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Sample records for a2 pla2 inhibitor

  1. Role of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitors in attenuating apoptosis of the corneal epithelial cells and mitigation of Acanthamoeba keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Trivendra; Abdi, Mahshid; Alizadeh, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if the mannose-induced protein (MIP-133) from Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites induces apoptosis of corneal epithelial cells through a cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α)-mediated pathway. The efficacy of cPLA2α inhibitors to provide protection against Acanthamoeba keratitis was examined in vivo. Chinese hamster corneal epithelial (HCORN) cells were incubated with or without MIP-133. MIP-133 induces significant increase in cPLA2α and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2/CXCL2) levels from corneal cells. Moreover, cPLA2α inhibitors, MAFP (Methyl-arachidonyl fluorophosphonate) and AACOCF3 (Arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone), significantly reduce cPLA2α and CXCL2 from these cells (P< 0.05). Additionally, cPLA2α inhibitors significantly inhibit MIP-133-induced apoptosis in HCORN cells (P< 0.05). Subconjunctival injection of purified MIP-133 in Chinese hamster eyes induced cytopathic effects resulting in corneal ulceration. Animals infected with A. castellanii-laden contact lenses and treated with AACOCF3 and CAY10650, showed significantly less severe keratitis as compared with control animals. Collectively, the results indicate that cPLA2α is involved in MIP-133 induced apoptosis of corneal epithelial cells, polymorphonuclear neutrophil infiltration, and production of CXCL2. Moreover, cPLA2α inhibitors can be used as a therapeutic target in Acanthamoeba keratitis. PMID:23792108

  2. Discovery of AZD2716: A Novel Secreted Phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) Inhibitor for the Treatment of Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Expedited structure-based optimization of the initial fragment hit 1 led to the design of (R)-7 (AZD2716) a novel, potent secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) inhibitor with excellent preclinical pharmacokinetic properties across species, clear in vivo efficacy, and minimized safety risk. Based on accumulated profiling data, (R)-7 was selected as a clinical candidate for the treatment of coronary artery disease. PMID:27774123

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of BmooPLA2-I, a platelet-aggregation inhibitor and hypotensive phospholipase A2 from Bothrops moojeni venom

    PubMed Central

    Salvador, Guilherme H. M.; Marchi-Salvador, Daniela P.; Silveira, Lucas B.; Soares, Andreimar M.; Fontes, Marcos R. M.

    2011-01-01

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are enzymes that cause the liberation of fatty acids and lysophospholipids by the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids. In addition to their catalytic action, a wide variety of pharmacological activities have been described for snake-venom PLA2s. BmooPLA2-I is an acidic, nontoxic and catalytic PLA2 isolated from Bothrops moojeni snake venom which exhibits an inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation, an immediate decrease in blood pressure, inducing oedema at a low concentration, and an effective bactericidal effect. BmooPLA2-I has been crystallized and X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 1.6 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystals belonged to space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 39.7, b = 53.2, c = 89.2 Å. The molecular-replacement solution of BmooPLA2-I indicated a monomeric conformation, which is in agreement with nondenaturing electrophoresis and dynamic light-scattering experiments. A comparative study of this enzyme with the acidic PLA2 from B. jararacussu (BthA-I) and other toxic and nontoxic PLA2s may provide important insights into the functional aspects of this class of proteins. PMID:21821890

  4. Investigation of the Brain Biodistribution of the Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) Inhibitor [18F]GSK2647544 in Healthy Male Subjects.

    PubMed

    Huiban, Mickael; Coello, Christopher; Wu, Kai; Xu, Yanmei; Lewis, Yvonne; Brown, Andrew P; Buraglio, Mauro; Guan, Chenbing; Shabbir, Shaila; Fong, Regan; Passchier, Jan; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Lockhart, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    GSK2647544 is a potent and specific inhibitor of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 (Lp-PLA 2 ), which was in development as a potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to refine therapeutic dose predictions and confirm brain penetration, a radiolabelled form of the inhibitor, [ 18 F]GSK2647544, was manufactured for use in a positron emission tomography (PET) biodistribution study. [ 18 F]GSK2647544 was produced using a novel, copper iodide (Cu(I)) mediated, [ 18 F]trifluoromethylation methodology. Healthy male subjects (n = 4, age range 34-42) received an oral dose of unlabelled GSK2647544 (100 mg) and after 2 h an intravenous (iv) injection of [ 18 F]GSK2647544 (average injected activity and mass were 106 ± 47 MBq and 179 ± 55 μg, respectively) followed by dynamic PET scans for 120 min. Defined regions of interest (ROI) throughout the brain were used to obtain regional time-activity curves (TACs) and compartmental modelling analysis used to estimate the primary outcome measure, whole brain volume of distribution (V T ). Secondary PK and safety endpoints were also recorded. PET dynamic data were successfully obtained from all four subjects and there were no clinically significant variations of the safety endpoints. Inspection of the TACs indicated a relatively homogenous uptake of [ 18 F]GSK2647544 across all the ROIs examined. The mean whole brain V T was 0.56 (95 % CI, 0.41-0.72). Secondary PK parameters, C max (geometric mean) and T max (median), were 354 ng/ml and 1.4 h, respectively. Metabolism of GSK2647544 was relatively consistent across subjects, with 20-40 % of the parent compound [ 18 F]GSK2647544 present after 120 min. The study provides evidence that GSK2647544 is able to cross the blood brain barrier in healthy male subjects leading to a measurable brain exposure. The administered doses of GSK2647544 were well tolerated. Exploratory modelling suggested that a twice-daily dose of 102 mg, at steady state

  5. sPLA2 IB induces human podocyte apoptosis via the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yangbin; Wan, Jianxin; Liu, Yipeng; Yang, Qian; Liang, Wei; Singhal, Pravin C.; Saleem, Moin A.; Ding, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    The M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) is expressed in podocytes in human glomeruli. Group IB secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2 IB), which is one of the ligands of the PLA2R, is more highly expressed in chronic renal failure patients than in controls. However, the roles of the PLA2R and sPLA2 IB in the pathogenesis of glomerular diseases are unknown. In the present study, we found that more podocyte apoptosis occurs in the kidneys of patients with higher PLA2R and serum sPLA2 IB levels. In vitro, we demonstrated that human podocyte cells expressed the PLA2R in the cell membrane. After binding with the PLA2R, sPLA2 IB induced podocyte apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. sPLA2 IB-induced podocyte PLA2R upregulation was not only associated with increased ERK1/2 and cPLA2α phosphorylation but also displayed enhanced apoptosis. In contrast, PLA2R-silenced human podocytes displayed attenuated apoptosis. sPLA2 IB enhanced podocyte arachidonic acid (AA) content in a dose-dependent manner. These data indicate that sPLA2 IB has the potential to induce human podocyte apoptosis via binding to the PLA2R. The sPLA2 IB-PLA2R interaction stimulated podocyte apoptosis through activating ERK1/2 and cPLA2α and through increasing the podocyte AA content. PMID:25335547

  6. Novel genetic approach to investigate the role of plasma secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-V isoenzyme in coronary heart disease: modified Mendelian randomization analysis using PLA2G5 expression levels.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Michael V; Exeter, Holly J; Folkersen, Lasse; Nelson, Christopher P; Guardiola, Montse; Cooper, Jackie A; Sofat, Reecha; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Li, Ka-Wah; Smith, Andrew J P; Van't Hooft, Ferdinand; Eriksson, Per; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Boer, Jolanda M A; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Hofker, Marten; Erdmann, Jeanette; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Reiner, Alex P; Keating, Brendan J; Humphries, Steve E; Hingorani, Aroon D; Mallat, Ziad; Samani, Nilesh J; Talmud, Philippa J

    2014-04-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) enzymes are considered to play a role in atherosclerosis. sPLA2 activity encompasses several sPLA2 isoenzymes, including sPLA2-V. Although observational studies show a strong association between elevated sPLA2 activity and CHD, no assay to measure sPLA2-V levels exists, and the only evidence linking the sPLA2-V isoform to atherosclerosis progression comes from animal studies. In the absence of an assay that directly quantifies sPLA2-V levels, we used PLA2G5 mRNA levels in a novel, modified Mendelian randomization approach to investigate the hypothesized causal role of sPLA2-V in coronary heart disease (CHD) pathogenesis. Using data from the Advanced Study of Aortic Pathology, we identified the single-nucleotide polymorphism in PLA2G5 showing the strongest association with PLA2G5 mRNA expression levels as a proxy for sPLA2-V levels. We tested the association of this SNP with sPLA2 activity and CHD events in 4 prospective and 14 case-control studies with 27 230 events and 70 500 controls. rs525380C>A showed the strongest association with PLA2G5 mRNA expression (P=5.1×10(-6)). There was no association of rs525380C>A with plasma sPLA2 activity (difference in geometric mean of sPLA2 activity per rs525380 A-allele 0.4% (95% confidence intervals [-0.9%, 1.6%]; P=0.56). In meta-analyses, the odds ratio for CHD per A-allele was 1.02 (95% confidence intervals [0.99, 1.04]; P=0.20). This novel approach for single-nucleotide polymorphism selection for this modified Mendelian randomization analysis showed no association between rs525380 (the lead single-nucleotide polymorphism for PLA2G5 expression, a surrogate for sPLA2-V levels) and CHD events. The evidence does not support a causal role for sPLA2-V in CHD.

  7. M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) glomerular staining in pediatric idiopathic membranous nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Shoichiro; Horita, Shigeru; Yanagihara, Takeshi; Shimizu, Akira; Hattori, Motoshi

    2017-04-01

    Identifying M-type phospholipase A 2 receptor (PLA 2 R) is a landmark breakthrough for understanding adult idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN). However, potential roles for PLA 2 R in pediatric iMN have not been well investigated. A total of 34 pediatric iMN patients who underwent kidney biopsy between 1972 and 2015 were enrolled in this study. The study cohort consisted of 15 children aged from 3 to 9 years and 19 aged from 10 to 15 years. In all cases, secondary causes of MN, including infections, autoimmune diseases, and others, were ruled out. We examined PLA 2 R glomerular staining in stored, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded kidney biopsy samples. Kidney biopsy specimens obtained from an adult patient with iMN and an adult patient with lupus-associated MN were also examined to assess our PLA 2 R staining procedure. Granular staining of PLA 2 R along glomerular capillary loops was present in two patients: an 11-year-old girl and 12-year-old boy identified during a school urine screening test and who presented with mild proteinuria at the time of biopsy. Interestingly, the intensity of PLA 2 R glomerular staining in these patients was weaker than that of a PLA 2 R-positive adult iMN patient. There were no PLA 2 R-positive patients among our cohort of children younger than 10 years. This preliminary study suggests PLA 2 R may play a role in some adolescent and preteen iMN patients but may be less frequently associated with iMN during childhood.

  8. Application of phage display for the development of a novel inhibitor of PLA2 activity in Western cottonmouth venom

    PubMed Central

    Titus, James K; Kay, Matthew K; Glaser, CDR Jacob J

    2017-01-01

    Snakebite envenomation is an important global health concern. The current standard treatment approach for snakebite envenomation relies on antibody-based antisera, which are expensive, not universally available, and can lead to adverse physiological effects. Phage display techniques offer a powerful tool for the selection of phage-expressed peptides, which can bind with high specificity and affinity towards venom components. In this research, the amino acid sequences of Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from multiple cottonmouth species were analyzed, and a consensus peptide synthesized. Three phage display libraries were panned against this consensus peptide, crosslinked to capillary tubes, followed by a modified surface panning procedure. This high throughput selection method identified four phage clones with anti-PLA2 activity against Western cottonmouth venom, and the amino acid sequences of the displayed peptides were identified. This is the first report identifying short peptide sequences capable of inhibiting PLA2 activity of Western cottonmouth venom in vitro, using a phage display technique. Additionally, this report utilizes synthetic panning targets, designed using venom proteomic data, to mimic epitope regions. M13 phages displaying circular 7-mer or linear 12-mer peptides with antivenom activity may offer a novel alternative to traditional antibody-based therapy. PMID:29285351

  9. Application of phage display for the development of a novel inhibitor of PLA2 activity in Western cottonmouth venom.

    PubMed

    Titus, James K; Kay, Matthew K; Glaser, Cdr Jacob J

    2017-01-01

    Snakebite envenomation is an important global health concern. The current standard treatment approach for snakebite envenomation relies on antibody-based antisera, which are expensive, not universally available, and can lead to adverse physiological effects. Phage display techniques offer a powerful tool for the selection of phage-expressed peptides, which can bind with high specificity and affinity towards venom components. In this research, the amino acid sequences of Phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) from multiple cottonmouth species were analyzed, and a consensus peptide synthesized. Three phage display libraries were panned against this consensus peptide, crosslinked to capillary tubes, followed by a modified surface panning procedure. This high throughput selection method identified four phage clones with anti-PLA 2 activity against Western cottonmouth venom, and the amino acid sequences of the displayed peptides were identified. This is the first report identifying short peptide sequences capable of inhibiting PLA 2 activity of Western cottonmouth venom in vitro , using a phage display technique. Additionally, this report utilizes synthetic panning targets, designed using venom proteomic data, to mimic epitope regions. M13 phages displaying circular 7-mer or linear 12-mer peptides with antivenom activity may offer a novel alternative to traditional antibody-based therapy.

  10. Studies of insulin secretory responses and of arachidonic acid incorporation into phospholipids of stably transfected insulinoma cells that overexpress group VIA phospholipase A2 (iPLA2beta ) indicate a signaling rather than a housekeeping role for iPLA2beta.

    PubMed

    Ma, Z; Ramanadham, S; Wohltmann, M; Bohrer, A; Hsu, F F; Turk, J

    2001-04-20

    A cytosolic 84-kDa group VIA phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)beta) that does not require Ca(2+) for catalysis has been cloned from several sources, including rat and human pancreatic islet beta-cells and murine P388D1 cells. Many potential iPLA(2)beta functions have been proposed, including a signaling role in beta-cell insulin secretion and a role in generating lysophosphatidylcholine acceptors for arachidonic acid incorporation into P388D1 cell phosphatidylcholine (PC). Proposals for iPLA(2)beta function rest in part on effects of inhibiting iPLA(2)beta activity with a bromoenol lactone (BEL) suicide substrate, but BEL also inhibits phosphatidate phosphohydrolase-1 and a group VIB phospholipase A(2). Manipulation of iPLA(2)beta expression by molecular biologic means is an alternative approach to study iPLA(2)beta functions, and we have used a retroviral construct containing iPLA(2)beta cDNA to prepare two INS-1 insulinoma cell clonal lines that stably overexpress iPLA(2)beta. Compared with parental INS-1 cells or cells transfected with empty vector, both iPLA(2)beta-overexpressing lines exhibit amplified insulin secretory responses to glucose and cAMP-elevating agents, and BEL substantially attenuates stimulated secretion. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric analyses of arachidonic acid incorporation into INS-1 cell PC indicate that neither overexpression nor inhibition of iPLA(2)beta affects the rate or extent of this process in INS-1 cells. Immunocytofluorescence studies with antibodies directed against iPLA(2)beta indicate that cAMP-elevating agents increase perinuclear fluorescence in INS-1 cells, suggesting that iPLA(2)beta associates with nuclei. These studies are more consistent with a signaling than with a housekeeping role for iPLA(2)beta in insulin-secreting beta-cells.

  11. Genetic Ablation of Calcium-independent Phospholipase A2γ (iPLA2γ) Attenuates Calcium-induced Opening of the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore and Resultant Cytochrome c Release*

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sung Ho; Jenkins, Christopher M.; Kiebish, Michael A.; Sims, Harold F.; Mancuso, David J.; Gross, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we demonstrate that calcium-independent phospholipase A2γ (iPLA2γ) is a critical mechanistic participant in the calcium-induced opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Liver mitochondria from iPLA2γ−/− mice were markedly resistant to calcium-induced swelling in the presence or absence of phosphate in comparison with wild-type littermates. Furthermore, the iPLA2γ enantioselective inhibitor (R)-(E)-6-(bromomethylene)-3-(1-naphthalenyl)-2H-tetrahydropyran-2-one ((R)-BEL) was markedly more potent than (S)-BEL in inhibiting mPTP opening in mitochondria from wild-type liver in comparison with hepatic mitochondria from iPLA2γ−/− mice. Intriguingly, low micromolar concentrations of long chain fatty acyl-CoAs and the non-hydrolyzable thioether analog of palmitoyl-CoA markedly accelerated Ca2+-induced mPTP opening in liver mitochondria from wild-type mice. The addition of l-carnitine enabled the metabolic channeling of acyl-CoA through carnitine palmitoyltransferases (CPT-1/2) and attenuated the palmitoyl-CoA-mediated amplification of calcium-induced mPTP opening. In contrast, mitochondria from iPLA2γ−/− mice were insensitive to fatty acyl-CoA-mediated augmentation of calcium-induced mPTP opening. Moreover, mitochondria from iPLA2γ−/− mouse liver were resistant to Ca2+/t-butyl hydroperoxide-induced mPTP opening in comparison with wild-type littermates. In support of these findings, cytochrome c release from iPLA2γ−/− mitochondria was dramatically decreased in response to calcium in the presence or absence of either t-butyl hydroperoxide or phenylarsine oxide in comparison with wild-type littermates. Collectively, these results identify iPLA2γ as an important mechanistic component of the mPTP, define its downstream products as potent regulators of mPTP opening, and demonstrate the integrated roles of mitochondrial bioenergetics and lipidomic flux in modulating mPTP opening promoting the activation of necrotic and

  12. Biallelic Mutations in PLA2G5, Encoding Group V Phospholipase A2, Cause Benign Fleck Retina

    PubMed Central

    Sergouniotis, Panagiotis I.; Davidson, Alice E.; Mackay, Donna S.; Lenassi, Eva; Li, Zheng; Robson, Anthony G.; Yang, Xu; Kam, Jaimie Hoh; Isaacs, Timothy W.; Holder, Graham E.; Jeffery, Glen; Beck, Jonathan A.; Moore, Anthony T.; Plagnol, Vincent; Webster, Andrew R.

    2011-01-01

    Flecked-retina syndromes, including fundus flavimaculatus, fundus albipunctatus, and benign fleck retina, comprise a group of disorders with widespread or limited distribution of yellow-white retinal lesions of various sizes and configurations. Three siblings who have benign fleck retina and were born to consanguineous parents are the basis of this report. A combination of homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing helped to identify a homozygous missense mutation, c.133G>T (p.Gly45Cys), in PLA2G5, a gene encoding a secreted phospholipase (group V phospholipase A2). A screen of a further four unrelated individuals with benign fleck retina detected biallelic variants in the same gene in three patients. In contrast, no loss of function or common (minor-allele frequency>0.05%) nonsynonymous PLA2G5 variants have been previously reported (EVS, dbSNP, 1000 Genomes Project) or were detected in an internal database of 224 exomes (from subjects with adult onset neurodegenerative disease and without a diagnosis of ophthalmic disease). All seven affected individuals had fundoscopic features compatible with those previously described in benign fleck retina and no visual or electrophysiological deficits. No medical history of major illness was reported. Levels of low-density lipoprotein were mildly elevated in two patients. Optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence findings suggest that group V phospholipase A2 plays a role in the phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer-segment discs by the retinal pigment epithelium. Surprisingly, immunohistochemical staining of human retinal tissue revealed localization of the protein predominantly in the inner and outer plexiform layers. PMID:22137173

  13. Age-Related Changes in Bone Morphology Are Accelerated in Group VIA Phospholipase A2 (iPLA2β)-Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ramanadham, Sasanka; Yarasheski, Kevin E.; Silva, Matthew J.; Wohltmann, Mary; Novack, Deborah Veis; Christiansen, Blaine; Tu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Sheng; Lei, Xiaoyong; Turk, John

    2008-01-01

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) hydrolyze the sn−2 fatty acid substituent, such as arachidonic acid, from phospholipids, and arachidonate metabolites are recognized mediators of bone modeling. We have previously generated knockout (KO) mice lacking the group VIA PLA2 (iPLA2β), which participates in a variety of signaling events; iPLA2β mRNA is expressed in bones of wild-type (WT) but not KO mice. Cortical bone size, trabecular bone volume, bone mineralizing surfaces, and bone strength are similar in WT and KO mice at 3 months and decline with age in both groups, but the decreases are more pronounced in KO mice. The lower bone mass phenotype observed in KO mice is not associated with an increase in osteoclast abundance/activity or a decrease in osteoblast density, but is accompanied by an increase in bone marrow fat. Relative to WT mice, undifferentiated bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) from KO mice express higher levels of PPAR-γ and lower levels of Runx2 mRNA, and this correlates with increased adipogenesis and decreased osteogenesis in BMSCs from these mice. In summary, our studies indicate that age-related losses in bone mass and strength are accelerated in iPLA2β-null mice. Because adipocytes and osteoblasts share a common mesenchymal stem cell origin, our findings suggest that absence of iPLA2β causes abnormalities in osteoblast function and BMSC differentiation and identify a previously unrecognized role of iPLA2β in bone formation. PMID:18349124

  14. MVL-PLA2, a Snake Venom Phospholipase A2, Inhibits Angiogenesis through an Increase in Microtubule Dynamics and Disorganization of Focal Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Bazaa, Amine; Pasquier, Eddy; Defilles, Céline; Limam, Ines; Kessentini-Zouari, Raoudha; Kallech-Ziri, Olfa; Battari, Assou El; Braguer, Diane; Ayeb, Mohamed El; Marrakchi, Naziha; Luis, José

    2010-01-01

    Integrins are essential protagonists of the complex multi-step process of angiogenesis that has now become a major target for the development of anticancer therapies. We recently reported and characterized that MVL-PLA2, a novel phospholipase A2 from Macrovipera lebetina venom, exhibited anti-integrin activity. In this study, we show that MVL-PLA2 also displays potent anti-angiogenic properties. This phospholipase A2 inhibited adhesion and migration of human microvascular-endothelial cells (HMEC-1) in a dose-dependent manner without being cytotoxic. Using Matrigel™ and chick chorioallantoic membrane assays, we demonstrated that MVL-PLA2, as well as its catalytically inactivated form, significantly inhibited angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. We have also found that the actin cytoskeleton and the distribution of αvβ3 integrin, a critical regulator of angiogenesis and a major component of focal adhesions, were disturbed after MVL-PLA2 treatment. In order to further investigate the mechanism of action of this protein on endothelial cells, we analyzed the dynamic instability behavior of microtubules in living endothelial cells. Interestingly, we showed that MVL-PLA2 significantly increased microtubule dynamicity in HMEC-1 cells by 40%. We propose that the enhancement of microtubule dynamics may explain the alterations in the formation of focal adhesions, leading to inhibition of cell adhesion and migration. PMID:20405031

  15. Pancreatic Islets and Insulinoma Cells Express a Novel Isoform of Group VIA Phospholipase A2 (iPLA2β) that Participates in Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion and Is Not Produced by Alternate Splicing of the iPLA2β Transcript†

    PubMed Central

    Ramanadham, Sasanka; Song, Haowei; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Zhang, Sheng; Crankshaw, Mark; Grant, Gregory A.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Bao, Shunzhong; Ma, Zhongmin; Turk, John

    2013-01-01

    Many cells express a group VIA 84 kDa phospholipase A2 (iPLA2β) that is sensitive to inhibition by a bromoenol lactone (BEL) suicide substrate. Inhibition of iPLA2β in pancreatic islets and insulinoma cells suppresses, and overexpression of iPLA2β in INS-1 insulinoma cells amplifies, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, suggesting that iPLA2β participates in secretion. Western blotting analyses reveal that glucose-responsive 832/13 INS-1 cells express essentially no 84 kDa iPLA2β-immunoreactive protein but predominantly express a previously unrecognized immunoreactive iPLA2β protein in the 70 kDa region that is not generated by a mechanism of alternate splicing of the iPLA2β transcript. To determine if the 70 kDa-immunoreactive protein is a short isoform of iPLA2β, protein from the 70 kDa region was digested with trypsin and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Such analyses reveal several peptides with masses and amino acid sequences that exactly match iPLA2β tryptic peptides. Peptide sequences identified in the 70 kDa tryptic digest include iPLA2β residues 7–53, suggesting that the N-terminus is preserved. We also report here that the 832/13 INS-1 cells express iPLA2β catalytic activity and that BEL inhibits secretagogue-stimulated insulin secretion from these cells but not the incorporation of arachidonic acid into membrane PC pools of these cells. These observations suggest that the catalytic iPLA2β activity expressed in 832/13 INS-1 cells is attributable to a short isoform of iPLA2β and that this isoform participates in insulin secretory but not in membrane phospholipid remodeling pathways. Further, the finding that pancreatic islets also express predominantly a 70 kDa iPLA2β-immunoreactive protein suggests that a signal transduction role of iPLA2β in the native β-cell might be attributable to a 70 kDa isoform of iPLA2β. PMID:14636061

  16. Pancreatic islets and insulinoma cells express a novel isoform of group VIA phospholipase A2 (iPLA2 beta) that participates in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and is not produced by alternate splicing of the iPLA2 beta transcript.

    PubMed

    Ramanadham, Sasanka; Song, Haowei; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Zhang, Sheng; Crankshaw, Mark; Grant, Gregory A; Newgard, Christopher B; Bao, Shunzhong; Ma, Zhongmin; Turk, John

    2003-12-02

    Many cells express a group VIA 84 kDa phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)beta) that is sensitive to inhibition by a bromoenol lactone (BEL) suicide substrate. Inhibition of iPLA(2)beta in pancreatic islets and insulinoma cells suppresses, and overexpression of iPLA(2)beta in INS-1 insulinoma cells amplifies, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, suggesting that iPLA(2)beta participates in secretion. Western blotting analyses reveal that glucose-responsive 832/13 INS-1 cells express essentially no 84 kDa iPLA(2)beta-immunoreactive protein but predominantly express a previously unrecognized immunoreactive iPLA(2)beta protein in the 70 kDa region that is not generated by a mechanism of alternate splicing of the iPLA(2)beta transcript. To determine if the 70 kDa-immunoreactive protein is a short isoform of iPLA(2)beta, protein from the 70 kDa region was digested with trypsin and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Such analyses reveal several peptides with masses and amino acid sequences that exactly match iPLA(2)beta tryptic peptides. Peptide sequences identified in the 70 kDa tryptic digest include iPLA(2)beta residues 7-53, suggesting that the N-terminus is preserved. We also report here that the 832/13 INS-1 cells express iPLA(2)beta catalytic activity and that BEL inhibits secretagogue-stimulated insulin secretion from these cells but not the incorporation of arachidonic acid into membrane PC pools of these cells. These observations suggest that the catalytic iPLA(2)beta activity expressed in 832/13 INS-1 cells is attributable to a short isoform of iPLA(2)beta and that this isoform participates in insulin secretory but not in membrane phospholipid remodeling pathways. Further, the finding that pancreatic islets also express predominantly a 70 kDa iPLA(2)beta-immunoreactive protein suggests that a signal transduction role of iPLA(2)beta in the native beta-cell might be attributable to a 70 kDa isoform of iPLA(2)beta.

  17. Conservation analysis and decomposition of residue correlation networks in the phospholipase A2 superfamily (PLA2s): Insights into the structure-function relationships of snake venom toxins.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Alberto; Bleicher, Lucas; Schrago, Carlos G; Silva Junior, Floriano Paes

    2018-05-01

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA 2 s) comprise a superfamily of glycerophospholipids hydrolyzing enzymes present in many organisms in nature, whose catalytic activity was majorly unveiled by analysis of snake venoms. The latter have pharmaceutical and biotechnological interests and can be divided into different functional sub-classes. Our goal was to identify important residues and their relation to the functional and class-specific characteristics in the PLA 2 s family with special emphasis on snake venom PLA 2 s (svPLA 2 s). We identified such residues by conservation analysis and decomposition of residue coevolution networks (DRCN), annotated the results based on the available literature on PLA 2 s, structural analysis and molecular dynamics simulations, and related the results to the phylogenetic distribution of these proteins. A filtered alignment of PLA 2 s revealed 14 highly conserved positions and 3 sets of coevolved residues, which were annotated according to their structural or functional role. These residues are mostly involved in ligand binding and catalysis, calcium-binding, the formation of disulfide bridges and a hydrophobic cluster close to the binding site. An independent validation of the inference of structure-function relationships from our co-evolution analysis on the svPLA2s family was obtained by the analysis of the pattern of selection acting on the Viperidae and Elapidae lineages. Additionally, a molecular dynamics simulation on the Lys49 PLA 2 from Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus was carried out to further investigate the correlation of the Lys49-Glu69 pair. Our results suggest this configuration can result in a novel conformation where the binding cavity collapses due to the approximation of two loops caused by a strong salt bridge between Glu69 and Arg34. Finally, phylogenetic analysis indicated a correlation between the presence of residues in the coevolved sets found in this analysis and the clade localization. The results provide a guide for

  18. Analysis of Several PLA2 mRNA in Human Meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    Denizot, Yves; De Armas, Rafael; Durand, Karine; Robert, Sandrine; Moreau, Jean-Jacques; Caire, François; Weinbreck, Nicolas; Labrousse, François

    2009-01-01

    In view of the important oncogenic action of phospholipase A2(PLA2) we investigated PLA2 transcripts in human meningiomas. Real-time PCR was used to investigate PLA2 transcripts in 26 human meningioma tumors. Results indicated that three Ca2+-dependent high molecular weight PLA2 (PLA2-IVA, PLA2-IVB, PLA2-IVC), one Ca2+-independent high molecular weight PLA2 (PLA2-VI) and five low molecular weight secreted forms of PLA2 (PLA2-IB, PLA2-IIA, PLA2-III, PLA2-V, and PLA2-XII) are expressed with PLA2-IVA, PLA2-IVB, PLA2-VI, and PLA2-XIIA as the major expressed forms. PLA2-IIE, PLA2-IIF, PLA2-IVD, and PLA2-XIIB are not detected. Plasma (PLA2-VIIA) and intracellular (PLA2-VIIB) platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase transcripts are expressed in human meningiomas. However no difference was found for PLA2 transcript amounts in relation to the tumor grade, the subtype of meningiomas, the presence of inflammatory infiltrated cells, of an associated edema, mitosis, brain invasion, vascularisation or necrosis. In conclusion numerous genes encoding multiples forms of PLA2 are expressed in meningiomas where they might act on the phospholipid remodeling and on the local eicosanoid and/or cytokine networks. PMID:20339511

  19. Class specific peptide inhibitors for secretory phospholipases A2.

    PubMed

    Mahalka, Ajay K; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

    2013-06-28

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) catalyze the hydrolytic cleavage of free fatty acids from the sn-2 OH-moiety of glycerophospholipids. These enzymes have a number of functions, from digestion to signaling and toxicity of several venoms. They have also been implicated in inflammation and are connected to diverse diseases, such as cancer, ischemia, atherosclerosis, and schizophrenia. Accordingly, there is a keen interest to develop selective inhibitors for therapeutic use. We recently proposed a novel mechanism for the control of PLA2 activity with highly active protofibrils of PLA2 existing transiently before conversion to inactive amyloid fibrils [19]. In keeping with the above mechanism several algorithms identified (85)KMYFNLI(91) and (17)AALSYGFYG(25) in bee venom (bv) and human lacrimal fluid (Lf) PLA2, respectively, as a regions potentially forming amyloid type aggregates. Interestingly, in keeping with the proposed role of these sequences in the control of the activity of these enzymes, preincubation of 2nM bvPLA2 with (85)KMYFNLI(91) caused complete inhibition of PLA2 activity while the scrambled control peptide YNFLIMK had no effect. Approximately 36% attenuation of the hydrolytic activity of LfPLA2 present in human lacrimal fluid was observed in the presence of 80nM (17)AALSYGFYG(25). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cardiac Myocyte-specific Knock-out of Calcium-independent Phospholipase A2γ (iPLA2γ) Decreases Oxidized Fatty Acids during Ischemia/Reperfusion and Reduces Infarct Size *

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sung Ho; Mancuso, David J.; Sims, Harold F.; Liu, Xinping; Nguyen, Annie L.; Yang, Kui; Guan, Shaoping; Dilthey, Beverly Gibson; Jenkins, Christopher M.; Weinheimer, Carla J.; Kovacs, Attila; Abendschein, Dana; Gross, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium-independent phospholipase A2γ (iPLA2γ) is a mitochondrial enzyme that produces lipid second messengers that facilitate opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) and contribute to the production of oxidized fatty acids in myocardium. To specifically identify the roles of iPLA2γ in cardiac myocytes, we generated cardiac myocyte-specific iPLA2γ knock-out (CMiPLA2γKO) mice by removing the exon encoding the active site serine (Ser-477). Hearts of CMiPLA2γKO mice exhibited normal hemodynamic function, glycerophospholipid molecular species composition, and normal rates of mitochondrial respiration and ATP production. In contrast, CMiPLA2γKO mice demonstrated attenuated Ca2+-induced mPTP opening that could be rapidly restored by the addition of palmitate and substantially reduced production of oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Furthermore, myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in CMiPLA2γKO mice (30 min of ischemia followed by 30 min of reperfusion in vivo) dramatically decreased oxidized fatty acid production in the ischemic border zones. Moreover, CMiPLA2γKO mice subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 24 h of reperfusion in vivo developed substantially less cardiac necrosis in the area-at-risk in comparison with their WT littermates. Furthermore, we found that membrane depolarization in murine heart mitochondria was sensitized to Ca2+ by the presence of oxidized PUFAs. Because mitochondrial membrane depolarization and calcium are known to activate iPLA2γ, these results are consistent with salvage of myocardium after I/R by iPLA2γ loss of function through decreasing mPTP opening, diminishing production of proinflammatory oxidized fatty acids, and attenuating the deleterious effects of abrupt increases in calcium ion on membrane potential during reperfusion. PMID:27453526

  1. The role of cPLA2 in Methylglyoxal-induced cell apoptosis of HUVECs

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Jie; Zhu, Chao; Hong, Yali

    2017-05-15

    Methylglyoxal (MGO), a highly reactive dicarbonyl compound, is mainly formed as a byproduct of glycolysis. Elevated MGO level is known to induce apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells, which is implicated with progression of atherosclerosis and diabetic complications. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been exhaustively investigated yet. Here, we further characterized the mechanisms how MGO induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our data revealed that cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) played an important role in MGO-induced cell apoptosis. It was found that MGO could increase both the activity and expression of cPLA2. Inhibition of cPLA2 by Pyrrophenone (PYR)more » or siRNA significantly attenuated the MGO-induced apoptosis. Additionally, MGO time-dependently decreased the phosphorylation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). Pretreatment of the cells with NF-κB inhibitor, BAY11-7082, further increased MGO-induced apoptosis of HUVECs, indicating that NF-κB played a survival role in this MGO-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, in the presence of si-cPLA2 or PYR, MGO no longer decreased NF-κB phosphorylation. Beyond that, the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) could reverse the changes of both cPLA2 and NF-κB caused by MGO. p38, the upstream of cPLA2, was also significantly phosphorylated by MGO. However, p38 inhibitor failed to reverse the apoptosis induced by MGO. This study gives an important insight into the downstream signaling mechanisms of MGO, cPLA2-NF-κB, in endothelial apoptosis. - Highlights: • cPLA2 participated in MGO-induced HUVECs apoptosis. • Inhibition of NF-κB was involved in MGO-cPLA2-mediated cell apoptosis. • Antioxidant NAC attenuated MGO-induced cPLA2 activation and cell apoptosis.« less

  2. Early-Onset L-dopa-Responsive Parkinsonism with Pyramidal Signs Due to ATP13A2, PLA2G6, FBXO7 and Spatacsin Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Paisán-Ruiz, Coro; Guevara, Rocio; Federoff, Monica; Hanagasi, Hasmet; Sina, Fardaz; Elahi, Elahe; Schneider, Susanne A.; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Bajaj, Nin; Emre, Murat; Singleton, Andrew B.; Hardy, John; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Brandner, Sebastian; Lees, Andrew J.; Houlden, Henry

    2018-01-01

    Seven autosomal recessive genes associated with juvenile and young-onset Levodopa-responsive parkinsonism have been identified. Mutations in PRKN, DJ-1, and PINK1 are associated with a rather pure parkinsonian phenotype, and have a more benign course with sustained treatment response and absence of dementia. On the other hand, Kufor-Rakeb syndrome has additional signs, which distinguish it clearly from Parkinson’s disease including supranu-clear vertical gaze palsy, myoclonic jerks, pyramidal signs, and cognitive impairment. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type I (Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome) due to mutations in PANK2 gene may share similar features with Kufor-Rakeb syndrome. Mutations in three other genes, PLA2G6 (PARK14), FBXO7 (PARK15), and Spatacsin (SPG11) also produce clinical similar phenotypes in that they presented with rapidly progressive parkinsonism, initially responsive to Levodopa treatment but later, developed additional features including cognitive decline and loss of Levodopa responsiveness. Here, using homozygosity mapping and sequence analysis in families with complex parkinsonisms, we identified genetic defects in the ATP13A2 (1 family), PLA2G6 (1 family) FBXO7 (2 families), and SPG11 (1 family). The genetic heterogeneity was surprising given their initially common clinical features. On careful review, we found the FBXO7 cases to have a phenotype more similar to PRKN gene associated parkinsonism. The ATP13A2 and PLA2G6 cases were more seriously disabled with additional swallowing problems, dystonic features, severe in some, and usually pyramidal involvement including pyramidal weakness. These data suggest that these four genes account for many cases of Levodopa responsive parkinsonism with pyramidal signs cases formerly categorized clinically as pallido-pyramidal syndrome. 3 2010 Movement Disorder Society PMID:20669327

  3. Early-onset L-dopa-responsive parkinsonism with pyramidal signs due to ATP13A2, PLA2G6, FBXO7 and spatacsin mutations.

    PubMed

    Paisán-Ruiz, Coro; Guevara, Rocio; Federoff, Monica; Hanagasi, Hasmet; Sina, Fardaz; Elahi, Elahe; Schneider, Susanne A; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Bajaj, Nin; Emre, Murat; Singleton, Andrew B; Hardy, John; Bhatia, Kailash P; Brandner, Sebastian; Lees, Andrew J; Houlden, Henry

    2010-09-15

    Seven autosomal recessive genes associated with juvenile and young-onset Levodopa-responsive parkinsonism have been identified. Mutations in PRKN, DJ-1, and PINK1 are associated with a rather pure parkinsonian phenotype, and have a more benign course with sustained treatment response and absence of dementia. On the other hand, Kufor-Rakeb syndrome has additional signs, which distinguish it clearly from Parkinson's disease including supranuclear vertical gaze palsy, myoclonic jerks, pyramidal signs, and cognitive impairment. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type I (Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome) due to mutations in PANK2 gene may share similar features with Kufor-Rakeb syndrome. Mutations in three other genes, PLA2G6 (PARK14), FBXO7 (PARK15), and Spatacsin (SPG11) also produce clinical similar phenotypes in that they presented with rapidly progressive parkinsonism, initially responsive to Levodopa treatment but later, developed additional features including cognitive decline and loss of Levodopa responsiveness. Here, using homozygosity mapping and sequence analysis in families with complex parkinsonisms, we identified genetic defects in the ATP13A2 (1 family), PLA2G6 (1 family) FBXO7 (2 families), and SPG11 (1 family). The genetic heterogeneity was surprising given their initially common clinical features. On careful review, we found the FBXO7 cases to have a phenotype more similar to PRKN gene associated parkinsonism. The ATP13A2 and PLA2G6 cases were more seriously disabled with additional swallowing problems, dystonic features, severe in some, and usually pyramidal involvement including pyramidal weakness. These data suggest that these four genes account for many cases of Levodopa responsive parkinsonism with pyramidal signs cases formerly categorized clinically as pallido-pyramidal syndrome. © 2010 Movement Disorder Society.

  4. Novel enzymatic method for assaying Lp-PLA2 in serum.

    PubMed

    Yamaura, Saki; Sakasegawa, Shin-Ichi; Koguma, Emisa; Ueda, Shigeru; Kayamori, Yuzo; Sugimori, Daisuke; Karasawa, Ken

    2018-06-01

    Measurement of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 (Lp-PLA 2 ) can be used as an adjunct to traditional cardiovascular risk factors for identifying individuals at higher risk of cardiovascular events. This can be performed by quantification of the protein concentration using an ELISA platform or by measuring Lp-PLA 2 activity using platelet-activating factor (PAF) analog as substrate. Here, an enzymatic Lp-PLA 2 activity assay method using 1-O-Hexadecyl-2-acetyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine (rac C 16 PAF) was developed. The newly revealed substrate specificity of lysoplasmalogen-specific phospholipase D (lysophospholipase D (LysoPLD)) was exploited. Lp-PLA 2 hydrolyzes 1-O-Hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (C 16 PAF) to 1-O-Hexadecyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (LysoPAF). LysoPLD acted on LysoPAF, and the hydrolytically released choline was detected by choline oxidase. Regression analysis of Lp-PLA 2 activity measured by the enzymatic Lp-PLA 2 activity assay vs. two chemical Lp-PLA 2 activity assays, i.e. LpPLA 2 FS and PLAC® test, and ELISA, gave the following correlation coefficients: 0.990, 0.893 and 0.785, respectively (n = 30). Advantages of this enzymatic Lp-PLA 2 activity assay compared with chemical Lp-PLA 2 methods include the following; (i) only requires two reagents enabling a simple two-point linear calibration method with one calibrator (ii) no need for inhibitors of esterase-like activity in serum. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Acanthamoeba-Cytopathic Protein Induces Apoptosis and Proinflammatory Cytokines in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells by cPLA2α Activation

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Trivendra; Smith, Ashley Dawn; Abdi, Mahshid; Alizadeh, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. We have shown that Acanthamoeba interacts with a mannosylated protein on corneal epithelial cells and stimulates trophozoites to secrete a mannose-induced 133 kDa protease (MIP-133), which facilitates corneal invasion and induces apoptosis. The mechanism of MIP-133–induced apoptosis is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if MIP-133 induces apoptosis and proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines in human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells via the cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) pathway. Methods. HCE cells were incubated with or without MIP-133 at doses of 7.5, 15, and 50 μg/mL for 6, 12, and 24 hours. The effects of cPLA2α inhibitors on cPLA2α, arachidonic acid (AA) release, and apoptosis were tested in vitro. Inhibition of cPLA2α involved preincubating HCE cells for 1 hour with cPLA2α inhibitors (10 μM methyl-arachidonyl fluorophosphonate [MAFP] or 20 μM arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone [AACOCF3]) with or without MIP-133 for 24 hours. Expression of cPLA2α mRNA and enzyme was examined by RT-PCR and cPLA2 activity assays, respectively. Apoptosis of corneal epithelial cells was determined by caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation assays. Expression of IL-8, IL-6, IL-1β, and IFN-γ was examined by RT-PCR and ELISA. Results. MIP-133 induced significant cPLA2α (approximately two to four times) and AA release (approximately six times) from corneal cells while cPLA2α inhibitors significantly reduced cPLA2α (approximately two to four times) and AA release (approximately three times) (P < 0.05). cPLA2α inhibitors significantly inhibited MIP-133–induced DNA fragmentation approximately 7 to 12 times in HCE cells (P < 0.05). MIP-133 specifically activates cPLA2α enzyme activity in HCE cells, which is blocked by preincubation with anti–MIP-133 antibody. In addition, MIP-133 induced significant IL-8, IL-6, IL-1β, and IFN-γ production, approximately two to three times (P < 0.05). Conclusions. MIP-133 interacts with phospholipids on plasma

  6. SPLASH (PLA2IID), a novel member of phospholipase A2 family, is associated with lymphotoxin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Shakhov, A N; Rubtsov, A V; Lyakhov, I G; Tumanov, A V; Nedospasov, S A

    2000-02-01

    Lymphotoxin (LT) deficient mice have profound defects in the splenic microarchitecture associated with defective expression on certain gene products, including chemokines. By using subtraction cloning of splenic cDNA from wild-type and LT alpha or TNF/LT alpha double deficient mice we isolated a novel murine gene encoding a secretory type phospholipase A2, called SPLASH. The two major alternative transcripts of SPLASH gene are predominantly expressed in lymphoid tissues, such as spleen and lymph nodes. SPLASH maps to the distal part of chromosome 4, to which several cancer-related loci have been also mapped.

  7. PKCalpha regulates phosphorylation and enzymatic activity of cPLA2 in vitro and in activated human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Subbulakshmi, Venkita; Oldfield, Claudine M; Aamir, Rozina; Weyman, Crystal M; Wolfman, Alan; Cathcart, Martha K

    2007-02-01

    Phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)) are potent regulators of the inflammatory response. We have observed that Group IV cPLA(2) activity is required for the production of superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) in human monocytes [Li Q., Cathcart M.K. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (4) (1997) 2404-2411.]. We have previously identified PKCalpha as a kinase pathway required for monocyte O(2)(-) production [Li Q., Cathcart M.K. J. Biol. Chem. 269 (26) (1994) 17508-17515.]. We therefore investigated the potential interaction between PKCalpha and cPLA(2) by evaluating the requirement for specific PKC isoenzymes in the process of activating cPLA(2) enzymatic activity and protein phosphorylation upon monocyte activation. We first showed that general PKC inhibitors and antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODN) to the cPKC group of PKC enzymes inhibited cPLA(2) activity. To distinguish between PKCalpha and PKCbeta isoenzymes in regulating cPLA(2) protein phosphorylation and enzymatic activity, we employed our previously characterized PKCalpha or PKCbeta isoenzyme-specific antisense ODN [Li Q., Subbulakshmi V., Fields A.P., Murray, N.R., Cathcart M.K., J. Biol. Chem. 274 (6) (1999) 3764-3771]. Suppression of PKCalpha expression, but not PKCbeta expression, inhibited cPLA(2) protein phosphorylation and enzymatic activity. Additional studies ruled out a contribution by Erk1/2 to cPLA(2) phosphorylation and activation. We also found that cPLA(2) co-immunoprecipitated with PKCalpha and vice versa. In vitro studies demonstrated that PKCalpha could directly phosphorylate cPLA(2).and enhance enzymatic activity. Finally, we showed that addition of arachidonic acid restored the production of O(2)(-) in monocytes defective in either PKCalpha or cPLA(2) expression. Taken together, our data suggest that PKCalpha, but not PKCbeta, is the predominant cPKC isoenzyme required for cPLA(2) protein phosphorylation and maximal induction of cPLA(2) enzymatic activity upon activation of human monocytes. Our data also support the

  8. Discovery of Ecopladib, an indole inhibitor of cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha.

    PubMed

    Lee, Katherine L; Foley, Megan A; Chen, Lihren; Behnke, Mark L; Lovering, Frank E; Kirincich, Steven J; Wang, Weiheng; Shim, Jaechul; Tam, Steve; Shen, Marina W H; Khor, Soopeang; Xu, Xin; Goodwin, Debra G; Ramarao, Manjunath K; Nickerson-Nutter, Cheryl; Donahue, Frances; Ku, M Sherry; Clark, James D; McKew, John C

    2007-03-22

    The synthesis and structure-activity relationship of a series of indole inhibitors of cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha (cPLA2alpha, type IVA phospholipase) are described. Inhibitors of cPLA2alpha are predicted to be efficacious in treating asthma as well as the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and pain. The introduction of a benzyl sulfonamide substituent at C2 was found to impart improved potency of these inhibitors, and the SAR of these sulfonamide analogues is disclosed. Compound 123 (Ecopladib) is a sub-micromolar inhibitor of cPLA2alpha in the GLU micelle and rat whole blood assays. Compound 123 displayed oral efficacy in the rat carrageenan air pouch and rat carrageenan-induced paw edema models.

  9. Hydrolysis of Phosphatidylcholine-Isoprostanes (PtdCho-IP) by Peripheral Human Group IIA, V and X Secretory Phospholipases A2 (sPLA2).

    PubMed

    Kuksis, Arnis; Pruzanski, Waldemar

    2017-06-01

    Biologically active F- and E/D-type-prostane ring isomers (F 2 -IP and E 2 /D 2 -IP, respectively) are produced in situ by non-enzymatic peroxidation of arachidonic acid esterified to GroPCho (PtdCho-IP) and are universally distributed in tissue lipoproteins and cell membranes. Previous work has shown that platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolases (PAF-AH) are the main endogenous PLA 2 involved in degradation of PtdCho-IP. The present study shows that the PtdCho-IP are also subject to hydrolysis by group IIA, V and X secretory PLA 2 , which also have a wide peripheral tissue distribution. For this demonstration, we compared the LC/MS profiles of PtdCho-IP of auto-oxidized plasma lipoproteins after incubation for 1-4 h (37 °C) in the absence or presence of recombinant human sPLA 2 (1-2.5 µg/ml). In the absence of exogenously added sPLA 2 the total PtdCho-IP level after 4 h incubation reached 15.9, 21.6 and 8.7 nmol/mg protein of LDL, HDL and HDL 3 , respectively. In the presence of group V or group X sPLA 2 (2.5 µg/ml), the PtdCho-IP was completely hydrolyzed in 1 h, while in the presence of group IIA sPLA 2 (2.5 µg/ml) the hydrolysis was less than 25% in 4 h, although it was complete after 8-24 h incubation. This report provides the first demonstration that PtdCho-IP are readily hydrolyzed by group IIA, V and X sPLA 2 . A co-location of sPLA 2 and the substrates in various tissues has been recorded. Thus, the initiation of interaction and production of isoprostanes in situ are highly probable.

  10. 2-Oxoamide inhibitors of cytosolic group IVA phospholipase A2 with reduced lipophilicity.

    PubMed

    Antonopoulou, Georgia; Magrioti, Victoria; Kokotou, Maroula G; Nikolaou, Aikaterini; Barbayianni, Efrosini; Mouchlis, Varnavas D; Dennis, Edward A; Kokotos, George

    2016-10-01

    Cytosolic GIVA phospholipase A2 (GIVA cPLA2) initiates the eicosanoid pathway of inflammation and thus inhibitors of this enzyme constitute novel potential agents for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Traditionally, GIVA cPLA2 inhibitors have suffered systemically from high lipophilicity. We have developed a variety of long chain 2-oxoamides as inhibitors of GIVA PLA2. Among them, AX048 was found to produce a potent analgesic effect. We have now reduced the lipophilicity of AX048 by replacing the long aliphatic chain with a chain containing an ether linked aromatic ring with in vitro inhibitory activities similar to AX048. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Computational investigations of physicochemical, pharmacokinetic, toxicological properties and molecular docking of betulinic acid, a constituent of Corypha taliera (Roxb.) with Phospholipase A2 (PLA2).

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Firoz; Nahar, Nusrat; Rashid, Ridwan Bin; Chowdhury, Akhtaruzzaman; Rashid, Mohammad A

    2018-02-02

    noncarcinogenic in mice model. Moreover, molecular docking study of BA with PLA2 revealed that BA interacts with GLY22 & GLY29 through hydrogen bond formation and LEU2, PHE5, HIS6, ALA17, ALA18, HIS47 and TYR51 through different types of hydrophobic interactions. The binding affinity of BA was - 41.00 kJ/mol which is comparable to the binding affinity of potent inhibitor 6-Phenyl-4(R)-(7-Phenyl-heptanoylamino)-hexanoic acid (BR4) (- 33.89 kJ/mol). Our computed properties may assist the development of analytical method to assay BA or to develop BA derivatives with better pharmacokinetic and toxicological profile.

  12. RhoA/Rho Kinase Mediates Neuronal Death Through Regulating cPLA2 Activation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangbing; Walker, Chandler L; Lu, Qingbo; Wu, Wei; Eddelman, Daniel B; Parish, Jonathan M; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2017-11-01

    Activation of RhoA/Rho kinase leads to growth cone collapse and neurite retraction. Although RhoA/Rho kinase inhibition has been shown to improve axon regeneration, remyelination and functional recovery, its role in neuronal cell death remains unclear. To determine whether RhoA/Rho kinase played a role in neuronal death after injury, we investigated the relationship between RhoA/Rho kinase and cytosolic phospholipase A 2 (cPLA 2 ), a lipase that mediates inflammation and cell death, using an in vitro neuronal death model and an in vivo contusive spinal cord injury model performed at the 10th thoracic (T10) vertebral level. We found that co-administration of TNF-α and glutamate induced spinal neuron death, and activation of RhoA, Rho kinase and cPLA 2 . Inhibition of RhoA, Rho kinase and cPLA 2 significantly reduced TNF-α/glutamate-induced cell death by 33, 52 and 43 %, respectively (p < 0.001). Inhibition of RhoA and Rho kinase also significantly downregulated cPLA 2 activation by 66 and 60 %, respectively (p < 0.01). Furthermore, inhibition of RhoA and Rho kinase reduced the release of arachidonic acid, a downstream substrate of cPLA 2 . The immunofluorescence staining showed that ROCK 1 or ROCK 2 , two isoforms of Rho kinase, was co-localized with cPLA 2 in neuronal cytoplasm. Interestingly, co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assay showed that ROCK 1 or ROCK 2 bonded directly with cPLA 2 and phospho-cPLA 2 . When the Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632 was applied in mice with T10 contusion injury, it significantly decreased cPLA 2 activation and expression and reduced injury-induced apoptosis at and close to the lesion site. Taken together, our results reveal a novel mechanism of RhoA/Rho kinase-mediated neuronal death through regulating cPLA 2 activation.

  13. Specific inhibition of Xenorhabdus hominickii, an entomopathogenic bacterium, against different types of host insect phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Sadekuzzaman, Md; Kim, Yonggyun

    2017-10-01

    Phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) hydrolyzes ester bond of phospholipids at the sn-2 position to release free fatty acid and lysophospholipids. Some PLA 2 s preferentially release arachidonic acid which is subsequently oxygenated into eicosanoids to mediate immune responses in insects. Xenorhabdus hominickii is an entomopathogenic bacterium that can suppress insect immunity by inhibiting PLA 2 activity. However, little is known about target PLA 2 types inhibited by X. hominickii. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine PLA 2 types in the host insect, Spodoptera exigua using specific inhibitors. All developmental stages of S. exigua possessed significant PLA 2 activities, with late larval stages showing relatively higher PLA 2 activities. In different larval tissues, hemocytes had higher PLA 2 activities than fat body, gut, or epidermis. Various developmental and tissue extracts exhibited differential susceptibilities to three different PLA 2 inhibitors. Late larva-to-adult stages were highly susceptible to all three different types of PLA 2 inhibitors. In contrast, extracts from egg and young larval stages were not susceptible to secretory PLA 2 (sPLA 2 ) or calcium-independent cellular PLA 2 (iPLA 2 ) inhibitors, although they were susceptible to a calcium-dependent cellular PLA 2 (cPLA 2 ) inhibitor in a dose-dependent manner. Different tissues of fifth instars exhibited variation in susceptibility to inhibitors, with epidermal tissue being sensitive to cPLA 2 inhibitor only while other tissues were sensitive to all three types of inhibitors. Bacterial challenge with heat-killed X. hominickii significantly increased PLA 2 activity. However, live bacteria suppressed the induction of PLA 2 activity. An organic extract of X. hominickii-culture broth inhibited the susceptibility of S. exigua to sPLA 2 - and iPLA 2 - specific inhibitors, but not to cPLA 2 -specific inhibitor. Oxindole, a component of the organic extract, exhibited an inhibitory pattern

  14. Synthetic and natural inhibitors of phospholipases A2: their importance for understanding and treatment of neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Ong, Wei-Yi; Farooqui, Tahira; Kokotos, George; Farooqui, Akhlaq A

    2015-06-17

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) are a diverse group of enzymes that hydrolyze membrane phospholipids into arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids. Arachidonic acid is metabolized to eicosanoids (prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes), and lysophospholipids are converted to platelet-activating factors. These lipid mediators play critical roles in the initiation, maintenance, and modulation of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. Neurological disorders including excitotoxicity; traumatic nerve and brain injury; cerebral ischemia; Alzheimer's disease; Parkinson's disease; multiple sclerosis; experimental allergic encephalitis; pain; depression; bipolar disorder; schizophrenia; and autism are characterized by oxidative stress, inflammatory reactions, alterations in phospholipid metabolism, accumulation of lipid peroxides, and increased activities of brain phospholipase A2 isoforms. Several old and new synthetic inhibitors of PLA2, including fatty acid trifluoromethyl ketones; methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate; bromoenol lactone; indole-based inhibitors; pyrrolidine-based inhibitors; amide inhibitors, 2-oxoamides; 1,3-disubstituted propan-2-ones and polyfluoroalkyl ketones as well as phytochemical based PLA2 inhibitors including curcumin, Ginkgo biloba and Centella asiatica extracts have been discovered and used for the treatment of neurological disorders in cell culture and animal model systems. The purpose of this review is to summarize information on selective and potent synthetic inhibitors of PLA2 as well as several PLA2 inhibitors from plants, for treatment of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation associated with the pathogenesis of neurological disorders.

  15. Involvement of PLA2, COX and LOX in Rhinella arenarum oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Maria Eugenia; Bühler, Marta Inés; Zelarayán, Liliana Isabel

    2014-11-01

    In Rhinella arenarum, progesterone is the physiological nuclear maturation inducer that interacts with the oocyte surface and starts a cascade of events that leads to germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). Polyunsaturated fatty acids and their metabolites produced through cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) pathways play an important role in reproductive processes. In amphibians, to date, the role of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites in progesterone (P4)-induced oocyte maturation has not been clarified. In this work we studied the participation of three enzymes involved in AA metabolism - phospholipase A2 (PLA2), COX and LOX in Rhinella arenarum oocyte maturation. PLA2 activation induced maturation in Rhinella arenarum oocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Oocytes when treated with 0.08 μM melittin showed the highest response (78 ± 6% GVBD). In follicles, PLA2 activation did not significantly induce maturation at the assayed doses (12 ± 3% GVBD). PLA2 inhibition with quinacrine prevented melittin-induced GVBD in a dose-dependent manner, however PLA2 inactivation did not affect P4-induced maturation. This finding suggests that PLA2 is not the only phospholipase involved in P4-induced maturation in this species. P4-induced oocyte maturation was inhibited by the COX inhibitors indomethacin and rofecoxib (65 ± 3% and 63 ± 3% GVBD, respectively), although COX activity was never blocked by their addition. Follicles showed a similar response following the addition of these inhibitors. Participation of LOX metabolites in maturation seems to be correlated with seasonal variation in ovarian response to P4. During the February to June period (low P4 response), LOX inhibition by nordihydroguaiaretic acid or lysine clonixinate increased maturation by up to 70%. In contrast, during the July to January period (high P4 response), LOX inhibition had no effect on hormone-induced maturation.

  16. Molecular modeling of the inhibition of enzyme PLA2 from snake venom by dipyrone and 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, S. L. Da; Comar, M., Jr.; Oliveira, K. M. T.; Chaar, J. S.; Bezerra, E. R. M.; Calgarotto, A. K.; Baldasso, P. A.; Veber, C. L.; Villar, J. A. F. P.; Oliveira, A. R. M.; Marangoni, S.

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) are enzymes that trigger the degradation cascade of the arachidonic acid, leading to the formation of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids. The selective inhibition of PLA2s is crucial in the search for a more efficient anti-inflammatory drug with fewer side effects than the drugs currently used. Hence, we studied the influences caused by two pyrazolonic inhibitors: dipyrone (DIP) and 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) on the kinetic behavior of PLA2 from Crotalus adamanteus venom. Molecular modeling results, by DFT and MM approaches, showed that DIP is strongly associated to the active site of PLA2 through three hydrogen bonds, whereas PMP is associated to the enzyme just through hydrophobic interactions. In addition, only PMP presents an intramolecular hydrogen bond that make difficult the formation of more efficient interactions with PLA2. These results help in the understanding of the experimental observations. Experimentally, the results showed that PLA2 from C. adamanteus present a typical Michaelian behavior. In addition, the calculated kinetic parameters showed that, in the presence of DIP or PMP, the maximum enzymatic velocity (VMAX) value was kept constant, whereas the Michaelis constant (KM) values increased and the inhibition constant (KI) decreased, indicating competitive inhibition. These results show that the phenyl-pyrazolonic structures might help in the development and design of new drugs able to selectively inhibit PLA2.

  17. Antibacterial, antifungal and anticoagulant activities of chicken PLA2 group V expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Karray, Aida; Bou Ali, Madiha; Kharrat, Nedia; Gargouri, Youssef; Bezzine, Sofiane

    2018-03-01

    Secretory class V phospholipase A2 (PLA2-V) has been shown to be involved in inflammatory processes in cellular studies, but the biochemical and physical properties of this important enzyme have been unclear. As a first step towards understanding the structure, function and regulation of this PLA2, we report the expression and characterization of PLA2-V from chicken (ChPLA2-V). The ChPLA2-V cDNA was synthesized from chicken heart polyA mRNA by RT-PCR, and an expression construct containing the PLA2 was established. After expression in Pichia pastoris cells, the active enzyme was purified. The purified ChPLA2-V protein was biochemically and physiologically characterized. The recombinant ChPLA2-V has an absolute requirement for Ca 2+ for enzymatic activity. The optimum pH for this enzyme is pH 8.5 in Tris-HCl buffer with phosphatidylcholine as substrate. ChPLA2-V was found to display potent Gram-positive and Gram-negative bactericidal activity and antifungal activity in vitro. The purified enzyme ChPLA2-V with much stronger anticoagulant activity compared with the intestinal and pancreatic chicken PLA2-V was approximately 10 times more active. Chicken group V PLA2, like mammal one, may be considered as a future therapeutic agents against fungal and bacterial infections and as an anticoagulant agent. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Identification of a novel antisense long non-coding RNA PLA2G16-AS that regulates the expression of PLA2G16 in pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengliang; Jin, Long; Zhao, Lirui; Long, Keren; Song, Yang; Tang, Qianzi; Ma, Jideng; Wang, Xun; Tang, Guoqing; Jiang, Yanzhi; Zhu, Li; Li, Xuewei; Li, Mingzhou

    2018-05-31

    Natural antisense transcripts (NATs) are widely present in mammalian genomes and act as pivotal regulator molecules to control gene expression. However, studies on the NATs of pigs are relatively rare. Here, we identified a novel antisense transcript, designated PLA2G16-AS, transcribed from the phospholipase A2 group XVI locus (PLA2G16) in the porcine genome, which is a well-known regulatory molecule of fat deposition. PLA2G16-AS and PLA2G16 were dominantly expressed in porcine adipose tissue, and were differentially expressed between Tibetan pigs and Rongchang pigs. In addition, PLA2G16-AS has a weak sequence conservation among different vertebrates. PLA2G16-AS was also shown to form an RNA-RNA duplex with PLA2G16, and to regulate PLA2G16 expression at the mRNA level. Moreover, the overexpression of PLA2G16-AS increased the stability of PLA2G16 mRNA in porcine cells. We envision that our findings of a NAT for a regulatory gene associated with lipolysis might further our understanding of the molecular regulation of fat deposition. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Phospholipase A2 superfamily members play divergent roles after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    López-Vales, Rubèn; Ghasemlou, Nader; Redensek, Adriana; Kerr, Bradley J.; Barbayianni, Efrosini; Antonopoulou, Georgia; Baskakis, Constantinos; Rathore, Khizr I.; Constantinou-Kokotou, Violetta; Stephens, Daren; Shimizu, Takao; Dennis, Edward A.; Kokotos, George; David, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in permanent loss of motor functions. A significant aspect of the tissue damage and functional loss may be preventable as it occurs, secondary to the trauma. We show that the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) superfamily plays important roles in SCI. PLA2 enzymes hydrolyze membrane glycerophospholipids to yield a free fatty acid and lysophospholipid. Some free fatty acids (arachidonic acid) give rise to eicosanoids that promote inflammation, while some lysophospholipids (lysophosphatidylcholine) cause demyelination. We show in a mouse model of SCI that two cytosolic forms [calcium-dependent PLA2 group IVA (cPLA2 GIVA) and calcium-independent PLA2 group VIA (iPLA2 GVIA)], and a secreted form [secreted PLA2 group IIA (sPLA2 GIIA)] are up-regulated. Using selective inhibitors and null mice, we show that these PLA2s play differing roles. cPLA2 GIVA mediates protection, whereas sPLA2 GIIA and, to a lesser extent, iPLA2 GVIA are detrimental. Furthermore, completely blocking all three PLA2s worsens outcome, while the most beneficial effects are seen by partial inhibition of all three. The partial inhibitor enhances expression of cPLA2 and mediates its beneficial effects via the prostaglandin EP1 receptor. These findings indicate that drugs that inhibit detrimental forms of PLA2 (sPLA2 and iPLA2) and up-regulate the protective form (cPLA2) may be useful for the treatment of SCI.—López-Vales, R., Ghasemlou, N., Redensek, A., Kerr, B. J., Barbayianni, E., Antonopoulou, G., Baskakis, C., Rathore, K. I., Constantinou-Kokotou, V., Stephens, D., Shimizu, T., Dennis, E. A., Kokotos, G., David, S. Phospholipase A2 superfamily members play divergent roles after spinal cord injury. PMID:21868473

  20. Primary cilium suppression by SREBP1c involves distortion of vesicular trafficking by PLA2G3

    PubMed Central

    Gijs, Hannah Laura; Willemarck, Nicolas; Vanderhoydonc, Frank; Khan, Niamat Ali; Dehairs, Jonas; Derua, Rita; Waelkens, Etienne; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Murakami, Makoto; Agostinis, Patrizia; Annaert, Wim; Swinnen, Johannes V.

    2015-01-01

    Distortion of primary cilium formation is increasingly recognized as a key event in many human pathologies. One of the underlying mechanisms involves aberrant activation of the lipogenic transcription factor sterol regulatory element–binding protein 1c (SREBP1c), as observed in cancer cells. To gain more insight into the molecular pathways by which SREBP1c suppresses primary ciliogenesis, we searched for overlap between known ciliogenesis regulators and targets of SREBP1. One of the candidate genes that was consistently up-regulated in cellular models of SREBP1c-induced cilium repression was phospholipase A2 group III (PLA2G3), a phospholipase that hydrolyzes the sn-2 position of glycerophospholipids. Use of RNA interference and a chemical inhibitor of PLA2G3 rescued SREBP1c-induced cilium repression. Cilium repression by SREBP1c and PLA2G3 involved alterations in endosomal recycling and vesicular transport toward the cilium, as revealed by aberrant transferrin and Rab11 localization, and was largely mediated by an increase in lysophosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylethanolamine levels. Together these findings indicate that aberrant activation of SREBP1c suppresses primary ciliogenesis by PLA2G3-mediated distortion of vesicular trafficking and suggest that PLA2G3 is a novel potential target to normalize ciliogenesis in SREBP1c-overexpressing cells, including cancer cells. PMID:25904332

  1. Retinal pathology is associated with increased blood-retina barrier permeability in a diabetic and hypercholesterolaemic pig model: Beneficial effects of the LpPLA2 inhibitor Darapladib.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Nimish K; Qi, Xin; Goldwaser, Eric L; Godsey, George A; Wu, Hao; Kosciuk, Mary C; Freeman, Theresa A; Macphee, Colin H; Wilensky, Robert L; Venkataraman, Venkat; Nagele, Robert G

    2017-05-01

    Using a porcine model of diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia, we previously showed that diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia is associated with a chronic increase in blood-brain barrier permeability in the cerebral cortex, leading to selective binding of immunoglobulin G and deposition of amyloid-beta 1-42 peptide in pyramidal neurons. Treatment with Darapladib (GlaxoSmithKline, SB480848), an inhibitor of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase-A2, alleviated these effects. Here, investigation of the effects of chronic diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia on the pig retina revealed a corresponding increased permeability of the blood-retina barrier coupled with a leak of plasma components into the retina, alterations in retinal architecture, selective IgG binding to neurons in the ganglion cell layer, thinning of retinal layers due to cell loss and increased glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in Müller cells, all of which were curtailed by treatment with Darapladib. These findings suggest that chronic diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia induces increased blood-retina barrier permeability that may be linked to altered expression of blood-retina barrier-associated tight junction proteins, claudin and occludin, leading to structural changes in the retina consistent with diabetic retinopathy. Additionally, results suggest that drugs with vascular anti-inflammatory properties, such as Darapladib, may have beneficial effects on eye diseases strongly linked to vascular abnormalities such as diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration.

  2. Participation of PLA2 and PLC in DhL-induced activation of Rhinella arenarum oocytes.

    PubMed

    Zapata-Martínez, J; Medina, M F; Gramajo-Bühler, M C; Sánchez-Toranzo, G

    2016-08-01

    Rhinella arenarum oocytes can be artificially activated, a process known as parthenogenesis, by a sesquiterpenic lactone of the guaianolide group, dehydroleucodine (DhL). Transient increases in the concentration of cytosolic Ca2+ are essential to trigger egg activation events. In this sense, the 1-4-5 inositol triphosphate receptors (IP3R) seem to be involved in the Ca2+ transient release induced by DhL in this species. We analyzed the involvement of phosphoinositide metabolism, especially the participation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and phospholipase C (PLC) in DhL-induced activation. Different doses of quinacrine, aristolochic acid (ATA) (PLA2 inhibitors) or neomycin, an antibiotic that binds to PIP2, thus preventing its hydrolysis, were used in mature Rhinella arenarum oocytes. In order to assay the participation of PI-PLC and PC- PLC we used U73122, a competitive inhibitor of PI-PLC dependent events and D609, an inhibitor of PC-PLC. We found that PLA2 inhibits quinacrine more effectively than ATA. This difference could be explained by the fact that quinacrine is not a specific inhibitor for PLA2 while ATA is specific for this enzyme. With respect to the participation of PLC, a higher decrease in oocyte activation was detected when cells were exposed to neomycin. Inhibition of PC-PLC with D609 and IP-PLC with U73122 indicated that the last PLC has a significant participation in the effect of DhL-induced activation. Results would indicate that DhL induces activation of in vitro matured oocytes of Rhinella arenarum by activation of IP-PLC, which in turn may induce IP3 formation which produces Ca2+ release.

  3. PLA2G7 genotype, Lp-PLA2 activity and coronary heart disease risk in 10,494 cases and 15,624 controls of European ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Juan P.; Ninio, Ewa; Panayiotou, Andrie; Palmen, Jutta; Cooper, Jackie A; Ricketts, Sally L; Sofat, Reecha; Nicolaides, Andrew N; Corsetti, James P; Fowkes, F Gerry R; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Kumari, Meena; Brunner, Eric J; Kivimaki, Mika; Marmot, Michael G; Hoffmann, Michael M; Winkler, Karl; März, Winfred; Ye, Shu; Stirnadel, Heide A; MBBChir, Kay-Tee Khaw; Humphries, Steve E; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Hingorani, Aroon D; Talmud, Philippa J

    2012-01-01

    Background Higher Lp-PLA2 activity is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), making Lp-PLA2 a potential therapeutic target. PLA2G7 variants associated with Lp-PLA2 activity could evaluate whether this relationship is causal. Methods and Results A meta-analysis including a total of 12 studies (5 prospective, 4 case-control, 1 case-only and 2 cross-sectional, n=26,118) was undertaken to examine the association of: (i) LpPLA2 activity vs. cardiovascular biomarkers and risk factors and CHD events (two prospective studies; n=4884); ii) PLA2G7 SNPs and Lp-PLA2 activity (3 prospective, 2 case-control, 2 cross-sectional studies; up to n=6094); and iii) PLA2G7 SNPs and angiographic coronary artery disease (2 case-control, 1 case-only study; n=4971 cases) and CHD events (5 prospective, 2 case-control studies; n=5523). Lp-PLA2 activity correlated with several CHD risk markers. Hazard ratio for CHD events top vs. bottom quartile of Lp-PLA2 activity was 1.61 (95%CI: 1.31, 1.99) and 1.17 (95%CI: 0.91, 1.51) after adjustment for baseline traits. Of seven SNPs, rs1051931 (A379V) showed the strongest association with Lp-PLA2 activity, VV subjects having 7.2% higher activity than AAs. Genotype was not associated with risk markers, angiographic coronary disease (OR 1.03 (95%CI 0.80, 1.32), or CHD events (OR 0.98 (95%CI 0.82, 1.17). Conclusions Unlike Lp-PLA2 activity, PLA2G7 variants associated with modest effects on Lp-PLA2 activity were not associated with cardiovascular risk markers, coronary atheroma or CHD. Larger association studies, identification of SNPs with larger effects, or randomised trials of specific Lp-PLA2 inhibitors are needed to confirm/refute a contributory role for Lp-PLA2 in CHD. PMID:20479152

  4. Varespladib (LY315920) Appears to Be a Potent, Broad-Spectrum, Inhibitor of Snake Venom Phospholipase A2 and a Possible Pre-Referral Treatment for Envenomation

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, Matthew; Samuel, Stephen; Merkel, Janie; Bickler, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Snakebite remains a neglected medical problem of the developing world with up to 125,000 deaths each year despite more than a century of calls to improve snakebite prevention and care. An estimated 75% of fatalities from snakebite occur outside the hospital setting. Because phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity is an important component of venom toxicity, we sought candidate PLA2 inhibitors by directly testing drugs. Surprisingly, varespladib and its orally bioavailable prodrug, methyl-varespladib showed high-level secretory PLA2 (sPLA2) inhibition at nanomolar and picomolar concentrations against 28 medically important snake venoms from six continents. In vivo proof-of-concept studies with varespladib had striking survival benefit against lethal doses of Micrurus fulvius and Vipera berus venom, and suppressed venom-induced sPLA2 activity in rats challenged with 100% lethal doses of M. fulvius venom. Rapid development and deployment of a broad-spectrum PLA2 inhibitor alone or in combination with other small molecule inhibitors of snake toxins (e.g., metalloproteases) could fill the critical therapeutic gap spanning pre-referral and hospital setting. Lower barriers for clinical testing of safety tested, repurposed small molecule therapeutics are a potentially economical and effective path forward to fill the pre-referral gap in the setting of snakebite. PMID:27571102

  5. Isolation and biochemical characterization of a γ-type phospholipase A2 inhibitor from Crotalus durissus collilineatus snake serum.

    PubMed

    Gimenes, Sarah Natalie Cirilo; Ferreira, Francis Barbosa; Silveira, Ana Carolina Portella; Rodrigues, Renata Santos; Yoneyama, Kelly Aparecida Geraldo; Izabel Dos Santos, Juliana; Fontes, Marcos Roberto de Mattos; de Campos Brites, Vera Lúcia; Santos, André Luiz Quagliatto; Borges, Márcia Helena; Lopes, Daiana Silva; Rodrigues, Veridiana M

    2014-04-01

    In the present work, we describe the isolation and partial structural and biochemical characterization of the first phospholipase A2 inhibitor (γPLI) from Crotalus durissus collilineatus (Cdc) snake serum. Initially, the Cdc serum was subjected to a Q-Sepharose ion exchange column, producing six peaks at 280 nm absorbance (Q1-Q6). Subsequently, Q4 fraction was submitted to affinity chromatography with immobilized PLA2 BnSP-7, a step that resulted in two fractions (NHS-1 and NHS-2). The latter contained the inhibitor, denominated γCdcPLI. The molecular mass of γCdcPLI, determined by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF), was 22,340 Da. Partial sequences obtained by Edman degradation and by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF), showed similarity, as expected, to other related inhibitors. Circular dichroism (CD) analysis showed the presence of approximately 22% alpha helices and 29% beta sheets in the protein secondary structure. Additionally, CD studies also indicated no significant changes in the secondary structure of γCdcPLI when it is complexed to BpPLA2-TXI. On the other hand, dynamic light scattering (DLS) assays showed a temperature-dependent oligomerization behavior for this inhibitor. Biochemical analyses showed γCdcPLI was able to inhibit the enzymatic, cytotoxic and myotoxic activities of PLA2s. Structural and functional studies performed on this inhibitor may elucidate the action mechanisms of PLA2 inhibitors. In addition, we hope this study may contribute to investigating the potential use of these inhibitors for the treatment of snakebite or inflammatory diseases in which PLA2s may be involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Secreted phospholipase A2 inhibitor modulates fatty acid composition and reduces obesity-induced inflammation in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Bourgeois, H; Vandermeulen, E; Vlaeminck, B; Meyer, E; Demeyere, K; Hesta, M

    2015-05-01

    Secreted phospholipase A2 inhibitor (sPLA2i) has been reported to have an anti-inflammatory function by blocking the production of inflammatory mediators. Obesity is characterized by low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of sPLA2i on inflammation, oxidative stress and serum fatty acid profile in dogs. Seven obese and seven lean Beagle dogs were used in a 28-day double blind cross-over design. Dogs were fed a control diet without supplemental sPLA2i or an sPLA2i supplemented diet. The sPLA2i diet decreased plasma fibrinogen levels and increased the protein:fibrinogen ratio in obese dogs to levels similar to those of lean dogs fed the same diet. Obese dogs had a higher plasma concentration of the lipophilic vitamin A with potential antioxidative capacity and a lower ratio of retinol binding protein 4:vitamin A compared to lean dogs, independent of the diets. A higher proportion of myristic acid (C14:0) and a lower proportion of linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) were observed in the dogs fed with the sPLA2i diet compared to dogs fed with the control diet. Furthermore, a higher ratio of n-6 to n-3, a lower proportion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and lower omega-3 index were observed in obese compared to lean dogs. The results indicate that obese dogs are characterized by a more 'proinflammatory' serum fatty acid profile and that diet inclusion of sPLA2i may reduce inflammation and alter fatty acid profile. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Phospholipase A2 in experimental allergic bronchitis: a lesson from mouse and rat models.

    PubMed

    Mruwat, Rufayda; Yedgar, Saul; Lavon, Iris; Ariel, Amiram; Krimsky, Miron; Shoseyov, David

    2013-01-01

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) hydrolyzes phospholipids, initiating the production of inflammatory lipid mediators. We have previously shown that in rats, sPLA2 and cPLA2 play opposing roles in the pathophysiology of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced experimental allergic bronchitis (OVA-EAB), an asthma model: Upon disease induction sPLA2 expression and production of the broncho-constricting CysLTs are elevated, whereas cPLA2 expression and the broncho-dilating PGE2 production are suppressed. These were reversed upon disease amelioration by treatment with an sPLA2 inhibitor. However, studies in mice reported the involvement of both sPLA2 and cPLA2 in EAB induction. To examine the relevance of mouse and rat models to understanding asthma pathophysiology. OVA-EAB was induced in mice using the same methodology applied in rats. Disease and biochemical markers in mice were compared with those in rats. As in rats, EAB in mice was associated with increased mRNA of sPLA2, specifically sPLA2gX, in the lungs, and production of the broncho-constricting eicosanoids CysLTs, PGD2 and TBX2 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). In contrast, EAB in mice was associated also with elevated cPLA2 mRNA and PGE2 production. Yet, treatment with an sPLA2 inhibitor ameliorated the EAB concomitantly with reverting the expression of both cPLA2 and sPLA2, and eicosanoid production. In both mice and rats sPLA2 is pivotal in OVA-induced EAB. Yet, amelioration of asthma markers in mouse models, and human tissues, was observed also upon cPLA2 inhibition. It is plausible that airway conditions, involving multiple cell types and organs, require the combined action of more than one, essential, PLA2s.

  8. Development of a potent 2-oxoamide inhibitor of secreted phospholipase A2 guided by molecular docking calculations and molecular dynamics simulations

    PubMed Central

    Vasilakaki, Sofia; Barbayianni, Efrosini; Leonis, Georgios; Papadopoulos, Manthos G.; Mavromoustakos, Thomas; Gelb, Michael H.; Kokotos, George

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of group IIA secreted phospholipase A2 (GIIA sPLA2) has been an important objective for medicinal chemists. We have previously shown that inhibitors incorporating the 2-oxoamide functionality may inhibit human and mouse GIIA sPLA2s. Herein, the development of new potent inhibitors by molecular docking calculations using the structure of the known inhibitor 7 as scaffold, are described. Synthesis and biological evaluation of the new compounds revealed that the long chain 2-oxoamide based on (S)-valine GK241 led to improved activity (IC50 = 143 nM and 68 nM against human and mouse GIIA sPLA2, respectively). In addition, molecular dynamics simulations were employed to shed light on GK241 potent and selective inhibitory activity. PMID:26970660

  9. Key Role of Group V Secreted Phospholipase A2 in Th2 Cytokine and Dendritic Cell-Driven Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Henderson Jr, William R.; Ye, Xin; Lai, Ying; Ni, Zhanglin; Bollinger, James G.; Tien, Ying-Tzang; Chi, Emil Y.; Gelb, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous work has shown that disruption of the gene for group X secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-X) markedly diminishes airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling in a mouse asthma model. With the large number of additional sPLA2s in the mammalian genome, the involvement of other sPLA2s in the asthma model is possible – in particular, the group V sPLA2 (sPLA2-V) that like sPLA2-X is highly active at hydrolyzing membranes of mammalian cells. Methodology and Principal Findings The allergen-driven asthma phenotype was significantly reduced in sPLA2-V-deficient mice but to a lesser extent than observed previously in sPLA2-X-deficient mice. The most striking difference observed between the sPLA2-V and sPLA2-X knockouts was the significant impairment of the primary immune response to the allergen ovalbumin (OVA) in the sPLA2-V−/− mice. The impairment in eicosanoid generation and dendritic cell activation in sPLA2-V−/− mice diminishes Th2 cytokine responses in the airways. Conclusions This paper illustrates the diverse roles of sPLA2s in the immunopathogenesis of the asthma phenotype and directs attention to developing specific inhibitors of sPLA2-V as a potential new therapy to treat asthma and other allergic disorders. PMID:23451035

  10. Inhibition of untransformed prostaglandin H(2) production and stretch-induced contraction of rabbit pulmonary arteries by indoxam, a selective secretory phospholipase A(2) inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Maki; Morikawa, Yuki; Kamataki, Akihisa; Sawai, Takashi; Hirose, Masamichi; Nakayama, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    Involvement of secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) in the stretch-induced production of untransformed prostaglandin H(2) (PGH(2)) in the endothelium of rabbit pulmonary arteries was investigated. The stretch-induced contraction was significantly inhibited by indoxam, a selective inhibitor for sPLA(2), and NS-398, a selective inhibitor for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Indoxam inhibited the RGD-sensitive-integrin-independent production of untransformed PGH(2), but did not affect the RGD-sensitive-integrin-dependent production of thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)). These results suggest that the stretch-induced contraction and untransformed PGH(2) production was mediated by sPLA(2)-COX-2 pathway, making it a new possible target for pharmacological intervention of pulmonary artery contractility.

  11. Cross-reactivity of anti-PLA2R1 autoantibodies to rabbit and mouse PLA2R1 antigens and development of two novel ELISAs with different diagnostic performances in idiopathic membranous nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Seitz-Polski, Barbara; Dolla, Guillaume; Payré, Christine; Tomas, Nicola M; Lochouarn, Marine; Jeammet, Louise; Mariat, Christophe; Krummel, Thierry; Burtey, Stéphane; Courivaud, Cécile; Schlumberger, Wolfgang; Zorzi, Kévin; Benzaken, Sylvia; Bernard, Ghislaine; Esnault, Vincent L M; Lambeau, Gérard

    2015-11-01

    About 70% of patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN) have autoantibodies to the phospholipase A2 receptor PLA2R1. We screened sera from iMN patients for their cross-reactivity to human (h), rabbit (rb) and mouse (m) PLA2R1 by western blot (WB) and antigen-specific ELISAs. All iMN patients recognized hPLA2R1 and rbPLA2R1 by WB, and a rbPLA2R1 ELISA was as sensitive as the standardized hPLA2R1 ELISA to monitor anti-PLA2R1 in patients with active disease or in drug-induced remission. In contrast, only 51% of patients were reactive to mPLA2R1 by WB, and a maximum of 78% were weakly to highly positive in the mPLA2R1 ELISA, suggesting that iMN patients exhibit different subsets of anti-PLA2R1 autoantibodies against epitopes that are shared or not among PLA2R1 orthologs. In a cohort of 41 patients with a mean follow-up of 42 months from anti-PLA2R1 assay, the detection of anti-mPLA2R1 autoantibodies was an independent predictor of clinical outcome in multivariate analysis (p = 0.009), and a ROC curve analysis identified a threshold of 605 RU/mL above which 100% of patients (12 patients) had a poor renal outcome (p < 0.001). A similar threshold could not be defined in hPLA2R1 and rbPLA2R1 ELISAs. We conclude that rbPLA2R1 is an alternative antigen to hPLA2R1 to measure anti-PLA2R1 in active disease while mPLA2R1 is a unique antigen that can detect a subset of anti-PLA2R1 autoantibodies present at high levels (>605 RU/mL) only in iMN patients at risk of poor prognosis, and is thus useful to predict iMN outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  12. Lp-PLA2 silencing protects against ox-LDL-induced oxidative stress and cell apoptosis via Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in human THP1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zheng, HuaDong; Cui, DaJiang; Quan, XiaoJuan; Yang, WeiLin; Li, YingNa; Zhang, Lin; Liu, EnQi

    2016-09-02

    Atherosclerosis is a disease of the large- and medium-size arteries that is characterized by the formation of atherosclerotic plaques, in which foam cells are the characteristic pathological cells. However, the key underlying pathomechanisms are still not fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) in ox-LDL-induced oxidative stress and cell apoptosis, and further, elucidated the potential machanisms in human THP1 macrophages. Flow cytometry and western blot analyses showed that both cell apoptosis and Lp-PLA2 expression were dose-dependently elevated after ox-LDL treatment for 24 h and also time-dependently increased after 50 mg/L ox-LDL incubation in THP1 macrophages. In addition, Lp-PLA2 silencing decreased ox-LDL-induced Lp-PLA2 and CD36 expression in THP1 macrophages. We also found that the levels of oil red O-staining, triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) were significantly upregulated in ox-LDL-treated THP1 cells, but inhibited by Lp-PLA2 silencing. Furthermore, ox-LDL treatment resulted in significant increases of ROS and MDA but a marked decrease of SOD, effects that were reversed by Lp-PLA2 silencing in THP1 cells. Lp-PLA2 silencing reduced ox-LDL-induced cell apoptosis and caspase-3 expression in THP1 cells. Moreover, Lp-PLA2 siRNA transfection dramatically lowered the elevated levels of p-Akt and p-mTOR proteins in ox-LDL-treated THP1 cells. Both PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and mTOR inhibitor rapamycin decreased the augmented caspase-3 expression and TC content induced by ox-LDL, respectively. Taken together, these results revealed that Lp-PLA2 silencing protected against ox-LDL-induced oxidative stress and cell apoptosis via Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in human THP1 macrophages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Structure-Guided Discovery of Novel, Potent, and Orally Bioavailable Inhibitors of Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiufeng; Huang, Fubao; Yuan, Xiaojing; Wang, Kai; Zou, Yi; Shen, Jianhua; Xu, Yechun

    2017-12-28

    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a promising therapeutic target for atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and diabetic macular edema. Here we report the identification of novel sulfonamide scaffold Lp-PLA2 inhibitors derived from a relatively weak fragment. Similarity searching on this fragment followed by molecular docking leads to the discovery of a micromolar inhibitor with a 300-fold potency improvement. Subsequently, by the application of a structure-guided design strategy, a successful hit-to-lead optimization was achieved and a number of Lp-PLA2 inhibitors with single-digit nanomolar potency were obtained. After preliminary evaluation of the properties of drug-likeness in vitro and in vivo, compound 37 stands out from this congeneric series of inhibitors for good inhibitory activity and favorable oral bioavailability in male Sprague-Dawley rats, providing a quality candidate for further development. The present study thus clearly demonstrates the power and advantage of integrally employing fragment screening, crystal structures determination, virtual screening, and medicinal chemistry in an efficient lead discovery project, providing a good example for structure-based drug design.

  14. Endogenous secreted phospholipase A2 group X regulates cysteinyl leukotrienes synthesis by human eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Hallstrand, Teal S; Lai, Ying; Hooper, Kathryn A; Oslund, Rob C; Altemeier, William A; Matute-Bello, Gustavo; Gelb, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase A2s mediate the rate-limiting step in the formation of eicosanoids such as cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs). Group IVA cytosolic PLA2α (cPLA2α) is thought to be the dominant PLA2 in eosinophils; however, eosinophils also have secreted PLA2 (sPLA2) activity that has not been fully defined. To examine the expression of sPLA2 group X (sPLA2-X) in eosinophils, the participation of sPLA2-X in the formation of CysLTs, and the mechanism by which sPLA2-X initiates the synthesis of CysLTs in eosinophils. Peripheral blood eosinophils were obtained from volunteers with asthma and/or allergy. A rabbit polyclonal anti-sPLA2-X antibody identified sPLA2-X by Western blot. We used confocal microscopy to colocalize the sPLA2-X to intracellular structures. An inhibitor of sPLA2-X (ROC-0929) that does not inhibit other mammalian sPLA2s, as well as inhibitors of the mitogen-activated kinase cascade (MAPK) and cPLA2α, was used to examine the mechanism of N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-mediated formation of CysLT. Eosinophils express the mammalian sPLA2-X gene (PLA2G10). The sPLA2-X protein is located in the endoplasmic reticulum, golgi, and granules of eosinophils and moves to the granules and lipid bodies during fMLP-mediated activation. Selective sPLA2-X inhibition attenuated the fMLP-mediated release of arachidonic acid and CysLT formation by eosinophils. Inhibitors of p38, extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (p44/42 MAPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and cPLA2α also attenuated the fMLP-mediated formation of CysLT. The sPLA2-X inhibitor reduced the phosphorylation of p38 and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (p44/42 MAPK) as well as cPLA2α during cellular activation, indicating that sPLA2-X is involved in activating the MAPK cascade leading to the formation of CysLT via cPLA2α. We further demonstrate that sPLA2-X is activated before secretion from the cell during activation. Short-term priming with IL-13 and TNF/IL-1β increased the

  15. cPLA2α Gene Activation by IL-1β is Dependent on an Upstream Kinase pathway, Enzymatic Activation and Downstream 15-lipoxygenase Activity: A Positive Feedback Loop

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Jewell N.; Bickford, Justin S.; Beachy, Dawn E.; Newsom, Kimberly J.; Herlihy, John-David H.; Peck, Molly V.; Qiu, Xiaolei; Nick, Harry S.

    2011-01-01

    Cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) is the most widely studied member of the Group IV PLA2 family. The enzyme is Ca2+-dependent with specificity for phospholipid substrates containing arachidonic acid. As the pinnacle of the arachidonic acid pathway, cPLA2α has a primary role in the biosynthesis of a diverse family of eicosanoid metabolites, with potent physiological, inflammatory and pathological consequences. cPLA2α activity is regulated by pro-inflammatory stimuli through pathways involving increased intracellular Ca2+ levels, phosphorylation coupled to increased enzymatic activity and de novo gene transcription. This study addresses the signal transduction pathways for protein phosphorylation and gene induction following IL-1β stimulation in human fetal lung fibroblasts. Our results utilizing both inhibitors and kinase-deficient cells demonstrate that cPLA2α is phosphorylated within 10 min of IL-1β treatment, an event requiring p38 MAPK as well as the upstream kinase, MKK3/MKK6. Inhibition of p38 MAPK also blocks the phosphorylation of a downstream, nuclear kinase, MSK-1. Our results further demonstrate that the activities of both cPLA2α and a downstream lipoxygenase (15-LOX2) are required for IL-1β-dependent induction of cPLA2α mRNA expression. Overall, these data support an MKK3/MKK6→p38 MAPK→MSK-1→cPLA2α→15-LOX2-dependent, positive feedback loop where a protein’s enzymatic activity is required to regulate its own gene induction by a pro-inflammatory stimulus. PMID:21771656

  16. Effect of perzinfotel and a proprietary phospholipase A(2) inhibitor on kinetic gait and subjective lameness scores in dogs with sodium urate-induced synovitis.

    PubMed

    Budsberg, Steven C; Torres, Bryan T; Zwijnenberg, Raphael J; Eppler, C Mark; Clark, James D; Cathcart, Curtis J; Reynolds, Lisa R; Al-Nadaf, Sami

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the ability of perzinfotel (an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist) and a proprietary phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) inhibitor to attenuate lameness in dogs with sodium urate (SU)-induced synovitis. 8 adult dogs. A blinded 4-way crossover study was performed. Dogs received perzinfotel (10 mg/kg), a proprietary PLA(2) inhibitor (10 mg/kg), carprofen (4.4 mg/kg; positive control treatment), or no treatment (negative control treatment). On the fourth day after initiation of treatment, synovitis was induced via intra-articular injection of SU 1 hour before administration of the last treatment dose. Ground reaction forces were measured and clinical lameness evaluations were performed before (baseline [time 0]) and 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 25 hours after SU injection. There was a 21-day washout period between subsequent treatments. Data were analyzed via repeated-measures ANOVAs. Peak vertical force (PVF) and vertical impulse (VI) values for negative control and perzinfotel treatments were significantly lower at 2 and 4 hours, compared with baseline values. Values for PVF and VI for the PLA(2) inhibitor and positive control treatments did not differ from baseline values at any time points. Between-treatment comparisons revealed significantly higher PVF and VI values for the positive control treatment than for the negative control and perzinfotel treatments at 2 and 4 hours. Values for VI were higher for PLA(2) inhibitor treatment than for negative control treatment at 2 hours. Perzinfotel did not significantly alter SU-induced lameness. The proprietary PLA(2) inhibitor attenuated lameness but not as completely as did carprofen.

  17. Molecular docking and in vitro studies of soap nut trypsin inhibitor (SNTI) against phospholipase A2 isoforms in therapeutic intervention of inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Sirisha, Gandreddi V D; Vijaya Rachel, K; Zaveri, Kunal; Yarla, Nagendra Sastry; Kiranmayi, P; Ganash, Magdah; Alkreathy, Huda Mohammad; Rajeh, Nisreen; Ashraf, Ghulam Md

    2018-07-15

    Therapeutic value of allelochemicals in inflammatory disorders and the potential drug targets need to be elucidated to alleviate tissue and vascular injury. Natural anti-inflammatory agents are known to cause minimal adverse effects. Presence of different secondary metabolites (allelochemicals), protease inhibitors like soap nut trypsin inhibitor (SNTI) from Sapindus trifoliatus and allied compounds from natural sources cannot be blithely ignored as natural therapeutics. In the present study, SNTI, a prospective protease inhibitor isolated from the seeds of Sapindus trifoliatus were subjected to docking against three isoforms of Phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) molecules of the inflammatory pathways which are localized in the membrane, cytosol and pancreas. Eleven ligand molecules were selected from Sapindus trifoliatus and docked against membrane, cytosolic and pancreatic PLA 2 . Cytosolic PLA 2 showed a strong inhibition by Kampferol, a secondary metabolite from seed endosperm of Sapindus trifoliatus. SNTI showed best interaction with membrane PLA 2 in both in silico as well as in in vitro studies. SNTI showed IC 50 value of 29.02 μM in in vitro assay. Docking interaction profiles and in vitro studies validate selected molecules from Sapindus trifoliatus as immunomodulators and can mollify inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Phospholipase A2 Inhibitor from Crotalus durissus terrificus rattlesnake: Effects on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and human neutrophils cells.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Caroline V; da S Setúbal, Sulamita; Lacouth-Silva, Fabianne; Pontes, Adriana S; Nery, Neriane M; de Castro, Onassis Boeri; Fernandes, Carla F C; Soares, Andreimar M; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo L; Zuliani, Juliana P

    2017-12-01

    Crotalus Neutralizing Factor (CNF) is an inhibitor of phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ), present in the blood plasma of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake. This inhibitor neutralizes the lethal and enzymatic activity of crotoxin, the main neurotoxin from this venom. In this study, we investigated the effects of CNF on the functionality of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and human neutrophils. The following parameters were evaluated: viability and proliferation, chemotaxis, cytokines and LTB 4 production, cytosolic PLA 2 s activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and superoxide anion (O 2 - ) production. CNF showed no toxicity on PBMCs or neutrophils, and acts by stimulating the release of TNF-α and LTB 4 , but neither stimulates IL-10 and IL-2 nor affects PBMCs proliferation and O 2 - release. In neutrophils, CNF induces chemotaxis but does not induce the release of both MPO and O 2 - . However, it induces LTB 4 and IL-8 production. These data show the influence of CNF on PBMCs' function by inducing TNF-α and LTB 4 production, and on neutrophils, by stimulating chemotaxis and LTB 4 production, via cytosolic PLA 2 activity, and IL-8 release. The inflammatory profile produced by CNF is shown for the first time. Our present results suggest that CNF has a role in activation of leukocytes and exert proinflammatory effects on these cell. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Human soluble phospholipase A2 receptor is an inhibitor of the integrin-mediated cell migratory response to collagen-I.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazunori; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Yosuke; Fujioka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Takamitsu; Nakamura, Kazuto; Obata, Jun-Ei; Kugiyama, Kiyotaka

    2018-05-23

    Murine membrane-bound phospholipase A 2 receptor 1 (PLA 2 R) is shed and released into plasma in a soluble form that retains all of the extracellular domains. Relatively little is known about human PLA 2 R. This study examined whether human soluble PLA 2 R may have biological functions and whether soluble PLA 2 R may exist in human plasma. Here, we showed that human recombinant soluble PLA 2 R (rsPLA 2 R) bound to collagen-I and inhibited interaction of collagen-I with the extracellular domain of integrin β1 on the cell surface of HEK293 cells. As a result, rsPLA 2 R suppressed integrin β1-mediated migratory responses of HEK293 cells to collagen-I in Boyden chamber experiments. Inhibition of phosphorylation of FAK Tyr397 was also observed. Similar results were obtained with experiments using soluble PLA 2 R released from HEK293 cells transfected with a construct encoding human soluble PLA 2 R. rsPLA 2 R lacking the fibronectin-like type II (FNII) domain had no inhibitory effects on cell responses to collagen-I, suggesting an important role of the FNII domain in the interaction of rsPLA 2 R with collagen-I. In addition, rsPLA 2 R suppressed the migratory response to collagen-IV and binding of collagen-IV to the cell surface of human podocytes that endogenously express membrane-bound full-length PLA 2 R. Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting showed the existence of immuno-reactive PLA 2 R in human plasma. In conclusion, human recombinant soluble PLA 2 R inhibits integrin β1-mediated cell responses to collagens. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether immuno-reactive PLA 2 R in human plasma has the same properties as rsPLA 2 R.

  20. Molecular Cloning and Pharmacological Properties of an Acidic PLA2 from Bothrops pauloensis Snake Venom

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Francis Barbosa; Gomes, Mário Sérgio Rocha; Naves de Souza, Dayane Lorena; Gimenes, Sarah Natalie Cirilo; Castanheira, Letícia Eulalio; Borges, Márcia Helena; Rodrigues, Renata Santos; Yoneyama, Kelly Aparecida Geraldo; Homsi Brandeburgo, Maria Inês; Rodrigues, Veridiana M.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we describe the molecular cloning and pharmacological properties of an acidic phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isolated from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom. This enzyme, denominated BpPLA2-TXI, was purified by four chromatographic steps and represents 2.4% of the total snake venom protein content. BpPLA2-TXI is a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 13.6 kDa, as demonstrated by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) analysis and its theoretical isoelectric point was 4.98. BpPLA2-TXI was catalytically active and showed some pharmacological effects such as inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by collagen or ADP and also induced edema and myotoxicity. BpPLA2-TXI displayed low cytotoxicity on TG-180 (CCRF S 180 II) and Ovarian Carcinoma (OVCAR-3), whereas no cytotoxicity was found in regard to MEF (Mouse Embryonic Fibroblast) and Sarcoma 180 (TIB-66). The N-terminal sequence of forty-eight amino acid residues was determined by Edman degradation. In addition, the complete primary structure of 122 amino acids was deduced by cDNA from the total RNA of the venom gland using specific primers, and it was significantly similar to other acidic D49 PLA2s. The phylogenetic analyses showed that BpPLA2-TXI forms a group with other acidic D49 PLA2s from the gender Bothrops, which are characterized by a catalytic activity associated with anti-platelet effects. PMID:24304676

  1. Associations of maternal PLA2G4C and PLA2G4D polymorphisms with the risk of spontaneous preterm birth in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guang-Jian; He, Jian-Rong; Kuang, Ya-Shu; Fan, Xue-Jiao; Li, Wei-Dong; Lu, Jin-Hua; Xia, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Xiao-Dan; Chen, Nian-Nian; Mai, Wei-Bi; Xia, Hui-Min; Qiu, Xiu

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in infants. Its etiology is multifactorial with genes and immune homeostasis. The authors investigated whether prostaglandin (PG) synthesis related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) PLA2G4C rs1366442 and PLA2G4D rs4924618 were associated with the risk of spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB) in a Chinese population of 114 cases of SPTB and 250 controls of term delivery. The risk associations were determined by odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated using multivariate logistic regression. Homology modeling was performed to elucidate potential mechanism of the SNP function. The maternal AT/TT genotype of PLA2G4D rs4924618 was associated with a reduced risk of SPTB (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.37–0.99), while no significant association between PLA2G4C rs1366442 and SPTB risk was identified. Structure and sequence analysis revealed that the amino acid substitution introduced by this SNP located at the conserved central core of the catalytic domain of cytosolic phospholipase A2 δ and was close to the active site. These findings suggested that the polymorphism of PLA2G4D rs4924618 may have a protective influence on the SPTB susceptibility in a Chinese population, supporting a role for genetics in the association between PG synthesis and preterm birth. PMID:28440406

  2. Leptin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis of thymocytes partially via down-regulation of cPLA2 and p38 MAPK activation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chen; Liao, Jie; Deng, Zihui; Song, Cuihong; Zhang, Jinying; Zabeau, Lennart; Tavernier, Jan; Zhang, Kai; Xue, Hui; Yan, Guangtao

    2013-03-01

    Leptin, a 16-kDa protein that is mainly secreted by adipocytes, plays a protective role in many cell types. It has been shown that leptin acts in the central and peripheral immune system to protect thymocytes. Cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) is an enzyme that can specifically initiate the release of arachidonic acid (AA) to produce eicosanoids, which regulate inflammation and immune responses. Our previous work has shown that leptin is important to prevent apoptosis of thymocytes. However, the role of cPLA(2) is still unclear, and the precise mechanism also remains to be elucidated. In this work, we demonstrated that leptin inhibited the LPS-induced toxicity and apoptosis of thymocytes. Western blot and RT-PCR showed that leptin led to a reduction of cPLA(2) activity and mRNA level, as well as caspase-3 cleavage. Moreover, we found that leptin could decrease the activation of p38 MAPK. Accordingly, we pre-treated apoptotic thymocytes with the p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580 and observed an effect similar to the leptin alone treated group. SB203580 also suppressed expression of cPLA(2) and cleavage of caspase-3. Based on these results, we suggest that leptin could attenuate LPS-induced apoptotic injury in mouse thymocyte cells, mainly through the p38/cPLA(2) signalling pathway. The study of the regulatory role of leptin in LPS-induced thymocyte apoptosis can help to explain the role of leptin in the immune system and may provide a novel treatment option in cases of severe trauma, infection, shock, organ failure and autoimmune disease caused by thymic atrophy. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The PLA2R1-JAK2 pathway upregulates ERRα and its mitochondrial program to exert tumor-suppressive action.

    PubMed

    Griveau, A; Devailly, G; Eberst, L; Navaratnam, N; Le Calvé, B; Ferrand, M; Faull, P; Augert, A; Dante, R; Vanacker, J M; Vindrieux, D; Bernard, D

    2016-09-22

    Little is known about the biological role of the phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R1) transmembrane protein. In recent years, PLA2R1 has been shown to have an important role in regulating tumor-suppressive responses via JAK2 activation, but the underlying mechanisms are largely undeciphered. In this study, we observed that PLA2R1 increases the mitochondrial content, judged by increased levels of numerous mitochondrial proteins, of the mitochondrial structural component cardiolipin, of the mitochondrial DNA content, and of the mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription factor TFAM. This effect of PLA2R1 relies on a transcriptional program controlled by the estrogen-related receptor alpha1 (ERRα) mitochondrial master regulator. Expression of ERRα and of its nucleus-encoded mitochondrial targets is upregulated upon PLA2R1 ectopic expression, and this effect is mediated by JAK2. Conversely, downregulation of PLA2R1 decreases the level of ERRα and of its nucleus-encoded mitochondrial targets. Finally, blocking the ERRα-controlled mitochondrial program largely inhibits the PLA2R1-induced tumor-suppressive response. Together, our data document ERRα and its mitochondrial program as downstream effectors of the PLA2R1-JAK2 pathway leading to oncosuppression.

  4. Molecular cloning and structural modelling of gamma-phospholipase A2 inhibitors from Bothrops atrox and Micrurus lemniscatus snakes.

    PubMed

    Picelli, Carina G; Borges, Rafael J; Fernandes, Carlos A H; Matioli, Fabio M; Fernandes, Carla F C; Sobrinho, Juliana C; Holanda, Rudson J; Ozaki, Luiz S; Kayano, Anderson M; Calderon, Leonardo A; Fontes, Marcos R M; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Soares, Andreimar M

    2017-10-01

    Phospholipases A 2 inhibitors (PLIs) produced by venomous and non-venomous snakes play essential role in this resistance. These endogenous inhibitors may be classified by their fold in PLIα, PLIβ and PLIγ. Phospholipases A 2 (PLA 2 s) develop myonecrosis in snake envenomation, a consequence that is not efficiently neutralized by antivenom treatment. This work aimed to identify and characterize two PLIs from Amazonian snake species, Bothrops atrox and Micrurus lemniscatus. Liver tissues RNA of specimens from each species were isolated and amplified by RT-PCR using PCR primers based on known PLIγ gene sequences, followed by cloning and sequencing of amplified fragments. Sequence similarity studies showed elevated identity with inhibitor PLIγ gene sequences from other snake species. Molecular models of translated inhibitors' gene sequences resemble canonical three finger fold from PLIγ and support the hypothesis that the decapeptide (residues 107-116) may be responsible for PLA 2 inhibition. Structural studies and action mechanism of these PLIs may provide necessary information to evaluate their potential as antivenom or as complement of the current ophidian accident treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The standard aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. inhibits toxic PLA2 - NN-XIb-PLA2 of Indian cobra venom.

    PubMed

    Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa; Sudarshan, Shivalingaiah; Dongol, Yashad; More, Sunil S

    2016-05-01

    The aqueous extract of Mangifera indica is known to possess diverse medicinal properties, which also includes anti-snake venom activities. However, its inhibitory potency and mechanism of action on multi-toxic snake venom phospholipases A2s are still unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the modulatory effect of standard aqueous bark extract of M. indica on NN-XIb-PLA2 of Indian cobra venom. The in vitro sPLA2, in situ hemolytic and in vivo edema inhibition effect were carried out as described. Also the effect of substrate and calcium concentration was carried out. M. indica extract dose dependently inhibited the GIA sPLA2 (NN-XIb-PLA2) activity with an IC50 value of 7.6 μg/ml. M. indica extract effectively inhibited the indirect hemolytic activity up to 98% at ∼40 μg/ml concentration. Further, M. indica extract (0-50 μg/ml) inhibited the edema formed in a dose dependent manner. When examined as a function of increased substrate and calcium concentration, there was no relieve of inhibitory effect of M. indica extract on the NN-XIb-PLA2. Further, the inhibition was irreversible as evident from binding studies. The in vitro inhibition is well correlated with in situ and in vivo edema inhibiting activities of M. indica. As the inhibition is independent of substrate and calcium and was irreversible, it can be concluded that M. indica extract mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract with the PLA2 enzyme. The aqueous extract of M. indica effectively inhibits svPLA2 enzymatic and its associated toxic activities, which substantiate their anti-snake venom properties. Further in-depth studies on the role and mechanism of the principal constituents present in the extract, responsible for the anti-PLA2 activity will be interesting to develop them into potent antisnake component and also as an anti-inflammatory agent.

  6. The effects of two phospholipase A2 inhibitors on the neuromuscular blocking activities of homologous phospholipases A2 from the venom of Pseudechis australis, the Australian king brown snake.

    PubMed

    Fatehi, M; Rowan, E G; Harvey, A L

    1995-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that homologous phospholipases A2 (PLA2) (Pa-3, Pa-9C, Pa-10F and Pa-11) from the venom of the Australian king brown snake, Pseudechis australis, significantly reduce the resting membrane potentials and quantal contents of endplate potentials recorded from endplate regions of mouse triangularis sterni nerve-muscle preparations. It is not clear whether PLA2 activity is essential for their neuromuscular activities. Therefore, pharmacological studies were carried out to determine whether neuromuscular activity of the toxins changed after treatment with the phospholipase A2 inhibitors 7,7-dimethyl-eicosadienoic acid (DEDA) and manoalide. After incubation of the toxins with manoalide (120 nM), or DEDA (50 microM), no PLA2 activity against 1-stearoyl 2-[3H]arachidonoylglycerophosphocholine was detected. After incubation with manoalide and/or DEDA, the toxins did not depolarize muscle fibre membranes up to 60 min after administration. However, manoalide and DEDA had different influences on the inhibitory effect of these toxic enzymes on acetylcholine release from nerve terminals. Manoalide abolished the inhibitory effect of the toxins on evoked release of acetylcholine. In contrast, DEDA was not able to prevent the reduction of quantal content of endplate potentials induced by the toxins. This study provides evidence that the depolarizing action and the inhibitory effect on release of acetylcholine exerted by these toxic PLA2 from king brown snake are independent phenomena. The evidence for this conclusion was that inhibition of enzymatic activity with an arachidonic acid analogue (DEDA) abolished the depolarizing effect of the toxins but not the effects on the quantal release of acetylcholine from mouse motor nerve terminals. The data suggest that the depolarizing effect of these toxins is probably due to the enzymatic activity. Since manoalide interacts with lysine residues of PLA2 polypeptides, and, as shown here, manoalide prevented

  7. Differential expression of Lp-PLA2 in obesity and type 2 diabetes and the influence of lipids.

    PubMed

    Jackisch, Laura; Kumsaiyai, Warunee; Moore, Jonathan D; Al-Daghri, Nasser; Kyrou, Ioannis; Barber, Thomas M; Randeva, Harpal; Kumar, Sudhesh; Tripathi, Gyanendra; McTernan, Philip G

    2018-05-01

    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a circulatory macrophage-derived factor that increases with obesity and leads to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite this, its role in adipose tissue and the adipocyte is unknown. Therefore, the aims of this study were to clarify the expression of Lp-PLA2 in relation to different adipose tissue depots and type 2 diabetes, and ascertain whether markers of obesity and type 2 diabetes correlate with circulating Lp-PLA2. A final aim was to evaluate the effect of cholesterol on cellular Lp-PLA2 in an in vitro adipocyte model. Analysis of anthropometric and biochemical variables from a cohort of lean (age 44.4 ± 6.2 years; BMI 22.15 ± 1.8 kg/m 2 , n = 23), overweight (age 45.4 ± 12.3 years; BMI 26.99 ± 1.5 kg/m 2 , n = 24), obese (age 49.0 ± 9.1 years; BMI 33.74 ± 3.3 kg/m 2 , n = 32) and type 2 diabetic women (age 53.0 ± 6.13 years; BMI 35.08 ± 8.6 kg/m 2 , n = 35), as part of an ethically approved study. Gene and protein expression of PLA2 and its isoforms were assessed in adipose tissue samples, with serum analysis undertaken to assess circulating Lp-PLA2 and its association with cardiometabolic risk markers. A human adipocyte cell model, Chub-S7, was used to address the intracellular change in Lp-PLA2 in adipocytes. Lp-PLA2 and calcium-independent PLA2 (iPLA2) isoforms were altered by adiposity, as shown by microarray analysis (p < 0.05). Type 2 diabetes status was also observed to significantly alter gene and protein levels of Lp-PLA2 in abdominal subcutaneous (AbdSc) (p < 0.01), but not omental, adipose tissue. Furthermore, multivariate stepwise regression analysis of circulating Lp-PLA2 and metabolic markers revealed that the greatest predictor of Lp-PLA2 in non-diabetic individuals was LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.004). Additionally, in people with type 2 diabetes, oxidised LDL (oxLDL), triacylglycerols and HDL

  8. Lowered iPLA2γ activity causes increased mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial dysfunction in a rotenone-induced model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chao, Honglu; Liu, Yinlong; Fu, Xian; Xu, Xiupeng; Bao, Zhongyuan; Lin, Chao; Li, Zheng; Liu, Yan; Wang, Xiaoming; You, Yongping; Liu, Ning; Ji, Jing

    2018-02-01

    iPLA 2 γ, calcium-independent phospholipase A 2 γ, discerningly hydrolyses glycerophospholipids to liberate free fatty acids. iPLA 2 γ-deficiency has been associated with abnormal mitochondrial function. More importantly, the iPLA 2 family is causative proteins in mitochondrial neurodegenerative disorders such as parkinsonian disorders. However, the mechanisms by which iPLA 2 γ affects Parkinson's disease (PD) remain unknown. Mitochondrion stress has a key part in rotenone-induced dopaminergic neuronal degeneration. The present evaluation revealed that lowered iPLA 2 γ function provokes the parkinsonian phenotype and leads to the reduction of dopamine and its metabolites, lowered survival, locomotor deficiencies, and organismal hypersensitivity to rotenone-induced oxidative stress. In addition, lowered iPLA 2 γ function escalated the amount of mitochondrial irregularities, including mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) regeneration, reduced ATP synthesis, reduced glutathione levels, and abnormal mitochondrial morphology. Further, lowered iPLA 2 γ function was tightly linked with strengthened lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial membrane flaws following rotenone treatment, which can cause cytochrome c release and eventually apoptosis. These results confirmed the important role of iPLA 2 γ, whereby decreasing iPLA 2 γ activity aggravates mitochondrial degeneration to induce neurodegenerative disorders in a rotenone rat model of Parkinson's disease. These findings may be useful in the design of rational approaches for the prevention and treatment of PD-associated symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Epitope Spreading of Autoantibody Response to PLA2R Associates with Poor Prognosis in Membranous Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Seitz-Polski, Barbara; Dolla, Guillaume; Payré, Christine; Girard, Christophe A.; Polidori, Joel; Zorzi, Kevin; Birgy-Barelli, Eléonore; Jullien, Perrine; Courivaud, Cécile; Krummel, Thierry; Benzaken, Sylvia; Bernard, Ghislaine; Burtey, Stéphane; Mariat, Christophe; Esnault, Vincent L.M.

    2016-01-01

    The phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R1) is the major autoantigen in idiopathic membranous nephropathy. However, the value of anti-PLA2R1 antibody titers in predicting patient outcomes is unknown. Here, we screened serum samples from 50 patients positive for PLA2R1 for immunoreactivity against a series of PLA2R1 deletion mutants covering the extracellular domains. We identified reactive epitopes in the cysteine-rich (CysR), C-type lectin domain 1 (CTLD1), and C-type lectin domain 7 (CTLD7) domains and confirmed the reactivity with soluble forms of each domain. We then used ELISAs to stratify 69 patients positive for PLA2R1 by serum reactivity to one or more of these domains: CysR (n=23), CysRC1 (n=14), and CysRC1C7 (n=32). Median ELISA titers measured using the full-length PLA2R1 antigens were not statistically different between subgroups. Patients with anti-CysR–restricted activity were younger (P=0.008), had less nephrotic range proteinuria (P=0.02), and exhibited a higher rate of spontaneous remission (P=0.03) and lower rates of renal failure progression (P=0.002) and ESRD (P=0.01) during follow-up. Overall, 31 of 69 patients had poor renal prognosis (urinary protein/creatinine ratio >4 g/g or eGFR<45 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at end of follow-up). High anti-PLA2R1 activity and epitope spreading beyond the CysR epitope were independent risk factors of poor renal prognosis in multivariable Cox regression analysis. Epitope spreading during follow-up associated with disease worsening (n=3), whereas reverse spreading from a CysRC1C7 profile back to a CysR profile associated with favorable outcome (n=1). We conclude that analysis of the PLA2R1 epitope profile and spreading is a powerful tool for monitoring disease severity and stratifying patients by renal prognosis. PMID:26567246

  10. Epitope Spreading of Autoantibody Response to PLA2R Associates with Poor Prognosis in Membranous Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Seitz-Polski, Barbara; Dolla, Guillaume; Payré, Christine; Girard, Christophe A; Polidori, Joel; Zorzi, Kevin; Birgy-Barelli, Eléonore; Jullien, Perrine; Courivaud, Cécile; Krummel, Thierry; Benzaken, Sylvia; Bernard, Ghislaine; Burtey, Stéphane; Mariat, Christophe; Esnault, Vincent L M; Lambeau, Gérard

    2016-05-01

    The phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R1) is the major autoantigen in idiopathic membranous nephropathy. However, the value of anti-PLA2R1 antibody titers in predicting patient outcomes is unknown. Here, we screened serum samples from 50 patients positive for PLA2R1 for immunoreactivity against a series of PLA2R1 deletion mutants covering the extracellular domains. We identified reactive epitopes in the cysteine-rich (CysR), C-type lectin domain 1 (CTLD1), and C-type lectin domain 7 (CTLD7) domains and confirmed the reactivity with soluble forms of each domain. We then used ELISAs to stratify 69 patients positive for PLA2R1 by serum reactivity to one or more of these domains: CysR (n=23), CysRC1 (n=14), and CysRC1C7 (n=32). Median ELISA titers measured using the full-length PLA2R1 antigens were not statistically different between subgroups. Patients with anti-CysR-restricted activity were younger (P=0.008), had less nephrotic range proteinuria (P=0.02), and exhibited a higher rate of spontaneous remission (P=0.03) and lower rates of renal failure progression (P=0.002) and ESRD (P=0.01) during follow-up. Overall, 31 of 69 patients had poor renal prognosis (urinary protein/creatinine ratio >4 g/g or eGFR<45 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) at end of follow-up). High anti-PLA2R1 activity and epitope spreading beyond the CysR epitope were independent risk factors of poor renal prognosis in multivariable Cox regression analysis. Epitope spreading during follow-up associated with disease worsening (n=3), whereas reverse spreading from a CysRC1C7 profile back to a CysR profile associated with favorable outcome (n=1). We conclude that analysis of the PLA2R1 epitope profile and spreading is a powerful tool for monitoring disease severity and stratifying patients by renal prognosis. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  11. Short-term fenofibrate treatment reduces elevated plasma Lp-PLA2 mass and sVCAM-1 levels in a subcohort of hypertriglyceridemic GOLDN participants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High levels of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) are associated with inflammation, atherosclerosis, and coronary heart disease events. In addition, Lp-PLA(2) has been linked to classical markers of endothelial activation, including soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM...

  12. Association of Lp-PLA2-A and early recurrence of vascular events after TIA and minor stroke.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jinxi; Zheng, Hongwei; Cucchiara, Brett L; Li, Jiejie; Zhao, Xingquan; Liang, Xianhong; Wang, Chunxue; Li, Hao; Mullen, Michael T; Johnston, S Claiborne; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Yongjun

    2015-11-03

    To determine the association of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) measured in the acute period and the short-term risk of recurrent vascular events in patients with TIA or minor stroke. We measured Lp-PLA2 activity (Lp-PLA2-A) in a subset of 3,201 participants enrolled in the CHANCE (Clopidogrel in High-Risk Patients with Acute Non-disabling Cerebrovascular Events) trial. Participants with TIA or minor stroke were enrolled within 24 hours of symptom onset and randomized to single or dual antiplatelet therapy. In the current analysis, the primary outcome was defined as the composite of ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, or death within 90 days. The composite endpoint occurred in 299 of 3,021 participants (9.9%). The population average Lp-PLA2-A level was 209 ± 59 nmol/min/mL (95% confidence interval [CI] 207-211). Older age, male sex, and current smoking were associated with higher Lp-PLA2-A levels. Lp-PLA2-A was significantly associated with the primary endpoint (adjusted hazard ratio 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.13 for every 30 nmol/min/mL increase). Similar results were seen for ischemic stroke alone. Adjustment for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol attenuated the association between Lp-PLA2-A and the primary endpoint (adjusted hazard ratio 1.04, 95% CI 0.97-1.11 for every 30 nmol/min/mL increase). Higher levels of Lp-PLA2-A in the acute period are associated with increased short-term risk of recurrent vascular events. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  13. Serum Lp-PLA2: as a novel viewpoint in periodontal treatment of hyperlipidaemics.

    PubMed

    Fentoğlu, Özlem; Kirzioğlu, Fatma Yeşim; Tözüm Bulut, Memduha; Kurgan, Şivge; Koçak, Havva; Sütcü, Recep; Kale Köroğlu, Banu; Günhan, Meral

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of periodontal treatment on serum lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in hyperlipidaemic patients with periodontitis. The study included 52 hyperlipidaemics and 28 systemically healthy controls (C) with periodontitis. Of the 52 hyperlipidaemics, 29 received a suggested diet (HD), and 23 of them were prescribed statin (HS). Clinical periodontal parameters, serum lipids, Lp-PLA2, and CRP levels were assessed at the baseline and 2 months after the completion of the nonsurgical periodontal treatment (2MPT). Serum parameters were also evaluated 1 week following the periodontal treatment (1WPT). At the baseline, patients in the HS group had a higher percentage of bleeding on probing than those in the C and HD groups. Hyperlipidaemics had higher serum triglyceride levels than the control group at 2MPT compared to the baseline. At 2MPT, the levels of Lp-PLA2 in the HS group were significantly higher compared to the baseline and 1WPT. There were no statistically significant differences in CRP levels between study periods for all groups. The periodontal treatment may affect the inflammatory control of hyperlipidaemic patients with periodontitis via increased Lp-PLA2 levels and severity of the impaired lipid metabolism. These findings may be important regarding the therapeutic strategies for hyperlipidaemics with periodontitis.

  14. HLA-DQA1 and PLA2R1 Polymorphisms and Risk of Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Bullich, Gemma; Ballarín, José; Oliver, Artur; Ayasreh, Nadia; Silva, Irene; Santín, Sheila; Díaz-Encarnación, Montserrat M.; Torra, Roser

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within HLA complex class II HLA-DQ α-chain 1 (HLA-DQA1) and M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R1) genes were identified as strong risk factors for idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) development in a recent genome-wide association study. Copy number variants (CNVs) within the Fc gamma receptor III (FCGR3) locus have been associated with several autoimmune diseases, but their role in IMN has not been studied. This study aimed to validate the association of HLA-DQA1 and PLA2R1 risk alleles with IMN in a Spanish cohort, test the putative association of FCGR3A and FCGR3B CNVs with IMN, and assess the use of these genetic factors to predict the clinical outcome of the disease. Design, settings, participants, & measurements A Spanish cohort of 89 IMN patients and 286 matched controls without nephropathy was recruited between October of 2009 and July of 2012. Case-control studies for SNPs within HLA-DQA1 (rs2187668) and PLA2R1 (rs4664308) genes and CNVs for FCGR3A and FCGR3B genes were performed. The contribution of these polymorphisms to predict clinical outcome and renal function decline was analyzed. Results This study validated the association of these HLA-DQA1 and PLA2R1 SNPs with IMN in a Spanish cohort and its increased risk when combining both risk genotypes. No significant association was found between FCGR3 CNVs and IMN. These results revealed that HLA-DQA1 and PLA2R1 genotype combination adjusted for baseline proteinuria strongly predicted response to immunosuppressive therapy. HLA-DQA1 genotype adjusted for proteinuria was also linked with renal function decline. Conclusion This study confirms that HLA-DQA1 and PLA2R1 genotypes are risk factors for IMN, whereas no association was identified for FCGR3 CNVs. This study provides, for the first time, evidence of the contribution of these HLA-DQA1 and PLA2R1 polymorphisms in predicting IMN response to immunosuppressors and disease

  15. HLA-DQA1 and PLA2R1 polymorphisms and risk of idiopathic membranous nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Bullich, Gemma; Ballarín, José; Oliver, Artur; Ayasreh, Nadia; Silva, Irene; Santín, Sheila; Díaz-Encarnación, Montserrat M; Torra, Roser; Ars, Elisabet

    2014-02-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within HLA complex class II HLA-DQ α-chain 1 (HLA-DQA1) and M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R1) genes were identified as strong risk factors for idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) development in a recent genome-wide association study. Copy number variants (CNVs) within the Fc gamma receptor III (FCGR3) locus have been associated with several autoimmune diseases, but their role in IMN has not been studied. This study aimed to validate the association of HLA-DQA1 and PLA2R1 risk alleles with IMN in a Spanish cohort, test the putative association of FCGR3A and FCGR3B CNVs with IMN, and assess the use of these genetic factors to predict the clinical outcome of the disease. A Spanish cohort of 89 IMN patients and 286 matched controls without nephropathy was recruited between October of 2009 and July of 2012. Case-control studies for SNPs within HLA-DQA1 (rs2187668) and PLA2R1 (rs4664308) genes and CNVs for FCGR3A and FCGR3B genes were performed. The contribution of these polymorphisms to predict clinical outcome and renal function decline was analyzed. This study validated the association of these HLA-DQA1 and PLA2R1 SNPs with IMN in a Spanish cohort and its increased risk when combining both risk genotypes. No significant association was found between FCGR3 CNVs and IMN. These results revealed that HLA-DQA1 and PLA2R1 genotype combination adjusted for baseline proteinuria strongly predicted response to immunosuppressive therapy. HLA-DQA1 genotype adjusted for proteinuria was also linked with renal function decline. This study confirms that HLA-DQA1 and PLA2R1 genotypes are risk factors for IMN, whereas no association was identified for FCGR3 CNVs. This study provides, for the first time, evidence of the contribution of these HLA-DQA1 and PLA2R1 polymorphisms in predicting IMN response to immunosuppressors and disease progression. Future studies are needed to validate and identify prognostic markers.

  16. Effect of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 inhibitor on insulin resistance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Hua; Jin, Jun; Sun, Li-Zhou

    2018-06-21

    This paper aims to investigate the influence of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) inhibitor, darapladib, on insulin resistance (IR) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic pregnant rats. The rat models were divided into Control (normal pregnancy), STZ + saline (STZ-induced diabetic pregnant rats), STZ + Low-dose and STZ + High-dose darapladib (STZ-induced diabetic pregnant rats treated with low-/high-dose darapladib) groups. Pathological changes were observed by Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Immunohistochemistry staining. Lp-PLA2 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). An automatic biochemical analyzer was used to measure the serum levels of biochemical indicators, and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were calculated. Western blot was applied to determine levels of inflammatory cytokines. Compared with Control group, rats in the STZ + saline group were significantly decreased in body weight, the number of embryo implantation, the number of insulin positive cells and pancreatic islet size as well as the islet endocrine cells, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) level, but substantially increased in Lp-PLA2, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), fatty acids (FFA), serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) levels. Moreover, the increased fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HOMA-IR and inflammatory cytokines but decreased fasting insulin (FINS) and ISI were also found in diabetic pregnant rats. On the contrary, rats in the darapladib-treated groups were just opposite to the STZ + saline group, and STZ + High-dose group improved better than STZ + Low-dose group. Thus, darapladib can improve lipid metabolism, and enhance insulin sensitivity of diabetic pregnant rats by regulating inflammatory cytokines.

  17. Aberrant methylation of the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor gene in leukemic cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R1) plays a crucial role in several signaling pathways and may act as tumor-suppressor. This study examined the expression and methylation of the PLA2R1 gene in Jurkat and U937 leukemic cell lines and its methylation in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute leukemia. Methods Sites of methylation of the PLA2R1 locus were identified by sequencing bisulfite-modified DNA fragments. Methylation specific-high resolution melting (MS-HRM) analysis was then carried out to quantify PLA2R1 methylation at 5`-CpG sites identified with differences in methylation between healthy control subjects and leukemic patients using sequencing of bisulfite-modified genomic DNA. Results Expression of PLA2R1 was found to be completely down-regulated in Jurkat and U937 cells, accompanied by complete methylation of PLA2R1 promoter and down-stream regions; PLA2R1 was re-expressed after exposure of cells to 5-aza-2´-deoxycytidine. MS-HRM analysis of the PLA2R1 locus in patients with different types of leukemia indicated an average methylation of 28.9% ± 17.8%, compared to less than 9% in control subjects. In MDS patients the extent of PLA2R1 methylation significantly increased with disease risk. Furthermore, measurements of PLA2R1 methylation appeared useful for predicting responsiveness to the methyltransferase inhibitor, azacitidine, as a pre-emptive treatment to avoid hematological relapse in patients with high-risk MDS or acute myeloid leukemia. Conclusions The study shows for the first time that PLA2R1 gene sequences are a target of hypermethylation in leukemia, which may have pathophysiological relevance for disease evolution in MDS and leukemogenesis. PMID:23217014

  18. Rosmarinic acid, a new snake venom phospholipase A2 inhibitor from Cordia verbenacea (Boraginaceae): antiserum action potentiation and molecular interaction.

    PubMed

    Ticli, Fábio K; Hage, Lorane I S; Cambraia, Rafael S; Pereira, Paulo S; Magro, Angelo J; Fontes, Marcos R M; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Giglio, José R; França, Suzelei C; Soares, Andreimar M; Sampaio, Suely V

    2005-09-01

    Many plants are used in traditional medicine as active agents against various effects induced by snakebite. The methanolic extract from Cordia verbenacea (Cv) significantly inhibited paw edema induced by Bothrops jararacussu snake venom and by its main basic phospholipase A2 homologs, namely bothropstoxins I and II (BthTXs). The active component was isolated by chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and by RP-HPLC on a C18 column and identified as rosmarinic acid (Cv-RA). Rosmarinic acid is an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid [2-O-cafeoil-3-(3,4-di-hydroxy-phenyl)-R-lactic acid]. This is the first report of RA in the species C. verbenacea ('baleeira', 'whaler') and of its anti-inflammatory and antimyotoxic properties against snake venoms and isolated toxins. RA inhibited the edema and myotoxic activity induced by the basic PLA2s BthTX-I and BthTX-II. It was, however, less efficient to inhibit the PLA2 activity of BthTX-II and, still less, the PLA2 and edema-inducing activities of the acidic isoform BthA-I-PLA2 from the same venom, showing therefore a higher inhibitory activity upon basic PLA2s. RA also inhibited most of the myotoxic and partially the edema-inducing effects of both basic PLA2s, thus reinforcing the idea of dissociation between the catalytic and pharmacological domains. The pure compound potentiated the ability of the commercial equine polyvalent antivenom in neutralizing lethal and myotoxic effects of the crude venom and of isolated PLA2s in experimental models. CD data presented here suggest that, after binding, no significant conformation changes occur either in the Cv-RA or in the target PLA2. A possible model for the interaction of rosmarinic acid with Lys49-PLA2 BthTX-I is proposed.

  19. Cytosolic phospholipase A2α is critical for angiotensin II-induced hypertension and associated cardiovascular pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nayaab S; Song, Chi Young; Jennings, Brett L; Estes, Anne M; Fang, Xiao R; Bonventre, Joseph V; Malik, Kafait U

    2015-04-01

    Angiotensin II activates cytosolic phospholipase A(2)α (cPLA2α) and releases arachidonic acid from tissue phospholipids, which mediate or modulate ≥1 cardiovascular effects of angiotensin II and has been implicated in hypertension. Because arachidonic acid release is the rate limiting step in eicosanoid production, cPLA2α might play a central role in the development of angiotensin II-induced hypertension. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of angiotensin II infusion for 13 days by micro-osmotic pumps on systolic blood pressure and associated pathogenesis in wild type (cPLA2α(+/+)) and cPLA2α(-/-) mice. Angiotensin II-induced increase in systolic blood pressure in cPLA2α(+/+) mice was abolished in cPLA2α(-/-) mice; increased systolic blood pressure was also abolished by the arachidonic acid metabolism inhibitor, 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid in cPLA2α(+/+) mice. Angiotensin II in cPLA2α(+/+) mice increased cardiac cPLA2 activity and urinary eicosanoid excretion, decreased cardiac output, caused cardiovascular remodeling with endothelial dysfunction, and increased vascular reactivity in cPLA2α(+/+) mice; these changes were diminished in cPLA2α(-/-) mice. Angiotensin II also increased cardiac infiltration of F4/80(+) macrophages and CD3(+) T lymphocytes, cardiovascular oxidative stress, expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers p58(IPK), and CHOP in cPLA2α(+/+) but not cPLA2α(-/-) mice. Angiotensin II increased cardiac activity of ERK1/2 and cSrc in cPLA2α(+/+) but not cPLA2α(-/-) mice. These data suggest that angiotensin II-induced hypertension and associated cardiovascular pathophysiological changes are mediated by cPLA2α activation, most likely through the release of arachidonic acid and generation of eicosanoids with predominant prohypertensive effects and activation of ≥1 signaling molecules, including ERK1/2 and cSrc. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. The association between the levels of CRP, IL-10, PLA2, Fbg and prognosis in traumatic fracture of lower limb.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jing; Wang, Jun-Wen; Xiao, Fei; Huang, Yu-Cheng

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine changes of sera levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-10 (IL-10), phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and fibrinogen β polypeptide chain gene (Fbg) in patients with traumatic fracture of lower limb, and to evaluate their association with prognosis. The changes in sera levels of CRP, IL-10, PLA2 and Fbg were observed at the time of injury, 24 h, and 5 and 7 days after surgery in 90 patients with traumatic fracture of lower limb. In addition, 50 cases, who presented for health examination, were included as the normal controls. The expression of sera levels of CRP, IL-10, PLA2 and Fbg in patients with traumatic fracture of lower limb, was markedly higher than that in the normal controls prior to surgery (P<0.05). The concentration of CRP significantly increased within 24 h after emergency, but decreased gradually as the wound healed, compared to the controls. Pre- and postoperative IL-10 levels increased within 24 h and then decreased gradually. The level of PLA2 in patients before and after surgery was increased, and then decreased gradually. The level of Fbg in patients with trauma was increased after 24 h and then decreased, and increased gradually. The correlation of serum CRP and IL-10 levels (r=0.634, P<0.05), and that of PLA2 and IL-10 levels (r=0.617, P<0.05) were positive. In conclusion, the expression of CRP, IL-10, PLA2 and Fbg levels in traumatic fracture of lower limb markedly increased and was closely associated with prognosis. CRP, IL-10, PLA2 and Fbg levels may therefore serve as useful indexes in determining the progression and prognosis of patients with traumatic fracture of lower limb.

  1. Lp-PLA2 activity is associated with increased risk of diabetic retinopathy: a longitudinal disease progression study.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Moneeza K; Kennedy, Gwen; Carr, Fiona; Doney, Alexander S F; Pearson, Ewan R; Morris, Andrew D; Johnson, Toby; McLaughlin, Megan M; Williams, Rachel E; Palmer, Colin N A

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the association between lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 (Lp-PLA 2 ) activity levels and incident diabetic retinopathy and change in retinopathy grade. This was a cohort study of diabetic participants with serum collected at baseline and routinely collected diabetic retinal screening data. Participants with type 2 diabetes from the GoDARTS (Genetics of Diabetes Audit and Research in Tayside Scotland) cohort were used. This cohort is composed of individuals of white Scottish ancestry from the Tayside region of Scotland. Survival analysis accounting for informative censoring by modelling death as a competing risk was performed for the development of incident diabetic retinopathy from a disease-free state in a 3 year follow-up period (n = 1364) by stratified Lp-PLA 2 activity levels (in quartiles). The same analysis was performed for transitions to more severe grades. The hazard of developing incident diabetic retinopathy was 2.08 times higher (95% CI 1.64, 2.63) for the highest quartile of Lp-PLA 2 activity compared with the lowest. Higher Lp-PLA 2 activity levels were associated with a significantly increased risk for transitions to all grades. The hazards of developing observable (or more severe) and referable (or more severe) retinopathy were 2.82 (95% CI 1.71, 4.65) and 1.87 (95% CI 1.26, 2.77) times higher for the highest quartile of Lp-PLA 2 activity compared with the lowest, respectively. Higher Lp-PLA 2 levels are associated with increased risk of death and the development of incident diabetic retinopathy, as well as transitions to more severe grades of diabetic retinopathy. These associations are independent of calculated LDL-cholesterol and other traditional risk factors. Further, this biomarker study shows that the association is temporally sensitive to the proximity of the event to measurement of Lp-PLA 2.

  2. Phase composition of lipoprotein SM/cholesterol/PtdCho affects FA specificity of sPLA2s.

    PubMed

    Kuksis, Arnis; Pruzanski, Waldemar

    2008-10-01

    We have previously reported preferential release of polyunsaturated FAs during hydrolysis of lipoprotein phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) by group X secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) and preferential release of oligounsaturated FAs during hydrolysis of lipoprotein PtdCho by group V sPLA2, but the mechanism of this selectivity has remained unknown. We now show that the rate and specificity of hydrolysis are affected by relative increases in endogenous SM and free cholesterol (FC) during the lipase digestion. The highest preference for arachidonate release from LDL and HDL by group X sPLA2 was observed for residual SM/PtdCho molar ratio of 1.2 and 0.4, compared with the respective starting ratios of 0.4 and 0.2, as measured by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Group V sPLA2 showed preferential release of linoleate from LDL and HDL at SM/PtdCho ratio 1.5 and 0.6, respectively. We have attributed the change in FA specificity to segregation of molecular species of PtdCho and of sPLA2s between disordered and ordered SM/FC/PtdCho lipid phases. The increases in SM and FC during digestion with group IIA sPLA2 were more limited, and a preferential hydrolysis of any FAs was not observed. The significance of SM and FC SM and FC accumulation during sPLA2 hydrolysis of lipoprotein PtdCho has been previously overlooked.

  3. A dangerous liaison: Leptin and sPLA2-IIA join forces to induce proliferation and migration of astrocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Martín, Rubén; Cordova, Claudia; Gutiérrez, Beatriz; Hernández, Marita; Nieto, María L

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma, the most aggressive type of primary brain tumour, shows worse prognosis linked to diabetes or obesity persistence. These pathologies are chronic inflammatory conditions characterized by altered profiles of inflammatory mediators, including leptin and secreted phospholipase A2-IIA (sPLA2-IIA). Both proteins, in turn, display diverse pro-cancer properties in different cell types, including astrocytes. Herein, to understand the underlying relationship between obesity and brain tumors, we investigated the effect of leptin, alone or in combination with sPLA2-IIA on astrocytoma cell functions. sPLA2-IIA induced up-regulation of leptin receptors in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells. Leptin, as well as sPLA2-IIA, increased growth and migration in these cells, through activation/phosphorylation of key proteins of survival cascades. Leptin, at concentrations with minimal or no activating effects on astrocytoma cells, enhanced growth and migration promoted by low doses of sPLA2-IIA. sPLA2-IIA alone induced a transient phosphorylation pattern in the Src/ERK/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K/rS6 pathway through EGFR transactivation, and co-addition of leptin resulted in a sustained phosphorylation of these signaling regulators. Mechanistically, EGFR transactivation and tyrosine- and serine/threonine-protein phosphatases revealed a key role in this leptin-sPLA2-IIA cross-talk. This cooperative partnership between both proteins was also found in primary astrocytes. These findings thus indicate that the adipokine leptin, by increasing the susceptibility of cells to inflammatory mediators, could contribute to worsen the prognosis of tumoral and neurodegenerative processes, being a potential mediator of some obesity-related medical complications.

  4. Structure of Human GIVD Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 Reveals Insights into Substrate Recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hui; Klein, Michael G.; Snell, Gyorgy

    Cytosolic phospholipases A2 (cPLA2s) consist of a family of calcium-sensitive enzymes that function to generate lipid second messengers through hydrolysis of membrane-associated glycerophospholipids. The GIVD cPLA2 (cPLA2δ) is a potential drug target for developing a selective therapeutic agent for the treatment of psoriasis. Here, we present two X-ray structures of human cPLA2δ, capturing an apo state, and in complex with a substrate-like inhibitor. Comparison of the apo and inhibitor-bound structures reveals conformational changes in a flexible cap that allows the substrate to access the relatively buried active site, providing new insight into the mechanism for substrate recognition. The cPLA2δ structuremore » reveals an unexpected second C2 domain that was previously unrecognized from sequence alignments, placing cPLA2δ into the class of membrane-associated proteins that contain a tandem pair of C2 domains. Furthermore, our structures elucidate novel inter-domain interactions and define three potential calcium-binding sites that are likely important for regulation and activation of enzymatic activity. These findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms governing cPLA2's function in signal transduction.« less

  5. Oxidatively modified phosphatidylserines on the surface of apoptotic cells are essential phagocytic ‘eat-me' signals: cleavage and inhibition of phagocytosis by Lp-PLA2

    PubMed Central

    Tyurin, V A; Balasubramanian, K; Winnica, D; Tyurina, Y Y; Vikulina, A S; He, R R; Kapralov, A A; Macphee, C H; Kagan, V E

    2014-01-01

    Diversified anionic phospholipids, phosphatidylserines (PS), externalized to the surface of apoptotic cells are universal phagocytic signals. However, the role of major PS metabolites, such as peroxidized species of PS (PSox) and lyso-PS, in the clearance of apoptotic cells has not been rigorously evaluated. Here, we demonstrate that H2O2 was equally effective in inducing apoptosis and externalization of PS in naive HL60 cells and in cells enriched with oxidizable polyunsaturated species of PS (supplemented with linoleic acid (LA)). Despite this, the uptake of LA-supplemented cells by RAW264.7 and THP-1 macrophages was more than an order of magnitude more effective than that of naive cells. A similar stimulation of phagocytosis was observed with LA-enriched HL60 cells and Jurkat cells triggered to apoptosis with staurosporine. This was due to the presence of PSox on the surface of apoptotic LA-supplemented cells (but not of naive cells). This enhanced phagocytosis was dependent on activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, as no stimulation of phagocytosis occurred in LA-enriched cells challenged with Fas antibody. Incubation of apoptotic cells with lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), a secreted enzyme with high specificity towards PSox, hydrolyzed peroxidized PS species in LA-supplemented cells resulting in the suppression of phagocytosis to the levels observed for naive cells. This suppression of phagocytosis by Lp-PLA2 was blocked by a selective inhibitor of Lp-PLA2, SB-435495. Screening of possible receptor candidates revealed the ability of several PS receptors and bridging proteins to recognize both PS and PSox, albeit with diverse selectivity. We conclude that PSox is an effective phagocytic ‘eat-me' signal that participates in the engulfment of cells undergoing intrinsic apoptosis. PMID:24464221

  6. Evaluation of Phototoxic and Skin Sensitization Potentials of PLA2-Free Bee Venom

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Yunwi; Pyo, Min-Jung; Bae, Seong Kyeong; Lee, Hyunkyoung; Kwon, Young Chul; Kim, Je Hein; Kim, Bokyung; Kim, Choul Goo; Kang, Changkeun; Kim, Euikyung

    2015-01-01

    Bee venom (BV) from honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) has been used in oriental medicine and cosmetic ingredients because of its diverse pharmacological activities. In many studies, among BV components, phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is known as a major player in BV-induced allergic reaction. Therefore, we removed PLA2 from BV using ultrafiltration and then investigated in vitro phototoxicity and in vivo skin sensitization of PLA2-free BV (PBV) in comparison with regular BV. The 3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity assay can be appropriated to identify the phototoxic effect of a test substance upon the exposure of ultraviolet A. Chlorpromazine, a positive control, showed high levels of photoirritation factor and mean photo effect values, while BV and PBV had less of these values. Local lymph node assay is an alternative method to evaluate skin sensitization potential of chemicals. BALB/c mice were treated with p-phenylenediamine (PPD, positive control), BV, or PBV. In all of PPD concentrations, stimulation indexes (SI) as sensitizing potential of chemicals were ≥1.6, determined to be sensitizer, while SI levels of BV and PBV were below 1.6. Thus, based on these findings, we propose that both BV and PBV are nonphototoxic compounds and nonsensitizers. PMID:26347784

  7. The importance of age and statin therapy in the interpretation of Lp-PLA(2) in ACS patients, and relation to CRP.

    PubMed

    Franeková, J; Kettner, J; Kubíček, Z; Jabor, A

    2015-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a marker of arterial inflammation while lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) is related to plaque instability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the risk of unstable plaque presenting as acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and Lp-PLA(2), and to assess the influence of statins on interpretation of Lp-PLA(2). A total of 362 consecutive patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute chest pain suggestive of ACS were evaluated by cardiologists as STEMI, NSTEMI, or unstable angina, and non-ACS. Serum biomarkers measured on admission: troponin I, C-reactive protein (Abbott), and Lp-PLA(2) (DiaDexus). Four groups were defined according to the final diagnosis and history of statin medication: ACS/statin-; ACS/statin+; non-ACS/statin-; non-ACS/statin+. Lp-PLA(2) was highest in ACS/statin- group; statins decreased Lp-PLA(2) both in ACS and non-ACS of about 20 %. Lp-PLA(2) was higher in ACS patients in comparison with non-ACS patients group without respect to statin therapy (p<0.001). Lp-PLA(2) predicted worse outcome (in terms of acute coronary syndrome) effectively in patients up to 62 years; limited prediction was found in older patients. C-reactive protein (CRP) failed to discriminate four groups of patients. Statin therapy and age should be taken into consideration while interpreting Lp-PLA(2) concentrations and lower cut-off values should be used for statin-treated persons.

  8. Mechanism of inhibition of human secretory phospholipase A2 by flavonoids: rationale for lead design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lättig, Jens; Böhl, Markus; Fischer, Petra; Tischer, Sandra; Tietböhl, Claudia; Menschikowski, Mario; Gutzeit, Herwig O.; Metz, Peter; Pisabarro, M. Teresa

    2007-08-01

    The human secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (PLA2-IIA) is a lipolytic enzyme. Its inhibition leads to a decrease in eicosanoids levels and, thereby, to reduced inflammation. Therefore, PLA2-IIA is of high pharmacological interest in treatment of chronic diseases such as asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. Quercetin and naringenin, amongst other flavonoids, are known for their anti-inflammatory activity by modulation of enzymes of the arachidonic acid cascade. However, the mechanism by which flavonoids inhibit Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) remained unclear so far. Flavonoids are widely produced in plant tissues and, thereby, suitable targets for pharmaceutical extractions and chemical syntheses. Our work focuses on understanding the binding modes of flavonoids to PLA2, their inhibition mechanism and the rationale to modify them to obtain potent and specific inhibitors. Our computational and experimental studies focused on a set of 24 compounds including natural flavonoids and naringenin-based derivatives. Experimental results on PLA2-inhibition showed good inhibitory activity for quercetin, kaempferol, and galangin, but relatively poor for naringenin. Several naringenin derivatives were synthesized and tested for affinity and inhibitory activity improvement. 6-(1,1-dimethylallyl)naringenin revealed comparable PLA2 inhibition to quercetin-like compounds. We characterized the binding mode of these compounds and the determinants for their affinity, selectivity, and inhibitory potency. Based on our results, we suggest C(6) as the most promising position of the flavonoid scaffold to introduce chemical modifications to improve affinity, selectivity, and inhibition of PLA2-IIA by flavonoids.

  9. Phospholipase A2 activation regulates cytotoxicity of methylmercury in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mazerik, Jessica N; Hagele, Thomas; Sherwani, Shariq; Ciapala, Valorie; Butler, Susan; Kuppusamy, M Lakshmi; Hunter, Melissa; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Marsh, Clay B; Parinandi, Narasimham L

    2007-01-01

    Mercury has been identified as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease among humans. Through diet, mainly fish consumption, humans are exposed to methylmercury, the biomethylated organic form of environmental mercury. As the endothelium is an important player in homeostasis of the cardiovascular system, here, the authors tested their hypothesis that methylmercury activates the lipid signaling enzyme phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) in vascular endothelial cells (ECs), causing upstream regulation of cytotoxicity. To test this hypothesis, the authors used bovine pulmonary artery ECs (BPAECs) cultured in monolayers, following labeling of their membrane phospholipids with [(3)H]arachidonic acid (AA). The cells were exposed to methylmercury chloride (MMC) and then the release of free AA (index of PLA(2) activity) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; index of cytotoxicity) were determined by liquid scintillation counting and spectrophotometry, respectively. MMC significantly activated PLA(2) in a dose-dependent (5 to 15 microM) and time-dependent (0 to 60 min) fashion. Sulfhydryl (thiol-protective) agents, calcium chelators, antioxidants, and PLA(2)-specific inhibitors attenuated the MMC-induced PLA(2) activation, suggesting the role of thiols, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and calcium in the activation of PLA(2) in BPAECs. MMC also induced the loss of thiols and increase of lipid peroxidation in BPAECs. MMC induced cytotoxicity in BPAECs as observed by the altered cell morphology and LDH leak, which was significantly attenuated by PLA(2) inhibitors. This study established that PLA(2) activation through thiols, calcium, and oxidative stress was associated with the cytotoxicity of MMC in BPAECs, drawing attention to the involvement of PLA(2) signaling in the methylmercury-induced vascular endothelial dysfunctions.

  10. Group X secreted phospholipase A2 proenzyme is matured by a furin-like proprotein convertase and releases arachidonic acid inside of human HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Jemel, Ikram; Ii, Hiromi; Oslund, Rob C; Payré, Christine; Dabert-Gay, Anne-Sophie; Douguet, Dominique; Chargui, Khaoula; Scarzello, Sabine; Gelb, Michael H; Lambeau, Gérard

    2011-10-21

    Among mammalian secreted phospholipases A(2) (sPLA(2)s), group X sPLA(2) has the most potent hydrolyzing activity toward phosphatidylcholine and is involved in arachidonic acid (AA) release. Group X sPLA(2) is produced as a proenzyme and contains a short propeptide of 11 amino acids ending with a dibasic motif, suggesting cleavage by proprotein convertases. Although the removal of this propeptide is clearly required for enzymatic activity, the cellular location and the protease(s) involved in proenzyme conversion are unknown. Here we have analyzed the maturation of group X sPLA(2) in HEK293 cells, which have been extensively used to analyze sPLA(2)-induced AA release. Using recombinant mouse (PromGX) and human (ProhGX) proenzymes; HEK293 cells transfected with cDNAs coding for full-length ProhGX, PromGX, and propeptide mutants; and various permeable and non-permeable sPLA(2) inhibitors and protease inhibitors, we demonstrate that group X sPLA(2) is mainly converted intracellularly and releases AA before externalization from the cell. Most strikingly, the exogenous proenzyme does not elicit AA release, whereas the transfected proenzyme does elicit AA release in a way insensitive to non-permeable sPLA(2) inhibitors. In transfected cells, a permeable proprotein convertase inhibitor, but not a non-permeable one, prevents group X sPLA(2) maturation and partially blocks AA release. Mutations at the dibasic motif of the propeptide indicate that the last basic residue is required and sufficient for efficient maturation and AA release. All together, these results argue for the intracellular maturation of group X proenzyme in HEK293 cells by a furin-like proprotein convertase, leading to intracellular release of AA during secretion.

  11. Group X Secreted Phospholipase A2 Proenzyme Is Matured by a Furin-like Proprotein Convertase and Releases Arachidonic Acid inside of Human HEK293 Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Jemel, Ikram; Ii, Hiromi; Oslund, Rob C.; Payré, Christine; Dabert-Gay, Anne-Sophie; Douguet, Dominique; Chargui, Khaoula; Scarzello, Sabine; Gelb, Michael H.; Lambeau, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    Among mammalian secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s), group X sPLA2 has the most potent hydrolyzing activity toward phosphatidylcholine and is involved in arachidonic acid (AA) release. Group X sPLA2 is produced as a proenzyme and contains a short propeptide of 11 amino acids ending with a dibasic motif, suggesting cleavage by proprotein convertases. Although the removal of this propeptide is clearly required for enzymatic activity, the cellular location and the protease(s) involved in proenzyme conversion are unknown. Here we have analyzed the maturation of group X sPLA2 in HEK293 cells, which have been extensively used to analyze sPLA2-induced AA release. Using recombinant mouse (PromGX) and human (ProhGX) proenzymes; HEK293 cells transfected with cDNAs coding for full-length ProhGX, PromGX, and propeptide mutants; and various permeable and non-permeable sPLA2 inhibitors and protease inhibitors, we demonstrate that group X sPLA2 is mainly converted intracellularly and releases AA before externalization from the cell. Most strikingly, the exogenous proenzyme does not elicit AA release, whereas the transfected proenzyme does elicit AA release in a way insensitive to non-permeable sPLA2 inhibitors. In transfected cells, a permeable proprotein convertase inhibitor, but not a non-permeable one, prevents group X sPLA2 maturation and partially blocks AA release. Mutations at the dibasic motif of the propeptide indicate that the last basic residue is required and sufficient for efficient maturation and AA release. All together, these results argue for the intracellular maturation of group X proenzyme in HEK293 cells by a furin-like proprotein convertase, leading to intracellular release of AA during secretion. PMID:21878635

  12. Activation of bradykinin B2 receptor induced the inflammatory responses of cytosolic phospholipase A2 after the early traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Chao, Honglu; Liu, Yinlong; Lin, Chao; Xu, Xiupeng; Li, Zheng; Bao, Zhongyuan; Fan, Liang; Tao, Chao; Zhao, Lin; Liu, Yan; Wang, Xiaoming; You, Yongping; Liu, Ning; Ji, Jing

    2018-06-09

    Phospholipase A 2 is a known aggravator of inflammation and deteriorates neurological outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI), however the exact inflammatory mechanisms remain unknown. This study investigated the role of bradykinin and its receptor, which are known initial mediators within inflammation activation, as well as the mechanisms of the cytosolic phospholipase A 2 (cPLA 2 )-related inflammatory responses after TBI. We found that cPLA 2 and bradykinin B2 receptor were upregulated after a TBI. Rats treated with the bradykinin B2 receptor inhibitor LF 16-0687 exhibited significantly less cPLA 2 expression and related inflammatory responses in the brain cortex after sustaining a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury. Both the cPLA 2 inhibitor and the LF16-0687 improved CCI rat outcomes by decreasing neuron death and reducing brain edema. The following TBI model utilized both primary astrocytes and primary neurons in order to gain further understanding of the inflammation mechanisms of the B2 bradykinin receptor and the cPLA 2 in the central nervous system. There was a stronger reaction from the astrocytes as well as a protective effect of LF16-0687 after the stretch injury and bradykinin treatment. The protein kinase C pathway was thought to be involved in the B2 bradykinin receptor as well as the cPLA 2 -related inflammatory responses. Rottlerin, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) δ inhibitor, decreased the activity of the cPLA 2 activity post-injury, and LF16-0687 suppressed both the PKC pathway and the cPLA 2 activity within the astrocytes. These results indicated that the bradykinin B2 receptor-mediated pathway is involved in the cPLA 2 -related inflammatory response from the PKC pathway. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Inhibition of calcium-independent phospholipase A2 prevents arachidonic acid incorporation and phospholipid remodeling in P388D1 macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Balsinde, J; Bianco, I D; Ackermann, E J; Conde-Frieboes, K; Dennis, E A

    1995-01-01

    Cellular levels of free arachidonic acid (AA) are controlled by a deacylation/reacylation cycle whereby the fatty acid is liberated by phospholipases and reincorporated by acyltransferases. We have found that the esterification of AA into membrane phospholipids is a Ca(2+)-independent process and that it is blocked up to 60-70% by a bromoenollactone (BEL) that is a selective inhibitor of a newly discovered Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in macrophages. The observed inhibition correlates with a decreased steady-state level of lysophospholipids as well as with the inhibition of the Ca(2+)-independent PLA2 activity in these cells. This inhibition is specific for the Ca(2+)-independent PLA2 in that neither group IV PLA2, group II PLA2, arachidonoyl-CoA synthetase, lysophospholipid:arachidonoyl-CoA acyltransferase, nor CoA-independent transacylase is affected by treatment with BEL. Moreover, two BEL analogs that are not inhibitors of the Ca(2+)-independent PLA2--namely a bromomethyl ketone and methyl-BEL--do not inhibit AA incorporation into phospholipids. Esterification of palmitic acid is only slightly affected by BEL, indicating that de novo synthetic pathways are not inhibited by BEL. Collectively, the data suggest that the Ca(2+)-independent PLA2 in P388D1 macrophages plays a major role in regulating the incorporation of AA into membrane phospholipids by providing the lysophospholipid acceptor employed in the acylation reaction. PMID:7667324

  14. PLA2 mediated arachidonate free radicals: PLA2 inhibition and neutralization of free radicals by anti-oxidants--a new role as anti-inflammatory molecule.

    PubMed

    Nanda, B L; Nataraju, A; Rajesh, R; Rangappa, K S; Shekar, M A; Vishwanath, B S

    2007-01-01

    PLA2 enzyme catalyses the hydrolysis of cellular phospholipids at the sn-2 position to liberate arachidonic acid and lysophospholipid to generate a family of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and platelet activating factor. The generation of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids involves a series of free radical intermediates with simultaneous release of reactive oxygen species (superoxide and hydroxyl radicals). Reactive oxygen species formed during arachidonic acid metabolism generates lipid peroxides and the cytotoxic products such as 4-hydroxy nonenal and acrolein, which induces cellular damage. Thus PLA2 catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and free radicals. These peroxides and reactive oxygen species in turn activates PLA2 enzyme and further attenuates the inflammatory process. Therefore scavenging these free radicals and inhibition of PLA2 enzyme simultaneously by a single molecule such as antioxidants is of great therapeutic relevance for the development of anti-inflammatory molecules. PLA2 enzymes have been classified into calcium dependent cPLA2 and sPLA2 and calcium independent iPLA2 forms. In several inflammatory diseases sPLA2 group IIA is the most abundant isoform identified. This isoform is therefore targeted for the development of anti-inflammatory molecules. Many secondary metabolites from plants and marine sponges exhibit both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Some of them include flavonoids, terpenes and alkaloids. But in terms of PLA2 inhibition and antioxidant activity, the structural aspects of flavonoids are well studied rather than terpenes and alkaloids. In this line, molecules having both anti-oxidant and PLA2 inhibitions are reviewed. A single molecule with dual activities may prove to be a powerful anti-inflammatory drug.

  15. Ageing sensitized by iPLA2β deficiency induces liver fibrosis and intestinal atrophy involving suppression of homeostatic genes and alteration of intestinal lipids and bile acids.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Li; Gan-Schreier, Hongying; Zhu, Xingya; Wei, Wang; Tuma-Kellner, Sabine; Liebisch, Gerhard; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Chamulitrat, Walee

    2017-12-01

    Ageing is a major risk factor for various forms of liver and gastrointestinal (GI) disease and genetic background may contribute to the pathogenesis of these diseases. Group VIA phospholipase A2 or iPLA 2 β is a homeostatic PLA 2 by playing a role in phospholipid metabolism and remodeling. Global iPLA 2 β -/- mice exhibit aged-dependent phenotypes with body weight loss and abnormalities in the bone and brain. We have previously reported the abnormalities in these mutant mice showing susceptibility for chemical-induced liver injury and colitis. We hypothesize that iPLA 2 β deficiency may sensitize with ageing for an induction of GI injury. Male wild-type and iPLA 2 β -/- mice at 4 and 20-22months of age were studied. Aged, but not young, iPLA 2 β -/- mice showed increased hepatic fibrosis and biliary ductular expansion as well as severe intestinal atrophy associated with increased apoptosis, pro-inflammation, disrupted tight junction, and reduced number of mucin-containing globlet cells. This damage was associated with decreased expression of intestinal endoplasmic stress XBP1 and its regulator HNF1α, FATP4, ACSL5, bile-acid transport genes as well as nuclear receptors LXRα and FXR. By LC/MS-MS profiling, iPLA 2 β deficiency in aged mice caused an increase of intestinal arachidonate-containing phospholipids concomitant with a decrease in ceramides. By the suppression of intestinal FXR/FGF-15 signaling, hepatic bile-acid synthesis gene expression was increased leading to an elevation of secondary and hydrophobic bile acids in liver, bile, and intestine. In conclusions, ageing sensitized by iPLA 2 β deficiency caused a decline of key intestinal homeostatic genes resulting in the development of GI disease in a gut-to-liver manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Group X Phospholipase A2 Stimulates the Proliferation of Colon Cancer Cells by Producing Various Lipid Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Surrel, Fanny; Jemel, Ikram; Boilard, Eric; Bollinger, James G.; Payré, Christine; Mounier, Carine M.; Talvinen, Kati A.; Laine, Veli J. O.; Nevalainen, Timo J.; Gelb, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    Among mammalian secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s), the group X enzyme has the most potent hydrolyzing capacity toward phosphatidylcholine, the major phospholipid of cell membrane and lipoproteins. This enzyme has recently been implicated in chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis and asthma and may also play a role in colon tumorigenesis. We show here that group X sPLA2 [mouse (m)GX] is one of the most highly expressed PLA2 in the mouse colon and that recombinant mouse and human enzymes stimulate proliferation and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation of various colon cell lines, including Colon-26 cancer cells. Among various recombinant sPLA2s, mGX is the most potent enzyme to stimulate cell proliferation. Based on the use of sPLA2 inhibitors, catalytic site mutants, and small interfering RNA silencing of cytosolic PLA2α and M-type sPLA2 receptor, we demonstrate that mGX promotes cell proliferation independently of the receptor and via its intrinsic catalytic activity and production of free arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids, which are mitogenic by themselves. mGX can also elicit the production of large amounts of prostaglandin E2 and other eicosanoids from Colon-26 cells, but these lipid mediators do not play a role in mGX-induced cell proliferation because inhibitors of cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases do not prevent sPLA2 mitogenic effects. Together, our results indicate that group X sPLA2 may play an important role in colon tumorigenesis by promoting cancer cell proliferation and releasing various lipid mediators involved in other key events in cancer progression. PMID:19602573

  17. Group X phospholipase A2 stimulates the proliferation of colon cancer cells by producing various lipid mediators.

    PubMed

    Surrel, Fanny; Jemel, Ikram; Boilard, Eric; Bollinger, James G; Payré, Christine; Mounier, Carine M; Talvinen, Kati A; Laine, Veli J O; Nevalainen, Timo J; Gelb, Michael H; Lambeau, Gérard

    2009-10-01

    Among mammalian secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA(2)s), the group X enzyme has the most potent hydrolyzing capacity toward phosphatidylcholine, the major phospholipid of cell membrane and lipoproteins. This enzyme has recently been implicated in chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis and asthma and may also play a role in colon tumorigenesis. We show here that group X sPLA(2) [mouse (m)GX] is one of the most highly expressed PLA(2) in the mouse colon and that recombinant mouse and human enzymes stimulate proliferation and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation of various colon cell lines, including Colon-26 cancer cells. Among various recombinant sPLA(2)s, mGX is the most potent enzyme to stimulate cell proliferation. Based on the use of sPLA(2) inhibitors, catalytic site mutants, and small interfering RNA silencing of cytosolic PLA(2)alpha and M-type sPLA(2) receptor, we demonstrate that mGX promotes cell proliferation independently of the receptor and via its intrinsic catalytic activity and production of free arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids, which are mitogenic by themselves. mGX can also elicit the production of large amounts of prostaglandin E2 and other eicosanoids from Colon-26 cells, but these lipid mediators do not play a role in mGX-induced cell proliferation because inhibitors of cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases do not prevent sPLA(2) mitogenic effects. Together, our results indicate that group X sPLA(2) may play an important role in colon tumorigenesis by promoting cancer cell proliferation and releasing various lipid mediators involved in other key events in cancer progression.

  18. A novel protein from the serum of Python sebae, structurally homologous with type-γ phospholipase A(2) inhibitor, displays antitumour activity.

    PubMed

    Donnini, Sandra; Finetti, Federica; Francese, Simona; Boscaro, Francesca; Dani, Francesca R; Maset, Fabio; Frasson, Roberta; Palmieri, Michele; Pazzagli, Mario; De Filippis, Vincenzo; Garaci, Enrico; Ziche, Marina

    2011-12-01

    Cytotoxic and antitumour factors have been documented in the venom of snakes, although little information is available on the identification of cytotoxic products in snake serum. In the present study, we purified and characterized a new cytotoxic factor from serum of the non-venomous African rock python (Python sebae), endowed with antitumour activity. PSS (P. sebae serum) exerted a cytotoxic activity and reduced dose-dependently the viability of several different tumour cell lines. In a model of human squamous cell carcinoma xenograft (A431), subcutaneous injection of PSS in proximity of the tumour mass reduced the tumour volume by 20%. Fractionation of PSS by ion-exchange chromatography yielded an active protein fraction, F5, which significantly reduced tumour cell viability in vitro and, strikingly, tumour growth in vivo. F5 is composed of P1 (peak 1) and P2 subunits interacting in a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio to form a heterotetramer in equilibrium with a hexameric form, which retained biological activity only when assembled. The two peptides share sequence similarity with PIP {PLI-γ [type-γ PLA(2) (phospholipase A(2)) inhibitor] from Python reticulatus}, existing as a homohexamer. More importantly, although PIP inhibits the hydrolytic activity of PLA(2), the anti-PLA(2) function of F5 is negligible. Using high-resolution MS, we covered 87 and 97% of the sequences of P1 and P2 respectively. In conclusion, in the present study we have identified and thoroughly characterized a novel protein displaying high sequence similarity to PLI-γ and possessing remarkable cytotoxic and antitumour effects that can be exploited for potential pharmacological applications.

  19. Protective effects of TES trioleate, an inhibitor of phospholipase A2, on reactive oxygen species and UVA-induced cell damage.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo Nam; Kim, Moon Jin; Ha, Ji Hoon; Lee, Nan Hee; Park, Jino; Lee, Jiwon; Kim, Dukha; Yoon, Chulsoo

    2016-11-01

    2-[Tris(oleoyloxymethyl)methylamino]-1-ethane sulfonic acid (TES trioleate) is an inhibitor of phospholipase A 2 (PLA2), which hydrolyzes cell membrane phospholipids to produce arachidonic acid (AA) and lysophospholipids (LysoPLs). Here, we investigated the protective effects of TES trioleate on cell damage caused by ultraviolet A (UVA) light and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Pre-incubation with 250-1000μM TES trioleate resulted in concentration-dependent protection from UVA-induced damage in HaCaT cells. Additionally, 25-1000μM TES trioleate provided protection against H 2 O 2 in a concentration-dependent manner. In human erythrocytes treated with 1 O 2 , 10-100μM TES trioleate showed concentration-dependent protective effects, similar to but stronger than the controls, 4-BPB and lipophilic antioxidant (+)-α-tocopherol at 100μM. TES trioleate did not have detectable radical scavenging activity. Moreover, compared with (+)-α-tocopherol and rutin, TES trioleate showed low ROS scavenging activity. Thus, although TES trioleate showed cell protective effects against UVA, H 2 O 2 , and 1 O 2 -induced damages, these effects were not caused by the scavenging ability of the radical or ROS. Finally, pretreatment of HaCaT cells and human erythrocytes with l-α-lysophosphatidylcholine produced by PLA2 promoted increased cell damage at low concentrations. Thus, the protective effects of TES trioleate on cellular damage by UVA and ROS may be associated with inhibition of PLA2-dependent cell damage rather than ROS scavenging. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Synaptosomal binding of 125I-labelled daboiatoxin, a new PLA2 neurotoxin from the venom of Daboia russelli siamensis.

    PubMed

    Maung-Maung-Thwin; Gopalakrishnakone, P; Yuen, R; Tan, C H

    1996-02-01

    Daboiatoxin (DbTx), the PLA2 neurotoxin from Daboia russelli siamensis venom, was shown to bind specifically and saturably to rat cerebrocortical synaptosomes and synaptic membrane fragments. Two families of binding sites were detected by equilibrium binding analysis in the presence and absence of Ca2+. Scatchard analysis of biphasic plateaus revealed Kdl 5 nM and Bmax1, 6 pmoles/mg protein, and Kd2 80 nM and Bmax2 20 pmoles/mg protein, respectively, for the high- and low-affinity binding sites. The binding of 125I-DbTx to synaptosomes did not show marked dependence on Ca2+, Mg2+, Co2+ and Sr2+. Native DbTx was the only strong competitor to 125I-DbTx synaptosomal binding (IC50 12.5 nM, KI 5.5 nM). Two other crotalid PLA2 neurotoxins, crotoxin CB and mojave toxin basic subunit, and nontoxic C. Atrox PLA2 enzyme, were relatively weaker inhibitors, while two viperid PLA2 neurotoxins, ammodytoxin A and VRV PL V, were very weak inhibitors. Crotoxin CA was a poor inhibitor even at microM concentrations, whereas no inhibitory effect at all was observed with crotoxin CACB, ammodytoxin C, VRV PL VIIIa, taipoxin, beta-bungarotoxin, or with PLA2 enzymes from N. naja venom, E. schistosa venom, bee venom and porcine pancreas. All other pharmacologically active ligands examined (epinephrine, norepinephrine, histamine, choline, dopamine, serotonin, GABA, naloxone, WB-4101, atropine, hexamethonium and alpha-bun-garotoxin) also failed to interfere with 125I-DbTx binding. As those competitors that showed partial inhibition were effective only at microM concentration range compared to the Kd (5 nM) of 125I-DbTx synaptosomal binding, DbTx could well recognize a different neuronal binding site. Rabbit anti-DbTx polyclonal antisera completely blocked the specific binding. When a range of Ca2+ and K+ channels modulators were examined, Ca2+ channel blockers (omega-conotoxins GVIA and MVIIC, taicatoxin, calciseptine and nitrendiprene) did not affect the binding even at high concentrations

  1. Replacing with whole grains and legumes reduces Lp-PLA2 activities in plasma and PBMCs in patients with prediabetes or T2D1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minjoo; Jeung, Se Ri; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-01-01

    To determine dietary effects on circulating lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity and enzyme activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), 99 patients with impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or newly-diagnosed T2D were randomly assigned to either a control group (usual diet with refined rice) or the whole grain and legume group. Substitution of whole grains and legumes for refined rice was associated with the replacement of 7% of energy from carbohydrates with energy from protein (about 4%) and fat. After 12 weeks, the whole grain and legume group showed a significant decrease in fasting glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, hemoglobin A1c, malondialdehyde, plasma Lp-PLA2 activity, and oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), and an increase in LDL particle size. The changes (Δs) in these variables in the whole grain and legume group were significantly different from those in controls after adjustment for the baseline levels. When all subjects were considered, Δ plasma Lp-PLA2 positively correlated with Δ glucose, Δ PBMC Lp-PLA2, Δ ox-LDL, and Δ urinary 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α after being adjusted for confounding factors. The Δ PBMC Lp-PLA2 correlated positively with Δ glucose and Δ ox-LDL, and negatively with Δ LDL particle size and baseline PBMC Lp-PLA2. The substitution of whole grains and legumes for refined rice resulted in a reduction in Lp-PLA2 activities in plasma and PBMCs partly through improved glycemic control, increased consumption of protein relative to carbohydrate, and reduced lipid peroxides. PMID:24904022

  2. Dimethyl ester of bilirubin exhibits anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of secretory phospholipase A2, lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Vikram; Umashankara, M; Ramakrishnan, Chandrasekaran; Nanjaraj Urs, Ankanahalli N; Suvilesh, Kanve Nagaraj; Velmurugan, Devadasan; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S; Vishwanath, Bannikuppe Sannanaik

    2016-05-15

    Overproduction of arachidonic acid (AA) mediated by secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (sPLA2IIA) is a hallmark of many inflammatory disorders. AA is subsequently converted into pro-inflammatory eicosanoids through 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and cyclooxygenase-1/2 (COX-1/2) activities. Hence, inhibition of sPLA2IIA, 5-LOX and COX-1/2 activities is critical in regulating inflammation. We have previously reported unconjugated bilirubin (UCB), an endogenous antioxidant, as sPLA2IIA inhibitor. However, lipophilic UCB gets conjugated in liver with glucuronic acid into hydrophilic conjugated bilirubin (CB). Since hydrophobicity is pre-requisite for sPLA2IIA inhibition, conjugation reduces the efficacy of UCB. In this regard, UCB was chemically modified and derivatives were evaluated for sPLA2IIA, 5-LOX and COX-1/2 inhibition. Among the derivatives, BD1 (dimethyl ester of bilirubin) exhibited ∼ 3 fold greater inhibitory potency towards sPLA2IIA compared to UCB. Both UCB and BD1 inhibited human 5-LOX and COX-2 activities; however only BD1 inhibited AA induced platelet aggregation. Molecular docking studies demonstrated BD1 as better inhibitor of aforesaid enzymes than UCB and other endogenous antioxidants. These data suggest that BD1 exhibits strong anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of AA cascade enzymes which is of great therapeutic importance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Expression of Clonorchis sinensis GIIIsPLA2 protein in baculovirus-infected insect cells and its overexpression facilitating epithelial-mesenchymal transition in Huh7 cells via AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Shang, Mei; Xie, Zhizhi; Tang, Zeli; He, Lei; Wang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Caiqin; Wu, Yinjuan; Li, Ye; Zhao, Lu; Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing; Li, Xuerong

    2017-04-01

    Although prior studies confirmed that group III secretory phospholipase A 2 of Clonorchis sinensis (CsGIIIsPLA 2 ) had stimulating effect on liver fibrosis by binding to LX-2 cells, large-scale expression of recombinant protein and its function in the progression of hepatoma are worth exploring. Because of high productivity and low lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in the Sf9-baculovirus expression system, we firstly used this system to express the coding region of CsGIIIsPLA 2 . The molecular weight of recombinant CsGIIIsPLA 2 protein was about 34 kDa. Further investigation showed that most of the recombinant protein presented intracellular expression in Sf9 insect cell nucleus and could be detected only into cell debris, which made the protein purification and further functional study difficult. Therefore, to study the role of CsGIIIsPLA 2 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression, CsGIIIsPLA 2 overexpression Huh7 cell model was applied. Cell proliferation, migration, and the expression level of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related molecules (E-cadherin, N-cadherin, α-catenin, Vimentin, p300, Snail, and Slug) along with possible mechanism were measured. The results indicated that CsGIIIsPLA 2 overexpression not only inhibited cell proliferation and promoted migration and EMT but also enhanced the phosphorylation of AKT in HCC cells. In conclusion, this study supported that CsGIIIsPLA 2 overexpression suppressed cell proliferation and induced EMT through the AKT pathway.

  4. Quantitative trait locus mapping in mice identifies phospholipase Pla2g12a as novel atherosclerosis modifier.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, Alexandros; Northoff, Bernd H; Sass, Kristina; Ernst, Jana; Kohlmaier, Alexander; Krohn, Knut; Wolfrum, Christian; Teupser, Daniel; Holdt, Lesca M

    2017-10-01

    In a previous work, a female-specific atherosclerosis risk locus on chromosome (Chr) 3 was identified in an intercross of atherosclerosis-resistant FVB and atherosclerosis-susceptible C57BL/6 (B6) mice on the LDL-receptor deficient (Ldlr -/- ) background. It was the aim of the current study to identify causative genes at this locus. We established a congenic mouse model, where FVB.Chr3 B6/B6 mice carried an 80 Mb interval of distal Chr3 on an otherwise FVB.Ldlr -/- background, to validate the Chr3 locus. Candidate genes were identified using genome-wide expression analyses. Differentially expressed genes were validated using quantitative PCRs in F0 and F2 mice and their functions were investigated in pathophysiologically relevant cells. Fine-mapping of the Chr3 locus revealed two overlapping, yet independent subloci for female atherosclerosis susceptibility: when transmitted by grandfathers to granddaughters, the B6 risk allele increased atherosclerosis and downregulated the expression of the secreted phospholipase Pla2g12a (2.6 and 2.2 fold, respectively); when inherited by grandmothers, the B6 risk allele induced vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (Vcam1). Down-regulation of Pla2g12a and up-regulation of Vcam1 were validated in female FVB.Chr3 B6/B6 congenic mice, which developed 2.5 greater atherosclerotic lesions compared to littermate controls (p=0.039). Pla2g12a was highly expressed in aortic endothelial cells in vivo, and knocking-down Pla2g12a expression by RNAi in cultured vascular endothelial cells or macrophages increased their adhesion to ECs in vitro. Our data establish Pla2g12a as an atheroprotective candidate gene in mice, where high expression levels in ECs and macrophages may limit the recruitment and accumulation of these cells in nascent atherosclerotic lesions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A two-photon view of an enzyme at work: Crotalus atrox venom PLA2 interaction with single-lipid and mixed-lipid giant unilamellar vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Susana A; Bagatolli, Luis A; Gratton, Enrico; Hazlett, Theodore L

    2002-01-01

    We describe the interaction of Crotalus atrox-secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) with giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) composed of single and binary phospholipid mixtures visualized through two-photon excitation fluorescent microscopy. The GUV lipid compositions that we examined included 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) (above their gel-liquid crystal transition temperatures) and two well characterized lipid mixtures, 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DMPE):DMPC (7:3) and 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC)/1,2-diarachidoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DAPC) (1:1) equilibrated at their phase-coexistence temperature regime. The membrane fluorescence probes, 6-lauroyl-2-(dimethylamino) napthalene, 6-propionyl-2-(dimethylamino) naphthalene, and rhodamine-phosphatidylethanolamine, were used to assess the state of the membrane and specifically mark the phospholipid domains. Independent of their lipid composition, all GUVs were reduced in size as sPLA2-dependent lipid hydrolysis proceeded. The binding of sPLA2 was monitored using a fluorescein-sPLA2 conjugate. The sPLA2 was observed to associate with the entire surface of the liquid phase in the single phospholipid GUVs. In the mixed-lipid GUV's, at temperatures promoting domain coexistence, a preferential binding of the enzyme to the liquid regions was also found. The lipid phase of the GUV protein binding region was verified by the introduction of 6-propionyl-2-(dimethylamino) naphthalene, which partitions quickly into the lipid fluid phase. Preferential hydrolysis of the liquid domains supported the conclusions based on the binding studies. sPLA2 hydrolyzes the liquid domains in the binary lipid mixtures DLPC:DAPC and DMPC:DMPE, indicating that the solid-phase packing of DAPC and DMPE interferes with sPLA2 binding, irrespective of the phospholipid headgroup. These studies

  6. Modeling of substrate and inhibitor binding to phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Sessions, R B; Dauber-Osguthorpe, P; Campbell, M M; Osguthorpe, D J

    1992-09-01

    Molecular graphics and molecular mechanics techniques have been used to study the mode of ligand binding and mechanism of action of the enzyme phospholipase A2. A substrate-enzyme complex was constructed based on the crystal structure of the apoenzyme. The complex was minimized to relieve initial strain, and the structural and energetic features of the resultant complex analyzed in detail, at the molecular and residue level. The minimized complex was then used as a basis for examining the action of the enzyme on modified substrates, binding of inhibitors to the enzyme, and possible reaction intermediate complexes. The model is compatible with the suggested mechanism of hydrolysis and with experimental data about stereoselectivity, efficiency of hydrolysis of modified substrates, and inhibitor potency. In conclusion, the model can be used as a tool in evaluating new ligands as possible substrates and in the rational design of inhibitors, for the therapeutic treatment of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, and asthma.

  7. Calcium-independent phospholipase A2 participates in KCl-induced calcium sensitization of vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Ratz, Paul H; Miner, Amy S; Barbour, Suzanne E

    2009-07-01

    In vascular smooth muscle, KCl not only elevates intracellular free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)), myosin light chain kinase activity and tension (T), but also can inhibit myosin light chain phosphatase activity by activation of rhoA kinase (ROCK), resulting in Ca(2+) sensitization (increased T/[Ca(2+)](i) ratio). Precisely how KCl causes ROCK-dependent Ca(2+) sensitization remains to be determined. Using Fura-2-loaded isometric rings of rabbit artery, we found that the Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)) inhibitor, bromoenol lactone (BEL), reduced the KCl-induced tonic but not early phasic phase of T and potentiated [Ca(2+)](i), reducing Ca(2+) sensitization. The PKC inhibitor, GF-109203X (> or =3 microM) and the pseudo-substrate inhibitor of PKCzeta produced a response similar to BEL. BEL reduced basal and KCl-stimulated myosin phosphatase phosphorylation. Whereas BEL and H-1152 produced strong inhibition of KCl-induced tonic T (approximately 50%), H-1152 did not induce additional inhibition of tissues already inhibited by BEL, suggesting that iPLA(2) links KCl stimulation with ROCK activation. The cPLA(2) inhibitor, pyrrolidine-1, inhibited KCl-induced tonic increases in [Ca(2+)](i) but not T, whereas the inhibitor of 20-HETE production, HET0016, acted like the ROCK inhibitor H-1152 by causing Ca(2+) desensitization. These data support a model in which iPLA(2) activity regulates Ca(2+) sensitivity.

  8. Interplay between ABA and phospholipases A(2) and D in the response of citrus fruit to postharvest dehydration.

    PubMed

    Romero, Paco; Gandía, Mónica; Alférez, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    The interplay between abscisic acid (ABA) and phospholipases A2 and D (PLA2 and PLD) in the response of citrus fruit to water stress was investigated during postharvest by using an ABA-deficient mutant from 'Navelate' orange named 'Pinalate'. Fruit from both varieties harvested at two different maturation stages (mature-green and full-mature) were subjected to prolonged water loss inducing stem-end rind breakdown (SERB) in full-mature fruit. Treatment with PLA2 inhibitor aristolochic acid (AT) and PLD inhibitor lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) reduced the disorder in both varieties, suggesting that phospholipid metabolism is involved in citrus peel quality. Expression of CsPLDα and CsPLDβ, and CssPLA2α and CssPLA2β was studied by real-time RT-PCR during water stress and in response to ABA. CsPLDα expression increased in mature-green fruit from 'Navelate' but not in 'Pinalate' and ABA did not counteract this effect. ABA enhanced repression of CsPLDα in full-mature fruit. CsPLDβ gene expression decreased in mature-green 'Pinalate', remained unchanged in 'Navelate' and was induced in full-mature fruit from both varieties. CssPLA2α expression increased in mature-green fruit from both varieties whereas in full-mature fruit only increased in 'Navelate'. CssPLA2β expression increased in mature-green flavedo from both varieties, but in full-mature fruit remained steady in 'Navelate' and barely increased in 'Pinalate' fruit. ABA reduced expression in both after prolonged storage. Responsiveness to ABA increased with maturation. Our results show interplay between PLA2 and PLD and suggest that ABA action is upstream phospholipase activation. Response to ABA during water stress in citrus is regulated during fruit maturation and involves membrane phospholipid degradation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of secretory phospholipase A(2) in rhythmic contraction of pulmonary arteries of rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Yoshiyuki; Saito-Tanji, Maki; Morikawa, Yuki; Kamataki, Akihisa; Sawai, Takashi; Nakayama, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Excessive stretching of the vascular wall in accordance with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induces a variety of pathogenic cellular events in the pulmonary arteries. We previously reported that indoxam, a selective inhibitor for secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)), blocked the stretch-induced contraction of rabbit pulmonary arteries by inhibition of untransformed prostaglandin H(2) (PGH(2)) production. The present study was undertaken to investigate involvement of sPLA(2) and untransformed PGH(2) in the enhanced contractility of pulmonary arteries of experimental PAH in rats. Among all the known isoforms of sPLA(2), sPLA(2)-X transcript was most significantly augmented in the pulmonary arteries of rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension (MCT-PHR). The pulmonary arteries of MCT-PHR frequently showed two types of spontaneous contraction in response to stretch; 27% showed rhythmic contraction, which was sensitive to indoxam and SC-560 (selective COX-1 inhibitor), but less sensitive to NS-398 (selective COX-2 inhibitor); and 47% showed sustained incremental tension (tonic contraction), which was insensitive to indoxam and SC-560, but sensitive to NS-398 and was attenuated to 45% of the control. Only the rhythmically contracting pulmonary arteries of MCT-PHR produced a substantial amount of untransformed PGH(2), which was abolished by indoxam. These results suggest that sPLA(2)-mediated PGH(2) synthesis plays an important role in the rhythmic contraction of pulmonary arteries of MCT-PHR.

  10. Serum anti-PLA2R antibody as a diagnostic biomarker of idiopathic membranous nephropathy: The optimal cut-off value for Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yipeng; Li, Xuan; Ma, Chaoqun; Wang, Ping; Liu, Ju; Su, Hong; Zhuo, Hao; Kong, Xianglei; Xu, Dayu; Xu, Dongmei

    2018-01-01

    The M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) is a specific target autoantigen identified in idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). The autoantibody against PLA2R (anti-PLA2R) may be used to diagnose IMN. However, the appropriate diagnosis cut-off value for Chinese patients with IMN has not been established. In total, 119 patients who underwent renal biopsy (57 patients with IMN and 62 patients with non-IMN glomerulonephritis) and 22 healthy individuals were recruited for our observation study from Qianfoshan Hospital between September 2011 and March 2016. The serum concentration of anti-PLA2R was measured using a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of anti-PLA2R in diagnosing IMN were analysed based on the ELISA detection. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of anti-PLA2R in the diagnosis of IMN in the Chinese patients were 82.5, 75, 69.1, and 86.3% for the 2RU/ml cut-off value; 78.9, 91.7, 86.5, and 86.5% for the 2.6RU/ml cut-off value; 59.6, 95.2, 89.5, and 77.7% for the 14RU/ml cut-off value; 50.9, 96.4, 90.6, and 74.3% for the 20RU/ml cut-off value; and 47.4, 97.6, 93.1, and 73.2% for the 40RU/ml cut-off value, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.879. The cut-off value of 2.6RU/ml is recommended for the use of anti-PLA2R for the diagnosis of IMN in Chinese patients based on the ELISA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Novel mutations in PANK2 and PLA2G6 genes in patients with neurodegenerative disorders: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Dastsooz, Hassan; Nemati, Hamid; Fard, Mohammad Ali Farazi; Fardaei, Majid; Faghihi, Mohammad Ali

    2017-08-18

    Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) is a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders associated with progressive impairment of movement, vision, and cognition. The disease is initially diagnosed on the basis of changes in brain magnetic resonance imaging which indicate an abnormal brain iron accumulation in the basal ganglia. However, the diagnosis of specific types should be based on both clinical findings and molecular genetic testing for genes associated with different types of NBIA, including PANK2, PLA2G6, C19orf12, FA2H, ATP13A2, WDR45, COASY, FTL, CP, and DCAF17. The purpose of this study was to investigate disease-causing mutations in two patients with distinct NBIA disorders. Whole Exome sequencing using Next Generation Illumina Sequencing was used to enrich all exons of protein-coding genes as well as some other important genomic regions in these two affected patients. A deleterious homozygous four-nucleotide deletion causing frameshift deletion in PANK2 gene (c.1426_1429delATGA, p.M476 fs) was identified in an 8 years old girl with dystonia, bone fracture, muscle rigidity, abnormal movement, lack of coordination and chorea. In addition, our study revealed a novel missense mutation in PLA2G6 gene (c.3G > T:p.M1I) in one and half-year-old boy with muscle weakness and neurodevelopmental regression (speech, motor and cognition). The novel mutations were also confirmed by Sanger sequencing in the proband and their parents. Current study uncovered two rare novel mutations in PANK2 and PLA2G6 genes in patients with NBIA disorder and such studies may help to conduct genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis more accurately for individuals at the high risk of these types of disorders.

  12. Stretch-induced ERK2 phosphorylation requires PLA2 activity in skeletal myotubes.

    PubMed

    Burkholder, Thomas J

    2009-08-14

    Mechanical stretch rapidly activates multiple signaling cascades, including phospholipases and kinases, to stimulate protein synthesis and growth. The purpose of this study was to determine whether PLA2 activation contributes to stretch-induced phosphorylation of ERK2 in skeletal muscle myotubes. Myotubes derived from neonatal C57 mice were cultured on silicone membranes and subjected to brief cyclic stretch. Inhibition of PLA2 prevented ERK2 phosphorylation, while inhibition of prostaglandin or leukotriene synthesis did not. ERK2 phosphorylation was also blocked by genistein and PD98059, implicating the canonical raf-MEK-ERK cassette. It appears that PLA2, but not further metabolism of arachidonic acid, is required for stretch-induced activation of ERK2. Exposure to exogenous arachidonic acid had no effect on ERK2 phosphorylation, but exposure to lysophosphatidylcholine, the other metabolite of PLA2, caused a dose-dependent increase in ERK2 phosphorylation. These results suggest that stretch-induced activation of ERK2 may result from an interaction between PLA2 derived lysophosphatidylcholine and membrane receptors.

  13. Stretch-induced ERK2 phosphorylation requires PLA2 activity in skeletal myotubes

    PubMed Central

    Burkholder, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical stretch rapidly activates multiple signaling cascades, including phospholipases and kinases, to stimulate protein synthesis and growth. The purpose of this study was to determine whether PLA2 activation contributes to stretch-induced phosphorylation of ERK2 in skeletal muscle myotubes. Myotubes derived from neonatal C57 mice were cultured on silicone membranes and subjected to brief cyclic stretch. Inhibition of PLA2 prevented ERK2 phosphorylation, while inhibition of prostaglandin or leukotriene synthesis did not. ERK2 phosphorylation was also blocked by genistein and PD98059, implicating the canonical raf-MEK-ERK cassette. It appears that PLA2, but not further metabolism of arachidonic acid, is required for stretch-induced activation of ERK2. Exposure to exogenous arachidonic acid had no effect on ERK2 phosphorylation, but exposure to lysophosphatidylcholine, the other metabolite of PLA2, caused a dose-dependent increase in ERK2 phosphorylation. These results suggest that stretch-induced activation of ERK2 may result from an interaction between PLA2 derived lysophosphatidylcholine and membrane receptors. PMID:19524551

  14. Light controls phospholipase A2α and β gene expression in Citrus sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Hui-Ling; Burns, Jacqueline K.

    2010-01-01

    The low-molecular weight secretory phospholipase A2α (CssPLA2α) and β (CsPLA2β) cloned in this study exhibited diurnal rhythmicity in leaf tissue of Citrus sinensis. Only CssPLA2α displayed distinct diurnal patterns in fruit tissues. CssPLA2α and CsPLA2β diurnal expression exhibited periods of approximately 24 h; CssPLA2α amplitude averaged 990-fold in the leaf blades from field-grown trees, whereas CsPLA2β amplitude averaged 6.4-fold. Diurnal oscillation of CssPLA2α and CsPLA2β gene expression in the growth chamber experiments was markedly dampened 24 h after transfer to continuous light or dark conditions. CssPLA2α and CsPLA2β expressions were redundantly mediated by blue, green, red and red/far-red light, but blue light was a major factor affecting CssPLA2α and CsPLA2β expression. Total and low molecular weight CsPLA2 enzyme activity closely followed diurnal changes in CssPLA2α transcript expression in leaf blades of seedlings treated with low intensity blue light (24 μmol m−2 s−1). Compared with CssPLA2α basal expression, CsPLA2β expression was at least 10-fold higher. Diurnal fluctuation and light regulation of PLA2 gene expression and enzyme activity in citrus leaf and fruit tissues suggests that accompanying diurnal changes in lipophilic second messengers participate in the regulation of physiological processes associated with phospholipase A2 action. PMID:20388744

  15. Associations of MDR1, TBXA2R, PLA2G7, and PEAR1 genetic polymorphisms with the platelet activity in Chinese ischemic stroke patients receiving aspirin therapy.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ling-Ling; Zhao, Yuan-Qi; Zhou, Zi-Yi; Jin, Jing; Zhao, Min; Chen, Xin-Meng; Chen, Ling-Yan; Cai, Ye-Feng; Li, Jia-Li; Huang, Min

    2016-11-01

    Aspirin resistance has an incidence of 5%-65% in patients with ischemic stroke, who receive the standard dose of aspirin, but the platelet function is inadequately inhibited, thereby leading to thrombotic events. Numerous evidence shows that thromboxane A 2 receptor (TXA 2 receptor, encoded by TBXA2R), lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 (Lp-PLA 2 , encoded by PLA2G7) and platelet endothelial aggregation receptor-1 (PEAR1, encoded by PEAR1) are crucial in regulating platelet activation, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp, encoded by MDR1) influences the absorption of aspirin in the intestine. In this study we examined the correlation between MDR1, TBXA2R, PLA2G7, PEAR1 genetic polymorphisms and platelet activity in Chinese ischemic stroke patients receiving aspirin therapy. A total of 283 ischemic stroke patients receiving 100 mg aspirin for 7 d were genotyped for polymorphisms in MDR1 C3435T, TBXA2R (rs1131882), PLA2G7 (rs1051931, rs7756935), and PEAR1 (rs12566888, rs12041331). The platelet aggregation response was measured using an automatic platelet aggregation analyzer and a commercially available TXB 2 ELISA kit. Thirty-three patients (11.66%) were insensitive to aspirin treatment. MDR1 3435TT genotype carriers, whose arachidonic acid (AA) or adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation was lower than that of CC+CT genotype carriers, were less likely to suffer from aspirin resistance (odds ratio=0.421, 95% CI: 0.233-0.759). The TBXA2R rs1131882 CC genotype, which was found more frequently in the aspirin-insensitive group (81.8% vs 62.4%) than in the sensitive group, was identified as a risk factor for aspirin resistance (odds ratio=2.712, 95% CI: 1.080-6.810) with a higher level of AA-induced platelet aggregation. Due to the combined effects of PLA2G7 rs1051931 and rs7756935, carriers of the AA-CC haplotype had a higher level of ADP-induced platelet aggregation, and were at considerably higher risk of aspirin resistance than noncarriers (odds ratio=8

  16. Signal transfer in the plant plasma membrane: phospholipase A(2) is regulated via an inhibitory Gα protein and a cyclophilin.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Michael; Herre, Madeleine; Massalski, Carolin; Hermann, Isabella; Conrad, Udo; Roos, Werner

    2013-03-15

    The plasma membrane of the California poppy is known to harbour a PLA2 (phospholipase A2) that is associated with the Gα protein which facilitates its activation by a yeast glycoprotein, thereby eliciting the biosynthesis of phytoalexins. To understand the functional architecture of the protein complex, we titrated purified plasma membranes with the Gα protein (native or recombinant) and found that critical amounts of this subunit keep PLA2 in a low-activity state from which it is released either by elicitor plus GTP or by raising the Gα concentration, which probably causes oligomerization of Gα, as supported by FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer)-orientated fluorescence imaging and a semiquantitative split-ubiquitin assay. All effects of Gα were blocked by specific antibodies. A low-Gα mutant showed elevated PLA2 activity and lacked the GTP-dependent stimulation by elicitor, but regained this capability after pre-incubation with Gα. The inhibition by Gα and the GTP-dependent stimulation of PLA2 were diminished by inhibitors of peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerases. A cyclophilin was identified by sequence in the plasma membrane and in immunoprecipitates with anti-Gα antibodies. We conclude that soluble and target-associated Gα interact at the plasma membrane to build complexes of varying architecture and signal amplification. Protein-folding activity is probably required to convey conformational transitions from Gα to its target PLA2.

  17. Elevated inflammatory Lp-PLA2 and IL-6 link e-waste Pb toxicity to cardiovascular risk factors in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xueling; Xu, Xijin; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yuling; Wang, Chenyang; Huo, Xia

    2018-03-01

    Cardiovascular toxicity of lead (Pb) manifests primarily as an effect on blood pressure and eventual increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Therefore, we investigated vascular inflammatory biomarkers and cardiovascular effects of Pb-exposed children. A total of 590 children (3-7 years old) were recruited from Guiyu (n = 337), an electronic waste (e-waste)-exposed group, and Haojiang (n = 253), a reference group, from November to December 2016. We measured child blood Pb levels (BPbs), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Pulse pressure was calculated for the latter two. Serum biomarkers including lipid profiles and inflammatory cytokines, and plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) were detected. Unadjusted regression analysis illustrated that higher ln-transformed BPb associated with lower systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. After adjustment for various confounders, the relational degree of lnBPb and blood pressure measures became slightly attenuated or not significant. Elevated BPb was associated with higher Lp-PLA2, interleukin (IL)-6, triglycerides (TG) and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Lp-PLA2 remained inversely associated with pulse pressure and HDL, but positively with ratios of total cholesterol to HDL (Tc/HDL) and low-density lipoprotein to HDL (LDL/HDL). IL-6 was associated negatively with systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and HDL, and positively associated with TG, Tc/HDL and LDL/HDL. The mediation effect of biomarkers on the association of BPb with pulse pressure was insignificant except for Lp-PLA2. Available data supports the conclusion that e-waste-exposed children with higher BPbs and concomitant abnormal measures of cardiovascular physiology have an augmented prevalence of vascular inflammation, as well as lipid disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Design of specific peptide inhibitors of phospholipase A2: structure of a complex formed between Russell's viper phospholipase A2 and a designed peptide Leu-Ala-Ile-Tyr-Ser (LAIYS).

    PubMed

    Chandra, Vikas; Jasti, Jayasankar; Kaur, Punit; Dey, Sharmistha; Srinivasan, A; Betzel, Ch; Singh, T P

    2002-10-01

    Phospholipase A(2) (EC 3.1.1.4) is a key enzyme of the cascade mechanism involved in the production of proinflammatory compounds known as eicosanoids. The binding of phospholipase A(2) to membrane surfaces and the hydrolysis of phospholipids are thought to involve the formation of a hydrophobic channel into which a single substrate molecule diffuses before cleavage. In order to regulate the production of proinflammatory compounds, a specific peptide inhibitor of PLA(2), Leu-Ala-Ile-Tyr-Ser, has been designed. Phospholipase A(2) from Daboia russelli pulchella (DPLA(2)) and peptide Leu-Ala-Ile-Tyr-Ser (LAIYS) have been co-crystallized. The structure of the complex has been determined and refined to 2.0 A resolution. The structure contains two crystallographically independent molecules of DPLA(2), with one molecule of peptide specifically bound to one of them. The overall conformations of the two molecules are essentially similar except in three regions; namely, the calcium-binding loop including Trp31 (residues 25-34), the beta-wing consisting of two antiparallel beta-strands (residues 74-85) and the C-terminal region (residues 119-133). Of these, the most striking difference pertains to the orientation of Trp31 in the two molecules. The conformation of Trp31 in molecule A was suitable to allow the binding of peptide LAIYS, while that in molecule B prevented the entry of the ligand into the hydrophobic channel. The structure of the complex clearly showed that the OH group of Tyr of the inhibitor formed hydrogen bonds with both His48 N(delta1) and Asp49 O(delta1), while O(gamma)H of Ser was involved in a hydrogen bond with Trp31. Other peptide backbone atoms interact with protein through water molecules, while Leu, Ala and Ile form strong hydrophobic interactions with the residues of the hydrophobic channel.

  19. Venomic Analysis of the Poorly Studied Desert Coral Snake, Micrurus tschudii tschudii, Supports the 3FTx/PLA2 Dichotomy across Micrurus Venoms

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, Libia; Pla, Davinia; Pérez, Alicia; Rodríguez, Yania; Zavaleta, Alfonso; Salas, Maria; Lomonte, Bruno; Calvete, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    The venom proteome of the poorly studied desert coral snake Micrurus tschudii tschudii was unveiled using a venomic approach, which identified ≥38 proteins belonging to only four snake venom protein families. The three-finger toxins (3FTxs) constitute, both in number of isoforms (~30) and total abundance (93.6% of the venom proteome), the major protein family of the desert coral snake venom. Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s; seven isoforms, 4.1% of the venom proteome), 1–3 Kunitz-type proteins (1.6%), and 1–2 l-amino acid oxidases (LAO, 0.7%) complete the toxin arsenal of M. t. tschudii. Our results add to the growing evidence that the occurrence of two divergent venom phenotypes, i.e., 3FTx- and PLA2-predominant venom proteomes, may constitute a general trend across the cladogenesis of Micrurus. The occurrence of a similar pattern of venom phenotypic variability among true sea snake (Hydrophiinae) venoms suggests that the 3FTx/PLA2 dichotomy may be widely distributed among Elapidae venoms. PMID:27338473

  20. CroFabtrade mark total anti-venom activity measured by SE-HPLC, and anti-PLA(2) activity assayed in vitro at physiological pH.

    PubMed

    Price, Joseph A; Sanny, Charles G

    2007-05-01

    One problem in the development and refinement of anti-venoms is ascertaining both overall anti-venom reactivity and which key toxins are neutralized. Here we show by SE-HPLC that the in vitro reaction of CroFab anti-venin with Crotalus atrox venom asymptotically nears completion (>95%) by 11 min at 4 degrees C by following the change in area under chromatographic peaks. The peaks for reactants decrease and the formation of high molecular weight complexes increases with time. To assay the large number of samples a new microplate format phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) assay at an initial pH of 7.5 was developed using phosphotidyl choline as the substrate. The change in absorbance is due to the pH change caused by release of fatty acids, and is linear with dilution of enzyme. This choice of substrate limits detection to PLA(2) and nonspecific esterase (if any) activities. The neutralization mixtures show a dose dependent (CroFab anti-venin) inactivation of C. atrox PLA(2) activity approaching a maximum of 85% neutralization. This approach of revealing antibody binding to venom components coupled with enzyme activity measurements is effective and may lead to greater in vitro assessment of antivenin activity in product development, and less routine use of mouse lethality assays.

  1. Structural analysis of secretory phospholipase A2 from Clonorchis sinensis: therapeutic implications for hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hariprasad, Gururao; Kaur, Punit; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Singh, Tej Pal; Kumar, Manoj

    2012-07-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a common complication of the infection by the parasite, Clonorchis sinensis. There is a high incidence of this disease in the Asian countries with an increased risk of conversion to cancer. A secretory phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) enzyme from the parasite is implicated in the pathology. This is an attractive drug target in the light of extensive structural characterization of this class of enzyme. In this study, the structure of the enzyme was modeled based on its sequence homology to the group III bee venom PLA(2). On analysis, the overall structure essentially is comprised of three helices, two sets of β-wings and an elongated C-terminal extension. The structure is stabilized by four disulfide bonds. The structure is comprised of a calcium binding loop, active site and a substrate binding hydrophobic channel. The active site of the enzyme shows the classical features of PLA(2) with the participation of the three residues: histidine-aspartic acid-tyrosine in hydrogen bond formation. This is an interesting variation from the house keeping group III PLA(2) enzyme of human which has a histidine-aspartic acid and phenylalanine arrangement at the active site. This difference is therefore an important structural parameter that can be exploited to design specific inhibitor molecules against the pathogen PLA(2). Likewise, there are certain unique structural features in the hydrophobic channel and the putative membrane binding surface of the PLA(2) from Clonorchis sinensis that not only help understand the mechanism of action but also provide knowledge for a targeted therapy of liver fibrosis caused by the parasite.

  2. Identification and characterization of B-cell epitopes of 3FTx and PLA(2) toxins from Micrurus corallinus snake venom.

    PubMed

    Castro, K L; Duarte, C G; Ramos, H R; Machado de Avila, R A; Schneider, F S; Oliveira, D; Freitas, C F; Kalapothakis, E; Ho, P L; Chávez-Olortegui, C

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this work was to develop a strategy to identify B-cell epitopes on four different three finger toxins (3FTX) and one phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from Micrurus corallinus snake venom. 3FTx and PLA2 are highly abundant components in Elapidic venoms and are the major responsibles for the toxicity observed in envenomation by coral snakes. Overlapping peptides from the sequence of each toxin were prepared by SPOT method and three different anti-elapidic sera were used to map the epitopes. After immunogenicity analysis of the spot-reactive peptides by EPITOPIA, a computational method, nine sequences from the five toxins were chemically synthesized and antigenically and immunogenically characterized. All the peptides were used together as immunogens in rabbits, delivered with Freund's adjuvant for a first cycle of immunization and Montanide in the second. A good antibody response against individual synthetic peptides and M. corallinus venom was achieved. Anti-peptide IgGs were also cross-reactive against Micrurus frontalis and Micrurus lemniscatus crude venoms. In addition, anti-peptide IgGs inhibits the lethal and phospholipasic activities of M. corallinus crude venom. Our results provide a rational basis to the identification of neutralizing epitopes on coral snake toxins and show that their corresponding synthetic peptides could improve the generation of immuno-therapeutics. The use of synthetic peptide for immunization is a reasonable approach, since it enables poly-specificity, low risk of toxic effects and large scale production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Orai, STIM1 and iPLA2β: a view from a different perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bolotina, Victoria M

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) remains one of the intriguing mysteries in the field of Ca2+ signalling. Recent discoveries have resulted in the molecular identification of STIM1 as a Ca2+ sensor in endoplasmic reticulum, Orai1 (CRACM1) as a plasma membrane channel that is activated by the store-operated pathway, and iPLA2β as an essential component of signal transduction from the stores to the plasma membrane channels. Numerous studies have confirmed that molecular knock-down of any one of these three molecules impair SOCE in a wide variety of cell types, but their mutual relations are far from being understood. This report will focus on the functional roles of Orai1, STIM1 and iPLA2β, and will address some specific questions about Orai1 and TRPC1, and their relation to SOC channels in excitable and non-excitable cells. Also, it will analyse the novel role of STIM1 as a trigger for CIF production, and the complex relationship between STIM1 and Orai1 expression, puncta formation and SOCE activation. It will highlight some of the most recent findings that may challenge simple conformational coupling models of SOCE, and will offer some new perspectives on the complex relationships between Orai1, STIM1 and iPLA2β in the SOCE pathway. PMID:18499724

  4. The expression of ERα, OTR, cPLA(2), COX-2, and PPARγ in the cervix of the ewe during the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Falchi, L; Scaramuzzi, R J

    2013-01-01

    The ovine cervix relaxes at estrus allowing easier entry of spermatozoa into the uterus. The mechanism responsible for this relaxation is not fully elucidated and we hypothesized that cervical relaxation at estrus is induced by ovarian and pituitary hormones stimulating the local production of prostaglandin E(2) via a biosynthetic pathway involving a number of mediators including oxytocin, phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). The aim of this study was to investigate the cervical expression of estradiol receptor alpha (ERα), oxytocin receptor (OTR), cPLA(2), COX-2, and PPARγ at three stages of the estrous cycle (the luteal phase and two times during the follicular phase, just before and just after the LH surge). An experiment was conducted during the breeding season, in 25 ewes to test this hypothesis. Samples of cervical tissue were collected from groups of ewes at three stages of the estrous cycle: the luteal (N = 8), "pre-LH surge" (N = 8), and "post-LH surge" (N = 9) stages. Cervical tissue from uterine, mid, and vaginal regions of the cervix were analyzed by Western immunoblot analysis for ERα, OTR, cPLA(2,) COX-2, and PPARγ. The results showed that the levels of all five proteins were lowest during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle in all regions of the cervix. The levels of all except cPLA(2), increased significantly during the "pre-LH surge" stage. The levels of cPLA(2) and ERα increased in the "post-LH surge" stage and those for OTR and PPARγ were unchanged and those for COX-2 were lower. These data show that the cervical levels of all five of the intermediates in the synthesis of prostaglandin E(2) that were examined in this study were higher in the "pre-" and "post-LH surge" stages compared with the luteal phase of the estrous cycle and these findings are consistent with our hypothesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. PLA2G2A polymorphisms are associated with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results from the genetics of atherosclerotic disease Mexican study.

    PubMed

    Monroy-Muñoz, Irma Eloisa; Angeles-Martinez, Javier; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Alvarez-León, Edith; Flores-Dominguez, Carmina; Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo; Medina-Urrutia, Aida; Juárez-Rojas, Juan Gabriel; Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Alarcon, Gilberto Vargas

    2017-10-01

    The secretory phospholipase A 2 II A (sPLA 2 -IIA) encoded by PLA2G2A gene hydrolyzes phospholipids liberating free fatty acids (FFAs) and lysophospholipids. If lipolysis exceeds lipogenesis, the free fatty acids undergo a continuous release into circulation. A sustained excessive increase in this release contributes to metabolic disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of PLA2G2A gene polymorphisms as susceptibility markers for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Mexican population. Three PLA2G2A gene polymorphisms (rs876018, rs3753827 and rs11573156) were genotyped by 5' exonuclease TaqMan assays in a group of 338 patients with T2DM, 460 individuals with MetS and 366 healthy controls. Under codominant 1(codom1), dominant (dom) and additive (add) models adjusted by age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking habit, and hypertension, the rs876018T allele was associated with increased risk of MetS [Odds Ratio (OR)=1.66, P codom1 =0.005; OR=1.67, P dom =0.003; OR=1.49, P add =0.005] as compared to controls. On the other hand, under several models adjusted by the same variables, the rs3753827A (OR=1.52, P codom1 =0.039 and OR=1.49, P dom =0.039) and rs11573156C alleles (OR=6.46, P codom1 =0.013; OR=6.70, P codom2 =0.009; OR=6.65, P dom =0.009) were associated with increased risk of T2DM when compared with controls. In addition, the rs876018T allele was associated with hypercholesterolemia (P dom =0.017, P add =0.009) and risk of subclinical atherosclerosis (SA) (P dom =0.041) in MetS when compared with controls. Also, this allele was associated with SA in T2DM patients (P dom =0.007). The TAG haplotype was significantly associated with increased risk of MetS (OR=1.54, P=0.006). Results suggest that PLA2G2A polymorphisms are involved in the risk of developing MetS and T2D and are associated with SA in this group of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. The Phospholipase A2 Activity of Peroxiredoxin 6.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Aron B

    2018-05-01

    Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) is a Ca2+-independent intracellular phospholipase A2 (called aiPLA2) that is localized to cytosol and acidic organelles (lysosomes and lysosomal-related organelles). Activity is minimal at cytosolic pH but is increased significantly at acidic pH, in the presence of oxidized phospholipid substrate, with protein oxidation, and with enzyme phosphorylation; maximal activity with phosphorylated aiPLA2 is ~2 μmol/min/mg protein. Prdx6 is a ″moonlighting″ protein that also expresses peroxidase and lysophosphatidylcholine acyl transferase activities.The active site for aiPLA2 activity is Ser32-H26-D140. Activity is inhibited by a serine ″protease″ inhibitor diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate (DENP) ,a transition state analogue 1-hexadecyl-3-(trifluoroethyl)-sn-glycero-2-phosphomethanol (MJ33),and two naturally occurring proteins, surfactant protein A (SP-A) and p67phox. aiPLA2 activity has important physiological roles in the turnover (degradation and synthesis) of lung surfactant phospholipids, in the repair of peroxidized cell membranes, and in the activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX2). The enzyme has been implicated in acute lung injury, carcinogenesis, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, male infertility, and sundry other conditions although its specific roles have not been well defined. Protein mutations and animal models are now available to further investigate the potentially important roles of Prdx6-aiPLA2 activity in normal and pathological physiology. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Role of protein kinase C alpha in endothelin-1 stimulation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and arachidonic acid release in cultured cat iris sphincter smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Husain, S; Abdel-Latif, A A

    1998-05-20

    We have investigated the role and mechanism of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced arachidonic acid (AA) release in cat iris sphincter smooth muscle (CISM) cells. ET-1 increased AA release in a concentration (EC50=8 nM) and time-dependent (t1/2=1.2 min) manner. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), but not phospholipase C (PLC), is involved in the liberation of AA in the stimulated cells. This conclusion is supported by the findings that ET-1-induced AA release is inhibited by AACOCF3, quinacrine and manoalide, PLA2 inhibitors, but not by U-73122, a PLC inhibitor, or by RHC-80267, a diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor. A role for PKC in ET-1-induced AA release is supported by the findings that the phorbol ester, PDBu, increased AA release by 96%, that prolonged treatment of the cells with PDBu resulted in the selective down regulation of PKCalpha and the complete inhibition of ET-1-induced AA release, and that pretreatment of the cells with staurosporine or RO 31-8220, PKC inhibitors, blocked the ET-1-induced AA release. Gö-6976, a compound that inhibits PKCalpha and beta specifically, blocked ET-1-induced AA release in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 8 nM. Thymeatoxin (0.1 microM), a specific activator of PKCalpha, beta, and gamma induced a 150% increase in AA release. Treatment of the cells with ET-1 caused significant translocation of PKCalpha, but not PKCbeta, from cytosol to the particulate fraction. These results suggest that PKCalpha plays a critical role in ET-1-induced AA release in these cells. Immunochemical analysis revealed the presence of cPLA2, p42mapk and p44mapk in the CISM cells. The data presented are consistent with a role for PKCalpha, but not for p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), in cPLA2 activation and AA release in ET-1-stimulated CISM cells since: (i) the PKC inhibitor, RO 31-8220, inhibited ET-1-induced AA release, cPLA2 phosphorylation and cPLA2 activity, but had no inhibitory

  8. Endothelin-1 activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and cytosolic phospholipase A2 in cat iris sphincter smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Husain, S; Abdel-Latif, A A

    1999-08-15

    We have shown previously that cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) is responsible for endothelin-1-induced release of arachidonic acid for prostaglandin synthesis in cat iris sphincter smooth muscle (CISM) cells [Husain and Abdel-Latif (1998) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1392, 127-144]. Here we show that p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, but not p42/p44 MAP kinases, plays an important role in the phosphorylation and activation of cPLA(2) in endothelin-1-stimulated CISM cells. This conclusion is supported by the following findings. Both p38 MAP kinase and p42/p44 MAP kinases were present in the CISM cells and both were activated by endothelin-1. SB203580, a potent specific inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, but not the p42/p44 MAP kinases specific inhibitor, PD98059, markedly suppressed endothelin-1-enhanced cPLA(2) phosphorylation, cPLA(2) activity and arachidonic acid release. The addition of endothelin-1 resulted in the phosphorylation and activation of cPLA(2). Endothelin-1 stimulated p38 MAP kinase activity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, and these effects were mediated through the endothelin-A receptor subtype. The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, RO 31-8220, had no inhibitory effect on endothelin-1-induced p38 MAP kinase activation, suggesting that endothelin-1 activation of p38 MAP kinase is independent of PKC. Pertussis toxin inhibited both endothelin-1 and mastoparan stimulation of p38 MAP kinase activity and arachidonic acid release. The inhibitory effects of pertussis toxin are not mediated through cAMP formation. Mastoparan-stimulated [(3)H]arachidonic acid release and cPLA(2) activation was inhibited by SB203580, but not by RO 31-8220. These data suggest that endothelin-1 binds to the endothelin-A receptor to activate the Gi-protein which, through a series of kinases, leads to the activation of p38 MAP kinase and subsequently to phosphorylation and activation of cPLA(2). Activation of cPLA(2) leads to the liberation of arachidonic acid

  9. Endothelin-1 activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and cytosolic phospholipase A2 in cat iris sphincter smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Husain, S; Abdel-Latif, A A

    1999-01-01

    We have shown previously that cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) is responsible for endothelin-1-induced release of arachidonic acid for prostaglandin synthesis in cat iris sphincter smooth muscle (CISM) cells [Husain and Abdel-Latif (1998) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1392, 127-144]. Here we show that p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, but not p42/p44 MAP kinases, plays an important role in the phosphorylation and activation of cPLA(2) in endothelin-1-stimulated CISM cells. This conclusion is supported by the following findings. Both p38 MAP kinase and p42/p44 MAP kinases were present in the CISM cells and both were activated by endothelin-1. SB203580, a potent specific inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, but not the p42/p44 MAP kinases specific inhibitor, PD98059, markedly suppressed endothelin-1-enhanced cPLA(2) phosphorylation, cPLA(2) activity and arachidonic acid release. The addition of endothelin-1 resulted in the phosphorylation and activation of cPLA(2). Endothelin-1 stimulated p38 MAP kinase activity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, and these effects were mediated through the endothelin-A receptor subtype. The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, RO 31-8220, had no inhibitory effect on endothelin-1-induced p38 MAP kinase activation, suggesting that endothelin-1 activation of p38 MAP kinase is independent of PKC. Pertussis toxin inhibited both endothelin-1 and mastoparan stimulation of p38 MAP kinase activity and arachidonic acid release. The inhibitory effects of pertussis toxin are not mediated through cAMP formation. Mastoparan-stimulated [(3)H]arachidonic acid release and cPLA(2) activation was inhibited by SB203580, but not by RO 31-8220. These data suggest that endothelin-1 binds to the endothelin-A receptor to activate the Gi-protein which, through a series of kinases, leads to the activation of p38 MAP kinase and subsequently to phosphorylation and activation of cPLA(2). Activation of cPLA(2) leads to the liberation of arachidonic acid

  10. The secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA: a missing link between inflammation, activated renin-angiotensin system, and atherogenesis?

    PubMed

    Divchev, Dimitar; Schieffer, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    Inflammation, lipid peroxidation and chronic activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are hallmarks of the development of atherosclerosis. Recent studies have suggested the involvement of the pro-inflammatory secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2))-IIA in atherogenesis. This enzyme is produced by different cell types through stimulation by pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is detectable in the intima and in media smooth muscle cells, not only in atherosclerotic lesions but also in the very early stages of atherogenesis. sPLA(2)-IIA can hydrolyse the phospholipid monolayers of low density lipoproteins (LDL). Such modified LDL show increased affinity to proteoglycans. The modified particles have a greater tendency to aggregate and an enhanced ability to insert cholesterol into cells. This modification may promote macrophage LDL uptake leading to the formation of foam cells. Furthermore, sPLA(2)-IIA is not only a mediator for localized inflammation but may be also used as an independent predictor of adverse outcomes in patients with stable coronary artery disease or acute coronary syndromes. An interaction between activated RAS and phospholipases has been indicated by observations showing that inhibitors of sPLA(2) decrease angiotensin (Ang) II-induced macrophage lipid peroxidation. Meanwhile, various interactions between Ang II and oxLDL have been demonstrated suggesting a central role of sPLA(2)-IIA in these processes and offering a possible target for treatment. The role of sPLA(2)-IIA in the perpetuation of atherosclerosis appears to be the missing link between inflammation, activated RAS and lipid peroxidation.

  11. Identification of Epithelial Phospholipase A2 Receptor 1 as a Potential Target in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Nolin, James D.; Ogden, H. Luke; Lai, Ying; Altemeier, William A.; Frevert, Charles W.; Bollinger, James G.; Naika, Gajendra S.; Kicic, Anthony; Stick, Stephen M.; Lambeau, Gerard; Henderson, William R.; Gelb, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Secreted phospholipase A2s (sPLA2s) regulate eicosanoid formation and have been implicated in asthma. Although sPLA2s function as enzymes, some of the sPLA2s bind with high affinity to a C-type lectin receptor, called PLA2R1, which has functions in both cellular signaling and clearance of sPLA2s. We sought to examine the expression of PLA2R1 in the airway epithelium of human subjects with asthma and the function of the murine Pla2r1 gene in a model of asthma. Expression of PLA2R1 in epithelial brushings was assessed in two distinct cohorts of children with asthma by microarray and quantitative PCR, and immunostaining for PLA2R1 was conducted on endobronchial tissue and epithelial brushings from adults with asthma. C57BL/129 mice deficient in Pla2r1 (Pla2r1−/−) were characterized in an ovalbumin (OVA) model of allergic asthma. PLA2R1 was differentially overexpressed in epithelial brushings of children with atopic asthma in both cohorts. Immunostaining for PLA2R1 in endobronchial tissue localized to submucosal glandular epithelium and columnar epithelial cells. After OVA sensitization and challenge, Pla2r1−/− mice had increased airway hyperresponsiveness, as well as an increase in cellular trafficking of eosinophils to the peribronchial space and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and an increase in airway permeability. In addition, Pla2r1−/− mice had more dendritic cells in the lung, higher levels of OVA-specific IgG, and increased production of both type-1 and type-2 cytokines by lung leukocytes. PLA2R1 is increased in the airway epithelium in asthma, and serves as a regulator of airway hyperresponsiveness, airway permeability, antigen sensitization, and airway inflammation. PMID:27448109

  12. Identification of Epithelial Phospholipase A2 Receptor 1 as a Potential Target in Asthma.

    PubMed

    Nolin, James D; Ogden, H Luke; Lai, Ying; Altemeier, William A; Frevert, Charles W; Bollinger, James G; Naika, Gajendra S; Kicic, Anthony; Stick, Stephen M; Lambeau, Gerard; Henderson, William R; Gelb, Michael H; Hallstrand, Teal S

    2016-12-01

    Secreted phospholipase A 2 s (sPLA 2 s) regulate eicosanoid formation and have been implicated in asthma. Although sPLA 2 s function as enzymes, some of the sPLA 2 s bind with high affinity to a C-type lectin receptor, called PLA2R1, which has functions in both cellular signaling and clearance of sPLA 2 s. We sought to examine the expression of PLA2R1 in the airway epithelium of human subjects with asthma and the function of the murine Pla2r1 gene in a model of asthma. Expression of PLA2R1 in epithelial brushings was assessed in two distinct cohorts of children with asthma by microarray and quantitative PCR, and immunostaining for PLA2R1 was conducted on endobronchial tissue and epithelial brushings from adults with asthma. C57BL/129 mice deficient in Pla2r1 (Pla2r1 -/- ) were characterized in an ovalbumin (OVA) model of allergic asthma. PLA2R1 was differentially overexpressed in epithelial brushings of children with atopic asthma in both cohorts. Immunostaining for PLA2R1 in endobronchial tissue localized to submucosal glandular epithelium and columnar epithelial cells. After OVA sensitization and challenge, Pla2r1 -/- mice had increased airway hyperresponsiveness, as well as an increase in cellular trafficking of eosinophils to the peribronchial space and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and an increase in airway permeability. In addition, Pla2r1 -/- mice had more dendritic cells in the lung, higher levels of OVA-specific IgG, and increased production of both type-1 and type-2 cytokines by lung leukocytes. PLA2R1 is increased in the airway epithelium in asthma, and serves as a regulator of airway hyperresponsiveness, airway permeability, antigen sensitization, and airway inflammation.

  13. Hair Follicular Expression and Function of Group X Secreted Phospholipase A2 in Mouse Skin*

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kei; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Isogai, Yuki; Miki, Yoshimi; Sato, Hiroyasu; Masuda, Seiko; Nishito, Yasumasa; Morioka, Kiyokazu; Ishimoto, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Noriko; Yokota, Yasunori; Hanasaki, Kohji; Ishikawa, Yukio; Ishii, Toshiharu; Kobayashi, Tetsuyuki; Fukami, Kiyoko; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Nakanishi, Hiroki; Taguchi, Ryo; Murakami, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Although perturbed lipid metabolism can often lead to skin abnormality, the role of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in skin homeostasis is poorly understood. In the present study we found that group X-secreted PLA2 (sPLA2-X) was expressed in the outermost epithelium of hair follicles in synchrony with the anagen phase of hair cycling. Transgenic mice overexpressing sPLA2-X (PLA2G10-Tg) displayed alopecia, which was accompanied by hair follicle distortion with reduced expression of genes related to hair development, during a postnatal hair cycle. Additionally, the epidermis and sebaceous glands of PLA2G10-Tg skin were hyperplasic. Proteolytic activation of sPLA2-X in PLA2G10-Tg skin was accompanied by preferential hydrolysis of phosphatidylethanolamine species with polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as elevated production of some if not all eicosanoids. Importantly, the skin of Pla2g10-deficient mice had abnormal hair follicles with noticeable reduction in a subset of hair genes, a hypoplasic outer root sheath, a reduced number of melanin granules, and unexpected up-regulation of prostanoid synthesis. Collectively, our study highlights the spatiotemporal expression of sPLA2-X in hair follicles, the presence of skin-specific machinery leading to sPLA2-X activation, a functional link of sPLA2-X with hair follicle homeostasis, and compartmentalization of the prostanoid pathway in hair follicles and epidermis. PMID:21266583

  14. Molecular details of secretory phospholipase A2 from flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) provide insight into its structure and function.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Payal; Dash, Prasanta K

    2017-09-11

    Secretory phospholipase A 2 (sPLA 2 ) are low molecular weight proteins (12-18 kDa) involved in a suite of plant cellular processes imparting growth and development. With myriad roles in physiological and biochemical processes in plants, detailed analysis of sPLA 2 in flax/linseed is meagre. The present work, first in flax, embodies cloning, expression, purification and molecular characterisation of two distinct sPLA 2 s (I and II) from flax. PLA 2 activity of the cloned sPLA 2 s were biochemically assayed authenticating them as bona fide phospholipase A 2 . Physiochemical properties of both the sPLA 2 s revealed they are thermostable proteins requiring di-valent cations for optimum activity.While, structural analysis of both the proteins revealed deviations in the amino acid sequence at C- & N-terminal regions; hydropathic study revealed LusPLA 2 I as a hydrophobic protein and LusPLA 2 II as a hydrophilic protein. Structural analysis of flax sPLA 2 s revealed that secondary structure of both the proteins are dominated by α-helix followed by random coils. Modular superimposition of LusPLA 2 isoforms with rice sPLA 2 confirmed monomeric structural preservation among plant phospholipase A 2 and provided insight into structure of folded flax sPLA 2 s.

  15. Computational and in vitro insights on snake venom phospholipase A2 inhibitor of phytocompound ikshusterol3-O-glucoside of Clematis gouriana Roxb. ex DC.

    PubMed

    Muthusamy, Karthikeyan; Chinnasamy, Sathishkumar; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Sivaraman, Thirunavukkarasu

    2017-12-14

    Ikshusterol3-O-glucoside was isolated from Clematis gouriana Roxb. ex DC. root. A structure of the isolated compound was determined on the basis of various spectroscopic interpretations (UV, NMR, FTIR, and GC-MS-EI). This structure was submitted in the PubChem compound database (SID 249494133). SID 249494133 was carried out by density functional theory calculation to observe the chemical stability and electrostatic potential of this compound. The absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion property of this compound was predicted to evaluate the drug likeness and toxicity. In addition, molecular docking, quantum polarized ligand docking, prime MMGBSA calculation, and induced fit docking were performed to predict the binding status of SID 249494133 with the active site of phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) (PDB ID: 1A3D). The stability of the compound in the active site of PLA 2 was carried out using molecular dynamics simulation. Further, the anti-venom activity of the compound was assessed using the PLA 2 assay against Naja naja (Indian cobra) crude venom. The results strongly show that Ikshusterol3-O-glucoside has a potent snake-venom neutralizing capacity and it might be a potential molecule for the therapeutic treatment for snakebites.

  16. Identification of continuous interaction sites in PLA(2)-based protein complexes by peptide arrays.

    PubMed

    Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; Santos, Roberta Márcia Marques dos; Magro, Angelo José; Fontes, Marcos Roberto de Mattos; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos; Granier, Claude

    2009-01-01

    Crotoxin (CA.CB) is a beta-neurotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom that is responsible for main envenomation effects upon biting by this snake. It is a heterodimer of an acidic protein (CA) devoid of any biological activity per se and a basic, enzymatically active, PLA(2) counterpart (CB). Both lethal and enzymatic activities of crotoxin have been shown to be inhibited by CNF, a protein from the blood of C. d. terrificus snakes. CNF replaces CA in the CA.CB complex, forming a stable, non-toxic complex CNF.CB. The molecular sites involved in the tight interfacial protein-protein interactions in these PLA(2)-based complexes have not been clearly determined. To help address this question, we used the peptide arrays approach to map possible interfacial interaction sites in CA.CB and CNF.CB. Amino acid stretches putatively involved in these interactions were firstly identified in the primary structure of CB. Further analysis of the interfacial availability of these stretches in the presumed biologically active structure of CB, suggested two interaction main sites, located at the amino-terminus and beta-wing regions. Peptide segments at the carboxyl-terminus of CB were also suggested to play a secondary role in the binding of both CA and CNF.

  17. Primate-specific evolution of noncoding element insertion into PLA2G4C and human preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The onset of birth in humans, like other apes, differs from non-primate mammals in its endocrine physiology. We hypothesize that higher primate-specific gene evolution may lead to these differences and target genes involved in human preterm birth, an area of global health significance. Methods We performed a comparative genomics screen of highly conserved noncoding elements and identified PLA2G4C, a phospholipase A isoform involved in prostaglandin biosynthesis as human accelerated. To examine whether this gene demonstrating primate-specific evolution was associated with birth timing, we genotyped and analyzed 8 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PLA2G4C in US Hispanic (n = 73 preterm, 292 control), US White (n = 147 preterm, 157 control) and US Black (n = 79 preterm, 166 control) mothers. Results Detailed structural and phylogenic analysis of PLA2G4C suggested a short genomic element within the gene duplicated from a paralogous highly conserved element on chromosome 1 specifically in primates. SNPs rs8110925 and rs2307276 in US Hispanics and rs11564620 in US Whites were significant after correcting for multiple tests (p < 0.006). Additionally, rs11564620 (Thr360Pro) was associated with increased metabolite levels of the prostaglandin thromboxane in healthy individuals (p = 0.02), suggesting this variant may affect PLA2G4C activity. Conclusions Our findings suggest that variation in PLA2G4C may influence preterm birth risk by increasing levels of prostaglandins, which are known to regulate labor. PMID:21184677

  18. The group VIA calcium-independent phospholipase A2 and NFATc4 pathway mediates IL-1β-induced expression of chemokines CCL2 and CXCL10 in rat fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kuwata, Hiroshi; Yuzurihara, Chihiro; Kinoshita, Natsumi; Taki, Yuki; Ikegami, Yuki; Washio, Sana; Hirakawa, Yushi; Yoda, Emiko; Aiuchi, Toshihiro; Itabe, Hiroyuki; Nakatani, Yoshihito; Hara, Shuntaro

    2018-06-01

    Chemokines are secreted proteins that regulate cell migration and are involved in inflammatory and immune responses. Here, we sought to define the functional crosstalk between the lipid signaling and chemokine signaling. We obtained evidence that the induction of some chemokines is regulated by group VIA calcium-independent phospholipase A 2 β (iPLA 2 β) in IL-1β-stimulated rat fibroblastic 3Y1 cells. Treatment of 3Y1 cells with IL-1β elicited an increased release of chemotactic factor(s) for monocytic THP-1 cells into culture medium in a time-dependent manner. Inhibitor studies revealed that an intracellular PLA 2 inhibitor, arachidonoyl trifluoromethyl ketone (AACOCF 3 ), but not the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, attenuated the release of chemotactic factor(s). The chemotactic activity was inactivated by treatment with either heat or proteinase K, suggesting this chemotactic factor(s) is a proteinaceous factor(s). We purified the chemotactic factor(s) from the conditioned medium of IL-1β-stimulated 3Y1 cells using a heparin column and identified several chemokines, including CCL2 and CXCL10. The inducible expressions of CCL2 and CXCL10 were significantly attenuated by pretreatment with AACOCF 3 . Gene silencing using siRNA revealed that the inductions of CCL2 and CXCL10 were attenuated by iPLA 2 β knockdown. Additionally, the transcriptional activation of nuclear factor of activated T-cell proteins (NFATs), but not nuclear factor-κB, by IL-1β stimulation was markedly attenuated by the iPLA 2 inhibitor bromoenol lactone, and NFATc4 knockdown markedly attenuated the IL-1β-induced expression of both CCL2 and CXCL10. Collectively, these results indicated that iPLA 2 β plays roles in IL-1β-induced chemokine expression, in part via NFATc4 signaling. © 2018 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  19. Citicoline decreases phospholipase A2 stimulation and hydroxyl radical generation in transient cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Adibhatla, Rao Muralikrishna; Hatcher, James F

    2003-08-01

    Neuroprotection by citicoline (CDP-choline) in transient cerebral ischemia has been demonstrated previously. Citicoline has undergone several Phase III clinical trials for stroke, and is being evaluated for treatment of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Phospholipid degradation and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are major factors causing neuronal injury in CNS trauma and neurodegenerative diseases. Oxidative metabolism of arachidonic acid (released by the action of phospholipases) contributes to ROS generation. We examined the effect of citicoline on phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activity in relation to the attenuation of hydroxyl radical (OH.) generation after transient forebrain ischemia of gerbil. PLA(2) activity (requires mM Ca(2+)) increased significantly (P < 0.05) in both membrane (50.2 +/- 2.2 pmol/min/mg protein compared to sham 35.9 +/- 3.2) and mitochondrial fractions (77.0 +/- 1.2 pmol/min/mg protein compared to sham 33.9 +/- 1.2) after cerebral ischemia and 2 hr reperfusion in gerbil, which was significantly attenuated (P < 0.01) by citicoline (membrane, 39.9. +/- 2.2 and mitochondria, 41.9 +/- 3.2 pmol/min/mg protein). In vitro, citicoline and its components cytidine and choline had no effect on PLA(2) activity, and thus citicoline as such is not a PLA(2) inhibitor. Ischemia/reperfusion resulted in significant OH. generation (P < 0.01) and citicoline significantly (P < 0.01) attenuated their formation (expressed as 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid/salicylate ratio; ischemia/24 hr reperfusion, 6.30 +/- 0.23; sham, 2.56 +/- 0.27; ischemia/24 hr reperfusion + citicoline, 4.85 +/- 0.35). These results suggest that citicoline affects PLA(2) stimulation and decreases OH. generation after transient cerebral ischemia. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Primary structures and partial toxicological characterization of two phospholipases A2 from Micrurus mipartitus and Micrurus dumerilii coral snake venoms.

    PubMed

    Rey-Suárez, Paola; Núñez, Vitelbina; Saldarriaga-Córdoba, Mónica; Lomonte, Bruno

    2017-06-01

    Snake venom phospholipases A 2 (PLA 2 ) share high sequence identities and a conserved structural scaffold, but show important functional differences. Only a few PLA 2 s have been purified and characterized from coral snake (Micrurus spp.) venoms, and their role in envenomation remains largely unknown. In this report, we describe the isolation, sequencing and partial functional characterization of two Micrurus PLA 2 s: MmipPLA 2 from Micrurus mipartitus and MdumPLA 2 from Micrurus dumerilii, two species of clinical importance in Colombia. MmipPLA 2 consisted of 119 amino acid residues with a predicted pI of 8.4, whereas MdumPLA 2 consisted of 117 residues with a pI of 5.6. Both PLA 2 s showed the conserved 'group I' cysteine pattern and were enzymatically active, although MdumPLA 2 had higher activity. The two enzymes differed notably in their toxicity, with MmipPLA 2 being highly lethal to mice and mildly myotoxic, whereas MdumPLA 2 was not lethal (up to 3 μg/g body weight) but strongly myotoxic. MdumPLA 2 displayed higher anticoagulant activity than MmipPLA 2 in vitro and caused more sustained edema in the mouse footpad assay. Neither of these enzymes was cytolytic to cultured skeletal muscle C2C12 myotubes. Based on their structural differences, the two enzymes were placed in separate lineages in a partial phylogeny of Micrurus venom PLA 2 s and this classification agreed with their divergent biological activities. Overall, these findings highlight the structural and functional diversity of Micrurus venom PLA 2 s. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  1. p67phox terminates the phospholipase A2-derived signal for activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX2)

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaiah, Saikumari Y.; Dodia, Chandra; Feinstein, Sheldon I.; Fisher, Aron B.

    2013-01-01

    The phospholipase A2 (PLA2)activity of phosphorylated peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) is required for activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX2). We investigated the interaction of Prdx6 with p67phox and its effect on NOX2 activity. With the use of specific antibodies, coimmunoprecipitation of p67phox and phosphorylated Prdx6 was demonstrated with lysates of mouse pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (MPMVECs) that were stimulated with angiotensin II; the interaction of p67phox with nonphosphorylated Prdx6 was relatively weak. Association of p67phox and phosphoPrdx6 in intact MPMVECs after angiotensin II stimulation was demonstrated by proximity ligation assay and was abolished by U0126, a MAP kinase inhibitor. By isothermal titration calorimetry, p67phox bound strongly to phosphoPrdx6 but bound poorly to Prdx6; phosphorylated p67phox did not bind to either Prdx6 or phosphoPrdx6. PLA2 activity of recombinant phosphoPrdx6 was decreased by >98% in the presence of p67phox; the calculated dissociation constant (Kd) of the p67phox: phosphoPrdx6 complex was 65 nM. PLA2 activity (MJ33 sensitive) in cell lysates following angiotensin II treatment of MPMVECs was increased by 85% following knockdown of p67phox with siRNA. These data indicate that p67phox binds to phosphoPrdx6 and inhibits its PLA2 activity, an interaction that could function to terminate the PLA2-mediated NOX2 activation signal.—Krishnaiah, S. Y., Dodia, C., Feinstein, S. I., and Fisher, A. B. p67phox terminates the phospholipase A2-derived signal for activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX2). PMID:23401562

  2. p67(phox) terminates the phospholipase A(2)-derived signal for activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX2).

    PubMed

    Krishnaiah, Saikumari Y; Dodia, Chandra; Feinstein, Sheldon I; Fisher, Aron B

    2013-05-01

    The phospholipase A2 (PLA2)activity of phosphorylated peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) is required for activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX2). We investigated the interaction of Prdx6 with p67(phox) and its effect on NOX2 activity. With the use of specific antibodies, coimmunoprecipitation of p67(phox) and phosphorylated Prdx6 was demonstrated with lysates of mouse pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (MPMVECs) that were stimulated with angiotensin II; the interaction of p67(phox) with nonphosphorylated Prdx6 was relatively weak. Association of p67(phox) and phosphoPrdx6 in intact MPMVECs after angiotensin II stimulation was demonstrated by proximity ligation assay and was abolished by U0126, a MAP kinase inhibitor. By isothermal titration calorimetry, p67(phox) bound strongly to phosphoPrdx6 but bound poorly to Prdx6; phosphorylated p67(phox) did not bind to either Prdx6 or phosphoPrdx6. PLA2 activity of recombinant phosphoPrdx6 was decreased by >98% in the presence of p67(phox); the calculated dissociation constant (Kd) of the p67(phox): phosphoPrdx6 complex was 65 nM. PLA2 activity (MJ33 sensitive) in cell lysates following angiotensin II treatment of MPMVECs was increased by 85% following knockdown of p67(phox) with siRNA. These data indicate that p67(phox) binds to phosphoPrdx6 and inhibits its PLA2 activity, an interaction that could function to terminate the PLA2-mediated NOX2 activation signal.-Krishnaiah, S. Y., Dodia, C., Feinstein, S. I., and Fisher, A. B. p67(phox) terminates the phospholipase A2-derived signal for activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX2).

  3. Origin and evolution of group XI secretory phospholipase A2 from flax (Linum usitatissimum) based on phylogenetic analysis of conserved domains.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Payal; Saini, Raman; Dash, Prasanta K

    2017-07-01

    Phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) belongs to class of lipolytic enzymes (EC 3.1.1.4). Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and free fatty acids (FFAs) are the products of PLA 2 catalyzed hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides at sn-2 position. LPA and FFA that act as second mediators involved in the development and maturation of plants and animals. Mining of flax genome identified two phospholipase A 2 encoding genes, viz., LusPLA 2 I and LusPLA 2 II (Linum usitatissimum secretory phospholipase A 2 ). Molecular simulation of LusPLA 2 s with already characterized plant sPLA 2 s revealed the presence of conserved motifs and signature domains necessary to classify them as secretory phospholipase A 2 . Phylogenetic analysis of flax sPLA 2 with representative sPLA 2 s from other organisms revealed that they evolved rapidly via gene duplication/deletion events and shares a common ancestor. Our study is the first report of detailed phylogenetic analysis for secretory phospholipase A 2 in flax. Comparative genomic analysis of two LusPLA 2 s with earlier reported plant sPLA 2 s, based on their gene architectures, sequence similarities, and domain structures are presented elucidating the uniqueness of flax sPLA 2 .

  4. Modulation of the pharmacological effects of enzymatically-active PLA2 by BTL-2, an isolectin isolated from the Bryothamnion triquetrum red alga

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Simone CB; Fonseca, Fabiana V; Antunes, Edson; Camargo, Enilton A; Morganti, Rafael P; Aparício, Ricardo; Toyama, Daniela O; Beriam, Luís OS; Nunes, Eudismar V; Cavada, Benildo S; Nagano, Celso S; Sampaio, Alexandre H; Nascimento, Kyria S; Toyama, Marcos H

    2008-01-01

    Background An interaction between lectins from marine algae and PLA2 from rattlesnake was suggested some years ago. We, herein, studied the effects elicited by a small isolectin (BTL-2), isolated from Bryothamnion triquetrum, on the pharmacological and biological activities of a PLA2 isolated from rattlesnake venom (Crotalus durissus cascavella), to better understand the enzymatic and pharmacological mechanisms of the PLA2 and its complex. Results This PLA2 consisted of 122 amino acids (approximate molecular mass of 14 kDa), its pI was estimated to be 8.3, and its amino acid sequence shared a high degree of similarity with that of other neurotoxic and enzymatically-active PLA2s. BTL-2 had a molecular mass estimated in approximately 9 kDa and was characterized as a basic protein. In addition, BTL-2 did not exhibit any enzymatic activity. The PLA2 and BTL-2 formed a stable heterodimer with a molecular mass of approximately 24–26 kDa, estimated by molecular exclusion HPLC. In the presence of BTL-2, we observed a significant increase in PLA2 activity, 23% higher than that of PLA2 alone. BTL-2 demonstrated an inhibition of 98% in the growth of the Gram-positive bacterial strain, Clavibacter michiganensis michiganensis (Cmm), but only 9.8% inhibition of the Gram-negative bacterial strain, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv passiflorae (Xap). PLA2 decreased bacterial growth by 27.3% and 98.5% for Xap and Cmm, respectively, while incubating these two proteins with PLA2-BTL-2 inhibited their growths by 36.2% for Xap and 98.5% for Cmm. PLA2 significantly induced platelet aggregation in washed platelets, whereas BTL-2 did not induce significant platelet aggregation in any assay. However, BTL-2 significantly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by PLA2. In addition, PLA2 exhibited strong oedematogenic activity, which was decreased in the presence of BTL-2. BTL-2 alone did not induce oedema and did not decrease or abolish the oedema induced by the 48/80 compound. Conclusion The

  5. Phospholipase PLA2G7, associated with aggressive prostate cancer, promotes prostate cancer cell migration and invasion and is inhibited by statins

    PubMed Central

    Vainio, Paula; Lehtinen, Laura; Mirtti, Tuomas; Hilvo, Mika; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Virtanen, Johannes; Sankila, Anna; Nordling, Stig; Lundin, Johan; Rannikko, Antti; Orešič, Matej; Kallioniemi, Olli; Iljin, Kristiina

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality in men in developed countries. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the disease, design of novel personalized treatments is required to achieve efficient therapeutic responses. We have recently identified phospholipase 2 group VII (PLA2G7) as a potential drug target especially in ERG oncogene positive prostate cancers. Here, the expression profile of PLA2G7 was studied in 1137 prostate cancer and 409 adjacent non-malignant prostate tissues using immunohistochemistry to validate its biomarker potential and putative association with disease progression. In order to reveal the molecular alterations induced by PLA2G7 impairment, lipidomic and gene expression profiling was performed in response to PLA2G7 silencing in cultured prostate cancer cells. Moreover, the antineoplastic effect of statins combined with PLA2G7 impairment was studied in prostate cancer cells to evaluate the potential of repositioning of in vivo compatible drugs developed for other indications towards anti-cancer purposes. The results indicated that PLA2G7 is a cancer-selective biomarker in 50% of prostate cancers and associates with aggressive disease. The alterations induced by PLA2G7 silencing highlighted the potential of PLA2G7 inhibition as an anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic and anti-migratorial therapeutic approach in prostate cancer. Moreover, the anti-proliferative effect of PLA2G7 silencing was potentiated by lipid-lowering statins in prostate cancer cells. Taken together, our results support the potential of PLA2G7 as a biomarker and a drug target in prostate cancer and present a rationale for combining PLA2G7 inhibition with the use of statins in prostate cancer management. PMID:22202492

  6. [Clinical features and expression of PLA(2)R in renal tissue with idiopathic membranous nephropathy in children].

    PubMed

    Dong, Y F; Sun, L W; Zhang, B; Kuang, X Y; Niu, X L; Kang, Y L; Hao, S; Wang, P; Li, Z; Zhu, G H; Huang, W Y; Wu, Y

    2018-03-02

    Objective: To explore the clinical features and expression of PLA(2)R in renal tissue of children with idiopathic membranous nephropathy. Methods: Retrospective study was performed in patients with membranous nephropathy diagnosed through renal biopsy and the follow-up time was at least half a year in Shanghai Children ' s Hospital from January 2010 to February 2017. We compared their clinicopathological and pathological findings of IMN. Indirect immunofluorescence assay was used to detect glomerular PLA(2)R expression. We analyzed the differences of clinical features between the PLA(2)R negative and positive groups. T test, rank-sum test and Fisher exact test were used. Results: Eleven cases had hematuria and proteinuria, 9 cases presented with nephrotic syndrome, and 2 cases showed isolated proteinuria. Of the 22 cases of children with IMN, 16 patients had complete remission (complete remission rate was 72.8%), and 22 patients had partial remission. The renal function of all cases was normal and in all cases the estimated glomerular filtration rate was > 90 ml/(min·1.73m(2)). Of 22 cases with IMN, 7 cases were PLA(2)R-positive in renal tissue and 15 cases were PLA(2)R-negative. The age of positive group (10 years old) was older than the negative group (6 years old)( Z= -2.483, P< 0.05) and the time of positive group (6 months) for urine protein to return to negative was longer than the negative group (2.5 months) through treatment. These differences were significantly different ( Z= -2.072, P< 0.05). Conclusions: Hematuria and proteinuria can be found in most children with idiopathic primary membranous nephropathy. Prednisone combined with immunosuppressant was effective. The positive rate of PLA(2)R in renal tissue of children with IMN was about 32%. The age of PLA(2)R positive group was older than the negative group. And the time of urine protein turning to negative in positive group was longer than that in the negative group.

  7. Intravascular hemolysis induced by phospholipases A2 from the venom of the Eastern coral snake, Micrurus fulvius: Functional profiles of hemolytic and non-hemolytic isoforms.

    PubMed

    Fernández, María Laura; Quartino, Pablo Yunes; Arce-Bejarano, Ruth; Fernández, Julián; Camacho, Luis F; Gutiérrez, José María; Kuemmel, Daniel; Fidelio, Gerardo; Lomonte, Bruno

    2018-04-01

    A unique feature of the venom of Micrurus fulvius (Eastern coral snake) is its ability to induce severe intravascular hemolysis in particular species, such as dogs or mice. This effect was previously shown to be induced by distinct phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) isoforms which cause direct hemolysis in vitro, an uncommon finding for such enzymes. The functional profiles of PLA 2 -17, a direct hemolytic enzyme, and PLA 2 -12, a co-existing venom isoform lacking such effect, were compared. The enzymes differed not only in their ability to cause intravascular hemolysis: PLA 2 -17 additionally displayed lethal, myotoxic, and anticoagulant actions, whereas PLA 2 -12 lacked these effects. PLA 2 -12 was much more active in hydrolyzing a monodisperse synthetic substrate than PLA 2 -17, but the catalytic activity of latter was notably higher on a micellar substrate, or towards pure phospholipid artificial monolayers under controlled lateral pressures. Interestingly, PLA 2 -17 could hydrolyze substrate at a pressure of 20 mN m -1 , in contrast to PLA 2 -12 or the non-toxic pancreatic PLA 2 . This suggests important differences in the monolayer penetrating power, which could be related to differences in toxicity. Comparative examination of primary structures and predicted three-dimensional folding of PLA 2 -12 and PLA 2 -17, revealed that differences concentrate in their N-terminal and central regions, leading to variations of the surface properties at the membrane interacting interface. PLA 2 -17 presents a less basic interfacial surface than PLA 2 -12, but more bulky aromatic residues, which could be associated to its higher membrane-penetrating strength. Altogether, these structural and functional comparative observations suggest that the ability of PLA 2 s to penetrate substrate interfaces could be a major determinant of toxicity, perhaps more important than protein surface charge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Conjugated linoleic acid-enriched butter improved memory and up-regulated phospholipase A2 encoding-genes in rat brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Gama, Marco A S; Raposo, Nádia R B; Mury, Fábio B; Lopes, Fernando C F; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Talib, Leda L; Gattaz, Wagner F

    2015-10-01

    Reduced phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity has been reported in blood cells and in postmortem brains of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), and there is evidence that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) modulates the activity of PLA2 groups in non-brain tissues. As CLA isomers were shown to be actively incorporated and metabolized in the brains of rats, we hypothesized that feeding a diet naturally enriched in CLA would affect the activity and expression of Pla 2 -encoding genes in rat brain tissue, with possible implications for memory. To test this hypothesis, Wistar rats were trained for the inhibitory avoidance task and fed a commercial diet (control) or experimental diets containing either low CLA- or CLA-enriched butter for 4 weeks. After this period, the rats were tested for memory retrieval and killed for tissue collection. Hippocampal expression of 19 Pla 2 genes was evaluated by qPCR, and activities of PLA2 groups (cPLA2, iPLA2, and sPLA2) were determined by radioenzymatic assay. Rats fed the high CLA diet had increased hippocampal mRNA levels for specific PLA2 isoforms (iPla 2 g6γ; cPla 2 g4a, sPla 2 g3, sPla 2 g1b, and sPla 2 g12a) and higher enzymatic activity of all PLA2 groups as compared to those fed the control and the low CLA diet. The increment in PLA2 activities correlated significantly with memory enhancement, as assessed by increased latency in the step-down inhibitory avoidance task after 4 weeks of treatment (rs = 0.69 for iPLA2, P < 0.001; rs = 0.81 for cPLA2, P < 0.001; and rs = 0.69 for sPLA2, P < 0.001). In face of the previous reports showing reduced PLA2 activity in AD brains, the present findings suggest that dairy products enriched in cis-9, trans-11 CLA may be useful in the treatment of this disease.

  9. Triterpene derivatives as inhibitors of protein involved in the inflammatory process: molecules interfering with phospholipase A2, cycloxygenase, and lipoxygenase.

    PubMed

    Braca, Alessandra; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Marzocco, Stefania; Autore, Giuseppina; Vassallo, Antonio; De Tommasi, Nunziatina

    2011-03-01

    Over the past years, there was an explosion in the knowledge of the protein target and molecular mechanism associated with various disease types and in the new research of drugs of natural origin. The key idea is to evaluate bioactive natural products interacting with protein domains of different genetic origin but structurally preserved to develop libraries of compounds biologically validated and selected from an evolutionistic point of view. Compared with synthetic compounds, natural products have a major number of unused scaffolds and not comparable to the libraries of synthetic compounds, and could represent a promising starting points for the discovery of new bioactive compounds. Many natural products are reported to interact with proteins involved in serious diseases, such as inflammation and cancer. Recently various chemical classes of plant secondary metabolites have emerged as potential therapeutic compounds in several inflammatory diseases. Owing to the findings that triterpenoids, a common class of plant secondary metabolites, have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects on humans, the interest in their potential application in human health and disease is increasing. The present review describes anti-inflammatory triterpenes derivatives from plant and fungi reported during the last two decades in order to provide an account of this field of investigation, sorting compounds according to their targets, phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), cycloxygenase (COX), and lipoxygenase (LOX). The attempt is also being made to enumerate the possible leads for further synthetic and drug discovery program development.

  10. Identification of Novel Compound Mutations in PLA2G6-Associated Neurodegeneration Patient with Characteristic MRI Imaging.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sen; Yang, Liu; Liu, Huijie; Chen, Wei; Li, Jinchen; Yu, Ping; Sun, Zhong Sheng; Chen, Xiang; Du, Jie; Cai, Tao

    2017-08-01

    Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized clinically by progressive motor dysfunction. Accurate identification of de novo and rare inherited mutations is important for determining causative genes of undiagnosed neurological diseases. In the present study, we report a unique case with cerebellar ataxia symptoms and social communication difficulties in an intermarriage family. MRI showed a marked cerebellar atrophy and the "eye-of-the-tiger"-like sign in the medial globus pallidus. Potential genetic defects were screened by whole-exome sequencing (WES) for the patient and four additional family members. A previously undescribed de novo missense mutation (c.1634A>G, p.K545R) in the exon 12 of the PLA2G6 gene was identified. A second rare variant c.1077G>A at the end of exon 7 was also identified, which was inherited from the mother, and resulted in a frame-shift mutation (c.1074_1077del.GTCG) due to an alternative splicing. In conclusion, the identification of the "eye-of-the-tiger"-like sign in the globus pallidus of the patient expands the phenotypic spectrum of PLA2G6-associated disorders and reveals its value in differential diagnosis of PLA2G6-associated disorders.

  11. Effects of prostaglandin F(2alpha)and carbachol on MAP kinases, cytosolic phospholipase A(2)and arachidonic acid release in cat iris sphincter smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Husain, S; Abdel-Latif, A A

    2001-05-01

    The signal transduction pathways initiated by Ca(2+)-mobilizing agonists, such as prostaglandin F(2alpha)(PGF(2alpha)) and carbachol (CCh), leading to activation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2)(cPLA(2)) and arachidonic acid (AA) release in a wide variety of tissues remain obscure. To further define the role of protein kinases in receptor mediated stimulation of cPLA(2)and consequently AA release we have investigated the role of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and protein kinase C (PKC) in PGF(2alpha)- and CCh-induced cPLA(2)phosphorylation and AA release in cat iris sphincter smooth muscle (CISM) cells. The cells were prelabeled with [(3)H]AA for 24 hr and incubated in the absence or presence of the agonist for 5-10 min as indicated. MAP kinases activities and cPLA(2)phosphorylation were determined in immunoprecipitates obtained by using anti-p38 MAP kinase and anti-cPLA(2)antibodies. We found that: (a) PGF(2alpha)and CCh increased p38 MAP kinase activity by 197 and 215%, respectively, and increased p42/p44 MAP kinase activity by 200 and 125%, respectively. (b) SB202190, a p38 MAP kinase specific inhibitor, inhibited PGF(2alpha)- and CCh-induced cPLA(2)phosphorylation by 92 and 85%, respectively, and AA release by 62 and 78%, respectively. (c) PD98059, a p42/p44 MAP kinase inhibitor, inhibited CCh-induced cPLA(2)phosphorylation by 70% and AA release by 71%, but had no effect on that of PGF(2alpha). (d) Inhibition of PKC activity by RO 31-8220 inhibited both PGF(2alpha)- and CCh-stimulation of p38 MAP kinase, p42/p44 MAP kinases and cPLA(2)phosphorylation. We conclude from these results that in CISM cells PGF(2alpha)-induced cPLA(2)phosphorylation and AA release is mediated through p38 MAP kinase, but not through p42/p44 MAP kinases, whereas that of CCh is mediated through both p38 MAP kinase and p42/p44 MAP kinases. These effects of PGF(2alpha)and CCh are regulated by the MAP kinases in a PKC-dependent manner. Studies aimed at elucidating the role of

  12. iPLA2β deficiency attenuates obesity and hepatic steatosis in ob/ob mice through hepatic fatty-acyl phospholipid remodeling.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiuling; Wang, Jiliang; Jiao, Li; Utaipan, Tanyarath; Tuma-Kellner, Sabine; Schmitz, Gerd; Liebisch, Gerhard; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Chamulitrat, Walee

    2016-05-01

    PLA2G6 or GVIA calcium-independent PLA2 (iPLA2β) is identified as one of the NAFLD modifier genes in humans, and thought to be a target for NAFLD therapy. iPLA2β is known to play a house-keeping role in phospholipid metabolism and remodeling. However, its role in NAFLD pathogenesis has not been supported by results obtained from high-fat feeding of iPLA2β-null (PKO) mice. Unlike livers of human NAFLD and genetically obese rodents, fatty liver induced by high-fat diet is not associated with depletion of hepatic phospholipids. We therefore tested whether iPLA2β could regulate obesity and hepatic steatosis in leptin-deficient mice by cross-breeding PKO with ob/ob mice to generate ob/ob-PKO mice. Here we observed an improvement in ob/ob-PKO mice with significant reduction in serum enzymes, lipids, glucose, insulin as well as improved glucose tolerance, and reduction in islet hyperplasia. The improvement in hepatic steatosis measured by liver triglycerides, fatty acids and cholesterol esters was associated with decreased expression of PPARγ and de novo lipogenesis genes, and the reversal of β-oxidation gene expression. Notably, ob/ob livers contained depleted levels of lysophospholipids and phospholipids, and iPLA2β deficiency in ob/ob-PKO livers lowers the former, but replenished the latter particularly phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) that contained arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. Compared with WT livers, PKO livers also contained increased PE and PC containing AA and DHA. Thus, iPLA2β deficiency protected against obesity and ob/ob fatty liver which was associated with hepatic fatty-acyl phospholipid remodeling. Our results support the deleterious role of iPLA2β in severe obesity associated NAFLD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Diapocynin, a dimer of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin, reduces ROS production and prevents force loss in eccentrically contracting dystrophic muscle.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Hesham M; Scapozza, Leonardo; Ruegg, Urs T; Dorchies, Olivier M

    2014-01-01

    Elevation of intracellular Ca2+, excessive ROS production and increased phospholipase A2 activity contribute to the pathology in dystrophin-deficient muscle. Moreover, Ca2+, ROS and phospholipase A2, in particular iPLA2, are thought to potentiate each other in positive feedback loops. NADPH oxidases (NOX) have been considered as a major source of ROS in muscle and have been reported to be overexpressed in muscles of mdx mice. We report here on our investigations regarding the effect of diapocynin, a dimer of the commonly used NOX inhibitor apocynin, on the activity of iPLA2, Ca2+ handling and ROS generation in dystrophic myotubes. We also examined the effects of diapocynin on force production and recovery ability of isolated EDL muscles exposed to eccentric contractions in vitro, a damaging procedure to which dystrophic muscle is extremely sensitive. In dystrophic myotubes, diapocynin inhibited ROS production, abolished iPLA2 activity and reduced Ca2+ influx through stretch-activated and store-operated channels, two major pathways responsible for excessive Ca2+ entry in dystrophic muscle. Diapocynin also prevented force loss induced by eccentric contractions of mdx muscle close to the value of wild-type muscle and reduced membrane damage as seen by Procion orange dye uptake. These findings support the central role played by NOX-ROS in the pathogenic cascade leading to muscular dystrophy and suggest diapocynin as an effective NOX inhibitor that might be helpful for future therapeutic approaches.

  14. Efficient heterologous expression, functional characterization and molecular modeling of annular seabream digestive phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Smichi, Nabil; Othman, Houcemeddine; Achouri, Neila; Noiriel, Alexandre; Triki, Soumaya; Arondel, Vincent; Srairi-Abid, Najet; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Gargouri, Youssef; Miled, Nabil; Fendri, Ahmed

    2018-03-01

    Here we report the cDNA cloning of a phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) from five Sparidae species. The deduced amino acid sequences show high similarity with pancreatic PLA 2 . In addition, a phylogenetic tree derived from alignment of various available sequences revealed that Sparidae PLA 2 are closer to avian PLA 2 group IB than to mammals' ones. In order to understand the structure-function relationships of these enzymes, we report here the recombinant expression in E.coli, the refolding and characterization of His-tagged annular seabream PLA 2 (AsPLA 2 ). A single Ni-affinity chromatography step was used to obtain a highly purified recombinant AsPLA 2 with a molecular mass of 15kDa as attested by gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry data. The enzyme has a specific activity of 400U.mg -1 measured on phosphatidylcholine at pH 8.5 and 50°C. The enzyme high thermo-activity and thermo-stability make it a potential candidate in various biological applications. The 3D structure models of these enzymes were compared with structures of phylogenetically related pancreatic PLA 2 . By following these models and utilizing molecular dynamics simulations, the resistance of the AsPLA 2 at high temperatures was explained. Using the monomolecular film technique, AsPLA 2 was found to be active on various phospholipids spread at the air/water interface at a surface pressure between 12 and 25dyncm -1 . Interestingly, this enzyme was shown to be mostly active on dilauroyl-phosphatidylglycerol monolayers and this behavior was confirmed by molecular docking and dynamics simulations analysis. The discovery of a thermo-active new member of Sparidae PLA 2 , provides new insights on structure-activity relationships of fish PLA 2 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The anti-inflammatory activity of standard aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. as evident in inhibition of Group IA sPLA2.

    PubMed

    Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa; Shivalingaiah, Sudharshan

    2016-03-01

    The standard aqueous stem bark extract is consumed as herbal drink and used in the pharmaceutical formulations to treat patients suffering from various disease conditions in Cuba. This study was carried out to evaluate the modulatory effect of standard aqueous bark extract of M. indica on Group IA sPLA2. M. indica extract, dose dependently inhibited the GIA sPLA2 (NN-XIa-PLA2) activity with an IC50 value 8.1 µg/ml. M. indica extract effectively inhibited the indirect hemolytic activity up to 98% at ~40 µg/ml concentration and at various concentrations (0-50 µg/ml), it dose dependently inhibited the edema formation. When examined as a function of increased substrate and calcium concentration, there was no relieve of inhibitory effect on the GIA sPLA2. Furthermore, the inhibition was irreversible as evidenced from binding studies. It is observed that the aqueous extract ofM. indica effectively inhibits sPLA2 and it is associated inflammatory activities, which substantiate their anti-inflammatory properties. The mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract, with sPLA2 enzyme. Further studies on understanding the principal constituents, responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity would be interesting to develop this into potent anti-inflammatory agent.

  16. Cytosolic PhospholipaseA2 Inhibition with PLA-695 Radiosensitizes Tumors in Lung Cancer Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Daniel J.; Kotipatruni, Rama P.; Bhave, Sandeep R.; Jaboin, Jerry J.; Hallahan, Dennis E.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States and the rest of the world. The advent of molecularly directed therapies holds promise for improvement in therapeutic efficacy. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) is associated with tumor progression and radioresistance in mouse tumor models. Utilizing the cPLA2 specific inhibitor PLA-695, we determined if cPLA2 inhibition radiosensitizes non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and tumors. Treatment with PLA-695 attenuated radiation induced increases of phospho-ERK and phospho-Akt in endothelial cells. NSCLC cells (LLC and A549) co-cultured with endothelial cells (bEND3 and HUVEC) and pre-treated with PLA-695 showed radiosensitization. PLA-695 in combination with irradiation (IR) significantly reduced migration and proliferation in endothelial cells (HUVEC & bEND3) and induced cell death and attenuated invasion by tumor cells (LLC &A549). In a heterotopic tumor model, the combination of PLA-695 and radiation delayed growth in both LLC and A549 tumors. LLC and A549 tumors treated with a combination of PLA-695 and radiation displayed reduced tumor vasculature. In a dorsal skin fold model of LLC tumors, inhibition of cPLA2 in combination with radiation led to enhanced destruction of tumor blood vessels. The anti-angiogenic effects of PLA-695 and its enhancement of the efficacy of radiotherapy in mouse models of NSCLC suggest that clinical trials for its capacity to improve radiotherapy outcomes are warranted. PMID:23894523

  17. Cytosolic phospholipaseA2 inhibition with PLA-695 radiosensitizes tumors in lung cancer animal models.

    PubMed

    Thotala, Dinesh; Craft, Jeffrey M; Ferraro, Daniel J; Kotipatruni, Rama P; Bhave, Sandeep R; Jaboin, Jerry J; Hallahan, Dennis E

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States and the rest of the world. The advent of molecularly directed therapies holds promise for improvement in therapeutic efficacy. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) is associated with tumor progression and radioresistance in mouse tumor models. Utilizing the cPLA2 specific inhibitor PLA-695, we determined if cPLA2 inhibition radiosensitizes non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and tumors. Treatment with PLA-695 attenuated radiation induced increases of phospho-ERK and phospho-Akt in endothelial cells. NSCLC cells (LLC and A549) co-cultured with endothelial cells (bEND3 and HUVEC) and pre-treated with PLA-695 showed radiosensitization. PLA-695 in combination with irradiation (IR) significantly reduced migration and proliferation in endothelial cells (HUVEC & bEND3) and induced cell death and attenuated invasion by tumor cells (LLC &A549). In a heterotopic tumor model, the combination of PLA-695 and radiation delayed growth in both LLC and A549 tumors. LLC and A549 tumors treated with a combination of PLA-695 and radiation displayed reduced tumor vasculature. In a dorsal skin fold model of LLC tumors, inhibition of cPLA2 in combination with radiation led to enhanced destruction of tumor blood vessels. The anti-angiogenic effects of PLA-695 and its enhancement of the efficacy of radiotherapy in mouse models of NSCLC suggest that clinical trials for its capacity to improve radiotherapy outcomes are warranted.

  18. Secreted Phospholipases A2 from Animal Venoms in Pain and Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Zambelli, Vanessa O.; Picolo, Gisele; Fernandes, Carlos A. H.

    2017-01-01

    Animal venoms comprise a complex mixture of components that affect several biological systems. Based on the high selectivity for their molecular targets, these components are also a rich source of potential therapeutic agents. Among the main components of animal venoms are the secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s). These PLA2 belong to distinct PLA2s groups. For example, snake venom sPLA2s from Elapidae and Viperidae families, the most important families when considering envenomation, belong, respectively, to the IA and IIA/IIB groups, whereas bee venom PLA2 belongs to group III of sPLA2s. It is well known that PLA2, due to its hydrolytic activity on phospholipids, takes part in many pathophysiological processes, including inflammation and pain. Therefore, secreted PLA2s obtained from animal venoms have been widely used as tools to (a) modulate inflammation and pain, uncovering molecular targets that are implicated in the control of inflammatory (including painful) and neurodegenerative diseases; (b) shed light on the pathophysiology of inflammation and pain observed in human envenomation by poisonous animals; and, (c) characterize molecular mechanisms involved in inflammatory diseases. The present review summarizes the knowledge on the nociceptive and antinociceptive actions of sPLA2s from animal venoms, particularly snake venoms. PMID:29311537

  19. Genetic Ablation of Calcium-independent Phospholipase A2γ Induces Glomerular Injury in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Elimam, Hanan; Papillon, Joan; Kaufman, Daniel R.; Guillemette, Julie; Aoudjit, Lamine; Gross, Richard W.; Takano, Tomoko; Cybulsky, Andrey V.

    2016-01-01

    Glomerular visceral epithelial cells (podocytes) play a critical role in the maintenance of glomerular permselectivity. Podocyte injury, manifesting as proteinuria, is the cause of many glomerular diseases. We reported previously that calcium-independent phospholipase A2γ (iPLA2γ) is cytoprotective against complement-mediated glomerular epithelial cell injury. Studies in iPLA2γ KO mice have demonstrated an important role for iPLA2γ in mitochondrial lipid turnover, membrane structure, and metabolism. The aim of the present study was to employ iPLA2γ KO mice to better understand the role of iPLA2γ in normal glomerular and podocyte function as well as in glomerular injury. We show that deletion of iPLA2γ did not cause detectable albuminuria; however, it resulted in mitochondrial structural abnormalities and enhanced autophagy in podocytes as well as loss of podocytes in aging KO mice. Moreover, after induction of anti-glomerular basement membrane nephritis in young mice, iPLA2γ KO mice exhibited significantly increased levels of albuminuria, podocyte injury, and loss of podocytes compared with wild type. Thus, iPLA2γ has a protective functional role in the normal glomerulus and in glomerulonephritis. Understanding the role of iPLA2γ in glomerular pathophysiology provides opportunities for the development of novel therapeutic approaches to glomerular injury and proteinuria. PMID:27226532

  20. Indole cytosolic phospholipase A2 alpha inhibitors: discovery and in vitro and in vivo characterization of 4-{3-[5-chloro-2-(2-{[(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)sulfonyl]amino}ethyl)-1-(diphenylmethyl)-1H-indol-3-yl]propyl}benzoic acid, efipladib.

    PubMed

    McKew, John C; Lee, Katherine L; Shen, Marina W H; Thakker, Paresh; Foley, Megan A; Behnke, Mark L; Hu, Baihua; Sum, Fuk-Wah; Tam, Steve; Hu, Yonghan; Chen, Lihren; Kirincich, Steven J; Michalak, Ronald; Thomason, Jennifer; Ipek, Manus; Wu, Kun; Wooder, Lane; Ramarao, Manjunath K; Murphy, Elizabeth A; Goodwin, Debra G; Albert, Leo; Xu, Xin; Donahue, Frances; Ku, M Sherry; Keith, James; Nickerson-Nutter, Cheryl L; Abraham, William M; Williams, Cara; Hegen, Martin; Clark, James D

    2008-06-26

    The optimization of a class of indole cPLA 2 alpha inhibitors is described herein. The importance of the substituent at C3 and the substitution pattern of the phenylmethane sulfonamide region are highlighted. Optimization of these regions led to the discovery of 111 (efipladib) and 121 (WAY-196025), which are shown to be potent, selective inhibitors of cPLA 2 alpha in a variety of isolated enzyme assays, cell based assays, and rat and human whole blood assays. The binding of these compounds has been further examined using isothermal titration calorimetry. Finally, these compounds have shown efficacy when dosed orally in multiple acute and chronic prostaglandin and leukotriene dependent in vivo models.

  1. Effect of Chlorogenic Acid (5-Caffeoylquinic Acid) Isolated from Baccharis oxyodonta on the Structure and Pharmacological Activities of Secretory Phospholipase A2 from Crotalus durissus terrificus

    PubMed Central

    Toyama, Daniela O.; Ferreira, Marcelo J. P.; Romoff, Paulete; Fávero, Oriana A.; Gaeta, Henrique H.; Toyama, Marcos H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid, 5CQA), isolated from Baccharis oxyodonta, on the structure and pharmacological effect of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) from Crotalus durissus terrificus. All in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted using a purified sPLA2 compared under the same experimental conditions with sPLA2 : 5CQA. 5CQA induced several discrete modifications in the secondary structure and the hydrophobic characteristics of native sPLA2 that induced slight changes in the α-helical content, increase in the random coil structure, and decrease of fluorescence of native sPLA2. Moreover, 5CQA significantly decreased the enzymatic activity and the oedema and myonecrosis induced by native sPLA2. As the catalytic activity of sPLA2 plays an important role in several of its biological and pharmacological properties, antibacterial activity was used to confirm the decrease in its enzymatic activity by 5CQA, which induced massive bacterial cell destruction. We found that 5CQA specifically abolished the enzymatic activity of sPLA2 and induced discrete protein unfolding that mainly involved the pharmacological site of sPLA2. These results showed the potential application of 5CQA in the snake poisoning treatment and modulation of the pathological effect of inflammation induced by secretory PLA2. PMID:25258715

  2. Small molecule inhibitors of the annexin A2 heterotetramer prevent human papillomavirus type 16 infection.

    PubMed

    Woodham, Andrew W; Taylor, Julia R; Jimenez, Andrew I; Skeate, Joseph G; Schmidt, Thomas; Brand, Heike E; Da Silva, Diane M; Kast, W Martin

    2015-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection leads to the development of several human cancers that cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. HPV type 16 (HPV16) is the most common of the cancer-causing genotypes and gains entry to the basal cells of the epithelium through a non-canonical endocytic pathway that involves the annexin A2/S100A10 heterotetramer (A2t). A2t is composed of two annexin A2 monomers bound to an S100A10 dimer and this interaction is a potential target to block HPV16 infection. Here, recently identified small molecule inhibitors of A2t (A2ti) were investigated for their ability to prevent HPV16 infection in vitro. A2ti were added to HeLa cells in increasing concentrations prior to the addition of HPV16. Cytotoxicity was evaluated via trypan blue exclusion. HPV16 pseudovirion infection and fluorescently labelled HPV16 capsid internalization was measured with flow cytometry. A2ti blocked HPV16 infection by 100% without substantial cellular toxicity or reduction in cell growth. Furthermore, A2ti blocked HPV16 entry into epithelial cells by 65%, indicating that the observed inhibition of HPV16 infection is in part due to a block in entry and that non-infectious entry may occur in the absence of A2t binding. These results demonstrate that targeting A2t may be an effective strategy to prevent HPV16 infection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Efficacy of a therapeutic treatment using gas-filled microbubble-associated phospholipase A2 in a mouse model of honeybee venom allergy.

    PubMed

    Corthésy, B; Lassus, A; Terrettaz, J; Tranquart, F; Bioley, G

    2016-07-01

    Venom immunotherapy is efficient to desensitize people suffering from insect sting allergies. However, the numerous injections required over several years and important risks of severe side reactions complicate the widespread use of immunotherapy. In the search for novel approaches to blunt the overwhelming pro-allergic Th2 response, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of a treatment based on a denatured form of the major allergen, phospholipase A2, associated with microbubbles (PLA2denat -MB) in a mouse model of honeybee venom allergy. Antibodies measured by ELISA, T-cell responses assessed by CFSE-based proliferation assays and ELISA, and basophil degranulation were examined after PLA2denat -MB-based therapeutic treatment of sensitized mice. Mice were challenged with a lethal dose of PLA2 to evaluate protection against anaphylaxis. Therapeutic subcutaneous administration of two different PLA2denat -MB formulations, in contrast to PLA2denat alone, reduced allergic symptoms and protected all mice from anaphylaxis-mediated death after allergen challenge. At the functional level, the use of PLA2denat decreased IgE-mediated basophil degranulation as compared to the native form of the allergen. In comparison with PLA2denat alone, both PLA2denat -MB formulations decreased allergen-specific Th2 CD4 T-cell reactivity. At the mechanistic level, PLA2denat -MB containing 20% palmitic acid and PEG induced PLA2-specific IgA and increased Foxp3(+) Treg frequencies and TGF-β production, whereas the formulation bearing 80% palmitic acid triggered the production of IFN-γ, IgG2a, and IgG3. In contrast to conventional PLA2 subcutaneous immunotherapy, the therapeutic administration of PLA2-MB treatment to mice that already had established allergy to PLA2 protects all subsequently challenged animals. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Group III secreted phospholipase A2 regulates epididymal sperm maturation and fertility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Hiroyasu; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Isogai, Yuki; Miki, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Kei; Masuda, Seiko; Hosono, Tomohiko; Arata, Satoru; Ishikawa, Yukio; Ishii, Toshiharu; Kobayashi, Tetsuyuki; Nakanishi, Hiroki; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Taguchi, Ryo; Hara, Shuntaro; Kudo, Ichiro; Murakami, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    Although lipid metabolism is thought to be important for the proper maturation and function of spermatozoa, the molecular mechanisms that underlie this dynamic process in the gonads remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that group III phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-III), a member of the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) family, is expressed in the mouse proximal epididymal epithelium and that targeted disruption of the gene encoding this protein (Pla2g3) leads to defects in sperm maturation and fertility. Although testicular spermatogenesis in Pla2g3–/– mice was grossly normal, spermatozoa isolated from the cauda epididymidis displayed hypomotility, and their ability to fertilize intact eggs was markedly impaired. Transmission EM further revealed that epididymal spermatozoa in Pla2g3–/– mice had both flagella with abnormal axonemes and aberrant acrosomal structures. During epididymal transit, phosphatidylcholine in the membrane of Pla2g3+/+ sperm underwent a dramatic shift in its acyl groups from oleic, linoleic, and arachidonic acids to docosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, whereas this membrane lipid remodeling event was compromised in sperm from Pla2g3–/– mice. Moreover, the gonads of Pla2g3–/– mice contained less 12/15-lipoxygenase metabolites than did those of Pla2g3+/+ mice. Together, our results reveal a role for the atypical sPLA2 family member sPLA2-III in epididymal lipid homeostasis and indicate that its perturbation may lead to sperm dysfunction. PMID:20424323

  5. The Finding of a Group IIE Phospholipase A2 Gene in a Specified Segment of Protobothrops flavoviridis Genome and Its Possible Evolutionary Relationship to Group IIA Phospholipase A2 Genes

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Kazuaki; Chijiwa, Takahito; Ikeda, Naoki; Shibata, Hiroki; Fukumaki, Yasuyuki; Oda-Ueda, Naoko; Hattori, Shosaku; Ohno, Motonori

    2014-01-01

    The genes encoding group IIE phospholipase A2, abbreviated as IIE PLA2, and its 5' and 3' flanking regions of Crotalinae snakes such as Protobothrops flavoviridis, P. tokarensis, P. elegans, and Ovophis okinavensis, were found and sequenced. The genes consisted of four exons and three introns and coded for 22 or 24 amino acid residues of the signal peptides and 134 amino acid residues of the mature proteins. These IIE PLA2s show high similarity to those from mammals and Colubridae snakes. The high expression level of IIE PLA2s in Crotalinae venom glands suggests that they should work as venomous proteins. The blast analysis indicated that the gene encoding OTUD3, which is ovarian tumor domain-containing protein 3, is located in the 3' downstream of IIE PLA2 gene. Moreover, a group IIA PLA2 gene was found in the 5' upstream of IIE PLA2 gene linked to the OTUD3 gene (OTUD3) in the P. flavoviridis genome. It became evident that the specified arrangement of IIA PLA2 gene, IIE PLA2 gene, and OTUD3 in this order is common in the genomes of humans to snakes. The present finding that the genes encoding various secretory PLA2s form a cluster in the genomes of humans to birds is closely related to the previous finding that six venom PLA2 isozyme genes are densely clustered in the so-called NIS-1 fragment of the P. flavoviridis genome. It is also suggested that venom IIA PLA2 genes may be evolutionarily derived from the IIE PLA2 gene. PMID:25529307

  6. NFATC3-PLA2G15 Fusion Transcript Identified by RNA Sequencing Promotes Tumor Invasion and Proliferation in Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jee-Eun; Kim, Hwang-Phill; Han, Sae-Won; Jang, Hoon; Lee, Si-Hyun; Song, Sang-Hyun; Bang, Duhee; Kim, Tae-You

    2018-06-14

    This study was designed to identify novel fusion transcripts (FTs) and their functional significance in colorectal cancer lines. We performed paired-end RNA sequencing of 28 colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. FT candidates were identified using TopHat-fusion, ChimeraScan, and FusionMap tools and further experimental validation was conducted through reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing. FT was depleted in human CRC line and the effects on cell proliferation, cell migration, and cell invasion were analyzed. 1,380 FT candidates were detected through bioinformatics filtering. We selected 6 candidate FTs, including 4 inter-chromosomal and 2 intra-chromosomal FTs and each FT was found in at least 1 of the 28 cell lines. Moreover, when we tested 19 pairs of CRC tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples, NFATC3-PLA2G15 FT was found in 2. Knockdown of NFATC3-PLA2G15 using siRNA reduced mRNA expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers such as vimentin, twist, and fibronectin and increased mesenchymal-epithelial transition markers of E-cadherin, claudin-1, and FOXC2 in colo-320 cell line harboring NFATC3-PLA2G15 FT. The NFATC3-PLA2G15 knockdown also inhibited invasion, colony formation capacity, and cell proliferation. These results suggest that that NFATC3-PLA2G15 FTs may contribute to tumor progression by enhancing invasion by EMT and proliferation.

  7. Biological and biochemical characterization of two new PLA2 isoforms Cdc-9 and Cdc-10 from Crotalus durissus cumanensis snake venom.

    PubMed

    Romero-Vargas, Frey Francisco; Ponce-Soto, Luis Alberto; Martins-de-Souza, Daniel; Marangoni, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    This work reports the purification, biological characterization and amino acid sequence of two new basic PLA(2) isoforms, Cdc-9 and Cdc-10, purified from the Crotalus durissus cumanensis venom by one step analytical chromatography reverse phase HPLC. The molecular masses of the PLA(2) were 14,175+/-2.7 Da for Cdc-9 and 14,228+/-3.5 Da for Cdc-10 both deduced by primary structure and confirmed by MALDI-TOF. The isoforms presented an amino acid sequence of 122 amino acid residues, being Cdc-9: SLVQFNKMIK FETRKSGLPF YAAYGCYCGW GGQRPKDATD RCCFVHDCCY GKVAKCNTKW DIYSYSLKSG YITCGKGTWC KEQICECDRV AAECLRRSLS TYKNEYMFYP DSRCREPPEY TC with pI value of 8.25 and Cdc-10: SLLQFNKMIK FETRKSGVPF YAAYGCYCGW GGRRPKDPTD RCCFVHDCCY GKLTKCNTKW DIYSYSLKSG YITCGKGTWC KEQICECDRV AAECLRRSLN TYKNEYMFYP DSRCRGPPEY TC with a pI value of 8.46, showing highly conserved Ca(2+)-binding and catalytic sites. The PLA(2) activity decreased when the isoforms Cdc-9 and Cdc-10 were incubated with 4-bromophenacyl bromide (p-BPB), anhydrous acetic acid and p-nitrobenzene sulfonyl fluoride (NBSF) when compared with the activity of both native isoforms. In mice, the PLA(2) isoforms Cdc-9 and Cdc-10 induced myonecrosis and edema. Myotoxic and edema activities were reduced after treatment of the isoforms with p-BPB; acetylation of the lysine residues and the treatment of PLA(2) with NBSF have also induced edema reduction. However, p-BPB strongly diminishes the local and systemic myotoxic effects.

  8. Inhibition of toxic actions of phospholipase A2 isolated & characterized from the Indian Banded Krait (Bungarus fasciatus) venom by synthetic herbal compounds

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Antony; Bhattacharya, Shamik; Mukherjee, Sanghamitra; Inn-ho-Tsai; Gomes, Aparna

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is one of the major constituents of krait venom associated with several pathophysiological actions like myotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity, etc. As there was no specific antiserum available against Bungarus fasciatus venom, this study was done with synthetic herbal compounds, anti PLA2 rabbit antiserum and commercial polyvalent snake venom antiserum to neutralize the PLA2 induced toxicities in experimental models. Methods: B. fasciatus venom phospholipase A2 fraction 38 (BF-38) was isolated by ion exchange chromatography, molecular weight was determined by mass spectrometry and its N terminal amino acid sequence was identified. Monospecific rabbit antiserum was raised against the PLA2 in presence of Freund complete adjuvant. The neutralization of PLA2 induced toxicities was done in in vitro and in in vivo models using synthetic herbal compounds, anti PLA2 rabbit antiserum and commercial polyvalent snake venom antiserum. Results: A toxic PLA2 (BF-38) was purified from the B. fasciatus venom by CM-cellulose and HPLC, of 13.17 kDa and a minor band of 7.3 kDa using ESI-MS. The 13.17 kDa PLA2 sequence was NLYQFKNMIQC. The 7.3 kDa toxin sequence was RKCLTKYSQDNES and was found to be <10 per cent w/w. Anti PLA2 rabbit antiserum produced faint precipitant band in immunogel diffusion and showed low titre value. The commercial polyvalent snake venom antiserum, anti PLA2 rabbit antiserum and the synthetic herbal compounds neutralized the PLA 2 induced toxicities at different intensities. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results suggested that synthetic herbal compound (BA) along with antiserum might provide effective protection against PLA2 induced toxicities of B. fasciatus venom. PMID:22885262

  9. Bee Venom Phospholipase A2: Yesterday's Enemy Becomes Today's Friend.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gihyun; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-02-22

    Bee venom therapy has been used to treat immune-related diseases such as arthritis for a long time. Recently, it has revealed that group III secretory phospholipase A2 from bee venom (bee venom group III sPLA2) has in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory effects. A growing number of reports have demonstrated the therapeutic effects of bee venom group III sPLA2. Notably, new experimental data have shown protective immune responses of bee venom group III sPLA2 against a wide range of diseases including asthma, Parkinson's disease, and drug-induced organ inflammation. It is critical to evaluate the beneficial and adverse effects of bee venom group III sPLA2 because this enzyme is known to be the major allergen of bee venom that can cause anaphylactic shock. For many decades, efforts have been made to avoid its adverse effects. At high concentrations, exposure to bee venom group III sPLA2 can result in damage to cellular membranes and necrotic cell death. In this review, we summarized the current knowledge about the therapeutic effects of bee venom group III sPLA2 on several immunological diseases and described the detailed mechanisms of bee venom group III sPLA2 in regulating various immune responses and physiopathological changes.

  10. Annexin A2 antibodies but not inhibitors of the annexin A2 heterotetramer impair productive HIV-1 infection of macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Woodham, Andrew W; Sanna, Adriana M; Taylor, Julia R; Skeate, Joseph G; Da Silva, Diane M; Dekker, Lodewijk V; Kast, W Martin

    2016-11-18

    During sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), macrophages are initial targets for HIV infection. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) has been shown to protect against HIV infection of macrophages through interactions with annexin A2 (A2), which is found on the macrophage cell surface as a heterotetramer (A2t) consisting of A2 and S100A10. Therefore, we investigated potential protein-protein interactions between A2 and HIV-1 gp120 through a series of co-immunoprecipitation assays and a single molecule pulldown (SiMPull) technique. Additionally, inhibitors of A2t (A2ti) that target the interaction between A2 and S100A10 were tested for their ability to impair productive HIV-1 infection of macrophages. Our data suggest that interactions between HIV-1 gp120 and A2 exist, though this interaction may be indirect. Furthermore, an anti-A2 antibody impaired HIV-1 particle production in macrophages in vitro, whereas A2ti did not indicating that annexin A2 may promote HIV-1 infection of macrophages in its monomeric rather than tetrameric form.

  11. Lithium activates brain phospholipase A2 and improves memory in rats: implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mury, Fábio B; da Silva, Weber C; Barbosa, Nádia R; Mendes, Camila T; Bonini, Juliana S; Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo Souza; Cammarota, Martin; Izquierdo, Ivan; Gattaz, Wagner F; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel

    2016-10-01

    Phospholipase A2 (Pla2) is required for memory retrieval, and its inhibition in the hippocampus has been reported to impair memory acquisition in rats. Moreover, cognitive decline and memory deficits showed to be reduced in animal models after lithium treatment, prompting us to evaluate possible links between Pla2, lithium and memory. Here, we evaluated the possible modulation of Pla2 activity by a long-term treatment of rats with low doses of lithium and its impact in memory. Wistar rats were trained for the inhibitory avoidance task, treated with lithium for 100 days and tested for perdurability of long-term memory. Hippocampal samples were used for quantifying the expression of 19 brain-expressed Pla2 genes and for evaluating the enzymatic activity of Pla2 using group-specific radio-enzymatic assays. Our data pointed to a significant perdurability of long-term memory, which correlated with increased transcriptional and enzymatic activities of certain members of the Pla2 family (iPla2 and sPla2) after the chronic lithium treatment. Our data suggest new possible targets of lithium, add more information on its pharmacological activity and reinforce the possible use of low doses of lithium for the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions such as the Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Antiphospholipase A2 Receptor Autoantibodies: A Step Forward in the Management of Primary Membranous Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Obrisca, Bogdan; Ismail, Gener; Jurubita, Roxana; Baston, Catalin; Andronesi, Andreea; Mircescu, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Since the identification of PLA2R (M-type phospholipase A2 receptor) as the first human antigenic target in primary membranous nephropathy (MN), perpetual progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. Accumulating clinical data support a pathogenic role for the anti-PLA2R antibodies (PLA2R ABs), but confirmation in an animal model is still lacking. However, PLA2R ABs were related to disease activity and outcome, as well as to response therapy. Accordingly, PLA2R ABs assay seems to be promising tool not only to diagnose MN but also to predict the course of the disease and could open the way to personalize therapy. Nevertheless, validation of a universal assay with high precision and definition of cut-off levels, followed by larger studies with a prolonged follow-up period, are needed to confirm these prospects. PMID:26576418

  13. Antiphospholipase A2 Receptor Autoantibodies: A Step Forward in the Management of Primary Membranous Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Obrisca, Bogdan; Ismail, Gener; Jurubita, Roxana; Baston, Catalin; Andronesi, Andreea; Mircescu, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Since the identification of PLA2R (M-type phospholipase A2 receptor) as the first human antigenic target in primary membranous nephropathy (MN), perpetual progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. Accumulating clinical data support a pathogenic role for the anti-PLA2R antibodies (PLA2R ABs), but confirmation in an animal model is still lacking. However, PLA2R ABs were related to disease activity and outcome, as well as to response therapy. Accordingly, PLA2R ABs assay seems to be promising tool not only to diagnose MN but also to predict the course of the disease and could open the way to personalize therapy. Nevertheless, validation of a universal assay with high precision and definition of cut-off levels, followed by larger studies with a prolonged follow-up period, are needed to confirm these prospects.

  14. Secreted phospholipase A2 of Clonorchis sinensis activates hepatic stellate cells through a pathway involving JNK signalling.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yinjuan; Li, Ye; Shang, Mei; Jian, Yu; Wang, Caiqin; Bardeesi, Adham Sameer A; Li, Zhaolei; Chen, Tingjin; Zhao, Lu; Zhou, Lina; He, Ai; Huang, Yan; Lv, Zhiyue; Yu, Xinbing; Li, Xuerong

    2017-03-16

    Secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) is a protein secreted by Clonorchis sinensis and is a component of excretory and secretory products (CsESPs). Phospholipase A2 is well known for its role in liver fibrosis and inhibition of tumour cells. The JNK signalling pathway is involved in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation. Blocking JNK activity with SP600125 inhibits HSCs activation. In a previous study, the protein CssPLA2 was expressed in insoluble inclusion bodies. Therefore, it's necessary to express CssPLA2 in water-soluble form and determine whether the enzymatic activity of CssPLA2 or cell signalling pathways is involved in liver fibrosis caused by clonorchiasis. Balb/C mice were given an abdominal injection of MBP-CssPLA2. Liver sections with HE and Masson staining were observed to detect accumulation of collagen. Western blot of mouse liver was done to detect the activation of JNK signalling pathway. In vitro, HSCs were incubated with MBP-CssPLA2 to detect the activation of HSCs as well as the activation of JNK signalling pathway. The mutant of MBP-CssPLA2 without enzymatic activity was constructed and was also incubated with HSCs to check whether activation of the HSCs was related to the enzymatic activity of MBP-CssPLA2. The recombinant protein MBP-CssPLA2 was expressed soluble and of good enzymatic activity. A mutant of CssPLA2, without enzymatic activity, was also constructed. In vivo liver sections of Balb/C mice that were given an abdominal injection of 50 μg/ml MBP-CssPLA2 showed an obvious accumulation of collagen and a clear band of P-JNK1 could be seen by western blot of the liver tissue. In vitro, MBP-CssPLA2, as well as the mutant, was incubated with HSCs and it was proved that activation of HSCs was related to activation of the JNK signalling pathway instead of the enzymatic activity of MBP-CssPLA2. Activation of HSCs by CssPLA2 is related to the activation of the JNK signalling pathway instead of the enzymatic activity of CssPLA2. This finding

  15. Spectroscopic investigation of phenolic groups ionization in the vipoxin neurotoxic phospholipase A 2: comparison with the X-ray structure in the region of the tyrosyl residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, Dessislava Nikolova; Genov, Nicolay; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Aleksiev, Boris; Betzel, Christian

    1998-12-01

    The neurotoxin vipoxin is the major lethal component of the venom of Vipera ammodites meridionalis, the most toxic snake in Europe. It is a complex between a toxic phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2) and a non-toxic protein inhibitor (Inh). Tyrosyl residues are involved in the catalytic site (Tyr 52 and 73) and in the substrate binding (Tyr 22). Spectroscopic studies demonstrated differences in the ionization behavior of the various phenolic hydroxyl groups in the toxic PLA 2. The tyrosyl side chains of the enzyme can be classified into three groups: (a) three phenolic hydroxyls are accessible to the solvent and titrate normally, with a p Keff=10.45; (b) three residues are partially 'buried' and participate in hydrogen bonds with neighboring functional groups. They titrate anomalously with a p Keff=12.17; (c) two tyrosines with a p Keff=13.23 are deeply 'buried' in the hydrophobic interior of PLA 2. They became accessible to the titrating agent only after alkaline denaturation of the protein molecule. The spectroscopic data are related to the X-ray structure of the vipoxin PLA 2. The refined model was investigated in the region of the tyrosyl side chains. The accessible surface area of each tyrosyl residue and each phenolic hydroxyl group was calculated. A good correlation between the spectrophotometric and the crystallographic data was observed. The ionization behavior of the phenolic groups is explained by peculiarities of the protein three-dimensional structure and the participation of tyrosines in the catalytic site hydrogen bond network. Attempts are made to assign the calculated p Keff values to individual residues. The high degree of 'exposure' on the protein surface of Tyr 22 and 75 is probably important for their function as parts of the substrate binding and pharmacological sites.

  16. Regulatory T Cells Contribute to the Inhibition of Radiation-Induced Acute Lung Inflammation via Bee Venom Phospholipase A2 in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dasom; Lee, Gihyun; Sohn, Sung-Hwa; Park, Soojin; Jung, Kyung-Hwa; Lee, Ji Min; Yang, Jieun; Cho, Jaeho; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-01-01

    Bee venom has long been used to treat various inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Previously, we reported that bee venom phospholipase A2 (bvPLA2) has an anti-inflammatory effect through the induction of regulatory T cells. Radiotherapy is a common anti-cancer method, but often causes adverse effects, such as inflammation. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of bvPLA2 in radiation-induced acute lung inflammation. Mice were focally irradiated with 75 Gy of X-rays in the lung and administered bvPLA2 six times after radiation. To evaluate the level of inflammation, the number of immune cells, mRNA level of inflammatory cytokine, and histological changes in the lung were measured. BvPLA2 treatment reduced the accumulation of immune cells, such as macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. In addition, bvPLA2 treatment decreased inflammasome-, chemokine-, cytokine- and fibrosis-related genes’ mRNA expression. The histological results also demonstrated the attenuating effect of bvPLA2 on radiation-induced lung inflammation. Furthermore, regulatory T cell depletion abolished the therapeutic effects of bvPLA2 in radiation-induced pneumonitis, implicating the anti-inflammatory effects of bvPLA2 are dependent upon regulatory T cells. These results support the therapeutic potential of bvPLA2 in radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis treatments. PMID:27144583

  17. L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel is involved in the snake venom group IA secretory phospholipase A2-induced neuronal apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yagami, Tatsurou; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Kohma, Hiromi; Nakamura, Tsutomu; Takasu, Nobuo; Okamura, Noboru

    2013-03-01

    Snake venom group IA secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IA) is known as a neurotoxin. Snake venom sPLA2s are neurotoxic in vivo and in vitro, causing synergistic neurotoxicity to cortical cultures when applied with toxic concentrations of glutamate. However, it has not yet been cleared sufficiently how sPLA2-IA exerts neurotoxicity. Here, we found sPLA2-IA induced neuronal cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. This death was a delayed response requiring a latent time for 6h. sPLA2-IA-induced neuronal cell death was accompanied with apoptotic blebbing, condensed chromatin, and fragmented DNA, exhibiting apoptotic features. NMDA receptor blockers suppressed the neurotoxicity of sPLA2-IA, but an AMPA receptor blocker did not. Interestingly, L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel (L-VDCC) blocker significantly protected neurons from the sPLA2-IA-induced apoptosis. On the other hand, neither N-VDCC blockers nor P/Q-VDCC blocker did. In conclusion, we demonstrated that sPLA2-IA induced neuronal cell death via apoptosis. Furthermore, the present study suggests that not only NMDA receptor but also L-VDCC contributed to the neurotoxicity of snake venom sPLA2-IA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Expression, purification and refolding of active durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) secretory phospholipase A2 from inclusion bodies of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Verlotta, Angelo; Trono, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    Recently, a durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) secretory phospholipase A2 (TdsPLA2III) was identified in leaves as potentially involved in plant responses to conditions of limiting water supply. Therefore, to allow future functional studies on TdsPLA2III and shed further light on the involvement of sPLA2 isoforms in specific plant functions, here we report a protocol for the overexpression of TdsPLA2III in Escherichia coli in the form of inclusion bodies, and for its purification and refolding. The use of the Gateway system (Invitrogen) allows the expression of a large quantity of the mature form (without the signal peptide) of TdsPLA2III with an N-terminal 6×His-tag, for purification using Ni-affinity chromatography. The purified recombinant 6×His-TdsPLA2III fusion protein is then refolded using a step-wise dialysis approach. About 40mg purified and active protein was obtained from 1L of cell culture. This recombinant 6×His-TdsPLA2III protein shows PLA2 activity, as it can hydrolyze linoleate from the sn-2 position of 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. Moreover, it has some features that are typical of other known plant sPLA2s: Ca(2+)-dependence, inhibition by the disulfide bond reducing agent dithiothreitol, and resistance to high temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. AtsPLA2-alpha nuclear relocalization by the Arabidopsis transcription factor AtMYB30 leads to repression of the plant defense response.

    PubMed

    Froidure, Solène; Canonne, Joanne; Daniel, Xavier; Jauneau, Alain; Brière, Christian; Roby, Dominique; Rivas, Susana

    2010-08-24

    The hypersensitive response (HR), characterized by a rapid and localized cell death at the inoculation site, is one of the most efficient resistance reactions to pathogen attack in plants. The transcription factor AtMYB30 was identified as a positive regulator of the HR and resistance responses during interactions between Arabidopsis and bacteria. Here, we show that AtMYB30 and the secreted phospholipase AtsPLA(2)-alpha physically interact in vivo, following the AtMYB30-mediated specific relocalization of AtsPLA(2)-alpha from cytoplasmic vesicles to the plant cell nucleus. This protein interaction leads to repression of AtMYB30 transcriptional activity and negative regulation of plant HR. Moreover, Atspla(2)-alpha mutant plants are more resistant to bacterial inoculation, whereas AtsPLA(2)-alpha overexpression leads to decreased resistance, confirming that AtsPLA(2)-alpha is a negative regulator of AtMYB30-mediated defense. These data underline the importance of cellular dynamics and, particularly, protein translocation to the nucleus, for defense-associated gene regulation in plants.

  20. Molecular and functional characterization of polymorphisms in the secreted phospholipase A2 group X gene: relevance to coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Gora, Sarah; Perret, Claire; Jemel, Ikram; Nicaud, Viviane; Lambeau, Gérard; Cambien, François; Ninio, Ewa; Blankenberg, Stefan; Tiret, Laurence; Karabina, Sonia-Athina

    2009-07-01

    Among secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s), human group X sPLA2 (hGX sPLA2) is emerging as a novel attractive therapeutic target due to its implication in inflammatory diseases. To elucidate whether hGX sPLA2 plays a causative role in coronary artery disease (CAD), we screened the human PLA2G10 gene to identify polymorphisms and possible associations with CAD end-points in a prospective study, AtheroGene. We identified eight polymorphisms, among which, one non-synonymous polymorphism R38C in the propeptide region of the sPLA2. The T-512C polymorphism located in the 5' untranslated region was associated with a decreased risk of recurrent cardiovascular events during follow-up. The functional analysis of the R38C polymorphism showed that it leads to a profound change in expression and activity of hGX sPLA2, although there was no detectable impact on CAD risk. Due to the potential role of hGX sPLA2 in inflammatory processes, these polymorphisms should be investigated in other inflammatory diseases.

  1. Synthesis and Evaluation of Phenylxanthine Derivatives as Potential Dual A2AR Antagonists/MAO-B Inhibitors for Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuebao; Han, Chao; Xu, Yong; Wu, Kaiqi; Chen, Shuangya; Hu, Mangsha; Wang, Luyao; Ye, Yun; Ye, Faqing

    2017-06-17

    The aim of this research was to prove the speculation that phenylxanthine (PX) derivatives possess adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-blocking properties and to screening and evaluate these PX derivatives as dual A2AR antagonists/MAO-B inhibitors for Parkinson's disease. To explore this hypothesis, two series of PX derivatives were prepared and their antagonism against A2AR and inhibition against MAO-B were determined in vitro. In order to evaluate further the antiparkinsonian properties, pharmacokinetic and haloperidol-induced catalepsy experiments were carried out in vivo. The PX-D and PX-E analogues acted as potent A2AR antagonists with Ki values ranging from 0.27 to 10 μM, and these analogues displayed relatively mild MAO-B inhibition potencies, with inhibitor dissociation constants (Ki values) ranging from 0.25 to 10 μM. Further, the compounds PX-D-P6 and PX-E-P8 displayed efficacious antiparkinsonian properties in haloperidol-induced catalepsy experiments, verifying that these two compounds were potent A2AR antagonists and MAO-B inhibitors. We conclude that PX-D and PX-E analogues are a promising candidate class of dual-acting compounds for treating Parkinson's disease.

  2. Effect of azithromycin on the LPS-induced production and secretion of phospholipase A2 in lung cells.

    PubMed

    Kitsiouli, Eirini; Antoniou, Georgia; Gotzou, Helen; Karagiannopoulos, Michalis; Basagiannis, Dimitris; Christoforidis, Savvas; Nakos, George; Lekka, Marilena E

    2015-07-01

    Azithromycin is a member of macrolides, utilized in the treatment of infections. Independently, these antibiotics also possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. Phospholipase A2 isotypes, which are implicated in the pathophysiology of inflammatory lung disorders, are produced by alveolar macrophages and other lung cells during inflammatory response and can promote lung injury by destructing lung surfactant. The aim of the study was to investigate whether in lung cells azithromycin can inhibit secretory and cytosolic phospholipases A2, (sPLA2) and (cPLA2), respectively, which are induced by an inflammatory trigger. In this respect, we studied the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated production or secretion of sPLA2 and cPLA2 from A549 cells, a cancer bronchial epithelial cell line, and alveolar macrophages, isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of ARDS and control patients without cardiopulmonary disease or sepsis. Pre-treatment of cells with azithromycin caused a dose-dependent decrease in the LPS-induced sPLA2-IIA levels in A549 cells. This inhibition was rather due to reduced PLA2G2A mRNA expression and secretion of sPLA2-IIA protein levels, as observed by western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence by confocal microscopy, respectively, than to the inhibition of the enzymic activity per se. On the contrary, azithromycin had no effect on the LPS-induced production or secretion of sPLA2-IIA from alveolar macrophages. The levels of LPS-induced c-PLA2 were not significantly affected by azithromycin in either cell type. We conclude that azithromycin exerts anti-inflammatory properties on lung epithelial cells through the inhibition of both the expression and secretion of LPS-induced sPLA2-IIA, while it does not affect alveolar macrophages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of intensive insulin treatment on plasma levels of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and secretory phospholipase A2 in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiu-Hong; Xu, Ming-Tong; Tang, Jv-Ying; Mai, Li-Fang; Wang, Xiao-Yi; Ren, Meng; Yan, Li

    2016-11-23

    China has the highest absolute disease burden of diabetes worldwide. For diabetic patients, diabetes-related vascular complications are major causes of morbidity and mortality. The roles of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 (Lp-PLA 2 ) and secretory phospholipase A 2 (sPLA 2 ) as inflammatory markers have been recently evaluated in the pathogenesis of both diabetes and atherosclerosis. We aimed to determine the mechanism through which patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes gain long-term vascular benefit from intensive insulin therapy by evaluating the change in Lp-PLA 2 and sPLA 2 levels after early intensive insulin treatment and its relevance with insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell function. In total, 90 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled. All patients received continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) for approximately 2 weeks. Intravenous glucose-tolerance test (IVGTT) and oral glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) were performed, and plasma concentrations of Lp-PLA 2 and sPLA 2 were measured before and after CSII. Levels of Lp-PLA 2 and sPLA 2 were significantly higher in diabetic patients with macroangiopathy than in those without (P < 0.05). After CSII, the sPLA 2 level decreased significantly in all diabetic patients (P < 0.05), while the Lp-PLA2 level changed only in those with macroangiopathy (P < 0.05). The area under the curve of insulin in IVGTT and OGTT, the acute insulin response (AIR 3-5 ), early phase of insulin secretion (ΔIns30/ΔG30), modified β-cell function index, and homeostatic model assessment for β-cell function (HOMA-β) increased after treatment even when adjusted for the influence of insulin resistance (IR; P < 0.001). The HOMA-IR was lower after treatment, and the three other indicators adopted to estimate insulin sensitivity (ISI ced , IAI, and QUICKI) were higher after treatment (P < 0.05). Correlation analysis showed that the decrease in the Lp-PLA 2 and sPLA

  4. Inhibition of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2α Impairs an Early Step of Coronavirus Replication in Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christin; Hardt, Martin; Schwudke, Dominik; Neuman, Benjamin W; Pleschka, Stephan; Ziebuhr, John

    2018-02-15

    Coronavirus replication is associated with intracellular membrane rearrangements in infected cells, resulting in the formation of double-membrane vesicles (DMVs) and other membranous structures that are referred to as replicative organelles (ROs). The latter provide a structural scaffold for viral replication/transcription complexes (RTCs) and help to sequester RTC components from recognition by cellular factors involved in antiviral host responses. There is increasing evidence that plus-strand RNA (+RNA) virus replication, including RO formation and virion morphogenesis, affects cellular lipid metabolism and critically depends on enzymes involved in lipid synthesis and processing. Here, we investigated the role of cytosolic phospholipase A 2 α (cPLA 2 α) in coronavirus replication using a low-molecular-weight nonpeptidic inhibitor, pyrrolidine-2 (Py-2). The inhibition of cPLA 2 α activity, which produces lysophospholipids (LPLs) by cleaving at the sn -2 position of phospholipids, had profound effects on viral RNA and protein accumulation in human coronavirus 229E-infected Huh-7 cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that DMV formation in infected cells was significantly reduced in the presence of the inhibitor. Furthermore, we found that (i) viral RTCs colocalized with LPL-containing membranes, (ii) cellular LPL concentrations were increased in coronavirus-infected cells, and (iii) this increase was diminished in the presence of the cPLA 2 α inhibitor Py-2. Py-2 also displayed antiviral activities against other viruses representing the Coronaviridae and Togaviridae families, while members of the Picornaviridae were not affected. Taken together, the study provides evidence that cPLA 2 α activity is critically involved in the replication of various +RNA virus families and may thus represent a candidate target for broad-spectrum antiviral drug development. IMPORTANCE Examples of highly conserved RNA virus proteins that qualify as drug targets for broad

  5. Pla2g12b and Hpn Are Genes Identified by Mouse ENU Mutagenesis That Affect HDL Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Aljakna, Aleksandra; Choi, Seungbum; Savage, Holly; Hageman Blair, Rachael; Gu, Tongjun; Svenson, Karen L.; Churchill, Gary A.; Hibbs, Matt; Korstanje, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Despite considerable progress understanding genes that affect the HDL particle, its function, and cholesterol content, genes identified to date explain only a small percentage of the genetic variation. We used N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis in mice to discover novel genes that affect HDL cholesterol levels. Two mutant lines (Hlb218 and Hlb320) with low HDL cholesterol levels were established. Causal mutations in these lines were mapped using linkage analysis: for line Hlb218 within a 12 Mbp region on Chr 10; and for line Hlb320 within a 21 Mbp region on Chr 7. High-throughput sequencing of Hlb218 liver RNA identified a mutation in Pla2g12b. The transition of G to A leads to a cysteine to tyrosine change and most likely causes a loss of a disulfide bridge. Microarray analysis of Hlb320 liver RNA showed a 7-fold downregulation of Hpn; sequencing identified a mutation in the 3′ splice site of exon 8. Northern blot confirmed lower mRNA expression level in Hlb320 and did not show a difference in splicing, suggesting that the mutation only affects the splicing rate. In addition to affecting HDL cholesterol, the mutated genes also lead to reduction in serum non-HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Despite low HDL cholesterol levels, the mice from both mutant lines show similar atherosclerotic lesion sizes compared to control mice. These new mutant mouse models are valuable tools to further study the role of these genes, their affect on HDL cholesterol levels, and metabolism. PMID:22912808

  6. Case report of a novel homozygous splice site mutation in PLA2G6 gene causing infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy in a Sudanese family.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Liena E O; Mohammed, Inaam N; Hamed, Ahlam A A; Elseed, Maha A; Salih, Mustafa A M; Yahia, Ashraf; Siddig, Rayan A; Amin, Mutaz; Koko, Mahmoud; Elbashir, Mustafa I; Ibrahim, Muntaser E; Brice, Alexis; Ahmed, Ammar E; Stevanin, Giovanni

    2018-05-08

    Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD) is a rare hereditary neurological disorder caused by mutations in PLA2G6. The disease commonly affects children below 3 years of age and presents with delay in motor skills, optic atrophy and progressive spastic tetraparesis. Studies of INAD in Africa are extremely rare, and genetic studies from Sub Saharan Africa are almost non-existent. Two Sudanese siblings presented, at ages 18 and 24 months, with regression in both motor milestones and speech development and hyper-reflexia. Brain MRI showed bilateral and symmetrical T2/FLAIR hyperintense signal changes in periventricular areas and basal ganglia and mild cerebellar atrophy. Whole exome sequencing with confirmatory Sanger sequencing were performed for the two patients and healthy family members. A novel variant (NM_003560.2 c.1427 + 2 T > C) acting on a splice donor site and predicted to lead to skipping of exon 10 was found in PLA2G6. It was found in a homozygous state in the two patients and homozygous reference or heterozygous in five healthy family members. This variant has one very strong (loss of function mutation) and three supporting evidences for its pathogenicity (segregation with the disease, multiple computational evidence and specific patients' phenotype). Therefore this variant can be currently annotated as "pathogenic". This is the first study to report mutations in PLA2G6 gene in patients from Sudan.

  7. Secretory phospholipase A2 in dromedary tears: a host defense against staphylococci and other gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ben Bacha, Abir; Abid, Islem

    2013-03-01

    The best known physiologic function of secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) group IIA (sPLA2-IIA) is defense against bacterial infection through hydrolytic degradation of bacterial membrane phospholipids. In fact, sPLA2-IIA effectively kills Gram-positive bacteria and to a lesser extent Gram-negative bacteria and is considered a major component of the eye's innate immune defense system. The antibacterial properties of sPLA2 have been demonstrated in rabbit and human tears. In this report, we have analyzed the bactericidal activity of dromedary tears and the subsequently purified sPLA2 on several Gram-positive bacteria. Our results showed that the sPLA2 displays a potent bactericidal activity against all the tested bacteria particularly against the Staphylococcus strains when tested in the ionic environment of tears. There is a synergic action of the sPLA2 with lysozyme when added to the bacteria culture prior to sPLA2. Interestingly, lysozyme purified from dromedary tears showed a significant bactericidal activity against Listeria monocytogene and Staphylococcus epidermidis, whereas the one purified from human tears displayed no activity against these two strains. We have also demonstrated that Ca(2+) is crucial for the activity of dromedary tear sPLA2 and to a less extent Mg(2+) ions. Given the presence of sPLA2 in tears and intestinal secretions, this enzyme may play a substantial role in innate mucosal and systemic bactericidal defenses against Gram-positive bacteria.

  8. Bee Venom Phospholipase A2: Yesterday’s Enemy Becomes Today’s Friend

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gihyun; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-01-01

    Bee venom therapy has been used to treat immune-related diseases such as arthritis for a long time. Recently, it has revealed that group III secretory phospholipase A2 from bee venom (bee venom group III sPLA2) has in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory effects. A growing number of reports have demonstrated the therapeutic effects of bee venom group III sPLA2. Notably, new experimental data have shown protective immune responses of bee venom group III sPLA2 against a wide range of diseases including asthma, Parkinson’s disease, and drug-induced organ inflammation. It is critical to evaluate the beneficial and adverse effects of bee venom group III sPLA2 because this enzyme is known to be the major allergen of bee venom that can cause anaphylactic shock. For many decades, efforts have been made to avoid its adverse effects. At high concentrations, exposure to bee venom group III sPLA2 can result in damage to cellular membranes and necrotic cell death. In this review, we summarized the current knowledge about the therapeutic effects of bee venom group III sPLA2 on several immunological diseases and described the detailed mechanisms of bee venom group III sPLA2 in regulating various immune responses and physiopathological changes. PMID:26907347

  9. Purification of a phospholipase A2 from Daboia russelii siamensis venom with anticancer effects

    PubMed Central

    Khunsap, Suchitra; Pakmanee, Narumol; Khow, Orawan; Chanhome, Lawan; Sitprija, Visith; Suntravat, Montamas; Lucena, Sara E; Perez, John C; Sánchez, Elda E

    2011-01-01

    Venom phospholipases A2 (PLA2) are associated with neurotoxic, myotoxic, cardiotoxic, platelet aggregation, and edema activities. A PLA2 (Drs-PLA2) was purified from Daboia russelii siamensis venom by a two-step purification procedure consisting of size-exclusion, followed by anion exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The molecular weight of the Drs-PLA2 was 13,679Da, which was determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Its N-terminal amino acid sequence was homologous to basic PLA2s of viperid snake venoms. The Drs-PLA2 had indirect hemolytic and anticoagulant activities, cytotoxic activity with a CC50 of 65.8nM, and inhibited SK-MEL-28 cell migration with an IC50 of 25.6nM. In addition, the Drs-PLA2 inhibited the colonization of B16F10 cells in lungs of BALB/c mice by ∼65%. PMID:22091349

  10. Naringin is a major and selective clinical inhibitor of organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2) in grapefruit juice.

    PubMed

    Bailey, D G; Dresser, G K; Leake, B F; Kim, R B

    2007-04-01

    We showed previously that grapefruit and orange juices inhibited human enteric organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)1A2 in vitro and lowered oral fexofenadine bioavailability clinically. Inhibition of OATP1A2 transport by flavonoids in grapefruit (naringin) and orange (hesperidin) was conducted in vitro. Two randomized, crossover, pharmacokinetic studies were performed clinically. In one study, 120 mg of fexofenadine was ingested with 300 ml grapefruit juice, an aqueous solution of naringin at the same juice concentration (1,200 microM), or water. In the other study, fexofenadine was administered with grapefruit juice, with or 2 h before aqueous suspension of the particulate fraction of juice containing known clinical inhibitors of enteric CYP3A4, but relatively low naringin concentration (34 microM), or with water. Naringin and hesperidin's half-maximal inhibitions were 3.6 and 2.7 microM, respectively. Fexofenadine area under the plasma drug concentration-time curves (AUCs) with grapefruit juice and naringin solution were 55% (P<0.001) and 75% (P<0.05) of that with water, respectively. Fexofenadine AUCs with grapefruit juice and particulate fractions were 57% (P<0.001), 96% (not significant (NS)), and 97% (NS) of that with water, respectively. Individuals tested in both studies (n=9 of 12) had highly reproducible fexofenadine AUC with water (r(2)=0.85, P<0.001) and extent of reduction of it with grapefruit juice (r(2)=0.72, P<0.01). Naringin most probably directly inhibited enteric OATP1A2 to decrease oral fexofenadine bioavailability. Inactivation of enteric CYP3A4 was probably not involved. Naringin appears to have sufficient safety, specificity, and sensitivity to be a clinical OATP1A2 inhibitor probe. Inherent OATP1A2 activity may be influenced by genetic factors. This appears to be the first report of a single dietary constituent clinically modulating drug transport.

  11. Genetic ablation of calcium-independent phospholipase A2gamma leads to alterations in mitochondrial lipid metabolism and function resulting in a deficient mitochondrial bioenergetic phenotype.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, David J; Sims, Harold F; Han, Xianlin; Jenkins, Christopher M; Guan, Shao Ping; Yang, Kui; Moon, Sung Ho; Pietka, Terri; Abumrad, Nada A; Schlesinger, Paul H; Gross, Richard W

    2007-11-30

    Previously, we identified a novel calcium-independent phospholipase, designated calcium-independent phospholipase A(2) gamma (iPLA(2)gamma), which possesses dual mitochondrial and peroxisomal subcellular localization signals. To identify the roles of iPLA(2)gamma in cellular bioenergetics, we generated mice null for the iPLA(2)gamma gene by eliminating the active site of the enzyme through homologous recombination. Mice null for iPLA(2)gamma display multiple bioenergetic dysfunctional phenotypes, including 1) growth retardation, 2) cold intolerance, 3) reduced exercise endurance, 4) greatly increased mortality from cardiac stress after transverse aortic constriction, 5) abnormal mitochondrial function with a 65% decrease in ascorbate-induced Complex IV-mediated oxygen consumption, and 6) a reduction in myocardial cardiolipin content accompanied by an altered cardiolipin molecular species composition. We conclude that iPLA(2)gamma is essential for maintaining efficient bioenergetic mitochondrial function through tailoring mitochondrial membrane lipid metabolism and composition.

  12. Restoration of On-Time Embryo Implantation Corrects the Timing of Parturition in Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 Group IVA Deficient Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Naoko; Morrow, Jason D.; Slaughter, James C.; Paria, Bibhash C.; Reese, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2, PLA2G4A) catalyzes the release of arachidonic acid for prostaglandin synthesis by cyclooxygenase 1 (PTGS1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (PTGS2). Mice with Pla2g4a deficiency have parturition delay and other reproductive deficits, including deferred onset of implantation, crowding of implantation sites, and small litters. In this study, we examined the contribution of PLA2G4A to parturition in mice. Pla2g4a mRNA and protein expression were discretely localized in the term and preterm uterine luminal epithelium and colocalized with Ptgs1, but not Ptgs2, expression. The levels of PGE2, PGF2alpha, 6-keto-PGF1alpha, and TxB2 were significantly decreased in Pla2g4a-null uterine tissues, similar to Ptgs1-null uteri, consistent with predominance of PLA2G4A-PTGS1-mediated prostaglandin synthesis in preparation for murine parturition. Litter size was strongly associated with the timing of parturition in Pla2g4a-null mice but could not fully account for the parturition delay. Pla2g4a-null females that received PGE2 + carbaprostacyclin at the time of implantation delivered earlier (20.5 ± 0.2 days vs. 21.6 ± 0.2 days, P < 0.01), although litter size was not improved (4.6 vs. 4.4 pups per litter, P = 0.6). After correction for small litter size, multivariate analysis indicated that Pla2g4a-null mice given prostaglandin treatment to improve implantation timing had gestational length that was similar to wild-type and Pla2g4a heterozygous mice. These results indicate that, despite specific Pla2g4a expression and function in term gestation uteri, the delayed parturition phenotype in Pla2g4a-null mice is primarily due to deferral of implantation. The role of PLA2G4A in timely parturition appears to be critically related to its actions in early pregnancy. PMID:19684335

  13. Association between polymorphisms in phospholipase A2 genes and the plasma triglyceride response to an n-3 PUFA supplementation: a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Bénédicte L; Cormier, Hubert; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2015-02-21

    Fish oil-derived long-chain omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), reduce plasma triglyceride (TG) levels. Genetic factors such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in genes involved in metabolic pathways of n-3 PUFA could be responsible for well-recognized heterogeneity in plasma TG response to n-3 PUFA supplementation. Previous studies have shown that genes in the glycerophospholipid metabolism such as phospholipase A2 (PLA2) group II, IV, and VI, demonstrate changes in their expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after n-3 PUFA supplementation. A total of 208 subjects consumed 3 g/day of n-3 PUFA for 6 weeks. Plasma lipids were measured before and after the supplementation period. Five SNPs in PLA2G2A, six in PLA2G2C, eight in PLA2G2D, six in PLA2G2F, 22 in PLA2G4A, five in PLA2G6, and nine in PLA2G7 were genotyped. The MIXED Procedure for repeated measures adjusted for age, sex, BMI, and energy intake was used in order to test whether the genotype, supplementation or interaction (genotype by supplementation) were associated with plasma TG levels. The n-3 PUFA supplementation had an independent effect on plasma TG levels. Genotype effects on plasma TG levels were observed for rs2301475 in PLA2G2C, rs818571 in PLA2G2F, and rs1569480 in PLA2G4A. Genotype x supplementation interaction effects on plasma TG levels were observed for rs1805018 in PLA2G7 as well as for rs10752979, rs10737277, rs7540602, and rs3820185 in PLA2G4A. These results suggest that, SNPs in PLA2 genes may influence plasma TG levels during a supplementation with n-3 PUFA. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01343342.

  14. HSP90 inhibitor 17-DMAG enhances EphA2+ tumor cell recognition by specific CD8+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Kawabe, Mayumi; Mandic, Maja; Taylor, Jennifer L.; Vasquez, Cecilia A.; Wesa, Amy K.; Neckers, Leonard M.; Storkus, Walter J.

    2009-01-01

    EphA2, a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family, is commonly expressed by a broad range of cancer types, where its level of (over)expression correlates with poor clinical outcome. Since tumor cell expressed EphA2 is a non-mutated “self” protein, specific CD8+ T cells are subject to self-tolerance mechanisms and typically exhibit only moderate-to-low functional avidity, rendering them marginally competent to recognize EphA2+ tumor cells in vitro or in vivo. We have recently reported that the ability of specific CD8+ T cells to recognize EphA2+ tumor cells can be augmented after the cancer cells are pretreated with EphA2 agonists that promote proteasomal degradation and upregulated expression of EphA2/class I complexes on the tumor cell membrane (Wesa et al., J. Immunol. 2008;181:7721-7). In the current study we show that treatment of EphA2+ tumor cells with the irreversible HSP90 inhibitor, 17-DMAG, similarly enhances their recognition by EphA2-specific CD8+ T cell lines and clones in vitro via a mechanism that is dependent on proteasome and TAP function, as well as, the retrotranslocation of EphA2 into the tumor cytoplasm. When 17-DMAG and agonist anti-EphA2 mAb are co-applied, T cell recognition of tumor cells is further increased over that observed for either agent alone. These studies suggest that EphA2 represents a novel HSP90 client protein and that the treatment of cancer patients with 17-DMAG-based “pulse” therapy may improve the anti-tumor efficacy of CD8+ T effector cells reactive against EphA2-derived epitopes. PMID:19690146

  15. Hyperforin induces Ca(2+)-independent arachidonic acid release in human platelets by facilitating cytosolic phospholipase A(2) activation through select phospholipid interactions.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Marika; Lopez, Jakob J; Pergola, Carlo; Feisst, Christian; Pawelczik, Sven; Jakobsson, Per-Johan; Sorg, Bernd L; Glaubitz, Clemens; Steinhilber, Dieter; Werz, Oliver

    2010-04-01

    Here, we investigated the modulation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2))-mediated arachidonic acid (AA) release by the polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol hyperforin. Hyperforin increased AA release from human platelets up to 2.6 fold (maximal effect at 10microM) versus unstimulated cells, which was blocked by cPLA(2)alpha-inhibition, and induced translocation of cPLA(2) to a membrane compartment. Interestingly, these stimulatory effects of hyperforin were even more pronounced after depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) by EDTA plus BAPTA/AM. Hyperforin induced phosphorylation of cPLA(2) at Ser505 and activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and inhibition of p38 MAPK by SB203580 prevented cPLA(2) phosphorylation. However, neither AA release nor translocation of cPLA(2) was abrogated by SB203580. In cell-free assays using liposomes prepared from different lipids, hyperforin failed to stimulate phospholipid hydrolysis by isolated cPLA(2) in the presence of Ca(2+). However, when Ca(2+) was omitted, hyperforin caused a prominent increase in cPLA(2) activity using liposomes composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine but not of 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PAPC) unless the PAPC liposomes were enriched in cholesterol (20 to 50%). Finally, two-dimensional (1)H-MAS-NMR analysis visualized the directed insertion of hyperforin into POPC liposomes. Together, hyperforin, through insertion into phospholipids, may facilitate cPLA(2) activation by enabling its access towards select lipid membranes independent of Ca(2+) ions. Such Ca(2+)- and phosphorylation-independent mechanism of cPLA(2) activation may apply also to other membrane-interfering molecules. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Phospholipase A2 activation as a therapeutic approach for cognitive enhancement in early-stage Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Evelin L; Forlenza, Orestes V; Gattaz, Wagner F

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly and has no known cure. Evidence suggests that reduced activity of specific subtypes of intracellular phospholipases A2 (cPLA2 and iPLA2) is an early event in AD and may contribute to memory impairment and neuropathology in the disease. The objective of this study was to review the literature focusing on the therapeutic role of PLA2 stimulation by cognitive training and positive modulators, or of supplementation with arachidonic acid (PLA2 product) in facilitating memory function and synaptic transmission and plasticity in either research animals or human subjects. MEDLINE database was searched (no date restrictions) for published articles using the keywords Alzheimer disease (mild, moderate, severe), mild cognitive impairment, healthy elderly, rats, mice, phospholipase A(2), phospholipid metabolism, phosphatidylcholine, arachidonic acid, cognitive training, learning, memory, long-term potentiation, protein kinases, dietary lipid compounds, cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and neuritogenesis. Reference lists of the identified articles were checked to select additional studies of interest. Overall, the data suggest that PLA2 activation is induced in the healthy brain during learning and memory. Furthermore, learning seems to regulate endogenous neurogenesis, which has been observed in AD brains. Finally, PLA2 appears to be implicated in homeostatic processes related to neurite outgrowth and differentiation in both neurodevelopmental processes and response to neuronal injury. The use of positive modulators of PLA2 (especially of cPLA2 and iPLA2) or supplementation with dietary lipid compounds (e.g., arachidonic acid) in combination with cognitive training could be a valuable therapeutic strategy for cognitive enhancement in early-stage AD.

  17. Group X phospholipase A2 is released during sperm acrosome reaction and controls fertility outcome in mice.

    PubMed

    Escoffier, Jessica; Jemel, Ikram; Tanemoto, Akemi; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Payre, Christine; Coatrieux, Christelle; Sato, Hiroyasu; Yamamoto, Kei; Masuda, Seiko; Pernet-Gallay, Karin; Pierre, Virginie; Hara, Shuntaro; Murakami, Makoto; De Waard, Michel; Lambeau, Gérard; Arnoult, Christophe

    2010-05-01

    Ejaculated mammalian sperm must undergo a maturation process called capacitation before they are able to fertilize an egg. Several studies have suggested a role for members of the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) family in capacitation, acrosome reaction (AR), and fertilization, but the molecular nature of these enzymes and their specific roles have remained elusive. Here, we have demonstrated that mouse group X sPLA2 (mGX) is the major enzyme present in the acrosome of spermatozoa and that it is released in an active form during capacitation through spontaneous AR. mGX-deficient male mice produced smaller litters than wild-type male siblings when crossed with mGX-deficient females. Further analysis revealed that spermatozoa from mGX-deficient mice exhibited lower rates of spontaneous AR and that this was associated with decreased in vitro fertilization (IVF) efficiency due to a drop in the fertilization potential of the sperm and an increased rate of aborted embryos. Treatment of sperm with sPLA2 inhibitors and antibodies specific for mGX blocked spontaneous AR of wild-type sperm and reduced IVF success. Addition of lysophosphatidylcholine, a catalytic product of mGX, overcame these deficiencies. Finally, recombinant mGX triggered AR and improved IVF outcome. Taken together, our results highlight a paracrine role for mGX during capacitation in which the enzyme primes sperm for efficient fertilization and boosts premature AR of a likely phospholipid-damaged sperm subpopulation to eliminate suboptimal sperm from the pool available for fertilization.

  18. Group X phospholipase A2 is released during sperm acrosome reaction and controls fertility outcome in mice

    PubMed Central

    Escoffier, Jessica; Jemel, Ikram; Tanemoto, Akemi; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Payre, Christine; Coatrieux, Christelle; Sato, Hiroyasu; Yamamoto, Kei; Masuda, Seiko; Pernet-Gallay, Karin; Pierre, Virginie; Hara, Shuntaro; Murakami, Makoto; De Waard, Michel; Lambeau, Gérard; Arnoult, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Ejaculated mammalian sperm must undergo a maturation process called capacitation before they are able to fertilize an egg. Several studies have suggested a role for members of the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) family in capacitation, acrosome reaction (AR), and fertilization, but the molecular nature of these enzymes and their specific roles have remained elusive. Here, we have demonstrated that mouse group X sPLA2 (mGX) is the major enzyme present in the acrosome of spermatozoa and that it is released in an active form during capacitation through spontaneous AR. mGX-deficient male mice produced smaller litters than wild-type male siblings when crossed with mGX-deficient females. Further analysis revealed that spermatozoa from mGX-deficient mice exhibited lower rates of spontaneous AR and that this was associated with decreased in vitro fertilization (IVF) efficiency due to a drop in the fertilization potential of the sperm and an increased rate of aborted embryos. Treatment of sperm with sPLA2 inhibitors and antibodies specific for mGX blocked spontaneous AR of wild-type sperm and reduced IVF success. Addition of lysophosphatidylcholine, a catalytic product of mGX, overcame these deficiencies. Finally, recombinant mGX triggered AR and improved IVF outcome. Taken together, our results highlight a paracrine role for mGX during capacitation in which the enzyme primes sperm for efficient fertilization and boosts premature AR of a likely phospholipid-damaged sperm subpopulation to eliminate suboptimal sperm from the pool available for fertilization. PMID:20424324

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a Lys49-phospholipase A2 complexed with caffeic acid, a molecule with inhibitory properties against snake venoms

    PubMed Central

    Shimabuku, Patrícia S.; Fernandes, Carlos A. H.; Magro, Angelo J.; Costa, Tássia R.; Soares, Andreimar M.; Fontes, Marcos R. M.

    2011-01-01

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are one of the main components of bothropic venoms; in addition to their phospholipid hydrolysis action, they are involved in a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, including neurotoxicity, myo­toxicity and cardiotoxicity. Caffeic acid is an inhibitor that is present in several plants and is employed for the treatment of ophidian envenomations in the folk medicine of many developing countries; as bothropic snake bites are not efficiently neutralized by conventional serum therapy, it may be useful as an antivenom. In this work, the cocrystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the Lys49-PLA2 piratoxin I from Bothrops pirajai venom in the presence of the inhibitor caffeic acid (CA) are reported. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 1.65 Å resolution and the structure was solved by molecular-replacement techniques. The electron-density map unambiguously indicated the presence of three CA molecules that interact with the C-terminus of the protein. This is the first time a ligand has been observed bound to this region and is in agreement with various experiments previously reported in the literature. PMID:21301098

  20. A molecular dynamics study of the three-dimensional model of human synovial fluid phospholipase A2--transition state mimic complexes.

    PubMed

    Hariprasad, V; Kulkarni, V M

    1996-01-01

    Different modes of binding of transition state mimics: amide, phosphonate and difluoro ketone, to human synovial fluid phospholipase A2 (HSF PLA2) are studies by molecular dynamics simulations computed in solvent. The results are analysed in the light of primary binding sites. Hydrogen bonding interaction plays an important role for amino acids such as Gly32, Val30, and Glu55, apart from the well known active site residues viz Asp48, Gly25, Gly29, Gly31, His27, His47, Lys62, Phe23, Asn114 and Tyr112. In addition, the hydrogen bonding interaction between Sn-1 tetrahedral phosphonate group of amide and difluoro ketone inhibitors and crystallographic water molecules (H2O 523, H2O 524 and H2O 401) seems to have a significant role. Many of the active site charged residues display considerable movement upon ligand binding. The structural effects of ligand binding were analyzed from RMS deviations of C alpha in the resulting energy-minimized average structures of the receptor-ligand complexes. The values of the RMS deviations differ among the HSF PLA2s, in a pattern that is not the same for the three complexes. This suggests that ligands with different pharmacological efficacies induce different types of conformational changes of the receptor. Our active-orientation model is, at least qualitatively, consistent with experimental data and should be useful for the rational design of more potent inhibitors.

  1. [Molecular cloning and characterization in silico of phospholipase A(2) transcript isolated from Lachesis muta peruvian snake venom].

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Karim L; Zavaleta, Amparo I; Izaguirre, Victor; Yarleque, Armando; Inga, Rosio R

    2010-01-01

    Isolate and characterize in silico gene phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) isolated from Lachesis muta venom of the Peruvian Amazon. Technique RT-PCR from total RNA was using specific primers, the amplified DNA product was inserted into the pGEM vector for subsequent sequencing. By bioinformatic analysis identified an open reading frame of 414 nucleotides that encoded 138 amino acids including a signal peptide of 16 aminoacids, molecular weight and pI were 13,976 kDa and 5.66 respectively. The aminoacid sequence was called Lm-PLA(2)-Peru, contains an aspartate at position 49, this aminoacid in conjunction with other conserved residues such as Tyr-28, Gly-30, Gly-32, His-48, Tyr52, Asp99 are important for enzymatic activity. The comparison with the amino acid sequence data banks showed of similarity between PLA(2) from Lachesis stenophrys (93%) and other PLA(2) snake venoms and over 80% of other sPLA(2) family Viperidae venoms. A phylogenetic analysis showed that Lm-PLA(2)-Peru grouped with other acidic [Asp(49)] sPLA(2) previously isolated from Bothriechis schlegelii venom showing 89 % nucleotide sequence identity. Finally, the computer modeling indicated that enzyme had the characteristic structure of sPLA(2) group II that consisted of three α-helices, a β-wing, a short helix and a calcium-binding loop. The nucleotide sequence corresponding to the first transcript of gene from PLA(2) cloned of Lachesis muta venom, snake from the Peruvian rainforest.

  2. Association between lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 mass and subclinical coronary and carotid atherosclerosis in Retired National Football League players.

    PubMed

    Pokharel, Yashashwi; Nambi, Vijay; Martin, Seth S; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Nasir, Khurram; Khera, Amit; Wong, Nathan D; Jones, Peter H; Boone, Jeffrey; Roberts, Arthur J; Ballantyne, Christie M; Virani, Salim S

    2014-10-01

    Retired National Football League (NFL) players were reported to have high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Lipoprotein Associated Phospholipase A2 (LpPLA2) has shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease in the general population, but it is unknown whether such an association exists in retired NFL players. Our objective was to assess whether LpPLA2 mass was associated with coronary artery calcium (CAC) and carotid artery plaque (CAP) in retired NFL players. LpPLA2 mass was assessed using a dual monoclonal antibody immunoassay. CAC presence was defined as CAC score>0. CAP was defined as focal thickening ≥50% than that of the surrounding vessel wall with a minimal thickness of 1.2 mm on carotid ultrasound. In 832 NFL players, the median (IQR) age and LpPLA2 levels were 54 (45-63) years and 142 (109-181) ng/mL respectively. LpPLA2 mass was positively correlated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; negatively correlated with LDL particle concentration and body mass index; and not correlated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. CAC was present in 659 (79%) and CAP in 544 (65%) players. In a fully adjusted model, LpPLA2 was not associated with CAC (OR per 1-SD increase, 0.85; 95% CI 0.71-1.02) or CAP (0.90, 0.75-1.08). LpPLA2 was also not associated with CAC burden in those with CAC>0. Results were similar when highest and lowest LpPLA2 tertiles were compared, and also in various subgroups. LpPLA2 mass was not associated with coronary or carotid subclinical atherosclerosis in retired NFL players. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wilensky, Robert L; Macphee, Colin H

    2009-10-01

    There is substantial data from over 50 000 patients that increased lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) mass or activity is associated with an increased risk of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndromes and ischemic stroke. However, only recently have data emerged demonstrating a role of Lp-PLA2 in development of advanced coronary artery disease. Indeed, Lp-PLA2 may be an important link between lipid homeostasis and the vascular inflammatory response. Lp-PLA2, also known as platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, rapidly cleaves oxidized phosphatidylcholine molecules produced during the oxidation of LDL and atherogenic lipoprotein Lp(a), generating the soluble proinflammatory and proapoptotic lipid mediators, lyso-phosphatidylcholine and oxidized nonesterified fatty acids. These proinflammatory lipids play an important role in the development of atherosclerotic necrotic cores, the substrate for acute unstable coronary disease by recruiting and activating leukocytes/macrophages, inducing apoptosis and impairing the subsequent removal of dead cells. Selective inhibition of Lp-PLA2 reduces development of necrotic cores and may result in stabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. Recent data have shown that immune pathways play a major role in the development and progression of high-risk atherosclerosis, which leads to ischemic sudden death, myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndromes and ischemic strokes. Persistent and sustained macrophage apoptosis appears to play a major role in the resulting local inflammatory response in part by effects elicited by Lp-PLA2. Selective inhibition of Lp-PLA2 has been postulated to reduce necrotic core progression and the clinical sequelae of advanced, unstable atherosclerosis.

  4. PPAR Activation Induces M1 Macrophage Polarization via cPLA2-COX-2 Inhibition, Activating ROS Production against Leishmania mexicana

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Gandarilla, J. A.; Osorio-Trujillo, C.; Hernández-Ramírez, V. I.; Talamás-Rohana, P.

    2013-01-01

    Defence against Leishmania depends upon Th1 inflammatory response and, a major problem in susceptible models, is the turnoff of the leishmanicidal activity of macrophages with IL-10, IL-4, and COX-2 upregulation, as well as immunosuppressive PGE2, all together inhibiting the respiratory burst. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) activation is responsible for macrophages polarization on Leishmania susceptible models where microbicide functions are deactivated. In this paper, we demonstrated that, at least for L. mexicana, PPAR activation, mainly PPARγ, induced macrophage activation through their polarization towards M1 profile with the increase of microbicide activity against intracellular pathogen L. mexicana. PPAR activation induced IL-10 downregulation, whereas the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 remained high. Moreover, PPAR agonists treatment induced the deactivation of cPLA2-COX-2-prostaglandins pathway together with an increase in TLR4 expression, all of whose criteria meet the M1 macrophage profile. Finally, parasite burden, in treated macrophages, was lower than that in infected nontreated macrophages, most probably associated with the increase of respiratory burst in these treated cells. Based on the above data, we conclude that PPAR agonists used in this work induces M1 macrophages polarization via inhibition of cPLA2 and the increase of aggressive microbicidal activity via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. PMID:23555077

  5. A new inhibitor of synovial phospholipase A2 from fermentations of Penicillium sp. 62-92.

    PubMed

    Witter, L; Anke, T; Sterner, O

    1998-01-01

    Penidiamide, a new tripetide containing dehydrotryptamine, glycine and anthranilic acid linked together by two amide bonds, and oxindole were isolated from submerged cultures of Penicillium sp. 62-92. Both compounds preferentially inhibited human synovial phospholipase A2, penidiamide with an IC50 of 30 microM and oxindole of 380 microM. With the exception of U 937 cells (leukemia, human), no cytotoxic activities were detected against HL-60- (leukemia, human), HeLa S3- (epitheloid carcinoma, human), BHK 21- (kidney fibroblasts, hamster), and L1210-cells (leukemia, mouse). No antimicrobial activity was detected for oxindole, and only weak antibacterial activity for penidiamide. The structure of penidiamide was elucidated by spectroscopic methods.

  6. Phytochrome-mediated synthesis of novel growth inhibitors, A-2α and β, and dwarfism in peas.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, H; Hashimoto, T

    1990-05-01

    Variations in the content of A-2α and β, novel endogenous growth inhibitors, andcis,trans- andtrans, trans-xanthoxins were determined in 6- or 7-d-old, dark-grown seedlings of peas (Pisum sativum L. cvs. Progress No. 9, dwarf, and Alaska, tall) under various treatments with red light (R), and compared with R-induced growth inhibition. After transfer of the plants to continuous R the contents of the A-2s in cv. Progress increased after a 20-min lag, and reached plateaus after 12 h, whereas they remained almost unchanged in darkness. Both the rates of increase of the A-2s and the plateau levels were proportional to the logarithm of the irradiance applied. After a 10-min R pulse, the contents of both A-2α and β increased with the same rapidity to reach peaks after 6 h, and then gradually decreased to the initial levels after about 24 h. The effect of R was shown to be phytochrome-dependent, being nullified by far-red light. The level of neithercis,trans- nortrans,trans-xanthoxin showed such a close correlation with growth inhibition, although both xanthoxins increased as a result of phytochrome action. It is highly suggestive that the A-2s, rather than the xanthoxins, are responsible for phytochrome-dependent growth inhibition in cv. Progress. In cv. Alaska, in contrast, R-induced increase of the A-2s was rapid but slight, and could not explain the transient growth inhibition, which was found to be as large as that in cv. Progress shortly after the onset of R. The large content of the A-2s in cv. Progress in the steady state under continuous R, compared with that in cv. Alaska, may explain the dwarfism of cv. Progress.

  7. Pancreatic and snake venom presynaptically active phospholipases A2 inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Vulfius, Catherine A; Kasheverov, Igor E; Kryukova, Elena V; Spirova, Ekaterina N; Shelukhina, Irina V; Starkov, Vladislav G; Andreeva, Tatyana V; Faure, Grazyna; Zouridakis, Marios; Tsetlin, Victor I; Utkin, Yuri N

    2017-01-01

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are enzymes found throughout the animal kingdom. They hydrolyze phospholipids in the sn-2 position producing lysophospholipids and unsaturated fatty acids, agents that can damage membranes. PLA2s from snake venoms have numerous toxic effects, not all of which can be explained by phospholipid hydrolysis, and each enzyme has a specific effect. We have earlier demonstrated the capability of several snake venom PLA2s with different enzymatic, cytotoxic, anticoagulant and antiproliferative properties, to decrease acetylcholine-induced currents in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons, and to compete with α-bungarotoxin for binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and acetylcholine binding protein. Since nAChRs are implicated in postsynaptic and presynaptic activities, in this work we probe those PLA2s known to have strong presynaptic effects, namely β-bungarotoxin from Bungarus multicinctus and crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus. We also wished to explore whether mammalian PLA2s interact with nAChRs, and have examined non-toxic PLA2 from porcine pancreas. It was found that porcine pancreatic PLA2 and presynaptic β-bungarotoxin blocked currents mediated by nAChRs in Lymnaea neurons with IC50s of 2.5 and 4.8 μM, respectively. Crotoxin competed with radioactive α-bungarotoxin for binding to Torpedo and human α7 nAChRs and to the acetylcholine binding protein. Pancreatic PLA2 interacted similarly with these targets; moreover, it inhibited radioactive α-bungarotoxin binding to the water-soluble extracellular domain of human α9 nAChR, and blocked acetylcholine induced currents in human α9α10 nAChRs heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. These and our earlier results show that all snake PLA2s, including presynaptically active crotoxin and β-bungarotoxin, as well as mammalian pancreatic PLA2, interact with nAChRs. The data obtained suggest that this interaction may be a general property of all PLA2s, which should be proved by

  8. H2O2-Activated Mitochondrial Phospholipase iPLA2γ Prevents Lipotoxic Oxidative Stress in Synergy with UCP2, Amplifies Signaling via G-Protein–Coupled Receptor GPR40, and Regulates Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic β-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ježek, Jan; Dlasková, Andrea; Zelenka, Jaroslav; Jabůrek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Pancreatic β-cell chronic lipotoxicity evolves from acute free fatty acid (FA)–mediated oxidative stress, unprotected by antioxidant mechanisms. Since mitochondrial uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) plays antioxidant and insulin-regulating roles in pancreatic β-cells, we tested our hypothesis, that UCP2-mediated uncoupling attenuating mitochondrial superoxide production is initiated by FA release due to a direct H2O2-induced activation of mitochondrial phospholipase iPLA2γ. Results: Pro-oxidant tert-butylhydroperoxide increased respiration, decreased membrane potential and mitochondrial matrix superoxide release rates of control but not UCP2- or iPLA2γ-silenced INS-1E cells. iPLA2γ/UCP2-mediated uncoupling was alternatively activated by an H2O2 burst, resulting from palmitic acid (PA) β-oxidation, and it was prevented by antioxidants or catalase overexpression. Exclusively, nascent FAs that cleaved off phospholipids by iPLA2γ were capable of activating UCP2, indicating that the previously reported direct redox UCP2 activation is actually indirect. Glucose-stimulated insulin release was not affected by UCP2 or iPLA2γ silencing, unless pro-oxidant activation had taken place. PA augmented insulin secretion via G-protein–coupled receptor 40 (GPR40), stimulated by iPLA2γ-cleaved FAs (absent after GPR40 silencing). Innovation and Conclusion: The iPLA2γ/UCP2 synergy provides a feedback antioxidant mechanism preventing oxidative stress by physiological FA intake in pancreatic β-cells, regulating glucose-, FA-, and redox-stimulated insulin secretion. iPLA2γ is regulated by exogenous FA via β-oxidation causing H2O2 signaling, while FAs are cleaved off phospholipids, subsequently acting as amplifying messengers for GPR40. Hence, iPLA2γ acts in eminent physiological redox signaling, the impairment of which results in the lack of antilipotoxic defense and contributes to chronic lipotoxicity. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 958–972. PMID:25925080

  9. Novel phospholipase A2 inhibitors from python serum are potent peptide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Samy, Ramar Perumal; Thwin, Maung Maung; Stiles, Brad G; Satyanarayana-Jois, Seetharama; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Zayed, M E; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Siveen, Kodappully Sivaraman; Sikka, Sakshi; Kumar, Alan Prem; Sethi, Gautam; Lim, Lina Hsiu Kim

    2015-04-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play a vital role in defense against resistant bacteria. In this study, eight different AMPs synthesized from Python reticulatus serum protein were tested for bactericidal activity against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia pseudomallei (KHW and TES strains), and Proteus vulgaris) using a disc-diffusion method (20 μg/disc). Among the tested peptides, phospholipase A2 inhibitory peptide (PIP)-18[59-76], β-Asp65-PIP[59-67], D-Ala66-PNT.II, and D60,65E-PIP[59-67] displayed the most potent bactericidal activity against all tested pathogens in a dose-dependent manner (100-6.8 μg/ml), with a remarkable activity noted against S. aureus at 6.8 μg/ml dose within 6 h of incubation. Determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) by a micro-broth dilution method at 100-3.125 μg/ml revealed that PIP-18[59-76], β-Asp65-PIP[59-67] and D-Ala66-PNT.II peptides exerted a potent inhibitory effect against S. aureus and B. pseudomallei (KHW) (MICs 3.125 μg/ml), while a much less inhibitory potency (MICs 12.5 μg/ml) was noted for β-Asp65-PIP[59-67] and D-Ala66-PNT.II peptides against B. pseudomallei (TES). Higher doses of peptides had no effect on the other two strains (i.e., Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus pneumoniae). Overall, PIP-18[59-76] possessed higher antimicrobial activity than that of chloramphenicol (CHL), ceftazidime (CF) and streptomycin (ST) (30 μg/disc). When the two most active peptides, PIP-18[59-76] and β-Asp65-PIP[59-67], were applied topically at a 150 mg/kg dose for testing wound healing activity in a mouse model of S. aureus infection, the former accelerates faster wound healing than the latter peptide at 14 days post-treatment. The western blot data suggest that the topical application of peptides (PIP-18[59-67] and β-Asp65-PIP[59-67]) modulates NF-kB mediated wound repair in mice with relatively little haemolytic (100-1.56 μg/ml) and cytotoxic (1000

  10. Enhanced Phospholipase A2 Group 3 Expression by Oxidative Stress Decreases the Insulin-Degrading Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Yui, Daishi; Nishida, Yoichiro; Nishina, Tomoko; Mogushi, Kaoru; Tajiri, Mio; Ishibashi, Satoru; Ajioka, Itsuki; Ishikawa, Kinya; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Murayama, Shigeo; Yokota, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has a ubiquitous role in neurodegenerative diseases and oxidative damage in specific regions of the brain is associated with selective neurodegeneration. We previously reported that Alzheimer disease (AD) model mice showed decreased insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) levels in the cerebrum and accelerated phenotypic features of AD when crossbred with alpha-tocopherol transfer protein knockout (Ttpa -/-) mice. To further investigate the role of chronic oxidative stress in AD pathophysiology, we performed DNA microarray analysis using young and aged wild-type mice and aged Ttpa -/- mice. Among the genes whose expression changed dramatically was Phospholipase A2 group 3 (Pla2g3); Pla2g3 was identified because of its expression profile of cerebral specific up-regulation by chronic oxidative stress in silico and in aged Ttpa -/- mice. Immunohistochemical studies also demonstrated that human astrocytic Pla2g3 expression was significantly increased in human AD brains compared with control brains. Moreover, transfection of HEK293 cells with human Pla2g3 decreased endogenous IDE expression in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings show a key role of Pla2g3 on the reduction of IDE, and suggest that cerebrum specific increase of Pla2g3 is involved in the initiation and/or progression of AD. PMID:26637123

  11. Postprandial lysophospholipid suppresses hepatic fatty acid oxidation: the molecular link between group 1B phospholipase A2 and diet-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Labonté, Eric D.; Pfluger, Paul T.; Cash, James G.; Kuhel, David G.; Roja, Juan C.; Magness, Daniel P.; Jandacek, Ronald J.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Hui, David Y.

    2010-01-01

    Decrease in fat catabolic rate on consuming a high-fat diet contributes to diet-induced obesity. This study used group 1B phospholipase A2 (Pla2g1b)-deficient mice, which are resistant to hyperglycemia, to test the hypothesis that Pla2g1b and its lipolytic product lysophospholipid suppress hepatic fat utilization and energy metabolism in promoting diet-induced obesity. The metabolic consequences of hypercaloric diet, including body weight gain, energy expenditure, and fatty acid oxidation, were compared between Pla2g1b+/+ and Pla2g1b−/− mice. The Pla2g1b−/− mice displayed normal energy balance when fed chow, but were resistant to obesity when challenged with a hypercaloric diet. Obesity resistance in Pla2g1b−/− mice is due to their ability to maintain elevated energy expenditure and core body temperature when subjected to hypercaloric diet, which was not observed in Pla2g1b+/+ mice. The Pla2g1b−/− mice also displayed increased postprandial hepatic fat utilization due to increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α, PPAR-δ, PPAR-γ, cd36/Fat, and Ucp2, which coincided with reduced postprandial plasma lysophospholipid levels. Lysophospholipids produced by Pla2g1b hydrolysis suppress hepatic fat utilization and down-regulate energy expenditure, thereby preventing metabolically beneficial adaptation to a high-fat diet exposure in promoting diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes.—Labonté, E. D., Pfluger, P. T., Cash, J. G., Kuhel, D. G., Rojas, J. C., Magness, D. P., Jandacek, R. J., Tschöp, M. H., Hui, D. Y. Postprandial lysophospholipid suppresses hepatic fatty acid oxidation: the molecular link between group 1B phospholipase A2 and diet-induced obesity. PMID:20215528

  12. A myotoxic Lys49 phospholipase A2-homologue is the major component of the venom of Bothrops cotiara from Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    de Roodt, Adolfo; Fernández, Julián; Solano, Daniela; Lomonte, Bruno

    2018-06-15

    Bothrops cotiara is a pitviper found in Southeastern Brazil and, scarcely, in the Misiones province of Argentina. In contrast to considerable information available on the venom of the Brazilian snake population, that of Misiones has received little attention. While exploring the chromatographic venom profile of Argentinean B. cotiara, a major protein peak was found which, according to a previous study, is not present in the venom of Brazilian origin. The corresponding protein was isolated by RP-HPLC, and characterized by electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) assay, and myotoxic activities. Representing nearly 15% of B. cotiara venom from Misiones, this protein was identified as a Lys49 PLA 2 homologue. In accordance with the characteristics of this toxin family, the protein induced myotoxicity in mice and was devoid of PLA 2 activity. Since previous work reported that no PLA 2 or PLA 2 -homologues occur in B. cotiara venom of Brazilian origin, the presence of an abundant Lys49 PLA 2 homologue in the venom from Misiones highlights a striking phenotypic variation in toxin expression within two populations of a single snake species inhabiting different geographic areas. The considerable proportion of B. cotiara Lys49 PLA 2 homologue myotoxin in the venom alerts that skeletal muscle necrosis might be a potentially relevant consequence of eventual envenomings by this species in Misiones. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2), platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, is expressed by macrophages in human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, T; Luoma, J S; Hiltunen, M O; Macphee, C H; Milliner, K J; Patel, L; Rice, S Q; Tew, D G; Karkola, K; Ylä-Herttuala, S

    1999-12-01

    We studied the expression of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)), an enzyme capable of hydrolyzing platelet-activating factor (PAF), PAF-like phospholipids, and polar-modified phosphatidylcholines, in human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions. Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein, which plays an important role in atherogenesis, generates biologically active PAF-like modified phospholipid derivatives with polar fatty acid chains. PAF is known to have a potent proinflammatory activity and is inactivated by its hydrolysis. On the other hand, lysophosphatidylcholine and oxidized fatty acids released from oxidized low-density lipoprotein as a result of Lp-PLA(2) activity are thought to be involved in the progression of atherosclerosis. Using combined in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry, we detected Lp-PLA(2) mRNA and protein in macrophages in both human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated an increased expression of Lp-PLA(2) mRNA in human atherosclerotic lesions. In addition, approximately 6-fold higher Lp-PLA(2) activity was detected in atherosclerotic aortas of Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits compared with normal aortas from control rabbits. It is concluded that (1) macrophages in both human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions express Lp-PLA(2), which could cleave any oxidatively modified phosphatidylcholine present in the lesion area, and (2) modulation of Lp-PLA(2) activity could lead to antiatherogenic effects in the vessel wall.

  14. Involvement of thromboxane A2 in the endothelium-dependent contractions induced by myricetin in rat isolated aorta

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Rosario; Andriambeloson, Emile; Duarte, Juan; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Jiménez, José; Pérez-Vizcaino, Francisco; Zarzuelo, Antonio; Tamargo, Juan

    1999-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to analyse the mechanism of the contractile response induced by the bioflavonoid myricetin in isolated rat aortic rings.Myricetin induced endothelium-dependent contractile responses (maximal value=21±2% of the response induced by 80 mM KCl and pD2=5.12±0.03). This effect developed slowly, reached a peak within 6 min and then declined progressively.Myricetin-induced contractions were almost abolished by the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitor, quinacrine (10 μM), the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin (10 μM), the thromboxane synthase inhibitor, dazoxiben (100 μM), the putative thromboxane A2 (TXA2)/prostaglandin endoperoxide receptor antagonist, ifetroban (3 μM). These contractions were abolished in Ca2+-free medium but were not affected by the Ca2+ channel blocker verapamil (10 μM).In cultured bovine endothelial cells (BAEC), myricetin (50 μM) produced an increase in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]i) which peaked within 1 min and remained sustained for 6 min, as determined by the fluorescent probe fura 2. This rise in [Ca2+]i was abolished after removal of extracellular Ca2+ in the medium.Myricetin (50 μM) significantly increased TXB2 production both in aortic rings with and without endothelium and in BAEC. These increases were abolished both by Ca2+-free media and by indomethacin.Taken together, these results suggests that myricetin stimulates Ca2+ influx and subsequently triggers the activation of the PLA2 and cyclo-oxygenase pathways releasing TXA2 from the endothelium to contract rat aortic rings. The latter response occurs via the activation of Tp receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:10455307

  15. Differential expression levels of collagen 1A2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 4, and cathepsin B in intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Babu, R Arun; Paul, Pradip; Purushottam, Meera; Srinivas, Dwarakanath; Somanna, Sampath; Jain, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) express a variety of differentially expressed genes when compared to the normal artery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression level of a few genes in the aneurysm wall and to correlate them with various clinicoradiological factors. The mRNA level of collagen 1A2 (COL1A2), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 4 (TIMP4), and cathepsin B (CTSB) genes were studied in 23 aneurysmal walls and 19 superficial temporal arteries harvested from 23 patients undergoing clipping of IAs, by real-time polymerase chain reaction method. The mean fold change of COL1A2 gene between the aneurysm sample and the superficial temporal artery (STA) sample was 2.46 ± 0.12, that of TIMP4 gene was 0.31 ± 0, and that of CTSB gene was 31.47 ± 39.01. There was a positive correlation of TIMP4 expression level with maximum diameter of aneurysm (P = 0.008) and fundus of aneurysm (P = 0.012). The mean fold change of CTSB of patients who had preoperative hydrocephalus in the computed tomogram (CT) scan of the head at admission was 56.16 and that of the patients who did not have hydrocephalus was 13.51 (P = 0.008). The mean fold change of CTSB of patients who developed fresh postoperative deficits or worsening of the preexisting deficits was 23.64 and that of the patients who did not develop was 42.22 (P = 0.039). COL1A2 gene and CTSB genes were overexpressed, and TIMP4 gene was underexpressed in the aneurysmal sac compared to STA and their expression levels were associated with a few clinicoradiological factors.

  16. Ketogenic diet change cPLA2/clusterin and autophagy related gene expression and correlate with cognitive deficits and hippocampal MFs sprouting following neonatal seizures.

    PubMed

    Ni, Hong; Zhao, Dong-Jing; Tian, Tian

    2016-02-01

    Because the ketogenic diet (KD) was affecting expression of energy metabolism- related genes in hippocampus and because lipid membrane peroxidation and its associated autophagy stress were also found to be involved in energy depletion, we hypothesized that KD might exert its neuroprotective action via lipid membrane peroxidation and autophagic signaling. Here, we tested this hypothesis by examining the long-term expression of lipid membrane peroxidation-related cPLA2 and clusterin, its downstream autophagy marker Beclin-1, LC3 and p62, as well as its execution molecule Cathepsin-E following neonatal seizures and chronic KD treatment. On postnatal day 9 (P9), 48 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups: flurothyl-induced recurrent seizures group and control group. On P28, they were further randomly divided into the seizure group without ketogenic diet (RS+ND), seizure plus ketogenic diet (RS+KD), the control group without ketogenic diet (NS+ND), and the control plus ketogenic diet (NS+KD). Morris water maze test was performed during P37-P43. Then mossy fiber sprouting and the protein levels were detected by Timm staining and Western blot analysis, respectively. Flurothyl-induced RS+ND rats show a long-term lower amount of cPLA2 and LC3II/I, and higher amount of clusterin, Beclin-1, p62 and Cathepsin-E which are in parallel with hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting and cognitive deficits. Furthermore, chronic KD treatment (RS+KD) is effective in restoring these molecular, neuropathological and cognitive changes. The results imply that a lipid membrane peroxidation and autophagy-associated pathway is involved in the aberrant hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting and cognitive deficits following neonatal seizures, which might be a potential target of KD for the treatment of neonatal seizure-induced brain damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Phospholipase A2 as a point of care alternative to serum amylase and pancreatic lipase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Nathan J.; Chapman, Robert; Lin, Yiyang; Bentham, Andrew; Tyreman, Matthew; Philips, Natalie; Khan, Shahid A.; Stevens, Molly M.

    2016-06-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a relatively common and potentially fatal condition, but the presenting symptoms are non-specific and diagnosis relies largely on the measurement of amylase activity by the hospital clinical laboratory. In this work we develop a point of care test for pancreatitis measuring concentration of secretory phospholipase A2 group IB (sPLA2-IB). Novel antibodies for sPLA2-IB were raised and used to design an ELISA and a lateral flow device (LFD) for the point of care measurement of sPLA2-IB concentration, which was compared to pancreatic amylase activity, lipase activity, and sPLA2-IB activity in 153 serum samples. 98 of these samples were obtained from the pathology unit of a major hospital and classified retrospectively according to presence or absence of pancreatitis, and the remaining 55 were obtained from commercial sources to serve as high lipase (n = 20), CA19-9 positive (n = 15), and healthy (n = 20) controls. sPLA2-IB concentration correlated well with the serum activity of both amylase and lipase, and performed at least as well as either markers in the differentiation of pancreatitis from controls.Acute pancreatitis is a relatively common and potentially fatal condition, but the presenting symptoms are non-specific and diagnosis relies largely on the measurement of amylase activity by the hospital clinical laboratory. In this work we develop a point of care test for pancreatitis measuring concentration of secretory phospholipase A2 group IB (sPLA2-IB). Novel antibodies for sPLA2-IB were raised and used to design an ELISA and a lateral flow device (LFD) for the point of care measurement of sPLA2-IB concentration, which was compared to pancreatic amylase activity, lipase activity, and sPLA2-IB activity in 153 serum samples. 98 of these samples were obtained from the pathology unit of a major hospital and classified retrospectively according to presence or absence of pancreatitis, and the remaining 55 were obtained from commercial sources to

  18. Plasma secretory phospholipase A2-IIa as a potential biomarker for lung cancer in patients with solitary pulmonary nodules

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Five-year survival for lung cancer has remained at 16% over last several decades largely due to the fact that over 50% of patients are diagnosed with locally-advanced or metastatic disease. Diagnosis at an earlier and potentially curable stage is crucial. Solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) are common, but the difficulty lies in the determination of which SPN is malignant. Currently, there is no convenient and reliable biomarker effective for early diagnosis. Secretory phospholipase A2-IIa (sPLA2-IIa) is secreted into the circulation by cancer cells and may allow for an early detection of lung cancer. Methods Plasma samples from healthy donors, patients with only benign SPN, and patients with lung cancer were analyzed. Expression of sPLA2-IIa protein in lung cancer tissues was also determined. Results We found that the levels of plasma sPLA2-IIa were significantly elevated in lung cancer patients. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, comparing lung cancer patients to patients with benign nodules, revealed an optimum cutoff value for plasma sPLA2-IIa of 2.4 ng/ml to predict an early stage cancer with 48% sensitivity and 86% specificity and up to 67% sensitivity for T2 stage lung cancer. Combined sPLA2-IIa, CEA, and Cyfra21.1 tests increased the sensitivity for lung cancer prediction. High level of plasma sPLA2-IIa was associated with a decreased overall cancer survival. sPLA2-IIa was overexpressed in almost all non-small cell lung cancer and in the majority of small cell lung cancer by immunohistochemistry analysis. Conclusion Our finding strongly suggests that plasma sPLA2-IIa is a potential lung biomarker to distinguish benign nodules from lung cancer and to aid lung cancer diagnosis in patients with SPNs. PMID:22151235

  19. In vitro anti-Plasmodium falciparum properties of the full set of human secreted phospholipases A2.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, Carole; Payré, Christine; Jemel, Ikram; Jeammet, Louise; Bezzine, Sofiane; Naika, Gajendra S; Bollinger, James; Grellier, Philippe; Gelb, Michael H; Schrével, Joseph; Lambeau, Gérard; Deregnaucourt, Christiane

    2015-06-01

    We have previously shown that secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) from animal venoms inhibit the in vitro development of Plasmodium falciparum, the agent of malaria. In addition, the inflammatory-type human group IIA (hGIIA) sPLA2 circulates at high levels in the serum of malaria patients. However, the role of the different human sPLA2s in host defense against P. falciparum has not been investigated. We show here that 4 out of 10 human sPLA2s, namely, hGX, hGIIF, hGIII, and hGV, exhibit potent in vitro anti-Plasmodium properties with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of 2.9 ± 2.4, 10.7 ± 2.1, 16.5 ± 9.7, and 94.2 ± 41.9 nM, respectively. Other human sPLA2s, including hGIIA, are inactive. The inhibition is dependent on sPLA2 catalytic activity and primarily due to hydrolysis of plasma lipoproteins from the parasite culture. Accordingly, purified lipoproteins that have been prehydrolyzed by hGX, hGIIF, hGIII, and hGV are more toxic to P. falciparum than native lipoproteins. However, the total enzymatic activities of human sPLA2s on purified lipoproteins or plasma did not reflect their inhibitory activities on P. falciparum. For instance, hGIIF is 9-fold more toxic than hGV but releases a lower quantity of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs). Lipidomic analyses of released NEFAs from lipoproteins demonstrate that sPLA2s with anti-Plasmodium properties are those that release polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), with hGIIF being the most selective enzyme. NEFAs purified from lipoproteins hydrolyzed by hGIIF were more potent at inhibiting P. falciparum than those from hGV, and PUFA-enriched liposomes hydrolyzed by sPLA2s were highly toxic, demonstrating the critical role of PUFAs. The selectivity of sPLA2s toward low- and high-density (LDL and HDL, respectively) lipoproteins and their ability to directly attack parasitized erythrocytes further explain their anti-Plasmodium activity. Together, our findings indicate that 4 human sPLA2s are active against P

  20. In Vitro Anti-Plasmodium falciparum Properties of the Full Set of Human Secreted Phospholipases A2

    PubMed Central

    Guillaume, Carole; Payré, Christine; Jemel, Ikram; Jeammet, Louise; Bezzine, Sofiane; Naika, Gajendra S.; Bollinger, James; Grellier, Philippe; Gelb, Michael H.; Schrével, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) from animal venoms inhibit the in vitro development of Plasmodium falciparum, the agent of malaria. In addition, the inflammatory-type human group IIA (hGIIA) sPLA2 circulates at high levels in the serum of malaria patients. However, the role of the different human sPLA2s in host defense against P. falciparum has not been investigated. We show here that 4 out of 10 human sPLA2s, namely, hGX, hGIIF, hGIII, and hGV, exhibit potent in vitro anti-Plasmodium properties with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of 2.9 ± 2.4, 10.7 ± 2.1, 16.5 ± 9.7, and 94.2 ± 41.9 nM, respectively. Other human sPLA2s, including hGIIA, are inactive. The inhibition is dependent on sPLA2 catalytic activity and primarily due to hydrolysis of plasma lipoproteins from the parasite culture. Accordingly, purified lipoproteins that have been prehydrolyzed by hGX, hGIIF, hGIII, and hGV are more toxic to P. falciparum than native lipoproteins. However, the total enzymatic activities of human sPLA2s on purified lipoproteins or plasma did not reflect their inhibitory activities on P. falciparum. For instance, hGIIF is 9-fold more toxic than hGV but releases a lower quantity of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs). Lipidomic analyses of released NEFAs from lipoproteins demonstrate that sPLA2s with anti-Plasmodium properties are those that release polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), with hGIIF being the most selective enzyme. NEFAs purified from lipoproteins hydrolyzed by hGIIF were more potent at inhibiting P. falciparum than those from hGV, and PUFA-enriched liposomes hydrolyzed by sPLA2s were highly toxic, demonstrating the critical role of PUFAs. The selectivity of sPLA2s toward low- and high-density (LDL and HDL, respectively) lipoproteins and their ability to directly attack parasitized erythrocytes further explain their anti-Plasmodium activity. Together, our findings indicate that 4 human sPLA2s are active against P

  1. Activation of farnesoid X receptor promotes triglycerides lowering by suppressing phospholipase A2 G12B expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingli; Yang, Meng; Fu, Xuekun; Liu, Renzhong; Sun, Caijun; Pan, Haobo; Wong, Chi-Wai; Guan, Min

    2016-11-15

    As a novel mediator of hepatic very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) secretion, phospholipase A2 G12B (PLA2G12B) is transcriptionally regulated by hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 alpha (HNF-4α). Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays a critical role in maintaining bile acids and triglycerides (TG) homeostasis. Here we report that FXR regulates serum TG level in part through PLA2G12B. Activation of FXR by chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) or GW4064 significantly decreased PLA2G12B expression in HepG2 cells. PLA2G12B expression was transcriptionally repressed due to an FXR-mediated up-regulation of small heterodimer partner (SHP) which functionally suppresses HNF-4α activity. We found that hepatic PLA2G12B expression was suppressed and serum TG level reduced in high fat diet mice treated with CDCA. Concurrently, CDCA treatment lowered hepatic VLDL-TG secretion. Our data demonstrate that activation of FXR promotes TG lowering, not only by decreasing de novo lipogenesis but also reducing hepatic secretion of TG-rich VLDL particles in part through suppressing PLA2G12B expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Racial variation in lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in older adults

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a predictor of cardiovascular events that has been shown to vary with race. The objective of this study was to examine factors associated with this racial variation. Methods We measured Lp-PLA2 mass and activity in 714 healthy older adults with no clinical coronary heart disease and not taking dyslipidemia medication. We evaluated the association between race and Lp-PLA2 mass and activity levels after adjustment for various covariates using multivariable linear regression. These covariates included age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, body mass index, lipid measurements, C-reactive protein, smoking status, physical activity, diet, income, and education level. We further examined genetic covariates that included three single nucleotide polymorphisms shown to be associated with Lp-PLA2 activity levels. Results The mean age was 66 years. Whites had the highest Lp-PLA2 mass and activity levels, followed by Hispanics and Asians, and then African-Americans; in age and sex adjusted analyses, these differences were significant for each non-White race as compared to Whites (p < 0.0001). For example, African-Americans were predicted to have a 55.0 ng/ml lower Lp-PLA2 mass and 24.7 nmol/ml-min lower activity, compared with Whites, independent of age and sex (p < 0.0001). After adjustment for all covariates, race remained significantly correlated with Lp-PLA2 mass and activity levels (p < 0.001) with African-Americans having 44.8 ng/ml lower Lp-PLA2 mass and 17.3 nmol/ml-min lower activity compared with Whites (p < 0.0001). Conclusion Biological, lifestyle, demographic, and select genetic factors do not appear to explain variations in Lp-PLA2 mass and activity levels between Whites and non-Whites, suggesting that Lp-PLA2 mass and activity levels may need to be interpreted differently for various races. PMID:21714927

  3. Overexpression of porcine lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in swine.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaochun; Wang, Gangqi; Liu, Xingxing; Han, Xiaolei; Li, Zhuang; Ran, Guangyao; Li, Zhanjun; Song, Qi; Ji, Yuan; Wang, Haijun; Wang, Yuhui; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Pang, Daxin

    2015-09-25

    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 (Lp-PLA2) is associated with the risk of vascular disease. It circulates in human blood predominantly in association with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and hydrolyses oxidized phospholipids into pro-inflammatory products. However, in the mouse circulation, it predominantly binds to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and exhibits anti-inflammatory properties. To further investigate the effects of Lp-PLA2 in the circulation, we generated over-expressed Lp-PLA2 transgenic swine. The eukaryotic expression plasmid of porcine Lp-PLA2 which driven by EF1α promoter was constructed and generate transgenic swine via SCNT. The expression and activity of Lp-PLA2 in transgenic swine were evaluated, and the total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-C and triglyceride (TG) levels in the fasting and fed states were also assessed. Compared with wild-type swine controls, the transgenic swine exhibited elevated Lp-PLA2 mRNA levels and activities, and the activity did not depend on the feeding state. The TC, HDL-C and LDL-C levels were not significantly increased. There was no change in the TG levels in the fasting state between transgenic and control pigs. However, in the fed state, the TG levels of transgenic swine were slightly increased compared with the control pigs and were significantly elevated compared with the fasting state. In addition, inflammatory gene (interleukin [IL]-6, monocyte chemotactic protein [MCP]-1 and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were significantly increased. The results demonstrated that Lp-PLA2 is associated with triglycerides which may be helpful for understanding the relationship of this protein with cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Purification of a post-synaptic neurotoxic phospholipase A2 from Naja naja venom and its inhibition by a glycoprotein from Withania somnifera.

    PubMed

    Machiah, Deepa K; Gowda, T Veerabasappa

    2006-06-01

    A post-synaptic neurotoxic phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) has been purified from Indian cobra Naja naja venom. It was associated with a peptide in the venom. The association was disrupted using 8 M urea. It is denoted to be a basic protein by its behavior on both ion exchange chromatography and electrophoresis. It is toxic to mice, LD(50) 1.9 mg/kg body weight (ip). It is proved to be post-synaptic PLA(2) by chymographic experiment using frog nerve-muscle preparation. A glycoprotein, (WSG) was isolated from a folk medicinal plant Withania somnifera. The WSG inhibited the phospholipase A(2) activity of NN-XIa-PLA(2,) isolated from the cobra venom, completely at a mole-to-mole ratio of 1:2 (NN-XIa-PLA(2): WSG) but failed to neutralize the toxicity of the molecule. However, it reduced the toxicity as well as prolonged the death time of the experimental mice approximately 10 times when compared to venom alone. The WSG also inhibited several other PLA(2) isoforms from the venom to varying extent. The interaction of the WSG with the PLA(2) is confirmed by fluorescence quenching and gel-permeation chromatography. Chemical modification of the active histidine residue of PLA(2) using p-brophenacyl bromide resulted in the loss of both catalytic activity as well as neurotoxicity of the molecule. These findings suggest that the venom PLA(2) has multiple sites on it; perhaps some of them are overlapping. Application of the plant extract on snakebite wound confirms the medicinal value associated with the plant.

  5. Native and recombinant phospholipases A2 of Scorpio maurus venom glands impair angiogenesis by targeting integrins α5β1 and αvβ3.

    PubMed

    Krayem, Najeh; Abdelkefi-Koubaa, Zaineb; Marrakchi, Naziha; Gargouri, Youssef; Luis, José

    2018-04-30

    We recently purified an heterodimeric phospholipase A 2 named Sm-PLGV from the venom glands of scorpion Scorpio maurus containing a Long chain, a penta-peptide insertion, which is cut out during the maturation, followed by a short chain. Three recombinant forms of Sm-PLGV were produced in Escherichia coli: rPLA 2 (+5) containing the full-length sequence including the penta-peptide insert, rPLA 2 (-5) a fused continuous chain of the Long and the short chains without the penta-peptide and the Long chain alone without the short one. In this study, we showed that Sm-PLGV, rPLA 2 (+5) and rPLA 2 (-5) displayed more potent anti-angiogenic properties than the recombinant Long chain and the short chain obtained by chemical synthesis. These phospholipases A 2 inhibited in a dose-dependent manner adhesion, migration and invasion of human microvascular endothelial cells through the alteration of α5β1 and αvβ3 integrins function. Using Matrigel™ and chick chorioallantoic membrane assays, we demonstrated that Sm-PLGV, rPLA 2 (+5) and rPLA 2 (-5) significantly inhibited both in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis. We also showed a clear dissociation of the anti-angiogenic effect of Sm-PLGV and its catalytic activity. This is the first study describing an anti-angiogenic effect for recombinant scorpion venom enzymes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of the PLA2G6 c.1579G>A Missense Mutation in Papillon Dog Neuroaxonal Dystrophy Using Whole Exome Sequencing Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tsuboi, Masaya; Watanabe, Manabu; Nibe, Kazumi; Yoshimi, Natsuko; Kato, Akihisa; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Yamato, Osamu; Tanaka, Miyuu; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Kushida, Kazuya; Harada, Tomoyuki; Chambers, James Kenn; Sugano, Sumio; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Whole exome sequencing (WES) has become a common tool for identifying genetic causes of human inherited disorders, and it has also recently been applied to canine genome research. We conducted WES analysis of neuroaxonal dystrophy (NAD), a neurodegenerative disease that sporadically occurs worldwide in Papillon dogs. The disease is considered an autosomal recessive monogenic disease, which is histopathologically characterized by severe axonal swelling, known as “spheroids,” throughout the nervous system. By sequencing all eleven DNA samples from one NAD-affected Papillon dog and her parents, two unrelated NAD-affected Papillon dogs, and six unaffected control Papillon dogs, we identified 10 candidate mutations. Among them, three candidates were determined to be “deleterious” by in silico pathogenesis evaluation. By subsequent massive screening by TaqMan genotyping analysis, only the PLA2G6 c.1579G>A mutation had an association with the presence or absence of the disease, suggesting that it may be a causal mutation of canine NAD. As a human homologue of this gene is a causative gene for infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy, this canine phenotype may serve as a good animal model for human disease. The results of this study also indicate that WES analysis is a powerful tool for exploring canine hereditary diseases, especially in rare monogenic hereditary diseases. PMID:28107443

  7. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel xanthine oxidase inhibitors bearing a 2-arylbenzo[b]furan scaffold.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hong-Jin; Li, Wei; Zhou, Mei; Peng, Li-Ying; Wang, Jin-Xin; Li, Jia-Huang; Chen, Jun

    2018-05-10

    Xanthine oxidase, which catalyzes the oxidative reaction of hypoxanthine and xanthine into uric acid, is a key enzyme to the pathogenesis of hyperuricemia and gout. In this study, for the purpose of discovering novel xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors, a series of 2-arylbenzo[b]furan derivatives (3a-3d, 4a-4o and 6a-6d) were designed and synthesized. All these compounds were evaluated their xanthine oxidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities by using in vitro enzymatic assay and cellular model. The results showed that a majority of the designed compounds exhibited potent xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects and antioxidant activities, and compound 4a emerged as the most potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor (IC 50  = 4.45 μM). Steady-state kinetic measurements of the inhibitor 4a with the bovine milk xanthine oxidase indicated a mixed type inhibition with 3.52 μM K i and 13.14 μM K is , respectively. The structure-activity relationship analyses have also been presented. Compound 4a exhibited the potent hypouricemic effect in the potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice model. A molecular docking study of compound 4a was performed to gain an insight into its binding mode with xanthine oxidase. These results highlight the identification of a new class of xanthine oxidase inhibitors that have potential to be more efficacious in treatment of gout. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Unexpected inverse relationship between impaired glucose metabolism and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity in patients with stable vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Otto; Seidlerová, Jitka; Filipovský, Jan; Timoracká, Katarina; Bruthans, Jan; Vaněk, Jiří; Cerná, Lenka; Wohlfahrt, Peter; Renata, Cífková; Trefil, Ladislav

    2014-07-01

    Elevated lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity (aLp-PLA2) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. In patients with stable atherovascular disease, we aimed to investigate whether impaired glucose metabolism might be associated with higher risk of elevated aLp-PLA2. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 825 stable patients after acute coronary syndrome, coronary revascularization or after first ischemic stroke (Czech part of EUROASPIRE III surveys). We measured aLp-PLA2 using diaDexus commercial kit. In multiple step-wise regression analysis, the aLp-PLA2 was significantly positively associated with male gender, current smoking, LDL cholesterol and metabolic syndrome and negatively with statin treatment, body mass index and LDL/apoB ratio. After adjustment for these confounders, we observed an inverse relationship between aLp-PLA2 and fasting glycemia [β coefficient -2.18 (p<0.0001)] or glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) [β coefficient -5.89 (p<0.0001)]. Moreover, we found a positive association between aLp-PLA2 and pancreatic β cell function [β coefficient +0.10 (p<0.0001)], but not with an insulin sensitivity. In present study, we cannot confirm any additive risk of impaired glucose metabolism in terms of increased activity of Lp-PLA2. On the contrary, presence of inadequately controlled diabetes mellitus was independently associated with lower risk of elevated aLp-PLA2 . Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic Ablation of Calcium-independent Phospholipase A2γ Prevents Obesity and Insulin Resistance during High Fat Feeding by Mitochondrial Uncoupling and Increased Adipocyte Fatty Acid Oxidation*

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, David J.; Sims, Harold F.; Yang, Kui; Kiebish, Michael A.; Su, Xiong; Jenkins, Christopher M.; Guan, Shaoping; Moon, Sung Ho; Pietka, Terri; Nassir, Fatiha; Schappe, Timothy; Moore, Kristin; Han, Xianlin; Abumrad, Nada A.; Gross, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    Phospholipases are critical enzyme mediators participating in many aspects of cellular function through modulating the generation of lipid 2nd messengers, membrane physical properties, and cellular bioenergetics. Here, we demonstrate that mice null for calcium-independent phospholipase A2γ (iPLA2γ−/−) are completely resistant to high fat diet-induced weight gain, adipocyte hypertrophy, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance, which occur in iPLA2γ+/+ mice after high fat feeding. Notably, iPLA2γ−/− mice were lean, demonstrated abdominal lipodystrophy, and remained insulin-sensitive despite having a marked impairment in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion after high fat feeding. Respirometry of adipocyte explants from iPLA2γ−/− mice identified increased rates of oxidation of multiple different substrates in comparison with adipocyte explants from wild-type littermates. Shotgun lipidomics of adipose tissue from wild-type mice demonstrated the anticipated 2-fold increase in triglyceride content after high fat feeding. In sharp contrast, the adipocyte triglyceride content was identical in iPLA2γ−/− mice fed either a standard diet or a high fat diet. Respirometry of skeletal muscle mitochondria from iPLA2γ−/− mice demonstrated marked decreases in state 3 respiration using multiple substrates whose metabolism was uncoupled from ATP production. Shotgun lipidomics of skeletal muscle revealed a decreased content of cardiolipin with an altered molecular species composition thereby identifying the mechanism underlying mitochondrial uncoupling in the iPLA2γ−/− mouse. Collectively, these results identify iPLA2γ as an obligatory upstream enzyme that is necessary for efficient electron transport chain coupling and energy production through its participation in the alterations of cellular bioenergetics that promote the development of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:20817734

  10. AMPK Signaling Involvement for the Repression of the IL-1β-Induced Group IIA Secretory Phospholipase A2 Expression in VSMCs

    PubMed Central

    El Hadri, Khadija; Denoyelle, Chantal; Ravaux, Lucas; Viollet, Benoit; Foretz, Marc; Friguet, Bertrand; Rouis, Mustapha; Raymondjean, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Secretory Phospholipase A2 of type IIA (sPLA2 IIA) plays a crucial role in the production of lipid mediators by amplifying the neointimal inflammatory context of the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), especially during atherogenesis. Phenformin, a biguanide family member, by its anti-inflammatory properties presents potential for promoting beneficial effects upon vascular cells, however its impact upon the IL-1β-induced sPLA2 gene expression has not been deeply investigated so far. The present study was designed to determine the relationship between phenformin coupling AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) function and the molecular mechanism by which the sPLA2 IIA expression was modulated in VSMCs. Here we find that 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribonucleotide (AICAR) treatment strongly repressed IL-1β-induced sPLA2 expression at least at the transcriptional level. Our study reveals that phenformin elicited a dose-dependent inhibition of the sPLA2 IIA expression and transient overexpression experiments of constitutively active AMPK demonstrate clearly that AMPK signaling is involved in the transcriptional inhibition of sPLA2-IIA gene expression. Furthermore, although the expression of the transcriptional repressor B-cell lymphoma-6 protein (BCL-6) was markedly enhanced by phenformin and AICAR, the repression of sPLA2 gene occurs through a mechanism independent of BCL-6 DNA binding site. In addition we show that activation of AMPK limits IL-1β-induced NF-κB pathway activation. Our results indicate that BCL-6, once activated by AMPK, functions as a competitor of the IL-1β induced NF-κB transcription complex. Our findings provide insights on a new anti-inflammatory pathway linking phenformin, AMPK and molecular control of sPLA2 IIA gene expression in VSMCs. PMID:26162096

  11. AMPK Signaling Involvement for the Repression of the IL-1β-Induced Group IIA Secretory Phospholipase A2 Expression in VSMCs.

    PubMed

    El Hadri, Khadija; Denoyelle, Chantal; Ravaux, Lucas; Viollet, Benoit; Foretz, Marc; Friguet, Bertrand; Rouis, Mustapha; Raymondjean, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Secretory Phospholipase A2 of type IIA (sPLA2 IIA) plays a crucial role in the production of lipid mediators by amplifying the neointimal inflammatory context of the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), especially during atherogenesis. Phenformin, a biguanide family member, by its anti-inflammatory properties presents potential for promoting beneficial effects upon vascular cells, however its impact upon the IL-1β-induced sPLA2 gene expression has not been deeply investigated so far. The present study was designed to determine the relationship between phenformin coupling AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) function and the molecular mechanism by which the sPLA2 IIA expression was modulated in VSMCs. Here we find that 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribonucleotide (AICAR) treatment strongly repressed IL-1β-induced sPLA2 expression at least at the transcriptional level. Our study reveals that phenformin elicited a dose-dependent inhibition of the sPLA2 IIA expression and transient overexpression experiments of constitutively active AMPK demonstrate clearly that AMPK signaling is involved in the transcriptional inhibition of sPLA2-IIA gene expression. Furthermore, although the expression of the transcriptional repressor B-cell lymphoma-6 protein (BCL-6) was markedly enhanced by phenformin and AICAR, the repression of sPLA2 gene occurs through a mechanism independent of BCL-6 DNA binding site. In addition we show that activation of AMPK limits IL-1β-induced NF-κB pathway activation. Our results indicate that BCL-6, once activated by AMPK, functions as a competitor of the IL-1β induced NF-κB transcription complex. Our findings provide insights on a new anti-inflammatory pathway linking phenformin, AMPK and molecular control of sPLA2 IIA gene expression in VSMCs.

  12. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 mass and activity in children with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia and unaffected siblings: effect of pravastatin.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Sung Kee; Hutten, Barbara A; Vissers, Maud N; Wiegman, Albert; Kastelein, John J P; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2011-01-01

    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease and a target of treatment. Lp-PLA(2) levels in children have not been previously reported. The effect of statin therapy on Lp-PLA(2) mass and activity in children with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is also not known. Lp-PLA(2) mass and activity levels were measured at baseline and after 2 years in 178 children with FH randomized to pravastatin or placebo and in 78 unaffected and untreated siblings. At the end of the randomized period, all FH children were then placed on pravastatin for an additional 2 years, and Lp-PLA(2) mass and activity levels were correlated with changes in carotid intima-media thickness during 4 years of follow-up. Baseline levels of Lp-PLA(2) mass and activity were significantly greater in children with FH compared with unaffected siblings (mass: 240.3 ± 41.6 vs 222.1 ± 36.5 ng/mL, P = .002; activity: 205.7 ± 41.6 vs 124.3±23.0 nmol/min/mL, P < .0001). In the randomized FH cohort, after 2 years treatment, Lp-PLA(2) mass (217.8 ± 35.0 vs 231.5 ± 34.8 ng/mL, P = .001) and activity (178.8 ± 37.3 vs 206.2 ± 33.5 nmol/min/mL, P < .0001) were significantly reduced by pravastatin compared with placebo. Change in Lp-PLA(2) activity was related to change in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (pravastatin: r = 0.53, P < .0001, placebo: r = 0.23, P < .001) but change in Lp-PLA(2) mass was not related to change in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Baseline levels of Lp-PLA(2) mass and activity were not significantly associated with carotid intima-media thickness at baseline or at 4 years. Lp-PLA(2) mass and activity are significantly elevated in children with heterozygous FH compared with unaffected siblings and are significantly reduced by pravastatin therapy. Copyright © 2011 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of synthetic sphingosine-1-phosphate analogs on cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha-independent release of arachidonic acid and cell toxicity in L929 fibrosarcoma cells: the structure-activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Masaya; Muramatsu, Yuki; Tada, Eiko; Kurosawa, Takeshi; Yamaura, Erika; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Fujino, Hiromichi; Houjyo, Yuuya; Miyasaka, Yuri; Koide, Yuuki; Nishida, Atsushi; Murayama, Toshihiko

    2009-03-01

    Sphingolipid metabolites including ceramide, sphingosine, and their phosphorylated products [sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and ceramide-1-phosphate] regulate cell functions including arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism and cell death. The development of analogs of S1P may be useful for regulating these mediator-induced cellular responses. We synthesized new analogs of S1P and examined their effects on the release of AA and cell death in L929 mouse fibrosarcoma cells. Among the analogs tested, several compounds including DMB-mC11S [dimethyl (2S,3R)-2-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-3-hydroxy-3-(3'-undecyl)phenylpropyl phosphate] and DMB-mC9S [dimethyl (2S,3R)-2-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-3-hydroxy-3-(3'-nonyl)phenylpropyl phosphate] released AA within 1 h and caused cell death 6 h after treatment. The release of AA was observed in C12 cells [a L929 variant lacking a type alpha cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)alpha)] and L929-cPLAalpha-siRNA cells (L929 cells treated with small interference RNA for cPLA(2)alpha). Treatment with pharmacological inhibitors of secretory and Ca(2+)-independent PLA(2)s decreased the DMB-mC11S-induced release of AA. The effect of the S1P analogs tested on the release of AA was comparable to that on cell death in L929 cells, and a high correlation coefficient was observed. Two analogs lacking a butoxycarbonyl moiety [DMAc-mC11S (dimethyl (2S,3R)-2-acetamino-3-hydroxy-3-(3'-undecyl)phenylpropyl phosphate] and DMAm-mC11S [dimethyl (2S,3R)-2-amino-3-hydroxy-3-(3'-undecyl)phenylpropyl phosphate)] had inhibitory effects on the release of AA and cell toxicity induced by DMB-mC11S. Synthetic phosphorylated lipid analogs may be useful for studying PLA(2) activity and its toxicity in cells. [Supplementary Fig. 1: available only at http://dx.doi.org/10.1254/jphs.08284FP].

  14. Detection and quantification of microparticles from different cellular lineages using flow cytometry. Evaluation of the impact of secreted phospholipase A2 on microparticle assessment.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Matthieu; Belleannee, Clemence; Duchez, Anne-Claire; Cloutier, Nathalie; Levesque, Tania; Jacques, Frederic; Perron, Jean; Nigrovic, Peter A; Dieude, Melanie; Hebert, Marie-Josee; Gelb, Michael H; Boilard, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Microparticles, also called microvesicles, are submicron extracellular vesicles produced by plasma membrane budding and shedding recognized as key actors in numerous physio(patho)logical processes. Since they can be released by virtually any cell lineages and are retrieved in biological fluids, microparticles appear as potent biomarkers. However, the small dimensions of microparticles and soluble factors present in body fluids can considerably impede their quantification. Here, flow cytometry with improved methodology for microparticle resolution was used to detect microparticles of human and mouse species generated from platelets, red blood cells, endothelial cells, apoptotic thymocytes and cells from the male reproductive tract. A family of soluble proteins, the secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2), comprises enzymes concomitantly expressed with microparticles in biological fluids and that catalyze the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids. As sPLA2 can hydrolyze phosphatidylserine, a phospholipid frequently used to assess microparticles, and might even clear microparticles, we further considered the impact of relevant sPLA2 enzymes, sPLA2 group IIA, V and X, on microparticle quantification. We observed that if enriched in fluids, certain sPLA2 enzymes impair the quantification of microparticles depending on the species studied, the source of microparticles and the means of detection employed (surface phosphatidylserine or protein antigen detection). This study provides analytical considerations for appropriate interpretation of microparticle cytofluorometric measurements in biological samples containing sPLA2 enzymes.

  15. Secretory phospholipase A2 activity in blood serum: the challenge to sense.

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, A S; Korotaeva, A A; Samoilova, E V; Volynsky, P E; Vodovozova, E L; Boldyrev, I A

    2014-11-07

    Excess levels of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) is known to contribute to several inflammatory diseases including vascular inflammation correlating with coronary events in coronary artery disease. Thus a method to monitor sPLA2 activity in blood serum is urgently needed. Such method is still a challenge since existing fluorescent probes do not allow to monitor sPLA2 activity directly in blood serum. Here we analyze and overcome barriers in sPLA2 sensing methodology and report a fluorescent probe and a kinetic model of its hydrolysis by sPLA2. New probe is designed with a fluorophore and a quencher not interfering binding to the enzyme. At the same time phospholipid matrix bearing the probe promotes efficient initial quenching of the fluorophore. Kinetic model of probe hydrolysis takes into account signal change due to the side processes. The probe and the kinetic model applied together prove the concept that the activity of sPLA can be measured directly in blood serum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Silibinin down-regulates expression of secreted phospholipase A2 enzymes in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hagelgans, Albert; Nacke, Brit; Zamaraeva, Maria; Siegert, Gabriele; Menschikowski, Mario

    2014-04-01

    Silibinin, a naturally-occurring flavonoid produced by milk thistle, possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cancer-preventive activities. In the current study, we examined the effects of silibinin on the expression of secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) enzymes, especially those of group IIA (hGIIA), which play a crucial role in inflammation and carcinogenesis. The effects of silibinin on sPLA2 expressions in human HepG2 hepatoma and PC-3 prostate cancer cells were analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique. Silibinin inhibited the expression of hGIIA in unstimulated and cytokine-primed HepG2 and PC-3 cells. The mRNA levels of sPLA2 of groups IB, III and V were also significantly decreased by silibinin. Analyses of transcription factor activation suggest that nuclear factor-κB, but not specificity protein 1 (SP1) is implicated in the silibinin-mediated down-regulation of hGIIA. Silibinin exhibits inhibitory effects on basal and cytokine-induced expression of sPLA2s in cancer cells and therefore, may have the potential to protect against up-regulation of hGIIA and other sPLA2 isoforms during inflammation and cancer.

  17. Interaction between nonsynonymous polymorphisms in PLA2G7 gene and smoking on the risk of coronary heart disease in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Chi, Yunpeng; Shi, Conghong; Zhang, Xiaojiang; Xi, Yang

    2018-05-04

    To investigate the impact of PLA2G7 polymorphism, and additional their interactions with smoking and drinking on coronary heart disease (CHD) risk based on Chinese population. GMDR model was used to screen the best gene-smoking and gene-drinking interaction combinations. Logistic regression was performed to investigate association between 4 SNPs and CHD, and the interaction effect between rs1805017 and smoking. For CHD patient-control haplotype analyses, the SHEsis online haplotype analysis software ( http://analysis.bio-x.cn/myAnalysis.php ) was employed. CHD risks were higher in carriers of homozygous mutant of rs1805017 and rs1805018 than those with wild-type homozygotes, OR (95% CI) were 1.45 (1.16-1.92) and 1.51 (1.23-1.97), respectively, but the other two SNPs, rs16874954 and rs1051931 were not significant associated with CHD risks. GMDR analysis indicated that there was a significant two-locus model (p = 0.0107) involving rs1805017 and smoking, indicating a potential gene-environment interaction between rs1805017 and smoking. But we did not found any gene-drinking and gene-gene interaction combinations in GMDR models. The haplotype R-I was observed most frequently in two groups, with 47.43 and 54.38% in the case and control group of the population, respectively. The results also indicated that the haplotype containing the rs1805017-H and rs1805018-T alleles were associated with a statistically increased CHD risk, OR (95% CI) 1.43 (1.10-1.86), p = 0.0021. Polymorphisms in rs1805017 and rs1805018, additional interaction between rs1805017 and smoking, and haplotype containing the rs1805017-H and rs1805018-T alleles were associated with increased CHD risk.

  18. Distinct enzymatic and cellular characteristics of two secretory phospholipases A2 in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Nakahama, Tomoyuki; Nakanishi, Yoshito; Viscomi, Arturo R; Takaya, Kohei; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko; Ottonello, Simone; Arioka, Manabu

    2010-04-01

    Microbial secretory phospholipases A(2) (sPLA(2)s) are among the last discovered and least known members of this functionally diverse family of enzymes. We analyzed here two sPLA(2)s, named sPlaA and sPlaB, of the filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus oryzae. sPlaA and sPlaB consist of 222 and 160 amino acids, respectively, and share the conserved Cys and catalytic His-Asp residues typical of microbial sPLA(2)s. Two sPLA(2)s differ in pH optimum, Ca(2+) requirement and expression profile. The splaA mRNA was strongly upregulated in response to carbon starvation, oxidative stress and during conidiation, while splaB was constitutively expressed at low levels and was weakly upregulated by heat shock. Experiments with sPLA(2) overexpressing strains demonstrated that two enzymes produce subtly different phospholipid composition variations and also differ in their subcellular localization: sPlaA is most abundant in hyphal tips and secreted to the medium, whereas sPlaB predominantly localizes to the ER-like intracellular compartment. Both sPLA(2) overexpressing strains were defective in conidiation, which was more pronounced for sPlaB overexpressors. Although no major morphological abnormality was detected in either DeltasplaA or DeltasplaB mutants, hyphal growth of DeltasplaB, but not that of DeltasplaA, displayed increased sensitivity to H(2)O(2) treatment. These data indicate that two A. oryzae sPLA(2) enzymes display distinct, presumably non-redundant, physiological functions.

  19. Pressure Modulation of the Enzymatic Activity of Phospholipase A2, A Putative Membrane-Associated Pressure Sensor.

    PubMed

    Suladze, Saba; Cinar, Suleyman; Sperlich, Benjamin; Winter, Roland

    2015-10-07

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) catalyze the hydrolysis reaction of sn-2 fatty acids of membrane phospholipids and are also involved in receptor signaling and transcriptional pathways. Here, we used pressure modulation of the PLA2 activity and of the membrane's physical-chemical properties to reveal new mechanistic information about the membrane association and subsequent enzymatic reaction of PLA2. Although the effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on aqueous soluble and integral membrane proteins has been investigated to some extent, its effect on enzymatic reactions operating at the water/lipid interface has not been explored, yet. This study focuses on the effect of HHP on the structure, membrane binding and enzymatic activity of membrane-associated bee venom PLA2, covering a pressure range up to 2 kbar. To this end, high-pressure Fourier-transform infrared and high-pressure stopped-flow fluorescence spectroscopies were applied. The results show that PLA2 binding to model biomembranes is not significantly affected by pressure and occurs in at least two kinetically distinct steps. Followed by fast initial membrane association, structural reorganization of α-helical segments of PLA2 takes place at the lipid water interface. FRET-based activity measurements reveal that pressure has a marked inhibitory effect on the lipid hydrolysis rate, which decreases by 75% upon compression up to 2 kbar. Lipid hydrolysis under extreme environmental conditions, such as those encountered in the deep sea where pressures up to the kbar-level are encountered, is hence markedly affected by HHP, rendering PLA2, next to being a primary osmosensor, a good candidate for a sensitive pressure sensor in vivo.

  20. Targeting of cytosolic phospholipase A2α impedes cell cycle re-entry of quiescent prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yao, Mu; Xie, Chanlu; Kiang, Mei-Yee; Teng, Ying; Harman, David; Tiffen, Jessamy; Wang, Qian; Sved, Paul; Bao, Shisan; Witting, Paul; Holst, Jeff; Dong, Qihan

    2015-10-27

    Cell cycle re-entry of quiescent cancer cells has been proposed to be involved in cancer progression and recurrence. Cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes membrane glycerophospholipids to release arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids that are implicated in cancer cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to determine the role of cPLA2α in cell cycle re-entry of quiescent prostate cancer cells. When PC-3 and LNCaP cells were rendered to a quiescent state, the active form of cPLA2α with a phosphorylation at Ser505 was lower compared to their proliferating state. Conversely, the phospho-cPLA2α levels were resurgent during the induction of cell cycle re-entry. Pharmacological inhibition of cPLA2α with Efipladib upon induction of cell cycle re-entry inhibited the re-entry process, as manifested by refrained DNA synthesis, persistent high proportion of cells in G0/G1 and low percentage of cells in S and G2/M phases, together with a stagnant recovery of Ki-67 expression. Simultaneously, Efipladib prohibited the emergence of Skp2 while maintained p27 at a high level in the nuclear compartment during cell cycle re-entry. Inhibition of cPLA2α also prevented an accumulation of cyclin D1/CDK4, cyclin E/CDK2, phospho-pRb, pre-replicative complex proteins CDC6, MCM7, ORC6 and DNA synthesis-related protein PCNA during induction of cell cycle re-entry. Moreover, a pre-treatment of the prostate cancer cells with Efipladib during induction of cell cycle re-entry subsequently compromised their tumorigenic capacity in vivo. Hence, cPLA2α plays an important role in cell cycle re-entry by quiescent prostate cancer cells.

  1. Auxins action on Glycine max secretory phospholipase A2 is mediated by the interfacial properties imposed by the phytohormones.

    PubMed

    Mariani, María Elisa; Madoery, Ricardo Román; Fidelio, Gerardo Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) are soluble enzymes that catalyze the conversion of phospholipids to lysophospholipids and free fatty acids at membrane interfaces. The effect of IAA and IPA auxins over the activity of recombinant sPLA2 isoforms from Glycine max was studied using membrane model systems including mixed micelles and Langmuir lipid monolayers. Both phytohormones stimulate the activity of both plant sPLA2 using DLPC/Triton mixed micelles as substrate. To elucidate the mechanism of action of the phytohormones, we showed that both auxins are able to self-penetrate lipid monolayers and cause an increment in surface pressure and an expansion of lipid/phytohormone mixed interfaces. The stimulating effect of auxins over phospholipase A2 activity was still present when using Langmuir mixed monolayers as organized substrate regardless of sPLA2 source (plant or animal). All the data suggest that the stimulating effect of auxins over sPLA2 is due to a more favorable interfacial environment rather to a direct effect over the enzyme. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 1-(2-Aminophenyl)-3-arylurea Derivatives as Potential EphA2 and HDAC Dual Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong; Ran, Ting; Chen, Xin; Niu, Jiaqi; Zhao, Shuang; Lu, Tao; Tang, Weifang

    2016-01-01

    A series of 1-(2-aminophenyl)-3-arylurea novel derivatives were synthesized and evaluated against Ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EphA2) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) kinase. Most of the compounds exhibited inhibitory activity against EphA2 and HDAC. The antiproliferative activities were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) (thiazolyl blue, tetrazolium blue) against the human cancer cell lines HCT116, K562 and MCF7. Compounds 5a and b showed the most potent inhibitory activity against EphA2 and HDAC. However, compound 5b exhibited higher potency against HCT116 (IC50=5.29 µM) and MCF7 (IC50=7.42 µM). 1-(2-Aminophenyl)-3-arylurea analogues may serve as new EphA2-HDAC dual inhibitors.

  3. Point of care testing of phospholipase A2 group IIA for serological diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Nathan J.; Chapman, Robert; Lin, Yiyang; Mmesi, Jonas; Bentham, Andrew; Tyreman, Matthew; Abraham, Sonya; Stevens, Molly M.

    2016-02-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (sPLA2-IIA) was examined as a point of care marker for determining disease activity in rheumatoid (RA) and psoriatic (PsA) arthritis. Serum concentration and activity of sPLA2-IIA were measured using in-house antibodies and a novel point of care lateral flow device assay in patients diagnosed with varying severities of RA (n = 30) and PsA (n = 25) and found to correlate strongly with C-reactive protein (CRP). Levels of all markers were elevated in patients with active RA over those with inactive RA as well as both active and inactive PsA, indicating that sPLA2-IIA can be used as an analogue to CRP for RA diagnosis at point of care.Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (sPLA2-IIA) was examined as a point of care marker for determining disease activity in rheumatoid (RA) and psoriatic (PsA) arthritis. Serum concentration and activity of sPLA2-IIA were measured using in-house antibodies and a novel point of care lateral flow device assay in patients diagnosed with varying severities of RA (n = 30) and PsA (n = 25) and found to correlate strongly with C-reactive protein (CRP). Levels of all markers were elevated in patients with active RA over those with inactive RA as well as both active and inactive PsA, indicating that sPLA2-IIA can be used as an analogue to CRP for RA diagnosis at point of care. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08423g

  4. Structure of N-terminal sequence Asp-Ala-Glu-Phe-Arg-His-Asp-Ser of Aβ-peptide with phospholipase A2 from venom of Andaman Cobra sub-species Naja naja sagittifera at 2.0 Å resolution.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Zeenat; Pillai, Vikram Gopalakrishna; Zhong, Wei-Zhu

    2014-03-10

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most significant social and health burdens of the present century. Plaques formed by extracellular deposits of amyloid β (Aβ) are the prime player of AD's neuropathology. Studies have implicated the varied role of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in brain where it contributes to neuronal growth and inflammatory response. Overall contour and chemical nature of the substrate-binding channel in the low molecular weight PLA2s are similar. This study involves the reductionist fragment-based approach to understand the structure adopted by N-terminal fragment of Alzheimer's Aβ peptide in its complex with PLA2. In the current communication, we report the structure determined by X-ray crystallography of N-terminal sequence Asp-Ala-Glu-Phe-Arg-His-Asp-Ser (DAEFRHDS) of Aβ-peptide with a Group I PLA2 purified from venom of Andaman Cobra sub-species Naja naja sagittifera at 2.0 Å resolution (Protein Data Bank (PDB) Code: 3JQ5). This is probably the first attempt to structurally establish interaction between amyloid-β peptide fragment and hydrophobic substrate binding site of PLA2 involving H bond and van der Waals interactions. We speculate that higher affinity between Aβ and PLA2 has the therapeutic potential of decreasing the Aβ-Aβ interaction, thereby reducing the amyloid aggregation and plaque formation in AD.

  5. Biological characterization of the Amazon coral Micrurus spixii snake venom: Isolation of a new neurotoxic phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Terra, Angelo L C; Moreira-Dill, Leandro S; Simões-Silva, Rodrigo; Monteiro, José Roniele N; Cavalcante, Walter L G; Gallacci, Márcia; Barros, Neuza B; Nicolete, Roberto; Teles, Carolina B G; Medeiros, Patrícia S M; Zanchi, Fernando B; Zuliani, Juliana P; Calderon, Leonardo A; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Soares, Andreimar M

    2015-09-01

    The Micrurus genus is the American representative of Elapidae family. Micrurus spixii is endemic of South America and northern states of Brazil. Elapidic venoms contain neurotoxins that promote curare-mimetic neuromuscular blockage. In this study, biochemical and functional characterizations of M. spixii crude venom were performed and a new neurotoxic phospholipase A2 called MsPLA2-I was isolated. M. spixii crude venom caused severe swelling in the legs of tested mice and significant release of creatine kinase (CK) showing its myotoxic activity. Leishmanicidal activity against Leishmania amazonensis (IC50 1.24 μg/mL) was also observed, along with antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum, which are unprecedented for Micrurus venoms. MsPLA2-I with a Mr 12,809.4 Da was isolated from the crude venom of M. spixii. The N-terminal sequencing of a fragment of 60 amino acids showed 80% similarity with another PLA2 from Micrurus altirostris. This toxin and the crude venom showed phospholipase activity. In a mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation, M. spixii venom and MsPLA2-I induced the blockage of both direct and indirect twitches. While the venom presented a pronounced myotoxic activity, MsPLA2-I expressed a summation of neurotoxic activity. The results of this study make M. spixii crude venom promising compounds in the exploration of molecules with microbicidal potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A One Pot Synthesis of Novel Bioactive Tri-Substitute-Condensed-Imidazopyridines that Targets Snake Venom Phospholipase A2

    PubMed Central

    Anilkumar, Nirvanappa C.; Sundaram, Mahalingam S.; Mohan, Chakrabhavi Dhananjaya; Rangappa, Shobith; Bulusu, Krishna C.; Fuchs, Julian E.; Girish, Kesturu S.; Bender, Andreas; Basappa; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S.

    2015-01-01

    Drugs such as necopidem, saripidem, alpidem, zolpidem, and olprinone contain nitrogen-containing bicyclic, condensed-imidazo[1,2-α]pyridines as bioactive scaffolds. In this work, we report a high-yield one pot synthesis of 1-(2-methyl-8-aryl-substitued-imidazo[1,2-α]pyridin-3-yl)ethan-1-onefor the first-time. Subsequently, we performed in silico mode-of-action analysis and predicted that the synthesized imidazopyridines targets Phospholipase A2 (PLA2). In vitro analysis confirmed the predicted target PLA2 for the novel imidazopyridine derivative1-(2-Methyl-8-naphthalen-1-yl-imidazo [1,2-α]pyridine-3-yl)-ethanone (compound 3f) showing significant inhibitory activity towards snake venom PLA2 with an IC50 value of 14.3 μM. Evidently, the molecular docking analysis suggested that imidazopyridine compound was able to bind to the active site of the PLA2 with strong affinity, whose affinity values are comparable to nimesulide. Furthermore, we estimated the potential for oral bioavailability by Lipinski's Rule of Five. Hence, it is concluded that the compound 3f could be a lead molecule against snake venom PLA2. PMID:26196520

  7. Mechanisms involved in hemoglobin-mediated oxidation of lipids in washed fish muscle and inhibitory effects of phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Tatiyaborworntham, Nantawat; Richards, Mark P

    2018-05-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) is a lipid oxidation promoter in fish muscle. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2; EC 3.1.1.4) is linked to an increased resistance to lipid oxidation of frozen-thawed cod fillets via an unknown mechanism. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism of Hb-mediated lipid oxidation with a focus on ferryl Hb and methemoglobin (metHb), the pro-oxidative Hb species, and to examine how porcine pancreatic PLA2 inhibits Hb-mediated lipid oxidation in washed cod muscle (WCM). Lipid hydroperoxides (LOOHs) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured as primary and secondary lipid oxidation products, respectively. The formation of metHb and ferryl Hb was also monitored. Ferryl Hb and metHb formed during the Hb-mediated lipid oxidation. PLA2 inhibited the formation of LOOHs and TBARS and suppressed the formation of metHb and ferryl Hb. WCM was pre-oxidized by hemin to increase the amount of LOOHs. PLA2 promoted the depletion of LOOHs in the pre-oxidized WCM with limited TBARS formation at the expense of the heme moiety of Hb. The results of the present study suggest that ferryl Hb may play a role in Hb-mediated lipid oxidation and that PLA2 from pig pancreas may work together with Hb as a novel antioxidant with an ability to remove pre-formed LOOHs from a lipid substrate. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. The Sam-Sam interaction between Ship2 and the EphA2 receptor: design and analysis of peptide inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Flavia Anna; Di Natale, Concetta; Pirone, Luciano; Iannitti, Roberta; Marasco, Daniela; Pedone, Emilia Maria; Palumbo, Rosanna; Leone, Marilisa

    2017-12-12

    The lipid phosphatase Ship2 represents a drug discovery target for the treatment of different diseases, including cancer. Its C-terminal sterile alpha motif domain (Ship2-Sam) associates with the Sam domain from the EphA2 receptor (EphA2-Sam). This interaction is expected to mainly induce pro-oncogenic effects in cells therefore, inhibition of the Ship2-Sam/EphA2-Sam complex may represent an innovative route to discover anti-cancer therapeutics. In the present work, we designed and analyzed several peptide sequences encompassing the interaction interface of EphA2-Sam for Ship2-Sam. Peptide conformational analyses and interaction assays with Ship2-Sam conducted through diverse techniques (CD, NMR, SPR and MST), identified a positively charged penta-amino acid native motif in EphA2-Sam, that once repeated three times in tandem, binds Ship2-Sam. NMR experiments show that the peptide targets the negatively charged binding site of Ship2-Sam for EphA2-Sam. Preliminary in vitro cell-based assays indicate that -at 50 µM concentration- it induces necrosis of PC-3 prostate cancer cells with more cytotoxic effect on cancer cells than on normal dermal fibroblasts. This work represents a pioneering study that opens further opportunities for the development of inhibitors of the Ship2-Sam/EphA2-Sam complex for therapeutic applications.

  9. A MIDGUT DIGESTIVE PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 IN LARVAL MOSQUITOES, AEDES ALBOPICTUS AND CULEX QUINQUEFASCIATUS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is a secretory digestive enzyme that hydrolyzes ester bond at sn-2 position of dietary phospholipids, creating free fatty acid and lysophopholipid. The free fatty acids (arachidonic acid) are absorbed into midgut cells. Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus digestive PL...

  10. Differential susceptibility of C2C12 myoblasts and myotubes to group II phospholipase A2 myotoxins from crotalid snake venoms.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Yamileth; Lomonte, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    Group II phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) myotoxins isolated from Viperidae/Crotalidae snake venoms induce a rapid cytolytic effect upon diverse cell types in vitro. Previous studies suggested that this effect could be more pronounced on skeletal muscle myotubes than on other cell types, including undifferentiated myoblasts. This study utilized the murine skeletal muscle C2C12 cell line to investigate whether differentiated myotubes are more susceptible than myoblasts, and if this characteristic is specific for the group II myotoxic PLA(2)s. The release of lactic dehydrogenase was quantified as a measure of cytolysis, 3 h after cell exposure to different group II PLA(2)s purified from Bothrops asper, Atropoides nummifer, Cerrophidion godmani, and Bothriechis schlegelii venoms. In addition, susceptibility to lysis induced by synthetic melittin and group III PLA(2) from bee (Apis mellifera) venom, as well as by anionic, cationic, and neutral detergents, was comparatively evaluated on the two cultures. Myotubes were significantly more susceptible to group II PLA(2) myotoxins, but not to the other agents tested, under the same conditions. Moreover, the increased susceptibility of myotubes over myoblasts was also demonstrated with two cytolytic synthetic peptides, derived from the C-terminal region of Lys49 PLA(2) myotoxins, that reproduce the action of their parent proteins. These results indicate that fusion and differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes induce changes that render these cells more susceptible to the toxic mechanism of group II PLA(2) myotoxins, but not to general perturbations of membrane homeostasis. Such changes are likely to involve myotoxin acceptor site(s), which remain(s) to be identified.

  11. Inhibition of Group IIA Secretory Phospholipase A2 and its Inflammatory Reactions in Mice by Ethanolic Extract of Andrographis paniculata, a Well-known Medicinal Food

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, V.; Yarla, N. S.; Zameer, F.; Nagendra Prasad, M. N.; Santosh, M. S.; More, S. S.; Rao, D. G.; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2016-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata Nees is an important medicinal plant found in the tropical regions of the world, which has been traditionally used in Indian and Chinese medicinal systems. It is also used as medicinal food. A. paniculata is found to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities; however, its inhibitory potential on inflammatory Group IIA phospholipases A2 (PLA2) and its associated inflammatory reactions are not clearly understood. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the inhibitory/neutralizing potential of ethanolic extract of A. paniculata on the isolated inflammatory PLA2 (VRV-PL-VIIIa) from Daboii rusellii pulchella (belonging to Group IIA inflammatory secretory PLA2 [sPLA2]) and its associated edema-induced activities in Swiss albino mice. A. paniculata extract dose dependently inhibited the Group IIA sPLA2 enzymatic activity with an IC50 value of 10.3 ± 0.5 μg/ml. Further, the extract dose dependently inhibited the edema formation, when co-injected with enzyme indicating that a strong correlation exists between lipolytic and pro-inflammatory activities of the enzyme. In conclusion, results of this study shows that the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata effectively inhibits Group IIA sPLA2 and its associated inflammatory activities, which substantiate its anti-inflammatory properties. The results of the present study warranted further studies to develop bioactive compound (s) in ethanolic extract of A. paniculata as potent therapeutic agent (s) for inflammatory diseases. SUMMARY This study emphasis the anti-inflammatory effect of A. paniculata by inhibiting the inflammatory Group IIA sPLA2 and its associated inflammatory activities such as edema. It was found that there is a strong correlation between lipolytic activity and pro-inflammatory activity inhibition. Therefore, the study suggests that the extract processes potent anti-inflammatory agents, which could be developed as a potential therapeutic agent against inflammatory and related diseases

  12. Endothelial Dysfunction in Children With Obstructive Sleep Apnea Is Associated With Elevated Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 Plasma Activity Levels.

    PubMed

    Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Philby, Mona F; Qiao, Zhuanghong; Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Gozal, David

    2017-02-09

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent condition, especially in obese children, and has been associated with increased risk for endothelial dysfunction and dislipidemia, which are precursors of atherosclerosis. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular risk and atheromatous plaque activity. We hypothesized that Lp-PLA2 levels would be elevated in children with OSA, particularly among obese children who also manifest evidence of endothelial dysfunction. One hundred sixty children (mean age 7.1±2.3 years), either nonobese with (n=40) and without OSA (n=40) or obese with (n=40) and without OSA (n=40) underwent overnight polysomnographic and postocclusive reperfusion evaluation and a fasting blood draw the morning after the sleep study. In addition to lipid profile, Lp-PLA2 plasma activity was assessed using a commercial kit. Obese children and OSA children had significantly elevated plasma Lp-PLA2 activity levels compared to controls. Furthermore, when both obesity and OSA were concurrently present or when endothelial function was present, Lp-PLA2 activity was higher. Treatment of OSA by adenotonsillectomy resulted in reductions of Lp-PLA2 activity (n=37; P <0.001). Lp-PLA2 plasma activity is increased in pediatric OSA and obesity, particularly when endothelial dysfunction is present, and exhibits decreases on OSA treatment. The short-term and long-term significance of these findings in relation to cardiovascular risk remain undefined. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  13. Kinetic characterization, optimum conditions for catalysis and substrate preference of secretory phospholipase A2 from Glycine max in model membrane systems.

    PubMed

    Mariani, María Elisa; Madoery, Ricardo Román; Fidelio, Gerardo Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Two secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2s) from Glycine max, GmsPLA2-IXA-1 and GmsPLA2-XIB-2, have been purified as recombinant proteins and the activity was evaluated in order to obtain the optimum conditions for catalysis using mixed micelles and lipid monolayers as substrate. Both sPLA2s showed a maximum enzyme activity at pH 7 and a requirement of Ca(2+) in the micromolar range. These parameters were similar to those found for animal sPLA2s but a surprising optimum temperature for catalysis at 60 °C was observed. The effect of negative interfacial charges on the hydrolysis of organized substrates was evaluated through initial rate measurements using short chain phospholipids with different head groups. The enzymes showed subtle differences in the specificity for phospholipids with different head groups (DLPC, DLPG, DLPE, DLPA) in presence or absence of NaCl. Both recombinant enzymes showed lower activity toward anionic phospholipids and a preference for the zwitterionic ones. The values of the apparent kinetic parameters (Vmax and KM) demonstrated that these enzymes have more affinity for phosphatidylcholine compared with phosphatidylglycerol, in contrast with the results observed for pancreatic sPLA2. A hopping mode of catalysis was proposed for the action of these sPLA2 on mixed phospholipid/triton micelles. On the other hand, Langmuir-monolayers assays indicated an optimum lateral surface pressure for activity in between 13 and 16 mN/m for both recombinant enzymes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and Société française de biochimie et biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  14. Structural determinants of the hyperalgesic activity of myotoxic Lys49-phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Zambelli, Vanessa Olzon; Chioato, Lucimara; Gutierrez, Vanessa Pacciari; Ward, Richard John; Cury, Yara

    2017-01-01

    Bothropstoxin-I (BthTx-I) is a Lys49-phospholipase A 2 (Lys49-PLA 2 ) from the venom of Bothrops jararacussu, which despite of the lack of catalytic activity induces myotoxicity, inflammation and pain. The C-terminal region of the Lys49-PLA 2 s is important for these effects; however, the amino acid residues that determine hyperalgesia and edema are unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the structural determinants for the Lys49-PLA 2 -induced nociception and inflammation. Scanning alanine mutagenesis in the active-site and C-terminal regions of BthTx-I has been used to study the structural determinants of toxin activities. The R118A mutant was employed as this substitution decreases PLA 2 myotoxicity. In addition, K115A and K116A mutants - which contribute to decrease cytotoxicity - and the K122A mutant - which decreases both myotoxicity and cytotoxicity - were also used. The H48Q mutant - which does not interfere with membrane damage or myotoxic activity - was used to evaluate if the PLA 2 catalytic site is relevant for the non-catalytic PLA 2 -induced pain and inflammation. Wistar male rats received intraplantar injections with mutant PLA 2 . Subsequently, hyperalgesia and edema were evaluated by the paw pressure test and by a plethysmometer. Native and recombinant BthTx-I were used as controls. Native and recombinant BthTx-I induced hyperalgesia and edema, which peaked at 2 h. The R118A mutant did not induce nociception or edema. The mutations K115A and K116A abolished hyperalgesia without interfering with edema. Finally, the K122A mutant did not induce hyperalgesia and presented a decreased inflammatory response. The results obtained with the BthTx-I mutants suggest, for the first time, that there are distinct residues responsible for the hyperalgesia and edema induced by BthTx-I. In addition, we also showed that cytolytic activity is essential for the hyperalgesic effect but not for edematogenic activity, corroborating previous data showing that

  15. [Modalities of use of ceritinib (Zykadia™), a 2nd generation ALK inhibitor, in advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Giroux Leprieur, Etienne; Fallet, Vincent; Wislez, Marie

    2015-12-01

    Around 4% of advanced non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) harbor a ALK rearrangement, with high sensitivity to ALK inhibitor as crizotinib. However, the vast majority of these tumors end with a tumor progression after several months of treatment with crizotinib. Ceritinib is a 2nd generation ALK inhibitor, which showed high efficiency in NSCLC with ALK rearrangement. Results from phase I trial showed a response rate at 58% in these tumors, with a similar rate for previously crizotinib-treated patients or crizotinib-naïve patients. Moreover, cerebral responses were observed with ceritinib. Preliminary date from a phase 2 trial confirmed these results. These promising results allowed a European marketing authorization (autorisation de mise sur le marché [AMM]) since May 2015 for the treatment of advanced NSCLC with ALK rearrangement and resistance or intolerance to crizotinib. Copyright © 2015 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. THAP5 is a human cardiac-specific inhibitor of cell cycle that is cleaved by the proapoptotic Omi/HtrA2 protease during cell death.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Meenakshi P; Cilenti, Lucia; Mashak, Zineb; Popat, Paiyal; Alnemri, Emad S; Zervos, Antonis S

    2009-08-01

    Omi/HtrA2 is a mitochondrial serine protease that has a dual function: while confined in the mitochondria, it promotes cell survival, but when released into the cytoplasm, it participates in caspase-dependent as well as caspase-independent cell death. To investigate the mechanism of Omi/HtrA2's function, we set out to isolate and characterize novel substrates for this protease. We have identified Thanatos-associated protein 5 (THAP5) as a specific interactor and substrate of Omi/HtrA2 in cells undergoing apoptosis. This protein is an uncharacterized member of the THAP family of proteins. THAP5 has a unique pattern of expression and is found predominantly in the human heart, although a very low expression is also seen in the human brain and muscle. THAP5 protein is localized in the nucleus and, when ectopically expressed, induces cell cycle arrest. During apoptosis, THAP5 protein is degraded, and this process can be blocked using a specific Omi/HtrA2 inhibitor, leading to reduced cell death. In patients with coronary artery disease, THAP5 protein levels substantially decrease in the myocardial infarction area, suggesting a potential role of this protein in human heart disease. This work identifies human THAP5 as a cardiac-specific nuclear protein that controls cell cycle progression. Furthermore, during apoptosis, THAP5 is cleaved and removed by the proapoptotic Omi/HtrA2 protease. Taken together, we provide evidence to support that THAP5 and its regulation by Omi/HtrA2 provide a new link between cell cycle control and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes.

  17. Inherited human group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 deficiency abolishes platelet, endothelial, and leucocyte eicosanoid generation

    PubMed Central

    Kirkby, Nicholas S.; Reed, Daniel M.; Edin, Matthew L.; Rauzi, Francesca; Mataragka, Stefania; Vojnovic, Ivana; Bishop-Bailey, David; Milne, Ginger L.; Longhurst, Hilary; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Mitchell, Jane A.; Warner, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Eicosanoids are important vascular regulators, but the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isoforms supporting their production within the cardiovascular system are not fully understood. To address this, we have studied platelets, endothelial cells, and leukocytes from 2 siblings with a homozygous loss-of-function mutation in group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α). Chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine levels of a broad range of eicosanoids produced by isolated vascular cells, and in plasma and urine. Eicosanoid release data were paired with studies of cellular function. Absence of cPLA2α almost abolished eicosanoid synthesis in platelets (e.g., thromboxane A2, control 20.5 ± 1.4 ng/ml vs. patient 0.1 ng/ml) and leukocytes [e.g., prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), control 21.9 ± 7.4 ng/ml vs. patient 1.9 ng/ml], and this was associated with impaired platelet activation and enhanced inflammatory responses. cPLA2α-deficient endothelial cells showed reduced, but not absent, formation of prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin; control 956 ± 422 pg/ml vs. patient 196 pg/ml) and were primed for inflammation. In the urine, prostaglandin metabolites were selectively influenced by cPLA2α deficiency. For example, prostacyclin metabolites were strongly reduced (18.4% of control) in patients lacking cPLA2α, whereas PGE2 metabolites (77.8% of control) were similar to healthy volunteer levels. These studies constitute a definitive account, demonstrating the fundamental role of cPLA2α to eicosanoid formation and cellular responses within the human circulation.—Kirkby, N. S., Reed, D. M., Edin, M. L., Rauzi, F., Mataragka, S., Vojnovic, I., Bishop-Bailey, D., Milne, G. L., Longhurst, H., Zeldin, D. C., Mitchell, J. A., Warner, T. D. Inherited human group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 deficiency abolishes platelet, endothelial, and leucocyte eicosanoid generation. PMID:26183771

  18. Bee venom phospholipase A2 induces a primary type 2 response that is dependent on the receptor ST2 and confers protective immunity

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Noah W.; Rosenstein, Rachel K.; Yu, Shuang; Schenten, Dominik; Florsheim, Esther; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Venoms consist of toxic components that are delivered to their victims via bites or stings. Venoms also represent a major class of allergens in humans. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is a conserved component of venoms from multiple species and is the major allergen in bee venom. Here we examined how bee venom PLA2 is sensed by the innate immune system and induces a type 2 immune response in mice. We found that bee venom PLA2 induced a T helper type 2 (Th2) cell-type response and group 2 innate lymphoid cell activation via the enzymatic cleavage of membrane phospholipids and release of interleukin-33. Furthermore, we showed that the IgE response to PLA2 could protect mice from future challenge with a near-lethal dose of PLA2. These data suggest that the innate immune system can detect the activity of a conserved component of venoms and induce a protective immune response against a venom toxin. PMID:24210353

  19. Structure of a Premicellar Complex of Alkyl Sulfates with the Interfacial Binding Surfaces of 4 Subunits of Phospholipase A2

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ying H.; Bahnson, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    The properties of three discrete premicellar complexes (E1#, E2#, E3#) of pig pancreatic group-IB secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) with monodisperse alkyl sulfates has been characterized [Berg, O. G., et al., Biochemistry 43, 7999–8013, 2004]. Here we have solved the 2.7 Å crystal structure of group-IB sPLA2 complexed with 12 molecules of octyl sulfate (C8S) in a form consistent with a tetrameric oligomeric that exists during the E1# phase of premicellar complexes. The alkyl tails of the C8S molecules are centered in the middle of the tetrameric cluster of sPLA2 subunits. Three of the four sPLA2 subunits also contain a C8S molecule in the active site pocket. The sulfate oxygen of a C8S ligand is complexed to the active site calcium in 3 of the 4 protein active sites. The interactions of the alkyl sulfate head group with Arg-6 and Lys-10, as well as the backbone amide of Met-20, are analogous to those observed in the previously solved sPLA2 crystal structures with bound phosphate and sulfate anions. The cluster of three anions found in the present structure is postulated to be the site for nucleating the binding of anionic amphiphiles to the interfacial surface of the protein, and therefore this binding interaction has implications for interfacial activation of the enzyme. PMID:20302975

  20. Emergence of a metalloproteinase / phospholipase A2 axis of systemic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Patron, Carlos; Leung, Dickson

    2015-01-01

    We review select aspects of the biology of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) with a focus on the modulation of inflammatory responses by MMP-2. MMP-2 is a zinc- and calcium-dependent endoprotease with substrates including extracellular matrix proteins, vasoactive peptides and chemokines. Humans and mice with MMP-2 deficiency exhibit a predominantly inflammatory phenotype. Recent research shows that MMP-2 deficient mice display elevated activity of a secreted phospholipase A2 in the heart. Additionally, MMP-2 deficient mice exhibit abnormally high prostaglandin E2 levels in various organs (i.e., the heart, brain and liver), signs of inflammation and exacerbated lipopolysaccharide-induced fever. We briefly review the biology of sPLA2 enzymes to propose the existence of a heart-centric MMP-2/sPLA2 axis of systemic inflammation. Moreover, we postulate that PLA2 activation is induced by chemokines, whose ability to signal inflammation is regulated in a tissue-specific fashion by MMPs. Thus, genetic and pharmacologically induced MMP-deficiencies can be expected to perturb PLA2-mediated inflammatory mechanisms. PMID:26491703

  1. Predominant Role of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2α in Dioxin-induced Neonatal Hydronephrosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, Wataru; Kawaguchi, Tatsuya; Fujisawa, Nozomi; Aida-Yasuoka, Keiko; Shimizu, Takao; Matsumura, Fumio; Tohyama, Chiharu

    2014-01-01

    Hydronephrosis is a common disease characterized by dilation of the renal pelvis and calices, resulting in loss of kidney function in the most severe cases. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces nonobstructive hydronephrosis in mouse neonates through upregulation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis pathway consisting of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) by a yet unknown mechanism. We here studied possible involvement of cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) in this mechanism. To this end, we used a cPLA2α-null mouse model and found that cPLA2α has a significant role in the upregulation of the PGE2 synthesis pathway through a noncanonical pathway of aryl hydrocarbon receptor. This study is the first to demonstrate the predominant role of cPLA2α in hydronephrosis. Elucidation of the pathway leading to the onset of hydronephrosis using the TCDD-exposed mouse model will deepen our understanding of the molecular basis of nonobstructive hydronephrosis in humans. PMID:24509627

  2. Lipoprotein profile, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and cardiovascular risk in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Rolla, Roberta; De Mauri, Andreana; Valsesia, Ambra; Vidali, Matteo; Chiarinotti, Doriana; Bellomo, Giorgio

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients; the increased risk of cardiovascular disease is due to accelerated atherosclerosis, inflammation and impaired lipoprotein metabolism. We aimed to evaluate lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) and some pro-inflammatory aspects of the lipoprotein profile in dialyzed patients in order to evaluate the relationship with the accelerated atherosclerosis and vascular accidents. In 102 dialysis patients and 40 non-uremic controls, we investigated the lipoprotein plasma profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), ceruloplasmin and serum amyloid A protein (SAA), and followed patients for 1 year to analyze the risk of acute cardiovascular events. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein plasma levels were significantly lower in uremic patients than controls, whereas CRP, SAA, ceruloplasmin, Lp-PLA2 and their ratio with apolipoprotein A1 were significantly higher. Patients with Lp-PLA2 levels >194 nmol/min/ml had more acute cardiovascular events than patients with lower values. Our results show that in dialysis subjects: (1) low-density lipoproteins show a more atherogenic phenotype than in the general population; (2) high-density lipoproteins are less anti-inflammatory; (3) Lp-PLA2 could potentially be used to evaluate cardiovascular risk.

  3. Biochemical Characterization, Action on Macrophages, and Superoxide Anion Production of Four Basic Phospholipases A2 from Panamanian Bothrops asper Snake Venom

    PubMed Central

    Rueda, Aristides Quintero; Rodríguez, Isela González; Arantes, Eliane C.; Setúbal, Sulamita S.; Calderon, Leonardo de A.; Zuliani, Juliana P.; Stábeli, Rodrigo G.; Soares, Andreimar M.

    2013-01-01

    Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae) is the most important venomous snake in Central America, being responsible for the majority of snakebite accidents. Four basic PLA2s (pMTX-I to -IV) were purified from crude venom by a single-step chromatography using a CM-Sepharose ion-exchange column (1.5 × 15 cm). Analysis of the N-terminal sequence demonstrated that pMTX-I and III belong to the catalytically active Asp49 phospholipase A2 subclass, whereas pMTX-II and IV belong to the enzymatically inactive Lys49 PLA2s-like subclass. The PLA2s isolated from Panama Bothrops asper venom (pMTX-I, II, III, and IV) are able to induce myotoxic activity, inflammatory reaction mainly leukocyte migration to the muscle, and induce J774A.1 macrophages activation to start phagocytic activity and superoxide production. PMID:23509779

  4. [In vitro examination of the influence of lipase and amylase on dog's pancreas tissue incubated with endotoxins, phospholipase A2 or cytokines].

    PubMed

    Kerekes, László; Antal-Szalmás, Péter; Dezso, Balázs; Sipka, Sándor; Furka, Andrea; Mikó, Irén; Sápy, Péter

    2005-04-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines are elevated during acute pancreatitis. The endotoxins and Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) also have important role in acute pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to determine, what factors are responsible for the tissue damage in acute pancreatitis. The examinations were performed on fixed and frozen sections of healthy dog's pancreas tissue. Direct effects of endotoxins, PLA2, and proinflammatory cytokines together with pancreas enzymes were examined on pancreatic tissue. Pancreas enzymes themselves did not cause any change in the structure of pancreas. The common influence of endotoxins, PLA2 and pancreas enzymes was examined, and finally the effect of proinflammatory cytokines and enzymes was examined on pancreas tissue. Our results show, that besides enzymes many other factors are necessary to inflict tissue damage in acute pancreatitis, but for necrosis the presence of TNF alfa is a must.

  5. Deposition of lipid, protein, and secretory phospholipase A2 on hydrophilic contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Hiroshi; Yamada, Masakazu; Hatou, Shin; Kawashima, Motoko; Hata, Seiichiro

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that low tear phospholipid levels are associated with tear film instability in hydrophilic contact lens wearers. The concentration of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), the enzyme that hydrolyzes phospholipids, in tears is known to exceed the levels found in serum by four orders of magnitude. This study was performed to determine the levels of sPLA2 from the deposition on two different frequent-replacement contact lens materials. Polymacon and etafilcon A contact lenses worn for 2 weeks by 16 experienced contact lens wearers were used for the analysis. Total lipids were determined by the sulfo-phospho-vanillin reaction. Phospholipids in lipid extracts were estimated by phosphorus determination with ammonium molybdate through enzymatic digestion. Total protein was measured by bicinchoninic acid analysis. Double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine sPLA2 concentrations. Total lipid deposition was found to be greater in the polymacon group (66.3+/-16.3 microg/lens) than in the etafilcon A group, although phospholipids were not detected in either group. The etafilcon A group had greater deposition of protein (3.7+/-0.7 mg/lens) than the polymacon group had. The etafilcon A group deposited statistically significantly more group IIa sPLA2 (1.1+/-0.3 microg/lens) than the polymacon group (0.07+/-0.04 microg/lens) did (P<0.001). There was a significant difference in the lipid and protein deposition profiles in the two lenses tested. A significant amount of sPLA2 in the deposition on contact lenses may play a role in tear film instability in hydrophilic contact lens wearers.

  6. Phospholipases A2 isolated from Micrurus lemniscatus coral snake venom: behavioral, electroencephalographic, and neuropathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, D A; Harasawa, C; Seibert, C S; Casais e Silva, L L; Pimenta, D C; Lebrun, I; Sandoval, M R L

    2008-03-28

    The present study evaluated four phospholipase A2 (PLA2) (Mlx-8, Mlx-9, Mlx-11 and Mlx-12) isolated from Micrurus lemniscatus snake venom (Elapidae). The effects of intrahippocampal administration of these toxins have been determined on behavior, electroencephalography, and neuronal degeneration in rats. These four PLA2 toxins induced motor and EEG alterations in a dose-dependent manner. Behavioral convulsions were characterized by clonic movements and were often accompanied by EEG alterations. Mlx toxins were convulsive but weakly epileptogenic, since low rates of seizure discharges were observed in EEG records. Neuronal injury seemed to depend on the dose of the toxin used. The highest doses of toxins caused severe intoxication and death of some animals. The injury of hippocampal cells was characterized by massive neuronal loss and hippocampal gliosis. A high occurrence of compulsive scratching was observed. Moreover, the onset of seizures induced by Mlx toxins was markedly delayed. The similarities between the effects of Mlx PLA2s and those isolated from other Elapidae snakes venoms suggest that their toxicity are probably due to their specific binding to neuronal membranes and to the catalysis of phospholipid hydrolysis, producing lysophospholipids and fatty acids. These compounds likely disturb the membrane conformation, causing a marked increase in the release of neurotransmitters and concurrent inhibition of vesicle fission and recycling. These toxins can be a useful tool to investigate properties of endogenous secretory PLA2s and therefore may be important both to study mechanisms involved in neurotransmitter release at nerve terminals and to explain the convulsive properties of PLA2s toxins.

  7. Lemnitoxin, the major component of Micrurus lemniscatus coral snake venom, is a myotoxic and pro-inflammatory phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Casais-E-Silva, Luciana L; Teixeira, Catarina F P; Lebrun, Ivo; Lomonte, Bruno; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Gutiérrez, José María

    2016-08-22

    The venom of Micrurus lemniscatus, a coral snake of wide geographical distribution in South America, was fractionated by reverse-phase HPLC and the fractions screened for phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity. The major component of the venom, a PLA2, here referred to as 'Lemnitoxin', was isolated and characterized biochemically and toxicologically. It induces myotoxicity upon intramuscular or intravenous injection into mice. The amino acid residues Arg15, Ala100, Asn108, and a hydrophobic residue at position 109, which are characteristic of myotoxic class I phospholipases A2, are present in Lemnitoxin. This PLA2 is antigenically related to M. nigrocinctus nigroxin, Notechis scutatus notexin, Pseudechis australis mulgotoxin, and Pseudonaja textilis textilotoxin, as demonstrated with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Lemnitoxin is highly selective in its targeting of cells, being cytotoxic for differentiated myotubes in vitro and muscle fibers in vivo, but not for undifferentiated myoblasts or endothelial cells. Lemnitoxin is not lethal after intravenous injection at doses up to 2μg/g in mice, evidencing its lack of significant neurotoxicity. Lemnitoxin displays anticoagulant effect on human plasma and proinflammatory activity also, as it induces paw edema and mast cell degranulation. Thus, the results of this work demonstrate that Lemnitoxin is a potent myotoxic and proinflammatory class I PLA2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Probing phospholipase a(2) with fluorescent phospholipid substrates.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Oliver; Gelb, Michael H; Schultz, Carsten

    2007-09-03

    The Foerster resonance energy transfer-based sensor, PENN, measures intracellular phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activity in living cells and small organisms. In an attempt to modify the probe for the detection of particular isoforms, we altered the sn-2 fatty acid in such a way that either one or three of the Z double bonds in arachidonic acid were present in the sensor molecule. Arachidonic-acid-mimicking fatty acids were prepared by copper-mediated coupling reactions. Probes with a single double bond in the 5-position exhibited favorable substrate properties for secretory PLA(2)s. In vitro experiments with the novel unsaturated doubly labeled phosphatidylethanolamine derivatives showed preferred cleavage of the sensor PENN2 (one double bond) by the physiologically important group V sPLA(2), while the O-methyl-derivative PMNN2 was accepted best by the isoform from hog pancreas. For experiments in living cells, we demonstrated that bioactivation via S-acetylthioethyl (SATE) groups is essential for probe performance. Surprisingly, membrane-permeant versions of the new sensors that contained double bonds, PENN2 and PENN3, were only cleaved to a minor extent in HeLa cells while the saturated form, PENN, was well accepted.

  9. Mitochondria-localized phospholipase A2, AoPlaA, in Aspergillus oryzae displays phosphatidylethanolamine-specific activity and is involved in the maintenance of mitochondrial phospholipid composition.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Shohei; Izawa, Sho; Komai, Noriyuki; Takayanagi, Ayumi; Arioka, Manabu

    2016-11-01

    In mammals, cytosolic phospholipases A 2 (cPLA 2 s) play important physiological roles by releasing arachidonic acid, a precursor for bioactive lipid mediators, from the biological membranes. In contrast, fungal cPLA 2 -like proteins are much less characterized and their roles have remained elusive. AoPlaA is a cPLA 2 -like protein in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae which, unlike mammalian cPLA 2 , localizes to mitochondria. In this study, we investigated the biochemical and physiological functions of AoPlaA. Recombinant AoPlaA produced in E. coli displayed Ca 2+ -independent lipolytic activity. Mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that AoPlaA displayed PLA 2 activity to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), but not to other phospholipids, and generated 1-acylated lysoPE. Catalytic site mutants of AoPlaA displayed almost no or largely reduced activity to PE. Consistent with PE-specific activity of AoPlaA, AoplaA-overexpressing strain showed decreased PE content in the mitochondrial fraction. In contrast, AoplaA-disruption strain displayed increased content of cardiolipin. AoplaA-overexpressing strain, but not its counterparts overexpressing the catalytic site mutants, exhibited retarded growth at low temperature, possibly because of the impairment of the mitochondrial function caused by excess degradation of PE. These results suggest that AoPlaA is a novel PE-specific PLA 2 that plays a regulatory role in the maintenance of mitochondrial phospholipid composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical features, course and prognosis of idiopathic membranous nephropathy depending on the presence of antibodies against M-type phospholipase A2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Jatem Escalante, Elías; Segarra Medrano, Alfons; Carnicer Cáceres, Clara; Martín-Gómez, M Adoración; Salcedo Allende, María Teresa; Ostos Roldan, Helena; Agraz Pamplona, Irene

    2015-01-01

    In membranous nephropathy, the presence of antibodies against M-type phospholipase A2 receptor is considered highly specific for idiopathic forms. However, no specific association to a particular clinical profile has been found for such antibodies. To assess potential differences in initial clinical profile, course and prognosis of idiopathic membranous nephropathy depending on the presence of anti-PLA2R antibodies. Eighty-five patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy were included (55 anti-PLA2R-positive and 30 anti-PLA2R-negative). Clinical, biochemical and pathological variables were recorded at the time of diagnosis. Frequency of spontaneous remission, incidence of response to first-line therapy, frequency and number of recurrences, survival of renal function free from renal replacement therapy, survival of renal function free from chronic renal insufficiency and frequency of occurrence of malignant, infectious or autoimmune diseases during follow-up were recorded. At the time of diagnosis, anti-PLA2R-negative patients were significantly older and had a higher frequency of spontaneous remission. No differences were noted in the response to first-line treatment, frequency and number of recurrences, survival of renal function free from renal replacement therapy, or survival of renal function free from chronic renal insufficiency. Anti-PLA2R-negative patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy were older and experienced spontaneous remission more often than anti-PLA2R-positive patients. No differences in terms of treatment response, recurrences, and final prognosis were observed between both groups of patients. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Lipid droplets induced by secreted phospholipase A2 and unsaturated fatty acids protect breast cancer cells from nutrient and lipotoxic stress.

    PubMed

    Jarc, Eva; Kump, Ana; Malavašič, Petra; Eichmann, Thomas O; Zimmermann, Robert; Petan, Toni

    2018-03-01

    Cancer cells driven by the Ras oncogene scavenge unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) from their environment to counter nutrient stress. The human group X secreted phospholipase A 2 (hGX sPLA 2 ) releases FAs from membrane phospholipids, stimulates lipid droplet (LD) biogenesis in Ras-driven triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells and enables their survival during starvation. Here we examined the role of LDs, induced by hGX sPLA 2 and unsaturated FAs, in protection of TNBC cells against nutrient stress. We found that hGX sPLA 2 releases a mixture of unsaturated FAs, including ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), from TNBC cells. Starvation-induced breakdown of LDs induced by low micromolar concentrations of unsaturated FAs, including PUFAs, was associated with protection from cell death. Interestingly, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) contributed to LD breakdown during starvation, but it was not required for the pro-survival effects of hGX sPLA 2 and unsaturated FAs. High micromolar concentrations of PUFAs, but not OA, induced oxidative stress-dependent cell death in TNBC cells. Inhibition of triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis suppressed LD biogenesis and potentiated PUFA-induced cell damage. On the contrary, stimulation of LD biogenesis by hGX sPLA 2 and suppression of LD breakdown by ATGL depletion reduced PUFA-induced oxidative stress and cell death. Finally, lipidomic analyses revealed that sequestration of PUFAs in LDs by sPLA 2 -induced TAG remodelling and retention of PUFAs in LDs by inhibition of ATGL-mediated TAG lipolysis protect from PUFA lipotoxicity. LDs are thus antioxidant and pro-survival organelles that guard TNBC cells against nutrient and lipotoxic stress and emerge as attractive targets for novel therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Discovery of a 2,4-Diamino-7-aminoalkoxy-quinazoline as a Potent and Selective Inhibitor of Histone Lysine Methyltransferase G9a†

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Chen, Xin; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Quinn, Amy M.; Wasney, Gregory A.; Dong, Aiping; Barsyte, Dalia; Kozieradzki, Ivona; Senisterra, Guillermo; Chau, Irene; Siarheyeva, Alena; Kireev, Dmitri B.; Jadhav, Ajit; Herold, J. Martin; Frye, Stephen V.; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Brown, Peter J.; Simeonov, Anton; Vedadi, Masoud; Jin, Jian

    2010-01-01

    SAR exploration of the 2,4-diamino-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline template led to the discovery of 8 (UNC0224) as a potent and selective G9a inhibitor. A high resolution X-ray crystal structure of the G9a-8 complex, the first co-crystal structure of G9a with a small molecule inhibitor, was obtained. The co-crystal structure validated our binding hypothesis and will enable structure-based design of novel inhibitors. 8 is a useful tool for investigating the biology of G9a and its roles in chromatin remodeling. PMID:19891491

  13. Genetic association between the phospholipase A2 gene and unipolar affective disorder: a multicentre case-control study.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, George N; Dikeos, Dimitris G; Souery, Daniel; Del-Favero, Jurgen; Massat, Isabelle; Avramopoulos, Dimitrios; Blairy, Sylvie; Cichon, Sven; Ivezic, Sladjana; Kaneva, Radka; Karadima, Georgia; Lilli, Roberta; Milanova, Vihra; Nöthen, Markus; Oruc, Lilijana; Rietschel, Marcella; Serretti, Alessandro; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Stefanis, Costas N; Mendlewicz, Julien

    2003-12-01

    The co-segregation in one pedigree of bipolar affective disorder with Darier's disease whose gene is on chromosome 12q23-q24.1, and findings from linkage and association studies with the neighbouring gene of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) indicate that PLA2 may be considered as a candidate gene for affective disorders. All relevant genetic association studies, however, were conducted on bipolar patients. In the present study, the possible association between the PLA2 gene and unipolar affective disorder was examined on 321 unipolar patients and 604 controls (all personally interviewed), recruited from six countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Germany, Greece, and Italy) participating in the European Collaborative Project on Affective Disorders. After controlling for population group and gender, one of the eight alleles of the investigated marker (allele 7) was found to be more frequent among unipolar patients with more than three major depressive episodes than among controls (P<0.01); genotypic association was also observed, under the dominant model of genetic transmission (P<0.02). In addition, presence of allele 7 was correlated with a higher frequency of depressive episodes (P<0.02). These findings suggest that structural variations at the PLA2 gene or the chromosomal region around it may confer susceptibility for unipolar affective disorder.

  14. Identification of T. gondii Myosin Light Chain-1 as a Direct Target of TachypleginA-2, a Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Parasite Motility and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Jacqueline M.; Tran, Fanny; Pathak, Ravindra B.; Poupart, Séverine; Heaslip, Aoife T.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Westwood, Nicholas J.; Ward, Gary E.

    2014-01-01

    Motility of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii plays an important role in the parasite’s life cycle and virulence within animal and human hosts. Motility is driven by a myosin motor complex that is highly conserved across the Phylum Apicomplexa. Two key components of this complex are the class XIV unconventional myosin, TgMyoA, and its associated light chain, TgMLC1. We previously showed that treatment of parasites with a small-molecule inhibitor of T. gondii invasion and motility, tachypleginA, induces an electrophoretic mobility shift of TgMLC1 that is associated with decreased myosin motor activity. However, the direct target(s) of tachypleginA and the molecular basis of the compound-induced TgMLC1 modification were unknown. We show here by “click” chemistry labelling that TgMLC1 is a direct and covalent target of an alkyne-derivatized analogue of tachypleginA. We also show that this analogue can covalently bind to model thiol substrates. The electrophoretic mobility shift induced by another structural analogue, tachypleginA-2, was associated with the formation of a 225.118 Da adduct on S57 and/or C58, and treatment with deuterated tachypleginA-2 confirmed that the adduct was derived from the compound itself. Recombinant TgMLC1 containing a C58S mutation (but not S57A) was refractory to click labelling and no longer exhibited a mobility shift in response to compound treatment, identifying C58 as the site of compound binding on TgMLC1. Finally, a knock-in parasite line expressing the C58S mutation showed decreased sensitivity to compound treatment in a quantitative 3D motility assay. These data strongly support a model in which tachypleginA and its analogues inhibit the motility of T. gondii by binding directly and covalently to C58 of TgMLC1, thereby causing a decrease in the activity of the parasite’s myosin motor. PMID:24892871

  15. Effects of the propeptide of group X secreted phospholipase A(2) on substrate specificity and interfacial activity on phospholipid monolayers.

    PubMed

    Point, Vanessa; Bénarouche, Anaïs; Jemel, Ikram; Parsiegla, Goetz; Lambeau, Gérard; Carrière, Frédéric; Cavalier, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Group X secreted phospholipase A(2) (GX sPLA(2)) plays important physiological roles in the gastrointestinal tract, in immune and sperm cells and is involved in several types of inflammatory diseases. It is secreted either as a mature enzyme or as a mixture of proenzyme (with a basic 11 amino acid propeptide) and mature enzyme. The role of the propeptide in the repression of sPLA(2) activity has been studied extensively using liposomes and micelles as model interfaces. These substrates are however not always suitable for detecting some fine tuning of lipolytic enzymes. In the present study, the monolayer technique is used to compare PLA(2) activity of recombinant mouse GX sPLA(2) (mGX) and its pro-form (PromGX) on monomolecular films of dilauroyl-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (DLPE), -choline (DLPC) and -glycerol (DLPG). The PLA(2) activity and substrate specificity of mGX (PE ≈ PG > PC) were found to be surface pressure-dependent. mGX displayed a high activity on DLPE and DLPG but not on DLPC monolayers up to surface pressures corresponding to the lateral pressure of biological membranes (30-35 mN/m). Overall, the propeptide impaired the enzyme activity, particularly on DLPE whatever the surface pressure. However some conditions could be found where the propeptide had little effects on the repression of PLA(2) activity. In particular, both PromGX and mGX had similar activities on DLPG at a surface pressure of 30 mN/m. These findings show that PromGX can be potentially active depending on the presentation of the substrate (i.e., lipid packing) and one cannot exclude such an activity in a physiological context. A structural model of PromGX was built to investigate how the propeptide controls the activity of GX sPLA(2). This model shows that the propeptide is located within the interfacial binding site (i-face) and could disrupt both the interfacial binding of the enzyme and the access to the active site by steric hindrance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS

  16. Structure of a premicellar complex of alkyl sulfates with the interfacial binding surfaces of four subunits of phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ying H; Bahnson, Brian J

    2010-07-01

    The properties of three discrete premicellar complexes (E1#, E2#, E3#) of pig pancreatic group-IB secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) with monodisperse alkyl sulfates have been characterized [Berg, O. G. et al., Biochemistry 43, 7999-8013, 2004]. Here we have solved the 2.7 A crystal structure of group-IB sPLA2 complexed with 12 molecules of octyl sulfate (C8S) in a form consistent with a tetrameric oligomeric that exists during the E1# phase of premicellar complexes. The alkyl tails of the C8S molecules are centered in the middle of the tetrameric cluster of sPLA2 subunits. Three of the four sPLA2 subunits also contain a C8S molecule in the active site pocket. The sulfate oxygen of a C8S ligand is complexed to the active site calcium in three of the four protein active sites. The interactions of the alkyl sulfate head group with Arg-6 and Lys-10, as well as the backbone amide of Met-20, are analogous to those observed in the previously solved sPLA2 crystal structures with bound phosphate and sulfate anions. The cluster of three anions found in the present structure is postulated to be the site for nucleating the binding of anionic amphiphiles to the interfacial surface of the protein, and therefore this binding interaction has implications for interfacial activation of the enzyme. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. In Vitro Antiplasmodial Activity of Phospholipases A2 and a Phospholipase Homologue Isolated from the Venom of the Snake Bothrops asper

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Juan Carlos Quintana; Vargas, Leidy Johana; Segura, Cesar; Gutiérrez, José María; Pérez, Juan Carlos Alarcón

    2012-01-01

    The antimicrobial and antiparasite activity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from snakes and bees has been extensively explored. We studied the antiplasmodial effect of the whole venom of the snake Bothrops asper and of two fractions purified by ion-exchange chromatography: one containing catalytically-active phospholipases A2 (PLA2) (fraction V) and another containing a PLA2 homologue devoid of enzymatic activity (fraction VI). The antiplasmodial effect was assessed on in vitro cultures of Plasmodium falciparum. The whole venom of B. asper, as well as its fractions V and VI, were active against the parasite at 0.13 ± 0.01 µg/mL, 1.42 ± 0.56 µg/mL and 22.89 ± 1.22 µg/mL, respectively. Differences in the cytotoxic activity on peripheral blood mononuclear cells between the whole venom and fractions V and VI were observed, fraction V showing higher toxicity than total venom and fraction VI. Regarding toxicity in mice, the whole venom showed the highest lethal effect in comparison to fractions V and VI. These results suggest that B. asper PLA2 and its homologue have antiplasmodial potential. PMID:23242318

  18. Alkylation of histidine residues of Bothrops jararacussu venom proteins and isolated phospholipases A2: a biotechnological tool to improve the production of antibodies.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, C L S; Andrião-Escarso, S H; Moreira-Dill, L S; Carvalho, B M A; Marchi-Salvador, D P; Santos-Filho, N A; Fernandes, C A H; Fontes, M R M; Giglio, J R; Barraviera, B; Zuliani, J P; Fernandes, C F C; Calderón, L A; Stábeli, R G; Albericio, F; da Silva, S L; Soares, A M

    2014-01-01

    Crude venom of Bothrops jararacussu and isolated phospholipases A2 (PLA2) of this toxin (BthTX-I and BthTX-II) were chemically modified (alkylation) by p-bromophenacyl bromide (BPB) in order to study antibody production capacity in function of the structure-function relationship of these substances (crude venom and PLA2 native and alkylated). BthTX-II showed enzymatic activity, while BthTX-I did not. Alkylation reduced BthTX-II activity by 50% while this process abolished the catalytic and myotoxic activities of BthTX-I, while reducing its edema-inducing activity by about 50%. Antibody production against the native and alkylated forms of BthTX-I and -II and the cross-reactivity of antibodies to native and alkylated toxins did not show any apparent differences and these observations were reinforced by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) data. Histopathological analysis of mouse gastrocnemius muscle sections after injection of PBS, BthTX-I, BthTX-II, or both myotoxins previously incubated with neutralizing antibody showed inhibition of the toxin-induced myotoxicity. These results reveal that the chemical modification of the phospholipases A2 (PLA2) diminished their toxicity but did not alter their antigenicity. This observation indicates that the modified PLA2 may provide a biotechnological tool to attenuate the toxicity of the crude venom, by improving the production of antibodies and decreasing the local toxic effects of this poisonous substance in animals used to produce antivenom.

  19. Refining the Value of Secretory Phospholipase A2 as a Predictor of Acute Chest Syndrome in Sickle Cell Disease: Results of a Feasibility Study (PROACTIVE)

    PubMed Central

    Styles, Lori; Wager, Carrie G.; Labotka, Richard J.; Smith-Whitley, Kim; Thompson, Alexis A.; Lane, Peter A.; McMahon, Lillian E.C; Miller, Robin; Roseff, Susan; Iyer, Rathi; Hsu, Lewis L.; Castro, Oswaldo; Ataga, Kenneth; Onyekwere, Onyinye; Okam, Maureen; Bellevue, Rita; Miller, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Acute chest syndrome (ACS) is defined as fever, respiratory symptoms and a new pulmonary infiltrate in an individual with sickle cell disease (SCD). Nearly half of ACS episodes occur in SCD patients already hospitalized, potentially permitting pre-emptive therapy in high-risk patients. Simple transfusion of red blood cells may abort ACS if given to patients hospitalized for pain who develop fever and elevated levels of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2). In a feasibility study (PROACTIVE; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00951808), patients hospitalized for pain who developed fever and elevated sPLA2 were eligible for randomization to transfusion or observation; all others were enrolled in an observational arm. Of 237 enrolled, only 10 were randomized; one of the four to receive transfusion had delayed treatment. Of 233 subjects receiving standard care, 22 developed ACS. A threshold level of sPLA2 ≥ 48 ng/ml gave optimal sensitivity (73%), specificity (71%) and accuracy (71%), but a positive predictive value of only 24%. The predictive value of sPLA2 was improved in adults and patients with chest or back pain, lower haemoglobin concentration and higher white blood cell counts; and those receiving less than two-thirds maintenance fluids. The hurdles identified in PROACTIVE should facilitate design of a larger, definitive, phase 3 randomized controlled trial. PMID:22463614

  20. Phospholipase A2 activity-dependent and -independent fusogenic activity of Naja nigricollis CMS-9 on zwitterionic and anionic phospholipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Yi-Ling; Chen, Ying-Jung; Lin, Shinne-Ren; Chang, Long-Sen

    2011-11-01

    CMS-9, a phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) from Naja nigricollis venom, induced the death of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells accompanied with the formation of cell clumps without clear boundaries between cells. Annexin V-FITC staining indicated that abundant phosphatidylserine appeared on the outer membrane of MCF-7 cell clumps, implying the possibility that CMS-9 may promote membrane fusion via anionic phospholipids. To validate this proposition, fusogenic activity of CMS-9 on vesicles composed of zwitterionic phospholipid alone or a combination of zwitterionic and anionic phospholipids was examined. Although CMS-9-induced fusion of zwitterionic phospholipid vesicles depended on PLA(2) activity, CMS-9-induced fusion of vesicles containing anionic phospholipids could occur without the involvement of PLA(2) activity. Membrane-damaging activity of CMS-9 was associated with its fusogenicity. Moreover, CMS-9 induced differently membrane leakage and membrane fusion of vesicles with different compositions. Membrane fluidity and binding capability with phospholipid vesicles were not related to the fusogenicity of CMS-9. However, membrane-bound conformation and mode of CMS-9 depended on phospholipid compositions. Collectively, our data suggest that PLA(2) activity-dependent and -independent fusogenicity of CMS-9 are closely related to its membrane-bound modes and targeted membrane compositions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of phospholipase A2 pathway in regulating activation of Bufo arenarum oocytes.

    PubMed

    Ajmat, M T; Bonilla, F; Hermosilla, P C; Zelarayán, L; Bühler, M I

    2013-08-01

    Transient increases in the concentration of cytosolic Ca(2+) are essential for triggering egg activation events. Increased Ca(2+) results from its rapid release from intracellular stores, mainly mediated by one or both intracellular calcium channels: the inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) and the ryanodine receptor (RyR). Several regulatory pathways that tailor the response of these channels to the specific cell type have been proposed. Among its many modulatory actions, calcium can serve as an activator of a cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA2), which releases arachidonic acid from phospholipids of the endoplasmic reticulum as well as from the nuclear envelope. Previous studies have suggested that arachidonic acid and/or its metabolites were able to modulate the activity of several ion channels. Based on these findings, we have studied the participation of the phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) pathway in the process of Bufo arenarum oocyte activation and the interrelation between any of its metabolites and the ion channels involved in the calcium release from the intracellular reservoirs at fertilization. We found that addition of both melittin, a potent PLA(2) activator, and arachidonic acid, the main PLA(2) reaction metabolite, was able to induce activation events in a bell-shaped manner. Differential regulation of IP3Rs and RyRs by arachidonic acid and its products could explain melittin and arachidonic acid behaviour in Bufo arenarum egg activation. The concerted action of arachidonic acid and/or its metabolites could provide controlled mobilization of calcium from intracellular reservoirs and useful tools for understanding calcium homeostasis in eggs that express both types of receptors.

  2. A phenome-wide association study of a lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 loss-of-function variant in 90 000 Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Millwood, Iona Y; Bennett, Derrick A; Walters, Robin G; Clarke, Robert; Waterworth, Dawn; Johnson, Toby; Chen, Yiping; Yang, Ling; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Hacker, Alex; Yeo, Astrid; Parish, Sarah; Hill, Michael R; Chissoe, Stephanie; Peto, Richard; Cardon, Lon; Collins, Rory; Li, Liming; Chen, Zhengming

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) has been implicated in development of atherosclerosis; however, recent randomized trials of Lp-PLA2 inhibition reported no beneficial effects on vascular diseases. In East Asians, a loss-of-function variant in the PLA2G7 gene can be used to assess the effects of genetically determined lower Lp-PLA2. Methods: PLA2G7 V279F (rs76863441) was genotyped in 91 428 individuals randomly selected from the China Kadoorie Biobank of 0.5 M participants recruited in 2004–08 from 10 regions of China, with 7 years’ follow-up. Linear regression was used to assess effects of V279F on baseline traits. Logistic regression was conducted for a range of vascular and non-vascular diseases, including 41 ICD-10 coded disease categories. Results: PLA2G7 V279F frequency was 5% overall (range 3–7% by region), and 9691 (11%) participants had at least one loss-of-function variant. V279F was not associated with baseline blood pressure, adiposity, blood glucose or lung function. V279F was not associated with major vascular events [7141 events; odds ratio (OR) = 0.98 per F variant, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90-1.06] or other vascular outcomes, including major coronary events (922 events; 0.96, 0.79-1.18) and stroke (5967 events; 1.00, 0.92-1.09). Individuals with V279F had lower risks of diabetes (7031 events; 0.91, 0.84-0.98) and asthma (182 events; 0.53, 0.28-0.98), but there was no association after adjustment for multiple testing. Conclusions: Lifelong lower Lp-PLA2 activity was not associated with major risks of vascular or non-vascular diseases in Chinese adults. Using functional genetic variants in large-scale prospective studies with linkage to a range of health outcomes is a valuable approach to inform drug development and repositioning. PMID:27301456

  3. Group X secreted phospholipase A₂ specifically decreases sperm motility in mice.

    PubMed

    Escoffier, Jessica; Pierre, Virginie J; Jemel, Ikram; Munch, Léa; Boudhraa, Zied; Ray, Pierre F; De Waard, Michel; Lambeau, Gérard; Arnoult, Christophe

    2011-10-01

    Different mammalian secreted phospholipases A(2) (sPLA(2) s) are expressed in male reproductive organs and/or in sperm cells but their cellular functions are still not fully characterized. Because several reports indicate a link between cellular lipids and sperm motility, we have investigated the effect of mouse group IIA, IID, IIE, V, and X sPLA(2) s on sperm motility. Among these enzymes, only mouse group X sPLA(2) (mGX sPLA(2) ) acts as a potent inhibitor of sperm motility that decreases track speed (VCL) and lateral displacement of the head (ALH) of both noncapacitated and capacitated sperm. The inhibitory effect of mGX sPLA(2) is dependent on its enzymatic activity because (i) both the proenzyme form of mGX sPLA(2) (pro-mGX) and the H48Q mutant of mGX sPLA(2) have very weak enzymatic activity and are unable to modulate sperm motility and (ii) LY329722, a specific inhibitor of sPLA(2) s, blocks the inhibitory effect of mGX sPLA(2) . Moreover, mGX sPLA(2) exerts a gradual potency on sperm subpopulations with different velocities, an effect which may be linked to the heterogeneity of lipid composition in these sperm subpopulations. Finally, we found that endogenous mGX sPLA(2) released during spontaneous acrosome reaction modulates sperm motility of capacitated sperm. Together, our results suggest a new role of sPLA(2) in sperm physiology where the sPLA2 selects a sperm subpopulation for fertilization based on its effect on sperm motility. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 (GIIA) mediates apoptotic death during NMDA receptor activation in rat primary cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Chiricozzi, Elena; Fernandez-Fernandez, Seila; Nardicchi, Vincenza; Almeida, Angeles; Bolaños, Juan Pedro; Goracci, Gianfrancesco

    2010-03-01

    Phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)) participate in neuronal death signalling pathways because of their ability to release lipid mediators, although the contribution of each isoform and mechanism of neurotoxicity are still elusive. Using a novel fluorogenic method to assess changes in a PLA(2) activity by flow cytometry, here we show that the group IIA secretory phospholipase A(2) isoform (GIIA) was specifically activated in cortical neurons following stimulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor subtype (NMDAR). For activation, GIIA required Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, and inhibition of its activity fully prevented NMDAR-mediated neuronal apoptotic death. Superoxide, nitric oxide or peroxynitrite donors stimulated GIIA activity, which mediated neuronal death. Intriguingly, we also found that GIIA activity induced mitochondrial superoxide production after NMDAR stimulation. These results reveal a novel role for GIIA in excitotoxicity both as target and producer of superoxide in a positive-loop of activation that may contribute to the propagation of neurodegeneration.

  5. Effect of PlA1/A2 glycoprotein IIIa gene polymorphism on the long-term outcome after successful coronary stenting

    PubMed Central

    Le Hello, Claire; Morello, Rémy; Lequerrec, Agnès; Duarte, Christine; Riddell, John; Hamon, Martial

    2007-01-01

    Aim To prospectively determine the role of platelet glycoprotein IIIa (GP IIIa) gene PlA1/PlA2 polymorphism on the long-term clinical outcome in patients with coronary artery disease undergoing coronary stenting. Design and setting Prospective observational study in the University Hospital of Caen (France). Patients and methods 1 111 symptomatic consecutive Caucasian patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention including stent implantation underwent genotyping for GP IIIa PlA1/A2. Main outcome measures Long-term clinical outcome in terms of the rate of major adverse cardiac events (MACE, ie death from any cause, non-fatal Q wave or non Q wave myocardial infarction, and need for coronary revascularisation) was obtained and subsequently stratified according to the GP IIIa PlA1/A2 polymorphism. Results Three groups of patients were determined according to the GP IIIa PlA1/A2 polymorphism (71.6% had the A1/A1, 25.8% had the A1/A2 and 2.6% had the A2/A2 genotype). These three groups were comparable for all clinical characteristics including sex ratio, mean age, vascular risk factors, previous coronary events, baseline angiographic exam, indication for the percutaneous coronary intervention and drug therapy). The incidence of MACE was similar in these 3 groups of patients during a mean follow-up period of 654+/-152 days. Independent risk factors for MACE were a left ventricular ejection fraction < 40%, absence of treatment with a beta-blocker and absence of treatment with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor during follow-up. Conclusion The GP IIIa PlA1/A2 polymorphism does not influence the clinical long-term outcome in patients with symptomatic coronary disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation. PMID:18021403

  6. A 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-2'-C-methyl uridine cyclopentyl carbocyclic analog and its phosphoramidate prodrug as inhibitors of HCV NS5B polymerase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Du, Jinfa; Wang, Peiyuan; Nagarathnam, Dhanapalan; Espiritu, Christine L; Bao, Haiying; Murakami, Eisuke; Furman, Phillip A; Sofia, Michael J

    2012-04-01

    The 2 '-deoxy-2 '-fluoro-2 '-C-methyluridine nucleotide prodrug, PSI-7851 and its single diastereomer PSI-7977 have displayed potent antiviral activity against hepatitis C virus in clinical trials, and PSI-7977 is currently in Phase III studies. As part of our SAR study of the 2 '-deoxy-2 '-fluoro-2 '- C-methyl class of nucleosides, we prepared the cyclopentyl carbocyclic uridine analog 11 and its phosphoramidate prodrug 15. Both 11 and 15 were shown not to inhibit HCV replication. This lack of activity might be attributed to the inability of the monophosphate to be converted to the corresponding diphosphate or triphosphate or the inactivity of triphosphate of 11 as an inhibitor of the polymerase.

  7. Neurotoxicity of coral snake phospholipases A2 in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Nathalia Delazeri; Garcia, Raphael CaioTamborelli; Ferreira, Adilson Kleber; Batista, Daniel Rodrigo; Cassola, Antonio Carlos; Maria, Durvanei; Lebrun, Ivo; Carneiro, Sylvia Mendes; Afeche, Solange Castro; Marcourakis, Tania; Sandoval, Maria Regina Lopes

    2014-03-13

    The neurotoxicity of two secreted Phospholipases A2 from Brazilian coral snake venom in rat primary hippocampal cell culture was investigated. Following exposure to Mlx-8 or Mlx-9 toxins, an increase in free cytosolic Ca(2+) and a reduction in mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) became evident and occurred prior to the morphological changes and cytotoxicity. Exposure of hippocampal neurons to Mlx-8 or Mlx-9 caused a decrease in the cell viability as assessed by MTT and LDH assays. Inspection using fluorescent images and ultrastructural analysis by scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed that multiphase injury is characterized by overlapping cell death phenotypes. Shrinkage, membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, nucleosomal DNA fragmentation and the formation of apoptotic bodies were observed. The most striking alteration observed in the electron microscopy was the fragmentation and rarefaction of the neuron processes network. Degenerated terminal synapses, cell debris and apoptotic bodies were observed among the fragmented fibers. Numerous large vacuoles as well as swollen mitochondria and dilated Golgi were noted. Necrotic signs such as a large amount of cellular debris and membrane fragmentation were observed mainly when the cells were exposed to highest concentration of the PLA2-neurotoxins. PLA2s exposed cultures showed cytoplasmic vacuoles filled with cell debris, clusters of mitochondria presented mitophagy-like structures that are in accordance to patterns of programmed cell death by autophagy. Finally, we demonstrated that the sPLA2s, Mlx-8 and Mlx-9, isolated from the Micrurus lemniscatus snake venom induce a hybrid cell death with apoptotic, autophagic and necrotic features. Furthermore, this study suggests that the augment in free cytosolic Ca(2+) and mitochondrial dysfunction are involved in the neurotoxicity of Elapid coral snake venom sPLA2s. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Multivalent Nanoparticle Networks Enable Point of Care Detection of Human Phospholipase-A2 in Serum

    PubMed Central

    Burnapp, Mark; Bentham, Andrew; Hillier, David; Zabron, Abigail; Khan, Shahid; Tyreman, Matthew; Stevens, Molly M.

    2017-01-01

    A rapid and highly sensitive point of care (PoC) lateral flow assay for phospholipase-A2 (PLA2) is demonstrated in serum through the enzyme-triggered release of a new class of biotinylated multi-armed polymers from a liposome substrate. Signal from the enzyme activity is generated by the adhesion of polystreptavidin coated gold nanoparticle networks to the lateral flow device, which leads to the appearance of a red test line due to the localised surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect of the gold. The use of a liposome as the enzyme substrate and multivalent linkers to link the nanoparticles leads to amplification of the signal as the cleavage of a small amount of lipids is able to release a large amount of polymer linker and adhesion of an even larger amount of gold nanoparticles. By optimising the molecular weight and multivalency of these biotinylated polymer linkers the sensitivity of the device can be tuned to enable naked-eye detection of 1 nM human-PLA2 in serum within 10 minutes. This high sensitivity enabled the correct diagnosis of pancreatitis in diseased clinical samples against a set of healthy controls using PLA2 activity in a point of care device for the first time. PMID:25756526

  9. SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 are associated with treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia with the combination of 5α-reductase inhibitors and α-adrenergic receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xin; Na, Rong; Huang, Tao; Wang, Li; Tao, Sha; Tian, Lu; Chen, Zhuo; Jiao, Yang; Kang, Jian; Zheng, Siqun; Xu, Jianfeng; Sun, Jielin; Qi, Jun

    2013-08-01

    Common treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia include 5α-reductase inhibitors and α-adrenergic receptor antagonists. However, these treatments can only partially decrease the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia progression. SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 are 5α-reductase inhibitor targets. We investigated the association between drug efficacy and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 genes in a Chinese population. We genotyped 11 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 genes in a total of 426 benign prostatic hyperplasia cases and 1,008 controls from Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Cases were treated with type II 5α-reductase inhibitors and α-adrenergic receptor antagonists. We tested the association of tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms with benign prostatic hyperplasia risk/progression, clinical characteristics at baseline, including the I-PSS (International Prostate Symptom Score) and total prostate volume, and changes in clinical characteristics after treatment. The 11 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms were not significantly associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia risk or progression (each p >0.05). In the SRD5A1 gene rs6884552 and rs3797177 were significantly associated with baseline I-PSS (p = 0.04 and 0.003, respectively). In the SRD5A2 gene rs523349 (V89L) and rs9332975 were significantly associated with baseline total prostate volume (p = 0.01 and 0.001, respectively). In SRD5A1 rs166050 was significantly associated with the posttreatment change in total prostate volume (p = 0.04). In SRD5A2 rs523349 and rs612224 were significantly associated with the posttreatment I-PSS change (p = 0.03 and 0.009, respectively). SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 single nucleotide polymorphisms are significantly associated with the clinical characteristics of benign prostatic hyperplasia and the efficacy of benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and

  10. Genetic interactions between a phospholipase A2 and the Rim101 pathway components in S. cerevisiae reveal a role for this pathway in response to changes in membrane composition and shape

    PubMed Central

    Mattiazzi, M.; Jambhekar, A.; Kaferle, P.; DeRisi, J. L.; Križaj, I.

    2010-01-01

    Modulating composition and shape of biological membranes is an emerging mode of regulation of cellular processes. We investigated the global effects that such perturbations have on a model eukaryotic cell. Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), enzymes that cleave one fatty acid molecule from membrane phospholipids, exert their biological activities through affecting both membrane composition and shape. We have conducted a genome-wide analysis of cellular effects of a PLA2 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system. We demonstrate functional genetic and biochemical interactions between PLA2 activity and the Rim101 signaling pathway in S. cerevisiae. Our results suggest that the composition and/or the shape of the endosomal membrane affect the Rim101 pathway. We describe a genetically and functionally related network, consisting of components of the Rim101 pathway and the prefoldin, retromer and SWR1 complexes, and predict its functional relation to PLA2 activity in a model eukaryotic cell. This study provides a list of the players involved in the global response to changes in membrane composition and shape in a model eukaryotic cell, and further studies are needed to understand the precise molecular mechanisms connecting them. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00438-010-0533-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20379744

  11. Piperine Inhibits the Activities of Platelet Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 and Thromboxane A2 Synthase without Affecting Cyclooxygenase-1 Activity: Different Mechanisms of Action Are Involved in the Inhibition of Platelet Aggregation and Macrophage Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Son, Dong Ju; Akiba, Satoshi; Hong, Jin Tae; Yun, Yeo Pyo; Hwang, Seock Yeon; Park, Young Hyun; Lee, Sung Eun

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Piperine, a major alkaloid of black pepper (Piper nigrum) and long pepper (Piper longum), was shown to have anti-inflammatory activity through the suppression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 gene expression and enzyme activity. It is also reported to exhibit anti-platelet activity, but the mechanism underlying this action remains unknown. In this study, we investigated a putative anti-platelet aggregation mechanism involving arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism and how this compares with the mechanism by which it inhibits macrophage inflammatory responses; METHODS: Rabbit platelets and murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were treated with piperine, and the effect of piperine on the activity of AA-metabolizing enzymes, including cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), COX-1, COX-2, and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) synthase, as well as its effect on AA liberation from the plasma membrane components, were assessed using isotopic labeling methods and enzyme immunoassay kit; RESULTS: Piperine significantly suppressed AA liberation by attenuating cPLA2 activity in collagen-stimulated platelets. It also significantly inhibited the activity of TXA2 synthase, but not of COX-1, in platelets. These results suggest that piperine inhibits platelet aggregation by attenuating cPLA2 and TXA2 synthase activities, rather than through the inhibition of COX-1 activity. On the other hand, piperine significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced generation of prostaglandin (PG)E2 and PGD2 in RAW264.7 cells by suppressing the activity of COX-2, without effect on cPLA2; CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that piperine inhibits platelet aggregation and macrophage inflammatory response by different mechanisms. PMID:25153972

  12. Taiwanese female vegetarians have lower lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 compared with omnivores.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Wei; Lin, Chih-Ta; Lin, Ying-Lung; Lin, Tin-Kwang; Lin, Chin-Lon

    2011-01-01

    Many studies supported that vegetarians have a lower risk of cardiac diseases and mortality, partly due to better blood pressure and serum cholesterol profiles. However, the inflammatory markers, especially lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), have not been well-studied. This study aimed to compare inflammatory markers and conventional risk factors between vegetarians and omnivores. One hundred and seventy-three vegetarians and 190 omnivores were studied. Fasting blood samples were obtained to compare levels of glucose, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, homocysteine, Lp-PLA2 activity, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Vegetarians had higher serum levels of the following markers: hs-CRP (1.8 ± 3.4 vs. 1.2 1.8 mg/L, respectively; p = 0.05), homocysteine (9.39 ± 3.22 vs. 7.62 ± 2.41 μmol/L, respectively; p < 0.01), and triacylglycerol (96.91 ± 59.56 vs. 84.66 ± 43.24 mg/dL, respectively; p < 0.05). Vegetarians also had lower levels of Lp-PLA2 (18.32 ± 7.19 10-3 μmol/min/mL vs. 20.22 8.13 10-3 μmol/min/mL; p < 0.05), total cholesterol (180.62 ± 36.55 mg/dL vs. 192.73 ± 36.57 mg/dL; p < 0.01), LDL cholesterol (118.15 ± 32.8 vs. 126.41 ± 34.28 mg/dL; p < 0.05), and HDL cholesterol (55.59 ± 13.30 vs. 62.09 ± 14.52 mg/dL, p < 0.01). Multivariate analyses demonstrated that a vegetarian diet increases the chances for high serum hs-CRP and low Lp-PLA2 activity. In addition to lower total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol, Taiwanese female vegetarians have lower serum Lp-PLA2 activity but higher levels of hs-CRP, homocysteine, and triacylglyerol. It might be due to geographic differences of vegetarian diets, and further studies are needed.

  13. Secreted phospholipase A(2) as a new enzymatic trigger mechanism for localised liposomal drug release and absorption in diseased tissue.

    PubMed

    Davidsen, Jesper; Jørgensen, Kent; Andresen, Thomas L; Mouritsen, Ole G

    2003-01-10

    Polymer-coated liposomes can act as versatile drug-delivery systems due to long vascular circulation time and passive targeting by leaky blood vessels in diseased tissue. We present an experimental model system illustrating a new principle for improved and programmable drug-delivery, which takes advantage of an elevated activity of secretory phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) at the diseased target tissue. The secretory PLA(2) hydrolyses a lipid-based proenhancer in the carrier liposome, producing lyso-phospholipids and free fatty acids, which are shown in a synergistic way to lead to enhanced liposome destabilization and drug release at the same time as the permeability of the target membrane is enhanced. Moreover, the proposed system can be made thermosensitive and offers a rational way for developing smart liposome-based drug delivery systems. This can be achieved by incorporating specific lipid-based proenhancers or prodestabilisers into the liposome carrier, which automatically becomes activated by PLA(2) only at the diseased target sites, such as inflamed or cancerous tissue.

  14. Activation of phospholipase A2 by 1-palmitoyl-2-(9'-oxo-nonanoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine in vitro.

    PubMed

    Code, Christian; Mahalka, Ajay K; Bry, Kristian; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

    2010-08-01

    Oxidative stress leads to drastic modifications of both the biophysical properties of biomembranes and their associated chemistry imparted upon the formation of oxidatively modified lipids. To this end, oxidized phospholipid derivatives bearing an aldehyde function, such as 1-palmitoyl-2-(9'-oxo-nonanoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PoxnoPC) can covalently react with proteins that come into direct contact. Intriguingly, we observed PoxnoPC in a 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) matrix to shorten and abolish the lag time in the action of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) on this composite substrate, with concomitant augmented decrement in pH, indicating more extensive hydrolysis, which was in keeping with enhanced 90 degrees light scattering. The latter was abolished by the aldehyde scavenger methoxyamine, thus suggesting the involvement of Schiff base. Enhanced hydrolysis of a fluorescent phospholipid analogue was seen for PLA2 preincubated with PoxnoPC. Mixing PLA2 with submicellar (22 microM) PoxnoPC caused a pronounced increase in Thioflavin T fluorescence, in keeping with the formation of amyloid-type fibers, which were seen also by electron microscopy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Crystal structure of a complex formed between a snake venom phospholipase A(2) and a potent peptide inhibitor Phe-Leu-Ser-Tyr-Lys at 1.8 A resolution.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Vikas; Jasti, Jayasankar; Kaur, Punit; Dey, Sharmistha; Perbandt, M; Srinivasan, A; Betzel, Ch; Singh, T P

    2002-10-25

    Phospholipase A(2) is an important enzyme involved in the production of prostaglandins and their related compounds causing inflammatory disorders. Among the several peptides tested, the peptide Phe-Leu-Ser-Tyr-Lys (FLSYK) showed the highest inhibition. The dissociation constant (K(d)) for this peptide was calculated to be 3.57 +/- 0.05 x 10(-9) m. In order to further improve the degree of inhibition of phospholipase A(2), a complex between Russells viper snake venom phospholipase A(2) and a peptide inhibitor FLSYK was crystallized, and its structure was determined by crystallographic methods and refined to an R-factor of 0.205 at 1.8 A resolution. The structure contains two crystallographically independent molecules of phospholipase A(2) (molecules A and B) and a peptide molecule specifically bound to molecule A only. The two molecules formed an asymmetric dimer. The dimerization caused a modification in the binding site of molecule A. The overall conformations of molecules A and B were found to be generally similar except three regions i.e. the Trp-31-containing loop (residues 25-34), the beta-wing consisting of two antiparallel beta-strands (residues 74-85) and the C-terminal region (residues 119-133). Out of the above three, the most striking difference pertains to the conformation of Trp-31 in the two molecules. The orientation of Trp-31 in molecule A was suitable for the binding of FLSYK, while it disallowed the binding of peptide to molecule B. The structure of the complex clearly shows that the peptide is so placed in the binding site of molecule A that the side chain of its lysine residue interacted extensively with the enzyme and formed several hydrogen bonds in addition to a strong electrostatic interaction with critical Asp-49. The C-terminal carboxylic group of the peptide interacted with the catalytic residue His-48.

  16. The VMAT-2 inhibitor tetrabenazine alters effort-related decision making as measured by the T-maze barrier choice task: reversal with the adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 and the catecholamine uptake blocker bupropion.

    PubMed

    Yohn, Samantha E; Thompson, Christian; Randall, Patrick A; Lee, Christie A; Müller, Christa E; Baqi, Younis; Correa, Mercè; Salamone, John D

    2015-04-01

    Depressed people show effort-related motivational symptoms, such as anergia, retardation, lassitude, and fatigue. Animal tests can model these motivational symptoms, and the present studies characterized the effort-related effects of the vesicular monoamine transport (VMAT-2) inhibitor tetrabenazine. Tetrabenazine produces depressive symptoms in humans and, at low doses, preferentially depletes dopamine. The current studies investigated the effects of tetrabenazine on effort-based decision making using the T-maze barrier task. Rats were tested in a T-maze in which the choice arms of the maze contain different reinforcement densities, and under some conditions, a vertical barrier was placed in the high-density arm to provide an effort-related challenge. The first experiment assessed the effects of tetrabenazine under different maze conditions: a barrier in the arm with 4 food pellets and 2 pellets in the no barrier arm (4-2 barrier), 4 pellets in one arm and 2 pellets in the other with no barrier in either arm (no barrier), and 4 pellets in the barrier arm with no pellets in the other (4-0 barrier). Tetrabenazine (0.25-0.75 mg/kg IP) decreased selection of the high cost/high reward arm when the barrier was present, but had no effect on choice under the no barrier and 4-0 barrier conditions. The effects of tetrabenazine on barrier climbing in the 4-2 condition were reversed by the adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 and the catecholamine uptake inhibitor and antidepressant bupropion. These studies have implications for the development of animal models of the motivational symptoms of depression and other disorders.

  17. A Novel EphA2 Inhibitor Exerts Beneficial Effects in PI-IBS in Vivo and in Vitro Models via Nrf2 and NF-κB Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Li; Li, Kaixue; Wei, Hong; Hu, Jingjing; Jiao, Lu; Yu, Shaoyong; Xiong, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Though the detailed pathological mechanism of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) remains unclear, accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress and inflammation are implicated in the process of PI-IBS. Oxidative stress and inflammation are regulated by Nrf2 and NF-κB signaling pathways, respectively. EphA2, a member of Eph receptor family, promotes oxidative stress and inflammatory responses via regulation of Nrf2 and NF-κB signaling pathways in various types of human diseases. Understanding the mechanisms by which EphA2 regulate oxidative stress and inflammation in PI-IBS is important for the development of new strategies to treat PI-IBS. However, the effects of ALW-II-41-27, a novel EphA2 inhibitor on PI-IBS and the underlying molecular mechanisms have never been studied. In the present study, we showed that ALW-II-41-27 decreased gastrointestinal motility and abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) scores, markedly reduced the levels of oxidative stress markers [4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), protein carbonyl, and 8-hydroxy-2-de-axyguanine (8-OHdG)] and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17, and ICAM-1), and remarkably increased the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) in serum and colon of Trichinella spiralis -infected mice. Moreover, ALW-II-41-27 was effective in suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation in LPS-treated NCM460 colonic cells. Treatment of ALW-II-41-27 reversed the activation of NF-κB and inactivation of Nrf2 in LPS-treated NCM460 cells. Importantly, these protective effects of ALW-II-41-27 were partially inhibited by EphA2 KO and abolished by EphA2 overexpression. In conclusion, EphA2 may represent a promising therapeutic target for patients with PI-IBS and ALW-II-41-27 might function as a novel therapeutic agent for PI-IBS.

  18. Functional and Structural Characterization of a Thermostable Phospholipase A2 from a Sparidae Fish (Diplodus annularis).

    PubMed

    Smichi, Nabil; Othman, Houcemeddine; Achouri, Neila; Noiriel, Alexandre; Arondel, Vincent; Srairi-Abid, Najet; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Gargouri, Youssef; Miled, Nabil; Fendri, Ahmed

    2017-03-22

    Novel phospholipase (PLA 2 ) genes from the Sparidae family were cloned. The sequenced PLA 2 revealed an identity with pancreatic PLA 2 group IB. To better understand the structure/function relationships of these enzymes and their evolution, the Diplodus annularis PLA 2 (DaPLA 2 ) was overexpressed in E. coli. The refolded enzyme was purified by Ni-affinity chromatography and has a molecular mass of 15 kDa as determined by MALDI-TOF spectrometry. Interestingly, unlike the pancreatic type, the DaPLA 2 was active and stable at higher temperatures, which suggests its great potential in biotechnological applications. The 3D structure of DaPLA 2 was constructed to gain insights into the functional properties of sparidae PLA 2 . Molecular docking and dynamic simulations were performed to explain the higher thermal stability and the substrate specificity of DaPLA 2 . Using the monolayer technique, the purified DaPLA 2 was found to be active on various phospholipids ranging from 10 to 20 mN·m -1 , which explained the absence of the hemolytic activity for DaPLA 2 .

  19. Intravascular hemolysis induced by the venom of the Eastern coral snake, Micrurus fulvius, in a mouse model: identification of directly hemolytic phospholipases A2.

    PubMed

    Arce-Bejarano, Ruth; Lomonte, Bruno; Gutiérrez, José María

    2014-11-01

    Intravascular hemolysis has been described in envenomings by the Eastern coral snake, Micrurus fulvius, in dogs. An experimental model of intravascular hemolysis was developed in mice after intravenous (i.v.) injection of M. fulvius venom. Within one hr, there was prominent hemolysis, associated with a drastic drop in hematocrit, morphological alterations of erythrocytes, hemoglobinemia, and hemoglobinuria. Hemoglobin was identified in urine by mass spectrometry. Histological sections of kidney revealed abundant hyaline casts, probably corresponding to hemoglobin. This effect was abrogated by p-bromophenacyl bromide, indicating that it is caused by phospholipases A2 (PLA2). A monospecific anti-Micrurus nigrocinctus antivenom neutralized hemolytic activity in vivo. When tested in vitro with erythrocytes of various species, a clear difference in susceptibility was observed. Mouse and dog erythrocytes showed the highest susceptibility, whereas human and rabbit erythrocytes were not affected at the experimental conditions tested. The higher susceptibility of dog and mouse erythrocytes correlates with a high ratio of phosphatidylcholine/sphingomyelin in erythrocyte plasma membrane. When mouse erythrocytes were subjected to mechanical stress, after incubation with venom, hemolysis increased significantly, suggesting that both phospholipid hydrolysis by PLA2s and mechanical stress associated with rheological factors are likely to contribute to cell lysis in vivo. Several PLA2s isolated from this venom reproduced the hemolytic effect, and the complete amino acid sequence of one of them (fraction 17), which also induces myotoxicity, is reported. Since very few PLA2s inducing intravascular hemolysis have been described from snake venoms, this enzyme is a valuable tool to identify the structural determinants of hemolytic activity. The mouse model described in this study may be useful to explore the pathophysiology of intravascular hemolysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd

  20. Attenuation of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer with Cochinchina momordica seed extract through inhibiting cytoplasmic phospholipase A2/5-lipoxygenase and activating γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ki-Seok; Kim, Eun-Hee; Hong, Hua; Ock, Chan Young; Lee, Jeong Sang; Kim, Joo-Hyun; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2012-04-01

    Cysteamine is a reducing aminothiol used for inducing duodenal ulcer through mechanisms of oxidative stress related to thiol-derived H(2)O(2) reaction. Cochinchina momordica saponins have been suggested to be protective against various gastric diseases based on their cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. This study was aimed to document the preventive effects of Cochinchina momordica seed extract against cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer as well as the elucidation of its pharmacological mechanisms. Cochinchina momordica seed extract (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) was administrated intragastrically before cysteamine administration, after which the incidence of the duodenal ulcer, ulcer size, serum gastrin level, and the ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione disulfide (GSSG) as well as biochemical and molecular measurements of cytoplasmic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), 5-lipoxygenase and the expression of proinflammatory genes including IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2 were measured in rat model. Additional experiments of electron spin resonance measurement and the changes of glutathione were performed. Cochinchina momordica seed extract effectively prevented cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer in a dose-dependent manner as reflected with significant decreases in either duodenal ulcerogenesis or perforation accompanied with significantly decreased in serum gastrin in addition to inflammatory mediators including cPLA(2), COX-2, and 5-lipoxygenase. Cochinchina momordica seed extract induced the expression of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS)-related glutathione synthesis as well as significantly reduced the expression of cPLA(2). Cochinchina momordica seed extract preserved reduced glutathione through increased expressions of γ-GCS. Cochinchina momordica seed extracts exerted significantly protective effect against cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer by either cPLA2 inhibition or glutathione preservation. © 2012 Journal of

  1. Genotype × Adiposity Interaction Linkage Analyses Reveal a Locus on Chromosome 1 for Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2, a Marker of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Diego, Vincent P.; Rainwater, David L.; Wang, Xing-Li; Cole, Shelley A.; Curran, Joanne E.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Jowett, Jeremy B. M.; Dyer, Thomas D.; Williams, Jeff T.; Moses, Eric K.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; MacCluer, Jean W.; Mahaney, Michael C.; Blangero, John

    2007-01-01

    Because obesity leads to a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress, we hypothesized that the contribution of genes to variation in a biomarker of these two processes may be influenced by the degree of adiposity. We tested this hypothesis using samples from the San Antonio Family Heart Study that were assayed for activity of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), a marker of inflammation and oxidative stress. Using an approach to model discrete genotype×environment (G×E) interaction, we assigned individuals to one of two discrete diagnostic states (or “adiposity environments”): nonobese or obese, according to criteria suggested by the World Health Organization. We found a genomewide maximum LOD of 3.39 at 153 cM on chromosome 1 for Lp-PLA2. Significant G×E interaction for Lp-PLA2 at the genomewide maximum (P=1.16×10-4) was also found. Microarray gene-expression data were analyzed within the 1-LOD interval of the linkage signal on chromosome 1. We found two transcripts—namely, for Fc gamma receptor IIA and heat-shock protein (70 kDa)—that were significantly associated with Lp-PLA2 (P<.001 for both) and showed evidence of cis-regulation with nominal LOD scores of 2.75 and 13.82, respectively. It would seem that there is a significant genetic response to the adiposity environment in this marker of inflammation and oxidative stress. Additionally, we conclude that G×E interaction analyses can improve our ability to identify and localize quantitative-trait loci. PMID:17160904

  2. The anti-inflammatory effects of Yunnan Baiyao are involved in regulation of the phospholipase A2/arachidonic acid metabolites pathways in acute inflammation rat model.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaobin; Zhang, Mingzhu; Chen, Lingxiang; Zhang, Wanli; Huang, Yu; Luo, Huazhen; Li, Ling; He, Hongbing

    2017-10-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine Yunnan Baiyao (YNB) has been reported to possess anti‑inflammatory properties, however its mechanism of action remains unclear. It was previously reported that YNB ameliorated depression of arachidonic acid (AA) levels in a rat model of collagen-induced arthritis. In the current study, the capacity of YNB to ameliorate inflammation was compared in carrageenan‑induced and AA‑induced acute inflammation of the rat paw with celecoxib and mizolastine, respectively (n=24 per group). The capacity of YNB to affect the phospholipase A2 (PLA2)/AA pathway (using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction) and release of inflammatory lipid mediators (by ELISA) were investigated. Celecoxib ameliorated carrageenan‑induced paw edema, and mizolastine ameliorated AA‑induced rat paw edema. YNB alleviated paw edema and inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration in the two models. YNB inhibited production of 5‑LOX AA metabolite leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and suppressed expression of 5‑LOX, cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2), 5‑LOX‑activating protein, and LTB4 receptor mRNA in the AA‑induced inflammation model (P<0.05). YNB Inhibited the production of the COX‑2 AA metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and suppressed expression of COX‑2, cPLA2, PGE2 mRNA in the carrageenan‑induced inflammation mode (P<0.05). Taken together, the data suggest that modulation of COX and LOX pathways in AA metabolism represent a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism of YNB.

  3. Role of protein kinase C alpha and mitogen-activated protein kinases in endothelin-1-stimulation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 in iris sphincter smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Latif, A A; Husain, S; Yousufzai, S Y

    2000-11-01

    We have investigated the roles of protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in the phosphorylation and activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) in endothelin-1- (ET-1) stimulated cat iris sphincter smooth muscle (CISM) cells. We found that in these cells both PKC and p38 MAP kinases play a critical role in ET-1-induced cPLA, phosphorylation and arachidonic acid (AA) release. Our findings indicate that stimulation of the endothelin-A- (ET(A)) receptor leads to: (1) activation of Gq protein which stimulates phospholipase C to hydrolyze the polyphosphoinositide PIP, into diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol trisphosphate (IP3), the DAG may then activate PKC to phosphorylate and activate cPLA2; and (2) activation of Gi protein, which, through a series of kinases, leads to the stimulation of p38 MAPK and subsequently to phosphorylation and activation of cPLA2. The ability of the activated ET(A)-receptor, which is coupled to both Gq and Gi proteins, to recruit and activate this complex signal transduction mechanism remains to be clarified.

  4. Specificity of Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 Towards Oxidized Phosphatidylserines: LC-ESI-MS Characterization of Products and Computer Modeling of Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tyurin, Vladimir A.; Yanamala, Naveena; Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Macphee, Colin H.; Kagan, Valerian E.

    2013-01-01

    Ca2+ independent lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a member of the phospholipase A2 superfamily with a distinguishing characteristic of high specificity for oxidatively modified sn-2 fatty acid residues in phospholipids which has been especially well characterized for peroxidized species of phosphatidylcholines (PC). The ability of Lp-PLA2 to hydrolyze peroxidized species of phosphatidylserine (PS) – acting as a recognition signal for clearance of apoptotic cells by professional phagocytes - as well as the products of the reaction have not been investigated. We performed LC-MS-ESI-based structural characterization of oxygenated/hydrolyzed molecular species of PS - containing linoleic acid in either sn-2 position (C18:0/C18:2) or in both sn-1 and sn-2 positions (C18:2/C18:2) - formed in cytochrome c/ H2O2 driven enzymatic oxidation reaction. Cytochrome c has been chosen as a catalyst of peroxidation reactions due to its likely involvement in PS oxidation in apoptotic cells. We found that Lp-PLA2 catalyzed the hydrolysis of both non-truncated and truncated (oxidatively fragmented) species of oxidized PS species albeit with different efficiencies and performed detailed characterization of the major reaction products – oxygenated derivatives of linoleic acid as well as non-oxygenated and oxygenated species of lyso-PS. Among linoleic acid products, derivatives oxygenated at the C9 position, including 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9-HODE) – a potent ligand of G protein-coupled receptor G2A - were the most abundant. Computer modeling of interactions of Lp-PLA2 with different PS oxidized species indicated that they are able to bind in proximity (<5Å) to Ser273 and His351 of the catalytic triad. For 9-hydroxy- and 9-hydroperoxy- derivatives of oxidized PS, the sn-2 ester bond was positioned within the very close proximity (<3Å) from the Ser273 residue - a nucleophile directly attacking the sn-2 bond – thus favoring the hydrolysis reaction. We

  5. Carboxylesterase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hatfield, M. Jason; Potter, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Carboxylesterases play major roles in the hydrolysis of numerous therapeutically active compounds. This is, in part, due to the prevalence of the ester moiety in these small molecules. However, the impact these enzymes may play on drug stability and pharmacokinetics is rarely considered prior to molecule development. Therefore, the application of selective inhibitors of this class of proteins may have utility in modulating the metabolism, distribution and toxicity of agents that are subjected to enzyme hydrolysis. Areas covered This review details the development of all such compounds dating back to 1986, but principally focuses on the very recent identification of selective human carboxylesterases inhibitors. Expert opinion The implementation of carboxylesterase inhibitors may significantly revolutionize drug discovery. Such molecules may allow for improved efficacy of compounds inactivated by this class of enzymes and/or reduce the toxicity of agents that are activated by these proteins. Furthermore, since lack of carboxylesterase activity appears to have no obvious biological consequence, these compounds could be applied in combination with virtually any esterified drug. Therefore, inhibitors of these proteins may have utility in altering drug hydrolysis and distribution in vivo. The characteristics, chemical and biological properties, and potential uses of such agents, are discussed here. PMID:21609191

  6. [Syk inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yukihiro; Chihara, Kazuyasu; Takeuchi, Kenji; Sada, Kiyonao

    2013-07-01

    Non-receptor type of protein-tyrosine kinase Syk (spleen tyrosine kinase) was isolated in the University of Fukui in 1991. Syk is known to be essential for the various physiological functions, especially in hematopoietic lineage cells. Moreover, ectopic expression of Syk by epigenetic changes is reported to cause retinoblastoma. Recently, novel Syk inhibitors were developed and its usefulness has been evaluated in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. In this review, we will summarize the history, structure, and function of Syk, and then describe the novel Syk inhibitors and their current status. Furthermore, we will introduce our findings of the adaptor protein 3BP2 (c-Abl SH3 domain-binding protein-2), as a novel target of Syk.

  7. Syk inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Kazuyasu; Kimura, Yukihiro; Honjo, Chisato; Takeuchi, Kenji; Sada, Kiyonao

    2013-01-01

    Non-receptor type of protein-tyrosine kinase Syk (spleen tyrosine kinase) was isolated in University of Fukui in 1991. Syk is most highly expressed by haemopoietic cells and known to play crucial roles in the signal transduction through various immunoreceptors of the adaptive immune response. However, recent reports demonstrate that Syk also mediates other biological functions, such as innate immune response, osteoclast maturation, platelet activation and cellular adhesion. Moreover, ectopic expression of Syk by epigenetic changes is reported to cause retinoblastoma. Because of its critical roles on the cellular functions, the development of Syk inhibitors for clinical use has been desired. Although many candidate compounds were produced, none of them had progressed to clinical trials. However, novel Syk inhibitors were finally developed and its usefulness has been evaluated in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, rheumatoid arthritis and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. In this review, we will summarize the history, structure and function of Syk, and then the novel Syk inhibitors and their current status. In addition, we will introduce our research focused on the functions of Syk on Dectin-1-mediated mast cell activation.

  8. Influence of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage on nicotine-induced contraction of the rat basilar artery in relation to arachidonic acid metabolites signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xu; Wang, Aimin; Trandafir, Cristina C; Kurahashi, Kazuyoshi

    2013-10-01

    Smoking is one of the most important risk factors for cerebral circulatory disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) on nicotine-induced contraction (arachidonic acid metabolites) in the basilar arteries of rats. Rats were killed at 1 hour and 1 week after blood injection, and the basilar artery was isolated and cut into a spiral strip. Testing of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibitors revealed no significant differences in their effects on normal and SAH (1 hour and 1 week). Phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor (1-(6-((17beta-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17yl)amino)hexyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5,-dione [U-73122]) slightly inhibited contraction of SAH (1 hour and 1 week) when compared to controls. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitor (manoalide) and cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2) inhibitor (arachidonyltrifluoromenthylketone [AACOCF3]) more strongly attenuated contraction in SAH (1 hour and 1 week) than in controls. Secreted PLA2 (sPLA2) inhibitor (indoxam), PLC inhibitor (2-nitro-4-carboxyphenyl N, N-diphenylcarbamate [NCDC]), and COX-2 inhibitors (nimesulide, (5-methanesulfonamido-6-(2,4-difluorothiophenyl)-1-indanone) [L-745337], and celecoxib) only slightly inhibited contraction of SAH (1 week) when compared to normal and SAH (1 hour). The calcium-independent PLA2 (iPLA2) inhibitor bromoenol lactone (BEL) showed greater inhibition of contraction in SAH (1 hour) when compared to normal and SAH (1 week). One week after exposure to SAH, PLC, sPLA2, and COX-2 activity were enhanced and cPLA2 activity was inhibited. One hour after exposure to SAH, PLC activity was enhanced and cPLA2 and iPLA2 activity was inhibited. Such changes of inflammatory arachidonic acid metabolites by smoking after SAH may play important roles in fatal cerebral circulatory disorders, suggesting important implications for the etiology and pathogenesis of SAH. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by

  9. The molecular biology of the group VIA Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Ma, Z; Turk, J

    2001-01-01

    The group VIA PLA2 is a member of the PLA2 superfamily. This enzyme, which is cytosolic and Ca2+-independent, has been designated iPLA2beta to distinguish it from another recently cloned Ca2+-independent PLA2. Features of iPLA2beta molecular structure offer some insight into possible cellular functions of the enzyme. At least two catalytically active iPLA2beta isoforms and additionalsplicing variants are derived from a single gene that consists of at least 17 exons located on human chromosome 22q13.1. Potential tumor suppressor genes also reside at or near this locus. Structural analyses reveal that iPLA2beta contains unique structural features that include a serine lipase consensus motif (GXSXG), a putative ATP-binding domain, an ankyrin-repeat domain, a caspase-3 cleavage motif DVTD138Y/N, a bipartite nuclear localization signal sequence, and a proline-rich region in the human long isoform. iPLA2beta is widely expressed among mammalian tissues, with highest expression in testis and brain. iPLA2beta prefers to hydrolyze fatty acid at the sn-2 fatty acid substituent but also exhibits phospholipase A1, lysophospholipase, PAF acetylhydrolase, and transacylase activities. iPLA2beta may participate in signaling, apoptosis, membrane phospholipid remodeling, membrane homeostasis, arachidonate release, and exocytotic membrane fusion. Structural features and the existence of multiple splicing variants of iPLA2beta suggest that iPLA2beta may be subject to complex regulatory mechanisms that differ among cell types. Further study of its regulation and interaction with other proteins may yield insight into how its structural features are related to its function.

  10. Crystal structures of human group-VIIA phospholipase A2 inhibited by organophosphorus nerve agents exhibit non-aged complexes.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Uttamkumar; Kirby, Stephen D; Srinivasan, Prabhavathi; Cerasoli, Douglas M; Bahnson, Brian J

    2009-08-15

    The enzyme group-VIIA phospholipase A2 (gVIIA-PLA2) is bound to lipoproteins in human blood and hydrolyzes the ester bond at the sn-2 position of phospholipid substrates with a short sn-2 chain. The enzyme belongs to a serine hydrolase superfamily of enzymes, which react with organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents. OPs ultimately exert their toxicity by inhibiting human acetycholinesterase at nerve synapses, but may additionally have detrimental effects through inhibition of other serine hydrolases. We have solved the crystal structures of gVIIA-PLA2 following inhibition with the OPs diisopropylfluorophosphate, sarin, soman and tabun. The sarin and soman complexes displayed a racemic mix of P(R) and P(S) stereoisomers at the P-chiral center. The tabun complex displayed only the P(R) stereoisomer in the crystal. In all cases, the crystal structures contained intact OP adducts that had not aged. Aging refers to a secondary process OP complexes can go through, which dealkylates the nerve agent adduct and results in a form that is highly resistant to either spontaneous or oxime-mediated reactivation. Non-aged OP complexes of the enzyme were corroborated by trypsin digest and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry of OP-enzyme complexes. The lack of stereoselectivity of sarin reaction was confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using a chiral column to separate and quantitate the unbound stereoisomers of sarin following incubation with enzyme. The structural details and characterization of nascent reactivity of several toxic nerve agents is discussed with a long-term goal of developing gVIIA-PLA2 as a catalytic bioscavenger of OP nerve agents.

  11. Crystal structures of human group-VIIA phospholipase A2 inhibited by organophosphorus nerve agents exhibit non-aged complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, Uttamkumar; Kirby, Stephen D.; Srinivasan, Prabhavathi

    The enzyme group-VIIA phospholipase A2 (gVIIA-PLA2) is bound to lipoproteins in human blood and hydrolyzes the ester bond at the sn-2 position of phospholipid substrates with a short sn-2 chain. The enzyme belongs to a serine hydrolase superfamily of enzymes, which react with organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents. OPs ultimately exert their toxicity by inhibiting human acetycholinesterase at nerve synapses, but may additionally have detrimental effects through inhibition of other serine hydrolases. We have solved the crystal structures of gVIIA-PLA2 following inhibition with the OPs diisopropylfluorophosphate, sarin, soman and tabun. The sarin and soman complexes displayed a racemic mix of P{submore » R} and P{sub S} stereoisomers at the P-chiral center. The tabun complex displayed only the P{sub R} stereoisomer in the crystal. In all cases, the crystal structures contained intact OP adducts that had not aged. Aging refers to a secondary process OP complexes can go through, which dealkylates the nerve agent adduct and results in a form that is highly resistant to either spontaneous or oxime-mediated reactivation. Non-aged OP complexes of the enzyme were corroborated by trypsin digest and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry of OP-enzyme complexes. The lack of stereoselectivity of sarin reaction was confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using a chiral column to separate and quantitate the unbound stereoisomers of sarin following incubation with enzyme. The structural details and characterization of nascent reactivity of several toxic nerve agents is discussed with a long-term goal of developing gVIIA-PLA2 as a catalytic bioscavenger of OP nerve agents.« less

  12. Correlations between endotoxin, interferon-gamma, biopterin and serum phospholipase A2-activities during lethal gram negative sepsis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hunsicker, A; Kullich, W; Weissenhofer, W; Lorenz, D; Petermann, J; Rokos, H; Schwesinger, G

    1997-05-01

    To establish a standardised reproducible animal model of intraperitoneal sepsis, and to investigate early immunoserological responses to find a mediator-based system for evaluation and grading of diffuse peritonitis in patients Prospective experimental study 4 Teaching hospitals, Germany and Austria 42 LEW. 1W rats, 12 of which acted as controls Gram negative sepsis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 6 ml of a mixture of Escherichia coli (K1:H+) 10(10) organisms/ml, autogenous haemoglobin 2.9 ml (haemoglobin concentration 3%), 0.9% sodium chloride 3 ml, and suspension 0.1 ml. Control rats were given physiological saline 6 ml alone. Concentrations of endotoxin, interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), and biopterin, and serum phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity. There were significant differences between the septic and control rats in concentrations of endotoxin (EU/ml) (median (interquartile range) 21.85 (2.02-159.5) compared with 0, p < 0.0001; IFN-gamma (pg/ml) 1263.0 (271.0-7575.0) compared with 101.0 (89.0-141.0), p < 0.0001; biopterin (nmol/L) 111.0 (66.4-156.3) compared with 53.7 (38.3-67.6), p < 0.001; and PLA2 (U/L) 163.0 (125.8-209.0) compared with 112.5 (88.5-126.5) p < 0.01. Measurements of concentrations of endotoxin, IFN-gamma, pteridines, and PLA2 activity may well be adequate markers for early recognition of sepsis, and perhaps for grading it during the first 6 hours after induction. The allow a clear distinction to be made between septic and non-septic disorders in 87% of cases.

  13. Eastern coral snake Micrurus fulvius venom toxicity in mice is mainly determined by neurotoxic phospholipases A2.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Irene; Pedraza-Escalona, Martha; Paniagua, Dayanira; Restano-Cassulini, Rita; Zamudio, Fernando; Batista, Cesar V F; Possani, Lourival D; Alagón, Alejandro

    2014-06-13

    Here we show for the first time that the venom from an elapid (Micrurus fulvius) contains three finger toxin (3FTxs) peptides with low toxicity but high content of lethal phospholipases A2 (PLA2). The intravenous venom LD50 in mice was 0.3μg/g. Fractionation on a C18 column yielded 22 fractions; in terms of abundance, 58.3% of them were components of 13-14kDa and 24.9% were molecules of 6-7kDa. Two fractions with PLA2 activity represented 33.4% of the whole venom and were the most lethal fractions. Fractions with low molecular mass (<7000Da) partially and reversibly blocked the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), with the exception of one that blocked it completely. The fraction that blocked 100% contained two protein species whose dose-response was determined; the IC50s were 13±1 and 9.5±0.3nM. Despite the apparent effect on nAChR none of the low molecular mass fractions were lethal in mice, at concentrations of 1μg/g. From 2D-PAGE and LC-MS/MS, we identified fourteen species of PLA2, four protein species of C-type lectin, three zinc metalloproteinases, one phosphodiesterase and one 3FTx. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of fractions with biological interest was obtained. In contrast with coral snake venoms from South America, M. fulvius has minor amounts of low molecular mass components, but high content of PLA2, which is responsible for the venom lethality of this species. The results reported here contribute to better understanding of envenomation development and to improve antivenom design and production. These findings break from the paradigm that neurotoxicity caused by Micrurus venoms is mainly attributable to 3FTx neurotoxins and encourage future studies on Micrurus evolution and venom specialization. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Non-model organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have different effects on peripheral phospholipase A2 gene expressions in acute depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Su, Kuan-Pin; Yang, Hui-Ting; Chang, Jane Pei-Chen; Shih, Yin-Hua; Guu, Ta-Wei; Kumaran, Satyanarayanan Senthil; Gałecki, Piotr; Walczewska, Anna; Pariante, Carmine M

    2018-01-03

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been proven critical in the development and management of major depressive disorder (MDD) by a number of epidemiological, clinical and preclinical studies, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this therapeutic action are yet to be understood. Although eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) seems to be the active component of omega-3 PUFAs' antidepressant effects, the biological research about the difference of specific genetic regulations between EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the two main components of omega-3 PUFAs, is still lacking in human subjects. We conducted a 12-week randomized-controlled trial comparing the effects of EPA and DHA on gene expressions of phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), serotonin transporter (5HTT), and Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH-2) in 27 MDD patients. In addition, the erythrocyte PUFA compositions and the candidate gene expressions were also compared between these 27 MDD patients and 22 healthy controls. EPA was associated with a significant decrease in HAM-D scores (CI: -13 to -21, p<0.001) and significant increases in erythrocyte levels of EPA (CI: +1.0% to +2.9%, p=0.001) and DHA (CI: +2.9% to +5.6%, p=0.007). DHA treatment was associated with a significant decrease in HAM-D scores (CI: -6 to -14, p<0.001) and a significant increase in DHA levels (CI: +0.2% to +2.3%, p=0.047), but not of EPA levels. The cPLA2 gene expression levels were significantly increased in patients received EPA (1.9 folds, p=0.038), but not DHA (1.08 folds, p=0.92). There was a tendency for both EPA and DHA groups to decrease COX-2 gene expressions. The gene expressions of COX-2, cPLA2, TPH-2 and 5-HTT did not differ between MDD cases and healthy controls. EPA differentiates from DHA in clinical antidepressant efficacy and in upregulating cPLA2 gene regulations, which supports the clinical observation showing the superiority of EPA's antidepressant effects. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT

  15. The effect of Danshen extract on lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 levels in patients with stable angina pectoris: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial - the DOLPHIN study.

    PubMed

    Chen, A-Di; Wang, Chun-Ling; Qin, Yang; Tian, Liang; Chen, Li-Bin; Yuan, Xiao-Ming; Ma, Lin-Xiu; Wang, Yu-Feng; Sun, Ji-Rong; Wang, Hao-Sen; Dai, Neng

    2017-12-20

    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 (Lp-PLA 2 ), a biomarker of oxidation and inflammation, has been associated with increased coronary artery disease risk. To date, very few studies have examined the Chinese herbal drug Danshen or its extract on Lp-PLA 2 in patients with stable angina pectoris. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of Danshen extract on Lp-PLA 2 level in patients with stable angina. This is a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, adaptive clinical trial. A total of 156 patients meeting the eligibility criteria will be randomly assigned to either the Danshen extract (DanshenDuofensuanyan injection and Danshen drop spill) group or the placebo group in a 1:1 ratio. Participants will then undergo treatment with DanshenDuofensuanyan injection or placebo (glucose) during hospitalization, followed by open-label Danshen drop spill (30 pills/day) in Danshen extract group for 60 days after discharge. Because this is an adaptive trial, two interim analyses are prospectively planned. These will be performed after one-third and two-thirds of the patients, respectively, have completed the trial. On the basis of the results of these interim analyses, a data monitoring committee will determine how to modify aspects of the study without undermining the validity and integrity of the trial. The primary outcome measure is the serum level of Lp-PLA 2 in the Danshen extract group and the placebo group. The secondary outcomes include the proportion of patients who show a clinically significant change, which is defined as at least a 20-point improvement in angina frequency score on the Seattle Angina Questionnaire and the carotid intima-media thickness, which will be measured using ultrasound. Other secondary efficacy and safety outcomes will also be assessed. This study will provide evidence that Danshen extract is beneficial for stable angina and may establish a possible mechanism of Danshen treatment effects on cardiovascular disease. This

  16. Antiparasitic effects induced by polyclonal IgY antibodies anti-phospholipase A2 from Bothrops pauloensis venom.

    PubMed

    Borges, Isabela Pacheco; Silva, Mariana Ferreira; Santiago, Fernanda Maria; de Faria, Lucas Silva; Júnior, Álvaro Ferreira; da Silva, Rafaela José; Costa, Mônica Soares; de Freitas, Vitor; Yoneyama, Kelly Aparecida Geraldo; Ferro, Eloísa Amália Vieira; Lopes, Daiana Silva; Rodrigues, Renata Santos; de Melo Rodrigues, Veridiana

    2018-06-01

    Activities of phospholipases (PLAs) have been linked to pathogenesis in various microorganisms, and implicated in cell invasion and so the interest in these enzymes as potential targets that could contribute to the control of parasite survival and proliferation. Chicken eggs immunized with BnSP-7, a Lys49 phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) homologue from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom, represent an excellent source of polyclonal antibodies with potential inhibitory activity on parasite PLA s. Herein, we report the production, characterization and anti-parasitic effect of IgY antibodies from egg yolks of hens immunized with BnSP-7. Produced antibodies presented increasing avidity and affinity for antigenic toxin epitopes throughout immunization, attaining a plateau after 4weeks. Pooled egg yolks-purified anti-BnSP-7 IgY antibodies were able to specifically recognize different PLA 2 s from Bothrops pauloensis and Bothrops jararacussu venom. Antibodies also neutralized BnSP-7 cytotoxic activity in C2C12 cells. Also, the antibodies recognized targets in Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and Toxoplasma gondii extracts by ELISA and immunofluorescence assays. Anti-BnSP-7 IgY antibodies were cytotoxic to T. gondii tachyzoite and L. (L.) amazonensis promastigotes, and were able to decrease proliferation of both parasites treated before infection. These data suggest that the anti-BnSP-7 IgY is an important tool for discovering new parasite targets and blocking parasitic effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Contributions of residues of pancreatic phospholipase A2 to interfacial binding, catalysis, and activation.

    PubMed

    Yu, B Z; Rogers, J; Tsai, M D; Pidgeon, C; Jain, M K

    1999-04-13

    Primary rate and equilibrium parameters for 60 site-directed mutants of bovine pancreatic phospholipase A2 (PLA2) are analyzed so incremental contributions of the substitution of specific residues can be evaluated. The magnitude of the change is evaluated so a functional role in the context of the N- and C-domains of PLA2 can be assigned, and their relationship to the catalytic residues and to the i-face that makes contact with the interface. The effect of substitutions and interfacial charge is characterized by the equilibrium dissociation constant for dissociation of the bound enzyme from the interface (Kd), the dissociation constant for dissociation of a substrate mimic from the active site of the bound enzyme (KL), and the interfacial Michaelis constants, KM and kcat. Activity is lost (>99.9%) on the substitution of H48 and D49, the catalytic residues. A more than 95% decrease in kcat is seen with the substitution of F5, I9, D99, A102, or F106, which form the substrate binding pocket. Certain residues, which are not part of the catalytic site or the substrate binding pocket, also modulate kcat. Interfacial anionic charge lowers Kd, and induces kcat activation through K56, K53, K119, or K120. Significant changes in KL are seen by the substitution of N6, I9, F22, Y52, K53, N71, Y73, A102, or A103. Changes in KM [=(k2+k-1)/k1] are attributed to kcat (=k2) and KL (=k-1/k1). Some substitutions change more than one parameter, implying an allosteric effect of the binding to the interface on KS, and the effect of the interfacial anionic charge on kcat. Interpreted in the context of the overall structure, results provide insights into the role of segments and domains in the microscopic events of catalytic turnover and processivity, and their allosteric regulation. We suggest that the interfacial recognition region (i-face) of PLA2, due to the plasticity of certain segments and domains, exercises an allosteric control on the substrate binding and chemical step.

  18. Structural analysis of phospholipase A2 from functional perspective. 1. Functionally relevant solution structure and roles of the hydrogen-bonding network.

    PubMed

    Yuan, C; Byeon, I J; Li, Y; Tsai, M D

    1999-03-09

    Bovine pancreatic phospholipase A2 (PLA2), a small (13.8 kDa) Ca2+-dependent lipolytic enzyme, is rich in functional and structural character. In an effort to examine its detailed structure-function relationship, we determined its solution structure by multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy at a functionally relevant pH. An ensemble of 20 structures generated has an average root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) of 0.62 +/- 0.08 A for backbone (N, Calpha, C) atoms and 0.98 +/- 0.09 A for all heavy atoms. The overall structure shows several notable differences from the crystal structure: the first three residues at the N-terminus, the calcium-binding loop (Y25-T36), and the surface loop (V63-N72) appear to be flexible; the alpha-helical conformation of helix B (E17-F22) is absent; helix D appears to be shorter (D59-V63 instead of D59-D66); and the hydrogen-bonding network is less defined. These differences were analyzed in relation to the function of PLA2. We then further examined the H-bonding network, because its functional role or even its existence in solution has been in dispute recently. Our results show that part of the H-bonding network (the portion away from N-terminus) clearly exists in solution, as evidenced by direct observation (at 11.1 ppm) of a strong H-bond between Y73 and D99 and an implicated interaction between D99 and H48. Analyses of a series of mutants indicated that the existence of the Y73.D99 H-bond correlates directly with the conformational stability of the mutant. Loss of this H-bond results in a loss of 2-3 kcal/mol in the conformational stability of PLA2. The unequivocal identification and demonstration of the structural importance of a specific hydrogen bond, and the magnitude of its contribution to conformational stability, are uncommon to the best of our knowledge. Our results also suggest that, while the D99.H48 catalytic diad is the key catalytic machinery of PLA2, it also helps to maintain conformational

  19. Kidney Transplantation in a Patient Lacking Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 Proves Renal Origins of Urinary PGI-M and TX-M.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jane A; Knowles, Rebecca B; Kirkby, Nicholas S; Reed, Daniel M; Edin, Matthew L; White, William E; Chan, Melissa V; Longhurst, Hilary; Yaqoob, Magdi M; Milne, Ginger L; Zeldin, Darryl C; Warner, Timothy D

    2018-02-16

    The balance between vascular prostacyclin, which is antithrombotic, and platelet thromboxane A 2 , which is prothrombotic, is fundamental to cardiovascular health. Prostacyclin and thromboxane A 2 are formed after the concerted actions of cPLA 2 α (cytosolic phospholipase A 2 ) and COX (cyclooxygenase). Urinary 2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF 1α (PGI-M) and 11-dehydro-TXB 2 (TX-M) have been taken as biomarkers of prostacyclin and thromboxane A 2 formation within the circulation and used to explain COX biology and patient phenotypes, despite concerns that urinary PGI-M and TX-M originate in the kidney. We report data from a remarkable patient carrying an extremely rare genetic mutation in cPLA 2 α, causing almost complete loss of prostacyclin and thromboxane A 2 , who was transplanted with a normal kidney resulting in an experimental scenario of whole-body cPLA 2 α knockout, kidney-specific knockin. By studying this patient, we can determine definitively the contribution of the kidney to the productions of PGI-M and TX-M and test their validity as markers of prostacyclin and thromboxane A 2 in the circulation. Metabolites were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Endothelial cells were grown from blood progenitors. Before kidney transplantation, the patient's endothelial cells and platelets released negligible levels of prostacyclin (measured as 6-keto-prostaglandin F 1α ) and thromboxane A 2 (measured as TXB 2 ), respectively. Likewise, the urinary levels of PGI-M and TX-M were very low. After transplantation and the establishment of normal renal function, the levels of PGI-M and TX-M in the patient's urine rose to within normal ranges, whereas endothelial production of prostacyclin and platelet production of thromboxane A 2 remained negligible. These data show that PGI-M and TX-M can be derived exclusively from the kidney without contribution from prostacyclin made by endothelial cells or thromboxane A 2 by platelets in the general circulation

  20. Structural Characterization of Myotoxic Ecarpholin S From Echis carinatus Venom

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xingding; Tan, Tien-Chye; Valiyaveettil, S.; Go, Mei Lin; Kini, R. Manjunatha; Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian; Sivaraman, J.

    2008-01-01

    Phospholipase A2 (PLA2), a common toxic component of snake venom, has been implicated in various pharmacological effects. Ecarpholin S, isolated from the venom of the snake Echis carinatus sochureki, is a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) belonging to the Ser49-PLA2 subgroup. It has been characterized as having low enzymatic but potent myotoxic activities. The crystal structures of native ecarpholin S and its complexes with lauric acid, and its inhibitor suramin, were elucidated. This is the first report of the structure of a member of the Ser49-PLA2 subgroup. We also examined interactions of ecarpholin S with phosphatidylglycerol and lauric acid, using surface plasmon resonance, and of suramin with isothermal titration calorimetry. Most Ca2+-dependent PLA2 enzymes have Asp in position 49, which plays a crucial role in Ca2+ binding. The three-dimensional structure of ecarpholin S reveals a unique conformation of the Ca2+-binding loop that is not favorable for Ca2+ coordination. Furthermore, the endogenously bound fatty acid (lauric acid) in the hydrophobic channel may also interrupt the catalytic cycle. These two observations may account for the low enzymatic activity of ecarpholin S, despite full retention of the catalytic machinery. These observations may also be applicable to other non-Asp49-PLA2 enzymes. The interaction of suramin in its complex with ecarpholin S is quite different from that reported for the Lys49-PLA2/suramin complex, where the interfacial recognition face (i-face), C-terminal region, and N-terminal region of ecarpholin S play important roles. This study provides significant structural and functional insights into the myotoxic activity of ecarpholin S and, in general, of non-Asp49-PLA2 enzymes. PMID:18586854

  1. Structural Characterization of Myotoxic Ecarpholin S From Echis carinatus Venom

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, X.; Tan, T; Valiyaveettil, S

    2008-01-01

    Phospholipase A2 (PLA2), a common toxic component of snake venom, has been implicated in various pharmacological effects. Ecarpholin S, isolated from the venom of the snake Echis carinatus sochureki, is a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) belonging to the Ser49-PLA2 subgroup. It has been characterized as having low enzymatic but potent myotoxic activities. The crystal structures of native ecarpholin S and its complexes with lauric acid, and its inhibitor suramin, were elucidated. This is the first report of the structure of a member of the Ser49-PLA2 subgroup. We also examined interactions of ecarpholin S with phosphatidylglycerol and lauric acid, using surface plasmonmore » resonance, and of suramin with isothermal titration calorimetry. Most Ca2+-dependent PLA2 enzymes have Asp in position 49, which plays a crucial role in Ca2+ binding. The three-dimensional structure of ecarpholin S reveals a unique conformation of the Ca2+-binding loop that is not favorable for Ca2+ coordination. Furthermore, the endogenously bound fatty acid (lauric acid) in the hydrophobic channel may also interrupt the catalytic cycle. These two observations may account for the low enzymatic activity of ecarpholin S, despite full retention of the catalytic machinery. These observations may also be applicable to other non-Asp49-PLA2 enzymes. The interaction of suramin in its complex with ecarpholin S is quite different from that reported for the Lys49-PLA2/suramin complex, where the interfacial recognition face (i-face), C-terminal region, and N-terminal region of ecarpholin S play important roles. This study provides significant structural and functional insights into the myotoxic activity of ecarpholin S and, in general, of non-Asp49-PLA2 enzymes.« less

  2. Neuromuscular paralysis by the basic phospholipase A2 subunit of crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom needs its acid chaperone to concurrently inhibit acetylcholine release and produce muscle blockage.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Walter L G; Noronha-Matos, José B; Timóteo, Maria A; Fontes, Marcos R M; Gallacci, Márcia; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo

    2017-11-01

    Crotoxin (CTX), a heterodimeric phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) neurotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, promotes irreversible blockade of neuromuscular transmission. Indirect electrophysiological evidence suggests that CTX exerts a primary inhibitory action on transmitter exocytosis, yet contribution of a postsynaptic action of the toxin resulting from nicotinic receptor desensitization cannot be excluded. Here, we examined the blocking effect of CTX on nerve-evoked transmitter release measured directly using radioisotope neurochemistry and video microscopy with the FM4-64 fluorescent dye. Experiments were conducted using mice phrenic-diaphragm preparations. Real-time fluorescence video microscopy and liquid scintillation spectrometry techniques were used to detect transmitter exocytosis and nerve-evoked [ 3 H]-acetylcholine ([ 3 H]ACh) release, respectively. Nerve-evoked myographic recordings were also carried out for comparison purposes. Both CTX (5μg/mL) and its basic PLA 2 subunit (CB, 20μg/mL) had biphasic effects on nerve-evoked transmitter exocytosis characterized by a transient initial facilitation followed by a sustained decay. CTX and CB reduced nerve-evoked [ 3 H]ACh release by 60% and 69%, respectively, but only the heterodimer, CTX, decreased the amplitude of nerve-evoked muscle twitches. Data show that CTX exerts a presynaptic inhibitory action on ACh release that is highly dependent on its intrinsic PLA 2 activity. Given the high safety margin of the neuromuscular transmission, one may argue that the presynaptic block caused by the toxin is not enough to produce muscle paralysis unless a concurrent postsynaptic inhibitory action is also exerted by the CTX heterodimer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Arachidonic acid, but not its metabolites, is essential for FcγR-stimulated intracellular killing of Staphylococcus aureus by human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, L; Zomerdijk, T P L; Van Den Barselaar, M T; Geertsma, M F; Van Furth, R; Nibbering, P H

    1999-01-01

    Since arachidonic acid (AA) production by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is essential for the Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-mediated respiratory burst and phagocytosis of opsonized erythrocytes by monocytes and macrophages, we focused in this study on the role of AA and its metabolites in the FcγR-stimulated intracellular killing of Staphylococcus aureus by human monocytes. The results revealed that the PLA2 inhibitors, but not inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase, markedly suppressed the FcγR-mediated killing process. The production of O−2 by monocytes upon FcγR cross-linking was inhibited by 4-bromophenacyl bromide in a dose-dependent fashion, indicating that inhibition of PLA2 activity impairs the oxygen-dependent bactericidal mechanisms of monocytes, which could be partially restored by addition of exogenous AA and docosahexaenoic acid, but not myristic acid. These polyunsaturated fatty acids, but not myristic acid, stimulated the intracellular killing of S. aureus by monocytes, although not as effectively as FcγR cross-linking. Furthermore, FcγR cross-linking stimulated the release of AA from monocytes. Studies with selective inhibitors revealed that the FcγR-mediated activation of PLA2 is dependent on Ca2+ and tyrosine kinase activity. Together these results indicate a key role for PLA2/AA, but not its major metabolites, in mediating the FcγR-stimulated intracellular killing of S. aureus by monocytes. PMID:10233682

  4. Effect of different alcohols on stratum corneum kallikrein 5 and phospholipase A2 together with epidermal keratinocytes and skin irritation.

    PubMed

    Cartner, T; Brand, N; Tian, K; Saud, A; Carr, T; Stapleton, P; Lane, M E; Rawlings, A V

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the effect of ethanol, isopropanol and n-propanol on stratum corneum (SC) enzymes and keratinocytes in vitro together with their effects on skin condition and function. Activities of kallikrein 5 (KLK5) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) as well as keratinocyte metabolic activity, interleukin-1α (IL-1α) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured in vitro in the presence and absence of the different alcohols. We also measured transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin capacitance, visual dryness and visual redness on the volar forearms of 25 Caucasian women following application of the alcohols 20 and 100 times per day over a period of 14 days in a clinical study. Reduced activities of KLK5 and PLA2 were observed in the presence of the alcohols. The greatest denaturing effect was always observed for n-propanol (P < 0.001), and in the case of PLA2, the effect of isopropanol was greater than ethanol (P < 0.001). Equally, ethanol had the mildest effects on keratinocyte metabolic activity and cytokine secretion (P < 0.001) and n-propanol always produced the most severe changes in normal and differentiated keratinocytes. These in vitro findings supported the clinical results where the major effects were on the induction of skin irritation (increased dropout rates) and ranked the intolerance of the different alcohols as follows: n-propanol > isopropanol > ethanol. At the high application frequencies, the effect of the different alcohols on transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin capacitance was similar, but at the low application frequencies, n-propanol had a significant effect on TEWL and capacitance values (P < 0.05). Equally, n-propanol and isopropanol produced significantly more skin redness at the low application frequencies. Clearly, isopropanol and n-propanol caused significant SC and keratinocyte perturbation in vitro together with damage to skin condition and function in vivo whereas ethanol

  5. Trifluorothymidine resistance is associated with decreased thymidine kinase and equilibrative nucleoside transporter expression or increased secretory phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Temmink, Olaf H; Bijnsdorp, Irene V; Prins, Henk-Jan; Losekoot, Nienke; Adema, Auke D; Smid, Kees; Honeywell, Richard J; Ylstra, Bauke; Eijk, Paul P; Fukushima, Masakazu; Peters, Godefridus J

    2010-04-01

    Trifluorothymidine (TFT) is part of the novel oral formulation TAS-102, which is currently evaluated in phase II studies. Drug resistance is an important limitation of cancer therapy. The aim of the present study was to induce resistance to TFT in H630 colon cancer cells using two different schedules and to analyze the resistance mechanism. Cells were exposed either continuously or intermittently to TFT, resulting in H630-cTFT and H630-4TFT, respectively. Cells were analyzed for cross-resistance, cell cycle, protein expression, and activity of thymidine phosphorylase (TP), thymidine kinase (TK), thymidylate synthase (TS), equilibrative nucleoside transporter (hENT), gene expression (microarray), and genomic alterations. Both cell lines were cross-resistant to 2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (>170-fold). Exposure to IC(75)-TFT increased the S/G(2)-M phase of H630 cells, whereas in the resistant variants, no change was observed. The two main target enzymes TS and TP remained unchanged in both TFT-resistant variants. In H630-4TFT cells, TK protein expression and activity were decreased, resulting in less activated TFT and was most likely the mechanism of TFT resistance. In H630-cTFT cells, hENT mRNA expression was decreased 2- to 3-fold, resulting in a 5- to 10-fold decreased TFT-nucleotide accumulation. Surprisingly, microarray-mRNA analysis revealed a strong increase of secretory phospholipase-A2 (sPLA2; 47-fold), which was also found by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR; 211-fold). sPLA2 inhibition reversed TFT resistance partially. H630-cTFT had many chromosomal aberrations, but the exact role of sPLA2 in TFT resistance remains unclear. Altogether, resistance induction to TFT can lead to different mechanisms of resistance, including decreased TK protein expression and enzyme activity, decreased hENT expression, as well as (phospho)lipid metabolism. Mol Cancer Ther; 9(4); 1047-57. (c)2010 AACR.

  6. Structure/Function Relationships of Adipose Phospholipase A2 Containing a Cys-His-His Catalytic Triad*

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Xiao-Yan; Cao, Jian; Addington, Linsee; Lovell, Scott; Battaile, Kevin P.; Zhang, Na; Rao, J. L. Uma Maheswar; Dennis, Edward A.; Moise, Alexander R.

    2012-01-01

    Adipose phospholipase A2 (AdPLA or Group XVI PLA2) plays an important role in the onset of obesity by suppressing adipose tissue lipolysis. As a consequence, AdPLA-deficient mice are resistant to obesity induced by a high fat diet or leptin deficiency. It has been proposed that AdPLA mediates its antilipolytic effects by catalyzing the release of arachidonic acid. Based on sequence homology, AdPLA is part of a small family of acyltransferases and phospholipases related to lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT). To better understand the enzymatic mechanism of AdPLA and LRAT-related proteins, we solved the crystal structure of AdPLA. Our model indicates that AdPLA bears structural similarity to proteins from the NlpC/P60 family of cysteine proteases, having its secondary structure elements configured in a circular permutation of the classic papain fold. Using both structural and biochemical evidence, we demonstrate that the enzymatic activity of AdPLA is mediated by a distinctive Cys-His-His catalytic triad and that the C-terminal transmembrane domain of AdPLA is required for the interfacial catalysis. Analysis of the enzymatic activity of AdPLA toward synthetic and natural substrates indicates that AdPLA displays PLA1 in addition to PLA2 activity. Thus, our results provide insight into the enzymatic mechanism and biochemical properties of AdPLA and LRAT-related proteins and lead us to propose an alternate mechanism for AdPLA in promoting adipose tissue lipolysis that is not contingent on the release of arachidonic acid and that is compatible with its combined PLA1/A2 activity. PMID:22923616

  7. Recombinant-phospholipase A2 production and architecture of inclusion bodies are affected by pH in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Calcines-Cruz, Carlos; Olvera, Alejandro; Castro-Acosta, Ricardo M; Zavala, Guadalupe; Alagón, Alejandro; Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A; Valdez-Cruz, Norma A

    2018-03-01

    Aggregation of recombinant proteins into inclusion bodies (IBs) is the major drawback of heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. Here, we evaluated the effects of a pH shift after expression induction on recombinant phospholipase A2 production and its aggregation in IBs in E. coli Origami™, as compared to cultures with pH maintained at 7.5 or uncontrolled pH. Cultures shifted from 7.5 to pH 6.5 or 8.5 produced ∼15-25% less biomass as compared with those kept at 7.5 or without pH control. The cultures shifted to pH 8.5 showed a ∼50% higher yield of acetate per biomass, and the rPLA2 yield was improved 2.4-fold. Purified IBs formed at pH 8.5 containing ∼50% of rPLA2, were more susceptible to proteinase-K cleavage and bound less thioflavin-T, indicating lower amyloid content, with the concomitant enrichment of α-helical and random-coil secondary structures, as demonstrated by FTIR. Moreover, only one IB per cell was formed at pH 8.5; instead, more than two were observed under the other culture pH conditions. Nevertheless, under uncontrolled pH conditions, ∼300nm larger IBs were observed. Our work presents evidence of the usefulness of recombinant protein expression cultivated at pH 8.5 allowing the reduction of amyloid content in IBs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Phospholipase A2 - nexus of aging, oxidative stress, neuronal excitability, and functional decline of the aging nervous system? Insights from a snail model system of neuronal aging and age-associated memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Petra M; Watson, Shawn N; Wildering, Willem C

    2014-01-01

    The aging brain undergoes a range of changes varying from subtle structural and physiological changes causing only minor functional decline under healthy normal aging conditions, to severe cognitive or neurological impairment associated with extensive loss of neurons and circuits due to age-associated neurodegenerative disease conditions. Understanding how biological aging processes affect the brain and how they contribute to the onset and progress of age-associated neurodegenerative diseases is a core research goal in contemporary neuroscience. This review focuses on the idea that changes in intrinsic neuronal electrical excitability associated with (per)oxidation of membrane lipids and activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes are an important mechanism of learning and memory failure under normal aging conditions. Specifically, in the context of this special issue on the biology of cognitive aging we portray the opportunities offered by the identifiable neurons and behaviorally characterized neural circuits of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis in neuronal aging research and recapitulate recent insights indicating a key role of lipid peroxidation-induced PLA2 as instruments of aging, oxidative stress and inflammation in age-associated neuronal and memory impairment in this model system. The findings are discussed in view of accumulating evidence suggesting involvement of analogous mechanisms in the etiology of age-associated dysfunction and disease of the human and mammalian brain.

  9. Production of a recombinant phospholipase A2 in Escherichia coli using resonant acoustic mixing that improves oxygen transfer in shake flasks.

    PubMed

    Valdez-Cruz, Norma A; Reynoso-Cereceda, Greta I; Pérez-Rodriguez, Saumel; Restrepo-Pineda, Sara; González-Santana, Jesus; Olvera, Alejandro; Zavala, Guadalupe; Alagón, Alejandro; Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A

    2017-07-25

    Shake flasks are widely used during the development of bioprocesses for recombinant proteins. Cultures of recombinant Escherichia coli with orbital mixing (OM) have an oxygen limitation negatively affecting biomass growth and recombinant-protein production. With the aim to improve mixing and aeration in shake flask cultures, we analyzed cultures subjected to OM and the novel resonant acoustic mixing (RAM) by applying acoustic energy to E. coli BL21-Gold (DE3): a producer of recombinant phospholipase A2 (rPLA2) from Micrurus laticollaris snake venom. Comparing OM with RAM (200 rpm vs. 7.5g) at the same initial volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (k L a ≈ 80 h -1 ) ~69% less biomass was obtained with OM compared with RAM. We analyzed two more conditions increasing agitation until maximal speed (12.5 and 20g), and ~1.6- and ~1.4-fold greater biomass was obtained as compared with cultures at 7.5g. Moreover, the specific growth rate was statistically similar in all cultures carried out in RAM, but ~1.5-fold higher than that in cultures carried out under OM. Almost half of the glucose was consumed in OM, whereas between 80 and 100% of the glucose was consumed in RAM cultures, doubling biomass per glucose yields. Differential organic acid production was observed, but acetate production was prevented at the maximal RAM (20g). The amount of rPLA2 in both, OM and RAM cultures, represented 38 ± 5% of the insoluble protein. A smaller proportion of α-helices and β-sheet of purified inclusion bodies (IBs) were appreciated by ATR-FTIR from cultures carried out under OM, than those from RAM. At maximal agitation by RAM, internal E. coli localization patterns of protein aggregation changed, as well as, IBs proteolytic degradation, in conjunction with the formation of small external vesicles, although these changes did not significantly affect the cell survival response. In moderate-cell-density recombinant E. coli BL21-Gold (DE3) cultures, the agitation increases in

  10. SGLT2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dardi, I; Kouvatsos, T; Jabbour, S A

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a serious health issue and an economic burden, rising in epidemic proportions over the last few decades worldwide. Although several treatment options are available, only half of the global diabetic population achieves the recommended or individualized glycemic targets. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of antidiabetic agents with a novel insulin-independent action. SGLT2 is a transporter found in the proximal renal tubules, responsible for the reabsorption of most of the glucose filtered by the kidney. Inhibition of SGLT2 lowers the blood glucose level by promoting the urinary excretion of excess glucose. Due to their insulin-independent action, SGLT2 inhibitors can be used with any degree of beta-cell dysfunction or insulin resistance, related to a very low risk of hypoglycemia. In addition to improving glycemic control, SGLT2 inhibitors have been associated with a reduction in weight and blood pressure when used as monotherapy or in combination with other antidiabetic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors is usually well tolerated; however, they have been associated with an increased incidence of urinary tract and genital infections, although these infections are usually mild and easy to treat. SGLT2 inhibitors are a promising new option in the armamentarium of drugs for patients with T2DM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pharmacogenetic meta-analysis of baseline risk factors, pharmacodynamic, efficacy and tolerability endpoints from two large global cardiovascular outcomes trials for darapladib

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Astrid; Warren, Liling; Aponte, Jennifer; Johansson, Kelley; Barnes, Allison; MacPhee, Colin; Davies, Richard; Chissoe, Stephanie; O’Donoghue, Michelle L.; White, Harvey D.

    2017-01-01

    Darapladib, a lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) inhibitor, failed to demonstrate efficacy for the primary endpoints in two large phase III cardiovascular outcomes trials, one in stable coronary heart disease patients (STABILITY) and one in acute coronary syndrome (SOLID-TIMI 52). No major safety signals were observed but tolerability issues of diarrhea and odor were common (up to 13%). We hypothesized that genetic variants associated with Lp-PLA2 activity may influence efficacy and tolerability and therefore performed a comprehensive pharmacogenetic analysis of both trials. We genotyped patients within the STABILITY and SOLID-TIMI 52 trials who provided a DNA sample and consent (n = 13,577 and 10,404 respectively, representing 86% and 82% of the trial participants) using genome-wide arrays with exome content and performed imputation using a 1000 Genomes reference panel. We investigated baseline and change from baseline in Lp-PLA2 activity, two efficacy endpoints (major coronary events and myocardial infarction) as well as tolerability parameters at genome-wide and candidate gene level using a meta-analytic approach. We replicated associations of published loci on baseline Lp-PLA2 activity (APOE, CELSR2, LPA, PLA2G7, LDLR and SCARB1) and identified three novel loci (TOMM5, FRMD5 and LPL) using the GWAS-significance threshold P≤5E-08. Review of the PLA2G7 gene (encoding Lp-PLA2) within these datasets identified V279F null allele carriers as well as three other rare exonic null alleles within various ethnic groups, however none of these variants nor any other loci associated with Lp-PLA2 activity at baseline were associated with any of the drug response endpoints. The analysis of darapladib efficacy endpoints, despite low power, identified six low frequency loci with main genotype effect (though with borderline imputation scores) and one common locus (minor allele frequency 0.24) with genotype by treatment interaction effect passing the GWAS

  12. Pharmacogenetic meta-analysis of baseline risk factors, pharmacodynamic, efficacy and tolerability endpoints from two large global cardiovascular outcomes trials for darapladib.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Astrid; Li, Li; Warren, Liling; Aponte, Jennifer; Fraser, Dana; King, Karen; Johansson, Kelley; Barnes, Allison; MacPhee, Colin; Davies, Richard; Chissoe, Stephanie; Tarka, Elizabeth; O'Donoghue, Michelle L; White, Harvey D; Wallentin, Lars; Waterworth, Dawn

    2017-01-01

    Darapladib, a lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) inhibitor, failed to demonstrate efficacy for the primary endpoints in two large phase III cardiovascular outcomes trials, one in stable coronary heart disease patients (STABILITY) and one in acute coronary syndrome (SOLID-TIMI 52). No major safety signals were observed but tolerability issues of diarrhea and odor were common (up to 13%). We hypothesized that genetic variants associated with Lp-PLA2 activity may influence efficacy and tolerability and therefore performed a comprehensive pharmacogenetic analysis of both trials. We genotyped patients within the STABILITY and SOLID-TIMI 52 trials who provided a DNA sample and consent (n = 13,577 and 10,404 respectively, representing 86% and 82% of the trial participants) using genome-wide arrays with exome content and performed imputation using a 1000 Genomes reference panel. We investigated baseline and change from baseline in Lp-PLA2 activity, two efficacy endpoints (major coronary events and myocardial infarction) as well as tolerability parameters at genome-wide and candidate gene level using a meta-analytic approach. We replicated associations of published loci on baseline Lp-PLA2 activity (APOE, CELSR2, LPA, PLA2G7, LDLR and SCARB1) and identified three novel loci (TOMM5, FRMD5 and LPL) using the GWAS-significance threshold P≤5E-08. Review of the PLA2G7 gene (encoding Lp-PLA2) within these datasets identified V279F null allele carriers as well as three other rare exonic null alleles within various ethnic groups, however none of these variants nor any other loci associated with Lp-PLA2 activity at baseline were associated with any of the drug response endpoints. The analysis of darapladib efficacy endpoints, despite low power, identified six low frequency loci with main genotype effect (though with borderline imputation scores) and one common locus (minor allele frequency 0.24) with genotype by treatment interaction effect passing the GWAS

  13. Interaction of human synovial phospholipase A2 with mixed lipid bilayers: a coarse-grain and all-atom molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shan-Shan; Yu, Yang-Xin; Li, Qi-Kai; Yu, Zhi-Wu

    2013-02-26

    Human secreted phospholipase A2s have been shown to promote inflammation in mammals by catalyzing the first step of the arachidonic acid pathway by breaking down phospholipids, producing fatty acids, including arachidonic acid. They bind to the membrane water interface to access their phospholipid substrates from the membrane. Their binding modes on membrane surfaces are regulated by diverse factors, including membrane charge, fluidity, and heterogeneity. The influence of these factors on the binding modes of the enzymes is not well understood. Here we have studied several human synovial phospholipase A2 (hs-PLA2)/mixed bilayer systems through a combined coarse-grain and all-atom molecular dynamics simulation. It was found that hydrophobic residues Leu2, Val3, Ala18, Leu19, Phe23, Gly30, and Phe63 that form the edge of the entrance of the hydrophobic binding pocket in hs-PLA2 tend to penetrate into the hydrophobic area of lipid bilayers, and more than half of the total amino acid residues make contact with the lipid headgroups. Each enzyme molecule forms 19-38 hydrogen bonds with the bilayer to which it binds, most of which are with the phosphate groups. Analysis of the root-mean-square deviation (rmsd) shows that residues Val30-Thr40, Tyr66-Gln80, and Lys107-Arg118 have relatively large rmsds during all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, in accordance with the observation of an enlarged entrance region of the hydrophobic binding pocket. The amino acid sequences forming the entrance of the binding pocket prefer to interact with lipid molecules that are more fluid or negatively charged, and the opening of the binding pocket would be larger when the lipid components are more fluid.

  14. Cholinesterase inhibitors from botanicals

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Faiyaz; Ghalib, Raza Murad; Sasikala, P.; Ahmed, K. K. Mueen

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, wherein a progressive loss of cholinergic synapses occurs in hippocampus and neocortex. Decreased concentration of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (ACh), appears to be critical element in the development of dementia, and the most appropriate therapeutic approach to treat AD and other form of dementia is to restore acetylcholine levels by inhibiting both major form of cholinesterase: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Consequently, researches have focused their attention towards finding cholinesterase inhibitors from natural products. A large number of such inhibitors have been isolated from medicinal plants. This review presents a comprehensive account of the advances in field of cholinesterase inhibitor phytoconstituents. The structures of some important phytoconstituents (collected through www.Chemspider.com) are also presented and the scope for future research is discussed. PMID:24347920

  15. JAK inhibitors in autoinflammation.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Hal M; Broderick, Lori

    2018-06-11

    Interferonopathies are a subset of autoinflammatory disorders with a prominent type I IFN gene signature. Treatment of these patients has been challenging, given the lack of response to common autoinflammatory therapeutics including IL-1 and TNF blockade. JAK inhibitors (Jakinibs) are a family of small-molecule inhibitors that target the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and have shown clinical efficacy, with FDA and European Medicines Agency (EMA) approval for arthritic and myeloproliferative syndromes. Sanchez and colleagues repurposed baricitinib to establish a significant role for JAK inhibition as a novel therapy for patients with interferonopathies, demonstrating the power of translational rare disease research with lifesaving effects.

  16. Phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zebda, Rema; Paller, Amy S

    2018-03-01

    Historically, drugs available for treating atopic dermatitis (AD) have been limited to topical corticosteroids and topical calcineurin inhibitors, with systemic immunosuppressants and phototherapy reserved for severe AD. Despite their efficacy and infrequent adverse events, phobia about the use of topical steroids and calcineurin inhibitors has limited their use. More targeted options with fewer systemic and cutaneous side effects are needed for treating AD. Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) is involved in the regulation of proinflammatory cytokines via the degradation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate. PDE4 activity is increased in the inflammatory cells of patients with AD, leading to increased production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Targeting PDE4 reduces the production of these proinflammatory mediators in AD. Both topical and oral PDE4 inhibitors have a favorable safety profile. Crisaborole 2% ointment, a topical PDE4, is now US Food and Drug Administration-approved for children older than 2 years and adults in the treatment of AD. Crisaborole 2% ointment shows early and sustained improvement in disease severity and pruritus and other AD symptoms, with burning and/or stinging upon application as the only related adverse event. Other PDE4 inhibitors are currently in trials with promising efficacy and safety. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Peroxiredoxin 6 homodimerization and heterodimerization with glutathione S-transferase pi are required for its peroxidase but not phospholipase A2 activity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Suiping; Sorokina, Elena M; Harper, Sandra; Li, Haitao; Ralat, Luis; Dodia, Chandra; Speicher, David W; Feinstein, Sheldon I; Fisher, Aron B

    2016-05-01

    Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) is a unique 1-Cys member of the peroxiredoxin family with both GSH peroxidase and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activities. It is highly expressed in the lung where it plays an important role in antioxidant defense and lung surfactant metabolism. Glutathionylation of Prdx6 mediated by its heterodimerization with GSH S-transferase π (πGST) is required for its peroxidatic catalytic cycle. Recombinant human Prdx6 crystallizes as a homodimer and sedimentation equilibrium analysis confirmed that this protein exists as a high affinity dimer in solution. Based on measurement of molecular mass, dimeric Prdx6 that was oxidized to the sulfenic acid formed a sulfenylamide during storage. After examination of the dimer interface in the crystal structure, we postulated that the hydrophobic amino acids L145 and L148 play an important role in homodimerization of Prdx6 as well as in its heterodimerization with πGST. Oxidation of Prdx6 also was required for its heterodimerization. Sedimentation equilibrium analysis and the Duolink proximity ligation assay following mutation of the L145 and L148 residues of Prdx6 to Glu indicated greatly decreased dimerization propensity reflecting the loss of hydrophobic interactions between the protein monomers. Peroxidase activity was markedly reduced by mutation at either of the Leu sites and was essentially abolished by the double mutation, while PLA2 activity was unaffected. Decreased peroxidase activity following mutation of the interfacial leucines presumably is mediated via impaired heterodimerization of Prdx6 with πGST that is required for reduction and re-activation of the oxidized enzyme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neurotoxicity and other pharmacological activities of the snake venom phospholipase A2 OS2: The N-terminal region is more important than enzymatic activity

    PubMed Central

    Rouault, Morgane; Rash, Lachlan D.; Escoubas, Pierre; Boilard, Eric; Bollinger, James; Lomonte, Bruno; Maurin, Thomas; Guillaume, Carole; Canaan, Stéphane; Deregnaucourt, Christiane; Schrével, Joseph; Doglio, Alain; Gutiérrez, José María; Lazdunski, Michel; Gelb, Michael H.; Lambeau, Gérard

    2009-01-01

    Several snake venom secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) including OS2 exert a variety of pharmacological effects ranging from central neurotoxicity to anti-HIV activity by mechanisms that are not yet fully understood. To conclusively address the role of enzymatic activity and map the key structural elements of OS2 responsible for its pharmacological properties, we have prepared single point OS2 mutants at the catalytic site and large chimeras between OS2 and OS1, an homologous but non toxic sPLA2. Most importantly, we found that the enzymatic activity of the active site mutant H48Q is 500-fold lower than that of the wild-type protein, while central neurotoxicity is only 16-fold lower, providing convincing evidence that catalytic activity is at most a minor factor that determines central neurotoxicity. The chimera approach has identified the N-terminal region (residues 1–22) of OS2, but not the central one (residues 58–89), as crucial for both enzymatic activity and pharmacological effects. The C-terminal region of OS2 (residues 102–119) was found to be critical for enzymatic activity, but not for central neurotoxicity and anti-HIV activity, allowing us to further dissociate enzymatic activity and pharmacological effects. Finally, direct binding studies with the C-terminal chimera which poorly binds to phospholipids while it is still neurotoxic, led to the identification of a subset of brain N-type receptors which may be directly involved in central neurotoxicity. PMID:16669624

  19. A novel synthetic peptide inspired on Lys49 phospholipase A2 from Crotalus oreganus abyssus snake venom active against multidrug-resistant clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Almeida, José R; Mendes, Bruno; Lancellotti, Marcelo; Marangoni, Sergio; Vale, Nuno; Passos, Óscar; Ramos, Maria J; Fernandes, Pedro A; Gomes, Paula; Da Silva, Saulo L

    2018-04-10

    Currently, the evolving and complex mechanisms of bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics are increasing, while alternative medicines are drying up, which urges the need to discover novel agents able to kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Lys49 phospholipase A 2 s (PLA 2 s) from snake venoms are multifunctional toxins able to induce a huge variety of therapeutic effects and consequently serve as templates for new drug leads. Hence, the present study was aimed at the synthesis of oligopeptides mimicking regions of the antibacterial Lys49 PLA 2 toxin (CoaTx-II), recently isolated from Crotalus oreganus abyssus snake venom, to identify small peptides able to reproduce the therapeutic action of the toxin. Five peptides, representing major regions of interest within CoaTx-II, were synthesized and screened for their antibacterial properties. The 13-mer peptide pC-CoaTxII, corresponding to residues 115-129 of CoaTx-II, was able to reproduce the promising bactericidal effect of the toxin against multi-resistant clinical isolates. Peptide pC-CoaTxII is mainly composed by positively charged and hydrophobic amino acids, a typical trait in most antimicrobial peptides, and presented no defined secondary structure in aqueous environment. The physicochemical properties of pC-CoaTxII are favorable towards a strong interaction with anionic lipid membranes as those in bacteria. Additional in silico studies suggest formation of a water channel across the membrane upon peptide insertion, eventually leading to bacterial cell disruption and death. Overall, our findings confirm the valuable potential of snake venom toxins towards design and synthesis of novel antimicrobials, thus representing key insights towards development of alternative efficient antimicrobials to fight bacterial resistance to current antibiotics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. The association among lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 levels, total antioxidant capacity and arousal in male patients with OSA.

    PubMed

    Bekci, Taha T; Kayrak, Mehmet; Kiyici, Aysel; Maden, Emin; Ari, Hatem; Kaya, Zeynettin; Teke, Turgut; Akilli, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms of the increased cardiac and vascular events in patients with OSA are not well understood. Arousal which is an important component of OSA was associated with increased sympathetic activation and electrocardiographic changes which prone to arrhythmias. We planned to examine the association among arousal, circulating Lp-PLA2 and total antioxidant capacity in male patients with OSA. Fifty male patients with newly diagnosed OSA were enrolled the study. A full-night polysomnography was performed and arousal index was obtained. Lp-PLA2 concentrations were measured in serum samples with the PLAC Test. Total antioxidant capacity in patients was determined with Antioxidant Assay Kit. Arousal was positively correlated with LP-PLA2 levels (r=0.43, p=0.002) and was negatively correlated with total antioxidant capacity (r= -0.29, p=0.04). Elevated LP-PLA2 levels and decreased total antioxidant activities were found in the highest arousal quartile compared with the lowest and 2nd quartiles (p=0.02, p=0.05, respectively). LP-PLA2 was an independently predictor of arousal index in regression model (β=0.357, p=0.002) This study demonstrated a moderate linear relationship between arousal and LP-PLA2 levels. Also, total antioxidant capacities were decreased in the higher arousal index. Based on the study result, the patients with higher arousal index may be prone to vascular events.

  1. Renaturation and one step purification of the chicken GIIA secreted phospholipase A2 from inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Karray, Aida; Amara, Sawsan; Carrière, Frédéric; Gargouri, Youssef; Bezzine, Sofiane

    2014-06-01

    The cDNA coding for a mature protein of 123 amino acids, containing all of the structural features of catalytically active group IIA sPLA2, has been amplified from chicken intestine. The gene has been cloned into the bacterial expression vector pET-21a(+), which allows protein over-expression as inclusion bodies and enables about 3mg/l of pure refolded fully active enzyme to be obtained. Recombinant expression of chicken intestinal sPLA2-IIA (ChPLA2-IIA) in Escherichia coli shows that the enzyme is Ca(2+) dependent, maximally active at pH 8-9, and hydrolyses phosphatidylglycerol versus phosphatidylcholine with a 10-fold preference. Indeed, we report in this work, a comparative kinetic study between the wild type and the recombinant ChPLA2-IIA, on zwitterionic head group phospholipids (DDPC) and negatively charged phospholipids (POPG) using the monomolecular film technique. The ability to express reasonably large amounts of the sPLA2 Group IIA, compared to that obtained with the classical purification will provide a basis for future site directed mutagenesis studies of this important enzyme. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Benzoylurea Chitin Synthesis Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ranfeng; Liu, Chunjuan; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Qingmin

    2015-08-12

    Benzoylurea chitin synthesis inhibitors are widely used in integrated pest management (IPM) and insecticide resistance management (IRM) programs due to their low toxicity to mammals and predatory insects. In the past decades, a large number of benzoylurea derivatives have been synthesized, and 15 benzoylurea chitin synthesis inhibitors have been commercialized. This review focuses on the history of commercial benzolyphenylureas (BPUs), synthetic methods, structure-activity relationships (SAR), action mechanism research, environmental behaviors, and ecotoxicology. Furthermore, their disadvantages of high risk to aquatic invertebrates and crustaceans are pointed out. Finally, we propose that the para-substituents at anilide of benzoylphenylureas should be the functional groups, and bipartite model BPU analogues are discussed in an attempt to provide new insight for future development of BPUs.

  3. Development of scale inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.S.

    1996-12-01

    During the last fifty years, scale inhibition has gone from an art to a science. Scale inhibition has changed from simple pH adjustment to the use of optimized dose of designer polymers from multiple monomers. The water-treatment industry faces many challenges due to the need to conserve water, availability of only low quality water, increasing environmental regulations of the water discharge, and concern for human safety when using acid. Natural materials such as starch, lignin, tannin, etc., have been replaced with hydrolytically stable organic phosphates and synthetic polymers. Most progress in scale inhibition has come from the use of synergisticmore » mixtures and copolymerizing different functionalities to achieve specific goals. Development of scale inhibitors requires an understanding of the mechanism of crystal growth and its inhibition. This paper discusses the historic perspective of scale inhibition and the development of new inhibitors based on the understanding of the mechanism of crystal growth and the use of powerful tools like molecular modeling to visualize crystal-inhibitor interactions.« less

  4. Inhibitors in Hemophilia B.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Cristina; Quintavalle, Gabriele; Castaman, Giancarlo; Baldacci, Erminia; Ferretti, Antonietta; Riccardi, Federica; Tagliaferri, Annarita

    2018-06-20

    Hemophilia B (HB) is an X-linked bleeding disorder caused by deficiency of factor IX (FIX). Patients with the severe form (FIX <1%) account approximately for 30 to 45% of persons with HB and usually suffer from recurrent joint, soft-tissue, and muscle bleeds. The availability of safe plasma-derived and recombinant products has virtually abolished the risk of viral infections and the adoption of prophylactic regimens has attenuated the impact of hemophilic arthropathy. Therefore, the development of an inhibitor against FIX is currently the most serious complication that can still occur in the new generations of HB patients. The development of an inhibitor in HB is a rare event (1.5-3% of all patients) but is associated with a significant morbidity, related not only to the bleeding risk but also to the frequent occurrence of allergic/anaphylactic reactions and nephrotic syndrome. Due to the relative rarity of this event, few data exist about risk factors, pathophysiology, and clinical aspects of inhibitors in HB. The induction of immune tolerance is often unsuccessful and can be otherwise affected by many complications in patients with history of allergy or anaphylaxis. Therefore, alternative therapeutic strategies and new approaches are developing. The aim of this narrative review is to discuss current knowledge about risk factors, pathophysiology, and clinical aspects of this rare but serious complication. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. Immunohistochemical localization of hepatopancreatic phospholipase A2 in Hexaplex Trunculus digestive cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mammalian sPLA2-IB localization cell are well characterized. In contrast, much less is known about aquatic primitive ones. The aquatic world contains a wide variety of living species and, hence represents a great potential for discovering new lipolytic enzymes and the mode of digestion of lipid food. Results The marine snail digestive phospholipase A2 (mSDPLA2) has been previously purified from snail hepatopancreas. The specific polyclonal antibodies were prepared and used for immunohistochimical and immunofluorescence analysis in order to determine the cellular location of mSDPLA2. Our results showed essentially that mSDPLA2 was detected inside in specific vesicles tentatively named (mSDPLA2+) granules of the digestive cells. No immunolabelling was observed in secretory zymogene-like cells. This immunocytolocalization indicates that lipid digestion in the snail might occur in specific granules inside the digestive cells. Conclusion The cellular location of mSDPLA2 suggests that intracellular phospholipids digestion, like other food components digestion of snail diet, occurs in these digestive cells. The hepatopancreas of H. trunculus has been pointed out as the main region for digestion, absorption and storage of lipids. PMID:21631952

  6. Immunohistochemical localization of hepatopancreatic phospholipase A2 in Hexaplex trunculus digestive cells.

    PubMed

    Zarai, Zied; Boulais, Nicholas; Karray, Aida; Misery, Laurent; Bezzine, Sofiane; Rebai, Tarek; Gargouri, Youssef; Mejdoub, Hafedh

    2011-06-01

    Mammalian sPLA2-IB localization cell are well characterized. In contrast, much less is known about aquatic primitive ones. The aquatic world contains a wide variety of living species and, hence represents a great potential for discovering new lipolytic enzymes and the mode of digestion of lipid food. The marine snail digestive phospholipase A2 (mSDPLA2) has been previously purified from snail hepatopancreas. The specific polyclonal antibodies were prepared and used for immunohistochimical and immunofluorescence analysis in order to determine the cellular location of mSDPLA2. Our results showed essentially that mSDPLA2 was detected inside in specific vesicles tentatively named (mSDPLA2+) granules of the digestive cells. No immunolabelling was observed in secretory zymogene-like cells. This immunocytolocalization indicates that lipid digestion in the snail might occur in specific granules inside the digestive cells. The cellular location of mSDPLA2 suggests that intracellular phospholipids digestion, like other food components digestion of snail diet, occurs in these digestive cells. The hepatopancreas of H. trunculus has been pointed out as the main region for digestion, absorption and storage of lipids.

  7. Biochemical differences in the mass and activity tests of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 explain the discordance in results between the two assay methods.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Shaoqiu; Wolfert, Robert L; Yuan, Chong

    2017-12-01

    There are two platforms for the detection of Lp-PLA 2 in sera or plasmas: by its enzymatic activity (PLAC® activity test) and by its mass concentration (PLAC® mass test). It has been long recognized that these two platforms are not correlated well. The underlying cause for this is therefore investigated by the biochemical characterization of the two PLAC tests. Human sera with and without the treatment by detergent were fractionated by using a Superose-6 column in phosphate buffered saline and the phospholipid associated Lp-PLA 2 was assessed by both PLAC mass and activity tests. The Lp-PLA 2 values of the two PLAC tests were compared under such conditions. Fractionation of sera and plasmas indicates that the association of Lp-PLA 2 with phospholipids, especially LDL and other large size phospholipid vesicles, may block the detection of the enzyme by antibodies in the immunoassay format under the conditions of the PLAC mass test. Inclusion of high concentration (>CMC, critical micelle concentration) of detergents in the assay buffer of PLAC mass test dissociates Lp-PLA 2 from phospholipid vesicles and results in the full detection of all Lp-PLA 2 in sera or plasmas for concentration. Such assay modification significantly improves the correlation between the PLAC mass and PLAC activity tests. PLAC mass test only detects a small portion of the total Lp-PLA 2 , mainly the Lp-PLA 2 associated with HDL. This is the main cause of the discordance and poor correlation between the PLAC mass and activity tests. Our results demonstrate the PLAC activity test is more accurate in assessing the total level of circulating Lp-PLA 2 . Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Connarus favosus Planch.: An inhibitor of the hemorrhagic activity of Bothrops atrox venom and a potential antioxidant and antibacterial agent.

    PubMed

    Silva, Thaís Pereira da; Moura, Valéria Mourão de; Souza, Maria Carolina Scheffer de; Santos, Vanessa Neves Carvalho; Silva, Kissinara A M Moreira da; Mendes, Mara Giselle Guimarães; Nunez, Cecília Verônica; Almeida, Patrícia Danielle Oliveira de; Lima, Emerson Silva; Mourão, Rosa Helena Veras; Dos-Santos, Maria Cristina

    2016-05-13

    The plant species Connarus favosus is used in folk medicine in the west of Pará state, Brazil, to treat snakebites. To investigate the potential of the aqueous extract of Connarus favosus (AECf) to inhibit hemorrhagic and phospholipase A2 activities induced by Bothrops atrox venom (BaV) and to determine the antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials of the extract. AECf was analyzed phytochemically for phenolics (condensed tannins and hydrolyzable tannins) by colorimetry. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by quantitative assays using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Fe(3+)/phenanthroline. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the minimal inhibitory concentration test, and cytotoxicity was evaluated using human fibroblast cells (MRC-5). Inhibition of BaV-induced hemorrhagic activity was assessed after oral administration of the extract using pre-treatment, post-treatment and combined (BA plus AECf) treatment protocols. Inhibition of indirect hemolysis caused by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) was investigated in vitro. Interaction between AECf and BaV was investigated by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, Western blot (Wb) and zymography. The phytochemical profile of AECf revealed ten secondary metabolite classes, and colorimetry showed high total phenolic and total (condensed and hydrolyzable) tannin content. AECf exhibited high antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials. The IC50 for the cytotoxic effect was 51.91 (46.86-57.50)µg/mL. Inhibition of BaV-induced hemorrhagic activity was significant in all the protocols, and inhibition of PLA2 activity was significant with the two highest concentrations. The BaV/AECf mixture produced the same bands as BaV by itself in SDS-PAGE and Wb although the bands were much fainter. Zymography confirmed the proteolytic activity of BaV, but when the venom was pre-incubated with AECf this activity was blocked. AECf was effective in reducing BaV-induced hemorrhagic activity when administered by the same route as that used in folk medicine

  9. DGAT inhibitors for obesity.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Daisuke; Tomoda, Hiroshi

    2007-10-01

    Obesity is characterized by the accumulation of triacylglycerol in adipocytes. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the final reaction of triacylgycerol synthesis. Two isozymes of DGAT, DGAT1 and DGAT2, have been reported. Increased DGAT2 activity has a role in steatosis, while DGAT1 plays a role in very (V)LDL synthesis; increased plasma VLDL concentrations may promote obesity and thus DGAT1 is considered a potential therapeutic target of inhibition for obesity control. Several DGAT inhibitors of natural and synthetic origin have been reported, and their future prospect as anti-obesity drugs is discussed in this review.

  10. Inhibitors of Proton Pumping

    PubMed Central

    Bisson, Mary A.

    1986-01-01

    Reported inhibitors of the Characean plasmalemma proton pump were tested for their ability to inhibit the passive H+ conductance which develops in Chara corallina Klein ex Willd. at high pH. Diethylstilbestrol inhibits the proton pump and the passive H+ conductance with about the same time course, at concentrations that have no effect on cytoplasmic streaming. N-Ethylmaleimide, a sulfhydryl reagent which is small and relatively nonpolar, also inhibits both pumping and passive conductance of H+. However, it also inhibits cytoplasmic streaming with about the same time course, and therefore could not be considered a specific ATPase inhibitor. p-Chloromercuribenzene sulfonate (PCMBS), a sulfhydryl reagent which is large and charged and hence less able to penetrate the membrane, does not inhibit pumping or conductance at low concentration. At high concentration, PCMBS sometimes inhibits pumping without affecting H+ conductance, but since streaming is also inhibited, the effect on the pump cannot be said to be specific. 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide, a water soluble carbodiimide, weakly inhibits both pump and conductance, apparently specifically. PMID:16664807

  11. Synthesis of Lysine Methyltransferase Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Tao; Hui, Chunngai

    2015-07-01

    Lysine methyltransferase which catalyze methylation of histone and nonhistone proteins, play a crucial role in diverse biological processes and has emerged as a promising target for the development of various human diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and psychiatric disorders. However, inhibiting Lysine methyltransferases selectively has presented many challenges to medicinal chemists. During the past decade, lysine methyltransferase inhibitors covering many different structural classes have been designed and developed. In this review, we describe the development of selective, small-molecule inhibitors of lysine methyltransferases with an emphasis on their discovery and chemical synthesis. We highlight the current state of lysine methyltransferase inhibitors and discuss future directions and opportunities for lysine methyltransferase inhibitor discovery.

  12. Antitumor effects of cationic synthetic peptides derived from Lys49 phospholipase A2 homologues of snake venoms.

    PubMed

    Araya, Cindy; Lomonte, Bruno

    2007-03-01

    The effects of two cationic synthetic peptides, derived from the C-terminal region of Lys49 phospholipase A2 homologues from snake venoms, upon various murine tumor cell lines (B16 melanoma, EMT6 mammary carcinoma, S-180 sarcoma, P3X myeloma, tEnd endothelial cells) were evaluated. The peptides are 13-mers derived from Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus Lys49 PLA2 (p-AppK: KKYKAYFKLKCKK) and Bothrops asper Lys49 myotoxin II (pEM-2[D]: KKWRWWLKALAKK), respectively, in the latter case with slight modifications and with all-D amino acids. All tumor cells tested were susceptible to the lytic action of the peptides. The susceptibility of tumor cell lines was not higher than that of C2C12 skeletal muscle myoblasts, utilized as a non-transformed cell line control. However, in a murine model of subcutaneous solid tumor growth of EMT6 mammary carcinoma, the intraperitoneal administration of pEM-2[D] caused a tumor mass reduction of 36% (p<0.05), which was of similar magnitude to that achieved by the administration of paclitaxel, an antitumor drug in clinical use. Thus, the C-terminal peptides of Lys49 phospholipase A2 homologues present antitumor effects that might be of interest in developing therapeutic strategies against cancer.

  13. Biological abatement of cellulase inhibitors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bio-abatement uses a fungus to metabolize and remove fermentation inhibitors. To determine whether bio-abatement could alleviate enzyme inhibitor effects observed in biomass liquors after pretreatment, corn stover at 10% (w/v) solids was pretreated with either dilute acid or liquid hot water. The ...

  14. Lipoxygenase-mediated pro-radical effect of melatonin via stimulation of arachidonic acid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Radogna, F.; Sestili, P.; Martinelli, C.

    We have shown that melatonin immediately and transiently stimulates intracellular free radical production on a set of leukocytes, possibly as a consequence of calmodulin binding. We show here that melatonin-induced ROS are produced by lipoxygenase (LOX), since they are prevented by a set of LOX inhibitors, and are accompanied by increase of the 5-LOX product 5-HETE. LOX activation is accompanied by strong liberation of AA; inhibition of Ca{sup 2+}-independent, but not Ca{sup 2+}-dependent, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), prevents both melatonin-induced arachidonic acid and ROS production, whereas LOX inhibition only prevents ROS, indicating that PLA2 is upstream with respect to LOX, asmore » occurs in many signaling pathways. Chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of melatonin-calmodulin interaction, inhibits both ROS and arachidonic acid production, thus possibly placing calmodulin at the origin of a melatonin-induced pro-radical pathway. Interestingly, it is known that Ca{sup 2+}-independent PLA2 binds to calmodulin: our results are compatible with PLA2 being liberated by melatonin from a steady-state calmodulin sequestration, thus initiating an arachidonate signal transduction. These results delineate a novel molecular pathway through which melatonin may participate to the inflammatory response.« less

  15. Peptidase inhibitors in tick physiology.

    PubMed

    Parizi, L F; Ali, A; Tirloni, L; Oldiges, D P; Sabadin, G A; Coutinho, M L; Seixas, A; Logullo, C; Termignoni, C; DA Silva Vaz, I

    2018-06-01

    Peptidase inhibitors regulate a wide range of physiological processes involved in the interaction between hematophagous parasites and their hosts, including tissue remodeling, the immune response and blood coagulation. In tick physiology, peptidase inhibitors have a crucial role in adaptation to improve parasitism mechanisms, facilitating blood feeding by interfering with defense-related host peptidases. Recently, a larger number of studies on this topic led to the description of several new tick inhibitors displaying interesting novel features, for example a role in pathogen transmission to the host. A comprehensive review discussing these emerging concepts can therefore shed light on peptidase inhibitor functions, their relevance to tick physiology and their potential applications. Here, we summarize and examine the general characteristics, functional diversity and action of tick peptidase inhibitors with known physiological roles in the tick-host-pathogen interaction. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  16. Inside HDAC with HDAC inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Philippe

    2010-06-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors are a large group of diverse molecules intrinsically able to inhibit cell proliferation in various cancer cell lines. Their apoptotic effects have been linked to the modulation in the expression of several regulatory tumor suppressor genes caused by the modified status of histone acetylation, a key event in chromatin remodelling. As the initial histone deacetylase activity of HDAC has been extended to other proteins, the possible other biological mechanisms modified by HDAC inhibitor treatments are still to be clarified. The need for HDAC isoform selective inhibitors is an important issue to serve this goal. This review discusses the approaches proposed by several research groups working on the synthesis of HDAC inhibitors, based on modelling studies and the way these findings were used to obtain new HDAC inhibitors with possible isoform selectivity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of ω-fatty acids on the expression of phospholipase A2 group 2A in human gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Shariati, Mahboube; Aghaei, Mahmoud; Movahedian, Ahmad; Somi, Mohammad Hosein; Dolatkhah, Homayun; Aghazade, Ahmad Mirza

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may have an inhibitory role in carcinogenesis. It was previously shown that PLA2 group 2A (PLA2G2A) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression is associated with less frequent metastasis and longer survival in gastric adenocarcinoma. This study intends to investigate the effect of PUFAs on the expression of PLA2G2A in patients with gastric cancer. Thirty-four patients with gastric cancer (GC) were randomly divided into two groups. The first group received cisplatin medication. The second group received cisplatin medication and supplements of ω-fatty acids for three courses. The total RNA was extracted from the tissues and cDNA was synthesized. The gene expression of PLA2G2A was evaluated by the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. To confirm the changes in gene expression, frozen section was utilized. The frozen tissue samples were sectioned and stained using the immunohistochemistry technique. After chemotherapy and chemotherapy plus supplement, the relative mean of PLA2G2A gene expression increased 1.5 ± 0.5-fold and 7.4 ± 2.6-fold, respectively ( P = 0.006). The relative mean of gene expression in patients who received cisplatin and ω-fatty acids supplement increased more significantly (7.5 ± 3.3-fold) than in patients who received only cisplatin ( P = 0.016). It was found that PUFAs increased the gene and protein expression of PLA2G2A in gastric cancer. Concerning the fact that studies reveal protective function of PLA2G2A in gastric cancer, it is suggested that increased expression of PLA2G2A is helpful. Furthermore, PUFAs can be considered as a useful therapeutic supplement for patients with gastric cancer.

  18. Expression pattern of three-finger toxin and phospholipase A2 genes in the venom glands of two sea snakes, Lapemis curtus and Acalyptophis peronii: comparison of evolution of these toxins in land snakes, sea kraits and sea snakes.

    PubMed

    Pahari, Susanta; Bickford, David; Fry, Bryan G; Kini, R Manjunatha

    2007-09-27

    Snake venom composition varies widely both among closely related species and within the same species, based on ecological variables. In terrestrial snakes, such variation has been proposed to be due to snakes' diet. Land snakes target various prey species including insects (arthropods), lizards (reptiles), frogs and toads (amphibians), birds (aves), and rodents (mammals), whereas sea snakes target a single vertebrate class (fishes) and often specialize on specific types of fish. It is therefore interesting to examine the evolution of toxins in sea snake venoms compared to that of land snakes. Here we describe the expression of toxin genes in the venom glands of two sea snakes, Lapemis curtus (Spine-bellied Sea Snake) and Acalyptophis peronii (Horned Sea Snake), two members of a large adaptive radiation which occupy very different ecological niches. We constructed cDNA libraries from their venom glands and sequenced 214 and 192 clones, respectively. Our data show that despite their explosive evolutionary radiation, there is very little variability in the three-finger toxin (3FTx) as well as the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes, the two main constituents of Lapemis curtus and Acalyptophis peronii venom. To understand the evolutionary trends among land snakes, sea snakes and sea kraits, pairwise genetic distances (intraspecific and interspecific) of 3FTx and PLA2 sequences were calculated. Results show that these proteins appear to be highly conserved in sea snakes in contrast to land snakes or sea kraits, despite their extremely divergent and adaptive ecological radiation. Based on these results, we suggest that streamlining in habitat and diet in sea snakes has possibly kept their toxin genes conserved, suggesting the idea that prey composition and diet breadth may contribute to the diversity and evolution of venom components.

  19. Expression pattern of three-finger toxin and phospholipase A2 genes in the venom glands of two sea snakes, Lapemis curtus and Acalyptophis peronii: comparison of evolution of these toxins in land snakes, sea kraits and sea snakes

    PubMed Central

    Pahari, Susanta; Bickford, David; Fry, Bryan G; Kini, R Manjunatha

    2007-01-01

    Background Snake venom composition varies widely both among closely related species and within the same species, based on ecological variables. In terrestrial snakes, such variation has been proposed to be due to snakes' diet. Land snakes target various prey species including insects (arthropods), lizards (reptiles), frogs and toads (amphibians), birds (aves), and rodents (mammals), whereas sea snakes target a single vertebrate class (fishes) and often specialize on specific types of fish. It is therefore interesting to examine the evolution of toxins in sea snake venoms compared to that of land snakes. Results Here we describe the expression of toxin genes in the venom glands of two sea snakes, Lapemis curtus (Spine-bellied Sea Snake) and Acalyptophis peronii (Horned Sea Snake), two members of a large adaptive radiation which occupy very different ecological niches. We constructed cDNA libraries from their venom glands and sequenced 214 and 192 clones, respectively. Our data show that despite their explosive evolutionary radiation, there is very little variability in the three-finger toxin (3FTx) as well as the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes, the two main constituents of Lapemis curtus and Acalyptophis peronii venom. To understand the evolutionary trends among land snakes, sea snakes and sea kraits, pairwise genetic distances (intraspecific and interspecific) of 3FTx and PLA2 sequences were calculated. Results show that these proteins appear to be highly conserved in sea snakes in contrast to land snakes or sea kraits, despite their extremely divergent and adaptive ecological radiation. Conclusion Based on these results, we suggest that streamlining in habitat and diet in sea snakes has possibly kept their toxin genes conserved, suggesting the idea that prey composition and diet breadth may contribute to the diversity and evolution of venom components. PMID:17900344

  20. Pharmacological profile and efficiency in vivo of diflapolin, the first dual inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein and soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Garscha, Ulrike; Romp, Erik; Pace, Simona; Rossi, Antonietta; Temml, Veronika; Schuster, Daniela; König, Stefanie; Gerstmeier, Jana; Liening, Stefanie; Werner, Markus; Atze, Heiner; Wittmann, Sandra; Weinigel, Christina; Rummler, Silke; Scriba, Gerhard K; Sautebin, Lidia; Werz, Oliver

    2017-08-24

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is metabolized to diverse bioactive lipid mediators. Whereas the 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP) facilitates AA conversion by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) to pro-inflammatory leukotrienes (LTs), the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) degrades anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Accordingly, dual FLAP/sEH inhibition might be advantageous drugs for intervention of inflammation. We present the in vivo pharmacological profile and efficiency of N-[4-(benzothiazol-2-ylmethoxy)-2-methylphenyl]-N'-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea (diflapolin) that dually targets FLAP and sEH. Diflapolin inhibited 5-LOX product formation in intact human monocytes and neutrophils with IC 50  = 30 and 170 nM, respectively, and suppressed the activity of isolated sEH (IC 50  = 20 nM). Characteristic for FLAP inhibitors, diflapolin (I) failed to inhibit isolated 5-LOX, (II) blocked 5-LOX product formation in HEK cells only when 5-LOX/FLAP was co-expressed, (III) lost potency in intact cells when exogenous AA was supplied, and (IV) prevented 5-LOX/FLAP complex assembly in leukocytes. Diflapolin showed target specificity, as other enzymes related to AA metabolism (i.e., COX1/2, 12/15-LOX, LTA 4 H, LTC 4 S, mPGES 1 , and cPLA 2 ) were not inhibited. In the zymosan-induced mouse peritonitis model, diflapolin impaired vascular permeability, inhibited cysteinyl-LTs and LTB 4 formation, and suppressed neutrophil infiltration. Diflapolin is a highly active dual FLAP/sEH inhibitor in vitro and in vivo with target specificity to treat inflammation-related diseases.

  1. Dietary histone deacetylase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Dashwood, Roderick H.; Ho, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli and broccoli sprouts. This anticarcinogen was first identified as a potent inducer of Phase 2 detoxification enzymes, but evidence is mounting that SFN also acts through epigenetic mechanisms. SFN has been shown to inhibit histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity in human colon and prostate cancer lines, with an increase in global and local histone acetylation status, such as on the promoter regions of P21 and bax genes. SFN also inhibited the growth of prostate cancer xenografts and spontaneous intestinal polyps in mouse models, with evidence for altered histone acetylation and HDAC activities in vivo. In human subjects, a single ingestion of 68 g broccoli sprouts inhibited HDAC activity in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells 3-6 h after consumption, with concomitant induction of histone H3 and H4 acetylation. These findings provide evidence that one mechanism of cancer chemoprevention by SFN is via epigenetic changes associated with inhibition of HDAC activity. Other dietary agents such as butyrate, biotin, lipoic acid, garlic organosulfur compounds, and metabolites of vitamin E have structural features compatible with HDAC inhibition. The ability of dietary compounds to de-repress epigenetically silenced genes in cancer cells, and to activate these genes in normal cells, has important implications for cancer prevention and therapy. In a broader context, there is growing interest in dietary HDAC inhibitors and their impact on epigenetic mechanisms affecting other chronic conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegeneration and aging. PMID:17555985

  2. Targeting cancer with kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Stefan; Rahal, Rami; Stransky, Nicolas; Lengauer, Christoph; Hoeflich, Klaus P.

    2015-01-01

    Kinase inhibitors have played an increasingly prominent role in the treatment of cancer and other diseases. Currently, more than 25 oncology drugs that target kinases have been approved, and numerous additional therapeutics are in various stages of clinical evaluation. In this Review, we provide an in-depth analysis of activation mechanisms for kinases in cancer, highlight recent successes in drug discovery, and demonstrate the clinical impact of selective kinase inhibitors. We also describe the substantial progress that has been made in designing next-generation inhibitors to circumvent on-target resistance mechanisms, as well as ongoing strategies for combining kinase inhibitors in the clinic. Last, there are numerous prospects for the discovery of novel kinase targets, and we explore cancer immunotherapy as a new and promising research area for studying kinase biology. PMID:25932675

  3. [ACE inhibitors and the kidney].

    PubMed

    Hörl, W H

    1996-01-01

    Treatment with ACE inhibitors results in kidney protection due to reduction of systemic blood pressure, intraglomerular pressure, an antiproliferative effect, reduction of proteinuria and a lipid-lowering effect in proteinuric patients (secondary due to reduction of protein excretion). Elderly patients with diabetes melitus, coronary heart disease or peripheral vascular occlusion are at risk for deterioration of kidney function due to a high frequency of renal artery stenosis in these patients. In patients with renal insufficiency dose reduction of ACE inhibitors is necessary (exception: fosinopril) but more important is the risk for development of hyperkalemia. Patients at risk for renal artery stenosis and patients pretreated with diuretics should receive a low ACE inhibitor dosage initially ("start low - go slow"). For compliance reasons once daily ACE inhibitor dosage is recommended.

  4. Notch Inhibitors for Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Ingrid; Miele, Lucio

    2013-01-01

    Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved cell signaling pathway involved in cell fate during development, stem cell renewal and differentiation in postnatal tissues. Roles for Notch in carcinogenesis, in the biology of cancer stem cells and tumor angiogenesis have been reported. These features identify Notch as a potential therapeutic target in oncology. Based on the molecular structure of Notch receptor, Notch ligands and Notch activators, a set of Notch pathway inhibitors have been developed. Most of these inhibitors had shown anti-tumor effects in preclinical studies. At the same time, the combinatorial effect of these inhibitors with current chemotherapeutical drugs still under study in different clinical trials. In this review, we describe the basics of Notch signaling and the role of Notch in normal and cancer stem cells as a logic way to develop different Notch inhibitors and their current stage of progress for cancer patient’s treatment. PMID:23458608

  5. Snake venomics of Micrurus alleni and Micrurus mosquitensis from the Caribbean region of Costa Rica reveals two divergent compositional patterns in New World elapids.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Julián; Vargas-Vargas, Nancy; Pla, Davinia; Sasa, Mahmood; Rey-Suárez, Paola; Sanz, Libia; Gutiérrez, José María; Calvete, Juan J; Lomonte, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    Protein composition, toxicity, and neutralization of the venoms of Micrurus alleni and Micrurus mosquitensis, two sympatric monadal coral snakes found in humid environments of the Caribbean region of Costa Rica, were studied. Proteomic profiling revealed that these venoms display highly divergent compositions: the former dominated by three-finger toxins (3FTx) and the latter by phospholipases A2 (PLA2). Protein family abundances correlated with enzymatic and toxic characteristics of the venoms. Selective inhibition experiments showed that PLA2s play only a marginal role in the lethal effect of M. alleni venom, but have a major role in M. mosquitensis venom. Proteomic data gathered from other Micrurus species evidenced that the two divergent venom phenotypes are recurrent, and may constitute a general trend across New World elapids. Further, M. mosquitensis, but not M. alleni, venom contains PLA2-like/Kunitz-type inhibitor complex(es) that resemble the ASIC1a/2-activating MitTx heterodimeric toxin isolated from Micrurus tener venom. The evolutionary origin and adaptive relevance of the puzzling phenotypic variability of Micrurus venoms remain to be understood. An antivenom against the PLA2-predominant Micrurus nigrocinctus venom strongly cross-recognized and neutralized M. mosquitensis venom, but only weakly M. alleni venom. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Newer treatments of psoriasis regarding IL-23 inhibitors, phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors, and Janus kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wcisło-Dziadecka, Dominika; Zbiciak-Nylec, Martyna; Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia; Bebenek, Katarzyna; Kaźmierczak, Agata

    2017-11-01

    The rapid progress of genetic engineering furthermore opens up new prospects in the therapy of this difficult-to-treat disease. IL-23 inhibitors, phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors, and Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors are currently encouraging further research. Two drugs which are IL-23 inhibitors are now in phase III of clinical trials. The aim of the action of both drugs is selective IL-23 inhibition by targeting the p19 subunit. Guselkumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody. Tildrakizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody, which also belongs to IgG class and is targeted to subunit p19 of interleukin 23 (IL-23). Phosphodiesterase inhibitors exert an anti-inflammatory action and their most common group is the PDE4 family. PDE4 inhibits cAMP, which reduces the inflammatory response of the pathway of Th helper lymphocytes, Th17, and type 1 interferon which modulates the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 interleukins. The Janus kinase (JAK) signaling pathway plays an important role in the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis. Tofacitinib suppresses the expression of IL-23, IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22 receptors during the stimulation of lymphocytes. Ruxolitinib is a selective inhibitor of JAK1 and JAK2 kinases and the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. This article is a review of the aforementioned drugs as described in the latest available literature. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Characterization of prostaglandin E2 generation through the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 pathway in human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    St-Onge, Mireille; Flamand, Nicolas; Biarc, Jordane; Picard, Serge; Bouchard, Line; Dussault, Andrée-Anne; Laflamme, Cynthia; James, Michael J.; Caughey, Gillian E.; Cleland, Leslie G.; Borgeat, Pierre; Pouliot, Marc

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we characterized the generation of prostaglandin (PG)E2 in human neutrophils. We found that the Ca2+-dependent type IV cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) was pivotally involved in the COX-2-mediated generation of PGE2 in response to a calcium ionophore, as determined by the use of selected PLA2 inhibitors. PGE2 biosynthesis elicited by bacterial-derived peptides or by phagocytic stimuli acting on cell surface receptors also showed to be dependent on cPLA2 activity. We then assessed metabolism of unesterified arachidonic acid (AA), and observed that PGE2 production becomes favored over that of LTB4 with higher AA concentrations. Withdrawal of calcium prevented the generation of PGE2 in response to a calcium ionophore but did not affect the up-regulation of COX-2 or its capacity to convert AA, thus limiting its implication at the level of cPLA2 activation. Of the main eicosanoids produced by neutrophils, only LTB4 was able to up-regulate COX-2 expression. Finally, the only PGE synthase isoform found in neutrophils is microsomal PGE synthase-1; it co-localized with COX-2 and its expression appeared mainly constitutive. These results highlight key differences in regulatory processes of the 5-LO and COX pathways, and enhance our knowledge at several levels in the PGE2 biosynthesis in neutrophils. PMID:17643350

  8. Cytidine 5′-Diphosphocholine (CDP-Choline) in Stroke and Other CNS Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Adibhatla, Rao Muralikrishna; Hatcher, J. F.

    2007-01-01

    Brain phosphatidylcholine (PC) levels are regulated by a balance between synthesis and hydrolysis. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 (IL-1α/β) activate phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and PC-phospholipase C (PC-PLC) to hydrolyze PC. PC hydrolysis by PLA2 releases free fatty acids including arachidonic acid, and lyso-PC, an inhibitor of CTP-phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT). Arachidonic acid metabolism by cyclooxygenases/lipoxygenases is a significant source of reactive oxygen species. CDP-choline might increase the PC levels by attenuating PLA2 stimulation and loss of CCT activity. TNF-α also stimulates proteolysis of CCT. TNF-α and IL-1β are induced in brain ischemia and may disrupt PC homeostasis by increasing its hydrolysis (increase PLA2 and PC-PLC activities) and inhibiting its synthesis (decrease CCT activity). The beneficial effects of CDP-choline may result by counteracting TNF-α and/or IL-1 mediated events, integrating cytokine biology and lipid metabolism. Re-evaluation of CDP-choline phase III stroke clinical trial data is encouraging and future trails are warranted. CDP-choline is non-xenobiotic, safe, well tolerated, and can be considered as one of the agents in multi-drug treatment of stroke. PMID:15756928

  9. Amprenavir, new protease inhibitor, approved.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1999-05-07

    A new protease inhibitor, amprenavir (Agenerase), has received FDA marketing approval. The approval was based on two 24-week controlled trials and safety data in more than 1,400 patients under FDA accelerated-approval rules. Amprenavir is approved for patients 4 years of age and older. The drug is taken twice daily, with or without food. Side effects include gastrointestinal disturbances, rashes, and oral paresthesia. Severe or life-threatening rashes have occurred in 1 percent of all patients. Pregnant women should not use the drug unless necessary. The drug was developed by Vertex Pharmaceuticals Inc. and is being marketed by Glaxo Wellcome. Some studies suggest that amprenavir is less likely than other protease inhibitors to be associated with lipid metabolism problems. It may have a resistance profile different from that of other protease inhibitors, and therefore may cause different cross resistance problems. Amprenavir appears to be synergistic with abacavir (Ziagen) in laboratory tests.

  10. Electrochemical studies of corrosion inhibitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of single salts, as well as multicomponent mixtures, on corrosion inhibition was studied for type 1010 steel; for 5052, 1100, and 2219-T87 aluminum alloys; and for copper. Molybdate-containing inhibitors exhibit an immediate, positive effect for steel corrosion, but an incubation period may be required for aluminum before the effect of a given inhibitor can be determined. The absence of oxygen was found to provide a positive effect (smaller corrosion rate) for steel and copper, but a negative effect for aluminum. This is attributed to the two possible mechanisms by which aluminum can oxidize. Corrosion inhibition is generally similar for oxygen-rich and oxygen-free envi