity chromatography. After initial solubilization in n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside (DDM), a combination of added cholesterol hemisuccinate (CHS) in 3-(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammoniopropane sulfonate (CHAPS) was required to stabilize the functional state of the protein. Isolated A2aR under these conditions was found to be largely alpha-helical, and properly incorporated into a mixed-micelle environment. The A2a-His10 receptor was purified in quantities of 6 +/− 2 mg/L of culture, with ligand-binding yields of 1 mg/L, although all protein bound to xanthine affinity resin. This represents the highest purified total and functional yields for A2aR yet achieved from any heterologous expression system. PMID:17591446

  20. The study of ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and peroxidase during in vitro regeneration of Argyrolobium roseum.

    PubMed

    Habib, Darima; Chaudhary, Muhammad Fayyaz; Zia, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate the micropropagation protocol of Argyrolobium roseum (Camb.), an endangered herb exhibiting anti-diabetic and immune-suppressant properties, and antioxidant enzymes pattern is evaluated. Maximum callogenic response (60 %) was observed from leaf explant at 1.0 mg L(-1) 1-nephthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 0.5 mg L(-1) 6-benzyl aminopurine (BA) in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium using hypocotyl and root explants (48 % each). Addition of AgNO3 and PVP in the culture medium led to an increase in callogenic response up to 86 % from leaf explant and 72 % from hypocotyl and root explants. The best shooting response was observed in the presence of NAA, while maximum shoot length and number of shoots were achieved based on BA-supplemented MS medium. The regenerated shoots were rooted and successfully acclimatized under greenhouse conditions. Catalase and peroxidase enzymes showed ascending pattern during in vitro plant development from seed while ascorbate peroxidase showed descending pattern. Totally reverse response of these enzymes was observed during callus induction from three different explants. During shoot induction, catalase and peroxidase increased at high rate while there was a mild reduction in ascorbate peroxidase activity. Catalase and peroxidase continuously increased; on the other hand, ascorbate peroxidase activity decreased during root development and acclimatization states. The protocol described here can be employed for the mass propagation and genetic transformation of this rare herb. This study also highlights the importance and role of ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, and peroxidase in the establishment of A. roseum in vitro culture through callogenesis and organogenesis.

  1. Patterns of EphA2 protein expression in primary and metastatic pancreatic carcinoma and correlation with genetic status

    PubMed Central

    Mudali, Shiyama V.; Fu, Baojin; Lakkur, Sindhu S.; Luo, Mingde; Embuscado, Erlinda E.

    2009-01-01

    EphA2 is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase that functions in the regulation of cell growth, survival, angiogenesis, and migration and EphA2 targeting has been proposed as a novel therapeutic strategy for neoplasms that overexpress this protein. EphA2 overexpression has been correlated with increased invasive and metastatic ability in pancreatic cancer cell lines. However, the patterns of EphA2 expression in human pancreatic cancers and associated metastases is unknown, as are the genetics of EphA2 in this tumor type. We collected clinicopathologic data and paraffin-embedded materials from 98 patients with primary and/or metastatic pancreatic cancer and performed immunohistochemical labeling for EphA2 protein. EphA2 protein immunolabeling was found in 207 of 219 samples (95%). The expression was predominantly cytoplasmic, although predominant membranous staining was observed in a minority of cases. When evaluated specifically for labeling intensity, primary and metastatic carcinomas were more strongly positive compared to benign ducts and PanIN lesions (P < 0.00001 and P < 0.01, respectively) and poorly differentiated carcinomas were more strongly positive for EphA2 than well and moderately differentiated tumors (P < 0.005). When primary carcinomas without metastatic disease were specifically compared to carcinomas with associated metastatic disease, the advanced carcinomas showed relatively less strong positive labeling for EphA2 (P < 0.008). Moreover, decreased EphA2 labeling was more commonly found in liver (P < 0.002), lung (P < 0.004) or peritoneal metastases (P < 0.01) as compared to distant lymph node metastases (P < 0.01). Genetic sequencing of the tyrosine kinase domain of EPHA2 in 22 samples of xenograft enriched pancreatic cancer did not reveal any inactivating mutations. However, EPHA2 amplification was found in 1 of 33 pancreatic cancers corresponding to a lymph node metastasis, indicating EPHA2 genomic amplification may underlie EphA2

  2. Description of the first fungal dye-decolorizing peroxidase oxidizing manganese(II)

    DOE PAGES

    Fernandez-Fueyo, Elena; Linde, Dolores; Almendral, David; ...

    2015-05-13

    Two phylogenetically divergent genes of the new family of dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs) were found during comparison of the four DyP genes identified in the Pleurotus ostreatus genome with over 200 DyP genes from other basidiomycete genomes. The heterologously expressed enzymes ( Pleos-DyP1 and Pleos-DyP4, following the genome nomenclature) efficiently oxidize anthraquinoid dyes (such as Reactive Blue 19), which are characteristic DyP substrates, as well as low redox-potential dyes (such as 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) and substituted phenols. However, only Pleos-DyP4 oxidizes the high redox-potential dye Reactive Black 5, at the same time that it displays high thermal and pH stability. Unexpectedly, bothmore » enzymes also oxidize Mn 2+ to Mn 3+, albeit with very different catalytic efficiencies. Pleos-DyP4 presents a Mn 2+ turnover (56 s –1) nearly in the same order of the two other Mn 2+-oxidizing peroxidase families identified in the P. ostreatus genome: manganese peroxidases (100 s–1 average turnover) and versatile peroxidases (145 s –1 average turnover), whose genes were also heterologously expressed. Oxidation of Mn 2+ has been reported for an Amycolatopsis DyP (24 s –1) and claimed for other bacterial DyPs, albeit with lower activities, but this is the first time that Mn 2+ oxidation is reported for a fungal DyP. Interestingly, Pleos-DyP4 (together with ligninolytic peroxidases) is detected in the secretome of P. ostreatus grown on different lignocellulosic substrates. In conclusion, it is suggested that generation of Mn 3+ oxidizers plays a role in the P. ostreatus white-rot lifestyle since three different families of Mn 2+-oxidizing peroxidase genes are present in its genome being expressed during lignocellulose degradation.« less

  3. Description of the first fungal dye-decolorizing peroxidase oxidizing manganese(II)

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Fueyo, Elena; Linde, Dolores; Almendral, David

    Two phylogenetically divergent genes of the new family of dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs) were found during comparison of the four DyP genes identified in the Pleurotus ostreatus genome with over 200 DyP genes from other basidiomycete genomes. The heterologously expressed enzymes ( Pleos-DyP1 and Pleos-DyP4, following the genome nomenclature) efficiently oxidize anthraquinoid dyes (such as Reactive Blue 19), which are characteristic DyP substrates, as well as low redox-potential dyes (such as 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) and substituted phenols. However, only Pleos-DyP4 oxidizes the high redox-potential dye Reactive Black 5, at the same time that it displays high thermal and pH stability. Unexpectedly, bothmore » enzymes also oxidize Mn 2+ to Mn 3+, albeit with very different catalytic efficiencies. Pleos-DyP4 presents a Mn 2+ turnover (56 s –1) nearly in the same order of the two other Mn 2+-oxidizing peroxidase families identified in the P. ostreatus genome: manganese peroxidases (100 s–1 average turnover) and versatile peroxidases (145 s –1 average turnover), whose genes were also heterologously expressed. Oxidation of Mn 2+ has been reported for an Amycolatopsis DyP (24 s –1) and claimed for other bacterial DyPs, albeit with lower activities, but this is the first time that Mn 2+ oxidation is reported for a fungal DyP. Interestingly, Pleos-DyP4 (together with ligninolytic peroxidases) is detected in the secretome of P. ostreatus grown on different lignocellulosic substrates. In conclusion, it is suggested that generation of Mn 3+ oxidizers plays a role in the P. ostreatus white-rot lifestyle since three different families of Mn 2+-oxidizing peroxidase genes are present in its genome being expressed during lignocellulose degradation.« less

  4. A peroxidase/dual oxidase system modulates midgut epithelial immunity in Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Gupta, Lalita; Rodrigues, Janneth; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2010-03-26

    Extracellular matrices in diverse biological systems are cross-linked by dityrosine covalent bonds catalyzed by the peroxidase/oxidase system. We show that a peroxidase, secreted by the Anopheles gambiae midgut, and dual oxidase form a dityrosine network that decreases gut permeability to immune elicitors. This network protects the microbiota by preventing activation of epithelial immunity. It also provides a suitable environment for malaria parasites to develop within the midgut lumen without inducing nitric oxide synthase expression. Disruption of this barrier results in strong and effective pathogen-specific immune responses.

  5. A peroxidase related to the mammalian antimicrobial protein myeloperoxidase in the Euprymna-Vibrio mutualism.

    PubMed

    Weis, V M; Small, A L; McFall-Ngai, M J

    1996-11-26

    Many animal-bacteria cooperative associations occur in highly modified host organs that create a unique environment for housing and maintaining the symbionts. It has been assumed that these specialized organs develop through a program of symbiosis-specific or -enhanced gene expression in one or both partners, but a clear example of this process has been lacking. In this study, we provide evidence for the enhanced production of an enzyme in the symbiotic organ of the squid Euprymna scolopes, which harbors a culture of the luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Our data show that this enzyme has a striking biochemical similarity to mammalian myeloperoxidase (MPO; EC 1.11.17), an antimicrobial dianisidine peroxidase that occurs in neutrophils. MPO and the squid peroxidase catalyze the same reaction, have similar apparent subunit molecular masses, and a polyclonal antibody to native human MPO specifically localized a peroxidase-like protein to the bacteria-containing regions of the symbiotic organ. We also provide evidence that a previously described squid cDNA encodes the protein (LO4) that is responsible for the observed dianisidine peroxidase activity. An antibody made against a fragment of LO4 immunoprecipiated dianisidine peroxidase activity from extracts of the symbiotic organ, and reacted against these extracts and human MPO in Western blot analysis. These data suggest that related biochemical mechanisms for the control of bacterial number and growth operate in associations that are as functionally diverse as pathogenesis and mutualism, and as phylogenetically distant as molluscs and mammals.

  6. Effect of Low and Very Low Doses of Simple Phenolics on Plant Peroxidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Malarczyk, Elżbieta; Kochmańska-Rdest, Janina; Paździoch-Czochra, Marzanna

    2004-01-01

    Changes in the activity of horseradish peroxidase resulting from an addition of ethanol water dilutions of 19 phenolic compounds were observed. For each compound, the enzyme activity was plotted against the degree of dilution expressed as n = –log100 (mol/L) in the range 0 ≤ n ≥ 20. All the curves showed sinusoidal activity, more or less regular, with two to four peaks on average. Each analyzed compound had a characteristic sinusoidal shape, which was constant for samples of peroxidase from various commercial firms. This was clearly visible after function fitting to experimental results based on the Marquadt–Levenberg algorithm using the least-squares method. Among the 19 phenolics, the highest amplitudes were observed for phenol and iso- and vanillate acids and aldehydes. The specific character of each of the analyzed curves offers a possibility of choosing proper dilutions of phenolic compound for activating or inhibiting of peroxidase activity. PMID:19330128

  7. Guaiacol peroxidase zymography for the undergraduate laboratory.

    PubMed

    Wilkesman, Jeff; Castro, Diana; Contreras, Lellys M; Kurz, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    This laboratory exercise presents a novel way to introduce undergraduate students to the specific detection of enzymatic activity by electrophoresis. First, students prepare a crude peroxidase extract and then analyze the homogenate via electrophoresis. Zymography, that is, a SDS-PAGE method to detect enzyme activity, is used to specifically detect peroxidase activity and furthermore, to analyze the total protein profile. After the assay, students may estimate the apparent molecular mass of the enzyme and discuss its structure. After the 4-h experiment, students gain knowledge concerning biological sample preparation, gel preparation, electrophoresis, and the importance of specific staining procedures for the detection of enzymatic activity. Copyright © 2014 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  8. Effect of thalidomide on endotoxin-induced decreases in activity and expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 3A2.

    PubMed

    Ueyama, Jun; Nadai, Masayuki; Zhao, Ying Lan; Kanazawa, Hiroaki; Takagi, Kenji; Kondo, Takaaki; Takagi, Kenzo; Wakusawa, Shinya; Abe, Fumie; Saito, Hiroko; Miyamoto, Ken-Ichi; Hasegawa, Takaaki

    2008-08-01

    Thalidomide has been reported to inhibit the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and nitric oxide (NO) that are involved in the down-regulation of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) induced by endotoxin. In the present study, we investigated the effects of thalidomide on endotoxin-induced decreases in the activity and expression of hepatic CYP3A2 in rats. Thalidomide (50 mg/kg) was administered orally 22 h and 2 h before intraperitoneal injection of endotoxin (1 mg/kg). Twenty-four hours after the injection of endotoxin, antipyrine clearance experiments were conducted, in which the rats were sacrificed and protein levels of hepatic CYP3A2 were measured. There were no significant differences in the histopathological changes in the liver between the endotoxin-treated and endotoxin plus thalidomide-treated rats. Thalidomide had no effect on the systemic clearance of antipyrine, which is a proper indicator for hepatic CYP3A2 activity, whereas it enhanced endotoxin-induced decrease in the systemic clearance of antipyrine. Western blot analysis revealed that thalidomide had no effect on the protein levels of hepatic CYP3A2, whereas it enhanced the down-regulation of hepatic CYP3A2 by endotoxin. However, there were no significant differences in the concentrations of TNF-alpha and NO in plasma between the endotoxin-treated and endotoxin plus thalidomide-treated rats. The present findings suggest that thalidomide enhances endotoxin-induced decreases in the activity and expression of hepatic CYP3A2.

  9. Enzyme Technology of Peroxidases: Immobilization, Chemical and Genetic Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longoria, Adriana; Tinoco, Raunel; Torres, Eduardo

    An overview of enzyme technology applied to peroxidases is made. Immobilization on organic, inorganic, and hybrid supports; chemical modification of amino acids and heme group; and genetic modification by site-directed and random mutagenesis are included. Different strategies that were carried out to improve peroxidase performance in terms of stability, selectivity, and catalytic activity are analyzed. Immobilization of peroxidases on inorganic and organic materials enhances the tolerance of peroxidases toward the conditions normally found in many industrial processes, such as the presence of an organic solvent and high temperature. In addition, it is shown that immobilization helps to increase the Total Turnover Number at levels high enough to justify the use of a peroxidase-based biocatalyst in a synthesis process. Chemical modification of peroxidases produces modified enzymes with higher thermostability and wider substrate variability. Finally, through mutagenesis approaches, it is possible to produce modified peroxidases capable of oxidizing nonnatural substrates with high catalytic activity and affinity.

  10. Activation of farnesoid X receptor promotes triglycerides lowering by suppressing phospholipase A2 G12B expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingli; Yang, Meng; Fu, Xuekun; Liu, Renzhong; Sun, Caijun; Pan, Haobo; Wong, Chi-Wai; Guan, Min

    2016-11-15

    As a novel mediator of hepatic very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) secretion, phospholipase A2 G12B (PLA2G12B) is transcriptionally regulated by hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 alpha (HNF-4α). Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays a critical role in maintaining bile acids and triglycerides (TG) homeostasis. Here we report that FXR regulates serum TG level in part through PLA2G12B. Activation of FXR by chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) or GW4064 significantly decreased PLA2G12B expression in HepG2 cells. PLA2G12B expression was transcriptionally repressed due to an FXR-mediated up-regulation of small heterodimer partner (SHP) which functionally suppresses HNF-4α activity. We found that hepatic PLA2G12B expression was suppressed and serum TG level reduced in high fat diet mice treated with CDCA. Concurrently, CDCA treatment lowered hepatic VLDL-TG secretion. Our data demonstrate that activation of FXR promotes TG lowering, not only by decreasing de novo lipogenesis but also reducing hepatic secretion of TG-rich VLDL particles in part through suppressing PLA2G12B expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Expression of EphA2 protein is positively associated with age, tumor size and Fuhrman nuclear grade in clear cell renal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Longxin; Hu, Haibing; Tian, Feng; Zhou, Wenquan; Zhou, Shuigen; Wang, Jiandong

    2015-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase of EphA2 has been shown frequently overexpressed in various types of human carcinomas, which implicated that it plays important roles in carcinogenesis. Although EphA2 protein expression has been investigated in many types of human carcinomas, the relationship between the expression of EphA2 protein in clear cell renal cell carcinoma was not well documented. In the present study, using specific anit-EphA2 polyclonal antibody and immunohistochemistry, we evaluated EphA2 protein expression levels in clear cell RCC specimens surgically resected from 90 patients. Our results shows that EphA2 protein was positively expressed in all normal renal tubes of 90 samples (100%, 3+), which was expressed at low levels in renal cortex but high levels in the collecting ducts of the renal medulla and papilla. EphA2 was negatively or weakly expressed in 30 out of 90 samples (33.3%, 0/1+), moderately expressed in 24 samples (26.7%, 2+) and strongly expressed in 36 samples (40%, 3+). Expression of EphA2 was positively associated with age (P=0.029), tumor diameters (P<0.001) and Fuhrman nuclear grade (P<0.001). Our results indicate that EphA2 variably expressed in clear cell renal cell carcinomas. High expression of EphA2 was more often found in big size and high nuclear grade tumors, which indicated EphA2 protein may be used as a new marker for the prognosis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

  12. Metabolic changes in transgenic maize mature seeds over-expressing the Aspergillus niger phyA2.

    PubMed

    Rao, Jun; Yang, Litao; Guo, Jinchao; Quan, Sheng; Chen, Guihua; Zhao, Xiangxiang; Zhang, Dabing; Shi, Jianxin

    2016-02-01

    Non-targeted metabolomics analysis revealed only intended metabolic changes in transgenic maize over-expressing the Aspergillus niger phyA2. Genetically modified (GM) crops account for a large proportion of modern agriculture worldwide, raising increasingly the public concerns of safety. Generally, according to substantial equivalence principle, if a GM crop is demonstrated to be equivalently safe to its conventional species, it is supposed to be safe. In this study, taking the advantage of an established non-target metabolomic profiling platform based on the combination of UPLC-MS/MS with GC-MS, we compared the mature seed metabolic changes in transgenic maize over-expressing the Aspergillus niger phyA2 with its non-transgenic counterpart and other 14 conventional maize lines. In total, levels of nine out of identified 210 metabolites were significantly changed in transgenic maize as compared with its non-transgenic counterpart, and the number of significantly altered metabolites was reduced to only four when the natural variations were taken into consideration. Notably, those four metabolites were all associated with targeted engineering pathway. Our results indicated that although both intended and non-intended metabolic changes occurred in the mature seeds of this GM maize event, only intended metabolic pathway was found to be out of the range of the natural metabolic variation in the metabolome of the transgenic maize. Therefore, only when natural metabolic variation was taken into account, could non-targeted metabolomics provide reliable objective compositional substantial equivalence analysis on GM crops.

  13. Expression of the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor A2 (adgra2) during Xenopus laevis development.

    PubMed

    Seigfried, Franziska A; Dietmann, Petra; Kühl, Michael; Kühl, Susanne J

    2018-06-01

    The adhesion G protein-coupled receptor A2 (Adgra2) is a seven transmembrane receptor that has been described to be a regulator for angiogenesis in mice. Furthermore, the zebrafish ouchless mutant is unable to develop dorsal root ganglia through a disrupted trafficking of Adgra2. Besides RNA sequencing data, nothing is reported about Adgra2 in the south African crawled frog Xenopus laevis. In this study, we investigated for the first time the spatio-temporal expression of adgra2 during early Xenopus embryogenesis in detail. In silico approaches showed that the genomic adgra2 region as well as the Adgra2 protein sequence is highly conserved among different species including Xenopus. RT-PCR experiments confirmed that embryonic adgra2 expression is primarily detected at the beginning of neurulation and is then present throughout the whole Xenopus embryogenesis until stage 42. Whole mount in situ hybridization approaches visualized adgra2 expression in many tissues during Xenopus embryogenesis such as the cardiovascular system including the heart, the migrating neural crest cells and the developing eye including the periocular mesenchyme. Our results indicate a role of Adgra2 for embryogenesis and are a good starting point for further functional studies during early vertebrate development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Trifluorothymidine resistance is associated with decreased thymidine kinase and equilibrative nucleoside transporter expression or increased secretory phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Temmink, Olaf H; Bijnsdorp, Irene V; Prins, Henk-Jan; Losekoot, Nienke; Adema, Auke D; Smid, Kees; Honeywell, Richard J; Ylstra, Bauke; Eijk, Paul P; Fukushima, Masakazu; Peters, Godefridus J

    2010-04-01

    Trifluorothymidine (TFT) is part of the novel oral formulation TAS-102, which is currently evaluated in phase II studies. Drug resistance is an important limitation of cancer therapy. The aim of the present study was to induce resistance to TFT in H630 colon cancer cells using two different schedules and to analyze the resistance mechanism. Cells were exposed either continuously or intermittently to TFT, resulting in H630-cTFT and H630-4TFT, respectively. Cells were analyzed for cross-resistance, cell cycle, protein expression, and activity of thymidine phosphorylase (TP), thymidine kinase (TK), thymidylate synthase (TS), equilibrative nucleoside transporter (hENT), gene expression (microarray), and genomic alterations. Both cell lines were cross-resistant to 2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (>170-fold). Exposure to IC(75)-TFT increased the S/G(2)-M phase of H630 cells, whereas in the resistant variants, no change was observed. The two main target enzymes TS and TP remained unchanged in both TFT-resistant variants. In H630-4TFT cells, TK protein expression and activity were decreased, resulting in less activated TFT and was most likely the mechanism of TFT resistance. In H630-cTFT cells, hENT mRNA expression was decreased 2- to 3-fold, resulting in a 5- to 10-fold decreased TFT-nucleotide accumulation. Surprisingly, microarray-mRNA analysis revealed a strong increase of secretory phospholipase-A2 (sPLA2; 47-fold), which was also found by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR; 211-fold). sPLA2 inhibition reversed TFT resistance partially. H630-cTFT had many chromosomal aberrations, but the exact role of sPLA2 in TFT resistance remains unclear. Altogether, resistance induction to TFT can lead to different mechanisms of resistance, including decreased TK protein expression and enzyme activity, decreased hENT expression, as well as (phospho)lipid metabolism. Mol Cancer Ther; 9(4); 1047-57. (c)2010 AACR.

  15. The relationship between lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase production capacities and cultivation periods of mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian Z; Zhang, Jun L; Hu, Kai H; Zhang, Wei G

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms are able to secrete lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP), and able to use the cellulose as sources of carbon. This article focuses on the relation between peroxidase-secreting capacity and cultivation period of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. Methylene blue and methyl catechol qualitative assay and spectrophotometry quantitative assay show LiP secreting unvaryingly accompanies the MnP secreting in mushroom strains. The growth rates of hyphae are detected by detecting the dry hyphal mass. We link the peroxidase activities to growth rate of mushrooms and then probe into the relationship between them. The results show that there are close relationships between LiP- and/or MnP-secretory capacities and the cultivation periods of mushrooms. The strains with high LiP and MnP activities have short cultivation periods. However, those strains have long cultivation periods because of the low levels of secreted LiP and/or MnP, even no detectable LiP and/or MnP activity. This study provides the first evidence on the imitate relation between the level of secreted LiP and MnP activities and cultivation periods of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. Our study has significantly increased the understanding of the role of LiP and MnP in the growth and development of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. PMID:22966760

  16. Forkhead box protein A2, a pioneer factor for hepatogenesis, is involved in the expression of hepatic phenotype of alpha-fetoprotein-producing adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Nobuhisa; Fugo, Kazunori; Kishimoto, Takashi

    2017-09-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing adenocarcinoma is a high-malignant variant of adenocarcinoma with a hepatic or fetal-intestinal phenotype. The number of cases of AFP-producing adenocarcinomas is increasing, but the molecular mechanism underlying the aberrant production of AFP is unclear. Here we sought to assess the role of Forkhead box A (FoxA)2, which is a pioneer transcription factor in the differentiation of hepatoblasts. FoxA2 expression was investigated in five cases of AFP-producing gastric adenocarcinomas by immunohistochemistry, and all cases showed FoxA2 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed the DNA binding of FoxA2 on the regulatory element of AFP gene in AFP-producing adenocarcinoma cells. The inhibition of FoxA2 expression with siRNA reduced the mRNA expression of liver-specific proteins, including AFP, albumin, and transferrin. The inhibition of FoxA2 also reduced the expressions of liver-enriched nuclear factors, i.e., hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4α and HNF6, although the expressions of HNF1α and HNF1β were not affected. The same effect as FoxA2 knockdown in AFP producing adenocarcinoma cells was also observed in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Our results suggest that FoxA2 plays a key role in the expression of hepatic phenotype of AFP-producing adenocarcinomas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. [The peroxidase content of human tears].

    PubMed

    Buchberger, W; Rieger, G

    1989-01-01

    The peroxidase-(POD)-thiocyanate-hydrogenperoxide-system is a well-known antibacterial system, which has been demonstrated to exist, for example, in milk and saliva. Earlier investigations by van Haeringen et al. established a POD level in human tears of 10(3) units/l, yet the thiocyanate concentration was only about 0.2 mmol/l. Therefore van Haeringen et al. excluded the existence of a POD-thiocyanate-hydrogenperoxide antibacterial system in human tears because of the insufficient amount of thiocyanate in the tears examined. Instead of thiocyanate halides such as J- can also complete the POD hydrogen peroxide system as electron donors. Sufficient amounts of iodide can be expected after the application of iodine-containing eye drops or after local treatment with iodine-containing brine, as done in Bad Hall in Austria. Therefore, the above mentioned antibacterial system may be of importance if the POD-level is high enough (greater than 250 units/l). We investigated 22 tear samples from healthy persons: the POD levels were below 20 units/l in 19 cases; in 3 cases the POD concentration was found to be between 20 and 50 units/l. Therefore, in normal human tear fluid, not only the amount of thiocyanate but also the concentration of POD is too low for effective antimicrobial activity of the peroxidase-thiocyanate-hydrogenperoxide system. It is so far not known whether this system is effective under pathological conditions.

  18. Impacts of Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury on Expressions of Hepatic Cytochrome P450 1A2, 2B1, 2D1, and 3A2 in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Wang, Junrui; Cheng, Jingmin; Xiao, Wenjing; Fan, Kaihua; Gu, Jianwen; Yu, Botao; Yin, Guangfu; Wu, Juan; Ren, Jiandong; Hou, Jun; Jiang, Yan; Tan, Yonghong; Jin, Weihua

    2017-01-01

    The hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzyme superfamily is one of the most important drug-metabolizing enzyme systems, which is responsible for the metabolism of a large number of clinically relevant medications used in traumatic brain injury (TBI) therapy. Modification of CYP450 expression may have important influences on drug metabolism and lead to untoward effects on those with narrow therapeutic windows. However, the impact of blast-induced TBI (bTBI) on the expression of CYP450 has received little attention. The subfamilies of CYP1A, 2B, 2D, and 3A account for about 85 % of all human drug metabolism of clinical significance. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the expressions of hepatic CYP1A2, CYP2B1, CYP2D1, and CYP3A2 in rats suffering bTBI. Meanwhile, we also measured some important cytokines in serum after injury, and calculated the correlation between these cytokines and the expressions of CYP1A2, CYP2B1, CYP2D1, and CYP3A2. The results showed that bTBI could significantly reduce mRNA expressions of CYP1A2, CYP2D1, and CYP3A2 at the early stage and induce the expressions from 48 h to 1 week after injury. The protein expressions of these CYP450s had all been downregulated from 24 to 48 h post- injury, and then began to elevate at 48 h after bTBI. The cytokines, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α, increased significantly in the early phase, and began to reduce at the delayed phase of bTBI. The serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α but not IL-2 were significantly negative correlated with the mRNA expressions of CYP2B1 and CYP2D1 and the proteins expressions of CYP1A2, CYP2B1, CYP2D1, and CYP3A2. In conclusion, our work has, for the first time, indicated that bTBI has significant impact on the expressions of CYP1A2, CYP2B1, CYP2D1, and CYP3A2, which may be related to the cytokines induced by the injury.

  19. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have different effects on peripheral phospholipase A2 gene expressions in acute depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Su, Kuan-Pin; Yang, Hui-Ting; Chang, Jane Pei-Chen; Shih, Yin-Hua; Guu, Ta-Wei; Kumaran, Satyanarayanan Senthil; Gałecki, Piotr; Walczewska, Anna; Pariante, Carmine M

    2018-01-03

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been proven critical in the development and management of major depressive disorder (MDD) by a number of epidemiological, clinical and preclinical studies, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this therapeutic action are yet to be understood. Although eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) seems to be the active component of omega-3 PUFAs' antidepressant effects, the biological research about the difference of specific genetic regulations between EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the two main components of omega-3 PUFAs, is still lacking in human subjects. We conducted a 12-week randomized-controlled trial comparing the effects of EPA and DHA on gene expressions of phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), serotonin transporter (5HTT), and Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH-2) in 27 MDD patients. In addition, the erythrocyte PUFA compositions and the candidate gene expressions were also compared between these 27 MDD patients and 22 healthy controls. EPA was associated with a significant decrease in HAM-D scores (CI: -13 to -21, p<0.001) and significant increases in erythrocyte levels of EPA (CI: +1.0% to +2.9%, p=0.001) and DHA (CI: +2.9% to +5.6%, p=0.007). DHA treatment was associated with a significant decrease in HAM-D scores (CI: -6 to -14, p<0.001) and a significant increase in DHA levels (CI: +0.2% to +2.3%, p=0.047), but not of EPA levels. The cPLA2 gene expression levels were significantly increased in patients received EPA (1.9 folds, p=0.038), but not DHA (1.08 folds, p=0.92). There was a tendency for both EPA and DHA groups to decrease COX-2 gene expressions. The gene expressions of COX-2, cPLA2, TPH-2 and 5-HTT did not differ between MDD cases and healthy controls. EPA differentiates from DHA in clinical antidepressant efficacy and in upregulating cPLA2 gene regulations, which supports the clinical observation showing the superiority of EPA's antidepressant effects. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT

  20. Superactivity of peroxidase solubilized in reversed micellar systems.

    PubMed

    Setti, L; Fevereiro, P; Melo, E P; Pifferi, P G; Cabral, J M; Aires-Barros, M R

    1995-12-01

    Vaccinium mirtyllus peroxidase solubilized in reversed micelles was used for the oxidation of guaiacol. Some relevant parameters for the enzymatic activity, such as pH, w(o) (molar ratio water/surfactant), surfactant type and concentration, and cosurfactant concentration, were investigated. The peroxidase showed higher activities in reversed micelles than in aqueous solution. The stability of the peroxidase in reversed micelles was also studied, namely, the effect of w(o) and temperature on enzyme deactivation. The peroxidase displayed higher stabilities in CTAB/hexanol in isooctane reversed micelles, with half-life times higher than 500 h.

  1. Thiol peroxidase deficiency leads to increased mutational load and decreased fitness in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Alaattin; Lobanov, Alexei V; Gerashchenko, Maxim V; Koren, Amnon; Fomenko, Dmitri E; Koc, Ahmet; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2014-11-01

    Thiol peroxidases are critical enzymes in the redox control of cellular processes that function by reducing low levels of hydroperoxides and regulating redox signaling. These proteins were also shown to regulate genome stability, but how their dysfunction affects the actual mutations in the genome is not known. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has eight thiol peroxidases of glutathione peroxidase and peroxiredoxin families, and the mutant lacking all these genes (∆8) is viable. In this study, we employed two independent ∆8 isolates to analyze the genome-wide mutation spectrum that results from deficiency in these enzymes. Deletion of these genes was accompanied by a dramatic increase in point mutations, many of which clustered in close proximity and scattered throughout the genome, suggesting strong mutational bias. We further subjected multiple lines of wild-type and ∆8 cells to long-term mutation accumulation, followed by genome sequencing and phenotypic characterization. ∆8 lines showed a significant increase in nonrecurrent point mutations and indels. The original ∆8 cells exhibited reduced growth rate and decreased life span, which were further reduced in all ∆8 mutation accumulation lines. Although the mutation spectrum of the two independent isolates was different, similar patterns of gene expression were observed, suggesting the direct contribution of thiol peroxidases to the observed phenotypes. Expression of a single thiol peroxidase could partially restore the growth phenotype of ∆8 cells. This study shows how deficiency in nonessential, yet critical and conserved oxidoreductase function, leads to increased mutational load and decreased fitness. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  2. Glutathione Peroxidase 3 Inhibits Prostate Tumorigenesis in TRAMP Mice.

    PubMed

    Chang, Seo-Na; Lee, Ji Min; Oh, Hanseul; Park, Jae-Hak

    2016-11-01

    Glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) is involved in protecting cells from oxidative damage, and down-regulated levels of expression have been found in prostate cancer samples. We hypothesize that loss of the GPx3 increases the rate of prostate carcinogenesis and generated GPx3-deficient transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice. Prostate cancer incidence and progression were determined in TRAMP, TRAMP/GPx3 (+/-) HET, and TRAMP/GPx3 (-/-) KO mice at 8, 16, and 20 weeks of age. We found that GPx3 expression was decreased in TRAMP mice and not detected in GPx3 KO mice both in mRNA and protein levels. Disruption of GPx3 expression in TRAMP mice increased the GU tract weights and the histopathological scores in each lobes with increased proliferation rates. Moreover, inactivation of one (+/-) or both (-/-) alleles of GPx3 resulted in increase in prostate cancer incidence with activated Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Our results provide the first in vivo molecular genetic evidence that GPx3 does indeed function as a tumor suppressor during prostate carcinogenesis. Prostate 76:1387-1398, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The expression of COX-2, hTERT, MDM2, LATS2 and S100A2 in different types of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    PubMed

    Strazisar, Mojca; Mlakar, Vid; Glavac, Damjan

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have reported different expression levels of certain genes in NSCLC, mostly related to the stage and advancement of the tumours. We investigated 65 stage I-III NSCLC tumours: 32 adenocarcinomas (ADC), 26 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and 7 large cell carcinomas (LCC). Using the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we analysed the expression of the COX-2, hTERT, MDM2, LATS2 and S100A2 genes and researched the relationships between the NSCLC types and the differences in expression levels. The differences in the expression levels of the LATS2, S100A2 and hTERT genes in different types of NSCLC are significant. hTERT and COX-2 were over-expressed and LATS2 under-expressed in all NSCLC. We also detected significant relative differences in the expression of LATS2 and MDM2, hTERT and MDM2 in different types of NSCLC. There was a significant difference in the average expression levels in S100A2 for ADC and SCC. Our study shows differences in the expression patterns within the NSCLC group, which may mimic the expression of the individual NSCLC type, and also new relationships in the expression levels for different NSCLC types.

  4. Horseradish-Peroxidase-Catalyzed Tyrosine Click Reaction.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shinichi; Nakamura, Kosuke; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-02

    The efficiency of protein chemical modification on tyrosine residues with N-methylluminol derivatives was drastically improved by using horseradish peroxidase (HRP). In the previous method, based on the use of hemin and H 2 O 2 , oxidative side reactions such as cysteine oxidation were problematic for functionalization of proteins selectively on tyrosine residues. Oxidative activation of N-methylluminol derivatives with a minimum amount of H 2 O 2 prevented the occurrence of oxidative side reactions under HRP-catalyzed conditions. As probes for HRP-catalyzed protein modification, N-methylluminol derivatives showed much higher efficiency than tyramide without inducing oligomerization of probe molecules. Tyrosine modification also proceeded in the presence of β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH, H 2 O 2 -free conditions). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Hormonal Regulation and Distribution of Peroxidase Isoenzymes in the Cucurbitaceae

    PubMed Central

    Abeles, Fred B.; Biles, Charles L.; Dunn, Linda J.

    1989-01-01

    Ethylene enhanced the levels of peroxidases in the roots, stems, leaves, and cotyledons of 2-week-old cucumber Cucumis sativus cv Poinsett 76 seedlings. Antibodies to the isoelectric point (pl) 9 and pl 4 isoenzymes were used in a radial immuno-diffusion assay to demonstrate that ethylene induced similar peroxidases in other cultivars of C. sativus, other species of Cucumis and other genera of Cucurbitaceae. Examination of ethylene-induced peroxidases, using isoelectric focusing gels, demonstrated the presence of a series of other peroxidases, mostly slightly acidic, whose isoelectric focusing pH was approximately 6. These pl 6 peroxidases were partially purified on a cation exchange column. Ouchterlony double diffusion gels indicated that these proteins cross-reacted with antibodies to both the pl 9 and pl 4 peroxidase. The data presented here suggest that the induction of peroxidase isoenzymes during ethylene-induced senescence is a common response in this family of plants. In addition, antibody and isoelectric focusing studies indicate that both acidic and basic peroxidase are highly conserved in members of this family. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:16667224

  6. Hormonal regulation and distribution of peroxidase isoenzymes in the Cucurbitaceae.

    PubMed

    Abeles, F B; Biles, C L; Dunn, L J

    1989-12-01

    Ethylene enhanced the levels of peroxidases in the roots, stems, leaves, and cotyledons of 2-week-old cucumber Cucumis sativus cv Poinsett 76 seedlings. Antibodies to the isoelectric point (pl) 9 and pl 4 isoenzymes were used in a radial immuno-diffusion assay to demonstrate that ethylene induced similar peroxidases in other cultivars of C. sativus, other species of Cucumis and other genera of Cucurbitaceae. Examination of ethylene-induced peroxidases, using isoelectric focusing gels, demonstrated the presence of a series of other peroxidases, mostly slightly acidic, whose isoelectric focusing pH was approximately 6. These pl 6 peroxidases were partially purified on a cation exchange column. Ouchterlony double diffusion gels indicated that these proteins cross-reacted with antibodies to both the pl 9 and pl 4 peroxidase. The data presented here suggest that the induction of peroxidase isoenzymes during ethylene-induced senescence is a common response in this family of plants. In addition, antibody and isoelectric focusing studies indicate that both acidic and basic peroxidase are highly conserved in members of this family.

  7. 21 CFR 864.7675 - Leukocyte peroxidase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cells of the lymphatic system and erythroid cells of the red blood cell series on the basis of their... peroxidase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte peroxidase test is a device used to distinguish certain... of the leukemias. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). This device is exempt from the...

  8. 21 CFR 864.7675 - Leukocyte peroxidase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cells of the lymphatic system and erythroid cells of the red blood cell series on the basis of their... peroxidase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte peroxidase test is a device used to distinguish certain... of the leukemias. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). This device is exempt from the...

  9. 21 CFR 864.7675 - Leukocyte peroxidase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cells of the lymphatic system and erythroid cells of the red blood cell series on the basis of their... peroxidase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte peroxidase test is a device used to distinguish certain... of the leukemias. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). This device is exempt from the...

  10. 21 CFR 864.7675 - Leukocyte peroxidase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... cells of the lymphatic system and erythroid cells of the red blood cell series on the basis of their... peroxidase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte peroxidase test is a device used to distinguish certain... of the leukemias. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). This device is exempt from the...

  11. 21 CFR 864.7675 - Leukocyte peroxidase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cells of the lymphatic system and erythroid cells of the red blood cell series on the basis of their... peroxidase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte peroxidase test is a device used to distinguish certain... of the leukemias. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). This device is exempt from the...

  12. Hall Effect Thruster Interactions Data from the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 Satellites. Part 5; Acquire Express-A3 SPT?100 Based Propulsion Subsystem and Other Subsystem Flight Operation TM-Data, Task 31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.

    2003-01-01

    This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80deg E. and 11deg W., respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3-99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.

  13. Hall Effect Thruster Interactions Data From the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 Satellites. Acquire Express-A3 SPT 100 Based Propulsion Subsystem and Other Subsystem Flight Operation TM-Data, Task 33

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.

    2003-01-01

    This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80 deg E and 11 deg W, respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3-99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.

  14. Hall Effect Thruster Interactions Data From the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 Satellites. Part 7; Acquire Express-A3 SPT-100 Based Propulsion Subsystem and Other Subsystem Flight Operation TM-Data, Task 32

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.

    2003-01-01

    This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80 E. and 11 W., respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.

  15. Effects of microwaves (900 MHz) on peroxidase systems: A comparison between lactoperoxidase and horseradish peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Barteri, Mario; De Carolis, Roberta; Marinelli, Fiorenzo; Tomassetti, Goliardo; Montemiglio, Linda Celeste

    2016-01-01

    This work shows the effects of exposure to an electromagnetic field at 900 MHz on the catalytic activity of the enzymes lactoperoxidase (LPO) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Experimental evidence that irradiation causes conformational changes of the active sites and influences the formation and stability of the intermediate free radicals is documented by measurements of enzyme kinetics, circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) and cyclic voltammetry.

  16. The relationship between lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase production capacities and cultivation periods of mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian Z; Zhang, Jun L; Hu, Kai H; Zhang, Wei G

    2013-05-01

    Mushrooms are able to secrete lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP), and able to use the cellulose as sources of carbon. This article focuses on the relation between peroxidase-secreting capacity and cultivation period of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. Methylene blue and methyl catechol qualitative assay and spectrophotometry quantitative assay show LiP secreting unvaryingly accompanies the MnP secreting in mushroom strains. The growth rates of hyphae are detected by detecting the dry hyphal mass. We link the peroxidase activities to growth rate of mushrooms and then probe into the relationship between them. The results show that there are close relationships between LiP- and/or MnP-secretory capacities and the cultivation periods of mushrooms. The strains with high LiP and MnP activities have short cultivation periods. However, those strains have long cultivation periods because of the low levels of secreted LiP and/or MnP, even no detectable LiP and/or MnP activity. This study provides the first evidence on the imitate relation between the level of secreted LiP and MnP activities and cultivation periods of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. Our study has significantly increased the understanding of the role of LiP and MnP in the growth and development of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. © 2012 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. EphA2 Expression Is a Key Driver of Migration and Invasion and a Poor Prognostic Marker in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Philip D; Dasgupta, Sonali; Blayney, Jaine K; McArt, Darragh G; Redmond, Keara L; Weir, Jessica-Anne; Bradley, Conor A; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Shirasawa, Senji; Wang, Tingting; Srivastava, Supriya; Ong, Chee Wee; Arthur, Ken; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Wilson, Richard H; Johnston, Patrick G; Van Schaeybroeck, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    EphA2, a member of the Eph receptor tyrosine kinases family, is an important regulator of tumor initiation, neovascularization, and metastasis in a wide range of epithelial and mesenchymal cancers; however, its role in colorectal cancer recurrence and progression is unclear. EphA2 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in stage II/III colorectal tumors (N = 338), and findings correlated with clinical outcome. The correlation between EphA2 expression and stem cell markers CD44 and Lgr5 was examined. The role of EphA2 in migration/invasion was assessed using a panel of KRAS wild-type (WT) and mutant (MT) parental and invasive colorectal cancer cell line models. Colorectal tumors displayed significantly higher expression levels of EphA2 compared with matched normal tissue, which positively correlated with high CD44 and Lgr5 expression levels. Moreover, high EphA2 mRNA and protein expression were found to be associated with poor overall survival in stage II/III colorectal cancer tissues, in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Preclinically, we found that EphA2 was highly expressed in KRASMT colorectal cancer cells and that EphA2 levels are regulated by the KRAS-driven MAPK and RalGDS-RalA pathways. Moreover, EphA2 levels were elevated in several invasive daughter cell lines, and downregulation of EphA2 using RNAi or recombinant EFNA1 suppressed migration and invasion of KRASMT colorectal cancer cells. These data show that EpHA2 is a poor prognostic marker in stage II/III colorectal cancer, which may be due to its ability to promote cell migration and invasion, providing support for the further investigation of EphA2 as a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. EphA2 expression is a key driver of migration and invasion and a poor prognostic marker in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Blayney, Jaine K.; McArt, Darragh G.; Redmond, Keara L.; Weir, Jessica-Anne; Bradley, Conor A.; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Shirasawa, Senji; Wang, Tingting; Srivastava, Supriya; Ong, Chee Wee; Arthur, Ken; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Wilson, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose EphA2, a member of the Eph receptor tyrosine kinases family, is an important regulator of tumour initiation, neo-vascularization and metastasis in a wide range of epithelial and mesenchymal cancers, however its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) recurrence and progression is unclear. Experimental Design EphA2 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in stage II/III colorectal tumours (N=338), and findings correlated with clinical outcome. The correlation between EphA2 expression and stem cell markers CD44 and Lgr5 was examined. The role of EphA2 in migration/invasion was assessed using a panel of KRAS wild-type (WT) and mutant (MT) parental and invasive CRC cell line models. Results Colorectal tumours displayed significantly higher expression levels of EphA2 compared with matched normal tissue, which positively correlated with high CD44 and Lgr5 expression levels. Moreover, high EphA2 mRNA and protein expression were found to be associated with poor overall survival in stage II/III CRC tissues, in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Pre-clinically, we found that EphA2 was highly expressed in KRASMT CRC cells and that EphA2 levels are regulated by the KRAS-driven MAPK and RalGDS-RalA pathways. Moreover, EphA2 levels were elevated in several invasive daughter cell lines and down-regulation of EphA2 using RNAi or recombinant EFNA1, suppressed migration and invasion of KRASMT CRC cells. Conclusions These data show that EpHA2 is a poor prognostic marker in stage II/III CRC, which may be due to its ability to promote cell migration and invasion, providing support for the further investigation of EphA2 as a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target. PMID:26283684

  19. IONIC EFFECTS ON LIGNIFICATION AND PEROXIDASE IN TISSUE CULTURES

    PubMed Central

    Lipetz, Jacques; Garro, Anthony J.

    1965-01-01

    Crown-gall tumor tissue cultures release peroxidase into the medium in response to the concentration of specific ions in the medium. This release is not due to diffusion from cut surfaces or injured cells. Calcium, magnesium, and ammonium were, in that order, most effective in increasing peroxidase release. The enzyme was demonstrated cytochemically on the cell walls and in the cytoplasm. Cell wall fractions, exhaustively washed in buffer, still contained bound peroxidase. This bound peroxidase could be released by treating the wall fractions with certain divalent cations or ammonium. The order of effectiveness for removing the enzyme from the washed cell walls is: Ca++ ≈ Sr++ > Ba++ > Mg++ > NH4 +. These data support the thesis presented that specific ions can control the deposition of lignin on cell walls by affecting the peroxidase levels on these walls. PMID:19866650

  20. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs inhibit gastric peroxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, R K

    1990-06-20

    The peroxidase activity of the mitochondrial fraction of rat gastric mucosa was inhibited with various nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in vitro. Indomethacin was found to be more effective than phenylbutazone (PB) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Mouse gastric peroxidase was also very sensitive to indomethacin inhibition. Indomethacin has no significant effect on submaxillary gland peroxidase activity of either of the species studied. Purified rat gastric peroxidase activity was inhibited 75% with 0.15 mM indomethacin showing half-maximal inhibition at 0.04 mM. The inhibition could be withdrawn by increasing the concentration of iodide but not by H2O2. NSAIDs inhibit gastric peroxidase activity more effectively at acid pH (pH 5.2) than at neutral pH. Spectral studies showed a bathochromic shift of the Soret band of the enzyme with indomethacin indicating its interaction at or near the heme part of the enzyme.

  1. Incorporation of carbohydrate residues into peroxidase isoenzymes in horseradish roots.

    PubMed

    Lew, J Y; Shannon, L M

    1973-11-01

    Sliced root tissue of the horseradish plant (Armoracia rusticana), when incubated with mannose-U-(14)C, incorporated radioactivity into peroxidase isoenzymes. Over 90% of the radioactivity in the highly purified peroxidase isoenzymes was present in the neutral sugar residues of the molecule, i.e. fucose, arabinose, xylose, mannose. When the root slices were incubated simultaneously with leucine-4,5-(3)H and mannose-U-(14)C, cycloheximide strongly inhibited leucine incorporation into the peptide portion of peroxidase isoenzymes but had little effect on the incorporation of (14)C into the neutral sugars. These results indicated that synthesis of the peptide portion of peroxidase was completed before the monosaccharide residues were attached to the molecule. This temporal relationship between the synthesis of protein and the attachment of carbohydrate residues in the plant glycoprotein, horseradish peroxidase, appears to be similar to that reported for glycoprotein biosynthesis in many mammalian systems.

  2. Incorporation of Carbohydrate Residues into Peroxidase Isoenzymes in Horseradish Roots

    PubMed Central

    Lew, Jow Y.; Shannon, Leland M.

    1973-01-01

    Sliced root tissue of the horseradish plant (Armoracia rusticana), when incubated with mannose-U-14C, incorporated radioactivity into peroxidase isoenzymes. Over 90% of the radioactivity in the highly purified peroxidase isoenzymes was present in the neutral sugar residues of the molecule, i.e. fucose, arabinose, xylose, mannose. When the root slices were incubated simultaneously with leucine-4,5-3H and mannose-U-14C, cycloheximide strongly inhibited leucine incorporation into the peptide portion of peroxidase isoenzymes but had little effect on the incorporation of 14C into the neutral sugars. These results indicated that synthesis of the peptide portion of peroxidase was completed before the monosaccharide residues were attached to the molecule. This temporal relationship between the synthesis of protein and the attachment of carbohydrate residues in the plant glycoprotein, horseradish peroxidase, appears to be similar to that reported for glycoprotein biosynthesis in many mammalian systems. PMID:16658584

  3. Luffa aegyptiaca (Gourd) Fruit Juice as a Source of Peroxidase

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, R. S. S.; Yadav, K. S.; Yadav, H. S.

    2011-01-01

    Peroxidases have turned out to be potential biocatalyst for a variety of organic reactions. The research work reported in this communication was done with the objective of finding a convenient rich source of peroxidase which could be used as a biocatalyst for organic synthetic reactions. The studies made have shown that Luffa aegyptiaca (gourd) fruit juice contains peroxidase activity of the order of 180 enzyme unit/mL. The Km values of this peroxidase for the substrates guaiacol and hydrogen peroxide were 2.0 and 0.2 mM, respectively. The pH and temperature optima were 6.5 and 60°C, respectively. Like other peroxidases, it followed double displacement type mechanism. Sodium azide inhibited the enzyme competitively with Ki value of 3.35 mM. PMID:21804936

  4. Luffa aegyptiaca (Gourd) Fruit Juice as a Source of Peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Yadav, R S S; Yadav, K S; Yadav, H S

    2011-01-01

    Peroxidases have turned out to be potential biocatalyst for a variety of organic reactions. The research work reported in this communication was done with the objective of finding a convenient rich source of peroxidase which could be used as a biocatalyst for organic synthetic reactions. The studies made have shown that Luffa aegyptiaca (gourd) fruit juice contains peroxidase activity of the order of 180 enzyme unit/mL. The K(m) values of this peroxidase for the substrates guaiacol and hydrogen peroxide were 2.0 and 0.2 mM, respectively. The pH and temperature optima were 6.5 and 60°C, respectively. Like other peroxidases, it followed double displacement type mechanism. Sodium azide inhibited the enzyme competitively with K(i) value of 3.35 mM.

  5. Barley Coleoptile Peroxidases. Purification, Molecular Cloning, and Induction by Pathogens1

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Brian Kåre; Bloch, Helle; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding the Prx7 peroxidase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) predicted a 341-amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 36,515. N- and C-terminal putative signal peptides were present, suggesting a vacuolar location of the peroxidase. Immunoblotting and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction showed that the Prx7 protein and mRNA accumulated abundantly in barley coleoptiles and in leaf epidermis inoculated with powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis). Two isoperoxidases with isoelectric points of 9.3 and 7.3 (P9.3 and P7.3, respectively) were purified to homogeneity from barley coleoptiles. P9.3 and P7.3 had Reinheitszahl values of 3.31 and 2.85 and specific activities (with 2,2′-azino-di-[3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid], pH 5.5, as the substrate) of 11 and 79 units/mg, respectively. N-terminal amino acid sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass-spectrometry peptide analysis identified the P9.3 peroxidase activity as due to Prx7. Tissue and subcellular accumulation of Prx7 was studied using activity-stained isoelectric focusing gels and immunoblotting. The peroxidase activity due to Prx7 accumulated in barley leaves 24 h after inoculation with powdery mildew spores or by wounding of epidermal cells. Prx7 accumulated predominantly in the epidermis, apparently in the vacuole, and appeared to be the only pathogen-induced vacuolar peroxidase expressed in barley tissues. The data presented here suggest that Prx7 is responsible for the biosynthesis of antifungal compounds known as hordatines, which accumulate abundantly in barley coleoptiles. PMID:10364401

  6. Adaptive aneuploidy protects against thiol peroxidase deficiency by increasing respiration via key mitochondrial proteins.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Alaattin; Gerashchenko, Maxim V; Seim, Inge; Labarre, Jean; Toledano, Michel B; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2015-08-25

    Aerobic respiration is a fundamental energy-generating process; however, there is cost associated with living in an oxygen-rich environment, because partially reduced oxygen species can damage cellular components. Organisms evolved enzymes that alleviate this damage and protect the intracellular milieu, most notably thiol peroxidases, which are abundant and conserved enzymes that mediate hydrogen peroxide signaling and act as the first line of defense against oxidants in nearly all living organisms. Deletion of all eight thiol peroxidase genes in yeast (∆8 strain) is not lethal, but results in slow growth and a high mutation rate. Here we characterized mechanisms that allow yeast cells to survive under conditions of thiol peroxidase deficiency. Two independent ∆8 strains increased mitochondrial content, altered mitochondrial distribution, and became dependent on respiration for growth but they were not hypersensitive to H2O2. In addition, both strains independently acquired a second copy of chromosome XI and increased expression of genes encoded by it. Survival of ∆8 cells was dependent on mitochondrial cytochrome-c peroxidase (CCP1) and UTH1, present on chromosome XI. Coexpression of these genes in ∆8 cells led to the elimination of the extra copy of chromosome XI and improved cell growth, whereas deletion of either gene was lethal. Thus, thiol peroxidase deficiency requires dosage compensation of CCP1 and UTH1 via chromosome XI aneuploidy, wherein these proteins support hydroperoxide removal with the reducing equivalents generated by the electron transport chain. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of adaptive aneuploidy counteracting oxidative stress.

  7. A PI 4. 6 peroxidase that specifically crosslinks extensin precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Upham, B.L; Alizadeh, H.; Ryan, K.J.

    1991-05-01

    The primary cell wall is a microcomposite of cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose and protein. The warp-weft model of the primary cell wall hypothesize that extensin monomers are intermolecularly crosslinked orthogonal to the cellulose microfibril thus mechanically coupling the major load-bearing polymer: cellulose. Media of tomato cell cultures contains heat labile, peroxide dependent crosslinking activity, as determined by the rate of decrease in monomer concentration analyzed via Superose-6. Isoelectric focusing of tomato cell culture media indicated crosslinking was predominantly in the acidic peroxidase fraction (pI4.6). This peroxidase was partially purified by ultracentrifugation, DEAE-Trisacryl and HPLC-DEAE chromatography techniques resulting in a 90 foldmore » purification and 45% yield. A second acidic peroxidase eluted from the HPLC-DEAE column had 25% of the crosslinking activity of the pI 4.6 peroxidase. Purified basic peroxidase had only 0.7% of the activity of the pI 4.6 peroxidase. The specific activity of the pI 4.6 peroxidase was 5,473 mg extensin crosslinked/min/mg peroxidase. The pI 4.6 peroxidase crosslinked the following extensins: tomato I and II, carrot, Ginkgo II and did not crosslink Ginkgo I, Douglas Fir, Maize, Asparagus I and II, and sugarbeet extensins as well as bovine serum albumin. Comparison of motifs common to extensins that are crosslinked by the pI 4.6 peroxidase may help identify the crosslink domain(s) of extension.« less

  8. Applications and Prospective of Peroxidase Biocatalysis in the Environmental Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Duarte, Cristina; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

    Environmental protection is, doubtless, one of the most important challenges for the human kind. The huge amount of pollutants derived from industrial activities represents a threat for the environment and ecologic equilibrium. Phenols and halogenated phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, endocrine disruptive chemicals, pesticides, dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, industrial dyes, and other xenobiotics are among the most important pollutants. A large variety of these xenobiotics are substrates for peroxidases and thus susceptible to enzymatic transformation. The literature reports mainly the use of horseradish peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, and chloroperoxidase on the transformation of these pollutants. Peroxidases are enzymes able to transform a variety of compounds following a free radical mechanism, giving oxidized or polymerized products. The peroxidase transformation of these pollutants is accompanied by a reduction in their toxicity, due to a biological activity loss, a reduction in the bioavailability or due to the removal from aqueous phase, especially when the pollutant is found in water. In addition, when the pollutants are present in soil, peroxidases catalyze a covalent binding to soil organic matter. In most of cases, oxidized products are less toxic and easily biodegradable than the parent compounds. In spite of their versatility and potential use in environmental processes, peroxidases are not applied at large scale yet. Diverse challenges, such as stability, redox potential, and the production of large amounts, should be solved in order to apply peroxidases in the pollutant transformation. In this chapter, we critically review the transformation of different xenobiotics by peroxidases, with special attention on the identified transformation products, the probable reaction mechanisms, and the toxicity reports. Finally, the design and development of an environmental biocatalyst is discussed. The design challenges are

  9. Formation of a tyrosine adduct involved in lignin degradation by Trametopsis cervina lignin peroxidase: a novel peroxidase activation mechanism

    Treesearch

    Yuta Miki; Rebecca Pogni; Sandra Acebes; Fatima Lucas; Elena Fernandez-Fueyo; Maria Camilla Baratto; Maria I. Fernandez; Vivian De Los Rios; Francisco J. Ruiz-duenas; Adalgisa Sinicropi; Riccardo Basosi; Kenneth E. Hammel; Victor Guallar; Angel T. Martinez

    2013-01-01

    LiP (lignin peroxidase) from Trametopsis cervina has an exposed catalytic tyrosine residue (Tyr181) instead of the tryptophan conserved in other lignin-degrading peroxidases. Pristine LiP showed a lag period in VA (veratryl alcohol) oxidation. However, VA-LiP (LiP after treatment with H2O2...

  10. Molecular cloning of two novel peroxidases and their response to salt stress and salicylic acid in the living fossil Ginkgo biloba.

    PubMed

    Novo-Uzal, Esther; Gutiérrez, Jorge; Martínez-Cortés, Teresa; Pomar, Federico

    2014-10-01

    Peroxidase isoenzymes play diverse roles in plant physiology, such as lignification and defence against pathogens. The actions and regulation of many peroxidases are not known with much accuracy. A number of studies have reported direct involvement of peroxidase isoenzymes in the oxidation of monolignols, which constitutes the last step in the lignin biosynthesis pathway. However, most of the available data concern only peroxidases and lignins from angiosperms. This study describes the molecular cloning of two novel peroxidases from the 'living fossil' Ginkgo biloba and their regulation by salt stress and salicylic acid. Suspension cell cultures were used to purify peroxidases and to obtain the cDNAs. Treatments with salicylic acid and sodium chloride were performed and peroxidase activity and gene expression were monitored. A novel peroxidase was purified, which preferentially used p-hydroxycinnamyl alcohols as substrates and was able to form dehydrogenation polymers in vitro from coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols. Two peroxidase full-length cDNAs, GbPrx09 and GbPrx10, were cloned. Both peroxidases showed high similarity to other basic peroxidases with a putative role in cell wall lignification. Both GbPrx09 and GbPrx10 were expressed in leaves and stems of the plant. Sodium chloride enhanced the gene expression of GbPrx09 but repressed GbPrx10, whereas salicylic acid strongly repressed both GbPrx09 and GbPrx10. Taken together, the data suggest the participation of GbPrx09 and GbPrx10 in the developmental lignification programme of the cell wall. Both peroxidases possess the structural characteristics necessary for sinapyl alcohol oxidation. Moreover, GbPrx09 is also involved in lignification induced by salt stress, while salicylic acid-mediated lignification is not a result of GbPrx09 and GbPrx10 enzymatic activity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  11. Function of glutathione peroxidases in legume root nodules.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Manuel A; Saiz, Ana; Peñuelas, Maria; Bustos-Sanmamed, Pilar; Mulet, Jose M; Barja, Maria V; Rouhier, Nicolas; Moore, Marten; James, Euan K; Dietz, Karl-Josef; Becana, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    Glutathione peroxidases (Gpxs) are antioxidant enzymes not studied so far in legume nodules, despite the fact that reactive oxygen species are produced at different steps of the symbiosis. The function of two Gpxs that are highly expressed in nodules of the model legume Lotus japonicus was examined. Gene expression analysis, enzymatic and nitrosylation assays, yeast cell complementation, in situ mRNA hybridization, immunoelectron microscopy, and LjGpx-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions were used to characterize the enzymes and to localize each transcript and isoform in nodules. The LjGpx1 and LjGpx3 genes encode thioredoxin-dependent phospholipid hydroperoxidases and are differentially regulated in response to nitric oxide (NO) and hormones. LjGpx1 and LjGpx3 are nitrosylated in vitro or in plants treated with S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). Consistent with the modification of the peroxidatic cysteine of LjGpx3, in vitro assays demonstrated that this modification results in enzyme inhibition. The enzymes are highly expressed in the infected zone, but the LjGpx3 mRNA is also detected in the cortex and vascular bundles. LjGpx1 is localized to the plastids and nuclei, and LjGpx3 to the cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum. Based on yeast complementation experiments, both enzymes protect against oxidative stress, salt stress, and membrane damage. It is concluded that both LjGpxs perform major antioxidative functions in nodules, preventing lipid peroxidation and other oxidative processes at different subcellular sites of vascular and infected cells. The enzymes are probably involved in hormone and NO signalling, and may be regulated through nitrosylation of the peroxidatic cysteine essential for catalytic function. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Zearalenone reduction by commercial peroxidase enzyme and peroxidases from soybean bran and rice bran.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Sabrina O; Feltrin, Ana Carla P; Garda-Buffon, Jaqueline

    2018-06-11

    The peroxidase (POD) enzyme, obtained from different sources, has been described in the literature regarding its good results of reduction in concentration or degradation levels of mycotoxins, such as aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. This study aimed at evaluating the action of commercial peroxidase and peroxidase from soybean bran (SB) and rice bran (RB) in zearalenone (ZEA) reduction in a model solution and the characterization of the mechanism of enzyme action. POD was extracted from SB and RB in phosphate buffer by orbital agitation. Evaluation of the action of commercial POD and POD from SB and RB in ZEA reduction was carried out in phosphate buffer and aqueous solution, respectively. Parameters of K M and V max were determined in the concentration range from 0.16 to 6 µg mL -1 . ZEA reduction was determined and the mechanism of enzyme action was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high-pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Commercial POD and POD from RB and SB reduced ZEA concentration by 69.9, 47.4 and 30.6% in 24 h, respectively. K M values were 39.61 and 8.90 µM whereas V max values were 0.170 and 0.011 µM min -1 for commercial POD and POD from RB, respectively. The characterization of the mechanism of enzyme action showed the oxidoreductive action of commercial POD in the mycotoxin. The use of commercial POD and POD from agro-industrial by-products, such as SB and RB, could be a promising alternative for ZEA biodegradation.

  13. Evaluation of miRNA-196a2 and apoptosis-related target genes: ANXA1, DFFA and PDCD4 expression in gastrointestinal cancer patients: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Toraih, Eman A.; Ibrahiem, Afaf; Abdeldayem, Hala; Mohamed, Amany O.; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M.

    2017-01-01

    Previous reports have suggested the significant association of miRNAs aberrant expression with tumor initiation, progression and metastasis in cancer, including gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. The current preliminary study aimed to evaluate the relative expression levels of miR-196a2 and three of its selected apoptosis-related targets; ANXA1, DFFA and PDCD4 in a sample of GI cancer patients. Quantitative real-time PCR for miR-196a2 and its selected mRNA targets, as well as immunohistochemical assay for annexin A1 protein expression were detected in 58 tissues with different GI cancer samples. In addition, correlation with the clinicopathological features and in silico network analysis of the selected molecular markers were analyzed. Stratified analyses by cancer site revealed elevated levels of miR-196a2 and low expression of the selected target genes. Annexin protein expression was positively correlated with its gene expression profile. In colorectal cancer, miR-196a over-expression was negatively correlated with annexin A1 protein expression (r = -0.738, p < 0.001), and both were indicators of unfavorable prognosis in terms of poor differentiation, larger tumor size, and advanced clinical stage. Taken together, aberrant expression of miR-196a2 and the selected apoptosis-related biomarkers might be involved in GI cancer development and progression and could have potential diagnostic and prognostic roles in these types of cancer; particularly colorectal cancer, provided the results experimentally validated and confirmed in larger multi-center studies. PMID:29091952

  14. Effects of ultraviolet B irradiation, proinflammatory cytokines and raised extracellular calcium concentration on the expression of ATP2A2 and ATP2C1.

    PubMed

    Mayuzumi, N; Ikeda, S; Kawada, H; Fan, P S; Ogawa, H

    2005-04-01

    Darier disease (DD) and Hailey-Hailey disease (HHD) are autosomal dominantly inherited skin disorders that histologically share the characteristics of suprabasal separation and acantholysis of epidermal keratinocytes. Various mutations in the DD gene (ATP2A2) and the HHD gene (ATP2C1) (respectively encoding the calcium pumps of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus) have recently been described in multiple families with DD and HHD. Mutations in ATP2A2 or ATP2C1 have been suggested as causing the conditions via the mechanism of haploinsufficiency. Ultraviolet (UV) B irradiation is thought to be an aggravating factor in both diseases. To examine the effects of various stimuli on ATP2A2 and ATP2C1 mRNA expression, and to examine the role of calcium pumps during keratinocyte differentiation. The effects of UVB irradiation, of UVB-inducible inflammatory cytokines produced by keratinocytes and of high-calcium medium (1.8 mmol L(-1) as opposed to 0.08 mmol L(-1) Ca2+) on ATP2A2 and ATP2C1 mRNA expression were quantified in cultured normal human keratinocytes using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Expression of ATP2A2 and ATP2C1 mRNA was suppressed immediately after exposure to UVB irradiation, and modulation of mRNA expression was achieved in keratinocytes cultured with proinflammatory cytokines. The mRNA expression of both genes was increased significantly after the shift to high extracellular Ca2+ concentration. The results suggest that modulation of ATP2A2 and ATP2C1 mRNA expression by UV or cytokines might contribute to the clinical presentations unique to DD and HHD, and that the controlled expression of these genes plays an important role in keratinocyte homeostasis, function and differentiation.

  15. Calcium promotes activity and confers heat stability on plant peroxidases

    PubMed Central

    Plieth, Christoph; Vollbehr, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate how peroxidase (PO) activities and their heat stability correlate with the availability of free Ca2+ ions. Calcium ions work as a molecular switch for PO activity and exert a protective function, rendering POs heat stable. The concentration ranges of these two activities differ markedly. POs are activated by µM Ca2+ concentration ranges, whereas heat stabilization is observed in the nM range. This suggests the existence of different Ca2+ binding sites. The heat stability of POs depends on the source plant species. Terrestrial plants have POs that exhibit higher temperature stability than those POs from limnic and marine plants. Different POs from a single species can differ in terms of heat stability. The abundance of different POs within a plant is dependent on age and developmental stage. The heat stability of a PO does not necessarily correlate with the maximum temperature the source species is usually exposed to in its natural habitat. This raises questions on the role of POs in the heat tolerance of plants. Consequently, detailed investigations are needed to identify and characterize individual POs, with regard to their genetic origin, subcellular expression, tissue abundance, developmental emergence and their functions in innate and acquired heat tolerance. PMID:22580695

  16. Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants: Myriad Roles of Ascorbate Peroxidase

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Saurabh; Fartyal, Dhirendra; Agarwal, Aakrati; Shukla, Tushita; James, Donald; Kaul, Tanushri; Negi, Yogesh K.; Arora, Sandeep; Reddy, Malireddy K.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most significant manifestations of environmental stress in plants is the increased production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). These ROS, if allowed to accumulate unchecked, can lead to cellular toxicity. A battery of antioxidant molecules is present in plants for keeping ROS levels under check and to maintain the cellular homeostasis under stress. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) is a key antioxidant enzyme of such scavenging systems. It catalyses the conversion of H2O2 into H2O, employing ascorbate as an electron donor. The expression of APX is differentially regulated in response to environmental stresses and during normal plant growth and development as well. Different isoforms of APX show differential response to environmental stresses, depending upon their sub-cellular localization, and the presence of specific regulatory elements in the upstream regions of the respective genes. The present review delineates role of APX isoforms with respect to different types of abiotic stresses and its importance as a key antioxidant enzyme in maintaining cellular homeostasis. PMID:28473838

  17. Biotechnological advances towards an enhanced peroxidase production in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Krainer, Florian W; Gerstmann, Michaela A; Darnhofer, Barbara; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth; Glieder, Anton

    2016-09-10

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is a high-demand enzyme for applications in diagnostics, bioremediation, biocatalysis and medicine. Current HRP preparations are isolated from horseradish roots as mixtures of biochemically diverse isoenzymes. Thus, there is a strong need for a recombinant production process enabling a steady supply with enzyme preparations of consistent high quality. However, most current recombinant production systems are limited at titers in the low mg/L range. In this study, we used the well-known yeast Pichia pastoris as host for recombinant HRP production. To enhance recombinant enzyme titers we systematically evaluated engineering approaches on the secretion process, coproduction of helper proteins, and compared expression from the strong methanol-inducible PAOX1 promoter, the strong constitutive PGAP promoter, and a novel bidirectional promoter PHTX1. Ultimately, coproduction of HRP and active Hac1 under PHTX1 control yielded a recombinant HRP titer of 132mg/L after 56h of cultivation in a methanol-independent and easy-to-do bioreactor cultivation process. With regard to the many versatile applications for HRP, the establishment of a microbial host system suitable for efficient recombinant HRP production was highly overdue. The novel HRP production platform in P. pastoris presented in this study sets a new benchmark for this medically relevant enzyme. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Glutathione peroxidases of the potato cyst nematode Globodera Rostochiensis.

    PubMed

    Jones, J T; Reavy, B; Smant, G; Prior, A E

    2004-01-07

    We report the cloning and characterisation of full-length DNAs complementary to RNA (cDNAs) encoding two glutathione peroxidases (GpXs) from a plant parasitic nematode, the potato cyst nematode (PCN) Globodera rostochiensis. One protein has a functional signal peptide that targets the protein for secretion from animal cells while the other is predicted to be intracellular. Both genes are expressed in all parasite stages tested. The mRNA encoding the intracellular GpX is present throughout the nematode second stage juvenile and is particularly abundant in metabolically active tissues including the genital primordia. The mRNA encoding the secreted GpX is restricted to the hypodermis, the outermost cellular layer of the nematode, a location from which it is likely to be secreted to the parasite surface. Biochemical studies confirmed the secreted protein as a functional GpX and showed that, like secreted GpXs of other parasitic nematodes, it does not metabolise hydrogen peroxide but has a preference for larger hydroperoxide substrates. The intracellular protein is likely to have a role in metabolism of active oxygen species derived from internal body metabolism while the secreted protein may protect the parasite from host defences. Other functional roles for this protein are discussed.

  19. Tetra(p-tolyl)borate-functionalized solvent polymeric membrane: a facile and sensitive sensing platform for peroxidase and peroxidase mimetics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuewei; Qin, Wei

    2013-07-22

    The determination of peroxidase activities is the basis for enzyme-labeled bioaffinity assays, peroxidase-mimicking DNAzymes- and nanoparticles-based assays, and characterization of the catalytic functions of peroxidase mimetics. Here, a facile, sensitive, and cost-effective solvent polymeric membrane-based peroxidase detection platform is described that utilizes reaction intermediates with different pKa values from those of substrates and final products. Several key but long-debated intermediates in the peroxidative oxidation of o-phenylenediamine (o-PD) have been identified and their charge states have been estimated. By using a solvent polymeric membrane functionalized by an appropriate substituted tetraphenylborate as a receptor, those cationic intermediates could be transferred into the membrane from the aqueous phase to induce a large cationic potential response. Thus, the potentiometric indication of the o-PD oxidation catalyzed by peroxidase or its mimetics can be fulfilled. Horseradish peroxidase has been detected with a detection limit at least two orders of magnitude lower than those obtained by spectrophotometric techniques and traditional membrane-based methods. As an example of peroxidase mimetics, G-quadruplex DNAzymes were probed by the intermediate-sensitive membrane and a label-free thrombin detection protocol was developed based on the catalytic activity of the thrombin-binding G-quadruplex aptamer. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Glutathione Peroxidase Enzyme Activity in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Sara E.; Guo, Hongfei; Fedarko, Neal; DeZern, Amy; Fried, Linda P.; Xue, Qian-Li; Leng, Sean; Beamer, Brock; Walston, Jeremy D.

    2010-01-01

    Background It is hypothesized that free radical damage contributes to aging. Age-related decline in activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) may contribute to increased free radicals. We hypothesized that GPx activity decreases with age in a population of older women with disability. Methods Whole blood GPx activity was measured in baseline stored samples from participants in the Women's Health and Aging Study I, a cohort of disabled community-dwelling older women. Linear regression was used to determine cross-sectional associations between GPx activity and age, adjusting for hemoglobin, coronary disease, diabetes, selenium, and body mass index. Results Six hundred one participants had complete demographic, disease, and laboratory information. An inverse association was observed between GPx and age (regression coefficient = −2.9, p < .001), indicating that for each 1-year increase in age, GPx activity decreased by 2.9 μmol/min/L. This finding remained significant after adjustment for hemoglobin, coronary disease, diabetes, and selenium, but not after adjustment for body mass index and weight loss. Conclusion This is the first study to examine the association between age and GPx activity in an older adult cohort with disability and chronic disease. These findings suggest that, after age 65, GPx activity declines with age in older women with disability. This decline does not appear to be related to diseases that have been previously reported to alter GPx activity. Longitudinal examination of GPx activity and other antioxidant enzymes in diverse populations of older adults will provide additional insight into age- and disease-related changes in these systems. PMID:18511755

  1. Petunia peroxidase a: isolation, purification and characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, T; Wijsman, H J; van Loon, L C

    1991-07-01

    The fast-moving anionic peroxidase isoenzyme variant PRXa was purified from leaves of petunia (Petunia hybrida). Over 1300-fold purification was achieved by subjecting extracellular extracts to two sequential acetone precipitations and resuspending the pellets at pH 5.0 and pH 8.0, respectively, followed by gel filtration and chromatofocusing. The purified enzyme had an absorbance ratio (A405 nm/A280 nm) of 3.6, a molecular mass of about 37 kDa and a pI of 3.8. Three molecular forms with slightly different molecular masses were separated by concanavalin-A--Sepharose affinity chromatography, indicating that these three forms differ in their carbohydrate moieties. The absorption spectrum of PRXa had maxima at 496 and 636 nm and a Soret band at 405 nm. Spectra of compounds I and IV were obtained by titrating a batch of PRXa stored for several months at -20 degrees C with H2O2. The addition of 1 mol H2O2/mol freshly purified PRXa caused the formation of compound II, indicating that freshly isolated PRXa contains a bound hydrogen donor which is lost upon storage. Compound III was obtained from both preparations in the presence of excess H2O2. The pH optimum of PRXa for the reaction with H2O2 and guaiacol was 5.0 and its specific activity 61 mkat/g protein. Among various aromatic compounds, coniferyl alcohol was polymerized by PRXa to presumed lignin-like material. The extracellular localization and high affinity of PRXa for the cinnamic acid derivatives suggest that this isoenzyme functions in the polymerization or cross-linking of lignin in the plant cell wall.

  2. Idiopathic hirsutism: local and peripheral expression of aromatase (CYP19A) and 5α-reductase genes (SRD5A1 and SRD5A2).

    PubMed

    Caglayan, A Okay; Dundar, Munis; Tanriverdi, Fatih; Baysal, Nuran A; Unluhizarci, Kursad; Ozkul, Yusuf; Borlu, Murat; Batukan, Cem; Kelestimur, Fahrettin

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate idiopathic hirsutism etiology via molecular studies testing peripheral and local aromatase and 5α-reductase expression. Assessment of the expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) for type 1 and 2,5α-reductase isoenzyme gene (SDR5A1, SDR5A2) and aromatase (CYP19A) in dermal papillae cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. University hospital. 28 untreated idiopathic hirsute patients and 20 healthy women (controls). Human skin biopsies and peripheral venous blood. SDR5A1, SDR5A2, CYP19A gene expression in skin biopsies and peripheral blood. A statistically significant reduction of SRD5A1, SRD5A2, and CYP19A gene expression was found in the dermal papillae cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cell between the study and control group. Further study, including protein expression and enzyme activity assays, are warranted to characterize the paradoxically low gene expression levels of local 5α-reductase and aromatase in women with idiopathic hirsutism. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular cloning and tissue-specific transcriptional regulation of the first peroxidase family member, Udp1, in stinging nettle (Urtica dioica).

    PubMed

    Douroupi, Triantafyllia G; Papassideri, Issidora S; Stravopodis, Dimitrios J; Margaritis, Lukas H

    2005-12-05

    A full-length cDNA clone, designated Udp1, was isolated from Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), using a polymerase chain reaction based strategy. The putative Udp1 protein is characterized by a cleavable N-terminal signal sequence, likely responsible for the rough endoplasmic reticulum entry and a 310 amino acids mature protein, containing all the important residues, which are evolutionary conserved among different members of the plant peroxidase family. A unique structural feature of the Udp1 peroxidase is defined into the short carboxyl-terminal extension, which could be associated with the vacuolar targeting process. Udp1 peroxidase is differentially regulated at the transcriptional level and is specifically expressed in the roots. Interestingly, wounding and ultraviolet radiation stress cause an ectopic induction of the Udp1 gene expression in the aerial parts of the plant. A genomic DNA fragment encoding the Udp1 peroxidase was also cloned and fully sequenced, revealing a structural organization of three exons and two introns. The phylogenetic relationships of the Udp1 protein to the Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidase family members were also examined and, in combination with the homology modelling approach, dictated the presence of distinct structural elements, which could be specifically involved in the determination of substrate recognition and subcellular localization of the Udp1 peroxidase.

  4. Expressions of EphA2 and EphrinA-1 in early squamous cell cervical carcinomas and their relation to prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Ruth; de Putte, Gregg Van; Suo, Zhenhe; Lie, A Kathrine; Kristensen, Gunnar B

    2008-01-01

    By using immunohistochemistry we investigated the expression of EphA2 and EphrinA-1 in 217 early squamous cell cervical carcinomas and examine their prognostic relevance. For EphA2 expression, 21 tumors (10%) showed negative, 108 (50%) weak positive, 69 (32%) moderate positive and 19 (9%) strong positive, whereas for EphrinA-1 expression, 33 tumors (15%) showed negative, 91 (42%) weak positive, 67 (31%) moderate positive and 26 (12%) strong positive. In univariate analysis high expression (strong staining) of EphrinA-1 was associated with poor disease-free (P = 0.033) and disease-specific (P = 0.039) survival. However, in the multivariate analyses neither EphrinA-1 nor EphA2 was significantly associated to survival. The increased levels of EphA2 and EphrinA-1 in a relative high number of early stage squamous cell carcinomas suggested that these two proteins may play an important role in the development of a subset of early cervical cancers. However, EphA2 and EphrinA-1 were not independently associated with clinical outcome. PMID:18566674

  5. A novel thromboxane A2 receptor N42S variant results in reduced surface expression and platelet dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Shaista P; Lordkipanidzé, Marie; Jones, Matthew L; Dawood, Ban; Murden, Sherina; Cunningham, Margaret R; Mumford, Andrew D; Wilde, Jonathan T; Watson, Steve P; Mundell, Stuart J; Lowe, Gillian C

    2014-05-05

    A small number of thromboxane receptor variants have been described in patients with a bleeding history that result in platelet dysfunction. We have identified a patient with a history of significant bleeding, who expresses a novel heterozygous thromboxane receptor variant that predicts an asparagine to serine substitution (N42S). This asparagine is conserved across all class A GPCRs, suggesting a vital role for receptor structure and function.We investigated the functional consequences of the TP receptor heterozygous N42S substitution by performing platelet function studies on platelet-rich plasma taken from the patient and healthy controls. We investigated the N42S mutation by expressing the wild-type (WT) and mutant receptor in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. Aggregation studies showed an ablation of arachidonic acid responses in the patient, whilst there was right-ward shift of the U46619 concentration response curve (CRC). Thromboxane generation was unaffected. Calcium mobilisation studies in cells lines showed a rightward shift of the U46619 CRC in N42S-expressing cells compared to WT. Radioligand binding studies revealed a reduction in BMax in platelets taken from the patient and in N42S-expressing cells, whilst cell studies confirmed poor surface expression. We have identified a novel thromboxane receptor variant, N42S, which results in platelet dysfunction due to reduced surface expression. It is associated with a significant bleeding history in the patient in whom it was identified. This is the first description of a naturally occurring variant that results in the substitution of this highly conserved residue and confirms the importance of this residue for correct GPCR function.

  6. Hall Effect Thruster Interactions Data From the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 Satellites. Acquire Express-A2 SPT-100 Based Propulsion Subsystem and Other Subsystem Flight Operation TM-Data for the Period of March 12, 2000 to and Including June 15, 2000, Task 29

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.

    2003-01-01

    This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80 E. and 11 W., respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney s Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3 99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.

  7. Biosynthesis of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) in a melanoma cell line and its metabolization by peroxidases.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Melissa M; Coimbra, Janine B; Clara, Renan O; Dörr, Felipe A; Moreno, Ana Carolina R; Chagas, Jair R; Tufik, Sérgio; Pinto, Ernani; Catalani, Luiz H; Campa, Ana

    2014-04-01

    Tryptophan (TRP) is essential for many physiological processes, and its metabolism changes in some diseases such as infection and cancer. The most studied aspects of TRP metabolism are the kynurenine and serotonin pathways. A minor metabolic route, tryptamine and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) biosynthesis, has received far less attention, probably because of the very low amounts of these compounds detected only in some tissues, which has led them to be collectively considered as trace amines. In a previous study, we showed a metabolic interrelationship for TRP in melanoma cell lines. Here, we identified DMT and N,N-dimethyl-N-formyl-kynuramine (DMFK) in the supernatant of cultured SK-Mel-147 cells. Furthermore, when we added DMT to the cell culture, we found hydroxy-DMT (OH-DMT) and indole acetic acid (IAA) in the cell supernatant at 24 h. We found that SK-Mel-147 cells expressed mRNA for myeloperoxidase (MPO) and also had peroxidase activity. We further found that DMT oxidation was catalyzed by peroxidases. DMT oxidation by horseradish peroxidase, H2O2 and MPO from PMA-activated neutrophils produced DMFK, N,N-dimethyl-kynuramine (DMK) and OH-DMT. Oxidation of DMT by peroxidases apparently uses the common peroxidase cycle involving the native enzyme, compound I and compound II. In conclusion, this study describes a possible alternative metabolic pathway for DMT involving peroxidases that has not previously been described in humans and identifies DMT and metabolites in a melanoma cell line. The extension of these findings to other cell types and the biological effects of DMT and its metabolites on cell proliferation and function are key questions for future studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Expression of adhesion and extracellular matrix genes in human blastocysts upon attachment in a 2D co-culture system.

    PubMed

    Aberkane, A; Essahib, W; Spits, C; De Paepe, C; Sermon, K; Adriaenssens, T; Mackens, S; Tournaye, H; Brosens, J J; Van de, Velde H

    2018-05-26

    What are the changes in human embryos, in terms of morphology and gene expression, upon attachment to endometrial epithelial cells? Apposition and adhesion of human blastocysts to endometrial epithelial cells are predominantly initiated at the embryonic pole and these steps are associated with changes in expression of adhesion and extracellular matrix (ECM) genes in the embryo. Both human and murine embryos have been co-cultured with Ishikawa cells, although embryonic gene expression associated with attachment has not yet been investigated in an in-vitro implantation model. Vitrified human blastocysts were warmed and co-cultured for up to 48 h with Ishikawa cells, a model cell line for receptive endometrial epithelium. Six-days post fertilisation (6dpf) human embryos were co-cultured with Ishikawa cells for 12 h, 24 h (7dpf) or 48 h (8dpf) and attachment rate and morphological development investigated. Expression of 84 adhesion and ECM genes was analysed by quantitative PCR. Immunofluorescence microscopy was used to assess the expression of three informative genes at the protein level. Data are reported on 115 human embryos. Mann-Whitney U was used for statistical analysis between two groups, with P < 0.05 considered significant. The majority of embryos attached to Ishikawa cells at the level of the polar trophectoderm; 41% of co-cultured embryos were loosely attached after 12 h and 86% firmly attached after 24 h. Outgrowth of hCG-positive embryonic cells at 8dpf indicated differentiation of trophectoderm into invasive syncytiotrophoblast. Gene expression analysis was performed on loosely attached and unattached embryos co-cultured with Ishikawa cells for 12 h. In contrast to unattached embryos, loosely attached embryos expressed THBS1, TNC, COL12A1, CTNND2, ITGA3, ITGAV, and LAMA3 and had significantly higher CD44 and TIMP1 transcript levels (P = 0.014 and P = 0.029, respectively). LAMA3, THBS1 and TNC expression was validated at the protein

  9. [Expressions of angiogenesis-related factors: CD105, EphA2 and EphrinA1 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and clinical implication].

    PubMed

    Su, J; Ji, X B; Xie, J H; Li, W

    2016-12-07

    Objective: To investigate the expressions of endoglin (CD105), erythropoietin-producing hepatocyte receptor A2 (EphA2) and its ligand ephrinA1 proteins in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and the relationship between their expressions and the clinicopathological factors of LSCC. Methods: The expressions of CD105, EphA2 and EphrinA1 proteins were detected with immunohistochemical staining in LSCC in 76 cases and adjacent normal laryngeal tissues (ANLT) (S-P) in 25 cases.SPSS 17.0 software was used to analyze the data. Results: The mean microvessel density (MVD) value marked by CD105 staining in LSCC was 10.33±2.29, which was significantly higher than that in ANLT(1.20±1.04, t =18.732, P <0.05). The CD105-MVD was correlated with T stage, histological grading, clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, recurrence and prognosis in LSCC (F value was 5.34, 4.79, 5.36, t value was -2.70, 2.56, all P <0.05). The positive expression rates of EphA2 and EphrinA1 in LSCC were 78.95% (60/76), and 81.85% (62/76), which were respectively significantly higher than 40% (10/25) for EphA2 expression and 44% (11/25) for EphrinA1, expression in ANLT (χ 2 value was 13.41, 13.26, both P <0.05). EphA2 expression was correlated with histological grading, T stage, clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, recurrence and prognosis in LSCC (χ 2 value was 6.25, 14.60, 15.11, 8.52, 5.54, all P <0.05). EphrinA1 expression was correlated with T stage, clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, recurrence and prognosis in LSCC (χ 2 value was 6.44, 12.28, 16.78, 6.44, all P <0.05). The expressions of CD105, EphA2 and EphrinA1 were positively correlated with each other r value was 0.72, 0.74, 0.64, all P <0.05. Survival analysis indicated that the expressions of CD105 and EphA2, histological grading, lymph node metastasis, clinical stage and recurrence were independent factors for tumor prognosis in LSCC ( P <0.05). Conclusions: The expressions of CD105, EphA2 and EphrinA1 protein were positively

  10. Relationship between oxidizable fatty acid content and level of antioxidant glutathione peroxidases in marine fish

    PubMed Central

    Grim, Jeffrey M.; Hyndman, Kelly A.; Kriska, Tamas; Girotti, Albert W.; Crockett, Elizabeth L.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Biological membranes can be protected from lipid peroxidation by antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT) and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases 1 and 4 (GPx1 and GPx4). Unlike GPx1, GPx4 can directly detoxify lipid hydroperoxides in membranes without prior action of phospholipase A2. We hypothesized that (1) GPx4 is enhanced in species that contain elevated levels of highly oxidizable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and (2) activities of antioxidant enzymes are prioritized to meet species-specific oxidative stresses. In this study we examined (i) activities of the oxidative enzyme citrate synthase (CS) and antioxidant (CAT, GPx1 and GPx4) enzymes, (ii) GPx4 protein expression, and (iii) phospholipid composition in livers of five species of marine fish (Myxine glutinosa, Petromyzon marinus, Squalus acanthias, Fundulus heteroclitus and Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus) that contain a range of PUFA. GPx4 activity was, on average, 5.8 times higher in F. heteroclitus and S. acanthias than in the other three marine fish species sampled. Similarly, activities of CAT and GPx1 were highest in S. acanthias and F. heteroclitus, respectively. GPx4 activity for all species correlates with membrane unsaturation, as well as oxidative activity as indicated by CS. These data support our hypothesis that GPx4 level in marine fish is a function, at least in part, of high PUFA content in these animals. GPx1 activity was also correlated with membrane unsaturation, indicating that marine species partition resources among glutathione-dependent defenses for protection from the initial oxidative insult (e.g. H2O2) and to repair damaged lipids within biological membranes. PMID:22031739

  11. Lineage tracing of dlx1a/2a and dlx5a/6a expressing cells in the developing zebrafish brain.

    PubMed

    Solek, Cynthia M; Feng, Shengrui; Perin, Sofia; Weinschutz Mendes, Hellen; Ekker, Marc

    2017-07-01

    Lineage tracing of specific populations of progenitor cells provides crucial information about developmental programs. Four members of the Dlx homeobox gene family, Dlx1,2, 5 and 6, are involved in the specification of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons in the vertebrate forebrain. Orthologous genes in mammals and teleost show similarities in expression patterns and transcriptional regulation mechanisms. We have used lineage tracing to permanently label dlx-expressing cells in the zebrafish and have characterized the progeny of these cells in the larva and in the juvenile and adult brain. We have found that dlx1a/2a and dlx5a/6a expressing progenitors give rise, for the most part, to small populations of cells which constitute only a small proportion of GABAergic cells in the adult brain tissue. Moreover, some of the cells do not acquire a neuronal phenotype suggesting that, regardless of the time a cell expresses dlx genes in the brain, it can potentially give rise to cells other than neurons. In some instances, labeling larval dlx5a/6a-expressing cells, but not dlx1a/2a-expressing cells, results in massively expanding, widespread clonal expansion throughout the adult brain. Our data provide a detailed lineage analysis of the dlx1a/2a and dlx5a/6a expressing progenitors in the zebrafish brain and lays the foundation for further characterization of the role of these transcription factors beyond the specification of GABAergic neurons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The neuronal Ca(2+) -binding protein 2 (NECAB2) interacts with the adenosine A(2A) receptor and modulates the cell surface expression and function of the receptor.

    PubMed

    Canela, Laia; Luján, Rafael; Lluís, Carme; Burgueño, Javier; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Franco, Rafael; Ciruela, Francisco

    2007-09-01

    Heptaspanning membrane also known as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) do interact with a variety of intracellular proteins whose function is regulate receptor traffic and/or signaling. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, NECAB2, a neuronal calcium binding protein, was identified as a binding partner for the adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R) interacting with its C-terminal domain. Co-localization, co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down experiments showed a close and specific interaction between A(2A)R and NECAB2 in both transfected HEK-293 cells and also in rat striatum. Immunoelectron microscopy detection of NECAB2 and A(2A)R in the rat striatopallidal structures indicated that both proteins are co-distributed in the same glutamatergic nerve terminals. The interaction of NECAB2 with A(2A)R modulated the cell surface expression, the ligand-dependent internalization and the receptor-mediated activation of the MAPK pathway. Overall, these results show that A(2A)R interacts with NECAB2 in striatal neurones co-expressing the two proteins and that the interaction is relevant for A(2A)R function.

  13. Expression of Receptors for Tetanus Toxin and Monoclonal Antibody A2B5 by Pancreatic Islet Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenbarth, G. S.; Shimizu, K.; Bowring, M. A.; Wells, S.

    1982-08-01

    Studies of the reaction of antibody A2B5 and tetanus toxin with pancreatic islet cells, islet cell tumors, and other human amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) tumors are described. By indirect immunofluorescence, antibody A2B5 and tetanus toxin were shown to specifically bind to the plasma membrane of human, rat, chicken, and mouse islet cells. The binding of antibody A2B5 to the cell surface of living islet cells has allowed isolation of these cells from a suspension of pancreatic cells by using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. In studies designed to determine whether tetanus toxin and antibody A2B5 bound to the same surface antigen, A2B5 and tetanus toxin did not compete for binding to normal islet cells, a human islet cell tumor, or a rat islet cell tumor. In addition to binding to islet cell tumors, antibody A2B5 reacts with frozen sections, isolated cells, and cell lines of neural, neural crest, and APUD origin.

  14. Improving the oxidative stability of a high redox potential fungal peroxidase by rational design.

    PubMed

    Sáez-Jiménez, Verónica; Acebes, Sandra; Guallar, Victor; Martínez, Angel T; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    Ligninolytic peroxidases are enzymes of biotechnological interest due to their ability to oxidize high redox potential aromatic compounds, including the recalcitrant lignin polymer. However, different obstacles prevent their use in industrial and environmental applications, including low stability towards their natural oxidizing-substrate H2O2. In this work, versatile peroxidase was taken as a model ligninolytic peroxidase, its oxidative inactivation by H2O2 was studied and different strategies were evaluated with the aim of improving H2O2 stability. Oxidation of the methionine residues was produced during enzyme inactivation by H2O2 excess. Substitution of these residues, located near the heme cofactor and the catalytic tryptophan, rendered a variant with a 7.8-fold decreased oxidative inactivation rate. A second strategy consisted in mutating two residues (Thr45 and Ile103) near the catalytic distal histidine with the aim of modifying the reactivity of the enzyme with H2O2. The T45A/I103T variant showed a 2.9-fold slower reaction rate with H2O2 and 2.8-fold enhanced oxidative stability. Finally, both strategies were combined in the T45A/I103T/M152F/M262F/M265L variant, whose stability in the presence of H2O2 was improved 11.7-fold. This variant showed an increased half-life, over 30 min compared with 3.4 min of the native enzyme, under an excess of 2000 equivalents of H2O2. Interestingly, the stability improvement achieved was related with slower formation, subsequent stabilization and slower bleaching of the enzyme Compound III, a peroxidase intermediate that is not part of the catalytic cycle and leads to the inactivation of the enzyme.

  15. Ectopic expression of UGT84A2 delayed flowering by indole-3-butyric acid-mediated transcriptional repression of ARF6 and ARF8 genes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gui-Zhi; Jin, Shang-Hui; Li, Pan; Jiang, Xiao-Yi; Li, Yan-Jie; Hou, Bing-Kai

    2017-12-01

    Ectopic expression of auxin glycosyltransferase UGT84A2 in Arabidopsis can delay flowering through increased indole-3-butyric acid and suppressed transcription of ARF6, ARF8 and flowering-related genes FT, SOC1, AP1 and LFY. Auxins are critical regulators for plant growth and developmental processes. Auxin homeostasis is thus an important issue for plant biology. Here, we identified an indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-specific glycosyltransferase, UGT84A2, and characterized its role in Arabidopsis flowering development. UGT84A2 could catalyze the glycosylation of IBA, but not indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). UGT84A2 transcription expression was clearly induced by IBA. When ectopically expressing in Arabidopsis, UGT84A2 caused obvious delay in flowering. Correspondingly, the increase of IBA level, the down-regulation of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 6 (ARF6) and ARF8, and the down-regulation of flowering-related genes such as FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO1(SOC1), APETALA1 (AP1), and LEAFY(LFY) were observed in transgenic plants. When exogenously applying IBA to wild-type plants, the late flowering phenotype, the down-regulation of ARF6, ARF8 and flowering-related genes recurred. We examined the arf6arf8 double mutants and found that the expression of flowering-related genes was also substantially decreased in these mutants. Together, our results suggest that glycosyltransferase UGT84A2 may be involved in flowering regulation through indole-3-butyric acid-mediated transcriptional repression of ARF6, ARF8 and downstream flowering pathway genes.

  16. Peroxidase extraction from jicama skin peels for phenol removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiong, T.; Lau, S. Y.; Khor, E. H.; Danquah, M. K.

    2016-06-01

    Phenol and its derivatives exist in various types of industrial effluents, and are known to be harmful to aquatic lives even at low concentrations. Conventional treatment technologies for phenol removal are challenged with long retention time, high energy consumption and process cost. Enzymatic treatment has emerged as an alternative technology for phenol removal from wastewater. These enzymes interact with aromatic compounds including phenols in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, forming free radicals which polymerize spontaneously to produce insoluble phenolic polymers. This work aims to extract peroxidase from agricultural wastes materials and establish its application for phenol removal. Peroxidase was extracted from jicama skin peels under varying extraction conditions of pH, sample-to-buffer ratio (w/v %) and temperature. Experimental results showed that extraction process conducted at pH 10, 40% w/v and 25oC demonstrated a peroxidase activity of 0.79 U/mL. Elevated temperatures slightly enhanced the peroxidase activities. Jicama peroxidase extracted at optimum extraction conditions demonstrated a phenol removal efficiency of 87.5% at pH 7. Phenol removal efficiency was ∼ 97% in the range of 30 - 40oC, and H2O2 dosage has to be kept below 100 mM for maximum removal under phenol concentration tested.

  17. Apoplastic peroxidases are required for salicylic acid-mediated defense against Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Mammarella, Nicole D; Cheng, Zhenyu; Fu, Zheng Qing; Daudi, Arsalan; Bolwell, G Paul; Dong, Xinnian; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2015-04-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by NADPH oxidases or apoplastic peroxidases play an important role in the plant defense response. Diminished expression of at least two Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidase encoding genes, PRX33 (At3g49110) and PRX34 (At3g49120), as a consequence of anti-sense expression of a heterologous French bean peroxidase gene (asFBP1.1), were previously shown to result in reduced levels of ROS following pathogen attack, enhanced susceptibility to a variety of bacterial and fungal pathogens, and reduced levels of callose production and defense-related gene expression in response to the microbe associated molecular pattern (MAMP) molecules flg22 and elf26. These data demonstrated that the peroxidase-dependent oxidative burst plays an important role in the elicitation of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). Further work reported in this paper, however, shows that asFBP1.1 antisense plants are not impaired in all PTI-associated responses. For example, some but not all flg22-elicited genes are induced to lower levels by flg22 in asFPB1.1, and callose deposition in asFPB1.1 is similar to wild-type following infiltration with a Pseudomonas syringae hrcC mutant or with non-host P. syringae pathovars. Moreover, asFPB1.1 plants did not exhibit any apparent defect in their ability to mount a hypersensitive response (HR). On the other hand, salicylic acid (SA)-mediated activation of PR1 was dramatically impaired in asFPB1.1 plants. In addition, P. syringae-elicited expression of many genes known to be SA-dependent was significantly reduced in asFBP1.1 plants. Consistent with this latter result, in asFBP1.1 plants the key regulator of SA-mediated responses, NPR1, showed both dramatically decreased total protein abundance and a failure to monomerize, which is required for its translocation into the nucleus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bidirectional signalling between EphA2 and ephrinA1 increases tubular cell attachment, laminin secretion and modulates erythropoietin expression after renal hypoxic injury.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Stéphane; Rudloff, Stefan; Koenig, Katrin Franziska; Karthik, Swapna; Hoogewijs, David; Huynh-Do, Uyen

    2016-08-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in hospitalized patients and has a poor prognosis, the severity of AKI being linked to progression to chronic kidney disease. This stresses the need to search for protective mechanisms during the acute phase. We investigated kidney repair after hypoxic injury using a rat model of renal artery branch ligation, which led to an oxygen gradient vertical to the corticomedullary axis. Three distinct zones were observed: tubular necrosis, infarction border zone and preserved normal tissue. EphA2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase with pivotal roles in cell architecture, migration and survival, upon juxtacrine contact with its membrane-bound ligand EphrinA1. Following hypoxia, EphA2 was up-regulated in cortical and medullary tubular cells, while EphrinA1 was up-regulated in interstitial cells adjacent to peritubular capillaries. Moreover, erythropoietin (EPO) messenger RNA (mRNA) was strongly expressed in the border zone of infarcted kidney within the first 6 h. To gain more insight into the biological impact of EphA2 and EphrinA1 up-regulation, we activated the signalling pathways in vitro using recombinant EphrinA1/Fc or EphA2/Fc proteins. Stimulation of EphA2 forward signalling in the proximal tubular cell line HK2 increased cell attachment and laminin secretion at the baso-lateral side. Conversely, activation of reverse signalling through EphrinA1 expressed by Hep3B cells promoted EPO production at both the transcriptional and protein level. Strikingly, in co-culture experiments, juxtacrine contact between EphA2 expressing MDCK and EphrinA1 expressing Hep3B was sufficient to induce a significant up-regulation of EPO mRNA production in the latter cells, even in the absence of hypoxic conditions. The synergistic effects of EphA2 and hypoxia led to a 15-20-fold increase of EPO expression. Collectively, our results suggest an important role of EphA2/EphrinA1 signalling in kidney repair after hypoxic injury through stimulation of (i) tubular

  19. Determination of a Kinetic Rate Expression for the Oxidation of Chloroform Over a 2% Platinum/Alpha-Alumina Catalyst

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    1 :--.. - .-C1 r 1,-r ... r - nlns r’,rt n wa~r ’te r .sn data source,. q ath.tad m.,,tA1fMnq the ddta flCa,,dr d 0 . 11 EC~m, .n’ . - r, In .7- ,m...effluent and are potential catalytic inhibitors . Rate expression 5 accounts for only the inhibition due the adsorption of the reaction product(s). Rate...tempcraturc being required to achieve a similar chloroform conversion. These results indicate that HCI is a strong catalytic inhibitor and is consistent with

  20. Elevated thyroid peroxidase antibodies with encephalopathy in MELAS syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chan, Derrick W S; Lim, C C Tchoyoson; Tay, Stacey K H; Choong, Chew-Thye; Phuah, Huan Kee

    2007-06-01

    Both the syndrome of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS syndrome) and Hashimoto's encephalopathy can present with nonspecific encephalopathy. Hashimoto's encephalopathy is an association of steroid-responsive encephalopathy with elevated thyroid peroxidase antibodies. Steroid-responsive encephalopathy, however, is not characteristic of the MELAS syndrome, which typically presents with stroke-like episodes and lactic acidosis in cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Here, a patient is described with goiter, recurrent encephalopathy and elevated thyroid peroxidase antibodies who apparently responded to steroid therapy; however, magnetic resonance imaging was atypical for Hashimoto's encephalopathy, and she was diagnosed with MELAS syndrome. This syndrome can present with apparent steroid-responsive encephalopathy and elevated thyroid peroxidase antibodies, mimicking Hashimoto's encephalopathy, and should be suspected if lactic acidosis is present and typical features are detected on magnetic resonance imaging.

  1. Tissue-specific expression of the gene coding for human Clara cell 10-kD protein, a phospholipase A2-inhibitory protein.

    PubMed Central

    Peri, A; Cordella-Miele, E; Miele, L; Mukherjee, A B

    1993-01-01

    Clara cell 10-kD protein (cc10kD), a secretory phospholipase A2 inhibitor, is suggested to be the human counterpart of rabbit uteroglobin (UG). Because cc10kD is expressed constitutively at a very high level in the human respiratory epithelium, the 5' region of its gene may be useful in achieving organ-specific expression of recombinant DNA in gene therapy of diseases such as cystic fibrosis. However, it is important to establish the tissue-specific expression of this gene before designing gene transfer experiments. Since the UG gene in the rabbit is expressed in many other organs besides the lung and the endometrium, we investigated the organ and tissue specificity of human cc10kD gene expression using polymerase chain reaction, nucleotide sequence analysis, immunofluorescence, and Northern blotting. Our results indicate that, in addition to the lung, cc10kD is expressed in several nonrespiratory organs, with a distribution pattern very similar, if not identical, to that of UG in the rabbit. These results underscore the necessity for more detailed analyses of the 5' region of the human cc10kD gene before its usefulness in gene therapy could be fully assessed. These data also suggest that cc10kD and UG may have similar physiological function(s). Images PMID:8227325

  2. Inorganic chemistry of defensive peroxidases in the human oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Ashby, M T

    2008-10-01

    The innate host response system is comprised of various mechanisms for orchestrating host response to microbial infection of the oral cavity. The heterogeneity of the oral cavity and the associated microenvironments that are produced give rise to different chemistries that affect the innate defense system. One focus of this review is on how these spatial differences influence the two major defensive peroxidases of the oral cavity, salivary peroxidase (SPO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). With hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) as an oxidant, the defensive peroxidases use inorganic ions to produce antimicrobials that are generally more effective than H(2)O(2) itself. The concentrations of the inorganic substrates are different in saliva vs. gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Thus, in the supragingival regime, SPO and MPO work in unison for the exclusive production of hypothiocyanite (OSCN(-), a reactive inorganic species), which constantly bathes nascent plaques. In contrast, MPO is introduced to the GCF during inflammatory response, and in that environment it is capable of producing hypochlorite (OCl(-)), a chemically more powerful oxidant that is implicated in host tissue damage. A second focus of this review is on inter-person variation that may contribute to different peroxidase function. Many of these differences are attributed to dietary or smoking practices that alter the concentrations of relevant inorganic species in the oral cavity (e.g.: fluoride, F(-); cyanide, CN(-); cyanate, OCN(-); thiocyanate, SCN(-); and nitrate, NO(3)(-)). Because of the complexity of the host and microflora biology and the associated chemistry, it is difficult to establish the significance of the human peroxidase systems during the pathogenesis of oral diseases. The problem is particularly complex with respect to the gingival sulcus and periodontal pockets (where the very different defensive stratagems of GCF and saliva co-mingle). Despite this complexity, intriguing in vitro and in vivo

  3. The cDNA sequence of a neutral horseradish peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Bartonek-Roxå, E; Eriksson, H; Mattiasson, B

    1991-02-16

    A cDNA clone encoding a horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) peroxidase has been isolated and characterized. The cDNA contains 1378 nucleotides excluding the poly(A) tail and the deduced protein contains 327 amino acids which includes a 28 amino acid leader sequence. The predicted amino acid sequence is nine amino acids shorter than the major isoenzyme belonging to the horseradish peroxidase C group (HRP-C) and the sequence shows 53.7% identity with this isoenzyme. The described clone encodes nine cysteines of which eight correspond well with the cysteines found in HRP-C. Five potential N-glycosylation sites with the general sequence Asn-X-Thr/Ser are present in the deduced sequence. Compared to the earlier described HRP-C this is three glycosylation sites less. The shorter sequence and fewer N-glycosylation sites give the native isoenzyme a molecular weight of several thousands less than the horseradish peroxidase C isoenzymes. Comparison with the net charge value of HRP-C indicates that the described cDNA clone encodes a peroxidase which has either the same or a slightly less basic pI value, depending on whether the encoded protein is N-terminally blocked or not. This excludes the possibility that HRP-n could belong to either the HRP-A, -D or -E groups. The low sequence identity (53.7%) with HRP-C indicates that the described clone does not belong to the HRP-C isoenzyme group and comparison of the total amino acid composition with the HRP-B group does not place the described clone within this isoenzyme group. Our conclusion is that the described cDNA clone encodes a neutral horseradish peroxidase which belongs to a new, not earlier described, horseradish peroxidase group.

  4. Properties of a cationic peroxidase from Citrus jambhiri cv. Adalia.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Saleh A; El-Badry, Mohamed O; Drees, Ehab A; Fahmy, Afaf S

    2008-08-01

    The major pool of peroxidase activity is present in the peel of some Egyptian citrus species and cultivars compared to the juice and pulp. Citrus jambhiri cv. Adalia had the highest peroxidase activity among the examined species. Four anionic and one cationic peroxidase isoenzymes from C. jambhiri were detected using the purification procedure including ammonium sulfate precipitation, chromatography on diethylaminoethanol-cellulose, carboxymethyl-cellulose, and Sephacryl S-200 columns. Cationic peroxidase POII is proved to be pure, and its molecular weight was 56 kDa. A study of substrate specificity identified the physiological role of POII, which catalyzed the oxidation of some phenolic substrates in the order of o-phenylenediamine > guaiacol > o-dianisidine > pyrogallol > catechol. The kinetic parameters (K (m), V (max), and V (max)/K (m)) of POII for hydrolysis toward H2O2 and electron donor substrates were studied. The enzyme had pH and temperature optima at 5.5 and 40 degrees C, respectively. POII was stable at 10-40 degrees C and unstable above 50 degrees C. The thermal inactivation profile of POII is biphasic and characterized by a rapid decline in activity on exposure to heat. The most of POII activity (70-80%) was lost at 50, 60, and 70 degrees C after 15, 10, and 5 min of incubation, respectively. Most of the examined metal ions had a very slight effect on POII except of Li+, Zn2+, and Hg2+, which had partial inhibitory effects. In the present study, the instability of peroxidase above 50 degrees C makes the high temperature short time treatment very efficient for the inactivation of peel peroxidase contaminated in orange juice to avoid the formation of off-flavors.

  5. Electroenzymatic oxidation of veratryl alcohol by lignin peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Lee, KiBeom; Moon, Seung-Hyeon

    2003-05-08

    This paper reports the formation of veratraldehyde by electroenzymatic oxidation of veratryl alcohol (3,4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohol) hybridizing both electrochemical and enzymatic reactions and using lignin peroxidase. The novel electroenzymatic method was found to be effective for replacement of hydrogen peroxide by an electrochemical reactor, which is essential for enzyme activity of lignin peroxidase. The effects of operating parameters such as enzyme dosage, pH, and electric potential were investigated. Further, the kinetics of veratryl alcohol oxidation in an electrochemical reactor were compared to oxidation when hydrogen peroxide was supplied externally.

  6. Vascular defense responses in rice: peroxidase accumulation in xylem parenchyma cells and xylem wall thickening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilaire, E.; Young, S. A.; Willard, L. H.; McGee, J. D.; Sweat, T.; Chittoor, J. M.; Guikema, J. A.; Leach, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    The rice bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is a vascular pathogen that elicits a defensive response through interaction with metabolically active rice cells. In leaves of 12-day-old rice seedlings, the exposed pit membrane separating the xylem lumen from the associated parenchyma cells allows contact with bacterial cells. During resistant responses, the xylem secondary walls thicken within 48 h and the pit diameter decreases, effectively reducing the area of pit membrane exposed for access by bacteria. In susceptible interactions and mock-inoculated controls, the xylem walls do not thicken within 48 h. Xylem secondary wall thickening is developmental and, in untreated 65-day-old rice plants, the size of the pit also is reduced. Activity and accumulation of a secreted cationic peroxidase, PO-C1, were previously shown to increase in xylem vessel walls and lumen. Peptide-specific antibodies and immunogold-labeling were used to demonstrate that PO-C1 is produced in the xylem parenchyma and secreted to the xylem lumen and walls. The timing of the accumulation is consistent with vessel secondary wall thickening. The PO-C1 gene is distinct but shares a high level of similarity with previously cloned pathogen-induced peroxidases in rice. PO-C1 gene expression was induced as early as 12 h during resistant interactions and peaked between 18 and 24 h after inoculation. Expression during susceptible interactions was lower than that observed in resistant interactions and was undetectable after infiltration with water, after mechanical wounding, or in mature leaves. These data are consistent with a role for vessel secondary wall thickening and peroxidase PO-C1 accumulation in the defense response in rice to X. oryzae pv. oryzae.

  7. Molecular characterization of cDNAs for two anionic peroxidases from suspension cultures of sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Kim, K Y; Huh, G H; Lee, H S; Kwon, S Y; Hur, Y; Kwak, S S

    1999-07-01

    Two cDNAs for anionic peroxidase (PODs), swpa2 and swpa3, were isolated from suspension cultures of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), and their expression was investigated with a view to understanding the physiological function of PODs in relation to environmental stresses. Swpa2 (whose putative mature protein product would have a pI value of 4.1) and swpa3 (4.3) encode polypeptides of 358 and 349 amino acids, respectively. The genes from which they were derived are predominantly expressed in cultured cells of sweet potato; transcripts of swpa2 were not detected in any tissues of the intact plant, and transcripts of swpa3 were detected at a low level only in the stem tissue. During cell culture, the expression patterns of the two genes differed; the level of swpa2 RNA progressively increased during cell growth, whereas that of swpa3 reached a maximum at the stationary phase and decreased on further culture. The two genes responded differently to stresses such as wounding or chilling of leaves. Swpa2 was strongly induced 48 h after wounding, but swpa3 was not affected by this treatment. The two genes were also highly expressed upon chilling (4 degrees C), but expression was reduced by prior acclimation at 15 degrees C. In addition, both genes were strongly induced immediately after treatment with ozone, and expression had decreased to the basal level 12 h after treatment. The response of these two genes to stresses such as aging, wounding, and chilling are different from those of the POD genes (swpa1 encoding an anionic product and swpn1 a neutral peroxidase) that we described previously. The responses of the two genes were also different from each other. These results suggest that the two new POD genes are involved in overcoming oxidative environmental stress, and each POD gene may be regulated by cell growth and environmental stress in different ways.

  8. Effect of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) and ticlopidine on CYP1A2 activity and caffeine metabolism: an in vitro comparative study with human cDNA-expressed CYP1A2 and liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Kot, Marta; Daniel, Władysława A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the effect of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), which is regarded as a cytochrome P450 (CYP) CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 inhibitor, and ticlopidine, an efficient CYP2B6, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 inhibitor, on the activity of human CYP1A2 and the metabolism of caffeine (1-N-, 3-N- and 7-N-demethylation, and C-8-hydroxylation). The experiment was carried out in vitro using human cDNA-expressed CYP1A2 (Supersomes) and human pooled liver microsomes. The effects of DDC and ticlopidine were compared to those of furafylline (a strong CYP1A2 inhibitor). A comparative in vitro study provides clear evidence that ticlopidine and DDC, applied at concentrations that inhibit the above-mentioned CYP isoforms, potently (as compared to furafylline) inhibit human CYP1A2 and caffeine metabolism, in particular 1-N- and 3-N-demethylation.

  9. AMPK Signaling Involvement for the Repression of the IL-1β-Induced Group IIA Secretory Phospholipase A2 Expression in VSMCs

    PubMed Central

    El Hadri, Khadija; Denoyelle, Chantal; Ravaux, Lucas; Viollet, Benoit; Foretz, Marc; Friguet, Bertrand; Rouis, Mustapha; Raymondjean, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Secretory Phospholipase A2 of type IIA (sPLA2 IIA) plays a crucial role in the production of lipid mediators by amplifying the neointimal inflammatory context of the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), especially during atherogenesis. Phenformin, a biguanide family member, by its anti-inflammatory properties presents potential for promoting beneficial effects upon vascular cells, however its impact upon the IL-1β-induced sPLA2 gene expression has not been deeply investigated so far. The present study was designed to determine the relationship between phenformin coupling AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) function and the molecular mechanism by which the sPLA2 IIA expression was modulated in VSMCs. Here we find that 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribonucleotide (AICAR) treatment strongly repressed IL-1β-induced sPLA2 expression at least at the transcriptional level. Our study reveals that phenformin elicited a dose-dependent inhibition of the sPLA2 IIA expression and transient overexpression experiments of constitutively active AMPK demonstrate clearly that AMPK signaling is involved in the transcriptional inhibition of sPLA2-IIA gene expression. Furthermore, although the expression of the transcriptional repressor B-cell lymphoma-6 protein (BCL-6) was markedly enhanced by phenformin and AICAR, the repression of sPLA2 gene occurs through a mechanism independent of BCL-6 DNA binding site. In addition we show that activation of AMPK limits IL-1β-induced NF-κB pathway activation. Our results indicate that BCL-6, once activated by AMPK, functions as a competitor of the IL-1β induced NF-κB transcription complex. Our findings provide insights on a new anti-inflammatory pathway linking phenformin, AMPK and molecular control of sPLA2 IIA gene expression in VSMCs. PMID:26162096

  10. AMPK Signaling Involvement for the Repression of the IL-1β-Induced Group IIA Secretory Phospholipase A2 Expression in VSMCs.

    PubMed

    El Hadri, Khadija; Denoyelle, Chantal; Ravaux, Lucas; Viollet, Benoit; Foretz, Marc; Friguet, Bertrand; Rouis, Mustapha; Raymondjean, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Secretory Phospholipase A2 of type IIA (sPLA2 IIA) plays a crucial role in the production of lipid mediators by amplifying the neointimal inflammatory context of the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), especially during atherogenesis. Phenformin, a biguanide family member, by its anti-inflammatory properties presents potential for promoting beneficial effects upon vascular cells, however its impact upon the IL-1β-induced sPLA2 gene expression has not been deeply investigated so far. The present study was designed to determine the relationship between phenformin coupling AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) function and the molecular mechanism by which the sPLA2 IIA expression was modulated in VSMCs. Here we find that 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribonucleotide (AICAR) treatment strongly repressed IL-1β-induced sPLA2 expression at least at the transcriptional level. Our study reveals that phenformin elicited a dose-dependent inhibition of the sPLA2 IIA expression and transient overexpression experiments of constitutively active AMPK demonstrate clearly that AMPK signaling is involved in the transcriptional inhibition of sPLA2-IIA gene expression. Furthermore, although the expression of the transcriptional repressor B-cell lymphoma-6 protein (BCL-6) was markedly enhanced by phenformin and AICAR, the repression of sPLA2 gene occurs through a mechanism independent of BCL-6 DNA binding site. In addition we show that activation of AMPK limits IL-1β-induced NF-κB pathway activation. Our results indicate that BCL-6, once activated by AMPK, functions as a competitor of the IL-1β induced NF-κB transcription complex. Our findings provide insights on a new anti-inflammatory pathway linking phenformin, AMPK and molecular control of sPLA2 IIA gene expression in VSMCs.

  11. Contrasting respirable quartz and kaolin retention of lecithin surfactant and expression of membranolytic activity following phospholipase A2 digestion.

    PubMed

    Wallace, W E; Keane, M J; Mike, P S; Hill, C A; Vallyathan, V; Regad, E D

    1992-11-01

    Respirable-sized quartz, a well-established fibrogenic mineral dust, is compared with kaolin in erythrocyte hemolysis assays after treatment with saline dispersion of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, a primary phospholipid component of pulmonary surfactant. Both dusts are rendered inactive after treatment, but the membranolytic activity is partly to fully restored after treatment with phospholipase A2, an enzyme normally associated with cellular plasma membranes and lysosomes. Phospholipid-coated dusts were incubated for periods of 2-72 h at a series of applied enzyme concentrations, and the adsorbed lipid species and hemolytic activity were quantitated at each time for both dusts. Surfactant was lost more readily from quartz than from kaolin, with consequent more rapid restoration of mineral surface hemolytic activity for quartz. Interactions of surfactant and mineral surface functional groups responsible for the mineral-specific rate differences, and implications for determining the mineral surface bioavailability of silica and silicate dusts, are discussed.

  12. The glucose oxidase-peroxidase assay for glucose

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The glucose oxidase-peroxidase assay for glucose has served as a very specific, sensitive, and repeatable assay for detection of glucose in biological samples. It has been used successfully for analysis of glucose in samples from blood and urine, to analysis of glucose released from starch or glycog...

  13. Peroxidase activity in cotton cell culture infected with Verticillium dahliae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In our studies with cotton, we have shown that the plant’s induced anionic peroxidases bind to chitin, which is a component of the cell wall of the plant pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae. In binding to the cell wall surface, they disrupt the integrity of the pathogen’s cell wall. Thus, these...

  14. Graft union formation in tomato plants: peroxidase and catalase involvement.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves; Carvajal, Micaela; Olmos, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    The use of grafted plants in vegetable crop production is now being expanded greatly. However, few data are available on the formation of graft unions in vegetables. In this work, the structural development of the graft union formation in tomato plants is studied, together with the possible relationship with activities of peroxidases and catalases. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedlings of cultivar Fanny were grafted on the rootstock of cultivar AR-9704 using the 'tongue approach grafting' method, and were grown in a crop chamber. A study of the structural development of the graft union and the involvement of peroxidases and catalases in the process of graft formation was carried out during the first stages of the graft union (4, 8 and 15 d after grafting). Observation of the structure of the graft union showed formation of xylem and phloem vessels through the graft union 8 d after grafting. In addition, root hydraulic conductance, L0, indicate that the graft union is fully functional 8 d after grafting, which coincided with an increase of peroxidase and catalase activities. These results suggest that increased peroxidase and catalase activities might be implicated in graft development in tomato plants.

  15. Interference of peptone and tyrosine with the lignin peroxidase assay.

    PubMed Central

    ten Have, R; Hartmans, S; Field, J A

    1997-01-01

    The N-unregulated white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 was cultured in 1 liter of peptone-yeast extract medium to produce lignin peroxidase (LiP). During the LiP assay, the oxidation of veratryl alcohol to veratraldehyde was inhibited due to tyrosine present in the peptone and the yeast extract. PMID:9251220

  16. The HLA-A2 Restricted T Cell Epitope HCV Core35–44 Stabilizes HLA-E Expression and Inhibits Cytolysis Mediated by Natural Killer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nattermann, Jacob; Nischalke, Hans Dieter; Hofmeister, Valeska; Ahlenstiel, Golo; Zimmermann, Henning; Leifeld, Ludger; Weiss, Elisabeth H.; Sauerbruch, Tilman; Spengler, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    Impaired activity of natural killer cells has been proposed as a mechanism contributing to viral persistence in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Natural cytotoxicity is regulated by interactions of HLA-E with inhibitory CD94/NKG2A receptors on natural killer (NK) cells. Here, we studied whether HCV core encodes peptides that bind to HLA-E and inhibit natural cytotoxicity. We analyzed 30 HCV core-derived peptides. Peptide-induced stabilization of HLA-E expression was measured flow cytometrically after incubating HLA-E-transfected cells with peptides. NK cell function was studied with a 51chromium-release-assay. Intrahepatic HLA-E expression was analyzed by an indirect immunoperoxidase technique and flow cytometry of isolated cells using a HLA-E-specific antibody. We identified peptide aa35–44, a well-characterized HLA-A2 restricted T cell epitope, as a peptide stabilizing HLA-E expression and thereby inhibiting NK cell-mediated lysis. Blocking experiments confirmed that this inhibitory effect of peptide aa35–44 on natural cytotoxicity was mediated via interactions between CD94/NKG2A receptors and enhanced HLA-E expression. In line with these in vitro data we found enhanced intrahepatic HLA-E expression on antigen-presenting cells in HCV-infected patients. Our data indicate the existence of T cell epitopes that can be recognized by HLA-A2 and HLA-E. This dual recognition may contribute to viral persistence in hepatitis C. PMID:15681828

  17. Expression of microRNA‑26b and identification of its target gene EphA2 in pituitary tissues in Yanbian cattle.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bao; Yu, Wang-Yang; Dai, Li-Sheng; Gao, Yan; Ding, Yu; Yu, Xian-Feng; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Jia-Bao

    2015-10-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are a class of single‑stranded non‑coding RNA molecules of 19‑24 nucleotides (nt) in length. They are widely expressed in animals, plants, bacteria and viruses. Via specific mRNA complementary pairing of target genes, miRNAs are able to regulate the expression of mRNA levels or inhibit protein translation following transcription. miRNA expression has a time‑ and space specificity, and it is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis, development, tumor metastasis occurrence and other biological processes. miR‑26b is an miRNA of 22 nt and is important in the regulation of cellular processes. With the advancement of molecular biology techniques in recent years, there have been extensive investigations into miR‑26b. Numerous studies have observed that miR‑26b is involved in early embryonic development, cell proliferation regulation, pituitary hormone secretion and other physiological activities. miRNAs are associated with the function of propagation. The present study used reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction to detect the relative expression levels of miR‑26b in the pituitary tissue of Yanbian cattle at different developmental stages. The 2‑∆∆Ct method was used to calculate the relative gene expression levels. The miRNA target gene database TargetScan and RNA22 were used for prediction of the miR‑26b target gene and selective recognition was also performed. The results demonstrated that miR‑26b is expressed in the pituitary tissues of Yanbian cattle at 6 and 24 months of age. The relative expression levels of miR‑26b in the pituitary tissues of 24‑month‑old Yanbian cattle were 2.41 times that of those in the six‑month‑old Yanbian cattle, demonstrating significant differences in the relative expression (P<0.01). The relative expression of the candidate target genes, EphA2 and miR‑26b, exhibited the opposite expression pattern. The relative expression levels in the

  18. Expression of microRNA-26b and identification of its target gene EphA2 in pituitary tissues in Yanbian cattle

    PubMed Central

    YUAN, BAO; YU, WANG-YANG; DAI, LI-SHENG; GAO, YAN; DING, YU; YU, XIAN-FENG; CHEN, JIAN; ZHANG, JIA-BAO

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are a class of single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules of 19–24 nucleotides (nt) in length. They are widely expressed in animals, plants, bacteria and viruses. Via specific mRNA complementary pairing of target genes, miRNAs are able to regulate the expression of mRNA levels or inhibit protein translation following transcription. miRNA expression has a time- and space specificity, and it is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis, development, tumor metastasis occurrence and other biological processes. miR-26b is an miRNA of 22 nt and is important in the regulation of cellular processes. With the advancement of molecular biology techniques in recent years, there have been extensive investigations into miR-26b. Numerous studies have observed that miR-26b is involved in early embryonic development, cell proliferation regulation, pituitary hormone secretion and other physiological activities. miRNAs are associated with the function of propagation. The present study used reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction to detect the relative expression levels of miR-26b in the pituitary tissue of Yanbian cattle at different developmental stages. The 2−ΔΔCt method was used to calculate the relative gene expression levels. The miRNA target gene database TargetScan and RNA22 were used for prediction of the miR-26b target gene and selective recognition was also performed. The results demonstrated that miR-26b is expressed in the pituitary tissues of Yanbian cattle at 6 and 24 months of age. The relative expression levels of miR-26b in the pituitary tissues of 24-month-old Yanbian cattle were 2.41 times that of those in the six-month-old Yanbian cattle, demonstrating significant differences in the relative expression (P<0.01). The relative expression of the candidate target genes, EphA2 and miR-26b, exhibited the opposite expression pattern. The relative expression levels in the pituitary tissues of six

  19. Dependency of a therapy-resistant state of cancer cells on a lipid peroxidase pathway.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Vasanthi S; Ryan, Matthew J; Dhruv, Harshil D; Gill, Shubhroz; Eichhoff, Ossia M; Seashore-Ludlow, Brinton; Kaffenberger, Samuel D; Eaton, John K; Shimada, Kenichi; Aguirre, Andrew J; Viswanathan, Srinivas R; Chattopadhyay, Shrikanta; Tamayo, Pablo; Yang, Wan Seok; Rees, Matthew G; Chen, Sixun; Boskovic, Zarko V; Javaid, Sarah; Huang, Cherrie; Wu, Xiaoyun; Tseng, Yuen-Yi; Roider, Elisabeth M; Gao, Dong; Cleary, James M; Wolpin, Brian M; Mesirov, Jill P; Haber, Daniel A; Engelman, Jeffrey A; Boehm, Jesse S; Kotz, Joanne D; Hon, Cindy S; Chen, Yu; Hahn, William C; Levesque, Mitchell P; Doench, John G; Berens, Michael E; Shamji, Alykhan F; Clemons, Paul A; Stockwell, Brent R; Schreiber, Stuart L

    2017-07-27

    Plasticity of the cell state has been proposed to drive resistance to multiple classes of cancer therapies, thereby limiting their effectiveness. A high-mesenchymal cell state observed in human tumours and cancer cell lines has been associated with resistance to multiple treatment modalities across diverse cancer lineages, but the mechanistic underpinning for this state has remained incompletely understood. Here we molecularly characterize this therapy-resistant high-mesenchymal cell state in human cancer cell lines and organoids and show that it depends on a druggable lipid-peroxidase pathway that protects against ferroptosis, a non-apoptotic form of cell death induced by the build-up of toxic lipid peroxides. We show that this cell state is characterized by activity of enzymes that promote the synthesis of polyunsaturated lipids. These lipids are the substrates for lipid peroxidation by lipoxygenase enzymes. This lipid metabolism creates a dependency on pathways converging on the phospholipid glutathione peroxidase (GPX4), a selenocysteine-containing enzyme that dissipates lipid peroxides and thereby prevents the iron-mediated reactions of peroxides that induce ferroptotic cell death. Dependency on GPX4 was found to exist across diverse therapy-resistant states characterized by high expression of ZEB1, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition in epithelial-derived carcinomas, TGFβ-mediated therapy-resistance in melanoma, treatment-induced neuroendocrine transdifferentiation in prostate cancer, and sarcomas, which are fixed in a mesenchymal state owing to their cells of origin. We identify vulnerability to ferroptic cell death induced by inhibition of a lipid peroxidase pathway as a feature of therapy-resistant cancer cells across diverse mesenchymal cell-state contexts.

  20. Streptococcus pyogenes Phospholipase A2 Induces the Expression of Adhesion Molecules on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells and Aorta of Mice.

    PubMed

    Oda, Masataka; Domon, Hisanori; Kurosawa, Mie; Isono, Toshihito; Maekawa, Tomoki; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Kawabata, Shigetada; Terao, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    The Streptococcus pyogenes phospholipase A 2 (SlaA) gene is highly conserved in the M3 serotype of group A S. pyogenes , which often involves hypervirulent clones. However, the role of SlaA in S. pyogenes pathogenesis is unclear. Herein, we report that SlaA induces the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1) via the arachidonic acid signaling cascade. Notably, recombinant SlaA induced ICAM1 and VCAM1 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), resulting in enhanced adhesion of human monocytic leukemia (THP-1) cells. However, C134A, a variant enzyme with no enzymatic activity, did not induce such events. In addition, culture supernatants from S. pyogenes SSI-1 enhanced the adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs, but culture supernatants from the Δ slaA isogenic mutant strain had limited effects. Aspirin, a cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor, prevented the adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs and did not induce ICAM1 and VCAM1 expression in HUVECs treated with SlaA. However, zileuton, a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, did not exhibit such effects. Furthermore, pre-administration of aspirin in mice intravenously injected with SlaA attenuated the transcriptional abundance of ICAM1 and VCAM1 in the aorta. These results suggested that SlaA from S. pyogenes stimulates the expression of adhesion molecules in vascular endothelial cells. Thus, SlaA contributes to the inflammation of vascular endothelial cells upon S. pyogenes infection.

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of a new basic peroxidase cDNA from soybean hypocotyls infected with Phytophthora sojae f.sp. glycines.

    PubMed

    Yi, S Y; Hwang, B K

    1998-10-31

    Differential display techniques were used to isolate cDNA clones corresponding to genes which were expressed in soybean hypocotyls by Phytophthora sojae f.sp. glycines infection. With a partial cDNA clone C20CI4 from the differential display PCR as a probe, a new basic peroxidase cDNA clone, designated GMIPER1, was isolated from a cDNA library of soybean hypocotyls infected with P. sojae f.sp. glycines. Sequence analysis revealed that the peroxidase clone encodes a mature protein of 35,813 Da with a putative signal peptide of 27 amino acids in its N-terminus. The amino acid sequence of the soybean peroxidase GMIPER1 is between 54-75% identical to other plant peroxidases including a soybean seed coat peroxidase. Southern blot analysis indicated that multiple copies of sequences related to GMIPER1 exist in the soybean genome. The mRNAs corresponding to the GMIPER1 cDNA accumulated predominantly in the soybean hypocotyls infected with the incompatible race of P. sojae f.sp. glycines, but were expressed at low levels in the compatible interaction. Soybean GMIPER1 mRNAs were not expressed in hypocotyls, leaves, stems, and roots of soybean seedlings. However, treatments with ethephon, salicylic acid or methyl jasmonate induced the accumulation of the GMIPER1 mRNAs in the different organs of soybean. These results suggest that the GMIPER1 gene encoding a putative pathogen-induced peroxidase may play an important role in induced resistance of soybean to P. sojae f.sp. glycines and in response to various external stresses.

  2. Characterisation of Translation Elongation Factor eEF1B Subunit Expression in Mammalian Cells and Tissues and Co-Localisation with eEF1A2

    PubMed Central

    Janikiewicz, Justyna; Doig, Jennifer; Abbott, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    Translation elongation is the stage of protein synthesis in which the translation factor eEF1A plays a pivotal role that is dependent on GTP exchange. In vertebrates, eEF1A can exist as two separately encoded tissue-specific isoforms, eEF1A1, which is almost ubiquitously expressed, and eEF1A2, which is confined to neurons and muscle. The GTP exchange factor for eEF1A1 is a complex called eEF1B made up of subunits eEF1Bα, eEF1Bδ and eEF1Bγ. Previous studies have cast doubt on the ability of eEF1B to interact with eEF1A2, suggesting that this isoform might use a different GTP exchange factor. We show that eEF1B subunits are all widely expressed to varying degrees in different cell lines and tissues, and at different stages of development. We show that ablation of any of the subunits in human cell lines has a small but significant impact on cell viability and cycling. Finally, we show that both eEF1A1 and eEF1A2 colocalise with all eEF1B subunits, in such close proximity that they are highly likely to be in a complex. PMID:25436608

  3. Express

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Express ; CASRN 101200 - 48 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  4. Regulation of HtrA2 on WT1 gene expression under imatinib stimulation and its effects on the cell biology of K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lixia; Li, Yan; Li, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Qing; Qiu, Shaowei; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Min; Xing, Haiyan; Rao, Qing; Tian, Zheng; Tang, Kejing; Wang, Jianxiang; Mi, Yingchang

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulation of Wilms Tumor 1 (WT1) by serine protease high-temperature requirement protein A2 (HtrA2), a member of the Htr family, in K562 cells. In addition, the study aimed to observe the effect of this regulation on cell biological functions and its associated mechanisms. Expression of WT1 and HtrA2 mRNA, and proteins following imatinib and the HtrA2 inhibitor 5-[5-(2-nitrophenyl) furfuryl iodine]-1, 3-diphenyl-2-thiobarbituric acid (UCF-101) treatment was detected with reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. Subsequent to treatment with drugs and UCF-101, the proliferative function of K562 cells was detected using MTT assays, and the rate of apoptosis was detected using Annexin V with propidium iodide flow cytometry in K562 cells. The protein levels in the signaling pathway were analyzed using western blotting following treatment with imatinib and UCF-101. In K562 cells, imatinib treatment activated HtrA2 gene at a transcription level, while the WT1 gene was simultaneously downregulated. Following HtrA2 inhibitor (UCF-101) treatment, the downregulation of WT1 increased gradually. At the protein level, imatinib induced the increase in HtrA2 protein level and concomitantly downregulated WT1 protein level. Subsequent to HtrA2 inhibition by UCF-101, the WT1 protein level decreased temporarily, but eventually increased. Imatinib induced apoptosis in K562 cells, but this effect was attenuated by the HtrA2 inhibitor UCF-101, resulting in the upregulation of the WT1 protein level. However; UCF-101 did not markedly change the proliferation inhibition caused by imatinib. Imatinib activated the p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling pathway in K562 cells, and UCF-101 affected the activation of imatinib in the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Imatinib inhibited the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK1/2) pathway markedly and persistently, but UCF-101

  5. Inactivation of a Pleurotus ostreatus versatile peroxidase-encoding gene (mnp2) results in reduced lignin degradation.

    PubMed

    Salame, Tomer M; Knop, Doriv; Levinson, Dana; Mabjeesh, Sameer J; Yarden, Oded; Hadar, Yitzhak

    2014-01-01

    Lignin biodegradation by white-rot fungi is pivotal to the earth's carbon cycle. Manganese peroxidases (MnPs), the most common extracellular ligninolytic peroxidases produced by white-rot fungi, are considered key in ligninolysis. Pleurotus ostreatus, the oyster mushroom, is a preferential lignin degrader occupying niches rich in lignocellulose such as decaying trees. Here, we provide direct, genetically based proof for the functional significance of MnP to P. ostreatus ligninolytic capacity under conditions mimicking its natural habitat. When grown on a natural lignocellulosic substrate of cotton stalks under solid-state culture conditions, gene and isoenzyme expression profiles of its short MnP and versatile peroxidase (VP)-encoding gene family revealed that mnp2 was predominately expressed. mnp2, encoding the versatile short MnP isoenzyme 2 was disrupted. Inactivation of mnp2 resulted in three interrelated phenotypes, relative to the wild-type strain: (i) reduction of 14% and 36% in lignin mineralization of stalks non-amended and amended with Mn(2+), respectively; (ii) marked reduction of the bioconverted lignocellulose sensitivity to subsequent bacterial hydrolyses; and (iii) decrease in fungal respiration rate. These results may serve as the basis to clarify the roles of the various types of fungal MnPs and VPs in their contribution to white-rot decay of wood and lignocellulose in various ecosystems. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Comparative analysis of peroxidase profiles in Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra L.): evaluation of leaf growth related isozymes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lei; Wang, Chenchen; Huang, Jiabao; Zhang, Jianhua; Mao, Zhonggui; Wang, Haiou

    2013-01-15

    Plant peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7) with different isoforms catalyze various reactions in plant growth and development. However, it is difficult to elucidate the function of each isozyme in one plant. Here, we compared profiles of entire isozyme in young seedling and mature leaves of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra L.) on zymogram and ion exchange chromatography in order to investigate leaf growth related peroxidase isozymes. The results showed that four isozymes were constitutively expressed in kale leaves, whereas other two isozymes were induced in the mature leaves. The Mono Q ion exchange chromatography separated the six isozymes into two major groups due to the difference in their isoelectric points. The results suggested that although there were several isozymes in the leaves of Chinese kale, one isozyme functioned mainly through the leaf development. Two anionic isozymes with molecular weights lower than 32 kDa were considered mature related. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Signaling role of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPX) accompanying sensing of NaCl stress in etiolated sunflower seedling cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Jain, Prachi; Bhatla, Satish C

    2014-01-01

    Sunflower seedlings subjected to 120 mM NaCl stress exhibit high total peroxidase activity, differential expression of its isoforms and accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides. This coincides with high specific activity of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPX) in the 10,000g supernatant from the homogenates of 2-6 d old seedling cotyledons. An upregulation of PHGPX activity by NaCl is evident from Western blot analysis. Confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) analysis of sections of cotyledons incubated with anti-GPX4 (PHGPX) antibody highlights an enhanced cytosolic accumulation of PHGPX, particularly around the secretory canals. Present work, thus, highlights sensing of NaCl stress in sunflower seedlings in relation with lipid hydroperoxide accumulation and its scavenging through an upregulation of PHGPX activity in the cotyledons.

  8. Effects of pH and Temperature on Recombinant Manganese Peroxidase Production and Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Fei; Kongsaeree, Puapong; Schilke, Karl; Lajoie, Curtis; Kelly, Christine

    The enzyme manganese peroxidase (MnP) is produced by numerous white-rot fungi to overcome biomass recalcitrance caused by lignin. MnP acts directly on lignin and increases access of the woody structure to synergistic wood-degrading enzymes such as cellulases and xylanases. Recombinant MnP (rMnP) can be produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris αMnP1-1 in fed-batch fermentations. The effects of pH and temperature on recombinant manganese peroxidase (rMnP) production by P. pastoris αMnP1-1 were investigated in shake flask and fed-batch fermentations. The optimum pH and temperature for a standardized fed-batch fermentation process for rMnP production in P. pastoris ctMnP1-1 were determined to be pH 6 and 30 °C, respectively. P. pastoris αMnP1-1 constitutively expresses the manganese peroxidase (mnp1) complementary DNA from Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and the rMnP has similar kinetic characteristics and pH activity and stability ranges as the wild-type MnP (wtMnP). Cultivation of P. chrysosporium mycelia in stationary flasks for production of heme peroxidases is commonly conducted at low pH (pH 4.2). However, shake flask and fed-batch fermentation experiments with P. pastoris αMnP1-1 demonstrated that rMnP production is highest at pH 6, with rMnP concentrations in the medium declining rapidly at pH less than 5.5, although cell growth rates were similar from pH 4-7. Investigations of the cause of low rMnP production at low pH were consistent with the hypothesis that intracellular proteases are released from dead and lysed yeast cells during the fermentation that are active against rMnP at pH less than 5.5.

  9. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of a salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis, Krøyer 1838) heme peroxidase with a potential role in extracellular matrixes.

    PubMed

    Øvergård, Aina-Cathrine; Eichner, Christiane; Nilsen, Frank; Dalvin, Sussie

    2017-04-01

    Heme peroxidases are the most abundant type of peroxidase catalyzing a H 2 O 2 -dependent oxidation of a wide variety of substrates. They are involved in numerous processes like the innate immune response, hormone and prostaglandin synthesis and crosslinking of proteins within extracellular matrixes (ECM) as well as molecules within the cuticle and chorion of arthropods and nematodes. In the present study, a Lepeophtheirus salmonis heme peroxidase (LsHPX) 1 was characterized. Amino acids in the active site of heme peroxidases were conserved, and the predicted protein sequence showed the highest similarity to genes annotated as chorion peroxidases and genes suggested to be involved in cuticle hardening or adhesion. LsHPX1 exhibited a dynamic expression during ontogenesis and during the nauplius molting cycle. Transcripts were localized to muscle cells near the muscle-tendon junction, in nerve tissue especially at neuromuscular junctions, subcuticular epithelium, subepithelial cells facing the hemolymph, exocrine glands within the subepithelial tissue and in isolated cells within the testis. Knock-down of LsHPX1 in nauplius larvae decreased the swimming activity of emerging copepodids. Histological analysis of knock-down animals revealed increased spacing between myofibers and changes in subepithelial and exocrine gland tissue. Considering these results, the potential role of LsHPX1 in crosslinking molecules of salmon louse ECMs is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ultra-small particles of iron oxide as peroxidase for immunohistochemical detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yihang; Song, Mengjie; Xin, Zhuang; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Chunyu; Li, Suyi; Gu, Ning

    2011-06-01

    Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) modified ultra-small particles of iron oxide (USPIO) were synthesized through a two-step process. The first step: oleic acid (OA) capped Fe3O4 (OA-USPIO) were synthesized by a novel oxidation coprecipitation method in H2O/DMSO mixing system, where DMSO acts as an oxidant simultaneously. The second step: OA was replaced by DMSA to obtain water-soluble nanoparticles. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, FTIR, TGA, VSM, DLS, EDS and UV-vis. Hydrodynamic sizes and Peroxidase-like catalytic activity of the nanoparticles were investigated. The hydrodynamic sizes of the nanoparticles (around 24.4 nm) were well suited to developing stable nanoprobes for bio-detection. The kinetic studies were performed to quantitatively evaluate the catalytic ability of the peroxidase-like nanoparticles. The calculated kinetic parameters indicated that the DMSA-USPIO possesses high catalytic activity. Based on the high activity, immunohistochemical experiments were established: using low-cost nanoparticles as the enzyme instead of expensive HRP, Nimotuzumab was conjugated onto the surface of the nanoparticles to construct a kind of ultra-small nanoprobe which was employed to detect epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) over-expressed on the membrane of esophageal cancer cell. The proper sizes of the probes and the result of membranous immunohistochemical staining suggest that the probes can be served as a useful diagnostic reagent for bio-detection.

  11. Up-regulation of peroxidase proliferator-activated receptor gamma in cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Soon Jae; Kang, Hee Joon; Song, Jae-Jun; Kang, Jae Seong; Woo, Jeong Soo; Chae, Sung Won; Lee, Heung-Man

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the localization and expression of peroxidase proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma in cholesteatoma epithelium. Experimental study. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed on cholesteatoma tissues from 10 adult patients undergoing tympanomastoid surgery for middle ear cholesteatoma and on 10 samples of normal external auditory canal skin tissue. The expression levels of PPARgamma to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase transcripts were semiquantified by densitometry. We also characterized the cellular localization of the PPARgamma protein immunohistochemically. Ki-67 was also localized to compare the proliferative activity of cells in cholesteatoma epithelium and in normal external auditory canal skin. PPARgamma mRNA and protein were detected in normal external auditory canal skin and in cholesteatoma epithelium. The expression level of PPARgamma mRNA in cholesteatoma was significantly increased compared with that in normal external auditory canal skin. PPARgamma protein was expressed in cells mainly in the granular and prickle cell layers. However, the intensity of its expression was generally decreased in the parabasal layer of the cholesteatoma epithelium. Ki-67 was expressed in the nuclei of cells in the basal and parabasal layers, and a greater number of cells were Ki-67 immunopositive in cholesteatoma epithelium. PPARgamma is up-regulated in the cholesteatoma epithelium compared with normal external auditory canal skin. These results suggest that PPARgamma may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma.

  12. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2), platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, is expressed by macrophages in human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, T; Luoma, J S; Hiltunen, M O; Macphee, C H; Milliner, K J; Patel, L; Rice, S Q; Tew, D G; Karkola, K; Ylä-Herttuala, S

    1999-12-01

    We studied the expression of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)), an enzyme capable of hydrolyzing platelet-activating factor (PAF), PAF-like phospholipids, and polar-modified phosphatidylcholines, in human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions. Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein, which plays an important role in atherogenesis, generates biologically active PAF-like modified phospholipid derivatives with polar fatty acid chains. PAF is known to have a potent proinflammatory activity and is inactivated by its hydrolysis. On the other hand, lysophosphatidylcholine and oxidized fatty acids released from oxidized low-density lipoprotein as a result of Lp-PLA(2) activity are thought to be involved in the progression of atherosclerosis. Using combined in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry, we detected Lp-PLA(2) mRNA and protein in macrophages in both human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated an increased expression of Lp-PLA(2) mRNA in human atherosclerotic lesions. In addition, approximately 6-fold higher Lp-PLA(2) activity was detected in atherosclerotic aortas of Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits compared with normal aortas from control rabbits. It is concluded that (1) macrophages in both human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions express Lp-PLA(2), which could cleave any oxidatively modified phosphatidylcholine present in the lesion area, and (2) modulation of Lp-PLA(2) activity could lead to antiatherogenic effects in the vessel wall.

  13. Role of Peroxidase in Lignification of Tobacco Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Mäder, Michael; Füssl, Resi

    1982-01-01

    Coniferyl alcohol is the primary substrate for peroxidase-mediated lignification, a process which depends on the generation of H2O2 by NADH oxidation. We measured the concentrations of various phenols (synthetic and natural) at which maximal enhancement of NADH oxidation occurs. Coniferyl alcohol was found to stimulate NADH oxidation at a much lower concentration (0.01 mm) than other natural or synthetic phenols (1-100 mm). In addition, coniferyl alcohol prevented the conversion of active peroxidase into the inactive intermediate compound III—which is usually formed in the presence of NADH—at equally low concentrations. This conversion was found to be a prerequisite for stimulation of NADH-oxidation, but it was not necessarily connected to stimulation. The oxidation of NADH and coniferyl alcohol (or guaiacol) can occur simultaneously, but there is a strong competitive interaction between these two substrates. At pH 5, the presence of NADH at concentrations 30 to 60 times lower than the phenols completely prevents their oxidation. The results are discussed in relation to the role of cell wall peroxidases in conversion of coniferyl alcohol to lignin and in formation of H2O2. PMID:16662627

  14. Detoxification of pesticides aqueous solution using horseradish peroxidase.

    PubMed

    El-Said, Saad Mohamed

    2013-03-15

    There are pesticide residues in agriculture wastewater and that compounds must be removed before discharge of wastewater in native waters. Thus the aim of this study was to remove toxic pesticide in waste water by the addition of horseradish peroxidase enzyme. The process of pesticide (methyl-parathion (O,O-Diethyl- O-4-nitro-phenylthiophosphate), atrazine (1-chloro-3-ethylamino-5-isopropylamino-2,4,6-triazine) and triazophos (O,O-diethyl O-1-phenyl-1H-1,2,4- triazol-3-yl phosphorothioate) removal from synthetic wastewater using horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide has been analyzed. The technical feasibility of the process was studied using 0.001-3.0 mM synthetic pesticides solutions. Experiments were carried out at different time, HRP and H2O2 dose and pH to determine the optimum removing conditions. The removal of the three pesticides increases with an increase in HRP and hydrogen peroxide dose. The optimum HRP dose is 2.0 U L(-1) and 10 mM for H2O2. The contact needed to reach equilibrium was found to be 360 min. Maximum removal was achieved up to 74% at pH 8. Also, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of the effluent reduced at the end of 6 h from 2111-221 mg L(-1) (at pH 8). Tests based upon horseradish peroxidase, at optimized parameters, show the reduction of toxicity to non-toxic levels.

  15. Relative binding affinities of monolignols to horseradish peroxidase

    DOE PAGES

    Sangha, Amandeep K.; Petridis, Loukas; Cheng, Xiaolin; ...

    2016-07-22

    Monolignol binding to the peroxidase active site is the first step in lignin polymerization in plant cell walls. Using molecular dynamics, docking, and free energy perturbation calculations, we investigate the binding of monolignols to horseradish peroxidase C. Our results suggest that p-coumaryl alcohol has the strongest binding affinity followed by sinapyl and coniferyl alcohol. Stacking interactions between the monolignol aromatic rings and nearby phenylalanine residues play an important role in determining the calculated relative binding affinities. p-Coumaryl and coniferyl alcohols bind in a pose productive for reaction in which a direct H-bond is formed between the phenolic –OH group andmore » a water molecule (W2) that may facilitate proton transfer during oxidation. In contrast, in the case of sinapyl alcohol there is no such direct interaction, the phenolic –OH group instead interacting with Pro139. Furthermore, since proton and electron transfer is the rate-limiting step in monolignol oxidation by peroxidase, the binding pose (and thus the formation of near attack conformation) appears to play a more important role than the overall binding affinity in determining the oxidation rate.« less

  16. STAT5-glucocorticoid receptor interaction and MTF-1 regulate the expression of ZnT2 (Slc30a2) in pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Liang; Lichten, Louis A.; Ryu, Moon-Suhn; Liuzzi, Juan P.; Wang, Fudi; Cousins, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The exocrine pancreas plays an important role in endogenous zinc loss by regulating excretion into the intestinal tract and hence influences the dietary zinc requirement. The present experiments show that the zinc transporter ZnT2 (Slc30a2) is localized to the zymogen granules and that dietary zinc restriction in mice decreased the zinc concentration of zymogen granules and ZnT2 expression. Excess zinc given orally increased ZnT2 expression and was associated with increased pancreatic zinc accumulation. Rat AR42J acinar cells when induced into a secretory phenotype, using the glucocorticoid analog dexamethasone (DEX), exhibited increased ZnT2 expression and labile zinc as measured with a fluorophore. DEX administrated to mice also induced ZnT2 expression that accompanied a reduction of the pancreatic zinc content. ZnT2 promoter analyses identified elements required for responsiveness to zinc and DEX. Zinc regulation was traced to a MRE located downstream from the ZnT2 transcription start site. Responsiveness to DEX is produced by two upstream STAT5 binding sites that require the glucocorticoid receptor for activation. ZnT2 knockdown in the AR42J cells using siRNA resulted in increased cytoplasmic zinc and decreased zymogen granule zinc that further demonstrated that ZnT2 may mediate the sequestration of zinc into zymogen granules. We conclude, based upon experiments with intact mice and pancreatic acinar cells in culture, that ZnT2 participates in zinc transport into pancreatic zymogen granules through a glucocorticoid pathway requiring glucocorticoid receptor and STAT5, and zinc-regulated signaling pathways requiring MTF-1. The ZnT2 transporter appears to function in a physiologically responsive manner involving entero-pancreatic zinc trafficking. PMID:20133611

  17. Pathogenic LRRK2 mutations, through increased kinase activity, produce enlarged lysosomes with reduced degradative capacity and increase ATP13A2 expression.

    PubMed

    Henry, Anastasia G; Aghamohammadzadeh, Soheil; Samaroo, Harry; Chen, Yi; Mou, Kewa; Needle, Elie; Hirst, Warren D

    2015-11-01

    Lysosomal dysfunction plays a central role in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Several genes linked to genetic forms of PD, including leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), functionally converge on the lysosomal system. While mutations in LRRK2 are commonly associated with autosomal-dominant PD, the physiological and pathological functions of this kinase remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that LRRK2 regulates lysosome size, number and function in astrocytes, which endogenously express high levels of LRRK2. Expression of LRRK2 G2019S, the most common pathological mutation, produces enlarged lysosomes and diminishes the lysosomal capacity of these cells. Enlarged lysosomes appears to be a common phenotype associated with pathogenic LRRK2 mutations, as we also observed this effect in cells expressing other LRRK2 mutations; R1441C or Y1699C. The lysosomal defects associated with these mutations are dependent on both the catalytic activity of the kinase and autophosphorylation of LRRK2 at serine 1292. Further, we demonstrate that blocking LRRK2's kinase activity, with the potent and selective inhibitor PF-06447475, rescues the observed defects in lysosomal morphology and function. The present study also establishes that G2019S mutation leads to a reduction in lysosomal pH and increased expression of the lysosomal ATPase ATP13A2, a gene linked to a parkinsonian syndrome (Kufor-Rakeb syndrome), in brain samples from mouse and human LRRK2 G2019S carriers. Together, these results demonstrate that PD-associated LRRK2 mutations perturb lysosome function in a kinase-dependent manner, highlighting the therapeutic promise of LRRK2 kinase inhibitors in the treatment of PD. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. MLL5, a trithorax homolog, indirectly regulates H3K4 methylation, represses cyclin A2 expression, and promotes myogenic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Soji; Sreenivas, Prethish; Sambasivan, Ramkumar; Cheedipudi, Sirisha; Kandalla, Prashanth; Pavlath, Grace K.; Dhawan, Jyotsna

    2009-01-01

    Most cells in adult tissues are nondividing. In skeletal muscle, differentiated myofibers have exited the cell cycle permanently, whereas satellite stem cells withdraw transiently, returning to active proliferation to repair damaged myofibers. We have examined the epigenetic mechanisms operating in conditional quiescence by analyzing the function of a predicted chromatin regulator mixed lineage leukemia 5 (MLL5) in a culture model of reversible arrest. MLL5 is induced in quiescent myoblasts and regulates both the cell cycle and differentiation via a hierarchy of chromatin and transcriptional regulators. Knocking down MLL5 delays entry of quiescent myoblasts into S phase, but hastens S-phase completion. Cyclin A2 (CycA) mRNA is no longer restricted to S phase, but is induced throughout G0/G1, with activation of the cell cycle regulated element (CCRE) in the CycA promoter. Overexpressed MLL5 physically associates with the CCRE and impairs its activity. MLL5 also regulates CycA indirectly: Cux, an activator of CycA promoter and S phase is induced in RNAi cells, and Brm/Brg1, CCRE-binding repressors that promote differentiation are repressed. In knockdown cells, H3K4 methylation at the CCRE is reduced, reflecting quantitative global changes in methylation. MLL5 appears to lack intrinsic histone methyl transferase activity, but regulates expression of histone-modifying enzymes LSD1 and SET7/9, suggesting an indirect mechanism. Finally, expression of muscle regulators Pax7, Myf5, and myogenin is impaired in MLL5 knockdown cells, which are profoundly differentiation defective. Collectively, our results suggest that MLL5 plays an integral role in novel chromatin regulatory mechanisms that suppress inappropriate expression of S-phase-promoting genes and maintain expression of determination genes in quiescent cells. PMID:19264965

  19. Manganese peroxidase from the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is enzymatically active and accumulates to high levels in transgenic maize seed.

    PubMed

    Clough, Richard C; Pappu, Kameshwari; Thompson, Kevin; Beifuss, Katherine; Lane, Jeff; Delaney, Donna E; Harkey, Robin; Drees, Carol; Howard, John A; Hood, Elizabeth E

    2006-01-01

    Manganese peroxidase (MnP) has been implicated in lignin degradation and thus has potential applications in pulp and paper bleaching, enzymatic remediation and the textile industry. Transgenic plants are an emerging protein expression platform that offer many advantages over traditional systems, in particular their potential for large-scale industrial enzyme production. Several plant expression vectors were created to evaluate the accumulation of MnP from the wood-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium in maize seed. We showed that cell wall targeting yielded full-length MnP, whereas cytoplasmic localization resulted in multiple truncated peroxidase polypeptides as detected by immunoblot analysis. In addition, the use of a seed-preferred promoter dramatically increased the expression levels and reduced the negative effects on plant health. Multiple independent transgenic lines were backcrossed with elite inbred corn lines for several generations with the maintenance of high-level expression, indicating genetic stability of the transgene.

  20. Krüppel-like factor 1 mutations and expression of hemoglobins F and A2 in homozygous hemoglobin E syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tepakhan, Wanicha; Yamsri, Supawadee; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Fucharoen, Supan

    2015-07-01

    The basis for variability of hemoglobin (Hb) F in homozygous Hb E disease is not well understood. We have examined multiple mutations of the Krüppel-like factor 1 (KLF1) gene; an erythroid specific transcription factor and determined their associations with Hbs F and A2 expression in homozygous Hb E. Four KLF1 mutations including G176AfsX179, T334R, R238H, and -154 (C-T) were screened using specific PCR assays on 461 subjects with homozygous Hb E and 100 normal controls. None of these four mutations were observed in 100 normal controls. Among 461 subjects with homozygous Hb E, 306 had high (≥5 %) and 155 had low (<5 %) Hb F. DNA analysis identified the KLF1 mutations in 35 cases of the former group with high Hb F, including the G176AfsX179 mutation (17/306 = 5.6 %), T334R mutation (9/306 = 2.9 %), -154 (C-T) mutation (7/306 = 2.3 %), and R328H mutation (2/306 = 0.7 %). Only two subjects in the latter group with low Hb F carried the G176AfsX179 and -154 (C-T) mutations. Significant higher Hb A2 level was observed in those of homozygous Hb E with the G176AfsX179 mutation as compared to those without KLF1 mutations. These results indicate that KLF1 is among the genetic factors associated with increased Hbs F and A2, and in combination with other factors could explain the variabilities of these Hb expression in Hb E syndrome.

  1. The role of ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and polysaccharides in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots under postharvest physiological deterioration.

    PubMed

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Moresco, Rodolfo; Schmidt, Eder Carlos; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Neubert, Enilto de Oliveira; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-04-15

    This study aimed to investigate the role of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), polysaccharides, and protein contents associated with the early events of postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) in cassava roots. Increases in APX and GPX activity, as well as total protein contents occurred from 3 to 5 days of storage and were correlated with the delay of PPD. Cassava samples stained with Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) highlighted the presence of starch and cellulose. Degradation of starch granules during PPD was also detected. Slight metachromatic reaction with toluidine blue is indicative of increasing of acidic polysaccharides and may play an important role in PPD delay. Principal component analysis (PCA) classified samples according to their levels of enzymatic activity based on the decision tree model which showed GPX and total protein amounts to be correlated with PPD. The Oriental (ORI) cultivar was more susceptible to PPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to wall-localized peroxidases from corn seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S. H.; Terry, M. E.; Hoops, P.; Dauwalder, M.; Roux, S. J.

    1988-01-01

    A library of 22 hybridomas, which make antibodies to soluble wall antigens from the coleoptiles and primary leaves of etiolated corn (Zea mays L.) seedlings, was raised and cloned three times by limit dilution to assure monoclonal growth and stability. Two of these hybridomas made immunoglobulin G antibodies, designated mWP3 and mWP19, which both effectively immunoprecipitated peroxidase activity from crude and partially purified preparations of wall peroxidases. Direct peroxidase-binding assays revealed that both antibodies bound enzymes with peroxidase activity. As judged by immunoblot analyses, mWP3 recognized a Mr 98,000 wall peroxidase with an isoelectric point near 4.2, and mWP19 recognized a Mr 58,000 wall peroxidase. Immunogold localization studies showed both peroxidases are predominately in cell walls.

  3. Transgenic expression of S100A2 in hairless mouse skin enhances Cxcl13 mRNA in response to solar-simulated radiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Gudjonsson, Johann E; Woods, Timothy L; Zhang, Tong; Johnston, Andrew; Stoll, Stefan W; Elder, James T

    2009-03-01

    S100A2 is a homodimeric protein that undergoes oxidative cross-linking and translocation from the nucleus to the cytosol in the context of oxidative stress. Suggestive of a role for S100A2 in the cutaneous response to ultraviolet light, we found altered S100A2 immunostaining in photodamaged human skin, and crosslinking of S100A2 after ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation of normal human keratinocytes (NHK). Skin from mice, rats, and rabbits did not contain S100A2 protein, whereas skin samples from pigs, frogs and humans were strongly positive. Survival after UVA irradiation was significantly greater in NHK compared to mouse keratinocytes, suggesting a protective role for S100A2. To test this hypothesis in vivo, we expressed S100A2 in SKH2/J hairless mice under the control of a bovine keratin 5 promoter, and compared responses of TG and WT mice from 1 to 7 days after a single dose (0.5-1 MED) of solar-simulated radiation (SSR) from UVA-340 bulbs. WT and TG mice manifested a similarly robust response to SSR, characterized by epidermal hyperplasia, marked induction of p21(WAF), and a twofold increase in p53. Thymine dimers (TD) were markedly increased in the epidermis and the dermis, but while over 95% of the epidermal TD were removed by 5-6 days, elevated dermal TD persisted nearly unchanged for 7 days. Global transcriptional profiling of WT and TG mice revealed strong induction of multiple transcripts, including keratins K6 and K16, defensin beta 3, S100A8, S100A9, Sprr2i and Sprr2f. However, the only S100A2-dependent difference we observed was an induction of Cxcl13 transcripts in TG, but not WT mice (4.4-fold vs. 0.7-fold, n = 3, P = 0.022). This finding was confirmed in an independent set of mice analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (8.8-fold vs. 1.2-fold, n = 4, P = 0.001). The finding of persistent dermal DNA damage after suberythemal doses of SSR merits further study.

  4. CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression: Comparing 'humanized' mouse lines and wild-type mice; comparing human and mouse hepatoma-derived cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Uno, Shigeyuki; Endo, Kaori; Ishida, Yuji

    2009-05-15

    Human and rodent cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes sometimes exhibit striking species-specific differences in substrate preference and rate of metabolism. Human risk assessment of CYP substrates might therefore best be evaluated in the intact mouse by replacing mouse Cyp genes with human CYP orthologs; however, how 'human-like' can human gene expression be expected in mouse tissues? Previously a bacterial-artificial-chromosome-transgenic mouse, carrying the human CYP1A1{sub C}YP1A2 locus and lacking the mouse Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2 orthologs, was shown to express robustly human dioxin-inducible CYP1A1 and basal versus inducible CYP1A2 (mRNAs, proteins, enzyme activities) in each of nine mouse tissues examined. Chimeric mice carryingmore » humanized liver have also been generated, by transplanting human hepatocytes into a urokinase-type plasminogen activator(+/+){sub s}evere-combined-immunodeficiency (uPA/SCID) line with most of its mouse hepatocytes ablated. Herein we compare basal and dioxin-induced CYP1A mRNA copy numbers, protein levels, and four enzymes (benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, acetanilide 4-hydroxylase, methoxyresorufin O-demethylase) in liver of these two humanized mouse lines versus wild-type mice; we also compare these same parameters in mouse Hepa-1c1c7 and human HepG2 hepatoma-derived established cell lines. Most strikingly, mouse liver CYP1A1-specific enzyme activities are between 38- and 170-fold higher than human CYP1A1-specific enzyme activities (per unit of mRNA), whereas mouse versus human CYP1A2 enzyme activities (per unit of mRNA) are within 2.5-fold of one another. Moreover, both the mouse and human hepatoma cell lines exhibit striking differences in CYP1A mRNA levels and enzyme activities. These findings are relevant to risk assessment involving human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 substrates, when administered to mice as environmental toxicants or drugs.« less

  5. Cu-hemin metal-organic frameworks with peroxidase-like activity as peroxidase mimics for colorimetric sensing of glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fenfen; He, Juan; Zeng, Mulang; Hao, Juan; Guo, Qiaohui; Song, Yonghai; Wang, Li

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a facile strategy to synthesize Cu-hemin metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with peroxidase-like activity was reported. The prepared Cu-hemin MOFs were characterized by various techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-visible absorbance spectra, and so on. The results showed that the prepared Cu-hemin MOFs looked like a ball-flower with an average diameter of 10 μm and provided a large specific surface area. The Cu-hemin MOFs possessing peroxidase-like activity could be used to catalyze the peroxidase substrate of 3,3,5,5-tetramethylbenzidine in the presence of H2O2, which was employed to detect H2O2 quantitatively with the linear range from 1.0 μM to 1.0 mM and the detection limit was 0.42 μM. Furthermore, with the additional help of glucose oxidase, a sensitive and selective method to detect glucose was developed by using the Cu-hemin MOFs as catalyst and the linear range was from 10.0 μM to 3.0 mM and the detection limit was 6.9 μM. This work informs researchers of the advantages of MOFs for preparing biomimetic catalysts and extends the functionality of MOFs for biosensor application.

  6. Comparative analysis of lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase activity on coniferous and deciduous wood using ToF-SIMS.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Jacqueline; Goacher, Robyn E; Abou-Zaid, Mamdouh; Master, Emma R

    2016-09-01

    White-rot fungi are distinguished by their ability to efficiently degrade lignin via lignin-modifying type II peroxidases, including manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP). In the present study, time-of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was used to evaluate lignin modification in three coniferous and three deciduous wood preparations following treatment with commercial preparations of LiP and MnP from two different white-rot fungi. Percent modification of lignin was calculated as a loss of intact methoxylated lignin over nonfunctionalized aromatic rings, which is consistent with oxidative cleavage of methoxy moieties within the lignin structure. Exposure to MnP resulted in greater modification of lignin in coniferous compared to deciduous wood (28 vs. 18 % modification of lignin); and greater modification of G-lignin compared to S-lignin within the deciduous wood samples (21 vs. 12 %). In contrast, exposure to LiP resulted in similar percent modification of lignin in all wood samples (21 vs 22 %), and of G- and S-lignin within the deciduous wood (22 vs. 23 %). These findings suggest that the selected MnP and LiP may particularly benefit delignification of coniferous and deciduous wood, respectively. Moreover, the current analysis further demonstrates the utility of ToF-SIMS for characterizing enzymatic modification of lignin in wood fibre along with potential advantages over UV and HPCL-MS detection of solubilized delignification products.

  7. Genome-wide analysis, expression profile of heat shock factor gene family (CaHsfs) and characterisation of CaHsfA2 in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Guo, Meng; Lu, Jin-Ping; Zhai, Yu-Fei; Chai, Wei-Guo; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Lu, Ming-Hui

    2015-06-19

    Heat shock factors (Hsfs) play crucial roles in plant developmental and defence processes. The production and quality of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), an economically important vegetable crop, are severely reduced by adverse environmental stress conditions, such as heat, salt and osmotic stress. Although the pepper genome has been fully sequenced, the characterization of the Hsf gene family under abiotic stress conditions remains incomplete. A total of 25 CaHsf members were identified in the pepper genome by bioinformatics analysis and PCR assays. They were grouped into three classes, CaHsfA, B and C, based on highly conserved Hsf domains, were distributed over 11 of 12 chromosomes, with none found on chromosome 11, and all of them, except CaHsfA5, formed a protein-protein interaction network. According to the RNA-seq data of pepper cultivar CM334, most CaHsf members were expressed in at least one tissue among root, stem, leaf, pericarp and placenta. Quantitative real-time PCR assays showed that all of the CaHsfs responded to heat stress (40 °C for 2 h), except CaHsfC1 in thermotolerant line R9 leaves, and that the expression patterns were different from those in thermosensitive line B6. Many CaHsfs were also regulated by salt and osmotic stresses, as well as exogenous Ca(2+), putrescine, abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate. Additionally, CaHsfA2 was located in the nucleus and had transcriptional activity, consistent with the typical features of Hsfs. Time-course expression profiling of CaHsfA2 in response to heat stress revealed differences in its expression level and pattern between the pepper thermosensitive line B6 and thermotolerant line R9. Twenty-five Hsf genes were identified in the pepper genome and most of them responded to heat, salt, osmotic stress, and exogenous substances, which provided potential clues for further analyses of CaHsfs functions in various kinds of abiotic stresses and of corresponding signal transduction pathways in pepper.

  8. LACCASE Is Necessary and Nonredundant with PEROXIDASE for Lignin Polymerization during Vascular Development in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qiao; Nakashima, Jin; Chen, Fang; Yin, Yanbin; Fu, Chunxiang; Yun, Jianfei; Shao, Hui; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Zeng-Yu; Dixon, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of lignin biosynthesis was critical in the transition of plants from an aquatic to an upright terrestrial lifestyle. Lignin is assembled by oxidative polymerization of two major monomers, coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol. Although two recently discovered laccases, LAC4 and LAC17, have been shown to play a role in lignin polymerization in Arabidopsis thaliana, disruption of both genes only leads to a relatively small change in lignin content and only under continuous illumination. Simultaneous disruption of LAC11 along with LAC4 and LAC17 causes severe plant growth arrest, narrower root diameter, indehiscent anthers, and vascular development arrest with lack of lignification. Genome-wide transcript analysis revealed that all the putative lignin peroxidase genes are expressed at normal levels or even higher in the laccase triple mutant, suggesting that lignin laccase activity is necessary and nonredundant with peroxidase activity for monolignol polymerization during plant vascular development. Interestingly, even though lignin deposition in roots is almost completely abolished in the lac11 lac4 lac17 triple mutant, the Casparian strip, which is lignified through the activity of peroxidase, is still functional. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that lignin laccase genes have no orthologs in lower plant species, suggesting that the monolignol laccase genes diverged after the evolution of seed plants. PMID:24143805

  9. Ascorbate peroxidase-related (APx-R) is not a duplicable gene.

    PubMed

    Dunand, Christophe; Mathé, Catherine; Lazzarotto, Fernanda; Margis, Rogério; Margis-Pinheiro, Marcia

    2011-12-01

    Phylogenetic, genomic and functional analyses have allowed the identification of a new class of putative heme peroxidases, so called APx-R (APx-Related). These new class, mainly present in the green lineage (including green algae and land plants), can also be detected in other unicellular chloroplastic organisms. Except for recent polyploid organisms, only single-copy of APx-R gene was detected in each genome, suggesting that the majority of the APx-R extra-copies were lost after chromosomal or segmental duplications. In a similar way, most APx-R co-expressed genes in Arabidopsis genome do not have conserved extra-copies after chromosomal duplications and are predicted to be localized in organelles, as are the APx-R. The member of this gene network can be considered as unique gene, well conserved through the evolution due to a strong negative selection pressure and a low evolution rate. © 2011 Landes Bioscience

  10. Intracranial extension of adenoid cystic carcinoma: potential involvement of EphA2 expression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in tumor metastasis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fukai, Junya; Fujita, Koji; Yamoto, Toshikazu; Sasaki, Takahiro; Uematsu, Yuji; Nakao, Naoyuki

    2014-03-07

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant epithelial tumor derived from salivary glands and tends to invade the surrounding structures including nervous system. We present a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma with intracranial extension and propose a novel molecular mechanism of adenoid cystic carcinoma metastasis. A 29-year-old Japanese male presented with left trigeminal nerve disturbance. Neuroimaging revealed a tumor located at the right middle cranial and infratemporal fossa. The tumor was removed via a subtemporal extradural and infratemporal fossa approach and histologically diagnosed as adenoid cystic carcinoma. Radiological and operative findings confirmed a perineural spread of the tumor along the mandibular nerve. Immunohistochemical analyses of molecular consequences in this case were performed for better understanding of the biological processes associated with adenoid cystic carcinoma metastasis. First, the neoplastic cells were not immunoreactive for E-cadherin, an epithelial marker, but for vimentin, a mesenchymal marker, suggesting changes in cell phenotype from epithelial to mesenchymal states. Correspondingly, immunoreactivity of transcriptional factors, such as Slug, Twist, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9, which are involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, were observed. Second, elevated expression of EphA2 receptor, not ephrin-A1, was notable in the neoplastic cells, suggesting morphological changes reminiscent of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and ligand-independent promotion of tumor cell migration and invasion. We report a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma with perineural spread and provide the first published evidence that EphA2 expression without ephrin-A1 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition might play important roles in adenoid cystic carcinoma progression.

  11. Mutation of katG in a clinical isolate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: effects on catalase-peroxidase for isoniazid activation.

    PubMed

    Purkan; Ihsanawati; Natalia, D; Syah, Y M; Retnoningrum, D S; Kusuma, H S

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in katG gene are often associated with isoniazid (INH) resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain. This research was perfomed to identify the katG mutation in clinical isolate (L8) that is resistant to INH at 1 μg/ml. In addition to characterize the catalase-peroxidase of KatG L8 and perform the ab initio structural study of the protein to get a more complete understanding in drug activation and the resistan­ce mechanism. The katG gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, then followed by characterization of catalase-peroxidase of KatG. The structure modelling was performed to know a basis of alterations in enzyme activity. A substitution of A713G that correspond to Asn238Ser replacement was found in the L8 katG. The Asn238Ser modification leads to a decline in the activity of catalase-peroxidase and INH oxidation of the L8 KatG protein. The catalytic efficiency (Kcat/KM) of mutant KatGAsn238Ser respectively decreases to 41 and 52% for catalase and peroxidase. The mutant KatGAsn238Ser also shows a decrease of 62% in INH oxidation if compared to a wild type KatG (KatGwt). The mutant Asn238Ser might cause instability in the substrate binding­ site of KatG, because of removal of a salt bridge connecting the amine group of Asn238 to the carbo­xyl group of Glu233, which presents in KatGwt. The lost of the salt bridge in the substrate binding site in mutant KatGAsn238Ser created changes unfavorable for enzyme activities, which in turn emerge as INH resistan­ce in the L8 isolate of M. tuberculosis.

  12. Choroid plexus glutathione peroxidases are instrumental in protecting the brain fluid environment from hydroperoxides during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Saudrais, Elodie; Strazielle, Nathalie; Ghersi-Egea, Jean-Francois

    2018-06-27

    Hydrogen peroxide, released at low physiological concentration, is involved in different cell signaling pathways during brain development. When released at supraphysiological concentrations in brain fluids following an inflammatory, hypoxic or toxic stress, it can initiate lipid peroxidation, protein and nucleic acid damage and contribute to long-term neurological impairment associated with perinatal diseases. We found high glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase enzymatic activities in both lateral and fourth ventricle choroid plexus tissue isolated from developing rats, in comparison to the cerebral cortex and liver. Consistent with these, a high protein expression of glutathione peroxidases 1 and 4 was observed in choroid plexus epithelial cells, which form the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Live choroid plexuses isolated from newborn rats were highly efficient in detoxifying H2O2 from mock cerebrospinal fluid, illustrating the capacity of the choroid plexuses to control H2O2 concentration in the ventricular system of the brain. We used a differentiated cellular model of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier coupled to kinetic and inhibition analyses to show that glutathione peroxidases are more potent than catalase to detoxify extracellular H2O2 at concentrations up to 250 µM. The choroidal cells also formed an enzymatic barrier preventing blood-borne hydroperoxides to reach the cerebrospinal fluid. These data point out the choroid plexuses as key structures in the control of hydroperoxide levels in the cerebral fluid environment during development, at a time when the protective glial cell network is still immature. Glutathione peroxidases are the main effectors of this choroidal hydroperoxide inactivation.

  13. Demonstration of Lignin-to-Peroxidase Direct Electron Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Sáez-Jiménez, Verónica; Baratto, Maria Camilla; Pogni, Rebecca; Rencoret, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Ana; Santos, José Ignacio; Martínez, Angel T.; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Versatile peroxidase (VP) is a high redox-potential peroxidase of biotechnological interest that is able to oxidize phenolic and non-phenolic aromatics, Mn2+, and different dyes. The ability of VP from Pleurotus eryngii to oxidize water-soluble lignins (softwood and hardwood lignosulfonates) is demonstrated here by a combination of directed mutagenesis and spectroscopic techniques, among others. In addition, direct electron transfer between the peroxidase and the lignin macromolecule was kinetically characterized using stopped-flow spectrophotometry. VP variants were used to show that this reaction strongly depends on the presence of a solvent-exposed tryptophan residue (Trp-164). Moreover, the tryptophanyl radical detected by EPR spectroscopy of H2O2-activated VP (being absent from the W164S variant) was identified as catalytically active because it was reduced during lignosulfonate oxidation, resulting in the appearance of a lignin radical. The decrease of lignin fluorescence (excitation at 355 nm/emission at 400 nm) during VP treatment under steady-state conditions was accompanied by a decrease of the lignin (aromatic nuclei and side chains) signals in one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR spectra, confirming the ligninolytic capabilities of the enzyme. Simultaneously, size-exclusion chromatography showed an increase of the molecular mass of the modified residual lignin, especially for the (low molecular mass) hardwood lignosulfonate, revealing that the oxidation products tend to recondense during the VP treatment. Finally, mutagenesis of selected residues neighboring Trp-164 resulted in improved apparent second-order rate constants for lignosulfonate reactions, revealing that changes in its protein environment (modifying the net negative charge and/or substrate accessibility/binding) can modulate the reactivity of the catalytic tryptophan. PMID:26240145

  14. Evaluation of Live Recombinant Nonpathogenic Leishmania tarentolae Expressing Cysteine Proteinase and A2 Genes as a Candidate Vaccine against Experimental Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Mehdi; Zahedifard, Farnaz; Taheri, Tahereh; Taslimi, Yasaman; Jamshidi, Shahram; Shirian, Sadegh; Mahdavi, Niousha; Hassankhani, Mehdi; Daneshbod, Yahya; Zarkesh-Esfahani, Sayyed Hamid; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Rafati, Sima

    2015-01-01

    Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) is a major veterinary and public health problem caused by Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) in many endemic countries. It is a severe chronic disease with generalized parasite spread to the reticuloendothelial system, such as spleen, liver and bone marrow and is often fatal when left untreated. Control of VL in dogs would dramatically decrease infection pressure of L. infantum for humans, since dogs are the main domestic reservoir. In the past decade, various subunits and DNA antigens have been identified as potential vaccine candidates in experimental animal models, but none has been approved for human use so far. In this study, we vaccinated outbreed dogs with a prime-boost regimen based on recombinant L. tarentolae expressing the L. donovani A2 antigen along with cysteine proteinase genes (CPA and CPB without its unusual C-terminal extension (CPB-CTE) and evaluated its immunogenicity and protective immunity against L. infantum infectious challenge. We showed that vaccinated animals produced significantly higher levels of IgG2, but not IgG1, and also IFN-γ and TNF-α, but low IL-10 levels, before and after challenge as compared to control animals. Protection in dogs was also correlated with a strong DTH response and low parasite burden in the vaccinated group. Altogether, immunization with recombinant L. tarentolae A2-CPA-CPB-CTE was proven to be immunogenic and induced partial protection in dogs, hence representing a promising live vaccine candidate against CVL.

  15. Evaluation of Live Recombinant Nonpathogenic Leishmania tarentolae Expressing Cysteine Proteinase and A2 Genes as a Candidate Vaccine against Experimental Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Mehdi; Zahedifard, Farnaz; Taheri, Tahereh; Taslimi, Yasaman; Jamshidi, Shahram; Shirian, Sadegh; Mahdavi, Niousha; Hassankhani, Mehdi; Daneshbod, Yahya; Zarkesh-Esfahani, Sayyed Hamid; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Rafati, Sima

    2015-01-01

    Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) is a major veterinary and public health problem caused by Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) in many endemic countries. It is a severe chronic disease with generalized parasite spread to the reticuloendothelial system, such as spleen, liver and bone marrow and is often fatal when left untreated. Control of VL in dogs would dramatically decrease infection pressure of L. infantum for humans, since dogs are the main domestic reservoir. In the past decade, various subunits and DNA antigens have been identified as potential vaccine candidates in experimental animal models, but none has been approved for human use so far. In this study, we vaccinated outbreed dogs with a prime-boost regimen based on recombinant L. tarentolae expressing the L. donovani A2 antigen along with cysteine proteinase genes (CPA and CPB without its unusual C-terminal extension (CPB-CTE) and evaluated its immunogenicity and protective immunity against L. infantum infectious challenge. We showed that vaccinated animals produced significantly higher levels of IgG2, but not IgG1, and also IFN-γ and TNF-α, but low IL-10 levels, before and after challenge as compared to control animals. Protection in dogs was also correlated with a strong DTH response and low parasite burden in the vaccinated group. Altogether, immunization with recombinant L. tarentolae A2-CPA-CPB-CTE was proven to be immunogenic and induced partial protection in dogs, hence representing a promising live vaccine candidate against CVL. PMID:26197085

  16. Influence of dicarbonyls on kinetic characteristics of glutathione peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Lankin, V Z; Shumaev, K B; Tikhaze, A K; Kurganov, B I

    2017-07-01

    Se-containing glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) is one of the key enzymes of the body's antioxidant system. The kinetic characteristics of GSH-Px (substrate is tert-butyl hydroperoxide) after modification of the enzyme by various concentrations of natural dicarbonyls (glyoxal, methylglyoxal, malonic dialdehyde) were studied. It was shown that dicarbonyls affected both K m and V max for GSH-Px. It is suggested that the effect of various dicarbonyls on GSH-Px depends on the molecular mechanisms of their interaction with the amino acid residues of the enzyme.

  17. A cell wall-bound anionic peroxidase, PtrPO21, is involved in lignin polymerization in Populus trichocarpa

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chien-Yuan; Li, Quanzi; Tunlaya-Anukit, Sermsawat

    2016-03-11

    Class III peroxidases are members of a large plant-specific sequence-heterogeneous protein family. Several sequence-conserved homologs have been associated with lignin polymerization in Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Nicotiana tabacum, Zinnia elegans, Picea abies, and Pinus sylvestris. In Populus trichocarpa, a model species for studies of wood formation, the peroxidases involved in lignin biosynthesis have not yet been identified. To do this, we retrieved sequences of all PtrPOs from Peroxibase and conducted RNA-seq to identify candidates. Transcripts from 42 PtrPOs were detected in stem differentiating xylem (SDX) and four of them are the most xylem-abundant (PtrPO12, PtrPO21, PtrPO42, and PtrPO64). PtrPO21 showsmore » xylem-specific expression similar to that of genes encoding the monolignol biosynthetic enzymes. Using protein cleavage-isotope dilution mass spectrometry, PtrPO21 is detected only in the cell wall fraction and not in the soluble fraction. Downregulated transgenics of PtrPO21 have a lignin reduction of ~20% with subunit composition (S/G ratio) similar to wild type. The transgenics show a growth reduction and reddish color of stem wood. The modulus of elasticity (MOE) of the stems of the downregulated PtrPO21-line 8 can be reduced to ~60% of wild type. Differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis of PtrPO21 downregulated transgenics identified a significant overexpression of PtPrx35, suggesting a compensatory effect within the peroxidase family. No significant changes in the expression of the 49 P. trichocarpa laccases (PtrLACs) were observed.« less

  18. Formation of a tyrosine adduct involved in lignin degradation by Trametopsis cervina lignin peroxidase: a novel peroxidase activation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Miki, Yuta; Pogni, Rebecca; Acebes, Sandra; Lucas, Fátima; Fernández-Fueyo, Elena; Baratto, Maria Camilla; Fernández, María I; de los Ríos, Vivian; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J; Sinicropi, Adalgisa; Basosi, Riccardo; Hammel, Kenneth E; Guallar, Victor; Martínez, Angel T

    2013-06-15

    LiP (lignin peroxidase) from Trametopsis cervina has an exposed catalytic tyrosine residue (Tyr181) instead of the tryptophan conserved in other lignin-degrading peroxidases. Pristine LiP showed a lag period in VA (veratryl alcohol) oxidation. However, VA-LiP (LiP after treatment with H2O2 and VA) lacked this lag, and H2O2-LiP (H2O2-treated LiP) was inactive. MS analyses revealed that VA-LiP includes one VA molecule covalently bound to the side chain of Tyr181, whereas H2O2-LiP contains a hydroxylated Tyr181. No adduct is formed in the Y171N variant. Molecular docking showed that VA binding is favoured by sandwich π stacking with Tyr181 and Phe89. EPR spectroscopy after peroxide activation of the pre-treated LiPs showed protein radicals other than the tyrosine radical found in pristine LiP, which were assigned to a tyrosine-VA adduct radical in VA-LiP and a dihydroxyphenyalanine radical in H2O2-LiP. Both radicals are able to oxidize large low-redox-potential substrates, but H2O2-LiP is unable to oxidize high-redox-potential substrates. Transient-state kinetics showed that the tyrosine-VA adduct strongly promotes (>100-fold) substrate oxidation by compound II, the rate-limiting step in catalysis. The novel activation mechanism is involved in ligninolysis, as demonstrated using lignin model substrates. The present paper is the first report on autocatalytic modification, resulting in functional alteration, among class II peroxidases.

  19. Versatile peroxidase of Bjerkandera fumosa: substrate and inhibitor specificity.

    PubMed

    Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Makarov, Oleg; Chernyshova, Marina; Turkovskaya, Olga; Jarosz-Wilkolazka, Anna

    2013-01-10

    The inhibitor and substrate specificities of versatile peroxidase from Bjerkandera fumosa (VPBF) were studied. Two different effects were found: NaN(3), Tween-80, anthracene, and fluorene decreased the activity of VPBF, but p-aminobenzoic acid increased it. A mixed mechanism of effector influence on the activity of this enzyme was shown. The catalytic properties of VPBF in the oxidation of mono- and polycyclic aromatic compounds were studied also. 2,7-Diaminofluorene, ABTS, veratryl alcohol, and syringaldazine can be oxidized by VPBF in two ways: either directly by the enzyme or by diffusible chelated Mn(3+) as an oxidizing agent. During VPBF oxidation of 2,7-diaminofluorene, both with and without Mn(2+), biphasic kinetics with apparent saturation in both micromolar and millimolar ranges were obtained. In the case of ABTS, inhibition of VPBF activity by an excess of substrate was observed. Direct oxidation of p-aminobenzoic acid by versatile peroxidase was found for the first time. The oxidation of three- and four-ring PAHs by VPBF was investigated, and the oxidation of anthracene, phenanthrene, fluorene, pyrene, chrysene, and fluoranthene was shown. The products of PAH oxidation (9,10-anthraquinone, 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, and 9-fluorenone) catalyzed by VPBF were identified. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Association between glutathione peroxidase levels and clinical manifestations of dengue].

    PubMed

    Rojas, Elsa Marina; Díaz-Quijano, Fredi Alexander; Coronel-Ruiz, Carolina; Martínez-Vega, Ruth Aralf; Rueda, Ernesto; Villar-Centeno, Luis Angel

    2007-06-01

    Glutathione peroxidase (GP) can be used as a marker of oxidative stress in infectious diseases. To evaluate the association between the levels of glutathione peroxidase (GP) and the manifestations and complications of dengue. Between April 2003 and December 2004, 161 patients with dengue were prospectively evaluated. In the first evaluation, within 48 and 96 hours of disease onset, a plasma sample was obtained to measure the GP levels. The association between GP levels, clinical manifestations and complications was evaluated during the follow up. Mean GP values were 1198 U/L (95% confidence interval 1089-1306). Values greater than 1200 U/L were associated with headache, arthralgias and increased heart rate. There was a negative association between GP levels and serum triglycerides. During follow up, patients with GP >1200 U/L had a higher frequency of spontaneous hemorrhages. In a logistic regression analysis arthralgias, fever and increased heart rate, were independently associated with levels >1200 U/L. GP levels was associated to some of the manifestations of dengue. This finding suggests that the intensity of oxidative stress can influence the clinical presentation of dengue.

  1. High Conformational Stability of Secreted Eukaryotic Catalase-peroxidases

    PubMed Central

    Zámocký, Marcel; García-Fernández, Queralt; Gasselhuber, Bernhard; Jakopitsch, Christa; Furtmüller, Paul G.; Loewen, Peter C.; Fita, Ignacio; Obinger, Christian; Carpena, Xavi

    2012-01-01

    Catalase-peroxidases (KatGs) are bifunctional heme enzymes widely spread in archaea, bacteria, and lower eukaryotes. Here we present the first crystal structure (1.55 Å resolution) of an eukaryotic KatG, the extracellular or secreted enzyme from the phytopathogenic fungus Magnaporthe grisea. The heme cavity of the homodimeric enzyme is similar to prokaryotic KatGs including the unique distal +Met-Tyr-Trp adduct (where the Trp is further modified by peroxidation) and its associated mobile arginine. The structure also revealed several conspicuous peculiarities that are fully conserved in all secreted eukaryotic KatGs. Peculiarities include the wrapping at the dimer interface of the N-terminal elongations from the two subunits and cysteine residues that cross-link the two subunits. Differential scanning calorimetry and temperature- and urea-mediated unfolding followed by UV-visible, circular dichroism, and fluorescence spectroscopy combined with site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that secreted eukaryotic KatGs have a significantly higher conformational stability as well as a different unfolding pattern when compared with intracellular eukaryotic and prokaryotic catalase-peroxidases. We discuss these properties with respect to the structure as well as the postulated roles of this metalloenzyme in host-pathogen interactions. PMID:22822072

  2. The structures of the horseradish peroxidase C-ferulic acid complex and the ternary complex with cyanide suggest how peroxidases oxidize small phenolic substrates.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, A; Smith, A T; Gajhede, M

    1999-12-03

    We have solved the x-ray structures of the binary horseradish peroxidase C-ferulic acid complex and the ternary horseradish peroxidase C-cyanide-ferulic acid complex to 2.0 and 1.45 A, respectively. Ferulic acid is a naturally occurring phenolic compound found in the plant cell wall and is an in vivo substrate for plant peroxidases. The x-ray structures demonstrate the flexibility and dynamic character of the aromatic donor binding site in horseradish peroxidase and emphasize the role of the distal arginine (Arg(38)) in both substrate oxidation and ligand binding. Arg(38) hydrogen bonds to bound cyanide, thereby contributing to the stabilization of the horseradish peroxidase-cyanide complex and suggesting that the distal arginine will be able to contribute with a similar interaction during stabilization of a bound peroxy transition state and subsequent O-O bond cleavage. The catalytic arginine is additionally engaged in an extensive hydrogen bonding network, which also includes the catalytic distal histidine, a water molecule and Pro(139), a proline residue conserved within the plant peroxidase superfamily. Based on the observed hydrogen bonding network and previous spectroscopic and kinetic work, a general mechanism of peroxidase substrate oxidation is proposed.

  3. Gene and protein expression and cellular localisation of cytochrome P450 enzymes of the 1A, 2A, 2C, 2D and 2E subfamilies in equine intestine and liver.

    PubMed

    Tydén, Eva; Tjälve, Hans; Larsson, Pia

    2014-10-08

    Among the cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP), families 1-3 constitute almost half of total CYPs in mammals and play a central role in metabolism of a wide range of pharmaceuticals. This study investigated gene and protein expression and cellular localisation of CYP1A, CYP2A, CYP2C, CYP2D and CYP2E in equine intestine and liver. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to analyse gene expression, western blot to examine protein expression and immunohistochemical analyses to investigate cellular localisation. CYP1A and CYP2C were the CYPs with the highest gene expression in the intestine and also showed considerable gene expression in the liver. CYP2E and CYP2A showed the highest gene expression in the liver. CYP2E showed moderate intestinal gene expression, whereas that of CYP2A was very low or undetectable. For CYP2D, rather low gene expression levels were found in both intestine and the liver. In the intestine, CYP gene expression levels, except for CYP2E, exhibited patterns resembling those of the proteins, indicating that intestinal protein expression of these CYPs is regulated at the transcriptional level. For CYP2E, the results showed that the intestinal gene expression did not correlate to any visible protein expression, indicating that intestinal protein expression of this CYP is regulated at the post-transcriptional level. Immunostaining of intestine tissue samples showed preferential CYP staining in enterocytes at the tips of intestinal villi in the small intestine. In the liver, all CYPs showed preferential localisation in the centrilobular hepatocytes. Overall, different gene expression profiles were displayed by the CYPs examined in equine intestine and liver. The CYPs present in the intestine may act in concert with those in the liver to affect the oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficiency of substrate drugs. In addition, they may play a role in first-pass metabolism of feed constituents and of herbal supplements used in equine practice.

  4. Cofactor Role of Iodide in Peroxidase Antimicrobial Action Against Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Edwin L.; Aune, Thomas M.

    1978-01-01

    The mechanism of antimicrobial activity of the peroxidase-hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-iodide (I−) system was investigated. Inhibition of respiration and loss of viability of Escherichia coli were used as measures of antimicrobial activity. Because the bacteria destroyed H2O2, peroxidase antimicrobial action depended on the competition for H2O2 between the bacteria and the peroxidase. Utilization of H2O2 by the peroxidase was favored by (i) increasing either the peroxidase or the I− concentration, so as to increase the rate of oxidation of I−, (ii) lowering the temperature to lower the rate of destruction of H2O2 by the bacteria, and (iii) adding H2O2 in small increments so as to avoid a large excess of H2O2 relative to I−. When utilization of H2O2 by the peroxidase system was favored, the peroxidase system and iodine (I2) were equivalent. That is, antimicrobial action per mole of H2O2 equaled that per mole of I2. Also, identical antimicrobial action was obtained either by incubating the bacteria directly with the peroxidase system or by preincubating the peroxidase system so as to form I2 and then adding the bacteria. On the other hand, peroxidase antimicrobial action could be obtained at low I− concentrations. These I− concentrations were lower than the concentration of I2 that was required for antimicrobial action. It is proposed that peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of I− yields I2, which reacts with bacterial components to yield the oxidized components and I−. The I− that is released can be reoxidized and participate again in the oxidation of bacterial components. In this way, I− acts as a cofactor in the peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of bacterial components. PMID:354514

  5. Overexpression of SLC34A2 is an independent prognostic indicator in bladder cancer and its depletion suppresses tumor growth via decreasing c-Myc expression and transcriptional activity

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Wen; Chen, Cui; Gao, Ying; Zheng, Zou-Shan; Xu, Yi; Yun, Miao; Weng, Hui-Wen; Xie, Dan; Ye, Sheng; Zhang, Jia-Xing

    2017-01-01

    Solute carrier family 34 member 2 (SLC34A2), a pH-sensitive sodium-dependent phosphate transporter, is associated with several human cancers. In this study, we investigate the clinical significance of SLC34A2 and its function in human bladder cancer (BC). The expression dynamics of SLC34A2 were examined in two independent cohorts of BC samples by quantitative PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. In the training cohort (156 cases), we applied the X-tile program software to assess the optimal cutoff points for biomarkers in order to accurately classify patients according to clinical outcome. In the validation cohort (130 cases), the cutoff score derived from X-title analysis was investigated to determine the association of SLC34A2 expression with survival outcome. A series of in vitro and in vivo assays were then performed to elucidate the function of SLC34A2 in BC and its underlying mechanisms. Results showed that SLC34A2 was significantly upregulated in BC cell lines and clinical samples. In both two cohorts of BC samples, high expression of SLC34A2 was associated with large tumor size, advanced T status and poor patients' survival. The depletion of SLC34A2 in BC suppressed cellular viability, colony formation and anchorage-independent growth in vitro, and inhibited xenograft tumor growth in vivo, whereas overexpression of SLC34A2 had the converse effect. Simultaneously, downregulation of SLC34A2 decreased the transcriptional activity and protein expression level of c-Myc in BC cells, whereas restoration of c-Myc expression could compromise the anti-proliferation effect of SLC34A2 depletion. Furthermore, miR-214 was proved as a negative regulator of SLC34A2. Our present study illustrated that SLC34A2 has an important role in promoting proliferation and tumorigenicity of BC, and may represent a novel therapeutic target for this disease. PMID:28151475

  6. Adsorption of peroxidase on Celite 545 directly from ammonium sulfate fractionated white radish (Raphanus sativus) proteins.

    PubMed

    Satar, Rukhsana; Husain, Qayyum

    2009-03-01

    This paper demonstrates the direct immobilization of peroxidase from ammonium sulfate fractionated white radish proteins on an inorganic support, Celite 545. The adsorbed peroxidase was crosslinked by using glutaraldehyde. The activity yield for white radish peroxidase was adsorbed on Celite 545 was 70% and this activity was decreased and remained 60% of the initial activity after crosslinking by glutaraldehyde. The pH and temperature-optima for both soluble and immobilized peroxidase was at pH 5.5 and 40 degrees C. Immobilized peroxidase retained higher stability against heat and water-miscible organic solvents. In the presence of 5.0 mM mercuric chloride, immobilized white radish peroxidase retained 41% of its initial activity while the free enzyme lost 93% activity. Soluble enzyme lost 61% of its initial activity while immobilized peroxidase retained 86% of the original activity when exposed to 0.02 mM sodium azide for 1 h. The K(m) values were 0.056 and 0.07 mM for free and immobilized enzyme, respectively. Immobilized white radish peroxidase exhibited lower V(max) as compared to the soluble enzyme. Immobilized peroxidase preparation showed better storage stability as compared to its soluble counterpart.

  7. The effects of xylitol and sorbitol on lysozyme- and peroxidase-related enzymatic and candidacidal activities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bum-Soo; Chang, Ji-Youn; Kim, Yoon-Young; Kho, Hong-Seop

    2015-07-01

    To investigate whether xylitol and sorbitol affect enzymatic and candidacidal activities of lysozyme, the peroxidase system, and the glucose oxidase-mediated peroxidase system. Xylitol and sorbitol were added to hen egg-white lysozyme, bovine lactoperoxidase, glucose oxidase-mediated peroxidase, and whole saliva in solution and on hydroxyapatite surfaces. The enzymatic activities of lysozyme, peroxidase, and glucose oxidase-mediated peroxidase were determined by the turbidimetric method, the NbsSCN assay, and production of oxidized o-dianisidine, respectively. Candidacidal activities were determined by comparing colony forming units using Candida albicans ATCC strains 10231, 11006, and 18804. While xylitol and sorbitol did not affect the enzymatic activity of hen egg-white lysozyme both in solution and on hydroxyapatite surfaces, they did inhibit the enzymatic activity of salivary lysozyme significantly in solution, but not on the surfaces. Xylitol and sorbitol enhanced the enzymatic activities of both bovine lactoperoxidase and salivary peroxidase significantly in a dose-dependent manner in solution, but not on the surfaces. Sorbitol, but not xylitol, inhibited the enzymatic activity of glucose oxidase-mediated peroxidase significantly. Both xylitol and sorbitol did not affect candidacidal activities of hen egg-white lysozyme, the bovine lactoperoxidase system, or the glucose oxidase-mediated bovine lactoperoxidase system. Xylitol and sorbitol inhibited salivary lysozyme activity, but enhanced both bovine lactoperoxidase and salivary peroxidase activities significantly in solution. Xylitol and sorbitol did not augment lysozyme- and peroxidase-related candidacidal activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Immunophenotype of leukemic blasts with small peroxidase-positive granules detected by electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Vainchenker, W; Villeval, J L; Tabilio, A; Matamis, H; Karianakis, G; Guichard, J; Henri, A; Vernant, J P; Rochant, H; Breton-Gorius, J

    1988-05-01

    Forty-three cases of undifferentiated leukemias by light microscopy examination were diagnosed as acute myeloblastic leukemias by ultrastructural revelation of peroxidase and were subsequently studied by immunological markers. In 41 of these cases, blasts were labeled by at least one of the antimyeloid MoAbs (My 7, My 9, and 80H5). An antimyeloperoxidase polyclonal antibody was used in 23 cases and was clearly positive in 11 of them, while cytochemistry by light microscopy was negative. These myeloblasts were frequently mixed with a minority of blasts from other lineages especially promegakaryoblasts. It is noteworthy that in 6 cases myeloid and lymphoid markers (E rosette receptor, common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (cALLA), CD 9, CD 19 antigens (anti-B4 MoAb] were detected on a fraction of blast cells, suggesting a bilineage leukemia. However, in double labeling experiments, blasts with myeloperoxidase coexpressed lymphoid and myeloid markers including cALLA and CD 19 antigen. In one case, blasts had a typical non-B, non-T acute lymphoblastic leukemia phenotype (HLA-DR, CD 9, CD 19, cALLA positive) without staining by any of the antimyeloid MoAbs. However, 70% of the blasts were labeled by the antimyeloperoxidase antibody and expressed peroxidase-positive granules at ultrastructural level. In conclusion, most of the AML undiagnosed by optical cytochemistry are identified by antimyeloid antibodies. Some of these cases are also stained by some antilymphoid MoAbs. Use of antibodies against myeloperoxidase may improve the diagnosis of difficult cases of acute myeloblastic leukemia.

  9. Functional analysis of the putative peroxidase domain of FANCA, the Fanconi anemia complementation group A protein.

    PubMed

    Ren, J; Youssoufian, H

    2001-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disorder manifested by chromosomal breakage, birth defects, and susceptibility to bone marrow failure and cancer. At least seven complementation groups have been identified, and the genes defective in four groups have been cloned. The most common subtype is complementation group A. Although the normal functions of the gene products defective in FA cells are not completely understood, a clue to the function of the FA group A gene product (FANCA) was provided by the detection of limited homology in the amino terminal region to a class of heme peroxidases. We evaluated this hypothesis by mutagenesis and functional complementation studies. We substituted alanine residues for the most conserved FANCA residues in the putative peroxidase domain and tested their effects on known biochemical and cellular functions of FANCA. While the substitution mutants were comparable to wild-type FANCA with regard to their stability, subcellular localization, and interaction with FANCG, only the Trp(183)-to-Ala substitution (W183A) abolished the ability of FANCA to complement the sensitivity of FA group A cells to mitomycin C. By contrast, TUNEL assays for apoptosis after exposure to H2O2 showed no differences between parental FA group A cells, cells complemented with wild-type FANCA, and cells complemented with the W183A of FANCA. Moreover, semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis for the expression of the peroxide-sensitive heme oxygenase gene showed appropriate induction after H2O2 exposure. Thus, W183A appears to be essential for the in vivo activity of FANCA in a manner independent of its interaction with FANCG. Moreover, neither wild-type FANCA nor the W183A mutation appears to alter the peroxide-induced apoptosisor peroxide-sensing ability of FA group A cells. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  10. MacA is a second cytochrome c peroxidase of Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Julian; Hoffmann, Maren; Ellis, Katie E; Seidel, Antonia; Spatzal, Thomas; Gerhardt, Stefan; Elliott, Sean J; Einsle, Oliver

    2012-04-03

    The metal-reducing δ-proteobacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens produces a large number of c-type cytochromes, many of which have been implicated in the transfer of electrons to insoluble metal oxides. Among these, the dihemic MacA was assigned a central role. Here we have produced G. sulfurreducens MacA by recombinant expression in Escherichia coli and have solved its three-dimensional structure in three different oxidation states. Sequence comparisons group MacA into the family of diheme cytochrome c peroxidases, and the protein indeed showed hydrogen peroxide reductase activity with ABTS(-2) as an electron donor. The observed K(M) was 38.5 ± 3.7 μM H(2)O(2) and v(max) was 0.78 ± 0.03 μmol of H(2)O(2)·min(-1)·mg(-1), resulting in a turnover number k(cat) = 0.46 · s(-1). In contrast, no Fe(III) reductase activity was observed. MacA was found to display electrochemical properties similar to other bacterial diheme peroxidases, in addition to the ability to electrochemically mediate electron transfer to the soluble cytochrome PpcA. Differences in activity between CcpA and MacA can be rationalized with structural variations in one of the three loop regions, loop 2, that undergoes conformational changes during reductive activation of the enzyme. This loop is adjacent to the active site heme and forms an open loop structure rather than a more rigid helix as in CcpA. For the activation of the protein, the loop has to displace the distal ligand to the active site heme, H93, in loop 1. A H93G variant showed an unexpected formation of a helix in loop 2 and disorder in loop 1, while a M297H variant that altered the properties of the electron transfer heme abolished reductive activation.

  11. MacA is a Second Cytochrome c Peroxidase of Geobacter sulfurreducens

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Julian; Hoffmann, Maren; Ellis, Katie E.; Seidel, Antonia; Spatzal, Thomas; Gerhardt, Stefan; Elliott, Sean J.

    2012-01-01

    The metal-reducing δ-proteobacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens produces a large number of c-type cytochromes, many of which have been implicated in the transfer of electrons to insoluble metal oxides. Among these, the dihemic MacA was assigned a central role. Here we have produced G. sulfurreducens MacA by recombinant expression in Escherichia coli and have solved its three-dimensional structure in three different oxidation states. Sequence comparisons group MacA into the family of diheme cytochrome c peroxidases, and the protein indeed showed hydrogen peroxide reductase activity with ABTS2– as an electron donor. The observed KM was 38.5 ± 3.7 μM H2O2 and vmax was 0.78 ± 0.03 μmol H2O2·min–1·mg–1, resulting in a turnover number kcat = 0.46 · s–1. In contrast, no Fe(III) reductase activity was observed. MacA was found to display similar electrochemical properties to other bacterial diheme peroxidases, in additional to the ability to electrochemically mediate electron transfer to the soluble cytochrome PpcA. Differences in activity between CcpA and MacA can be rationalized with structural variations in one of the three loop regions, loop 2, that undergo conformational changes during reductive activation of the enzyme. This loop is adjacent to the active site heme and forms an open loop structure rather than a more rigid helix as in CcpA. For the activation of the protein the loop has to displace the distal ligand to the active site heme, H93, in loop 1. A H93G variant showed an unexpected formation of a helix in loop 2 and disorder in loop 1, while a M297H variant that altered the properties of the electron transfer heme abolished reductive activation. PMID:22417533

  12. [Enzymatic characteristics of peroxidase from Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Bo-ju].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu-Yun; Lyu, Xin-Lin; Li, Xiang-Wei; Zhang, Dong; Dong, Li-Hua; Zhu, Jing-Jing; Wang, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Jin-Zhen

    2018-04-01

    The enzymatic browning is one of the main reasons for affecting the quality of medicinal flowers. In the process of chrysanthemum harvesting and processing, improper treatment will lead to the browning and severely impact the appearance and quality of chrysanthemum. Peroxidase enzyme is one of the oxidoreductases that cause enzymatic browning of fresh chrysanthemum. The enzymatic characteristics of peroxidase (POD) in chrysanthemum were studied in this paper. In this experiment, the effects of different reaction substrates and their concentrations, PH value of buffer and reaction temperatures on the activity of POD enzyme were investigated. The results showed that the optimal substrate of POD was guaiacol, and the optimal concentration of POD was 50 mmol·L⁻¹. The optimal pH value and reaction temperature were 4.4 and 30-35 °C, respectively. Michaelis-Menten equation was obtained to express the kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed reaction of POD, Km=0.193 mol·L⁻¹, Vmax=0.329 D·min⁻¹. In addition, the results of POD enzyme thermal stability test showed that the POD enzyme activity was inhibited when being treated at 80 °C for 4 min or at 100 °C for 2 min. The above results were of practical significance to reveal the enzymatic browning mechanism, control the enzymatic browning and improve the quality of chrysanthemum, and can also provide the basis for the harvesting and processing of medicinal materials containing polyphenols. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. Role of manganese peroxidases and lignin peroxidases of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in the decolorization of kraft bleach plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Michel, F C; Dass, S B; Grulke, E A; Reddy, C A

    1991-08-01

    The role of lignin peroxidases (LIPs) and manganese peroxidases (MNPs) of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in decolorizing kraft bleach plant effluent (BPE) was investigated. Negligible BPE decolorization was exhibited by a per mutant, which lacks the ability to produce both the LIPs and the MNPs. Also, little decolorization was seen when the wild type was grown in high-nitrogen medium, in which the production of LIPs and MNPs is blocked. A lip mutant of P. chrysosporium, which produces MNPs but not LIPs, showed about 80% of the activity exhibited by the wild type, indicating that the MNPs play an important role in BPE decolorization. When P. chrysosporium was grown in a medium with 100 ppm of Mn(II), high levels of MNPs but no LIPs were produced, and this culture also exhibited high rates of BPE decolorization, lending further support to the idea that MNPs play a key role in BPE decolorization. When P. chrysosporium was grown in a medium with no Mn(II), high levels of LIPs but negligible levels of MNPs were produced and the rate and extent of BPE decolorization by such cultures were quite low, indicating that LIPs play a relatively minor role in BPE decolorization. Furthermore, high rates of BPE decolorization were seen on days 3 and 4 of incubation, when the cultures exhibit high levels of MNP activity but little or no LIP activity. These results indicate that MNPs play a relatively more important role than LIPs in BPE decolorization by P. chrysosporium.

  14. Expression, purification and refolding of active durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) secretory phospholipase A2 from inclusion bodies of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Verlotta, Angelo; Trono, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    Recently, a durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) secretory phospholipase A2 (TdsPLA2III) was identified in leaves as potentially involved in plant responses to conditions of limiting water supply. Therefore, to allow future functional studies on TdsPLA2III and shed further light on the involvement of sPLA2 isoforms in specific plant functions, here we report a protocol for the overexpression of TdsPLA2III in Escherichia coli in the form of inclusion bodies, and for its purification and refolding. The use of the Gateway system (Invitrogen) allows the expression of a large quantity of the mature form (without the signal peptide) of TdsPLA2III with an N-terminal 6×His-tag, for purification using Ni-affinity chromatography. The purified recombinant 6×His-TdsPLA2III fusion protein is then refolded using a step-wise dialysis approach. About 40mg purified and active protein was obtained from 1L of cell culture. This recombinant 6×His-TdsPLA2III protein shows PLA2 activity, as it can hydrolyze linoleate from the sn-2 position of 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. Moreover, it has some features that are typical of other known plant sPLA2s: Ca(2+)-dependence, inhibition by the disulfide bond reducing agent dithiothreitol, and resistance to high temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydrogen peroxide generation by the pepper extracellular peroxidase CaPO2 activates local and systemic cell death and defense response to bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyong Woo; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Sung Chul; Hong, Jeum Kyu; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2007-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are responsible for mediating cellular defense responses in plants. Controversy has existed over the origin of ROS in plant defense. We have isolated a novel extracellular peroxidase gene, CaPO2, from pepper (Capsicum annuum). Local or systemic expression of CaPO2 is induced in pepper by avirulent Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria (Xcv) infection. We examined the function of the CaPO2 gene in plant defense using the virus-induced gene silencing technique and gain-of-function transgenic plants. CaPO2-silenced pepper plants were highly susceptible to Xcv infection. Virus-induced gene silencing of the CaPO2 gene also compromised hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) accumulation and hypersensitive cell death in leaves, both locally and systemically, during avirulent Xcv infection. In contrast, overexpression of CaPO2 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) conferred enhanced disease resistance accompanied by cell death, H(2)O(2) accumulation, and PR gene induction. In CaPO2-overexpression Arabidopsis leaves infected by Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato, H(2)O(2) generation was sensitive to potassium cyanide (a peroxidase inhibitor) but insensitive to diphenylene iodonium (an NADPH oxidase inhibitor), suggesting that H(2)O(2) generation depends on peroxidase in Arabidopsis. Together, these results indicate that the CaPO2 peroxidase is involved in ROS generation, both locally and systemically, to activate cell death and PR gene induction during the defense response to pathogen invasion.

  16. Production and purification of the multifunctional enzyme horseradish peroxidase

    PubMed Central

    Spadiut, Oliver; Herwig, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The oxidoreductase horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is used in numerous industrial and medical applications. In this review, we briefly describe this well-studied enzyme and focus on its promising use in targeted cancer treatment. In combination with a plant hormone, HRP can be used in specific enzyme–prodrug therapies. Despite this outstanding application, HRP has not found its way as a biopharmaceutical into targeted cancer therapy yet. The reasons therefore lie in the present low-yield production and cumbersome purification of this enzyme from its natural source. However, surface glycosylation renders the recombinant production of HRP difficult. Here, we compare different production hosts for HRP and summarize currently used production and purification strategies for this enzyme. We further present our own strategy of glycoengineering this powerful enzyme to allow recombinant high-yield production in Pichia pastoris and subsequent simple downstream processing. PMID:24683473

  17. Polymerization reactivity of sulfomethylated alkali lignin modified with horseradish peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongjie; Wu, Xiaolei; Qiu, Xueqing; Chang, Yaqi; Lou, Hongming

    2014-03-01

    Alkali lignin (AL) was employed as raw materials in the present study. Sulfomethylation was conducted to improve the solubility of AL, while sulfomethylated alkali lignin (SAL) was further polymerized by horseradish peroxidase (HRP). HRP modification caused a significant increase in molecular weight of SAL which was over 20 times. It was also found to increase the amount of sulfonic and carboxyl groups while decrease the amount of phenolic and methoxyl groups in SAL. The adsorption quantity of self-assembled SAL film was improved after HRP modification. Sulfonation and HRP modification were mutually promoted. The polymerization reactivity of SAL in HRP modification was increased with its sulfonation degree. Meanwhile, HRP modification facilitated SAL's radical-sulfonation reaction. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The Roles of Glutathione Peroxidases during Embryo Development

    PubMed Central

    Ufer, Christoph; Wang, Chi Chiu

    2011-01-01

    Embryo development relies on the complex interplay of the basic cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptotic cell death. Precise regulation of these events is the basis for the establishment of embryonic structures and the organ development. Beginning with fertilization of the oocyte until delivery the developing embryo encounters changing environmental conditions such as varying levels of oxygen, which can give rise to reactive oxygen species (ROS). These challenges are met by the embryo with metabolic adaptations and by an array of anti-oxidative mechanisms. ROS can be deleterious by modifying biological molecules including lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids and may induce abnormal development or even embryonic lethality. On the other hand ROS are vital players of various signaling cascades that affect the balance between cell growth, differentiation, and death. An imbalance or dysregulation of these biological processes may generate cells with abnormal growth and is therefore potentially teratogenic and tumorigenic. Thus, a precise balance between processes generating ROS and those decomposing ROS is critical for normal embryo development. One tier of the cellular protective system against ROS constitutes the family of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases (GPx). These enzymes reduce hydroperoxides to the corresponding alcohols at the expense of reduced glutathione. Of special interest within this protein family is the moonlighting enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4). This enzyme is a scavenger of lipophilic hydroperoxides on one hand, but on the other hand can be transformed into an enzymatically inactive cellular structural component. GPx4 deficiency – in contrast to all other GPx family members – leads to abnormal embryo development and finally produces a lethal phenotype in mice. This review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge on GPx isoforms during embryo development and tumor development with an emphasis

  19. The Roles of Glutathione Peroxidases during Embryo Development.

    PubMed

    Ufer, Christoph; Wang, Chi Chiu

    2011-01-01

    Embryo development relies on the complex interplay of the basic cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptotic cell death. Precise regulation of these events is the basis for the establishment of embryonic structures and the organ development. Beginning with fertilization of the oocyte until delivery the developing embryo encounters changing environmental conditions such as varying levels of oxygen, which can give rise to reactive oxygen species (ROS). These challenges are met by the embryo with metabolic adaptations and by an array of anti-oxidative mechanisms. ROS can be deleterious by modifying biological molecules including lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids and may induce abnormal development or even embryonic lethality. On the other hand ROS are vital players of various signaling cascades that affect the balance between cell growth, differentiation, and death. An imbalance or dysregulation of these biological processes may generate cells with abnormal growth and is therefore potentially teratogenic and tumorigenic. Thus, a precise balance between processes generating ROS and those decomposing ROS is critical for normal embryo development. One tier of the cellular protective system against ROS constitutes the family of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases (GPx). These enzymes reduce hydroperoxides to the corresponding alcohols at the expense of reduced glutathione. Of special interest within this protein family is the moonlighting enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4). This enzyme is a scavenger of lipophilic hydroperoxides on one hand, but on the other hand can be transformed into an enzymatically inactive cellular structural component. GPx4 deficiency - in contrast to all other GPx family members - leads to abnormal embryo development and finally produces a lethal phenotype in mice. This review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge on GPx isoforms during embryo development and tumor development with an emphasis on

  20. Purification of peroxidase from Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) roots.

    PubMed

    Lavery, Christopher B; Macinnis, Morgan C; Macdonald, M Jason; Williams, Joanna Bassey; Spencer, Colin A; Burke, Alicia A; Irwin, David J G; D'Cunha, Godwin B

    2010-08-11

    Peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) from horseradish ( Armoracia rusticana ) roots was purified using a simple, rapid, three-step procedure: ultrasonication, ammonium sulfate salt precipitation, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography on phenyl Sepharose CL-4B. The preparation gave an overall yield of 71%, 291-fold purification, and a high specific activity of 772 U mg(-1) protein. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the purified enzyme was homogeneous and had a molecular weight of approximately 40 kDa. The isolated enzyme had an isoelectric point of 8.8 and a Reinheitszahl value of 3.39 and was stable when stored in the presence of glycerol at -20 degrees C, with >95% retention of original enzyme activity for at least 6 months. Maximal activity of purified horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was obtained under different optimized conditions: substrate (guaiacol and H(2)O(2)) concentrations (0.5 and 0.3 mM, respectively), type of buffer (50 mM phosphate buffer), pH (7.0), time (1.0 min), and temperature of incubation (30 degrees C). In addition, the effect of HRP and H(2)O(2) in a neutral-buffered aqueous solution for the oxidation of phenol and 2-chlorophenol substrates was also studied. Different conditions including concentrations of phenol/2-chlorophenol, H(2)O(2), and enzyme, time, pH, and temperature were standardized for the maximal activity of HRP with these substrates; under these optimal conditions 89.6 and 91.4% oxidations of phenol and 2-chlorophenol were obtained, respectively. The data generated from this work could have direct implications in studies on the commercial production of this biotechnologically important enzyme and its stability in different media.

  1. Participation of chitin-binding peroxidase isoforms in the wilt pathogenesis of cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Specific chitin-binding isozymes of peroxidase (POX) play an important role in pathogenesis of plant diseases caused with fungi. We studied the dynamics of peroxidase activity in two varieties of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.); one was a susceptible and the other resistant to the plant pathogen Vert...

  2. Bioremediation of phenolic compounds from water with plant root surface peroxidases

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, P.R.; Arora, R.; El Ghaouth, A.

    1994-09-01

    Peroxidases have been shown to polymerize phenolic compounds, thereby removing them from solution by precipitation. Others have studied the role of root surface associated peroxidases as a defense against fungal root pathogens; however, their use in detoxification of organic pollutants in vivo at the root surface has not been studied. Two plant species, waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (C. Mart) Solms-Laub.] and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.), were tested for both in vitro and in vivo peroxidase activity on the root surface. In vitro studies indicated that root surface peroxidase activities were 181 and 78 nmol tetraguaiacol formed min{sup -1} g{sup -1} rootmore » fresh wt., for tomato and waterhyacinth, respectively. Light microscope studies revealed that guaiacol was polymerized in vivo at the root surface. Although peroxidase was evenly distributed on tomato roots, it was distributed patchily on waterhyacinth roots. In vitro studies using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that the efficiency of peroxidase to polymerize phenols vary with phenolic compound. We suggest that plants may be utilized as a source of peroxidases for removal of phenolic compounds that are on the EPA priority pollutant list and that root surface peroxidases may minimize the absorption of phenolic compounds into plants by precipitating them at the root surface. In this study we have identified a new use for root-associated proteins in ecologically engineering plant systems for bioremediation of phenolic compounds in the soil and water environment. 25 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  3. The nop gene from Phanerochaete chrysosporium encodes a peroxidase with novel structural features

    Treesearch

    Luis F. Larrondo; Angel Gonzalez; Tomas Perez-Acle; Dan Cullen; Rafael Vicuna

    2005-01-01

    Inspection of the genome of the ligninolytic basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium revealed an unusual peroxidase-like sequence. The corresponding full length cDNA was sequenced and an archetypal secretion signal predicted. The deduced mature protein (NoP, novel peroxidase) contains 295 aa residues and is therefore considerably shorter than other Class II (fungal)...

  4. Inflammatory peroxidases promote breast cancer progression in mice via regulation of the tumour microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, Vasilios; Leach, Damien A; Zinonos, Irene; Ponomarev, Vladimir; Licari, Giovanni; Liapis, Vasilios; Ingman, Wendy V; Anderson, Peter; DeNichilo, Mark O; Evdokiou, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) are heme-containing enzymes, well known for their antimicrobial activity, are released in high quantities by infiltrating immune cells in breast cancer. However, the functional importance of their presence within the tumour microenvironment is unclear. We have recently described a new role for peroxidases as key regulators of fibroblast and endothelial cell functionality. In the present study, we investigate for the first time, the ability of peroxidases to promote breast cancer development and progression. Using the 4T1 syngeneic murine orthotopic breast cancer model, we examined whether increased levels of peroxidases in developing mammary tumours influences primary tumour growth and metastasis. We showed that MPO and EPO stimulation increased mammary tumour growth and enhanced lung metastases, effects that were associated with reduced tumour necrosis, increased collagen deposition and neo-vascularisation within the primary tumour. In vitro, peroxidase treatment, robustly stimulated human mammary fibroblast migration and collagen type I and type VI secretion. Mechanistically, peroxidases induced the transcription of pro-tumorigenic and metastatic MMP1, MMP3 and COX-2 genes. Taken together, these findings identify peroxidases as key contributors to cancer progression by augmenting pro-tumorigenic collagen production and angiogenesis. Importantly, this identifies inflammatory peroxidases as therapeutic targets in breast cancer therapy.

  5. Identification of the pI 4.6 extensin peroxidase from Lycopersicon esculentum using proteomics and reverse-genomics.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wen; Kieliszewski, Marcia; Held, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    The regulation of plant cell growth and early defense response involves the insolubilization of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs), such as extensin, in the primary cell wall. In tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), insolubilization occurs by the formation of tyrosyl-crosslinks catalyzed specifically by the pI 4.6 extensin peroxidase (EP). To date, neither the gene encoding EP nor the protein itself has been identified. Here, we have identified tomato EP candidates using both proteomic and bioinformatic approaches. Bioinformatic screening of the tomato genome yielded eight EP candidates, which contained a putative signal sequence and a predicted pI near 4.6. Biochemical fractionation of tomato culture media followed by proteomic detection further refined our list of EP candidates to three, with the lead candidate designated (CG5). To test for EP crosslinking activity, we cloned into a bacterial expression vector the CG5 open-reading frame from tomato cDNA. The CG5 was expressed in Escherichia coli, fractionated from inclusion bodies, and folded in vitro. The peroxidase activity of CG5 was assayed and quantified by ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) assay. Subsequent extensin crosslinking assays showed that CG5 can covalently crosslink authentic tomato P1 extensin and P3-type extensin analogs in vitro supporting our hypothesis that CG5 encodes a tomato EP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of the pI 4.6 extensin peroxidase from Lycopersicon esculentum using proteomics and reverse-genomics

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wen; Kieliszewski, Marcia; Held, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of plant cell growth and early defense response involves the insolubilization of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs), such as extensin, in the primary cell wall. In tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), insolublization occurs by the formation of tyrosyl-crosslinks catalyzed specifically by the pI 4.6 extensin peroxidase (EP). To date, neither the gene encoding EP nor the protein itself has been identified. Here, we’ve identified tomato EP candidates using both proteomic and bioinformatic approaches. Bioinformatic screening of the tomato genome yielded eight EP candidates, which contained a putative signal sequence and a predicted pI near 4.6. Biochemical fractionation of tomato culture media followed by proteomic detection further refined our list of EP candidates to three, with the lead candidate designated (CG5). To test for EP crosslinking activity, we cloned into a bacterial expression vector the CG5 open-reading frame from tomato cDNA. The CG5 was expressed in E. coli, fractionated from inclusion bodies, and folded in vitro. The peroxidase activity of CG5 was assayed and quantified by ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) assay. Subsequent extensin crosslinking assays showed that CG5 can covalently crosslink authentic tomato P1 extensin and P3-type extensin analogs in vitro supporting our hypothesis that CG5 encodes a tomato EP. PMID:25446231

  7. Glutathione Peroxidase-1 in Health and Disease: From Molecular Mechanisms to Therapeutic Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Lubos, Edith; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, are generated in all cells by mitochondrial and enzymatic sources. Left unchecked, these reactive species can cause oxidative damage to DNA, proteins, and membrane lipids. Glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) is an intracellular antioxidant enzyme that enzymatically reduces hydrogen peroxide to water to limit its harmful effects. Certain reactive oxygen species, such as hydrogen peroxide, are also essential for growth factor-mediated signal transduction, mitochondrial function, and maintenance of normal thiol redox-balance. Thus, by limiting hydrogen peroxide accumulation, GPx-1 also modulates these processes. This review explores the molecular mechanisms involved in regulating the expression and function of GPx-1, with an emphasis on the role of GPx-1 in modulating cellular oxidant stress and redox-mediated responses. As a selenocysteine-containing enzyme, GPx-1 expression is subject to unique forms of regulation involving the trace mineral selenium and selenocysteine incorporation during translation. In addition, GPx-1 has been implicated in the development and prevention of many common and complex diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disease. This review discusses the role of GPx-1 in these diseases and speculates on potential future therapies to harness the beneficial effects of this ubiquitous antioxidant enzyme. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 1957–1997. PMID:21087145

  8. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-Capped Pt Nanocubes with Superior Peroxidase-Like Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Haihang; Liu, Yuzi; Chhabra, Ashima

    2016-12-21

    Peroxidase mimics of inorganic nanoparticles are expected to circumvent the inherent issues of natural peroxidases, providing enhanced performance in important applications such as diagnosis and imaging. Despite the report of a variety of peroxidase mimics in the past decade, very limited progress has been made on improving their catalytic efficiency. The catalytic efficiencies of most previously reported mimics are only up to one order of magnitude higher than those of natural peroxidases. In this work, we demonstrate a type of highly efficient peroxidase mimic – polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-capped Pt nanocubes of sub-10 nm in size. These PVP-capped Pt cubes are ~200-foldmore » more active than the natural counterparts and exhibit a record-high specific catalytic efficiency. In addition to the superior efficiency, the new mimic shows several other promising features, including excellent stabilities, well-controlled uniformity in both size and shape, controllable sizes, and facile and scalable production.« less

  9. A Stable Bacterial Peroxidase with Novel Halogenating Activity and an Autocatalytically Linked Heme Prosthetic Group*

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Markus; Gruber, Clemens; Bellei, Marzia; Pirker, Katharina F.; Zamocky, Marcel; Kroiss, Daniela; Teufer, Stefan A.; Hofbauer, Stefan; Soudi, Monika; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Furtmüller, Paul G.; Obinger, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships of the main evolutionary lines of the mammalian peroxidases lactoperoxidase and myeloperoxidase revealed the presence of novel bacterial heme peroxidase subfamilies. Here, for the first time, an ancestral bacterial heme peroxidase is shown to possess a very high bromide oxidation activity (besides conventional peroxidase activity). The recombinant protein allowed monitoring of the autocatalytic peroxide-driven formation of covalent heme to protein bonds. Thereby, the high spin ferric rhombic heme spectrum became similar to lactoperoxidase, the standard reduction potential of the Fe(III)/Fe(II) couple shifted to more positive values (−145 ± 10 mV at pH 7), and the conformational and thermal stability of the protein increased significantly. We discuss structure-function relationships of this new peroxidase in relation to its mammalian counterparts and ask for its putative physiological role. PMID:23918925

  10. Transformation of plum plants with a cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase transgene leads to enhanced water stress tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Faize, Lydia; Nicolás, Emilio; Clemente-Moreno, Maria José; Bru-Martinez, Roque; Burgos, Lorenzo; Hernández, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Water deficit is the most serious environmental factor limiting agricultural production. In this work, the tolerance to water stress (WS) of transgenic plum lines harbouring transgenes encoding cytosolic antioxidant enzymes was studied, with the aim of achieving the durable resistance of commercial plum trees. Methods The acclimatization process was successful for two transgenic lines: line C3-1, co-expressing superoxide dismutase (two copies) and ascorbate peroxidase (one copy) transgenes simultaneously; and line J8-1, harbouring four copies of the cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase gene (cytapx). Plant water relations, chlorophyll fluorescence and the levels of antioxidant enzymes were analysed in both lines submitted to moderate (7 d) and severe (15 d) WS conditions. Additionally, in line J8-1, showing the best response in terms of stress tolerance, a proteomic analysis and determination of the relative gene expression of two stress-responsive genes were carried out. Key Results Line J8-1 exhibited an enhanced stress tolerance that correlated with better photosynthetic performance and a tighter control of water-use efficiency. Furthermore, this WS tolerance also correlated with a higher enzymatic antioxidant capacity than wild-type (WT) and line C3-1 plum plants. On the other hand, line C3-1 displayed an intermediate phenotype between WT plants and line J8-1 in terms of WS tolerance. Under severe WS, the tolerance displayed by J8-1 plants could be due to an enhanced capacity to cope with drought-induced oxidative stress. Moreover, proteomic analysis revealed differences between WT and J8-1 plants, mainly in terms of the abundance of proteins related to carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, antioxidant defences and protein fate. Conclusions The transformation of plum plants with cytapx has a profound effect at the physiological, biochemical, proteomic and genetic levels, enhancing WS tolerance. Although further experiments under field

  11. Transformation of plum plants with a cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase transgene leads to enhanced water stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Faize, Lydia; Nicolás, Emilio; Clemente-Moreno, Maria José; Bru-Martinez, Roque; Burgos, Lorenzo; Hernández, José Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Water deficit is the most serious environmental factor limiting agricultural production. In this work, the tolerance to water stress (WS) of transgenic plum lines harbouring transgenes encoding cytosolic antioxidant enzymes was studied, with the aim of achieving the durable resistance of commercial plum trees. The acclimatization process was successful for two transgenic lines: line C3-1, co-expressing superoxide dismutase (two copies) and ascorbate peroxidase (one copy) transgenes simultaneously; and line J8-1, harbouring four copies of the cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase gene (cytapx). Plant water relations, chlorophyll fluorescence and the levels of antioxidant enzymes were analysed in both lines submitted to moderate (7 d) and severe (15 d) WS conditions. Additionally, in line J8-1, showing the best response in terms of stress tolerance, a proteomic analysis and determination of the relative gene expression of two stress-responsive genes were carried out. Line J8-1 exhibited an enhanced stress tolerance that correlated with better photosynthetic performance and a tighter control of water-use efficiency. Furthermore, this WS tolerance also correlated with a higher enzymatic antioxidant capacity than wild-type (WT) and line C3-1 plum plants. On the other hand, line C3-1 displayed an intermediate phenotype between WT plants and line J8-1 in terms of WS tolerance. Under severe WS, the tolerance displayed by J8-1 plants could be due to an enhanced capacity to cope with drought-induced oxidative stress. Moreover, proteomic analysis revealed differences between WT and J8-1 plants, mainly in terms of the abundance of proteins related to carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, antioxidant defences and protein fate. The transformation of plum plants with cytapx has a profound effect at the physiological, biochemical, proteomic and genetic levels, enhancing WS tolerance. Although further experiments under field conditions will be required, it is proposed that J8

  12. EphA2 signaling is impacted by carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1-L expression in colorectal cancer liver metastasis in a cell context-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Arabzadeh, Azadeh; McGregor, Kevin; Breton, Valérie; Van Der Kraak, Lauren; Akavia, Uri David; Greenwood, Celia M T; Beauchemin, Nicole

    2017-11-28

    We have shown that carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1 long isoform (CEACAM1-L) expression in MC38 metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) cells results in liver metastasis inhibition via CCL2 and STAT3 signaling. But other molecular mechanisms orchestrating CEACAM1-L-mediated metastasis inhibition remain to be defined. We screened a panel of mouse and human CRC cells and evaluated their metastatic outcome after CEACAM1 overexpression or downregulation. An unbiased transcript profiling and a phospho-receptor tyrosine kinase screen comparing MC38 CEACAM1-L-expressing and non-expressing (CT) CRC cells revealed reduced ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EPHA2) expression and activity. An EPHA2-specific inhibitor reduced EPHA2 downstream signaling in CT cells similar to that in CEACAM1-L cells with decreased proliferation and migration. Human CRC patients exhibiting high CEACAM1 in combination with low EPHA2 expression benefited from longer time to first recurrence/metastasis compared to those with high EPHA2 expression. With the added interaction of CEACAM6 , we denoted that CEACAM1 high- and EPHA2 low-expressing patient samples with lower CEACAM6 expression also exhibited a longer time to first recurrence/metastasis. In HT29 human CRC cells, down-regulation of CEACAM1 along with CEA and CEACAM6 up-regulation led to higher metastatic burden. Overall, CEACAM1-L expression in poorly differentiated CRC can inhibit liver metastasis through cell context-dependent EPHA2-mediated signaling. However, CEACAM1's role should be considered in the presence of other CEACAM family members.

  13. The effect of ω-fatty acids on the expression of phospholipase A2 group 2A in human gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Shariati, Mahboube; Aghaei, Mahmoud; Movahedian, Ahmad; Somi, Mohammad Hosein; Dolatkhah, Homayun; Aghazade, Ahmad Mirza

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may have an inhibitory role in carcinogenesis. It was previously shown that PLA2 group 2A (PLA2G2A) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression is associated with less frequent metastasis and longer survival in gastric adenocarcinoma. This study intends to investigate the effect of PUFAs on the expression of PLA2G2A in patients with gastric cancer. Thirty-four patients with gastric cancer (GC) were randomly divided into two groups. The first group received cisplatin medication. The second group received cisplatin medication and supplements of ω-fatty acids for three courses. The total RNA was extracted from the tissues and cDNA was synthesized. The gene expression of PLA2G2A was evaluated by the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. To confirm the changes in gene expression, frozen section was utilized. The frozen tissue samples were sectioned and stained using the immunohistochemistry technique. After chemotherapy and chemotherapy plus supplement, the relative mean of PLA2G2A gene expression increased 1.5 ± 0.5-fold and 7.4 ± 2.6-fold, respectively ( P = 0.006). The relative mean of gene expression in patients who received cisplatin and ω-fatty acids supplement increased more significantly (7.5 ± 3.3-fold) than in patients who received only cisplatin ( P = 0.016). It was found that PUFAs increased the gene and protein expression of PLA2G2A in gastric cancer. Concerning the fact that studies reveal protective function of PLA2G2A in gastric cancer, it is suggested that increased expression of PLA2G2A is helpful. Furthermore, PUFAs can be considered as a useful therapeutic supplement for patients with gastric cancer.

  14. Involvement of vascular peroxidase 1 in angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy of H9c2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Liu, Zhaoya; Xu, Qian; Peng, Haiyang; Chen, Luyao; Huang, Xiao; Yang, Tianlun; Yu, Zaixin; Cheng, Guangjie; Zhang, Guogang; Shi, Ruizheng

    2017-08-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Vascular peroxidase 1 (VPO1), a peroxidase in the cardiovascular system, uses the hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) derived from co-expressed NADPH oxidases (NOX) to produce hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and catalyze peroxidative reactions. Our previous studies showed that VPO1 contributes to the vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and endothelial dysfunction in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs); however, the role of VPO1 in cardiomyocytes hypertrophy is still uninvestigated. The present study was therefore undertaken to examine the role of VPO1 in the angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy, and the underlying mechanism by which VPO1 regulates the redox signaling. As compared to WKY rats, the SHRs exhibited increased myocyte cross sectional area, enhanced Nox2 and VPO1 expression level in cardiac tissue, and an increased Ang II level in plasma. In cultured H9c2 cell line, Ang II increased the hypertrophy-related gene (BNP/ANF) expression and the cellular surface area, which was attenuated by knocking down of VPO1 via VPO1 siRNA or pharmacological inhibition of NOX/VPO1 pathway. Moreover, the enhanced hypochlorous acid (HOCl) production and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was suppressed by VPO1 knockdown. Furthermore, the protective role of VPO1 siRNA transfection on H9c2 cardiomyocytes hypertrophy was abrogated on the HOCl stimulation, and the phosphorylated ERK1/2 expression level was found also upregulated after HOCl stimulation. In conclusion, these results suggest that the Nox2/VPO1/HOCl/ERK1/2 redox signaling pathway was implicated in the pathogenesis of Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of VPO1, a newly identified heme-containing peroxidase, in ox-LDL induced endothelial cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yong-Ping; Hu, Chang-Ping; Yuan, Qiong; Peng, Jun; Shi, Rui-Zheng; Yang, Tian-Lun; Cao, Ze-Hong; Li, Yuan-Jian; Cheng, Guangjie; Zhang, Guo-Gang

    2013-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an important enzyme involved in the genesis and development of atherosclerosis. Vascular peroxidase 1 (VPO1) is a newly discovered member of the peroxidase family that is mainly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells and has structural characteristics and biological activity similar to those of MPO. Our specific aims were to explore the effects of VPO1 on endothelial cell apoptosis induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that ox-LDL induced endothelial cell apoptosis and the expression of VPO1 in endothelial cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner concomitant with increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) generation, and up-regulated protein expression of the NADPH oxidase gp91phox subunit and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. All these effects of ox-LDL were inhibited by VPO1 gene silencing and NADPH oxidase gp91phox subunit gene silencing or by pretreatment with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin or diphenyliodonium. The p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 or the caspase-3 inhibitor DEVD-CHO significantly inhibited ox-LDL-induced endothelial cell apoptosis, but had no effect on intracellular ROS and HOCl generation or the expression of NADPH oxidase gp91phox subunit or VPO1. Collectively, these findings suggest for the first time that VPO1 plays a critical role in ox-LDL-induced endothelial cell apoptosis and that there is a positive feedback loop between VPO1/HOCl and the now-accepted dogma that the NADPH oxidase/ROS/p38 MAPK/caspase-3 pathway is involved in ox-LDL-induced endothelial cell apoptosis. PMID:21820048

  16. A putative peroxidase cDNA from turnip and analysis of the encoded protein sequence.

    PubMed

    Romero-Gómez, S; Duarte-Vázquez, M A; García-Almendárez, B E; Mayorga-Martínez, L; Cervantes-Avilés, O; Regalado, C

    2008-12-01

    A putative peroxidase cDNA was isolated from turnip roots (Brassica napus L. var. purple top white globe) by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Total RNA extracted from mature turnip roots was used as a template for RT-PCR, using a degenerated primer designed to amplify the highly conserved distal motif of plant peroxidases. The resulting partial sequence was used to design the rest of the specific primers for 5' and 3' RACE. Two cDNA fragments were purified, sequenced, and aligned with the partial sequence from RT-PCR, and a complete overlapping sequence was obtained and labeled as BbPA (Genbank Accession No. AY423440, named as podC). The full length cDNA is 1167bp long and contains a 1077bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 358 deduced amino acid peroxidase polypeptide. The putative peroxidase (BnPA) showed a calculated Mr of 34kDa, and isoelectric point (pI) of 4.5, with no significant identity with other reported turnip peroxidases. Sequence alignment showed that only three peroxidases have a significant identity with BnPA namely AtP29a (84%), and AtPA2 (81%) from Arabidopsis thaliana, and HRPA2 (82%) from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana). Work is in progress to clone this gene into an adequate host to study the specific role and possible biotechnological applications of this alternative peroxidase source.

  17. Characterization of Antisense Transformed Plants Deficient in the Tobacco Anionic Peroxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Lagrimini, L. M.; Gingas, V.; Finger, F.; Rothstein, S.; Liu, TTY.

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of the biological compounds that they metabolize, plant peroxidases have long been implicated in plant growth, cell wall biogenesis, lignification, and host defenses. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants that underexpress anionic peroxidase were generated using antisense RNA. The antisense RNA was found to be specific for the anionic isoenzyme and highly effective, reducing endogenous transcript levels and total peroxidase activity by as much as 1600-fold. Antisense-transformed plants appeared normal at initial observation; however, growth studies showed that plants with reduced peroxidase activity grow taller and flower sooner than control plants. In contrast, previously transformed plants overproducing anionic peroxidase were shorter and flowered later than controls. Axillary buds were more developed in antisense-transformed plants and less developed in plants overproducing this enzyme. It was found that the lignin content in leaf, stem, and root was unchanged in antisense-transformed plants, which does not support a role for anionic peroxidase in the lignification of secondary xylem vessels. However, studies of wounded tissue show some reduction in wound-induced deposition of lignin-like polymers. The data support a possible role for tobacco anionic peroxidase in host defenses but not without a reduction in growth potential. PMID:12223765

  18. Characterization of Antisense Transformed Plants Deficient in the Tobacco Anionic Peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Lagrimini, L. M.; Gingas, V.; Finger, F.; Rothstein, S.; Liu, TTY.

    1997-08-01

    On the basis of the biological compounds that they metabolize, plant peroxidases have long been implicated in plant growth, cell wall biogenesis, lignification, and host defenses. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants that underexpress anionic peroxidase were generated using antisense RNA. The antisense RNA was found to be specific for the anionic isoenzyme and highly effective, reducing endogenous transcript levels and total peroxidase activity by as much as 1600-fold. Antisense-transformed plants appeared normal at initial observation; however, growth studies showed that plants with reduced peroxidase activity grow taller and flower sooner than control plants. In contrast, previously transformed plants overproducing anionic peroxidase were shorter and flowered later than controls. Axillary buds were more developed in antisense-transformed plants and less developed in plants overproducing this enzyme. It was found that the lignin content in leaf, stem, and root was unchanged in antisense-transformed plants, which does not support a role for anionic peroxidase in the lignification of secondary xylem vessels. However, studies of wounded tissue show some reduction in wound-induced deposition of lignin-like polymers. The data support a possible role for tobacco anionic peroxidase in host defenses but not without a reduction in growth potential.

  19. Thermal and high pressure inactivation kinetics of blueberry peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Terefe, Netsanet Shiferaw; Delon, Antoine; Versteeg, Cornelis

    2017-10-01

    This study for the first time investigated the stability and inactivation kinetics of blueberry peroxidase in model systems (McIlvaine buffer, pH=3.6, the typical pH of blueberry juice) during thermal (40-80°C) and combined high pressure-thermal processing (0.1-690MPa, 30-90°C). At 70-80°C, the thermal inactivation kinetics was best described by a biphasic model with ∼61% labile and ∼39% stable fractions at temperature between 70 and 75°C. High pressure inhibited the inactivation of the enzyme with no inactivation at pressures as high as 690MPa and temperatures less than 50°C. The inactivation kinetics of the enzyme at 60-70°C, and pressures higher than 500MPa was best described by a first order biphasic model with ∼25% labile fraction and 75% stable fraction. The activation energy values at atmospheric pressure were 548.6kJ/mol and 324.5kJ/mol respectively for the stable and the labile fractions. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Low glutathione peroxidase activity levels in patients with vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Zedan, Hatem; Abdel-Motaleb, Amira Ali; Kassem, Nahed Mahmoud Ali; Hafeez, Heba Ahmed Abdel; Hussein, Mahmoud Rezk Abdelwhahed

    2015-01-01

    Vitiligo is an idiopathic skin disease characterized by white areas on the skin due to loss of the functional melanocytes, with possible involvement of oxidative stress. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is an antioxidant enzyme that protects cells against oxidative damage. To examine serum GPx levels in patients with vitiligo and to relate the findings to the clinical features. The study group included 60 patients with vitiligo and 30 matching healthy controls. GPx activity was evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found a significant decrease in serum GPx activity level in the patients with vitiligo compared to the healthy controls (0.29 ± 0.14 versus 0.47 ± 0.13, p < .001). The levels were significantly low in skin phenotypes III and IV (p < .001). Higher levels were also observed with increasing age (≥ 14 years), prolonged disease duration (≥ 3 years), and generalized and extensive vitiligo (< 50%). However, these variations were statistically insignificant. Low levels of serum GPx activity, indicative of a disturbed oxidant-antioxidant system, may contribute to the development of vitiligo. © 2014 Canadian Dermatology Association.

  1. Ultrastructural Localization of Peroxidase Activity in Human Platelets and Megakaryocytes

    PubMed Central

    Breton-Gorius, Janine; Guichard, Josette

    1972-01-01

    Normal human platelets and megakaryocytes were examined for peroxidase activity by the diaminobenzidine (DAB) cytochemical technic. When the fixation and the incubation were adequate, a strong reaction was present in the dense tubular system of platelets suspended in plasma or spread on carbon. The black reaction product was ascribed to enzyme activity, since the reaction was completely eliminated when H2O2 or DAB were omitted, or when H2O2 was in excess. In addition, the reaction was inhibited by aminotriazole, cyanide and azide. In the human megakaryocytes, the reaction was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum including the perinuclear envelope. The Golgi complex and the clear vacuolar system were negative for the reaction. After platelet release, the reaction was always seen in the perinuclear space. The nature and function of the enzyme, as well as its possible relationships with catalase, are discussed. ImagesFig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 1Fig 2Fig 12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 16 PMID:5009974

  2. Dietary Factors Associated with Plasma Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Matana, Antonela; Torlak, Vesela; Brdar, Dubravka; Popović, Marijana; Lozić, Bernarda; Barbalić, Maja; Perica, Vesna Boraska; Punda, Ante; Polašek, Ozren; Hayward, Caroline; Zemunik, Tatijana

    2017-10-28

    The knowledge about dietary habits and their influence in the development of autoimmune thyroid disease is insufficient. The aim of this study was to analyse the association of dietary factors and plasma thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) and/or thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab). The study enrolled 1887 participants originating from the South Croatia. Participants with elevated plasma TPO-Ab and/or Tg-Ab were defined as cases ( n = 462) and those with TPO-Ab and/or Tg-Ab within referent values were defined as controls ( n = 1425). Dietary intake was evaluated according to a food frequency questionnaire containing 58 food items. Principal component analysis was used to group food items into dietary groups. We used logistic regression analysis to examine dietary groups associated with positive plasma TPO-Ab and/or Tg-Ab. The results indicate that the dietary group with frequent consumption of animal fats and butter is associated with positive plasma TPO-Ab and/or Tg-Ab ( p = 0.01). The dietary group with frequent consumption of vegetables as well as the dietary group with high consumption of dried fruit, nuts, and muesli are associated with negative findings of TPO-Ab and/or Tg-Ab ( p = 0.048 and p = 0.02, respectively). We showed that the anti-inflammatory dietary groups are associated with the negative findings of plasma TPO-Ab and/or Tg-Ab.

  3. Characterization of lignin and Mn peroxidases from Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    Long-term objectives are to elucidate the role and mechanism of the various isozymes in lignin biodegradation. Work is described on electrochemical studies on lignin and Mn peroxidases. This study was performed to investigate the structural aspects which confer the lignin and Mn peroxidases with their high reactivity. The experimentally determined redox potential of the Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} couple for the lignin peroxidase isozymes H1, H2, H8 and H10 are very similar, near-130 mV. The redox potential for the Mn peroxidase isozymes H3 and H4 are similar to each other ({minus}88 mV and {minus}95 mV, respectively) and are more positive thanmore » the lignin peroxidases. The higher redox potential for the Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} couple is consistent with the heme active site of these fungal peroxidases being more electron deficient. To investigate the accessibility of the heme active site to the substrate which is oxidized [veratryl alcohol and Mn (II)], we investigated whether these substrates had any affect on the redox potential of the heme. The E{sub m7} value for lignin and Mn peroxidases are not affected by their respective substrates, veratryl alcohol and Mn (II). These results suggest that substrates do not directly interact with the ferric heme-iron as axial ligands. This is consistent with the present model for peroxidase catalysis. Suicide inhibitor (1) and nmr studies (2) indicate that the heme-iron of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is not fully accessible to bulky substrates occur at the periphery of the heme.« less

  4. Hall Effect Thruster Interactions Data From the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 Satellites. Part 3; Acquire Express-A3 SPT-100 Based Propulsion Subsystem and Other Subsystem Flight Operation TM-Data for the Period of June 24, 2000 to and Including September 30, 2000, Task 30

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.

    2003-01-01

    This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80 E. and 11 W., respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3 99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.

  5. Hall Effect Thruster Interactions Data From the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 Satellites. Part 2; Acquire TM Date for Type B Sensors for "Express-A" Number 2 Satellite for the Period of March 12, 2000 to and Including June 15, 2000, Task 25

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunning, John (Technical Monitor); Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.

    2003-01-01

    This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80 E. and 11 W., respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3 99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.

  6. Hall Effect Thruster Interactions Data from the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 Satellites. Part 4; Acquire TM-Data for Type A and Type B Sensors for "Express-A" Number 3 Satellite, Task 27A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.

    2003-01-01

    This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80deg E., and 11deg W., respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3-99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.

  7. Hall Effect Thruster Interactions Data from the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 Satellites. Part 8; Acquire TM-Data for Type A and Type B Sensors for "Express A" Number 3 Satellite for the Period of January 1, 2001 to and Including March 31, 2001, Task 27C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunning, John (Technical Monitor); Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.

    2003-01-01

    This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80deg E. and 11deg W., respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3 99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.

  8. Hall Effect Thruster Interactions Data From the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 Satellites. Part 10; Acquire TM-Data for Type A and Type B Sensors for "Express-A" Number 3 Satellite for the Period of July 1, 2001 to and Including September 30, 2001, Task 27D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunning, John (Technical Monitor); Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.

    2003-01-01

    This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80 E. and 11 W., respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3 99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.

  9. Horseradish peroxidase-mediated decolourization of Orange II: modelling hydrogen peroxide utilization efficiency at different pH values.

    PubMed

    Morales Urrea, Diego Alberto; Haure, Patricia Mónica; García Einschlag, Fernando Sebastián; Contreras, Edgardo Martín

    2018-05-09

    Enzymatic decolourization of azo-dyes could be a cost-competitive alternative compared to physicochemical or microbiological methods. Stoichiometric and kinetic features of peroxidase-mediated decolourization of azo-dyes by hydrogen peroxide (P) are central for designing purposes. In this work, a modified version of the Dunford mechanism of peroxidases was developed. The proposed model takes into account the inhibition of peroxidases by high concentrations of P, the substrate-dependant catalatic activity of peroxidases (e.g. the decomposition of P to water and oxygen), the generation of oxidation products (OP) and the effect of pH on the decolourization kinetics of the azo-dye Orange II (OII). To obtain the parameters of the proposed model, two series of experiments were performed. In the first set, the effects of initial P concentration (0.01-0.12 mM) and pH (5-10) on the decolourization degree were studied at a constant initial OII concentration (0.045 mM). Obtained results showed that at pH 9-10 and low initial P concentrations, the consumption of P was mainly to oxidize OII. From the proposed model, an expression for the decolourization degree was obtained. In the second set of experiments, the effect of the initial concentrations of OII (0.023-0.090 mM), P (0.02-4.7 mM), HRP (34-136 mg/L) and pH (5-10) on the initial specific decolourization rate (q 0 ) was studied. As a general rule, a noticeable increase in q 0 was observed for pHs higher than 7. For a given pH, q 0 increased as a function of the initial OII concentration. Besides, there was an inhibitory effect of high P concentrations on q 0 . To asses the possibility of reusing the enzyme, repeated additions of OII and P were performed. Results showed that the enzyme remained active after six reuse cycles. A satisfactory accordance between the change of the absorbance during these experiments and absorbances calculated using the proposed model was obtained. Considering that this set of data was not

  10. A comparative approach to recombinantly produce the plant enzyme horseradish peroxidase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gundinger, Thomas; Spadiut, Oliver

    2017-04-20

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is used in various biotechnological and medical applications. Since its isolation from plant provides several disadvantages, the bacterium Escherichia coli was tested as recombinant expression host in former studies. However, neither production from refolded inclusion bodies nor active enzyme expression in the periplasm exceeded final titres of 10mg per litre cultivation broth. Thus, the traditional way of production of HRP from plant still prevails. In this study, we revisited the recombinant production of HRP in E. coli and investigated and compared both strategies, (a) the production of HRP as inclusion bodies (IBs) and subsequent refolding and (b) the production of active HRP in the periplasm. In fact, we were able to produce HRP in E. coli either way. We obtained a refolding yield of 10% from IBs giving a final titre of 100mgL -1 cultivation broth, and were able to produce 48mg active HRP per litre cultivation broth in the periplasm. In terms of biochemical properties, soluble HRP showed a highly reduced catalytic activity and stability which probably results from the fusion partner DsbA used in this study. Refolded HRP showed similar substrate affinity, an 11-fold reduced catalytic efficiency and 2-fold reduced thermal stability compared to plant HRP. In conclusion, we developed a toolbox for HRP engineering and production. We propose to engineer HRP by directed evolution or semi-rational protein design, express HRP in the periplasm of E. coli allowing straight forward screening for improved variants, and finally produce these variants as IB in high amounts, which are then refolded. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Nitric oxide activates superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase to repress the cell death induced by wounding.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Ching; Jih, Pei-Ju; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Lin, Jeng-Shane; Chang, Ling-Lan; Shen, Yu-Hsing; Jeng, Shih-Tong

    2011-10-01

    Wounding caused by rain, wind, and pathogen may lead plants to onset defense response. Previous studies indicated that mechanical wounding stimulates plants to generate nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). In this study, the functions of NO and H(2)O(2) after wounding in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas cv. Tainung 57) was further analyzed. Mechanical wounding damaged cells and resulted in necrosis, but the presence of NO donors or NO scavenger might reduce or enhance the cell death caused by wounding, respectively. The amount of H(2)O(2) induced by wounding was also decreased or increased when plants were incubated with NO donors or NO scavenger, individually. These results indicate that NO may regulate H(2)O(2) generation to affect cell death. NO-induced proteins isolated from two-dimensional electrophoresis were identified to be Copper/Zinc superoxide dismutases (CuZnSODs). The activities of CuZnSODs and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) could be enhanced by NO. In addition, the expression of CuZnSOD and APX was induced by wounding via NO, and their expression was further stimulated by NO through the generation of cGMP. The influx of calcium ions and the activity of NADPH oxidase were also involved in the NO signal transduction pathway inducing APX expression. Collectively, the generation of H(2)O(2) in wounded plants might trigger cell death. Meanwhile, the production of NO induced by wounding stimulated signal transducers including cGMP, calcium ions, and H(2)O(2) to activate CuZnSOD and APX, which further decreased H(2)O(2) level and reduced the cell death caused by wounding.

  12. In silico studies on tryparedoxin peroxidase of Leishmania infantum: structural aspects.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bishal Kumar; Dubey, Vikash Kumar

    2009-09-01

    Tryparedoxin peroxidase (TryP) is a key enzyme of the trypanothione-dependent metabolism for removal of oxidative stress in leishmania. These enzymes function as antioxidants through their peroxidase and peroxynitrite reductase activities. Inhibitors of this enzyme are presumed to be antilesihmania drugs and structural studies are prerequisite of rational drug design. We have constructed three dimensional structure of TryP of Leishmania infantum using comparative modeling. Structural analysis reveals several interesting features. Moreover, it shows remarkable structural difference with human host glutathione peroxidase, an enzyme involved in similar function and TryP from Leishmania major.

  13. Chemical form of selenium affects its uptake, transport, and glutathione peroxidase activity in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell model.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huawei; Jackson, Matthew I; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Combs, Gerald F

    2011-11-01

    Determining the effect of selenium (Se) chemical form on uptake, transport, and glutathione peroxidase activity in human intestinal cells is critical to assess Se bioavailability at nutritional doses. In this study, we found that two sources of L-selenomethionine (SeMet) and Se-enriched yeast each increased intracellular Se content more effectively than selenite or methylselenocysteine (SeMSC) in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell model. Interestingly, SeMSC, SeMet, and digested Se-enriched yeast were transported at comparable efficacy from the apical to basolateral sides, each being about 3-fold that of selenite. In addition, these forms of Se, whether before or after traversing from apical side to basolateral side, did not change the potential to support glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Although selenoprotein P has been postulated to be a key Se transport protein, its intracellular expression did not differ when selenite, SeMSC, SeMet, or digested Se-enriched yeast was added to serum-contained media. Taken together, our data show, for the first time, that the chemical form of Se at nutritional doses can affect the absorptive (apical to basolateral side) efficacy and retention of Se by intestinal cells; but that, these effects are not directly correlated to the potential to support GPx activity.

  14. NrdH Redoxin Enhances Resistance to Multiple Oxidative Stresses by Acting as a Peroxidase Cofactor in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Si, Mei-Ru; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Zhi-Fang; Xu, Yi-Xiang; Liu, Ying-Bao; Jiang, Cheng-Ying; Wang, Yao; Liu, Shuang-Jiang

    2014-01-01

    NrdH redoxins are small protein disulfide oxidoreductases behaving like thioredoxins but sharing a high amino acid sequence similarity to glutaredoxins. Although NrdH redoxins are supposed to be another candidate in the antioxidant system, their physiological roles in oxidative stress remain unclear. In this study, we confirmed that the Corynebacterium glutamicum NrdH redoxin catalytically reduces the disulfides in the class Ib ribonucleotide reductases (RNR), insulin and 5,5′-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB), by exclusively receiving electrons from thioredoxin reductase. Overexpression of NrdH increased the resistance of C. glutamicum to multiple oxidative stresses by reducing ROS accumulation. Accordingly, elevated expression of the nrdH gene was observed when the C. glutamicum wild-type strain was exposed to oxidative stress conditions. It was discovered that the NrdH-mediated resistance to oxidative stresses was largely dependent on the presence of the thiol peroxidase Prx, as the increased resistance to oxidative stresses mediated by overexpression of NrdH was largely abrogated in the prx mutant. Furthermore, we showed that NrdH facilitated the hydroperoxide reduction activity of Prx by directly targeting and serving as its electron donor. Thus, we present evidence that the NrdH redoxin can protect against the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by various exogenous oxidative stresses by acting as a peroxidase cofactor. PMID:24375145

  15. Progress and obstacles in the production and application of recombinant lignin-degrading peroxidases

    PubMed Central

    Lambertz, Camilla; Ece, Selin; Fischer, Rainer; Commandeur, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lignin is 1 of the 3 major components of lignocellulose. Its polymeric structure includes aromatic subunits that can be converted into high-value-added products, but this potential cannot yet been fully exploited because lignin is highly recalcitrant to degradation. Different approaches for the depolymerization of lignin have been tested, including pyrolysis, chemical oxidation, and hydrolysis under supercritical conditions. An additional strategy is the use of lignin-degrading enzymes, which imitates the natural degradation process. A versatile set of enzymes for lignin degradation has been identified, and research has focused on the production of recombinant enzymes in sufficient amounts to characterize their structure and reaction mechanisms. Enzymes have been analyzed individually and in combinations using artificial substrates, lignin model compounds, lignin and lignocellulose. Here we consider progress in the production of recombinant lignin-degrading peroxidases, the advantages and disadvantages of different expression hosts, and obstacles that must be overcome before such enzymes can be characterized and used for the industrial processing of lignin. PMID:27295524

  16. Receptor-Mediated and Fluid-Phase Transcytosis of Horseradish Peroxidase across Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ellinger, Isabella; Fuchs, Renate

    2010-01-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is often used as a fluid-phase marker to characterize endocytic and transcytotic processes. Likewise, it has been applied to investigate the mechanisms of biliary secretion of fluid in rat liver hepatocytes. However, HRP contains mannose residues and thus binds to mannose receptors (MRs) on liver cells, including hepatocytes. To study the role of MR-mediated endocytosis of HRP transport in hepatocytes, we determined the influence of the oligosaccharid mannan on HRP biliary secretion in the isolated perfused rat liver. A 1-minute pulse of HRP was applied followed by marker-free perfusion. HRP appeared in bile with biphasic kinetics: a first peak at 7 minutes and a second peak at 15 minutes after labeling. Perfusion with 0.8 mg/mL HRP in the presence of a twofold excess of mannan reduced the first peak by 41% without effect on the second one. Together with recently published data on MR expression in rat hepatocytes this demonstrates two different mechanisms for HRP transcytosis: a rapid, receptor-mediated transport and a slower fluid-phase transport. PMID:20168981

  17. Inhibition of Glutathione Peroxidase Mediates the Collateral Sensitivity of Multidrug-resistant Cells to Tiopronin*

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew D.; Marshall, Travis S.; Kwit, Alexandra D. T.; Miller Jenkins, Lisa M.; Dulcey, Andrés E.; Madigan, James P.; Pluchino, Kristen M.; Goldsborough, Andrew S.; Brimacombe, Kyle R.; Griffiths, Gary L.; Gottesman, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle to the successful chemotherapy of cancer. MDR is often the result of overexpression of ATP-binding cassette transporters following chemotherapy. A common ATP-binding cassette transporter that is overexpressed in MDR cancer cells is P-glycoprotein, which actively effluxes drugs against a concentration gradient, producing an MDR phenotype. Collateral sensitivity (CS), a phenomenon of drug hypersensitivity, is defined as the ability of certain compounds to selectively target MDR cells, but not the drug-sensitive parent cells from which they were derived. The drug tiopronin has been previously shown to elicit CS. However, unlike other CS agents, the mechanism of action was not dependent on the expression of P-glycoprotein in MDR cells. We have determined that the CS activity of tiopronin is mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and that CS can be reversed by a variety of ROS-scavenging compounds. Specifically, selective toxicity of tiopronin toward MDR cells is achieved by inhibition of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and the mode of inhibition of GPx1 by tiopronin is shown in this report. Why MDR cells are particularly sensitive to ROS is discussed, as is the difficulty in exploiting this hypersensitivity to tiopronin in the clinic. PMID:24930045

  18. Thyroid peroxidase of the pig, dog, rat, and mouse. Solubilization and identification of isozymes by isoelectric focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Lama, Z.; Feinstein, R.N.

    Dog and pig thyroid peroxidase, which exist naturally in a largely insoluble form, can be solubilized by the use of 4 M urea, or of chlorhexidine, with small losses of total activity. In the mouse and the rat, the thyroid peroxidase occurs in a soluble form. The demonstration of these rodent thyroid peroxidases is therefore complicated by unavoidable contamination with peroxidatically acting hemoglobin and catalase; the demonstration of the presence of true peroxidase was achieved by isoelectric focusing on polyacrylamide gel slabs, which separates the various factors, and by the use of the catalase and peroxidase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole.

  19. Glutathione peroxidase contributes with heme oxygenase-1 to redox balance in mouse brain during the course of cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Linares, María; Marín-García, Patricia; Martínez-Chacón, Gabriela; Pérez-Benavente, Susana; Puyet, Antonio; Diez, Amalia; Bautista, José M

    2013-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been attributed both a key pathogenic and rescuing role in cerebral malaria (CM). In a Plasmodium berghei ANKA murine model of CM, host redox signaling and functioning were examined during the course of neurological damage. Host antioxidant defenses were early altered at the transcriptional level indicated by the gradually diminished expression of superoxide dismutase-1 (sod-1), sod-2, sod-3 and catalase genes. During severe disease, this led to the dysfunctional activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes in damaged brain regions. Vitagene associated markers (heat shock protein 70 and thioredoxin-1) also showed a decaying expression pattern that paralleled reduced expression of the transcription factors Parkinson disease 7, Forkhead box O 3 and X-box binding protein 1 with a role in preserving brain redox status. However, the oxidative stress markers reactive oxygen/nitrogen species were not accumulated in the brains of CM mice and redox proteomics and immunohistochemistry failed to detect quantitative or qualitative differences in protein carbonylation. Thus, the loss of antioxidant capacity was compensated for in all cerebral regions by progressive upregulation of heme oxygenase-1, and in specific regions by early glutathione peroxidase-1 induction. This study shows for the first time a scenario of cooperative glutathione peroxidase and heme oxygenase-1 upregulation to suppress superoxide dismutase, catalase, heat shock protein-70 and thioredoxin-1 downregulation effects in experimental CM, counteracting oxidative damage and maintaining redox equilibrium. Our findings reconcile the apparent inconsistency between the lack of oxidative metabolite build up and reported protective effect of antioxidant therapy against CM. © 2013.

  20. Association of antithyroid peroxidase antibody with fibromyalgia in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Jowairiyya; Blumen, Helena; Tagoe, Clement E

    2015-08-01

    To investigate how autoimmune thyroiditis (ATD) affects the clinical presentation of established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with particular reference to fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain (CWP). A cohort of 204 patients with RA for whom the presence or absence of autoimmune thyroid antibodies was documented was examined for the relationships between thyroid autoantibodies and fibromyalgia or CWP. We identified 29 % who tested positive for antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb). The anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) was found in 24 %. Among the thyroid autoantibody-positive patients, 40 % had a diagnosis of fibromyalgia or CWP versus 17 % for antibody negative patients. Logistic regression analyses (adjusted by age, sex, diabetes and BMI) indicated that TPOAb-positive patients were more likely to have fibromyalgia or CWP, with an odds ratio (OR) of 4.641, 95 % confidence interval (CI) (2.110-10.207) P < .001. Adjusting for spinal degenerative disc disease did not change the association with fibromyalgia, OR 4.458, 95 % CI (1.950-10.191), P < .001. The OR between TgAb and fibromyalgia was not significant (P > .05). Additional logistic regression analyses (adjusted by age, sex and BMI) indicated a significant relationship between TPOAb and fibromyalgia or CWP in patients without diabetes and those without hypothyroidism (OR of 4.873, 95 % CI (1.877-12.653), P = .001 and OR of 4.615 95 % CI (1.810-11.770), P = .001, respectively). There may be a positive association between the ATD antibody TPOAb, and fibromyalgia syndrome and CWP in patients with established RA.

  1. Structure of the horseradish peroxidase isozyme C genes.

    PubMed

    Fujiyama, K; Takemura, H; Shibayama, S; Kobayashi, K; Choi, J K; Shinmyo, A; Takano, M; Yamada, Y; Okada, H

    1988-05-02

    We have isolated, cloned and characterized three cDNAs and two genomic DNAs corresponding to the mRNAs and genes for the horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) peroxidase isoenzyme C (HPR C). The amino acid sequence of HRP C1, deduced from the nucleotide sequence of one of the cDNA clone, pSK1, contained the same primary sequence as that of the purified enzyme established by Welinder [FEBS Lett. 72, 19-23 (1976)] with additional sequences at the N and C terminal. All three inserts in the cDNA clones, pSK1, pSK2 and pSK3, coded the same size of peptide (308 amino acid residues) if these are processed in the same way, and the amino acid sequence were homologous to each other by 91-94%. Functional amino acids, including His40, His170, Tyr185 and Arg183 and S-S-bond-forming Cys, were conserved in the three isozymes, but a few N-glycosylation sites were not the same. Two HRP C isoenzyme genomic genes, prxC1 and prxC2, were tandem on the chromosomal DNA and each gene consisted of four exons and three introns. The positions in the exons interrupted by introns were the same in two genes. We observed a putative promoter sequence 5' upstream and a poly(A) signal 3' downstream in both genes. The gene product of prxC1 might be processed with a signal sequence of 30 amino acid residues at the N terminus and a peptide consisting of 15 amino acid residues at the C terminus.

  2. Characterisation of phenol oxidase and peroxidase from maize silk.

    PubMed

    Sukalović, V Hadzi-Tasković; Veljović-Jovanović, S; Maksimović, J Dragisić; Maksimović, V; Pajić, Z

    2010-05-01

    Silk of some maize genotypes contains a high level of phenolics that undergo enzymatic oxidation to form quinones, which condense among themselves or with proteins to form brown pigments. Two phenolic oxidizing enzymes, peroxidase (POD; EC 1.11.1.7) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 1.10.3.1), from maize (Zea mays L.) silk were characterised with respect to their preferred substrate, different isoforms and specific effectors. One browning silk sample with high, and two non-browning samples with low phenolic content were investigated. Although POD oxidizes a wide range of phenolic substrates in vitro, its activity rate was independent of silk phenolic content. PPO activity, detected with o-diphenolic substrates, was abundant only in browning silk, and low or absent in non-browning silk. Pollination increased POD but not PPO activity. Isoelectric-focusing (IEF) and specific staining for POD and PPO showed a high degree of polymorphism that varied with silk origin. The IEF pattern of POD revealed a number of anionic and several cationic isoenzymes, with the most pronounced having neutral pI 7 and a basic isoform with pI 10. Detected isoforms of PPO were anionic, except for one neutral form found only in browning silk, and occupied positions different from those of POD. Different inhibitory effects of NaN(3), EDTA, KCN, and L-cysteine, as well as different impacts of a variety of cations on the oxidation of chlorogenic acid, mediated by PPO or POD, were detected. The findings are discussed in terms of a possible roles of these enzymes in defence and pollination.

  3. Thyroid Hypoplasia in Congenital Hypothyroidism Associated with Thyroid Peroxidase Mutations.

    PubMed

    Stoupa, Athanasia; Chaabane, Rim; Guériouz, Manelle; Raynaud-Ravni, Catherine; Nitschke, Patrick; Bole-Feyset, Christine; Mnif, Mouna; Ammar Keskes, Leila; Hachicha, Mongia; Belguith, Neila; Polak, Michel; Carré, Aurore

    2018-05-23

    Primary congenital hypothyroidism (CH) affects about 1:3000 newborns worldwide and is mainly caused by defects in thyroid gland development (thyroid dysgenesis, TD) or hormone synthesis. A genetic cause is identified in less than 10% of TD patients. Our aim was to identify novel candidate genes in patients with TD using next-generation sequencing tools. We used whole exome sequencing (WES) to study two families, a consanguineous Tunisian family (one child with severe thyroid hypoplasia) and a French family (two newborn siblings, with a thyroid in situ that was not enlarged on ultrasound at diagnosis). Variants in candidate genes were filtered according to type of variation, frequency in public and in-house databases, in silico prediction tools, and inheritance mode. We unexpectedly identified three different variants of the thyroid peroxidase (TPO) gene. A homozygous missense mutation (c.875C>T, p.S292F) was found in the Tunisian patient with severe thyroid hypoplasia. The two French siblings were compound heterozygotes (c.387delC/c.2578G>A, p.N129Kfs*80/p.G860R) for TPO mutations. All three mutations have been previously described in patients with goitrous CH. In our patients treatment was initiated immediately after diagnosis and the effect, if any, of TSH stimulation of these thyroids remains unclear. We report the first cases of thyroid hypoplasia at diagnosis during neonatal period in patients with CH and TPO mutations. These cases highlight the importance of screening for TPO mutations not only in goitrous CH, but also in thyroids of normal or small size, and they broaden the clinical spectrum of described phenotypes.

  4. Complexes of horseradish peroxidase with formate, acetate, and carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Gunilla H; Nicholls, Peter; Svistunenko, Dimitri; Berglund, Gunnar I; Hajdu, Janos

    2005-01-18

    Carbon monoxide, formate, and acetate interact with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) by binding to subsites within the active site. These ligands also bind to catalases, but their interactions are different in the two types of enzymes. Formate (notionally the "hydrated" form of carbon monoxide) is oxidized to carbon dioxide by compound I in catalase, while no such reaction is reported to occur in HRP, and the CO complex of ferrocatalase can only be obtained indirectly. Here we describe high-resolution crystal structures for HRP in its complexes with carbon monoxide and with formate, and compare these with the previously determined HRP-acetate structure [Berglund, G. I., et al. (2002) Nature 417, 463-468]. A multicrystal X-ray data collection strategy preserved the correct oxidation state of the iron during the experiments. Absorption spectra of the crystals and electron paramagnetic resonance data for the acetate and formate complexes in solution correlate electronic states with the structural results. Formate in ferric HRP and CO in ferrous HRP bind directly to the heme iron with iron-ligand distances of 2.3 and 1.8 A, respectively. CO does not bind to the ferric iron in the crystal. Acetate bound to ferric HRP stacks parallel with the heme plane with its carboxylate group 3.6 A from the heme iron, and without an intervening solvent molecule between the iron and acetate. The positions of the oxygen atoms in the bound ligands outline a potential access route for hydrogen peroxide to the iron. We propose that interactions in this channel ensure deprotonation of the proximal oxygen before binding to the heme iron.

  5. Cloning and differential expression of steroid 5 alpha-reductase type 1 (Srd5a1) and type 2 (Srd5a2) from the Harderian glands of hamsters.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Luis; Chávez, Bertha; Vilchis, Felipe

    2010-04-01

    In hamsters, the Harderian glands (HGs) exhibit a marked sexual dimorphism which is thought to depend on dihydrotestosterone (DHT); however, it is unclear whether hamster HGs contain one or more 5 alpha-reductases and whether these enzymes are differentially expressed in males and females. In this study, we isolated specific cDNAs for 5 alpha-reductase 1 (Srd5a1) and 5 alpha-reductase 2 (Srd5a2), determined their sequences and investigated their expression in the HG of both sexes. Isozyme 1, cloned from liver mRNA, encodes a protein of 255 amino acids (aa); isozyme 2 cDNA, isolated from the epididymis encodes a 254-aa protein. When assayed in transfected HEK-293 cells, the type 1 isozyme displayed activity over a broad pH range (6.5-8), while isozyme 2 had a pH optimum of 5.5. Both isoenzymes efficiently catalyzed the in vitro transformation of T into DHT, with apparent K(m) values of 7.1 and 1.9 micromol/L for Srd5a1 and Srd5a2, respectively. Real-time PCR analysis revealed higher mRNA levels for Srd5a1 than for Srd5a2. Expression of both isoenzymes increased slightly in HGs of castrated males and showed variations during the estrous cycle in females. Hormonal replacement with 17beta-estradiol administered to spayed females induced the up-regulation of Srd5a2 mRNA levels. Altogether, our results demonstrated that both Srd5a1 and Srd5a2 are expressed in HGs without clear differences between males and females. The biochemical characteristics and relative expression of these 5 alpha-reductases support the view that both isozymes may play a relevant role in modulating androgen signaling in HG. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A catalytic approach to estimate the redox potential of heme-peroxidases

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, Marcela; Roman, Rosa; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

    2007-06-08

    The redox potential of heme-peroxidases varies according to a combination of structural components within the active site and its vicinities. For each peroxidase, this redox potential imposes a thermodynamic threshold to the range of oxidizable substrates. However, the instability of enzymatic intermediates during the catalytic cycle precludes the use of direct voltammetry to measure the redox potential of most peroxidases. Here we describe a novel approach to estimate the redox potential of peroxidases, which directly depends on the catalytic performance of the activated enzyme. Selected p-substituted phenols are used as substrates for the estimations. The results obtained with this catalyticmore » approach correlate well with the oxidative capacity predicted by the redox potential of the Fe(III)/Fe(II) couple.« less

  7. Molecular-level insights into intrinsic peroxidase-like activity of nanocarbon oxides.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ruisheng; Zhao, Xiang; Gao, Xingfa

    2015-01-12

    Nanocarbon oxides have been proved to possess great peroxidase-like activity, catalyzing the oxidation of many peroxidase substrates, such as 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and o-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (OPD), accompanied by a significant color change. This chromogenic reaction is widely used to detect glucose and occult blood. The chromogenic reaction was intensively investigated with density functional theory and molecular-level insights into the nature of peroxidase-like activity were gained. A radical mechanism was unraveled and the carboxyl groups of nanocarbon oxides were identified as the reactive sites. Aromatic domains connected with the carboxyl groups were critical to the peroxidase-like activity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Crystal structures of dye-decolorizing peroxidase with ascorbic acid and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Toru; Tsuge, Hideaki; Hisabori, Toru; Sugano, Yasushi

    2012-12-14

    The structure of dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP)-type peroxidase differs from that of other peroxidase families, indicating that DyP-type peroxidases have a different reaction mechanism. We have determined the crystal structures of DyP with ascorbic acid and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol at 1.5 and 1.4Å, respectively. The common binding site for both substrates was located at the entrance of the second cavity leading from the DyP molecular surface to heme. This resulted in a hydrogen bond network connection between each substrate and the heme distal side. This network consisted of water molecules occupying the second cavity, heme 6-propionate, Arg329, and Asn313. This network is consistent with the proton transfer pathway from substrate to DyP. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A deletion mutation at the ep locus causes low seed coat peroxidase activity in soybean.

    PubMed

    Gijzen, M

    1997-11-01

    The Ep locus severely affects the amount of peroxidase enzyme in soybean seed coats. Plants containing the dominant Ep allele accumulate large amounts of peroxidase in the hourglass cells of the sub-epidermis. Homozygous recessive epep genotypes do not accumulate peroxidase in the hourglass cells and are much reduced in total seed coat peroxidase activity. To isolate the gene encoding the seed coat peroxidase and to determine whether it corresponds to the Ep locus, a cDNA library was constructed from developing seed coats and an abundant 1.3 kb peroxidase transcript was cloned. The corresponding structural gene was also isolated from a genomic library. Sequence analysis shows that the seed coat peroxidase is translated as a 352 amino acid precursor protein of 38 kDa. Processing of a putative 26 amino acid signal sequence results in a mature protein of 326 residues with a calculated mass of 35 kDa and a pl of 4.4. Using probes derived from the cDNA, genomic DNA blot hybridization and polymerase chain reaction analysis detected polymorphisms that distinguished EpEp and epep genotypes. Co-segregation of the polymorphisms in an F2 population from a cross of EpEp and epep plants shows that the Ep locus encodes the seed coat peroxidase protein. Comparison of Ep and ep alleles indicates that the recessive gene lacks 87 bp of sequence encompassing the translation start codon. Analysis by RNA blot hybridization shows that epep plants have drastically reduced amounts of peroxidase transcript compared with EpEp plants. The peroxidase mRNA is abundant in seed coat tissues of EpEp plants during the late stages of seed maturation, and could also be detected in root tissues, but not in the flower, embryo, pod or leaf. The results indicate that the lack of peroxidase accumulation in seed coats of homozygous recessive epep plants is due to a mutation of the structural gene that reduces transcript abundance.

  10. Effects of experimental hypogravity on peroxidase and cell wall constituents in the dwarf marigold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S.; Speitel, T.; Shiraki, D.; Fukumoto, J.

    1977-01-01

    Dwarf marigolds grown from seed under experimental hypogravity are modified in lignin content, hemicellulose composition and peroxidase activity. The two conditions used, clinostats and flotation, induced changes differing in magnitude but qualitatively similar. Most responses on clinostats required correction for vertical axis rotational effects, thus limiting the value of these instruments in free-fall simulation. These findings extend earlier observations suggesting that increased peroxidase and decreased lignin are characteristic of growth under experimental hypogravity.

  11. Effects of experimental hypogravity on peroxidase and cell wall constituents in the dwarf marigold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S.; Speitel, T.; Shiraki, D.; Fukumoto, J.

    1978-01-01

    Dwarf Marigolds grown from seed under experimental hypogravity are modified in lignin content, hemicellulose composition, and peroxidase activity. The two conditions used, clinostats and flotation, induced changes differing in magnitude but qualitatively similar. Most responses on clinostats required corrections for vertical axis rotational effects, thus limiting the value of these instruments in free-fall simulation. These findings extend earlier observations suggesting that increased peroxidase and decreased lignin are characteristic of growth under experimental hypogravity.

  12. Metastable α-AgVO3 microrods as peroxidase mimetics for colorimetric determination of H2O2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Zhang, Dun; Wang, Jin

    2017-12-01

    Single phase metastable α-AgVO 3 microrods with high crystallinity, tetragonal rod-like microstructure, uniform particle size distribution, and good dispersion were synthesized by direct coprecipitation at room temperature. They are shown to be viable peroxidase mimics that catalyze the oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine in the presence of H 2 O 2 . Kinetic analysis indicated typical Michaelis-Menten catalytic behavior. The findings were used to design a colorimetric assay for H 2 O 2 , best measured at 652 nm. The method has a linear response in the 60 to 200 μM H 2 O 2 concentration range, with a 2 μM detection limit. Benefitting from the chemical stability of the microrods, the method is well reproducible. It also is easily performed and highly specific. Graphic abstract Single phase metastable α-AgVO 3 microrods with high crystallinity, tetragonal rod-like microstructure, uniform particle size distribution, and good dispersion can efficiently catalyze the oxidation reaction of peroxidase substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in the presence of H 2 O 2 to produce a blue color change.

  13. The Ustilago maydis Effector Pep1 Suppresses Plant Immunity by Inhibition of Host Peroxidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zechmann, Bernd; Hillmer, Morten; Doehlemann, Gunther

    2012-01-01

    The corn smut Ustilago maydis establishes a biotrophic interaction with its host plant maize. This interaction requires efficient suppression of plant immune responses, which is attributed to secreted effector proteins. Previously we identified Pep1 (Protein essential during penetration-1) as a secreted effector with an essential role for U. maydis virulence. pep1 deletion mutants induce strong defense responses leading to an early block in pathogenic development of the fungus. Using cytological and functional assays we show that Pep1 functions as an inhibitor of plant peroxidases. At sites of Δpep1 mutant penetrations, H2O2 strongly accumulated in the cell walls, coinciding with a transcriptional induction of the secreted maize peroxidase POX12. Pep1 protein effectively inhibited the peroxidase driven oxidative burst and thereby suppresses the early immune responses of maize. Moreover, Pep1 directly inhibits peroxidases in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner. Using fluorescence complementation assays, we observed a direct interaction of Pep1 and the maize peroxidase POX12 in vivo. Functional relevance of this interaction was demonstrated by partial complementation of the Δpep1 mutant defect by virus induced gene silencing of maize POX12. We conclude that Pep1 acts as a potent suppressor of early plant defenses by inhibition of peroxidase activity. Thus, it represents a novel strategy for establishing a biotrophic interaction. PMID:22589719

  14. Rapid and reliable determination of the halogenating peroxidase activity in blood samples.

    PubMed

    Flemmig, Jörg; Schwarz, Pauline; Bäcker, Ingo; Leichsenring, Anna; Lange, Franziska; Arnhold, Jürgen

    2014-12-15

    By combining easy and fast leukocyte enrichment with aminophenyl-fluorescein (APF) staining we developed a method to quickly and specifically address the halogenating activity of the immunological relevant blood heme peroxidases myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase, respectively. For leukocyte enrichment a two-fold hypotonic lysis procedure of the blood with Millipore water was chosen which represents a cheap, fast and reliable method to diminish the amount of erythrocytes in the samples. This procedure is shown to be suitable both to human and murine blood micro-samples, making it also applicable to small animal experiments with recurring blood sampling. As all types of leukocytes are kept in the sample during the preparation, they can be analysed separately after discrimination during the flow cytometry analysis. This also holds for all heme peroxidase-containing cells, namely neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes. Moreover additional parameters (e.g. antibody staining) can be combined with the heme peroxidase activity determination to gain additional information about the different immune cell types. Based on previous results we applied APF for specifically addressing the halogenating activity of leukocyte peroxidases in blood samples. This dye is selectively oxidized by the MPO and EPO halogenation products hypochlorous and hypobromous acid. This approach may provide a suitable tool to gain more insights into the immune-physiological role of the halogenating activity of heme peroxidases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Unraveling the role of animal heme peroxidases in superoxide mediated Mn oxide formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Learman, D. R.; Hansel, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Manganese(III,IV) oxides are important in the environment as they can impact the fate of a broad range of nutrients (e.g. carbon and phosphate) and contaminates (e.g. lead and chromium). Bacteria play a valuable role in the production of Mn oxides, yet the mechanisms and physiological reasons remain unclear. Roseobacter sp. AzwK-3b, an organism within the abundant and ubiquitous Roseobacter clade, has recently been shown to oxidize Mn(II) via a novel pathway that involves enzymatic extracellular superoxide production. However, in reactions with only Mn(II) and abiotically generated superoxide, we find superoxide alone is not enough to produce Mn(III,IV) oxides. Scavenging of the byproduct hydrogen peroxide (via the addition of catalase) is required to generate Mn oxides via abiotic reaction of Mn(II) with superoxide. Thus, R. AzwK-3b must produce superoxide and also scavenge hydrogen peroxide to form Mn oxides. Further, in-gel Mn(II) oxidation assay revealed a protein band that could generate Mn oxides in the presence of soluble Mn(II). This Mn(II)-oxidizing protein band was excised from the gel and the peptides identified via mass spectrometry. An animal heme peroxidase (AHP) was the predominant protein found in this band. This protein is homologous to the AHPs previously implicated as a Mn(II)-oxidizing enzyme within the Alphaproteobacteria, Erythrobacter SD-21 and Aurantimonas manganoxydans strain SI85-9A1. Currently, protein expression of the AHPs in R. AzwK-3b is being examined to determine if expression is correlated with Mn(II) concentration or oxidative stress. Our data suggests that AHPs do not directly oxidize Mn(II) but rather plays a role in scavenging hydrogen peroxide and/or producing an organic Mn(III) ligand that complexes Mn(III) and likely aids in Mn oxide precipitation.

  16. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of a glutathione peroxidase gene from Aphelenchoides besseyi (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Bu-Yong; Wen, Rong-Rong; Ma, Ling

    2017-09-26

    Aphelenchoides besseyi, the nematode agent of rice tip white disease, causes huge economic losses in almost all the rice-growing regions of the world. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), an esophageal glands secretion protein, plays important roles in the parasitism, immune evasion, reproduction and pathogenesis of many plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs). Therefore, GPx is a promising target for control A. besseyi. Here, the full-length sequence of the GPx gene from A. besseyi (AbGPx1) was cloned using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends method. The full-length 944 bp AbGPx1 sequence, which contains a 678 bp open reading frame, encodes a 225 amino acid protein. The deduced amino acid sequence of the AbGPxl shares highly homologous with other nematode GPxs, and showed the closest evolutionary relationship with DrGPx. In situ hybridization showed that AbGPx1 was constitutively expressed in the esophageal glands of A. besseyi, suggesting its potential roles in parasitism and reproduction. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to assess the functions of the AbGPx1 gene, and quantitative real-time PCR was used to monitor the RNAi effects. After treatment with dsRNA for 12 h, AbGPx1 expression levels and reproduction in the nematodes decreased compared with the same parameters in the control group; thus, the AbGPx1 gene is likely to be associated with the development, reproduction, and infection ability of A. besseyi. These findings may open new avenues towards nematode control.

  17. Differential regulation of glutathione peroxidase by selenomethionine and hyperoxia in endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Jornot, L; Junod, A F

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the effect of selenomethionine (SeMet) and hyperoxia on the expression of glutathione peroxidase (GP) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Incubation of HUVEC with 1 x 10(-6) M SeMet for 24 h and 48 h caused a 65% and 86% increase in GP activity respectively. The same treatment did not result in significant changes in GP gene transcription and mRNA levels. Pactamycin, a specific inhibitor of the initiation step of translation, prevented the rise in GP activity induced by SeMet and caused an increase in GP mRNA in both cells grown in normal and SeMet-supplemented medium. Interestingly, SeMet supplementation stimulated the recruitment of GP mRNA from an untranslatable pool on to polyribosomes, so that the concentration of GP mRNA in polyribosomal translatable pools was 50% higher in cells grown in SeMet-supplemented medium than in cells grown in normal medium. On the other hand, cells exposed to 95% O2 for 3 days in normal medium showed a 60%, 394% and 81% increase in GP gene transcription rate, mRNA levels and activity respectively. Hyperoxia also stabilized GP mRNA. Hyperoxic cells grown in SeMet-supplemented medium did not show any change in GP gene transcription and mRNA levels, but expressed an 81% and 100% increase in GP activity and amount of GP mRNA associated with polyribosomes respectively, when compared with hyperoxic cells maintained in normal medium. Thus, GP appeared to be regulated post-transcriptionally, most probably co-translationally, in response to selenium availability, and transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally in response to oxygen. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7887914

  18. Glutathione peroxidase mimic ebselen improves glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in murine islets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinhui; Yun, Jun-Won; Lei, Xin Gen

    2014-01-10

    Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) mimic ebselen and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic copper diisopropylsalicylate (CuDIPs) were used to rescue impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in islets of GPX1 and(or) SOD1-knockout mice. Ebselen improved GSIS in islets of all four tested genotypes. The rescue in the GPX1 knockout resulted from a coordinated transcriptional regulation of four key GSIS regulators and was mediated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α)-mediated signaling pathways. In contrast, CuDIPs improved GSIS only in the SOD1 knockout and suppressed gene expression of the PGC-1α pathway. Islets from the GPX1 and(or) SOD1 knockout mice provided metabolically controlled intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide conditions for the present study to avoid confounding effects. Bioinformatics analyses of gene promoters and expression profiles guided the search for upstream signaling pathways to link the ebselen-initiated H2O2 scavenging to downstream key events of GSIS. The RNA interference was applied to prove PGC-1α as the main mediator for that link. Our study revealed a novel metabolic use and clinical potential of ebselen in rescuing GSIS in the GPX1-deficient islets and mice, along with distinct differences between the GPX and SOD mimics in this regard. These findings highlight the necessities and opportunities of discretional applications of various antioxidant enzyme mimics in treating insulin secretion disorders. REBOUND TRACK: This work was rejected during standard peer review and rescued by Rebound Peer Review (Antioxid Redox Signal 16: 293-296, 2012) with the following serving as open reviewers: Regina Brigelius-Flohe, Vadim Gladyshev, Dexing Hou, and Holger Steinbrenner.

  19. Molecular consequences of genetic variations in the glutathione peroxidase 1 selenoenzyme.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Pin; Goldberg, Marci; Herman, Lauren; Lee, Bao-Shiang; Wang, Hengbing; Brown, Rhonda L; Foster, Charles B; Peters, Ulrike; Diamond, Alan M

    2009-10-15

    Accumulating data have implicated the selenium-containing cytosolic glutathione peroxidase, GPx-1, as a determinant of cancer risk and a mediator of the chemopreventive properties of selenium. Genetic variants of GPx-1 have been shown to be associated with cancer risk for several types of malignancies. To investigate the relationship between GPx-1 enzyme activity and genotype, we measured GPx-1 enzyme activity and protein levels in human lymphocytes as a function of the presence of two common variations: a leucine/proline polymorphism at codon 198 and a variable number of alanine-repeat codons. Differences in GPx activity among these cell lines, as well as in the response to the low-level supplementation of the media with selenium, indicated that factors other than just genotype are significant in determining activity. To restrict the study to genotypic effects, human MCF-7 cells were engineered to exclusively express allelic variants representing a combination of either a codon 198 leucine or proline and either 5 or 7 alanine-repeat codons following transfection of GPx-1 expression constructs. Transfectants were selected and analyzed for GPx-1 enzyme activity and protein levels. GPx-1 with 5 alanines and a leucine at codon 198 showed a significantly higher induction when cells were incubated with selenium and showed a distinct pattern of thermal denaturation as compared with GPx-1 encoded by the other examined alleles. The collective data obtained using both lymphocytes and MCF-7 indicate that both intrinsic and extrinsic factors cooperate to ultimately determine the levels of this enzyme available to protect cells against DNA damage and mutagenesis.

  20. Fibre elongation requires normal redox homeostasis modulated by cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    PubMed

    Guo, Kai; Du, Xueqiong; Tu, Lili; Tang, Wenxin; Wang, Pengcheng; Wang, Maojun; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Xianlong

    2016-05-01

    High-quality cotton fibre equates to a more comfortable textile. Fibre length is an important index of fibre quality. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) acts as a signalling molecule in the regulation of fibre elongation. Results from in vitro ovule culture suggest that the alteration of fibre cell H2O2 levels affects fibre development. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) is an important reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzyme, and we found that GhAPX1AT/DT encoded one member of the previously unrealized group of cytosolic APXs (cAPXs) that were preferentially expressed during the fibre elongation stage. Transgenic cottons with up- and down-regulation of GhAPX1AT/DT were generated to control fibre endogenous levels of H2O2 Suppression of all cAPX (IAO) resulted in a 3.5-fold increase in H2O2 level in fibres and oxidative stress, which significantly suppressed fibre elongation. The fibre length of transgenic lines with over-expression or specific down-regulation of GhAPX1AT/DT did not show any obvious change. However, the fibres in the over-expression lines exhibited higher tolerance to oxidative stress. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in fibres at 10 days post-anthesis (DPA) of IAO lines identified by RNA-seq were related to redox homeostasis, signalling pathways, stress responses and cell wall synthesis, and the DEGs that were up-regulated in IAO lines were also up-regulated in the 10 DPA and 20 DPA fibres of wild cotton compared with domesticated cotton. These results suggest that optimal H2O2 levels and redox state regulated by cytosolic APX are key mechanisms regulating fibre elongation, and dysregulation of the increase in H2O2 induces oxidative stress and results in shorter fibres by initiating secondary cell wall-related gene expression. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. Utility of Nicotiana tabacum cell suspension cultures expressing human CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 to study the oxidative metabolism of the herbicide 14C-fluometuron.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Maren Anne; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schuphan, Ingolf

    2009-01-01

    The metabolism and biotransformation of the (14)C-labeled phenylurea herbicide fluometuron was examined using tobacco cell suspension cultures transformed separately with human cyp1a1, cyp1a2 and cyp3a4, and corresponding non-transformed cultures in order to screen and predict metabolic patterns. Experimental parameters modified were concentration of (14)C-fluometuron, incubation period, and additional application of inhibitor carbaryl. Media and cell extracts were analyzed by radio-TLC and radio-HPLC, isolated metabolites by LC-MS, and non-extractable residues by combustion. During 48 hours, the CYP1A1 expressing cultures metabolized 90.0 % of applied fluometuron, while the non-transgenic controls transformed 67.0 %. The CYP1A2 expressing cultures exhibited highest rates (95.1 %), CYP3A4 expressing cultures lowest rates (43.0 %). The primary metabolites identified were mono-demethyl (main metabolite in controls) and di-demethyl fluometuron (mainly in CYP1A2 cultures), besides a non-identified primary product (mainly in CYP1A1 cultures); metabolic profiles differed distinctly among cultures. After addition of carbaryl, rates of fluometuron decreased noticeably in controls and not in CYP3A4 expressing cultures. This may indicate inhibition of endogenous tobacco P450s involved in fluometuron metabolism but not of CYP3A4. Additionally, the P450-transgenic cultures proved to be valuable tools to produce large amounts of metabolites for thorough identification.

  2. The peroxidase-mediated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a H2O2-induced SBR using in-situ production of peroxidase: Biodegradation experiments and bacterial identification.

    PubMed

    Shekoohiyan, Sakine; Moussavi, Gholamreza; Naddafi, Kazem

    2016-08-05

    A bacterial peroxidase-mediated oxidizing process was developed for biodegrading total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Almost complete biodegradation (>99%) of high TPH concentrations (4g/L) was attained in the bioreactor with a low amount (0.6mM) of H2O2 at a reaction time of 22h. A specific TPH biodegradation rate as high as 44.3mgTPH/gbiomass×h was obtained with this process. The reaction times required for complete biodegradation of TPH concentrations of 1, 2, 3, and 4g/L were 21, 22, 28, and 30h, respectively. The catalytic activity of hydrocarbon catalyzing peroxidase was determined to be 1.48U/mL biomass. The biodegradation of TPH in seawater was similar to that in fresh media (no salt). A mixture of bacteria capable of peroxidase synthesis and hydrocarbon biodegradation including Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus spp. were identified in the bioreactor. The GC/MS analysis of the effluent indicated that all classes of hydrocarbons could be well-degraded in the H2O2-induced SBR. Accordingly, the peroxidase-mediated process is a promising method for efficiently biodegrading concentrated TPH-laden saline wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation into the role of phosphatidylserine in modifying the susceptibility of human lymphocytes to secretory phospholipase A(2) using cells deficient in the expression of scramblase.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jennifer; Francom, Lyndee L; Anderson, Lynn; Damm, Kelly; Baker, Ryan; Chen, Joseph; Franklin, Sarah; Hamaker, Amy; Izidoro, Izadora; Moss, Eric; Orton, Mikayla; Stevens, Evan; Yeung, Celestine; Judd, Allan M; Bell, John D

    2012-05-01

    Normal human lymphocytes resisted the hydrolytic action of secretory phospholipase A(2) but became susceptible to the enzyme following treatment with a calcium ionophore, ionomycin. To test the hypothesis that this susceptibility requires exposure of the anionic lipid phosphatidylserine on the external face of the cell membrane, experiments were repeated with a human Burkitt's lymphoma cell line (Raji cells). In contrast to normal lymphocytes or S49 mouse lymphoma cells, most of the Raji cells (83%) did not translocate phosphatidylserine to the cell surface upon treatment with ionomycin. Those few that did display exposed phosphatidylserine were hydrolyzed immediately upon addition of phospholipase A(2). Interestingly, the remaining cells were also completely susceptible to the enzyme but were hydrolyzed at a slower rate and after a latency of about 100s. In contradistinction to the defect in phosphatidylserine translocation, Raji cells did display other physical membrane changes upon ionomycin treatment that may be relevant to hydrolysis by phospholipase A(2). These changes were detected by merocyanine 540 and trimethylammonium diphenylhexatriene fluorescence and were common among normal lymphocytes, S49 cells, and Raji cells. The levels of these latter effects corresponded well with the relative rates of hydrolysis among the three cell lines. These results suggested that while phosphatidylserine enhances the rate of cell membrane hydrolysis by secretory phospholipase A(2), it is not an absolute requirement. Other physical properties such as membrane order contribute to the level of membrane susceptibility to the enzyme independent of phosphatidylserine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation into the Role of Phosphatidylserine in Modifying the Susceptibility of Human Lymphocytes to Secretory Phospholipase A2 using Cells Deficient in the Expression of Scramblase

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jennifer; Francom, Lyndee L.; Anderson, Lynn; Damm, Kelly; Baker, Ryan; Chen, Joseph; Franklin, Sarah; Hamaker, Amy; Izidoro, Izadora; Moss, Eric; Orton, Mikayla; Stevens, Evan; Yeung, Celestine; Judd, Allan M.; Bell, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Normal human lymphocytes resisted the hydrolytic action of secretory phospholipase A2 but became susceptible to the enzyme following treatment with a calcium ionophore, ionomycin. To test the hypothesis that this susceptibility requires exposure of the anionic lipid phosphatidylserine on the external face of the cell membrane, experiments were repeated with a human Burkitt’s lymphoma cell line (Raji cells). In contrast to normal lymphocytes or S49 mouse lymphoma cells, most of the Raji cells (83%) did not translocate phosphatidylserine to the cell surface upon treatment with ionomycin. Those few that did display exposed phosphatidylserine were hydrolyzed immediately upon addition of phospholipase A2. Interestingly, the remaining cells were also completely susceptible to the enzyme but were hydrolyzed at a slower rate and after a latency of about 100 s. In contradistinction to the defect in phosphatidylserine translocation, Raji cells did display other physical membrane changes upon ionomycin treatment that may be relevant to hydrolysis by phospholipase A2. These changes were detected by merocyanine 540 and trimethylammonium diphenylhexatriene fluorescence and were common among normal lymphocytes, S49 cells, and Raji cells. The levels of these latter effects corresponded well with the relative rates of hydrolysis among the three cell lines. These results suggested that while phosphatidylserine enhances the rate of cell membrane hydrolysis by secretory phospholipase A2, it is not an absolute requirement. Other physical properties such as membrane order contribute to the level of membrane susceptibility to the enzyme independent of phosphatidylserine. PMID:22266334

  5. Biochemical and molecular characterization of an atypical manganese peroxidase of the litter-decomposing fungus Agrocybe praecox.

    PubMed

    Hildén, Kristiina; Mäkelä, Miia R; Steffen, Kari T; Hofrichter, Martin; Hatakka, Annele; Archer, David B; Lundell, Taina K

    2014-11-01

    Agrocybe praecox is a litter-decomposing Basidiomycota species of the order Agaricales, and is frequently found in forests and open woodlands. A. praecox grows in leaf-litter and the upper soil and is able to colonize bark mulch and wood chips. It produces extracellular manganese peroxidase (MnP) activities and mineralizes synthetic lignin. In this study, the A. praecox MnP1 isozyme was purified, cloned and enzymatically characterized. The enzyme catalysed the oxidation of Mn(2+) to Mn(3+), which is the specific reaction for manganese-dependent class II heme-peroxidases, in the presence of malonate as chelator with an activity maximum at pH 4.5; detectable activity was observed even at pH 7.0. The coding sequence of the mnp1 gene demonstrates a short-type of MnP protein with a slightly modified Mn(2+) binding site. Thus, A. praecox MnP1 may represent a novel group of atypical short-MnP enzymes. In lignocellulose-containing cultures composed of cereal bran or forest litter, transcription of mnp1 gene was followed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. On spruce needle litter, mnp1 expression was more abundant than on leaf litter after three weeks cultivation. However, the expression was constitutive in wheat and rye bran cultures. Our data show that the atypical MnP of A. praecox is able to catalyse Mn(2+) oxidation, which suggests its involvement in lignocellulose decay by this litter-decomposer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Peroxidases from root exudates of Medicago sativa and Sorghum bicolor: Catalytic properties and involvement in PAH degradation.

    PubMed

    Dubrovskaya, Ekaterina; Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Golubev, Sergey; Muratova, Anna; Grinev, Vyacheslav; Bondarenkova, Anastasiya; Turkovskaya, Olga

    2017-02-01

    Peroxidases from root exudates of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) were purified and characterized, and their ability to oxidize native PAHs and PAH-derivatives was evaluated. The obtained data confirm that peroxidases are involved in the rhizosphere degradation of PAHs. Nondenaturing PAGE showed that the peroxidases of both plants were represented by a range of isoforms/isoenzymes (five to eight). Minor forms were lost during further purification, and as a result, the major anionic form from alfalfa root exudates and the major cationic form from those of sorghum were obtained. Both electrophoretically homogeneous peroxidases were monomeric proteins with a molecular weight of about 46-48 kDa. The pH optima and the main catalytic constants for the test substrates were determined. On the basis of their molecular and catalytic properties, the obtained enzymes were found to be typical plant peroxidases. Derivatives of PAHs and potential products of their microbial degradation (9-phenanthrol and 9,10-phenanthrenequinone), unlike the parent PAH (phenanthrene), inhibited the catalytic activity of the peroxidases, possibly indicating greater availability of the enzymes' active centers to these substances. Peroxidase-catalyzed decreases in the concentrations of a number of PAHs and their derivatives were observed. Sorghum peroxidase oxidized anthracene and phenanthrene, while alfalfa peroxidase oxidized only phenanthrene. 1-Hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid was best oxidized by peroxidase of alfalfa. However, quinone derivatives of PAHs were unavailable to sorghum peroxidase, but were oxidized by alfalfa peroxidase. These results indicate that the major peroxidases from root exudates of alfalfa and sorghum can have a role in the rhizosphere degradation of PAHs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxidation of Escherichia coli Sulfhydryl Components by the Peroxidase-Hydrogen Peroxide-Iodide Antimicrobial System

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Edwin L.; Aune, Thomas M.

    1978-01-01

    The chemical modification of bacterial components was studied following incubation of Escherichia coli with the peroxidase-hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-iodide (I−) antimicrobial system or with iodine (I2). The oxidation of cell sulfhydryls and the iodination of cell components were measured. Both the peroxidase system and I2 oxidized sulfhydryls. When the I− concentration in the peroxidase system was greater than 100 μM, the peroxidase system and I2 were equivalent. That is, sulfhydryl oxidation or killing per mole of H2O2 equaled that per mole of I2. These results were consistent with peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of I− to yield 1 mol of I2 per mol of H2O2. Sulfhydryls were oxidized to yield sulfenic acids and free I−. With I− concentrations in the range of 10 to 100 μM, the amount of sulfhydryls oxidized by the peroxidase system could exceed the amount of I−. Because the oxidation of sulfhydryls to sulfenic acids did not consume I−, one I− ion could participate in the oxidation of many sulfhydryls. With I− concentrations lower than 10 μM, complete oxidation of sulfhydryls was not obtained. Incorporation of I− into iodinated derivatives of bacterial components partly depleted the system of I− and limited the formation of I2. These results indicated that antimicrobial activity was due to peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of I− to I2, followed by I2 oxidation of cell components. There was a direct relationship between sulfhydryl oxidation and antimicrobial action. Although iodination of bacterial components accompanied sulfhydryl oxidation, the amount of I− incorporation was not directly related to antimicrobial action. Also, incorporation of I− interfered with antimicrobial action at low I− concentrations. PMID:354515

  8. Mechanism of iodide-dependent catalatic activity of thyroid peroxidase and lactoperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, R P; Taurog, A; Dorris, M L

    1984-01-10

    Mechanisms that have been proposed for peroxidase-catalyzed iodination require the utilization of 1 mol of H2O2 for organic binding of 1 mol of iodide. When we measured the stoichiometry of this reaction using thyroid peroxidase or lactoperoxidase at pH 7.0, we consistently obtained a ratio less than 1.0. This was shown to be attributable to catalase-like activity of these enzymes, resulting in unproductive cleavage of H2O2. This catalatic activity was completely iodide-dependent. To elucidate the mechanism of the iodide-dependent catalatic activity, the effects of various agents were investigated. The major observations may be summarized as follows: 1) The catalatic activity was inhibited in the presence of an iodine acceptor such as tyrosine. 2) The pseudohalide, SCN-, could not replace I- as a promoter of catalatic activity. 3) The inhibitory effects of the thioureylene drugs, methimazole and carbimazole, on the iodide-dependent catalatic activity were very similar to those reported previously for thyroid peroxidase-catalyzed iodination. 4) High concentrations of I- inhibited the catalatic activity of thyroid peroxidase and lactoperoxidase in a manner similar to that described previously for peroxidase-catalyzed iodination. On the basis of these observations and other findings, we have proposed a scheme which offers a possible explanation for iodide-dependent catalatic activity of thyroid peroxidase and lactoperoxidase. Compound I of the peroxidases is represented as EO, and oxidation of I- by EO is postulated to form enzyme-bound hypoiodite, represented in our scheme as [EOI]-. We suggest that the latter can react with H2O2 in a catalase-like reaction, with evolution of O2. We postulate further that the same form of oxidized iodine is also involved in iodination of tyrosine, oxidation of thioureylene drugs, and oxidation of I-, and that inhibition of catalatic activity by these agents occurs through competition with H2O2 for oxidized iodine.

  9. Process development for the production of 15β-hydroxycyproterone acetate using Bacillus megaterium expressing CYP106A2 as whole-cell biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Flora M; Lundemo, Marie T; Zapp, Josef; Woodley, John M; Bernhardt, Rita

    2015-03-05

    CYP106A2 from Bacillus megaterium ATCC 13368 was first identified as a regio- and stereoselective 15β-hydroxylase of 3-oxo-∆4-steroids. Recently, it was shown that besides 3-oxo-∆4-steroids, 3-hydroxy-∆5-steroids as well as di- and triterpenes can also serve as substrates for this biocatalyst. It is highly selective towards the 15β position, but the 6β, 7α/β, 9α, 11α and 15α positions have also been described as targets for hydroxylation. Based on the broad substrate spectrum and hydroxylating capacity, it is an excellent candidate for the production of human drug metabolites and drug precursors. In this work, we demonstrate the conversion of a synthetic testosterone derivative, cyproterone acetate, by CYP106A2 under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Using a Bacillus megaterium whole-cell system overexpressing CYP106A2, sufficient amounts of product for structure elucidation by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were obtained. The product was characterized as 15β-hydroxycyproterone acetate, the main human metabolite. Since the product is of pharmaceutical interest, our aim was to intensify the process by increasing the substrate concentration and to scale-up the reaction from shake flasks to bioreactors to demonstrate an efficient, yet green and cost-effective production. Using a bench-top bioreactor and the recombinant Bacillus megaterium system, both a fermentation and a transformation process were successfully implemented. To improve the yield and product titers for future industrial application, the main bottlenecks of the reaction were addressed. Using 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, an effective bioconversion of 98% was achieved using 1 mM substrate concentration, corresponding to a product formation of 0.43 g/L, at a 400 mL scale. Here we describe the successful scale-up of cyproterone acetate conversion from shake flasks to bioreactors, using the CYP106A2 enzyme in a whole-cell system. The substrate was converted to its main human

  10. Structure-based Engineering of a Plant-Fungal Hybrid Peroxidase for Enhanced Temperature and pH Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Amanda C; Simmons, Blake A; Sale, Kenneth L

    2018-04-28

    In an age of ever-increasing biotechnological and industrial demand for new and specialized biocatalysts, rational protein engineering offers a direct approach to enzyme design and innovation. Heme peroxidases, as indispensable oxidative biocatalysts, provide a relatively mild alternative to the traditional harsh, and often toxic, chemical catalysts, and subsequently, have found widespread application throughout industry. However, the potential for these enzymes is far greater than their present use, as processes are currently restricted to the more stable, but less catalytically powerful, subset of peroxidases. Here we describe the structure-guided, rational engineering of a plant-fungal hybrid peroxidase built to overcome the application barrier of these high-reduction potential peroxidases. This engineered enzyme has the catalytic versatility and oxidative ability of a high-reduction potential versatile peroxidase, with enhanced temperature and pH tolerance similar to that of a highly stable plant peroxidase. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ascorbate Peroxidase, a Key Molecule Regulating Amphotericin B Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashish; Das, Sushmita; Purkait, Bidyut; Sardar, Abul Hasan; Ghosh, Ayan Kumar; Dikhit, Manas Ranjan; Abhishek, Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Amphotericin B (AmB), a polyene macrolide, is now a first-line treatment of visceral leishmaniasis cases refractory to antimonials in India. AmB relapse cases and the emergence of secondary resistance have now been reported. To understand the mechanism of AmB, differentially expressed genes in AmB resistance strains were identified by a DNA microarray and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) approach. Of the many genes functionally overexpressed in the presence of AmB, the ascorbate peroxidase gene from a resistant Leishmania donovani strain (LdAPx gene) was selected because the gene is present only in Leishmania, not in humans. Apoptosis-like cell death after exposure to AmB was investigated in a wild-type (WT) strain in which the LdAPx gene was overexpressed and in AmB-sensitive and -resistant strains. A higher percentage of apoptosis-like cell death after AmB treatment was noticed in the sensitive strain than in both the resistant isolate and the strain sensitive to LdAPx overexpression. This event is preceded by AmB-induced formation of reactive oxygen species and elevation of the cytosolic calcium level. Enhanced cytosolic calcium was found to be responsible for depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c (Cyt c) into the cytosol. The redox behavior of Cyt c showed that it has a role in the regulation of apoptosis-like cell death by activating metacaspase- and caspase-like proteins and causing concomitant nuclear alterations, as determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) and DNA fragmentation in the resistant strain. The present study suggests that constitutive overexpression of LdAPx in the L. donovani AmB-resistant strain prevents cells from the deleterious effect of oxidative stress, i.e., mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular death induced by AmB. PMID:25114128

  12. Characterization of glutathione peroxidase diversity in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis.

    PubMed

    Pey, Alexis; Zamoum, Thamilla; Christen, Richard; Merle, Pierre-Laurent; Furla, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Cnidarians living in symbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates (commonly named zooxanthellae) are exposed to high concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon illumination. To quench ROS production, both the cnidarian host and zooxanthellae express a full suite of antioxidant enzymes. Studying antioxidative balance is therefore crucial to understanding how symbiotic cnidarians cope with ROS production. We characterized glutathione peroxidases (GPx) in the symbiotic cnidarian Anemonia viridis by analysis of their isoform diversity, their activity distribution in the three cellular compartments (ectoderm, endoderm and zooxanthellae) and their involvement in the response to thermal stress. We identified a GPx repertoire through a phylogenetic analysis showing 7 GPx transcripts belonging to the A. viridis host and 4 GPx transcripts strongly related to Symbiodinium sp. The biochemical approach, used for the first time with a cnidarian species, allowed the identification of GPx activity in the three cellular compartments and in the animal mitochondrial fraction, and revealed a high GPx electrophoretic diversity. The symbiotic lifestyle of zooxanthellae requires more GPx activity and diversity than that of free-living species. Heat stress induced no modification of GPx activities. We highlight a high GPx diversity in A. viridis tissues by genomic and biochemical approaches. GPx activities represent an overall constitutive enzymatic pattern inherent to symbiotic lifestyle adaptation. This work allows the characterization of the GPx family in a symbiotic cnidarian and establishes a foundation for future studies of GPx in symbiotic cnidarians. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  13. The orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 attenuates oxidative stress-induced β cells apoptosis via up-regulation of glutathione peroxidase 1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yingfeng; Xie, Fangyu; Qin, Dandan; Zong, Chen; Han, Feng; Pu, Zeqing; Liu, Dong; Li, Xia; Zhang, Yuchao; Liu, Yuantao; Wang, Xiangdong

    2018-06-15

    Our previous study showed that NR4A1 protects against oxidative stress-induced cell apoptosis. However, the targets downstream of NR4A1 are incompletely known. Glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) is the most common antioxidant enzyme in the glutathione peroxidase class. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether GPX1 is a mediator of the protective effects of NR4A1 in pancreatic β cells. A pancreatic β cell line, MIN6, was used to generate NR4A1 over-expression cell line. GPX1 expression and GPX1 promoter trans-activation in these cells was determined. These cells were then treated with H 2 O 2 , and the active caspase3 level was determined. NR4A1 over-expression in MIN6 cells resulted in increased GPX1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Dual luciferase assay showed that NR4A1 over-expression was able to enhance the trans-activation of GPX1 promoter, and the critical regulatory elements were narrowed down between 0 to -2000 bp in GPX1 promoter with a putative NR4A1 binding site (-273 to -268). ChIP assays demonstrated that NR4A1 physically associates with the GPX1 promoter. Over-expression of GPX1 reduced the active level of Caspase3 after H 2 O 2 treatment. NR4A1 increases the expression of GPX1 by enhancing the trans-activation of GPX1 promoter through binding to the putative binding site on GPX1 promoter. NR4A1 potentially protects pancreatic β cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by increasing GPX1 expression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bienzyme biosensors for glucose, ethanol and putrescine built on oxidase and sweet potato peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Jaime; Gáspár, Szilveszter; Sakharov, Ivan; Csöregi, Elisabeth

    2003-05-01

    Amperometric biosensors for glucose, ethanol, and biogenic amines (putrescine) were constructed using oxidase/peroxidase bienzyme systems. The H(2)O(2) produced by the oxidase in reaction with its substrate is converted into a measurable signal via a novel peroxidase purified from sweet potato peels. All developed biosensors are based on redox hydrogels formed of oxidases (glucose oxidase, alcohol oxidase, or amine oxidase) and the newly purified sweet potato peroxidase (SPP) cross-linked to a redox polymer. The developed electrodes were characterized (sensitivity, stability, and performances in organic medium) and compared with similarly built ones using the 'classical' horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The SPP-based electrodes displayed higher sensitivity and better detection limit for putrescine than those using HRP and were also shown to retain their activity in organic phase much better than the HPR based ones. The importance of attractive or repulsive electrostatic interactions between the peroxidases and oxidases (determined by their isoelectric points) were found to play an important role in the sensitivity of the obtained sensors.

  15. Phenol-Oxidizing Peroxidases Contribute to the Protection of Plants from Ultraviolet Radiation Stress1

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Marcel A.K.; van den Noort, Ria E.; Tan, M.Y. Adillah; Prinsen, Els; Lagrimini, L. Mark; Thorneley, Roger N.F.

    2001-01-01

    We have studied the mechanism of UV protection in two duckweed species (Lemnaceae) by exploiting the UV sensitivity of photosystem II as an in situ sensor for radiation stress. A UV-tolerant Spirodela punctata G.F.W. Meyer ecotype had significantly higher indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels than a UV-sensitive ecotype. Parallel work on Lemna gibba mutants suggested that UV tolerance is linked to IAA degradation rather than to levels of free or conjugated IAA. This linkage is consistent with a role for class III phenolic peroxidases, which have been implicated both in the degradation of IAA and the cross-linking of various UV-absorbing phenolics. Biochemical analysis revealed increased activity of a specific peroxidase isozyme in both UV-tolerant duckweed lines. The hypothesis that peroxidases play a role in UV protection was tested in a direct manner using genetically modified tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris). It was found that increased activity of the anionic peroxidase correlated with increased tolerance to UV radiation as well as decreased levels of free auxin. We conclude that phenol-oxidizing peroxidases concurrently contribute to UV protection as well as the control of leaf and plant architecture. PMID:11457952

  16. Peroxidase-Mimicking Nanozyme with Enhanced Activity and High Stability Based on Metal-Support Interactions.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhihao; Yang, Xiangdong; Yang, Yanbing; Tan, Yaning; He, Yue; Liu, Meng; Liu, Xinwen; Yuan, Quan

    2018-01-09

    Peroxidase-mimicking nanozymes offer unique advantages in terms of high stability and low cost over natural peroxidase for applications in bioanalysis, biomedicine, and the treatment of pollution. However, the design of high-efficiency peroxidase-mimicking nanozymes remains a great challenge. In this study, we adopted a structural-design approach through hybridization of cube-CeO 2 and Pt nanoparticles to create a new peroxidase-mimicking nanozyme with high efficiency and excellent stability. Relative to pure cube-CeO 2 and Pt nanoparticles, the as-hybridized Pt/cube-CeO 2 nanocomposites display much improved activities because of the strong metal-support interaction. Meanwhile, the nanocomposites also maintain high catalytic activity after long-term storage and multiple recycling. Based on their excellent properties, Pt/cube-CeO 2 nanocomposites were used to construct high-performance colorimetric biosensors for the sensitive detection of metabolites, including H 2 O 2 and glucose. Our findings highlight opportunities for the development of high-efficiency peroxidase-mimicking nanozymes with potential applications such as diagnostics, biomedicine, and the treatment of pollution. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Purification and characterization of peroxidase from avocado (Persea americana Mill, cv. Hass).

    PubMed

    Rojas-Reyes, José O; Robles-Olvera, Victor; Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Castro Matinez, Claudia; Waliszewski, Krzysztof N; Aguilar-Uscanga, María Guadalupe

    2014-07-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill, cv. Hass) fruit ranks tenth in terms of the most important products for Mexico. Avocado products are quite unstable due to the presence of oxidative enzymes such as polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase. The present study is to characterize the activity of purified avocado peroxidase from avocado in order to ascertain the biochemical and kinetic properties and their inhibition conditions. Purification was performed by Sephacryl S 200 HR gel filtration chromatography and its estimated molecular weight was 40 kDa. The zymogram showed an isoelectric point of 4.7. Six substrates were tested in order to ascertain the affinity of the enzyme for these substrates. The purified peroxidase was found to have low Km (0.296 mM) and high catalytic efficiency (2688 mM(-1) s(-1)) using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), optimum activity being reached at 51°C, pH 3.8. The addition of dithiothreitol, β-mercaptoethanol, ascorbic acid, sodium azide, L-cysteine and Tween-20 had high inhibitory effects, while metals ions such as Cu(+), Fe(2+) and Mn(2+) had weak inhibitory activity on purified avocado peroxidase. The purified avocado peroxidase exhibits high inhibition (Ki = 0.37 µM) with 1.97 µM n-propyl gallate using ABTS as substrate at 51°C, pH 3.8 for 10 min. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Enhanced peroxidase activity and tumour tissue visualization by cobalt-doped magnetoferritin nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tongwei; Cao, Changqian; Tang, Xu; Cai, Yao; Yang, Caiyun; Pan, Yongxin

    2017-01-01

    Magnetoferritin (M-HFn) is a biomimetic magnetic nanoparticle with a human heavy-chain ferritin (HFn) shell, trapping a magnetite (Fe3O4) core that has inherited peroxidase-like activity. In this study, cobalt-doped M-HFn nanoparticles (M-HFn-Co x Fe3-x O4) with different amounts of cobalt were successfully synthesized. Experimental results indicate that the controlled doping of a certain amount of cobalt into the magnetite cores of M-HFn nanoparticles enhances its peroxidase-like catalytic activity and efficacy for visualizing tumour tissues. For example, compared with sample Co0 (without cobalt doping), the peroxidase-like activity of the cobalt-doped nanoparticle sample Co60 (with a cobalt doping molar percentage of ˜34.2%) increases 1.7 times, and has the maximal reaction velocity (V max) values. Moreover, after a one-step incubation with Co60 nanoparticles, and using the peroxidase substrate 3,3‧-diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride (DAB) for colour development, the tumour tissues of breast, colorectal, stomach and pancreas tumours showed a deeper brown colour with clear boundaries between the healthy and tumourous cells. Therefore, this suggests that the cobalt-doped magnetoferritin nanoparticles enhance peroxidase activity and tumour tissue visualization.

  19. Enhanced peroxidase activity and tumour tissue visualization by cobalt-doped magnetoferritin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tongwei; Cao, Changqian; Tang, Xu; Cai, Yao; Yang, Caiyun; Pan, Yongxin

    2017-01-27

    Magnetoferritin (M-HFn) is a biomimetic magnetic nanoparticle with a human heavy-chain ferritin (HFn) shell, trapping a magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) core that has inherited peroxidase-like activity. In this study, cobalt-doped M-HFn nanoparticles (M-HFn-Co x Fe 3-x O 4 ) with different amounts of cobalt were successfully synthesized. Experimental results indicate that the controlled doping of a certain amount of cobalt into the magnetite cores of M-HFn nanoparticles enhances its peroxidase-like catalytic activity and efficacy for visualizing tumour tissues. For example, compared with sample Co0 (without cobalt doping), the peroxidase-like activity of the cobalt-doped nanoparticle sample Co60 (with a cobalt doping molar percentage of ∼34.2%) increases 1.7 times, and has the maximal reaction velocity (V max ) values. Moreover, after a one-step incubation with Co60 nanoparticles, and using the peroxidase substrate 3,3'-diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride (DAB) for colour development, the tumour tissues of breast, colorectal, stomach and pancreas tumours showed a deeper brown colour with clear boundaries between the healthy and tumourous cells. Therefore, this suggests that the cobalt-doped magnetoferritin nanoparticles enhance peroxidase activity and tumour tissue visualization.

  20. An updated view on horseradish peroxidases: recombinant production and biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Krainer, Florian W; Glieder, Anton

    2015-02-01

    Horseradish peroxidase has been the subject of scientific research for centuries. It has been used exhaustively as reporter enzyme in diagnostics and histochemistry and still plays a major role in these applications. Numerous studies have been conducted on the role of horseradish peroxidase in the plant and its catalytic mechanism. However, little progress has been made in its recombinant production. Until now, commercial preparations of horseradish peroxidase are still isolated from plant roots. These preparations are commonly mixtures of various isoenzymes of which only a small fraction has been described so far. The composition of isoenzymes in these mixed isolates is subjected to uncontrollable environmental conditions. Nowadays, horseradish peroxidase regains interest due to its broad applicability in the fields of medicine, life sciences, and biotechnology in cancer therapy, biosensor systems, bioremediation, and biocatalysis. These medically and commercially relevant applications, the recent discovery of new natural isoenzymes with different biochemical properties, as well as the challenges in recombinant production render this enzyme particularly interesting for future biotechnological solutions. Therefore, we reviewed previous studies as well as current developments with biotechnological emphasis on new applications and the major remaining biotechnological challenge-the efficient recombinant production of horseradish peroxidase enzymes.

  1. A Redundant Role of Human Thyroid Peroxidase Propeptide for Cellular, Enzymatic, and Immunological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Góra, Monika; Buckle, Ashley M.; Porebski, Benjamin T.; Kemp, E. Helen; Sutton, Brian J.; Czarnocka, Barbara; Banga, J. Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is a dimeric membrane-bound enzyme of thyroid follicular cells, responsible for thyroid hormone biosynthesis. TPO is also a common target antigen in autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). With two active sites, TPO is an unusual enzyme, and thus there is much interest in understanding its structure and role in AITD. Homology modeling has shown TPO to be composed of different structural modules, as well as a propeptide sequence. During the course of studies to obtain homogeneous preparations of recombinant TPO for structural studies, we investigated the role of the large propeptide sequence in TPO. Methods: An engineered recombinant human TPO preparation expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells lacking the propeptide (TPOΔpro; amino acid residues 21–108) was characterized and its properties compared to wild-type TPO. Plasma membrane localization was determined by cell surface protein biotinylation, and biochemical studies were performed to evaluate enzymatic activity and the effect of deglycosylation. Immunological investigations using autoantibodies from AITD patients and other epitope-specific antibodies that recognize conformational determinants on TPO were evaluated for binding to TPOΔpro by flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Molecular modeling and dynamics simulation of TPOΔpro comprising a dimer of myeloperoxidase-like domains was performed in order to investigate the impact of propeptide removal and the role of glycosylation. Results: The TPOΔpro was expressed on the cell surface at comparable levels to wild-type TPO. The TPOΔpro was enzymatically active and recognized by patients' autoantibodies and a panel of epitope-specific antibodies, confirming structural integrity of the two major conformational determinants recognized by autoantibodies. Faithful intracellular trafficking and N-glycosylation of TPOΔpro was also maintained. Molecular modeling and dynamics

  2. A redundant role of human thyroid peroxidase propeptide for cellular, enzymatic, and immunological activity.

    PubMed

    Godlewska, Marlena; Góra, Monika; Buckle, Ashley M; Porebski, Benjamin T; Kemp, E Helen; Sutton, Brian J; Czarnocka, Barbara; Banga, J Paul

    2014-02-01

    Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is a dimeric membrane-bound enzyme of thyroid follicular cells, responsible for thyroid hormone biosynthesis. TPO is also a common target antigen in autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). With two active sites, TPO is an unusual enzyme, and thus there is much interest in understanding its structure and role in AITD. Homology modeling has shown TPO to be composed of different structural modules, as well as a propeptide sequence. During the course of studies to obtain homogeneous preparations of recombinant TPO for structural studies, we investigated the role of the large propeptide sequence in TPO. An engineered recombinant human TPO preparation expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells lacking the propeptide (TPOΔpro; amino acid residues 21-108) was characterized and its properties compared to wild-type TPO. Plasma membrane localization was determined by cell surface protein biotinylation, and biochemical studies were performed to evaluate enzymatic activity and the effect of deglycosylation. Immunological investigations using autoantibodies from AITD patients and other epitope-specific antibodies that recognize conformational determinants on TPO were evaluated for binding to TPOΔpro by flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Molecular modeling and dynamics simulation of TPOΔpro comprising a dimer of myeloperoxidase-like domains was performed in order to investigate the impact of propeptide removal and the role of glycosylation. The TPOΔpro was expressed on the cell surface at comparable levels to wild-type TPO. The TPOΔpro was enzymatically active and recognized by patients' autoantibodies and a panel of epitope-specific antibodies, confirming structural integrity of the two major conformational determinants recognized by autoantibodies. Faithful intracellular trafficking and N-glycosylation of TPOΔpro was also maintained. Molecular modeling and dynamics simulations were consistent with

  3. Spectral and kinetic studies of the oxidation of monosubstituted phenols and anilines by recombinant Synechocystis catalase-peroxidase compound I.

    PubMed

    Regelsberger, G; Jakopitsch, C; Engleder, M; Rüker, F; Peschek, G A; Obinger, C

    1999-08-10

    A high-level expression in Escherichia coli of a fully active recombinant form of a catalase-peroxidase (KatG) from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 is reported. Since both physical and kinetic characterization revealed its identity with the wild-type protein, the large quantities of recombinant KatG allowed the first examination of second-order rate constants for the oxidation of a series of aromatic donor molecules (monosubstituted phenols and anilines) by a bifunctional catalase-peroxidase compound I using the sequential-mixing stopped-flow technique. Because of the overwhelming catalase activity, peroxoacetic acid has been used for compound I formation. A >/=50-fold excess of peroxoacetic acid is required to obtain a spectrum of relatively pure and stable compound I which is characterized by about 40% hypochromicity, a Soret maximum at 406 nm, and isosbestic points between the native enzyme and compound I at 357 and 430 nm. The apparent second-order rate constant for formation of compound I from ferric enzyme and peroxoacetic acid is (8.74 +/- 0.26) x 10(3) M(-)(1) s(-)(1) at pH 7. 0. Reduction of compound I by aromatic donor molecules is dependent upon the substituent effect on the benzene ring. The apparent second-order rate constants varied from (3.6 +/- 0.1) x 10(6) M(-)(1) s(-)(1) for p-hydroxyaniline to (5.0 +/- 0.1) x 10(2) M(-)(1) s(-)(1) for p-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid. They are shown to correlate with the substituent constants in the Hammett equation, which suggests that in bifunctional catalase-peroxidases the aromatic donor molecule donates an electron to compound I and loses a proton simultaneously. The value of rho, the susceptibility factor in the Hammett equation, is -3.4 +/- 0.4 for the phenols and -5.1 +/- 0.8 for the anilines. The pH dependence of compound I reduction by aniline exhibits a relatively sharp maximum at pH 5. The redox intermediate formed upon reduction of compound I has spectral features which indicate that the

  4. Structural implications of the C-terminal tail in the catalytic and stability properties of manganese peroxidases from ligninolytic fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández-Fueyo, Elena; Acebes, Sandra; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J.

    2014-12-01

    The variable C-terminal tail of manganese peroxidases, a group of enzymes involved in lignin degradation, is implicated in their catalytic and stability properties, as shown by new crystal structures, molecular-simulation and directed-mutagenesis data. Based on this structural–functional evaluation, short and long/extralong manganese peroxidase subfamilies have been accepted; the latter are characterized by exceptional stability, while it is shown for the first time that the former are able to oxidize other substrates at the same site where manganese(II) is oxidized. The genome of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora includes 13 manganese peroxidase (MnP) genes representative of the three subfamilies described in ligninolytic fungi, whichmore » share an Mn{sup 2+}-oxidation site and have varying lengths of the C-terminal tail. Short, long and extralong MnPs were heterologously expressed and biochemically characterized, and the first structure of an extralong MnP was solved. Its C-terminal tail surrounds the haem-propionate access channel, contributing to Mn{sup 2+} oxidation by the internal propionate, but prevents the oxidation of 2, 2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS), which is only oxidized by short MnPs and by shortened-tail variants from site-directed mutagenesis. The tail, which is anchored by numerous contacts, not only affects the catalytic properties of long/extralong MnPs but is also associated with their high acidic stability. Cd{sup 2+} binds at the Mn{sup 2+}-oxidation site and competitively inhibits oxidation of both Mn{sup 2+} and ABTS. Moreover, mutations blocking the haem-propionate channel prevent substrate oxidation. This agrees with molecular simulations that position ABTS at an electron-transfer distance from the haem propionates of an in silico shortened-tail form, while it cannot reach this position in the extralong MnP crystal structure. Only small differences exist between the long and the extralong MnPs, which do not

  5. An extracytoplasmic function sigma factor-dependent periplasmic glutathione peroxidase is involved in oxidative stress response of Shewanella oneidensis

    DOE PAGES

    Dai, Jingcheng; Wei, Hehong; Tian, Chunyuan; ...

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bacteria use alternative sigma factors (σs) to regulate condition-specific gene expression for survival and Shewanella harbors multiple ECF (extracytoplasmic function) σ genes and cognate anti-sigma factor genes. Here we comparatively analyzed two of the rpoE-like operons in the strain MR-1: rpoE-rseA-rseB-rseC and rpoE2-chrR. Results: RpoE was important for bacterial growth at low and high temperatures, in the minimal medium, and high salinity. The degP/htrA orthologue, required for growth of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at high temperature, is absent in Shewanella, while the degQ gene is RpoE-regulated and is required for bacterial growth at high temperature. RpoE2 was essentialmore » for the optimal growth in oxidative stress conditions because the rpoE2 mutant was sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and paraquat. The operon encoding a ferrochelatase paralogue (HemH2) and a periplasmic glutathione peroxidase (PgpD) was identified as RpoE2-dependent. PgpD exhibited higher activities and played a more important role in the oxidative stress responses than the cytoplasmic glutathione peroxidase CgpD under tested conditions. The rpoE2-chrR operon and the identified regulon genes, including pgpD and hemH2, are coincidently absent in several psychrophilic and/or deep-sea Shewanella strains. Conclusion: In S. oneidensis MR-1, the RpoE-dependent degQ gene is required for optimal growth under high temperature. The rpoE2 and RpoE2-dependent pgpD gene encoding a periplasmic glutathione peroxidase are involved in oxidative stress responses. But rpoE2 is not required for bacterial growth at low temperature and it even affected bacterial growth under salt stress, indicating that there is a tradeoff between the salt resistance and RpoE2-mediated oxidative stress responses.« less

  6. Phenylpropanoids, Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase and Peroxidases in Elicitor‐challenged Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Suspension Cells and Leaves

    PubMed Central

    GÓMEZ‐VÁSQUEZ, ROCÍO; DAY, ROBERT; BUSCHMANN, HOLGER; RANDLES, SOPHIE; BEECHING, JOHN R.; COOPER, RICHARD M.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and aims Control of diseases in the key tropical staple, cassava, is dependent on resistant genotypes, but the innate mechanisms are unknown. The aim was to study phenylpropanoids and associated enzymes as possible defence components. • Methods Phenylalanine ammonia‐lyase (PAL), phenylpropanoids and peroxidases (POD) were investigated in elicited cassava suspension cells and leaves. Yeast elicitor was the most effective of several microbial and endogenous elicitors. Fungitoxicity was determined against the cassava pathogens Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum and the saprotroph Trichoderma harzianum. • Key results A single and rapid (≥2–3 min) oxidative burst, measured as hydrogen peroxide, occurred in elicited cells. PAL activity was induced maximally at 15 h and was preceded by PAL mRNA accumulation, which peaked at 9 h. Symplasmic POD activity increased four‐fold in cells, 48 h post‐elicitation. POD isoforms (2–7 isoforms, pI 3·1–8·8) were detected in elicited and unelicited cells, extracellular medium and leaves but two extracellular isoforms were enhanced post‐elicitation. Also expression of a cassava peroxidase gene MecPOD1 increased in elicited cells. Only anionic forms oxidized scopoletin, with highest activity by isoform pI 3·6, present in all samples. Unidentified phenolics and possibly scopolin increased post‐elicitation, but there was no enhancement of scopoletin, rutin or kaempferol‐3‐O‐rutinoside concentration. Fungal germ tube elongation was inhibited more than germination by esculetin, ferulic acid, quercetin and scopoletin. T. harzianum was generally more sensitive than the pathogens and was inhibited by ≥50 µg mL–1 of ferulic acid and quercetin and ≥10 µg mL–1 of scopoletin. • Conclusions Phenolic levels in cells were not enhanced and were, theoretically, too low to be inhibitory. However, in combination and when oxidized they may contribute to defence, because oxidation of esculetin and

  7. An extracytoplasmic function sigma factor-dependent periplasmic glutathione peroxidase is involved in oxidative stress response of Shewanella oneidensis

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Jingcheng; Wei, Hehong; Tian, Chunyuan

    Background: Bacteria use alternative sigma factors (σs) to regulate condition-specific gene expression for survival and Shewanella harbors multiple ECF (extracytoplasmic function) σ genes and cognate anti-sigma factor genes. Here we comparatively analyzed two of the rpoE-like operons in the strain MR-1: rpoE-rseA-rseB-rseC and rpoE2-chrR. Results: RpoE was important for bacterial growth at low and high temperatures, in the minimal medium, and high salinity. The degP/htrA orthologue, required for growth of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at high temperature, is absent in Shewanella, while the degQ gene is RpoE-regulated and is required for bacterial growth at high temperature. RpoE2 was essentialmore » for the optimal growth in oxidative stress conditions because the rpoE2 mutant was sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and paraquat. The operon encoding a ferrochelatase paralogue (HemH2) and a periplasmic glutathione peroxidase (PgpD) was identified as RpoE2-dependent. PgpD exhibited higher activities and played a more important role in the oxidative stress responses than the cytoplasmic glutathione peroxidase CgpD under tested conditions. The rpoE2-chrR operon and the identified regulon genes, including pgpD and hemH2, are coincidently absent in several psychrophilic and/or deep-sea Shewanella strains. Conclusion: In S. oneidensis MR-1, the RpoE-dependent degQ gene is required for optimal growth under high temperature. The rpoE2 and RpoE2-dependent pgpD gene encoding a periplasmic glutathione peroxidase are involved in oxidative stress responses. But rpoE2 is not required for bacterial growth at low temperature and it even affected bacterial growth under salt stress, indicating that there is a tradeoff between the salt resistance and RpoE2-mediated oxidative stress responses.« less

  8. Dissecting the expression of EEF1A1/2 genes in human prostate cancer cells: the potential of EEF1A2 as a hallmark for prostate transformation and progression.

    PubMed

    Scaggiante, B; Dapas, B; Bonin, S; Grassi, M; Zennaro, C; Farra, R; Cristiano, L; Siracusano, S; Zanconati, F; Giansante, C; Grassi, G

    2012-01-03

    In prostate adenocarcinoma, the dissection of the expression behaviour of the eukaryotic elongation factors (eEF1A1/2) has not yet fully elucidated. The EEF1A1/A2 expressions were investigated by real-time PCR, western blotting (cytoplasmic and cytoskeletal/nuclear-enriched fractions) and immunofluorescence in the androgen-responsive LNCaP and the non-responsive DU-145 and PC-3 cells, displaying a low, moderate and high aggressive phenotype, respectively. Targeted experiments were also conducted in the androgen-responsive 22Rv1, a cell line marking the progression towards androgen-refractory tumour. The non-tumourigenic prostate PZHPV-7 cell line was the control. Compared with PZHPV-7, cancer cells showed no major variations in EEF1A1 mRNA; eEF1A1 protein increased only in cytoskeletal/nuclear fraction. On the contrary, a significant rise of EEF1A2 mRNA and protein were found, with the highest levels detected in LNCaP. Eukaryotic elongation factor 1A2 immunostaining confirmed the western blotting results. Pilot evaluation in archive prostate tissues showed the presence of EEF1A2 mRNA in near all neoplastic and perineoplastic but not in normal samples or in benign adenoma; in contrast, EEF1A1 mRNA was everywhere detectable. Eukaryotic elongation factor 1A2 switch-on, observed in cultured tumour prostate cells and in human prostate tumour samples, may represent a feature of prostate cancer; in contrast, a minor involvement is assigned to EEF1A1. These observations suggest to consider EEF1A2 as a marker for prostate cell transformation and/or possibly as a hallmark of cancer progression.

  9. Development of a Rapid Immunochromatographic Lateral Flow Device Capable of Differentiating Phytase Expressed from Recombinant Aspergillus niger phyA2 and Genetically Modified Corn.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaojin; Hui, Elizabeth; Yu, Xiao-Lin; Lin, Zhen; Pu, Ling-Kui; Tu, Zhiguan; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Qi; Zheng, Jian; Zhang, Juan

    2015-05-06

    Phytase is a phosphohydrolase considered highly specific for the degradation of phytate to release bound phosphorus for animal consumption and aid in the reduction of environmental nutrient loading. New sources of phytase have been sought that are economically and efficiently productive including the construction of genetically modified (GM) phytase products designed to bypass the costs associated with feed processing. Four monoclonal antibodies (EH10a, FA7, AF9a, and CC1) raised against recombinant Aspergillus niger phyA2 were used to develop a highly specific and sensitive immunochromatographic lateral flow device for rapid detection of transgenic phytase, such as in GM corn. Antibodies sequentially paired and tested along lateral flow strips showed that the EH10a-FA7 antibody pair was able to detect the recombinant yeast-phytase at 5 ng/mL, whereas the AF9a-CC1 antibody pair to GM phytase corn was able to detect at 2 ng/mL. Concurrent to this development, evidence was revealed which suggests that antibody binding sites may be glycosylated.

  10. Musa paradisiaca stem juice as a source of peroxidase and ligninperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Vernwal, S K; Yadav, R S; Yadav, K D

    2000-10-01

    Musa paradisiaca stem juice has been shown to contain peroxidase activity of the order of 0.1 enzyme unit/ml. The Km values of this peroxidase for the substrates guaiacol and hydrogen peroxide are 2.4 and 0.28 mM respectively. The pH and temperature optima are 4.5 and 62.5 degrees C respectively. Like other peroxidases, it follows double displacement type mechanism. At low pH, Musa paradisiaca stem juice exhibits ligninperoxidase type activity. The pH optimum for ligninperoxidase type activity is 2.0 and the temperature optimum is 24 degrees C. The Km values for veratryl alcohol and n-propanol are 66 and 78 microM respectively.

  11. Investigation of hydrazide derivatives inhibitory effect on peroxidase enzyme purified from turnip roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almaz, Züleyha; Öztekin, Aykut; Özdemir, Hasan

    2017-04-01

    Peroxidases (EC: 1.11.1.7) are haem proteins and contain iron (III) protoporphyrin IX (ferriprotoporphyrin IX) as the prosthetic group [1]. They are found in all cells and play a critical role in many biological processes, such as the host-defense mechanism [2]. Peroxidases (PODs) are widely used in clinical biochemistry, enzyme immunoassays, synthesis of various aromatic chemicals, treatment of waste water containing phenolic compounds [3, 4]. In this study, peroxidase enzyme was purified with Para amino benzohydrazide (PABH)-L-Tyrosine Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography to investigate the inhibitory effect of hydrazide derivatives on Turnip (Brassica rapa L.). IC50 values and Ki constants were calculated for the molecules of 6-Amino nicotinic hydrazide, 6-Amino-5-bromo nicotinic hydrazide, 2-Amino-5-hydroxy benzohydrazide, 4-Amino-3-hydroxy benzohydrazide on purified enzyme and inhibition type of these molecules were determined.

  12. A novel membrane-based process to isolate peroxidase from horseradish roots: optimization of operating parameters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianguo; Yang, Bo; Chen, Changzhen

    2013-02-01

    The optimization of operating parameters for the isolation of peroxidase from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) roots with ultrafiltration (UF) technology was systemically studied. The effects of UF operating conditions on the transmission of proteins were quantified using the parameter scanning UF. These conditions included solution pH, ionic strength, stirring speed and permeate flux. Under optimized conditions, the purity of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) obtained was greater than 84 % after a two-stage UF process and the recovery of HRP from the feedstock was close to 90 %. The resulting peroxidase product was then analysed by isoelectric focusing, SDS-PAGE and circular dichroism, to confirm its isoelectric point, molecular weight and molecular secondary structure. The effects of calcium ion on HRP specific activities were also experimentally determined.

  13. Horseradish peroxidase-nanoclay hybrid particles of high functional and colloidal stability.

    PubMed

    Pavlovic, Marko; Rouster, Paul; Somosi, Zoltan; Szilagyi, Istvan

    2018-08-15

    Highly stable dispersions of enzyme-clay nanohybrids of excellent horseradish peroxidase activity were developed. Layered double hydroxide nanoclay was synthesized and functionalized with heparin polyelectrolyte to immobilize the horseradish peroxidase enzyme. The formation of a saturated heparin layer on the platelets led to charge inversion of the positively charged bare nanoclay and to highly stable aqueous dispersions. Great affinity of the enzyme to the surface modified platelets resulted in strong horseradish peroxidase adsorption through electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions as well as hydrogen bonding network and prevented enzyme leakage from the obtained material. The enzyme kept its functional integrity upon immobilization and showed excellent activity in decomposition of hydrogen peroxide and oxidation of an aromatic compound in the test reactions. In addition, remarkable long term functional stability of the enzyme-nanoclay hybrid was observed making the developed colloidal system a promising antioxidant candidate in biomedical treatments and industrial processes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Crystal structure and functional characterization of selenocysteine-containing glutathione peroxidase 4 suggests an alternative mechanism of peroxide reduction.

    PubMed

    Borchert, Astrid; Kalms, Jacqueline; Roth, Sophia R; Rademacher, Marlena; Schmidt, Andrea; Holzhutter, Hermann-Georg; Kuhn, Hartmut; Scheerer, Patrick

    2018-06-05

    Glutathione peroxidases (GPX) are anti-oxidative enzymes that reduce organic and inorganic hydroperoxides to the corresponding alcohols at the expense of reduced glutathione. The human genome involves eight GPX genes and five of them encode for selenocysteine-containing enzymes. Among the human GPX-isoforms, GPX4 is unique since it is capable of reducing complex hydroperoxy ester lipids such as hydroperoxy phospholipids and hydroperoxy cholesterolesters. Using a number of genetically modified mouse strains the biological role of GPX4 has comprehensively characterized but the molecular enzymology is less well explored. This lack of knowledge is partly related to the fact that mammalian selenoproteins are not high-level expressed in conventional overexpression systems. To explore the structural and functional properties of human GPX4 we expressed this selenoprotein in a cysteine-auxotrophic E. coli strain using a semi-chemical expression strategy. The recombinant enzyme was purified in mg amounts from the bacterial lysate to electrophoretic homogeneity and characterized with respect to its protein-chemical and enzymatic properties. Its crystal structure was solved at 1.3 Å resolution and the X-ray data indicated a monomeric protein, which contains the catalytic selenium at the redox level of the seleninic acid. These data suggest an alternative reaction mechanism involving three different redox states (selenol, selenenic acid, seleninic acid) of the catalytically active selenocysteine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular characterization of the sweet potato peroxidase SWPA4 promoter which responds to abiotic stresses and pathogen infection.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Sun-Hwa; Kim, Yun-Hee; Kim, Cha Young; Park, Soo-Young; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2009-04-01

    Previously, the swpa4 peroxidase gene has been shown to be inducible by a variety of abiotic stresses and pathogenic infections in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). To elucidate its regulatory mechanism at the transcriptional level under various stress conditions, we isolated and characterized the promoter region (2374 bp) of swpa4 (referred to as SWPA4). We performed a transient expression assay in tobacco protoplasts with deletions from the 5'-end of SWPA4 promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The -1408 and -374 bp deletions relative to the transcription start site (+1) showed 8 and 4.5 times higher GUS expression than the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, respectively. In addition, transgenic tobacco plants expressing GUS under the control of -2374, -1408 or -374 bp region of SWPA4 promoter were generated and studied in various tissues under abiotic stresses and pathogen infection. Gel mobility shift assays revealed that nuclear proteins from sweet potato cultured cells specifically interacted with 60-bp fragment (-178/-118) in -374 bp promoter region. In silico analysis indicated that four kinds of cis-acting regulatory sequences, reactive oxygen species-related element activator protein 1 (AP1), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha element, ethylene-responsive element (ERE) and heat-shock element, are present in the -60 bp region (-178/-118), suggesting that the -60 bp region might be associated with stress inducibility of the SWPA4 promoter.

  16. Screening of postharvest agricultural wastes as alternative sources of peroxidases: characterization and kinetics of a novel peroxidase from lentil ( Lens culinaris L.) stubble.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Cuadrado, Nazaret; Pérez-Galende, Patricia; Manzano, Teresa; De Maria, Cándido Garcia; Shnyrov, Valery L; Roig, Manuel G

    2012-05-16

    Aqueous crude extracts of a series of plant wastes (agricultural, wild plants, residues from sports activities (grass), ornamental residues (gardens)) from 17 different plant species representative of the typical biodiversity of the Iberian peninsula were investigated as new sources of peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7). Of these, lentil (Lens culinaris L.) stubble crude extract was seen to provide one of the highest specific peroxidase activities, catalyzing the oxidation of guaiacol in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to tetraguaiacol, and was used for further studies. For the optimum extraction conditions found, the peroxidase activity in this crude extract (110 U mL(-1)) did not vary for at least 15 months when stored at 4 °C (k(inact) = 0.146 year(-1), t(1/2 inact) = 4.75 year), whereas, for comparative purposes, the peroxidase activity (60 U mL(-1)) of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana L.) root crude extract, obtained and stored under the same conditions, showed much faster inactivation kinetics (k(inact) = 2.2 × 10(-3) day(-1), t(1/2 inact) = 315 days). Using guaiacol as an H donor and a universal buffer (see above), all crude extract samples exhibited the highest peroxidase activity in the pH range between 4 and 7. Once semipurified by passing the crude extract through hydrophobic chromatography on phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B, the novel peroxidase (LSP) was characterized as having a purity number (RZ) of 2.5 and three SDS-PAGE electrophoretic bands corresponding to molecular masses of 52, 35, and 18 kDa. The steady-state kinetic study carried out on the H(2)O(2)-mediated oxidation of guaiacol by the catalytic action of this partially purified peroxidase pointed to apparent Michaelian kinetic behavior (K(m)(appH(2)O(2)) = 1.87 mM; V(max)(appH(2)O(2)) = 6.4 mM min(-1); K(m)(app guaicol) = 32 mM; V(max)(app guaicol) = 9.1 mM min(-1)), compatible with the two-substrate ping-pong mechanism generally accepted for peroxidases. Finally, after the effectiveness of the crude

  17. Metabolic Interaction between Anthocyanin and Lignin Biosynthesis Is Associated with Peroxidase FaPRX27 in Strawberry Fruit1[W

    PubMed Central

    Ring, Ludwig; Yeh, Su-Ying; Hücherig, Stephanie; Hoffmann, Thomas; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Fouche, Mathieu; Villatoro, Carmen; Denoyes, Béatrice; Monfort, Amparo; Caballero, José Luis; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Gershenson, Jonathan; Schwab, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    Plant phenolics have drawn increasing attention due to their potential nutritional benefits. Although the basic reactions of the phenolics biosynthetic pathways in plants have been intensively analyzed, the regulation of their accumulation and flux through the pathway is not that well established. The aim of this study was to use a strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) microarray to investigate gene expression patterns associated with the accumulation of phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, and anthocyanins in strawberry fruit. An examination of the transcriptome, coupled with metabolite profiling data from different commercial varieties, was undertaken to identify genes whose expression correlated with altered phenolics composition. Seventeen comparative microarray analyses revealed 15 genes that were differentially (more than 200-fold) expressed in phenolics-rich versus phenolics-poor varieties. The results were validated by heterologous expression of the peroxidase FaPRX27 gene, which showed the highest altered expression level (more than 900-fold). The encoded protein was functionally characterized and is assumed to be involved in lignin formation during strawberry fruit ripening. Quantitative trait locus analysis indicated that the genomic region of FaPRX27 is associated with the fruit color trait. Down-regulation of the CHALCONE SYNTHASE gene and concomitant induction of FaPRX27 expression diverted the flux from anthocyanins to lignin. The results highlight the competition of the different phenolics pathways for their common precursors. The list of the 15 candidates provides new genes that are likely to impact polyphenol accumulation in strawberry fruit and could be used to develop molecular markers to select phenolics-rich germplasm. PMID:23835409

  18. Engineering a horseradish peroxidase C stable to radical attacks by mutating multiple radical coupling sites.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Jin; Joo, Jeong Chan; Song, Bong Keun; Yoo, Young Je; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2015-04-01

    Peroxidases have great potential as industrial biocatalysts. In particular, the oxidative polymerization of phenolic compounds catalyzed by peroxidases has been extensively examined because of the advantage of this method over other conventional chemical methods. However, the industrial application of peroxidases is often limited because of their rapid inactivation by phenoxyl radicals during oxidative polymerization. In this work, we report a novel protein engineering approach to improve the radical stability of horseradish peroxidase isozyme C (HRPC). Phenylalanine residues that are vulnerable to modification by the phenoxyl radicals were identified using mass spectrometry analysis. UV-Vis and CD spectra showed that radical coupling did not change the secondary structure or the active site of HRPC. Four phenylalanine (Phe) residues (F68, F142, F143, and F179) were each mutated to alanine residues to generate single mutants to examine the role of these sites in radical coupling. Despite marginal improvement of radical stability, each single mutant still exhibited rapid radical inactivation. To further reduce inactivation by radical coupling, the four substitution mutations were combined in F68A/F142A/F143A/F179A. This mutant demonstrated dramatic enhancement of radical stability by retaining 41% of its initial activity compared to the wild-type, which was completely inactivated. Structure and sequence alignment revealed that radical-vulnerable Phe residues of HPRC are conserved in homologous peroxidases, which showed the same rapid inactivation tendency as HRPC. Based on our site-directed mutagenesis and biochemical characterization, we have shown that engineering radical-vulnerable residues to eliminate multiple radical coupling can be a good strategy to improve the stability of peroxidases against radical attack. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Effects of high glucose and advanced glycation end products on the expressions of sclerostin and RANKL as well as apoptosis in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4-A2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Ken-ichiro, E-mail: ken1nai@med.shimane-u.ac.jp; Yamaguchi, Toru, E-mail: yamaguch@med.shimane-u.ac.jp; Kanazawa, Ippei, E-mail: ippei.k@med.shimane-u.ac.jp

    In diabetes mellitus (DM), high glucose (HG) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are involved in bone quality deterioration. Osteocytes produce sclerostin and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL) and regulate osteoblast and osteoclast function. However, whether HG or AGEs directly affect osteocytes and regulate sclerostin and RANKL production is unknown. Here, we examined the effects of HG, AGE2, and AGE3 on the expression of sclerostin and RANKL and on apoptosis in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4-A2 cells. Treatment of the cells with 22 mM glucose, 100 μg/mL either AGE2 or AGE3 significantly increased the expression of sclerostin protein and mRNA; however, both AGEs,more » but not glucose, significantly decreased the expression of RANKL protein and mRNA. Moreover, treatment of the cells with HG, AGE2, or AGE3 for 72 h induced significant apoptosis. These detrimental effects of HG, AGE2, and AGE3 on sclerostin and RANKL expressions and on apoptosis were antagonized by pretreatment of the cells with 10{sup −8} M human parathyroid hormone (PTH)-(1–34). Thus, HG and AGEs likely suppress bone formation by increasing sclerostin expression in osteocytes, whereas AGEs suppress bone resorption by decreasing RANKL expression. Together, these processes may cause low bone turnover in DM. In addition, HG and AGEs may cause cortical bone deterioration by inducing osteocyte apoptosis. PTH may effectively treat these pathological processes and improve osteocyte function. - Highlights: • AGEs are involved in bone quality deterioration in diabetes mellitus (DM). • AGEs increased sclerostin as well as apoptosis, and decreased RANKL in osteocytes. • The effects of AGEs on osteocyte function were antagonized by human PTH-(1–34). • AGEs may cause low bone turnover and cortical porosity in DM. • PTH may be effective in bone quality deterioration by improving osteocyte function.« less

  20. Thyroid peroxidase autoantibody fingerprints. II. A longitudinal study in postpartum thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Jaume, J C; Parkes, A B; Lazarus, J H; Hall, R; Costante, G; McLachlan, S M; Rapoport, B

    1995-03-01

    It is not known whether epitopes recognized by autoantibodies in an individual remain constant or change over time, especially during perturbations of the humoral immune response. To address this question, we studied the epitopic profile ("fingerprint") of autoantibodies to thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in the sera of 19 women during the postpartum period. Fingerprints were determined in competition studies using 4 recombinant F(ab). At delivery and at 3 time intervals over the subsequent 9-12 months, the pool of F(ab) inhibited autoantibody binding to TPO by 80-100%, consistent with the definition by these F(ab) of a TPO immunodominant region (A1, A2, B1, and B2 domains). Despite a wide spectrum among individuals, the TPO epitopic fingerprints for all 19 women were relatively unchanged throughout the postpartum period. Fingerprint constancy occurred regardless of fluctuations in serum TPO autoantibody levels. When assessed numerically as a ratio of inhibition by the A domain F(ab) to inhibition by the B domain F(ab), the A/B domain ratios in individual women ranged from 0.2 (predominantly B domain) to more than 3.0 (predominantly A domain). However, for each individual woman, the A/B epitopic ratio was conserved throughout the study interval. Our TPO autoantibody epitopic fingerprint data have potential implications for understanding the humoral autoimmune response in man. First, the present study indicates a remarkable lack of spreading of B cell epitopes during a state of perturbation of the immune system over a period of 1 yr. Second, and perhaps more important, despite marked variations in TPO epitopic profiles among different individuals, their constancy over time suggests that TPO autoantibody fingerprints may be inherited.

  1. A polymeric liquid membrane electrode responsive to 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine oxidation for sensitive peroxidase/peroxidase mimetic-based potentiometric biosensing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuewei; Yang, Yangang; Li, Long; Sun, Mingshuang; Yin, Haogen; Qin, Wei

    2014-05-06

    The oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) has great utility in bioanalysis such as peroxidase/peroxidase mimetic-based biosensing. In this paper, the behaviors of TMB oxidation intermediates/products in liquid/liquid biphasic systems have been investigated for the first time. The free radical, charge transfer complex, and diimine species generated by TMB oxidation are all positively charged under acidic and near-neutral conditions. Electron paramagnetic resonance and visible absorbance spectroscopy data demonstrate that these cationic species can be effectively transferred from an aqueous phase into a water-immiscible liquid phase functionalized by an appropriate cation exchanger. Accordingly, sensitive potential responses of TMB oxidation have been obtained on a cation exchanger-doped polymeric liquid membrane electrode under mildly acidic and near-neutral conditions. By using the membrane electrode responsive to TMB oxidations, two sensitive potentiometric biosensing schemes including the peroxidase-labeled sandwich immunoassay and G-quadruplex DNAzyme-based DNA hybridization assay have been developed. The obtained detection limits for the target antigen and DNA are 0.02 ng/mL and 0.1 nM, respectively. Coupled with other advantages such as low cost, high reliability, and ease of miniaturization and integration, the proposed polymeric liquid membrane electrode holds great promise as a facile and efficient transducer for TMB oxidation and related biosensing applications.

  2. Electrochemical aptasensor based on the dual-amplification of G-quadruplex horseradish peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme and blocking reagent-horseradish peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yali; Gou, Xuxu; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin; Zhuo, Ying; Mao, Li; Gan, Xianxue

    2011-06-15

    A simple electrochemical aptasensor for sensitive detection of thrombin was fabricated with G-quadruplex horseradish peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme (hemin/G-quadruplex system) and blocking reagent-horseradish peroxidase as dual signal-amplification scheme. Gold nanoparticles (nano-Au) were firstly electrodeposited onto single wall nanotube (SWNT)-graphene modified electrode surface for the immobilization of electrochemical probe of nickel hexacyanoferrates nanoparticles (NiHCFNPs). Subsequently, another nano-Au layer was electrodeposited for further immobilization of thrombin aptamer (TBA), which later formed hemin/G-quadruplex system with hemin. Horseradish peroxidases (HRP) then served as blocking reagent to block possible remaining active sites and avoided the non-specific adsorption. In the presence of thrombin, the TBA binded to thrombin and the hemin released from the hemin/G-quadruplex electrocatalytic structure, increasing steric hindrance of the aptasensor and decomposing hemin/G-quadruplex electrocatalytic structure, which finally decreased the electrocatalytic efficiency of aptasensor toward H(2)O(2) in the presence of NiHCFNPs with a decreased electrochemical signal. On the basis of the synergistic amplifying action, a detection limit as low as 2 pM for thrombin was obtained. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Isolation and purification of Mn-peroxidase from Azospirillum brasilense Sp245].

    PubMed

    Kupriashina, M A; Selivanov, N Iu; Nikitina, V E

    2012-01-01

    Homogenous Mn-peroxidase of a 26-fold purity grade was isolated from a culture of Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 cultivated on a medium containing 0.1 mM pyrocatechol. The molecular weight of the enzyme is 43 kD as revealed by electrophoresis in SDS-PAAG. It was shown that the use of pyrocatechol and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzotiazoline-6-sulfonate) at concentrations of 0.1 and I mM as inductors increased the Mn-peroxidase activity by a factor of 3.

  4. Expression of progesterone metabolizing enzyme genes (AKR1C1, AKR1C2, AKR1C3, SRD5A1, SRD5A2) is altered in human breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Michael J; Wiebe, John P; Heathcote, J Godfrey

    2004-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that progesterone metabolites play important roles in regulating breast cancer. Previous studies have shown that tumorous tissues have higher 5α-reductase (5αR) and lower 3α-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase (3α-HSO) and 20α-HSO activities. The resulting higher levels of 5α-reduced progesterone metabolites such as 5α-pregnane-3,20-dione (5αP) in tumorous tissue promote cell proliferation and detachment, whereas the 4-pregnene metabolites, 4-pregnen-3α-ol-20-one (3αHP) and 4-pregnen-20α-ol-3-one (20αDHP), more prominent in normal tissue, have the opposite (anti-cancer-like) effects. The aim of this study was to determine if the differences in enzyme activities between tumorous and nontumorous breast tissues are associated with differences in progesterone metabolizing enzyme gene expression. Methods Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to compare relative expression (as a ratio of 18S rRNA) of 5αR type 1 (SRD5A1), 5αR type 2 (SRD5A2), 3α-HSO type 2 (AKR1C3), 3α-HSO type 3 (AKR1C2) and 20α-HSO (AKR1C1) mRNAs in paired (tumorous and nontumorous) breast tissues from 11 patients, and unpaired tumor tissues from 17 patients and normal tissues from 10 reduction mammoplasty samples. Results Expression of 5αR1 and 5αR2 in 11/11 patients was higher (mean of 4.9- and 3.5-fold, respectively; p < 0.001) in the tumor as compared to the paired normal tissues. Conversely, expression of 3α-HSO2, 3α-HSO3 and 20α-HSO was higher (2.8-, 3.9- and 4.4-fold, respectively; p < 0.001) in normal than in tumor sample. The mean tumor:normal expression ratios for 5αR1 and 5αR2 were about 35–85-fold higher than the tumor:normal expression ratios for the HSOs. Similarly, in the unmatched samples, the tumor:normal ratios for 5αR were significantly higher than the ratios for the HSOs. Conclusions The study shows changes in progesterone metabolizing enzyme gene expression in human breast carcinoma. Expression of SRD5A1 (5αR1) and SRD5A2 (5αR2

  5. Expression of progesterone metabolizing enzyme genes (AKR1C1, AKR1C2, AKR1C3, SRD5A1, SRD5A2) is altered in human breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael J; Wiebe, John P; Heathcote, J Godfrey

    2004-06-22

    Recent evidence suggests that progesterone metabolites play important roles in regulating breast cancer. Previous studies have shown that tumorous tissues have higher 5alpha-reductase (5alphaR) and lower 3alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase (3alpha-HSO) and 20alpha-HSO activities. The resulting higher levels of 5alpha-reduced progesterone metabolites such as 5alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione (5alphaP) in tumorous tissue promote cell proliferation and detachment, whereas the 4-pregnene metabolites, 4-pregnen-3alpha-ol-20-one (3alphaHP) and 4-pregnen-20alpha-ol-3-one (20alphaDHP), more prominent in normal tissue, have the opposite (anti-cancer-like) effects. The aim of this study was to determine if the differences in enzyme activities between tumorous and nontumorous breast tissues are associated with differences in progesterone metabolizing enzyme gene expression. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to compare relative expression (as a ratio of 18S rRNA) of 5alphaR type 1 (SRD5A1), 5alphaR type 2 (SRD5A2), 3alpha-HSO type 2 (AKR1C3), 3alpha-HSO type 3 (AKR1C2) and 20alpha-HSO (AKR1C1) mRNAs in paired (tumorous and nontumorous) breast tissues from 11 patients, and unpaired tumor tissues from 17 patients and normal tissues from 10 reduction mammoplasty samples. Expression of 5alphaR1 and 5alphaR2 in 11/11 patients was higher (mean of 4.9- and 3.5-fold, respectively; p < 0.001) in the tumor as compared to the paired normal tissues. Conversely, expression of 3alpha-HSO2, 3alpha-HSO3 and 20alpha-HSO was higher (2.8-, 3.9- and 4.4-fold, respectively; p < 0.001) in normal than in tumor sample. The mean tumor:normal expression ratios for 5alphaR1 and 5alphaR2 were about 35-85-fold higher than the tumor:normal expression ratios for the HSOs. Similarly, in the unmatched samples, the tumor:normal ratios for 5alphaR were significantly higher than the ratios for the HSOs. The study shows changes in progesterone metabolizing enzyme gene expression in human breast carcinoma. Expression of

  6. Hyperoxia, unlike phorbol ester, induces glutathione peroxidase through a protein kinase C-independent mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Jornot, L; Junod, A F

    1997-01-01

    Human selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GP) is implicated as a mechanism of resistance against oxygen free radicals. The 5' flanking sequence upstream from the coding region of GP contained an oxygen-responsive element termed ORE1 that is responsive to hypoxia, as well as several copies of the activator protein-1 (AP-1)- and AP-1-like-binding sites. In this study, we sought to define the molecular events that lead to GP gene transcription in response to hyperoxia in human umbilical-vein endothelial cells, and asked whether such induction is mimicked and sustained by activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by phorbol esters. Treatment of cells with 100 nM phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PdBu) induced a delayed (24-48 h) but significant (2-fold) increase in steady-state GP mRNA levels. Steady-state GP mRNA levels also rose after exposure to 95% O2, again after considerable delay (48-72 h). For both PdBu and oxygen, induction was transcriptionally regulated, as demonstrated by nuclear run-on experiments. The simulations by PdBu and oxygen were additive. In contrast with PdBu, hyperoxia did not stimulate translocation of PKC from the cytosol to the particulate fraction, although the specific activity of both cytosolic and particulate-associated PKC was increased 2-fold in cells exposed to 95% O2 for 5 days. In addition, gel mobility-shift assays using double-stranded tumour-promoting-agent-responsive element (TRE) and nuclear extracts derived from phorbol- and oxygen-treated cells revealed that PdBu, but not hyperoxia, increased AP-1 DNA-binding activity. On the other hand, the up-regulation of GP expression by oxygen could not be accounted for by the ORE1 core sequence, since no specific protein-DNA binding activity could be detected using nuclear extracts from hyperoxic cells and ORE1. Taken together, these results suggest that there may be different molecular mechanisms controlling GP expression. After exposure to PdBu, GP undergoes transcriptional activation via a

  7. Impact of Glutathione Peroxidase-1 Deficiency on Macrophage Foam Cell Formation and Proliferation: Implications for Atherogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Degreif, Adriana; Rossmann, Heidi; Canisius, Antje; Lackner, Karl J.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical and experimental evidence suggests a protective role for the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) in the atherogenic process. GPx-1 deficiency accelerates atherosclerosis and increases lesion cellularity in ApoE−/− mice. However, the distribution of GPx-1 within the atherosclerotic lesion as well as the mechanisms leading to increased macrophage numbers in lesions is still unknown. Accordingly, the aims of the present study were (1) to analyze which cells express GPx-1 within atherosclerotic lesions and (2) to determine whether a lack of GPx-1 affects macrophage foam cell formation and cellular proliferation. Both in situ-hybridization and immunohistochemistry of lesions of the aortic sinus of ApoE−/− mice after 12 weeks on a Western type diet revealed that both macrophages and – even though to a less extent – smooth muscle cells contribute to GPx-1 expression within atherosclerotic lesions. In isolated mouse peritoneal macrophages differentiated for 3 days with macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (MCSF), GPx-1 deficiency increased oxidized low density-lipoprotein (oxLDL) induced foam cell formation and led to increased proliferative activity of peritoneal macrophages. The MCSF- and oxLDL-induced proliferation of peritoneal macrophages from GPx-1−/−ApoE−/− mice was mediated by the p44/42 MAPK (p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase), namely ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2), signaling pathway as demonstrated by ERK1/2 signaling pathways inhibitors, Western blots on cell lysates with primary antibodies against total and phosphorylated ERK1/2, MEK1/2 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2), p90RSK (p90 ribosomal s6 kinase), p38 MAPK and SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase), and immunohistochemistry of mice atherosclerotic lesions with antibodies against phosphorylated ERK1/2, MEK1/2 and p90RSK. Representative effects of GPx-1 deficiency on both macrophage proliferation

  8. Isozymes of lignin peroxidase and manganese(II) peroxidase from the white-rot basidiomycete Trametes versicolor. I. Isolation of enzyme forms and characterization of physical and catalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Johansson, T; Nyman, P O

    1993-01-01

    The basidiomycete Trametes versicolor is a white-rot fungus and a potent degrader of lignin. The development of extracellular enzyme activities in the fungal culture under physiological conditions of secondary metabolism was investigated. Using the culture medium as starting material a large number of peroxidase forms were purified by the use of chromatographic techniques. Sixteen forms of lignin peroxidase and five forms of manganese(II) peroxidase were separated and the majority of these enzymes was characterized with respect to isoelectric point, molecular mass, and specific enzyme activity. The manganese(II) peroxidases showed a lower isoelectric point (pI 3.2-2.9) and a slightly higher molecular mass (44-45 kDa) than the lignin peroxidases (pI 3.7-3.1, and 41-43 kDa). Specific enzyme activities for the forms of lignin peroxidase, using veratryl alcohol as the substrate, were found to differ considerably. Certain differences in the specific enzyme activity were also observed among the forms of manganese(II) peroxidase. A multitude of peroxidase forms has previously been encountered in another white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The discovery that it also occurs in T. versicolor would suggest that this multiplicity could be a common feature among white-rot fungi and may be essential for the biodegradation of lignin.

  9. Hindbrain A2 noradrenergic neuron adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation, upstream kinase/phosphorylase protein expression, and receptivity to hormone and fuel reporters of short-term food deprivation are regulated by estradiol.

    PubMed

    Briski, Karen P; Alenazi, Fahaad S H; Shakya, Manita; Sylvester, Paul W

    2017-07-01

    Estradiol (E) mitigates acute and postacute adverse effects of 12 hr-food deprivation (FD) on energy balance. Hindbrain 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates hyperphagic and hypothalamic metabolic neuropeptide and norepinephrine responses to FD in an E-dependent manner. Energy-state information from AMPK-expressing hindbrain A2 noradrenergic neurons shapes neural responses to metabolic imbalance. Here we investigate the hypothesis that FD causes divergent changes in A2 AMPK activity in E- vs. oil (O)-implanted ovariectomized female rats, alongside dissimilar adjustments in circulating metabolic fuel (glucose, free fatty acids [FFA]) and energy deficit-sensitive hormone (corticosterone, glucagon, leptin) levels. FD decreased blood glucose in oil (O)- but not E-implanted ovariectomized female rats and elevated and reduced glucagon levels in O and E, respectively. FD decreased circulating leptin in O and E, but increased corticosterone and FFA concentrations in E only. Western blot analysis of laser-microdissected A2 neurons showed that glucocorticoid receptor type II and very-long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 3 protein profiles were amplified in FD/E vs. FD/O. A2 total AMPK protein was elevated without change in activity in FD/O, whereas FD/E exhibited increased AMPK activation along with decreased upstream phosphatase expression. The catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH) was increased in FD/O but not FD/E A2 cells. The data show discordance between A2 AMPK activation and glycemic responses to FD; sensor activity was refractory to glucose decrements in FD/O but augmented in FD/E despite stabilized glucose and elevated FFA levels. E-dependent amplification of AMPK activity may reflect adaptive conversion to fatty acid oxidation and/or glucocorticoid stimulation. FD augmentation of A2 DβH protein profiles in FD/O but not FD/E animals suggests that FD may correspondingly regulate NE synthesis vs. metabolism/release in the

  10. Structure of the Zymomonas mobilis respiratory chain: oxygen affinity of electron transport and the role of cytochrome c peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Balodite, Elina; Strazdina, Inese; Galinina, Nina; McLean, Samantha; Rutkis, Reinis; Poole, Robert K; Kalnenieks, Uldis

    2014-09-01

    The genome of the ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis encodes a bd-type terminal oxidase, cytochrome bc1 complex and several c-type cytochromes, yet lacks sequences homologous to any of the known bacterial cytochrome c oxidase genes. Recently, it was suggested that a putative respiratory cytochrome c peroxidase, receiving electrons from the cytochrome bc1 complex via cytochrome c552, might function as a peroxidase and/or an alternative oxidase. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis, by construction of a cytochrome c peroxidase mutant (Zm6-perC), and comparison of its properties with those of a mutant defective in the cytochrome b subunit of the bc1 complex (Zm6-cytB). Disruption of the cytochrome c peroxidase gene (ZZ60192) caused a decrease of the membrane NADH peroxidase activity, impaired the resistance of growing culture to exogenous hydrogen peroxide and hampered aerobic growth. However, this mutation did not affect the activity or oxygen affinity of the respiratory chain, or the kinetics of cytochrome d reduction. Furthermore, the peroxide resistance and membrane NADH peroxidase activity of strain Zm6-cytB had not decreased, but both the oxygen affinity of electron transport and the kinetics of cytochrome d reduction were affected. It is therefore concluded that the cytochrome c peroxidase does not terminate the cytochrome bc1 branch of Z. mobilis, and that it is functioning as a quinol peroxidase. © 2014 The Authors.

  11. Characterization and in situ localization of a salt-induced tomato peroxidase mRNA.

    PubMed

    Botella, M A; Quesada, M A; Kononowicz, A K; Bressan, R A; Pliego, F; Hasegawa, P M; Valpuesta, V

    1994-04-01

    NaCl treatment of tomato plants in hydroponic culture at concentrations as low as 50 mM resulted in enhanced accumulation of transcripts of TPX1, a full-length cDNA clone that we had isolated from a library of NaCl-treated tomato plants using a peroxidase-specific oligonucleotide probe. Although the overall amino acid sequence identity of TPX1 to other peroxidase genes was less than 45%, there was a very high degree of identity in all of the conserved domains. The deduced amino acid sequence included the presence of a N-terminal signal peptide but not the C-terminal extension present in peroxidases targeted to the vacuole. The mature protein has a theoretical pI value of 7.5. Transcripts that hybridized to TPX1 were detected only in the roots with higher levels of mRNA in epidermal and subepidermal cell layers. Isoelectric focusing of root extracts showed two major bands of peroxidase activity at pI 5.9 and 6.2. Both activities increased with salt treatment. Southern analysis indicated the presence of only a single TPX1 gene in tomato.

  12. Uric acid is a main electron donor to peroxidases in human blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Padiglia, Alessandra; Medda, Rosaria; Longu, Silvia; Pedersen, Jens Z; Floris, Giovanni

    2002-11-01

    Peroxidases are widely distributed and have been isolated from many higher-order plants, animal tissues, yeast and microorganisms. During measurements of peroxidase activities in samples of human plasma, we noticed the presence of a compound in the plasma which was interfering with the peroxidase assay. In this paper we describe the purification and characterization of this factor, which was identified as uric acid. The procedure used to purify uric acid from plasma involved ultra-filtration of the plasma, heat denaturation, DEAE-cellulose chromatography, and high performance liquid chromatography. The lyophilized powder was tested for homogeneity using an HPLC apparatus and capillary electrophoresis. Genuine uric acid samples were used for comparison. The compound obtained by the above-reported purification procedure was identified as uric acid by spectrophotometric analysis through comparison with genuine uric acid samples. Spectrophotometric measurements indicated that uric acid was degraded by HRP in the presence of H2O2. The experimental procedures described above allowed us to isolate and identify uric acid as the component in human plasma that acts as a true substrate for peroxidases.

  13. Role of anionic isoforms of peroxidase during phytopathogenic infection of plants from the family Malvaceae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An increase of the activity and the appearance of new isoforms (high- and low-molecular-weight) in the isospectrum of peroxidase were noted after the action of the phytopathogen Verticillium dahliae on plants from the family Malvaceae. The temperature was shown to have an effect on the resistance to...

  14. Peroxidase activity as an indicator of exposure of wetland seedlings to metals

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, H.D.; Klaine, S.J.

    1995-12-31

    The enzyme peroxidase has been found to increase quantitatively in several aquatic plant species in response to increasing exposure to various contaminants. In this study, a number of wetland species are tested for their usefulness as bioindicators of metal exposure using the peroxidase assay. Woody species tested include Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum), Fraxinus pennsylvanica (green ash), and Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush), while herbaceous species include Saururus cernuus (lizard`s tail) and Sparganium americanum (bur-reed). The assay has been optimized for all of these species. In all cases the pH optimum has been found to be either 5.5 or 6.0 and the substrate optimummore » is 2.8 or 1.4mM hydrogen peroxide. There is considerable variation in baseline peroxidase activity among the species when tested under their optimal assay conditions. These species are being dosed with copper, nickel, and cadmium in order to determine whether a response elicited. Seedlings will be dosed using both petri dish culture conditions and test tubes filled with vermiculite and sand combinations. The peroxidase response will be compared to germination and root elongation endpoints. Lettuce (Lactuca saliva) and radish (Raphanus sativus) are being tested alongside the wetland species as reference organisms for which background data is available. The wetland species tested in the present study have rarely if ever been used in toxicological studies.« less

  15. Organization and differential regulation of a cluster of lignin peroxidase genes of Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Treesearch

    Philip Stewart; Daniel Cullen

    1999-06-01

    The lignin peroxidases of Phanerochaete chrysosporium are encoded by a minimum of 10 closely related genes. Physical and genetic mapping of a cluster of eight lip genes revealed six genes occurring in pairs and transcriptionally convergent, suggesting that portions of the lip family arose by gene duplication events. The completed sequence of 1ipG and lipJ, together...

  16. Peroxidase-mediated polymerization of 1-naphthol: impact of solution pH and ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Alok; Xu, Fangxiang; Koch, David E; Hunter, Robert P

    2009-01-01

    Peroxidase-mediated oxidation has been proposed as a treatment method for naphthol-contaminated water. However, the impact of solution chemistry on naphthol polymerization and removal has not been documented. This research investigated the impact of pH and ionic strength on peroxidase-mediated removal of 1-naphthol in completely mixed batch reactors. The impact of hydrogen peroxide to 1-naphthol ratio and activity of horseradish peroxidase was also studied. Size exclusion chromatography was used to estimate the molecular weight distribution of oligomeric products, and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to estimate product structure. Naphthol transformation decreased with ionic strength, and substrate removal was lowest at neutral pHs. Solution pH influenced the size and the composition of the oligomeric products. An equimolar ratio of H(2)O(2):naphthol was sufficient for optimal naphthol removal. Polymerization products included naphthoquinones and oligomers derived from two, three, and four naphthol molecules. Our results illustrate the importance of water chemistry when considering a peroxidase-based approach for treatment of naphthol-contaminated waters.

  17. Effects of commercial selenium products on glutathione peroxidase activity and semen quality in stud boars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of this study was to determine how dietary supplementation of inorganic and organic selenium affects selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity in blood and sperm of sexually mature stud boars. Twenty-four boars of the Large White, Landrace, Pietrain, and Duroc breeds of opt...

  18. [Cell surface peroxidase--generator of superoxide anion in wheat root cells under wound stress].

    PubMed

    Chasov, A V; Gordon, L Kh; Kolesnikov, O P; Minibaeva, F V

    2002-01-01

    Development of wound stress in excised wheat roots is known to be accompanied with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, fall of membrane potential, release of K+ from cells, alkalization of extracellular solution, changes in respiration and metabolism of structural lipids. Dynamics of superoxide release correlates with changes in other physiological parameters, indicating the cross-reaction of these processes. Activity of peroxidase in extracellular solution after a 1 h incubation and removal of roots was shown to be stimulated by the range of organic acids, detergents, metals, and to be inhibited by cyanide. Superoxide production was sensitive to the addition of Mn2+ and H2O2. Increase in superoxide production correlates with the enhancement of peroxidase activity at the application of organic acids and detergents. The results obtained indicate that cell surface peroxidase is one of the main generators of superoxide in wounded wheat root cells. Different ways of stimulation of the ROS producing activity in root cells is supposed. By controlling superoxide and hydrogen peroxide formation, the cell surface peroxidase can control the adaptation processes in stressed plant cells.

  19. Tissue Printing to Visualize Polyphenol Oxidase and Peroxidase in Vegetables, Fruits, and Mushrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melberg, Amanda R.; Flurkey, William H.; Inlow, Jennifer K.

    2009-01-01

    A simple tissue-printing procedure to determine the tissue location of the endogenous enzymes polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase in a variety of vegetables, fruits, and mushrooms is described. In tissue printing, cell contents from the surface of a cut section of the tissue are transferred to an adsorptive surface, commonly a nitrocellulose…

  20. Correlation between Glutathione Peroxidase Activity and Anthropometrical Parameters in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordonez, F. J.; Rosety-Rodriguez, M.

    2007-01-01

    Since we have recently found that regular exercise increased erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities such as glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in adolescents with Down syndrome, these programs may be recommended. This study was designed to assess the role of anthropometrical parameters as easy, economic and non-invasive biomarkers of GPX. Thirty-one…

  1. Strand displacement activated peroxidase activity of hemin for fluorescent DNA sensing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanbo; Xu, Nan; Gui, Zhen; Lei, Jianping; Ju, Huangxian; Yan, Feng

    2015-10-07

    To efficiently regulate the catalytic activity of the peroxidase mimic hemin, this work designs a double-stranded DNA probe containing an intermolecular dimer of hemin, whose peroxidase activity can be activated by a DNA strand displacement reaction. The double-stranded probe is prepared by annealing two strands of hemin labelled DNA oligonucleotides. Using the fluorescent oxidation product of tyramine by H2O2 as a tracing molecule, the low peroxidase activity of the hemin dimer ensures a low fluorescence background. The strand displacement reaction of the target DNA dissociates the hemin dimer and thus significantly increases the catalytic activity of hemin to produce a large amount of dityramine for fluorescence signal readout. Based on the strand displacement regulated peroxidase activity, a simple and sensitive homogeneous fluorescent DNA sensing method is proposed. The detection can conveniently be carried out in a 96-well plate within 20 min with a detection limit of 0.18 nM. This method shows high specificity, which can effectively distinguish single-base mismatched DNA from perfectly matched target DNA. The DNA strand displacement regulated catalytic activity of hemin has promising application in the determination of various DNA analytes.

  2. Nucleotide sequences of two genomic DNAs encoding peroxidase of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Intapruk, C; Higashimura, N; Yamamoto, K; Okada, N; Shinmyo, A; Takano, M

    1991-02-15

    The peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7)-encoding gene of Arabidopsis thaliana was screened from a genomic library using a cDNA encoding a neutral isozyme of horseradish, Armoracia rusticana, peroxidase (HRP) as a probe, and two positive clones were isolated. From the comparison with the sequences of the HRP-encoding genes, we concluded that two clones contained peroxidase-encoding genes, and they were named prxCa and prxEa. Both genes consisted of four exons and three introns; the introns had consensus nucleotides, GT and AG, at the 5' and 3' ends, respectively. The lengths of each putative exon of the prxEa gene were the same as those of the HRP-basic-isozyme-encoding gene, prxC3, and coded for 349 amino acids (aa) with a sequence homology of 89% to that encoded by prxC3. The prxCa gene was very close to the HRP-neutral-isozyme-encoding gene, prxC1b, and coded for 354 aa with 91% homology to that encoded by prxC1b. The aa sequence homology was 64% between the two peroxidases encoded by prxCa and prxEa.

  3. Aqueous synthesis of porous platinum nanotubes at room temperature and their intrinsic peroxidase-like activity.

    PubMed

    Cai, Kai; Lv, Zhicheng; Chen, Kun; Huang, Liang; Wang, Jing; Shao, Feng; Wang, Yanjun; Han, Heyou

    2013-07-11

    Platinum nanotubes (PtNTs) exhibiting high porosity were constructed by sacrificing the exterior of tellurium nanowires (TeNWs) and disintegrating the inner part spontaneously in aqueous solution at room temperature, in which the Kirkendall effect may play an important role. The present PtNTs exhibited intrinsic peroxidase-like activity in the presence of H2O2.

  4. A Peroxidase-linked Spectrophotometric Assay for the Detection of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhi, Kangkang; Yang, Zhongduo; Sheng, Jie; Shu, Zongmei; Shi, Yin

    2016-01-01

    To develop a new more accurate spectrophotometric method for detecting monoamine oxidase inhibitors from plant extracts, a series of amine substrates were selected and their ability to be oxidized by monoamine oxidase was evaluated by the HPLC method and a new substrate was used to develop a peroxidase-linked spectrophotometric assay. 4-(Trifluoromethyl) benzylamine (11) was proved to be an excellent substrate for peroxidase-linked spectrophotometric assay. Therefore, a new peroxidase-linked spectrophotometric assay was set up. The principle of the method is that the MAO converts 11 into aldehyde, ammonia and hydrogen peroxide. In the presence of peroxidase, the hydrogen peroxide will oxidize 4-aminoantipyrine into oxidised 4-aminoantipyrine which can condense with vanillic acid to give a red quinoneimine dye. The production of the quinoneimine dye was detected at 490 nm by a microplate reader. The ⊿OD value between the blank group and blank negative control group in this new method is twice as much as that in Holt’s method, which enables the procedure to be more accurate and avoids the produce of false positive results. The new method will be helpful for researchers to screening monoamine oxidase inhibitors from deep-color plant extracts. PMID:27610153

  5. A Peroxidase-linked Spectrophotometric Assay for the Detection of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Kangkang; Yang, Zhongduo; Sheng, Jie; Shu, Zongmei; Shi, Yin

    2016-01-01

    To develop a new more accurate spectrophotometric method for detecting monoamine oxidase inhibitors from plant extracts, a series of amine substrates were selected and their ability to be oxidized by monoamine oxidase was evaluated by the HPLC method and a new substrate was used to develop a peroxidase-linked spectrophotometric assay. 4-(Trifluoromethyl) benzylamine (11) was proved to be an excellent substrate for peroxidase-linked spectrophotometric assay. Therefore, a new peroxidase-linked spectrophotometric assay was set up. The principle of the method is that the MAO converts 11 into aldehyde, ammonia and hydrogen peroxide. In the presence of peroxidase, the hydrogen peroxide will oxidize 4-aminoantipyrine into oxidised 4-aminoantipyrine which can condense with vanillic acid to give a red quinoneimine dye. The production of the quinoneimine dye was detected at 490 nm by a microplate reader. The ⊿OD value between the blank group and blank negative control group in this new method is twice as much as that in Holt's method, which enables the procedure to be more accurate and avoids the produce of false positive results. The new method will be helpful for researchers to screening monoamine oxidase inhibitors from deep-color plant extracts.

  6. Visualization under ultraviolet light enhances 100-fold the sensitivity of peroxidase-stained blots.

    PubMed

    Domingo, A; Marco, R

    1989-10-01

    As described in this article, visualization and/or photography under uv light of 4-chloro-1-naphthol-developed, peroxidase-marked immunoblots allows an increase in sensitivity of more than 100 times over the apparent staining results observable under normal visible white light. This increase in sensitivity can be obtained with the minimal additional requirement of an uv lamp, with the actual chloronaphthol staining procedure remaining unaltered and thereby allowing the monitoring of specific reactions with much smaller quantities of antigen or antibodies. Substantial shortening of the procedure is another advantage, making it possible to complete in 20 min or even less a procedure usually requiring 3 to 6 h. The phenomenon depends on the uv absorption and the fluorescence quenching properties of the products of the peroxidase reaction. The absorption spectra of the membranes with or without peroxidase products indicate that an intermediate in the peroxidase reaction is responsible for the absorption under uv light. This intermediate accumulates under conditions where the final product absorbing in the visible light has not begun to be produced, thus explaining the large increase in sensitivity. The behaviors of three types of membranes, nitrocellulose, nylon, and Immobilon (PVDF), are compared. Due to its lower uv absorption, PVDF gives by far the best results, followed by nitrocellulose.

  7. Peroxidase mediated conjugation of corn fibeer gum and bovine serum albumin to improve emulsifying properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The emulsifying properties of corn fiber gum (CFG), a naturally-occurring polysaccharide protein complex, were improved by kinetically controlled formation of hetero-covalent linkages with bovine serum albumin (BSA), using horseradish peroxidase. The formation of hetero-crosslinked CFG-BSA conjugate...

  8. Effect of pulsed light on activity and structural changes of horseradish peroxidase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of pulsed light (PL) on the activity and structure of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in buffer solution. Enzyme residual activities were measured after PL. Surface topography, secondary, and tertiary structures of HRP were determined using ...

  9. Biochemical Characterization of the Suberization-Associated Anionic Peroxidase of Potato1

    PubMed Central

    Bernards, Mark A.; Fleming, Warren D.; Llewellyn, David B.; Priefer, Ronny; Yang, Xiaolong; Sabatino, Anita; Plourde, Guy L.

    1999-01-01

    The anionic peroxidase associated with the suberization response in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers during wound healing has been purified and partially characterized at the biochemical level. It is a 45-kD, class III (plant secretory) peroxidase that is localized to suberizing tissues and shows a preference for feruloyl (o-methoxyphenol)-substituted substrates (order of substrate preference: feruloyl > caffeoyl > p-coumaryl ≈ syringyl) such as those that accumulate in tubers during wound healing. There was little influence on oxidation by side chain derivatization, although hydroxycinnamates were preferred over the corresponding hydroxycinnamyl alcohols. The substrate specificity pattern is consistent with the natural substrate incorporation into potato wound suberin. In contrast, the cationic peroxidase(s) induced in response to wound healing in potato tubers is present in both suberizing and nonsuberizing tissues and does not discriminate between hydroxycinnamates and hydroxycinnamyl alcohols. A synthetic polymer prepared using E-[8-13C]ferulic acid, H2O2, and the purified anionic enzyme contained a significant amount of cross-linking through C-8, albeit with retention of unsaturation. PMID:10482668

  10. Resistance-breaking population of Meloidogyne incognita utilizes plant peroxidase to scavenge reactive oxygen species, thereby promoting parasitism on tomato carrying Mi-1 gene.

    PubMed

    Guan, Tinglong; Shen, Jinhua; Fa, Yang; Su, Yishi; Wang, Xuan; Li, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    Resistance conferred by the Mi-1 gene from Solanum peruvianum is effective and widely used for controlling root-knot nematodes (RKNs, Meloidogyne spp.). However, breakdown of resistance by RKNs seriously threatens the durable application of the resistance resource. Here, a resistance-breaking population of M. incognita was selected from an avirulent population by continuously inoculating on Mi-1-carrying tomato. Histological observations showed the resistance-breaking population would not induce hypersensitive response (HR) when infecting Mi-1-carrying tomato, while avirulent population did. A total of 308 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from Mi-1-carrying tomato upon infection with resistance-breaking versus avirulent populations by RNA-seq. The expression patterns of 23 selected DEGs were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Subsequently, seven out of nine highly up-regulated DEGs were successfully knocked down in Mi-1-carrying tomato by tobacco rattle virus (TRV) mediated RNAi. The TRV line targeting a peroxidase gene showed a much higher magnitude of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and distinct reduction of pathogenicity upon infection of the resistance-breaking population compared with that of TRV::gfp line. Our results suggested that plant peroxidase might be exploited by resistance-breaking population of M. incognita to scavenge ROS, so as to overcome Mi-1-mediated resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Transcriptional profiling of striatal neurons in response to single or concurrent activation of dopamine D2, adenosine A(2A) and metabotropic glutamate type 5 receptors: focus on beta-synuclein expression.

    PubMed

    Canela, Laia; Selga, Elisabet; García-Martínez, Juan Manuel; Amaral, Olavo B; Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Alberch, Jordi; Canela, Enric I; Franco, Rafael; Noé, Véronique; Lluís, Carme; Ciudad, Carlos J; Ciruela, Francisco

    2012-10-25

    G protein-coupled receptor oligomerization is a concept which is changing the understanding of classical pharmacology. Both, oligomerization and functional interaction between adenosine A(2A,) dopamine D(2) and metabotropic glutamate type 5 receptors have been demonstrated in the striatum. However, the transcriptional consequences of receptors co-activation are still unexplored. We aim here to determine the changes in gene expression of striatal primary cultured neurons upon isolated or simultaneous receptor activation. Interestingly, we found that 95 genes of the total analyzed (15,866 transcripts and variants) changed their expression in response to simultaneous stimulation of all three receptors. Among these genes, we focused on the β-synuclein (β-Syn) gene (SCNB). Quantitative PCR verified the magnitude and direction of change in expression of SCNB. Since β-Syn belongs to the homologous synuclein family and may be considered a natural regulator of α-synuclein (α-Syn), it has been proposed that β-Syn might act protectively against α-Syn neuropathology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolism of phenol and hydroquinone to reactive products by macrophage peroxidase or purified prostaglandin H synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Schlosser, M.J.; Shurina, R.D.; Kalf, G.F.

    1989-07-01

    Macrophages, an important cell-type of the bone marrow stroma, are possible targets of benzene toxicity because they contain relatively large amounts of prostaglandin H synthase (PHS), which is capable of metabolizing phenolic compounds to reactive species. PHS also catalyzes the production of prostaglandins, negative regulators of myelopoiesis. Studies indicate that the phenolic metabolites of benzene are oxidized in bone marrow to reactive products via peroxidases. With respect to macrophages, PHS peroxidase is implicated, as in vivo benzene-induced myelotoxicity is prevented by low doses of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, drugs that inhibit PHS. Incubations of either 14C-phenol or 14C-hydroquinone with a lysatemore » of macrophages collected from mouse peritoneum (greater than 95% macrophages), resulted in an irreversible binding to protein that was dependent upon H2O2, incubation time, and concentration of radiolabel. Production of protein-bound metabolites from phenol or hydroquinone was inhibited by the peroxidase inhibitor aminotriazole. Protein binding from 14C-phenol also was inhibited by 8 microM hydroquinone, whereas binding from 14C-hydroquinone was stimulated by 5 mM phenol. The nucleophile cysteine inhibited protein binding of both phenol and hydroquinone and increased the formation of radiolabeled water-soluble metabolites. Similar to the macrophage lysate, purified PHS also catalyzed the conversion of phenol to metabolites that bound to protein and DNA; this activation was both H2O2- and arachidonic acid-dependent. These results indicate a role for macrophage peroxidase, possibly PHS peroxidase, in the conversion of phenol and hydroquinone to reactive metabolites and suggest that the macrophage should be considered when assessing the hematopoietic toxicity of benzene.« less

  13. Ascorbate peroxidase, a key molecule regulating amphotericin B resistance in clinical isolates of Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashish; Das, Sushmita; Purkait, Bidyut; Sardar, Abul Hasan; Ghosh, Ayan Kumar; Dikhit, Manas Ranjan; Abhishek, Kumar; Das, Pradeep

    2014-10-01

    Amphotericin B (AmB), a polyene macrolide, is now a first-line treatment of visceral leishmaniasis cases refractory to antimonials in India. AmB relapse cases and the emergence of secondary resistance have now been reported. To understand the mechanism of AmB, differentially expressed genes in AmB resistance strains were identified by a DNA microarray and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) approach. Of the many genes functionally overexpressed in the presence of AmB, the ascorbate peroxidase gene from a resistant Leishmania donovani strain (LdAPx gene) was selected because the gene is present only in Leishmania, not in humans. Apoptosis-like cell death after exposure to AmB was investigated in a wild-type (WT) strain in which the LdAPx gene was overexpressed and in AmB-sensitive and -resistant strains. A higher percentage of apoptosis-like cell death after AmB treatment was noticed in the sensitive strain than in both the resistant isolate and the strain sensitive to LdAPx overexpression. This event is preceded by AmB-induced formation of reactive oxygen species and elevation of the cytosolic calcium level. Enhanced cytosolic calcium was found to be responsible for depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c (Cyt c) into the cytosol. The redox behavior of Cyt c showed that it has a role in the regulation of apoptosis-like cell death by activating metacaspase- and caspase-like proteins and causing concomitant nuclear alterations, as determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) and DNA fragmentation in the resistant strain. The present study suggests that constitutive overexpression of LdAPx in the L. donovani AmB-resistant strain prevents cells from the deleterious effect of oxidative stress, i.e., mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular death induced by AmB. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. The mitochondrial cytochrome c peroxidase Ccp1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is involved in conveying an oxidative stress signal to the transcription factor Pos9 (Skn7).

    PubMed

    Charizanis, C; Juhnke, H; Krems, B; Entian, K D

    1999-10-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae two transcription factors, Pos9 (Skn7) and Yap1, are involved in the response to oxidative stress. Fusion of the Pos9 response-regulator domain to the Gal4 DNA-binding domain results in a transcription factor which renders the expression of a GAL1-lacZ reporter gene dependent on oxidative stress. To identify genes which are involved in the oxygen-dependent activation of the Gal4-Pos9 hybrid protein we screened for mutants that failed to induce the heterologous test system upon oxidative stress (fap mutants for factors activating Pos9). We isolated several respiration-deficient and some respiration-competent mutants by this means. We selected for further characterization only those mutants which also displayed an oxidative-stress-sensitive phenotype. One of the respiration-deficient mutants (complementation groupfap6) could be complemented by the ISM1 gene, which encodes mitochondrial isoleucyl tRNA synthetase, suggesting that respiration competence was important for signalling of oxidative stress. In accordance with this notion a rho0 strain and a wild-type strain in which respiration had been blocked (by treatment with antimycin A or with cyanide) also failed to activate Gal4-Pos9 upon imposition of oxidative stress. Another mutant, fap24, which was respiration-competent, could be complemented by CCP1, which encodes the mitochondrial cytochrome c peroxidase. Mitochondrial cytochrome c peroxidase degrades reactive oxygen species within the mitochondria. This suggested a possible sensor function for the enzyme in the oxidative stress response. To test this we used the previously described point mutant ccp1 W191F, which is characterized by a 10(4)-fold decrease in electron flux between cytochrome c and cytochrome c peroxidase. The Ccp1W191F mutant was still capable of activating the Pos9 transcriptional activation domain, suggesting that the signalling function of Ccp1 is independent of electron flux rates.

  15. CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression: Comparing ‘humanized’ mouse lines and wild-type mice; comparing human and mouse hepatoma-derived cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Shigeyuki; Endo, Kaori; Ishida, Yuji; Tateno, Chise; Makishima, Makoto; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Nebert, Daniel W.

    2009-01-01

    Human and rodent cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes sometimes exhibit striking species-specific differences in substrate preference and rate of metabolism. Human risk assessment of CYP substrates might therefore best be evaluated in the intact mouse by replacing mouse Cyp genes with human CYP orthologs; however, how “human-like” can human gene expression be expected in mouse tissues? Previously a bacterial-artificial-chromosome-transgenic mouse, carrying the human CYP1A1_CYP1A2 locus and lacking the mouse Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2 orthologs, was shown to express robustly human dioxin-inducible CYP1A1 and basal versus inducible CYP1A2 (mRNAs, proteins, enzyme activities) in each of nine mouse tissues examined. Chimeric mice carrying humanized liver have also been generated, by transplanting human hepatocytes into a urokinase-type plasminogen activator(+/+)_severe-combined-immunodeficiency (uPA/SCID) line with most of its mouse hepatocytes ablated. Herein we compare basal and dioxin-induced CYP1A mRNA copy numbers, protein levels, and four enzymes (benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, acetanilide 4-hydroxylase, methoxyresorufin O-demethylase) in liver of these two humanized mouse lines versus wild-type mice; we also compare these same parameters in mouse Hepa-1c1c7 and human HepG2 hepatoma-derived established cell lines. Most strikingly, mouse liver CYP1A1-specific enzyme activities are between 38- and 170-fold higher than human CYP1A1-specific enzyme activities (per unit of mRNA), whereas mouse versus human CYP1A2 enzyme activities (per unit of mRNA) are within 2.5-fold of one another. Moreover, both the mouse and human hepatoma cell lines exhibit striking differences in CYP1A mRNA levels and enzyme activities. These findings are relevant to risk assessment involving human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 substrates, when administered to mice as environmental toxicants or drugs. PMID:19285097

  16. High Glutathione and Glutathione Peroxidase-2 Levels Mediate Cell-Type-Specific DNA Damage Protection in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dannenmann, Benjamin; Lehle, Simon; Hildebrand, Dominic G.; Kübler, Ayline; Grondona, Paula; Schmid, Vera; Holzer, Katharina; Fröschl, Mirjam; Essmann, Frank; Rothfuss, Oliver; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Summary Pluripotent stem cells must strictly maintain genomic integrity to prevent transmission of mutations. In human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), we found that genome surveillance is achieved via two ways, namely, a hypersensitivity to apoptosis and a very low accumulation of DNA lesions. The low apoptosis threshold was mediated by constitutive p53 expression and a marked upregulation of proapoptotic p53 target genes of the BCL-2 family, ensuring the efficient iPSC removal upon genotoxic insults. Intriguingly, despite the elevated apoptosis sensitivity, both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA lesions induced by genotoxins were less frequent in iPSCs compared to fibroblasts. Gene profiling identified that mRNA expression of several antioxidant proteins was considerably upregulated in iPSCs. Knockdown of glutathione peroxidase-2 and depletion of glutathione impaired protection against DNA lesions. Thus, iPSCs ensure genomic integrity through enhanced apoptosis induction and increased antioxidant defense, contributing to protection against DNA damage. PMID:25937369

  17. Identification and structural characterization of heme binding in a novel dye-decolorizing peroxidase, TyrA.

    PubMed

    Zubieta, Chloe; Joseph, Rosanne; Krishna, S Sri; McMullan, Daniel; Kapoor, Mili; Axelrod, Herbert L; Miller, Mitchell D; Abdubek, Polat; Acosta, Claire; Astakhova, Tamara; Carlton, Dennis; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C; Duan, Lian; Elias, Ylva; Elsliger, Marc-André; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grzechnik, Slawomir K; Hale, Joanna; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K; Klock, Heath E; Knuth, Mark W; Kozbial, Piotr; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; Morse, Andrew T; Murphy, Kevin D; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Oommachen, Silvya; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L; Schimmel, Paul; Trout, Christina V; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; White, Aprilfawn; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O; Wooley, John; Deacon, Ashley M; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A; Wilson, Ian A

    2007-11-01

    TyrA is a member of the dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP) family, a new family of heme-dependent peroxidase recently identified in fungi and bacteria. Here, we report the crystal structure of TyrA in complex with iron protoporphyrin (IX) at 2.3 A. TyrA is a dimer, with each monomer exhibiting a two-domain, alpha/beta ferredoxin-like fold. Both domains contribute to the heme-binding site. Co-crystallization in the presence of an excess of iron protoporphyrin (IX) chloride allowed for the unambiguous location of the active site and the specific residues involved in heme binding. The structure reveals a Fe-His-Asp triad essential for heme positioning, as well as a novel conformation of one of the heme propionate moieties compared to plant peroxidases. Structural comparison to the canonical DyP family member, DyP from Thanatephorus cucumeris (Dec 1), demonstrates conservation of this novel heme conformation, as well as residues important for heme binding. Structural comparisons with representative members from all classes of the plant, bacterial, and fungal peroxidase superfamily demonstrate that TyrA, and by extension the DyP family, adopts a fold different from all other structurally characterized heme peroxidases. We propose that a new superfamily be added to the peroxidase classification scheme to encompass the DyP family of heme peroxidases. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Improvement of mimetic peroxidase activity of gold nanoclusters on the luminol chemiluminescence reaction by surface modification with ethanediamine.

    PubMed

    Han, Lu; Li, Ying; Fan, Aiping

    2018-06-01

    Peroxidase is a commonly used catalyst in luminol-H 2 O 2 chemiluminescence (CL) reactions. Natural peroxidase has a sophisticated separation process, short shelf life and unstable activity, therefore it is important to develop peroxidases that have both high catalytic activity and good stability as alternatives to the natural enzyme. Gold nano