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Sample records for a2 receptor targeting

  1. Novel approaches for targeting the adenosine A2A receptor.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Gengyang; Gedeon, Nicholas G; Jankins, Tanner C; Jones, Graham B

    2015-01-01

    The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) represents a drug target for a wide spectrum of diseases. Approaches for targeting this membrane-bound protein have been greatly advanced by new stabilization techniques. The resulting X-ray crystal structures and subsequent analyses provide deep insight to the A2AR from both static and dynamic perspectives. Application of this, along with other biophysical methods combined with fragment-based drug design (FBDD), has become a standard approach in targeting A2AR. Complementarities of in silico screening based- and biophysical screening assisted- FBDD are likely to feature in future approaches in identifying novel ligands against this key receptor. This review describes evolution of the above approaches for targeting A2AR and highlights key modulators identified. It includes a review of: adenosine receptor structures, homology modeling, X-ray structural analysis, rational drug design, biophysical methods, FBDD and in silico screening. As a drug target, the A2AR is attractive as its function plays a role in a wide spectrum of diseases including oncologic, inflammatory, Parkinson's and cardiovascular diseases. Although traditional approaches such as high-throughput screening and homology model-based virtual screening (VS) have played a role in targeting A2AR, numerous shortcomings have generally restricted their applications to specific ligand families. Using stabilization methods for crystallization, X-ray structures of A2AR have greatly accelerated drug discovery and influenced development of biophysical-in silico hybrid screening methods. Application of these new methods to other ARs and G-protein-coupled receptors is anticipated in the future.

  2. Emerging strategies for EphA2 receptor targeting for cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Manish; Vemula, Sai Vikram; Mittal, Suresh K

    2011-01-01

    High mortality rates with cancers warrant further development of earlier diagnostics and better treatment strategies. Membrane-bound erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular receptor tyrosine kinase class A2 (EphA2) is overexpressed in breast, prostate, urinary bladder, skin, lung, ovary and brain cancers. EphA2 overexpression in cancers, its signaling mechanisms and strategies to target its deregulation. High EphA2 expression in cancer cells is correlated with a poor prognosis associated with recurrence due to enhanced metastasis. Interaction of the EphA2 receptor with its ligand (e.g., ephrinA1) triggers events that are deregulated and implicated in carcinogenesis. EphrinA1-independent oncogenic activity and ephrinA1-dependent tumor suppressor roles for EphA2 are described. Molecular interactions of EphA2 with signaling proteins are associated with the modulation of cytoskeleton dynamics, cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and metastasis. The deregulated signaling by EphA2 and its involvement in oncogenesis provide multiple avenues for the rational design of intervention approaches. EphA2 has been tested as a drug target using multiple approaches such as agonist antibodies, RNA interference, immunotherapy, virus vector-mediated gene transfer, small-molecule inhibitors and nanoparticles. With over a decade of research, encouraging results with targeting of EphA2 expression in various pre-clinical cancer models necessitate further studies.

  3. Emerging strategies for EphA2 receptor targeting for cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Manish; Vemula, Sai Vikram; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field High mortality rates with cancers warrant further development of earlier diagnostics and better treatment strategies. Membrane-bound hepatocellular receptor tyrosine kinase class A2 (EphA2) is overexpressed in breast, prostate, urinary bladder, skin, lung, ovary and brain cancers. Areas covered in this review This review describes EphA2 overexpression in cancers, its signaling mechanisms and strategies to target its deregulation. What will the reader will gain High EphA2 expression in cancer cells is correlated to a poor prognosis associated with recurrence due to enhanced metastasis. Interaction of the EphA2 receptor with its ligand (e.g., EphrinA1) triggers events that are deregulated and implicated in carcinogenesis. Both EphrinA1-independent oncogenic activity and EphrinA1-dependent tumor suppressor roles for EphA2 are described. Molecular interactions of EphA2 with signaling proteins are associated with the modulation of cytoskeleton dynamics, cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and metastasis. The deregulated signaling by EphA2 and its involvement in oncogenesis provide multiple avenues for the rational design of intervention approaches. Take home message EphA2 has been tested as a drug target using multiple approaches such as agonist antibodies, RNA interference, immunotherapy, virus vectors-mediated gene transfer, small molecule inhibitors and nanoparticles. With over a decade of research, encouraging results with successful targeting of EphA2 expression in various pre-clinical cancer models necessitate further studies. PMID:21142802

  4. Malaria parasites target the hepatocyte receptor EphA2 for successful host infection.

    PubMed

    Kaushansky, Alexis; Douglass, Alyse N; Arang, Nadia; Vigdorovich, Vladimir; Dambrauskas, Nicholas; Kain, Heather S; Austin, Laura S; Sather, D Noah; Kappe, Stefan H I

    2015-11-27

    The invasion of a suitable host hepatocyte by mosquito-transmitted Plasmodium sporozoites is an essential early step in successful malaria parasite infection. Yet precisely how sporozoites target their host cell and facilitate productive infection remains largely unknown. We found that the hepatocyte EphA2 receptor was critical for establishing a permissive intracellular replication compartment, the parasitophorous vacuole. Sporozoites productively infected hepatocytes with high EphA2 expression, and the deletion of EphA2 protected mice from liver infection. Lack of host EphA2 phenocopied the lack of the sporozoite proteins P52 and P36. Our data suggest that P36 engages EphA2, which is likely to be a key step in establishing the permissive replication compartment. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. The adenosine A2A receptor — Myocardial protectant and coronary target in endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Reichelt, Melissa E.; Ashton, Kevin J.; Tan, Xing Lin; Mustafa, S. Jamal; Ledent, Catherine; Delbridge, Lea M.D.; Hofmann, Polly A.; Headrick, John P.; Morrison, R. Ray

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiac injury and dysfunction are contributors to disease progression and mortality in sepsis. This study evaluated the cardiovascular role of intrinsic A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR) activity during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Methods We assessed the impact of 24 h of LPS challenge (20 mg/kg, IP) on cardiac injury, coronary function and inflammatory mediator levels in Wild-Type (WT) mice and mice lacking functional A2AARs (A2AAR KO). Results Cardiac injury was evident in LPS-treated WTs, with ∼7-fold elevation in serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI), and significant ventricular and coronary dysfunction. Absence of A2AARs increased LPS-provoked cTnI release at 24 h by 3-fold without additional demise of contraction function. Importantly, A2AAR deletion per se emulated detrimental effects of LPS on coronary function, and LPS was without effect in coronary vessels lacking A2AARs. Effects of A2AAR KO were independent of major shifts in circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and haptoglobin. Cytokine responses were largely insensitive to A2AAR deletion; substantial LPS-induced elevations (up to 100-fold) in IFN-γ and IL-10 were unaltered in A2AAR KO mice, as were levels of IL-4 and TNF-α. However, late elevations in IL-2 and IL-5 were differentially modulated by A2AAR KO (IL-2 reduced, IL-5 increased). Data demonstrate that in the context of LPS-triggered cardiac and coronary injury, A2AAR activity protects myocardial viability without modifying contractile dysfunction, and selectively modulates cytokine (IL-2, IL-5) release. A2AARs also appear to be targeted by LPS in the coronary vasculature. Conclusions These experimental data suggest that preservation of A2AAR functionality might provide therapeutic benefit in human sepsis. PMID:22192288

  6. Therapy of pancreatic cancer via an EphA2 receptor-targeted delivery of gemcitabine

    PubMed Central

    Barile, Elisa; Das, Swadesh K.; Emdad, Luni; Sarkar, Devanand; De, Surya K.; Kharagh, Susan Morvaridi; Stebbins, John L.; Pandol, Stephen J.; Fisher, Paul B.; Pellecchia, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    First line treatment for pancreatic cancer consists of surgical resection, if possible, and a subsequent course of chemotherapy using the nucleoside analogue gemcitabine. In some patients, an active transport mechanism allows gemcitabine to enter efficiently into the tumor cells, resulting in a significant clinical benefit. However, in most patients, low expression of gemcitabine transporters limits the efficacy of the drug to marginal levels, and patients need frequent administration of the drug at high doses, significantly increasing systemic drug toxicity. In this article we focus on a novel targeted delivery approach for gemcitabine consisting of conjugating the drug with an EphA2 targeting agent. We show that the EphA2 receptor is highly expressed in pancreatic cancers, and accordingly, the drug-conjugate is more effective than gemcitabine alone in targeting pancreatic tumors. Our preliminary observations suggest that this approach may provide a general benefit to pancreatic cancer patients and offers a comprehensive strategy for enhancing delivery of diverse therapeutic agents to a wide range of cancers overexpressing EphA2, thereby potentially reducing toxicity while enhancing therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26959746

  7. (99m)Tc-labeled SWL specific peptide for targeting EphA2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Lan, Xiaoli; Wu, Tao; Lang, Juntao; Jin, Xueyan; Sun, Xun; Wen, Qiong; An, Rui

    2014-07-01

    EphA2, one member of the Eph receptor family, is widely expressed in multiple aggressive cancers. SWL, a small peptide identified by phage display, has high binding affinity to EphA2, suggesting that it could be exploited for targeted molecular imaging. Therefore, a novel peptide-based probe, (99m)Tc-HYNIC-SWL, was developed and its potential to specifically target EphA2-positive tumors was investigated. The SWL peptide was labeled with hydrazinonicotinic acid (HYNIC), followed by (99m)Tc labeling. Immunofluorescence staining was carried out to detect the expression of EphA2 in A549 lung cancer cells and OCM-1 melanoma cells. Saturation binding experiments were performed by incubating A549 cells with increasing concentrations of radiolabeled peptide in vitro. To test the probe in vivo, nude mice bearing either A549 or OCM-1 derived tumors were established, injected with (99m)Tc-HYNIC-SWL, and subjected to SPECT imaging. Mice injected with excess unlabeled SWL were used as a specific control. Ex vivo γ-counting of dissected tissues from the mice was also performed to evaluate biodistribution. Immunofluorescence staining showed that A549 cells intensively expressed EphA2, while OCM-1 cells had little expression. (99m)Tc-HYNIC-SWL displayed high binding affinity with A549 cells (KD=2.6±0.7nM). From the SPECT images and the results of the biodistribution study, significantly higher uptake of the tracer was seen in A549 tumors (1.44±0.12 %ID/g) than in OCM-1 tumors (0.43±0.20 %ID/g) at 1h after injection. Pre-injection with excess unlabeled peptide in A549-bearing nude mice, significantly reduced tumor uptake of the radiolabeled probe (0.58±0.20 %ID/g) was seen. These data suggest that (99m)Tc-HYNIC-SWL specifically targets EphA2 in tumors. The expression of EphA2 can be noninvasively investigated using (99m)Tc-HYNIC-SWL by SPECT imaging. The in vitro and in vivo characteristics of (99m)Tc-HYNIC-SWL make it a promising probe for EphA2-positive tumor imaging

  8. The Receptor Tyrosine Kinase EphA2 Is a Direct Target Gene of Hypermethylated in Cancer 1 (HIC1)*

    PubMed Central

    Foveau, Bénédicte; Boulay, Gaylor; Pinte, Sébastien; Van Rechem, Capucine; Rood, Brian R.; Leprince, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    The tumor suppressor gene hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1), which encodes a transcriptional repressor, is epigenetically silenced in many human tumors. Here, we show that ectopic expression of HIC1 in the highly malignant MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line severely impairs cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. In parallel, infection of breast cancer cell lines with a retrovirus expressing HIC1 also induces decreased mRNA and protein expression of the tyrosine kinase receptor EphA2. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and sequential ChIP experiments demonstrate that endogenous HIC1 proteins are bound, together with the MTA1 corepressor, to the EphA2 promoter in WI38 cells. Taken together, our results identify EphA2 as a new direct target gene of HIC1. Finally, we observe that inactivation of endogenous HIC1 through RNA interference in normal breast epithelial cells results in the up-regulation of EphA2 and is correlated with increased cellular migration. To conclude, our results involve the tumor suppressor HIC1 in the transcriptional regulation of the tyrosine kinase receptor EphA2, whose ligand ephrin-A1 is also a HIC1 target gene. Thus, loss of the regulation of this Eph pathway through HIC1 epigenetic silencing could be an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of epithelial cancers. PMID:22184117

  9. Identification of Epithelial Phospholipase A2 Receptor 1 as a Potential Target in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Nolin, James D.; Ogden, H. Luke; Lai, Ying; Altemeier, William A.; Frevert, Charles W.; Bollinger, James G.; Naika, Gajendra S.; Kicic, Anthony; Stick, Stephen M.; Lambeau, Gerard; Henderson, William R.; Gelb, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Secreted phospholipase A2s (sPLA2s) regulate eicosanoid formation and have been implicated in asthma. Although sPLA2s function as enzymes, some of the sPLA2s bind with high affinity to a C-type lectin receptor, called PLA2R1, which has functions in both cellular signaling and clearance of sPLA2s. We sought to examine the expression of PLA2R1 in the airway epithelium of human subjects with asthma and the function of the murine Pla2r1 gene in a model of asthma. Expression of PLA2R1 in epithelial brushings was assessed in two distinct cohorts of children with asthma by microarray and quantitative PCR, and immunostaining for PLA2R1 was conducted on endobronchial tissue and epithelial brushings from adults with asthma. C57BL/129 mice deficient in Pla2r1 (Pla2r1−/−) were characterized in an ovalbumin (OVA) model of allergic asthma. PLA2R1 was differentially overexpressed in epithelial brushings of children with atopic asthma in both cohorts. Immunostaining for PLA2R1 in endobronchial tissue localized to submucosal glandular epithelium and columnar epithelial cells. After OVA sensitization and challenge, Pla2r1−/− mice had increased airway hyperresponsiveness, as well as an increase in cellular trafficking of eosinophils to the peribronchial space and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and an increase in airway permeability. In addition, Pla2r1−/− mice had more dendritic cells in the lung, higher levels of OVA-specific IgG, and increased production of both type-1 and type-2 cytokines by lung leukocytes. PLA2R1 is increased in the airway epithelium in asthma, and serves as a regulator of airway hyperresponsiveness, airway permeability, antigen sensitization, and airway inflammation. PMID:27448109

  10. Identification of Epithelial Phospholipase A2 Receptor 1 as a Potential Target in Asthma.

    PubMed

    Nolin, James D; Ogden, H Luke; Lai, Ying; Altemeier, William A; Frevert, Charles W; Bollinger, James G; Naika, Gajendra S; Kicic, Anthony; Stick, Stephen M; Lambeau, Gerard; Henderson, William R; Gelb, Michael H; Hallstrand, Teal S

    2016-12-01

    Secreted phospholipase A 2 s (sPLA 2 s) regulate eicosanoid formation and have been implicated in asthma. Although sPLA 2 s function as enzymes, some of the sPLA 2 s bind with high affinity to a C-type lectin receptor, called PLA2R1, which has functions in both cellular signaling and clearance of sPLA 2 s. We sought to examine the expression of PLA2R1 in the airway epithelium of human subjects with asthma and the function of the murine Pla2r1 gene in a model of asthma. Expression of PLA2R1 in epithelial brushings was assessed in two distinct cohorts of children with asthma by microarray and quantitative PCR, and immunostaining for PLA2R1 was conducted on endobronchial tissue and epithelial brushings from adults with asthma. C57BL/129 mice deficient in Pla2r1 (Pla2r1 -/- ) were characterized in an ovalbumin (OVA) model of allergic asthma. PLA2R1 was differentially overexpressed in epithelial brushings of children with atopic asthma in both cohorts. Immunostaining for PLA2R1 in endobronchial tissue localized to submucosal glandular epithelium and columnar epithelial cells. After OVA sensitization and challenge, Pla2r1 -/- mice had increased airway hyperresponsiveness, as well as an increase in cellular trafficking of eosinophils to the peribronchial space and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and an increase in airway permeability. In addition, Pla2r1 -/- mice had more dendritic cells in the lung, higher levels of OVA-specific IgG, and increased production of both type-1 and type-2 cytokines by lung leukocytes. PLA2R1 is increased in the airway epithelium in asthma, and serves as a regulator of airway hyperresponsiveness, airway permeability, antigen sensitization, and airway inflammation.

  11. Phosphotyrosine profiling identifies ephrin receptor A2 as a potential therapeutic target in esophageal squamous‐cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Nazia; Barbhuiya, Mustafa A.; Pinto, Sneha M.; Nirujogi, Raja Sekhar; Renuse, Santosh; Datta, Keshava K.; Khan, Aafaque Ahmad; Srikumar, Kotteazeth; Prasad, T. S. Keshava; Kumar, M. Vijaya; Kumar, Rekha Vijay; Chatterjee, Aditi; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal squamous‐cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common malignancies in Asia. Currently, surgical resection of early‐stage tumor is the best available treatment. However, most patients present late when surgery is not an option. Data suggest that chemotherapy regimens are inadequate for clinical management of advanced cancer. Targeted therapy has emerged as one of the most promising approaches to treat several malignancies. A prerequisite for developing targeted therapy is prior knowledge of proteins and pathways that drive proliferation in malignancies. We carried out phosphotyrosine profiling across four different ESCC cell lines and compared it to non‐neoplastic Het‐1A cell line to identify activated tyrosine kinase signaling pathways in ESCC. A total of 278 unique phosphopeptides were identified across these cell lines. This included several tyrosine kinases and their substrates that were hyperphosphorylated in ESCC. Ephrin receptor A2 (EPHA2), a receptor tyrosine kinase, was hyperphosphorylated in all the ESCC cell lines used in the study. EPHA2 is reported to be oncogenic in several cancers and is also known to promote metastasis. Immunohistochemistry‐based studies have revealed EPHA2 is overexpressed in nearly 50% of ESCC. We demonstrated EPHA2 as a potential therapeutic target in ESCC by carrying out siRNA‐based knockdown studies. Knockdown of EPHA2 in ESCC cell line TE8 resulted in significant decrease in cell proliferation and invasion, suggesting it is a promising therapeutic target in ESCC that warrants further evaluation. PMID:25366905

  12. The EphA2 Receptor and EphrinA1 Ligand in Solid Tumors: Function and Therapeutic Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Wykosky, Jill; Debinski, Waldemar

    2013-01-01

    The Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and ephrin ligands have been studied extensively for their roles in developmental processes. In recent years, Eph receptors and ephrins have been found to be integral players in cancer formation and progression. Among these are EphA2 and ephrinA1, which are involved in the development and maintenance of many different types of solid tumors. The function of EphA2 and ephrinA1 in tumorigenesis and tumor progression is complex and seems to be dependent on cell type and microenvironment. These variables affect the expression of the EphA2 and ephrinA1 proteins, the pathways through which they induce signaling, and the functional consequences of that signaling on the behavior of tumor cells and tumor-associated cells. This review will specifically focus on the roles that EphA2 and ephrinA1 play in the different cell types that contribute to the malignancy of solid tumors, with emphasis on the opportunities for therapeutic targeting. PMID:19074825

  13. Targeting Thromboxane A2 Receptor for Anti-Metastasis Therapy of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    of cell function by Rho GTPases." Drug News Perspect 14(7): 389-95. Erickson, J. W., R. A. Cerione, et al. (1997). "Identification of an actin...Focusing Tumor Microenvironment, Stem Cells and Metastasis 570 (MTOC) and Golgi apparatus to the front of the nucleus, oriented toward the direction of...define the function of TP in tumor cell motility and to validate TP as a target for anti-metastasis therapy of breast cancer. In the first aim, the

  14. Discovery of indolylpiperazinylpyrimidines with dual-target profiles at adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors for Parkinson's disease treatment

    PubMed Central

    Paira, Priyankar; Tan, Aaron; Herr, Deron Raymond; Lim, Kah Leong; Ng, Chee Hoe; Venkatesan, Gopalakrishnan; Klotz, Karl-Norbert; Federico, Stephanie; Spalluto, Giampiero; Cheong, Siew Lee; Chen, Yu Zong

    2018-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the human brain, leading to depletion of dopamine production. Dopamine replacement therapy remains the mainstay for attenuation of PD symptoms. Nonetheless, the potential benefit of current pharmacotherapies is mostly limited by adverse side effects, such as drug-induced dyskinesia, motor fluctuations and psychosis. Non-dopaminergic receptors, such as human A2A adenosine receptors, have emerged as important therapeutic targets in potentiating therapeutic effects and reducing the unwanted side effects. In this study, new chemical entities targeting both human A2A adenosine receptor and dopamine D2 receptor were designed and evaluated. Two computational methods, namely support vector machine (SVM) models and Tanimoto similarity-based clustering analysis, were integrated for the identification of compounds containing indole-piperazine-pyrimidine (IPP) scaffold. Subsequent synthesis and testing resulted in compounds 5 and 6, which acted as human A2A adenosine receptor binders in the radioligand competition assay (Ki = 8.7–11.2 μM) as well as human dopamine D2 receptor binders in the artificial cell membrane assay (EC50 = 22.5–40.2 μM). Moreover, compound 5 showed improvement in movement and mitigation of the loss of dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila models of PD. Furthermore, in vitro toxicity studies on compounds 5 and 6 did not reveal any mutagenicity (up to 100 μM), hepatotoxicity (up to 30 μM) or cardiotoxicity (up to 30 μM). PMID:29304113

  15. Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase-Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Substrate Screen Identifies EphA2 as a Target for LAR in Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hojin

    2013-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) exist in equilibrium between tyrosyl-phosphorylated and dephosphorylated states. Despite a detailed understanding of how RTKs become tyrosyl phosphorylated, much less is known about RTK tyrosyl dephosphorylation. Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) can play essential roles in the dephosphorylation of RTKs. However, a complete understanding of the involvement of the RPTP subfamily in RTK tyrosyl dephosphorylation has not been established. In this study, we have employed a small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen to identify RPTPs in the human genome that serve as RTK phosphatases. We observed that each RPTP induced a unique fingerprint of tyrosyl phosphorylation among 42 RTKs. We identified EphA2 as a novel LAR substrate. LAR dephosphorylated EphA2 at phosphotyrosyl 930, uncoupling Nck1 from EphA2 and thereby attenuating EphA2-mediated cell migration. These results demonstrate that each RPTP exerts a unique regulatory fingerprint of RTK tyrosyl dephosphorylation and suggest a complex signaling interplay between RTKs and RPTPs. Furthermore, we observed that LAR modulates cell migration through EphA2 site-specific dephosphorylation. PMID:23358419

  16. Adenosine A2A receptors and depression.

    PubMed

    El Yacoubi, Malika; Costentin, Jean; Vaugeois, Jean-Marie

    2003-12-09

    Adenosine and its analogues have been shown to induce "behavioral despair" in animal models believed to be relevant to depression. Recent data have shown that selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonists (e.g., SCH 58261, ZM241385, and KW6002) or genetic inactivation of the receptor was effective in reversing signs of behavioral despair in the tail suspension and forced swim tests, two screening procedures predictive of antidepressant activity. A2A antagonists were active in the tail suspension test using either mice previously screened for having high immobility scores or mice that were selectively bred for their spontaneous "helplessness" in this test. At stimulant doses, caffeine, a nonselective A1/A2A receptor antagonist, was effective in the forced swim test. The authors have hypothesized that the antidepressant-like effect of selective A2A antagonists is linked to an interaction with dopaminergic transmission, possibly in the frontal cortex. In support of this idea, administration of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol prevented antidepressant-like effects elicited by SCH 58261 in the forced swim test (putatively involving cortex), whereas it had no effect on stimulant motor effects of SCH 58261 (putatively linked to ventral striatum). The interaction profile of caffeine with haloperidol differed markedly from that of SCH 58261 in the forced swim and motor activity tests. Therefore, a clear-cut antidepressant-like effect could not be ascribed to caffeine. In conclusion, available data support the proposition that a selective blockade of the adenosine A2A receptor may be an interesting target for the development of effective antidepressant agents.

  17. Novel GABA receptor pesticide targets.

    PubMed

    Casida, John E; Durkin, Kathleen A

    2015-06-01

    The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has four distinct but overlapping and coupled targets of pesticide action importantly associated with little or no cross-resistance. The target sites are differentiated by binding assays with specific radioligands, resistant strains, site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling. Three of the targets are for non-competitive antagonists (NCAs) or channel blockers of widely varied chemotypes. The target of the first generation (20th century) NCAs differs between the larger or elongated compounds (NCA-IA) including many important insecticides of the past (cyclodienes and polychlorocycloalkanes) or present (fiproles) and the smaller or compact compounds (NCA-IB) highly toxic to mammals and known as cage convulsants, rodenticides or chemical threat agents. The target of greatest current interest is designated NCA-II for the second generation (21st century) of NCAs consisting for now of isoxazolines and meta-diamides. This new and uniquely different NCA-II site apparently differs enough between insects and mammals to confer selective toxicity. The fourth target is the avermectin site (AVE) for allosteric modulators of the chloride channel. NCA pesticides vary in molecular surface area and solvent accessible volume relative to avermectin with NCA-IBs at 20-22%, NCA-IAs at 40-45% and NCA-IIs at 57-60%. The same type of relationship relative to ligand-docked length is 27-43% for NCA-IBs, 63-71% for NCA-IAs and 85-105% for NCA-IIs. The four targets are compared by molecular modeling for the Drosophila melanogaster GABA-R. The principal sites of interaction are proposed to be: pore V1' and A2' for NCA-IB compounds; pore A2', L6' and T9' for NCA-IA compounds; pore T9' to S15' in proximity to M1/M3 subunit interface (or alternatively an interstitial site) for NCA-II compounds; and M1/M3, M2 interfaces for AVE. Understanding the relationships of these four binding sites is important in resistance management and in the discovery and use

  18. Targeting tachykinin receptors in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Henssen, Anton G; Odersky, Andrea; Szymansky, Annabell; Seiler, Marleen; Althoff, Kristina; Beckers, Anneleen; Speleman, Frank; Schäfers, Simon; De Preter, Katleen; Astrahanseff, Kathy; Struck, Joachim; Schramm, Alexander; Eggert, Angelika; Bergmann, Andreas; Schulte, Johannes H

    2017-01-03

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial tumor in children. Despite aggressive multimodal treatment, high-risk neuroblastoma remains a clinical challenge with survival rates below 50%. Adding targeted drugs to first-line therapy regimens is a promising approach to improve survival in these patients. TACR1 activation by substance P has been reported to be mitogenic in cancer cell lines. Tachykinin receptor (TACR1) antagonists are approved for clinical use as an antiemetic remedy since 2003. Tachykinin receptor inhibition has recently been shown to effectively reduce growth of several tumor types. Here, we report that neuroblastoma cell lines express TACR1, and that targeting TACR1 activity significantly reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in neuroblastoma cell lines. Gene expression profiling revealed that TACR1 inhibition repressed E2F2 and induced TP53 signaling. Treating mice harboring established neuroblastoma xenograft tumors with Aprepitant also significantly reduced tumor burden. Thus, we provide evidence that the targeted inhibition of tachykinin receptor signaling shows therapeutic efficacy in preclinical models for high-risk neuroblastoma.

  19. Functional efficacy of adenosine A2A receptor agonists is positively correlated to their receptor residence time

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dong; Mulder-Krieger, Thea; IJzerman, Adriaan P; Heitman, Laura H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The adenosine A2A receptor belongs to the superfamily of GPCRs and is a promising therapeutic target. Traditionally, the discovery of novel agents for the A2A receptor has been guided by their affinity for the receptor. This parameter is determined under equilibrium conditions, largely ignoring the kinetic aspects of the ligand-receptor interaction. The aim of this study was to assess the binding kinetics of A2A receptor agonists and explore a possible relationship with their functional efficacy. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We set up, validated and optimized a kinetic radioligand binding assay (a so-called competition association assay) at the A2A receptor from which the binding kinetics of unlabelled ligands were determined. Subsequently, functional efficacies of A2A receptor agonists were determined in two different assays: a novel label-free impedance-based assay and a more traditional cAMP determination. KEY RESULTS A simplified competition association assay yielded an accurate determination of the association and dissociation rates of unlabelled A2A receptor ligands at their receptor. A correlation was observed between the receptor residence time of A2A receptor agonists and their intrinsic efficacies in both functional assays. The affinity of A2A receptor agonists was not correlated to their functional efficacy. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS This study indicates that the molecular basis of different agonist efficacies at the A2A receptor lies within their different residence times at this receptor. PMID:22324512

  20. An Anti-Parkinson’s Disease Drug via Targeting Adenosine A2A Receptor Enhances Amyloid-β Generation and γ-Secretase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohang; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Yue; Yang, Wenjuan; Chen, Ming; Zhao, Jian; Pei, Gang

    2016-01-01

    γ-secretase mediates the intramembranous proteolysis of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and determines the generation of Aβ which is associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here we identified that an anti-Parkinson’s disease drug, Istradefylline, could enhance Aβ generation in various cell lines and primary neuronal cells of APP/PS1 mouse. Moreover, the increased generation of Aβ42 was detected in the cortex of APP/PS1 mouse after chronic treatment with Istradefylline. Istradefylline promoted the activity of γ-secretase which could lead to increased Aβ production. These effects of Istradefylline were reduced by the knockdown of A2AR but independent of A2AR-mediated G protein- or β-arrestin-dependent signal pathway. We further observed that A2AR colocalized with γ-secretase in endosomes and physically interacted with the catalytic subunit presenilin-1 (PS1). Interestingly, Istradefylline attenuated the interaction in time- and dosage-dependent manners. Moreover the knockdown of A2AR which in theory would release PS1 potentiated both Aβ generation and γ-secretase activity. Thus, our study implies that the association of A2AR could modulate γ-secretase activity. Istradefylline enhance Aβ generation and γ-secretase activity possibly via modulating the interaction between A2AR and γ-secretase, which may bring some undesired effects in the central nervous system (CNS). PMID:27835671

  1. Targeting Nuclear Receptors with Marine Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunyan; Li, Qianrong; Li, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are important pharmaceutical targets because they are key regulators of many metabolic and inflammatory diseases, including diabetes, dyslipidemia, cirrhosis, and fibrosis. As ligands play a pivotal role in modulating nuclear receptor activity, the discovery of novel ligands for nuclear receptors represents an interesting and promising therapeutic approach. The search for novel NR agonists and antagonists with enhanced selectivities prompted the exploration of the extraordinary chemical diversity associated with natural products. Recent studies involving nuclear receptors have disclosed a number of natural products as nuclear receptor ligands, serving to re-emphasize the translational possibilities of natural products in drug discovery. In this review, the natural ligands of nuclear receptors will be described with an emphasis on their mechanisms of action and their therapeutic potentials, as well as on strategies to determine potential marine natural products as nuclear receptor modulators. PMID:24473166

  2. Targeting the TAM Receptors in Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Huey, Madeline G; Minson, Katherine A; Earp, H Shelton; DeRyckere, Deborah; Graham, Douglas K

    2016-11-08

    Targeted inhibition of members of the TAM (TYRO-3, AXL, MERTK) family of receptor tyrosine kinases has recently been investigated as a novel strategy for treatment of hematologic malignancies. The physiologic functions of the TAM receptors in innate immune control, natural killer (NK) cell differentiation, efferocytosis, clearance of apoptotic debris, and hemostasis have previously been described and more recent data implicate TAM kinases as important regulators of erythropoiesis and megakaryopoiesis. The TAM receptors are aberrantly or ectopically expressed in many hematologic malignancies including acute myeloid leukemia, B- and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and multiple myeloma. TAM receptors contribute to leukemic phenotypes through activation of pro-survival signaling pathways and interplay with other oncogenic proteins such as FLT3, LYN, and FGFR3. The TAM receptors also contribute to resistance to both cytotoxic chemotherapeutics and targeted agents, making them attractive therapeutic targets. A number of translational strategies for TAM inhibition are in development, including small molecule inhibitors, ligand traps, and monoclonal antibodies. Emerging areas of research include modulation of TAM receptors to enhance anti-tumor immunity, potential roles for TYRO-3 in leukemogenesis, and the function of the bone marrow microenvironment in mediating resistance to TAM inhibition.

  3. T LYMPHOCYTES TARGETING NATIVE RECEPTORS

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Cliona M; Leen, Ann M; Vera, Juan F; Heslop, Helen E

    2013-01-01

    Summary The adoptive transfer of T cells specific for native tumor antigens (TAs) is an increasingly popular cancer treatment option because of the ability of these cells to discriminate between normal and tumor tissues and corresponding lack of short or long-term toxicities. Infusions of antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells targeting viral antigens derived from Epstein Barr virus (EBV) induce sustained complete tumor remissions in patients with highly immunogenic tumor’s such as post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease, although resistance occurred when the infused T-cell population had restricted antigen specificity. T cells specific for EBV antigens have also produced complete remissions of EBV-positive nasopharyngeal carcinomas and lymphomas developing in immunocompetent individuals, even though in these patients tumor survival is dependent on their ability to evade T-cell immunity. Adapting this strategy to non-viral tumors is more challenging, as the target antigens expressed are less immunogenic and the tumors lack the potent danger signals that are characteristic of viruses. The goals of current studies are to define conditions that promote expansion of antigen-specific T cells ex vivo and to ensure their in vivo persistence and survival by combining with maneuvers such as lymphodepletion, checkpoint inhibition, cytokine infusions, or genetic manipulations. More pragmatic goals are to streamline manufacturing to facilitate the transition of these therapies to late phase trials and to evaluate closely histocompatibility antigen (HLA)-matched banked antigen-specific T-cells so that T-cell therapies can be made more broadly available. PMID:24329788

  4. The importance of the adenosine A(2A) receptor-dopamine D(2) receptor interaction in drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Filip, M; Zaniewska, M; Frankowska, M; Wydra, K; Fuxe, K

    2012-01-01

    Drug addiction is a serious brain disorder with somatic, psychological, psychiatric, socio-economic and legal implications in the developed world. Illegal (e.g., psychostimulants, opioids, cannabinoids) and legal (alcohol, nicotine) drugs of abuse create a complex behavioral pattern composed of drug intake, withdrawal, seeking and relapse. One of the hallmarks of drugs that are abused by humans is that they have different mechanisms of action to increase dopamine (DA) neurotransmission within the mesolimbic circuitry of the brain and indirectly activate DA receptors. Among the DA receptors, D(2) receptors are linked to drug abuse and addiction because their function has been proven to be correlated with drug reinforcement and relapses. The recognition that D(2) receptors exist not only as homomers but also can form heteromers, such as with the adenosine (A)(2A) receptor, that are pharmacologically and functionally distinct from their constituent receptors, has significantly expanded the range of potential drug targets and provided new avenues for drug design in the search for novel drug addiction therapies. The aim of this review is to bring current focus on A(2A) receptors, their physiology and pharmacology in the central nervous system, and to discuss the therapeutic relevance of these receptors to drug addiction. We concentrate on the contribution of A(2A) receptors to the effects of different classes of drugs of abuse examined in preclinical behavioral experiments carried out with pharmacological and genetic tools. The consequences of chronic drug treatment on A(2A) receptor-assigned functions in preclinical studies are also presented. Finally, the neurochemical mechanism of the interaction between A(2A) receptors and drugs of abuse in the context of the heteromeric A(2A)-D(2) receptor complex is discussed. Taken together, a significant amount of experimental analyses provide evidence that targeting A(2A) receptors may offer innovative translational strategies

  5. Targeted anticancer therapy: overexpressed receptors and nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Ahamed, Maqusood; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Alrokayan, Salman A; Kumar, Sudhir

    2014-09-25

    Targeted delivery of anticancer drugs to cancer cells and tissues is a promising field due to its potential to spare unaffected cells and tissues, but it has been a major challenge to achieve success in these therapeutic approaches. Several innovative approaches to targeted drug delivery have been devised based on available knowledge in cancer biology and on technological advancements. To achieve the desired selectivity of drug delivery, nanotechnology has enabled researchers to design nanoparticles (NPs) to incorporate anticancer drugs and act as nanocarriers. Recently, many receptor molecules known to be overexpressed in cancer have been explored as docking sites for the targeting of anticancer drugs. In principle, anticancer drugs can be concentrated specifically in cancer cells and tissues by conjugating drug-containing nanocarriers with ligands against these receptors. Several mechanisms can be employed to induce triggered drug release in response to either endogenous trigger or exogenous trigger so that the anticancer drug is only released upon reaching and preferentially accumulating in the tumor tissue. This review focuses on overexpressed receptors exploited in targeting drugs to cancerous tissues and the tumor microenvironment. We briefly evaluate the structure and function of these receptor molecules, emphasizing the elegant mechanisms by which certain characteristics of cancer can be exploited in cancer treatment. After this discussion of receptors, we review their respective ligands and then the anticancer drugs delivered by nanotechnology in preclinical models of cancer. Ligand-functionalized nanocarriers have delivered significantly higher amounts of anticancer drugs in many in vitro and in vivo models of cancer compared to cancer models lacking such receptors or drug carrying nanocarriers devoid of ligand. This increased concentration of anticancer drug in the tumor site enabled by nanotechnology could have a major impact on the efficiency of cancer

  6. Anticancer molecules targeting fibroblast growth factor receptors.

    PubMed

    Liang, Guang; Liu, Zhiguo; Wu, Jianzhang; Cai, Yuepiao; Li, Xiaokun

    2012-10-01

    The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family includes four highly conserved receptor tyrosine kinases: FGFR1-4. Upon ligand binding, FGFRs activate an array of downstream signaling pathways, such as the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways. These FGFR cascades play crucial roles in tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, migration, and survival. The combination of knockdown studies and pharmaceutical inhibition in preclinical models demonstrates that FGFRs are attractive targets for therapeutic intervention in cancer. Multiple FGFR inhibitors with various structural skeletons have been designed, synthesized, and evaluated. Reviews on FGFRs have recently focused on FGFR signaling, pathophysiology, and functions in cancer or other diseases. In this article, we review recent advances in structure-activity relationships (SAR) of FGFR inhibitors, as well as the FGFR-targeting drug design strategies currently employed in targeting deregulated FGFRs by antibodies and small molecule inhibitors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. P2X Receptors as Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    The study of P2X receptors has long been handicapped by a poverty of small-molecule tools that serve as selective agonists and antagonists. There has been progress, particularly in the past 10 years, as cell-based high-throughput screening methods were applied, together with large chemical libraries. This has delivered some drug-like molecules in several chemical classes that selectively target P2X1, P2X3, or P2X7 receptors. Some of these are, or have been, in clinical trials for rheumatoid arthritis, pain, and cough. Current preclinical research programs are studying P2X receptor involvement in pain, inflammation, osteoporosis, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, and bladder dysfunction. The determination of the atomic structure of P2X receptors in closed and open (ATP-bound) states by X-ray crystallography is now allowing new approaches by molecular modeling. This is supported by a large body of previous work using mutagenesis and functional expression, and is now being supplemented by molecular dynamic simulations and in silico ligand docking. These approaches should lead to P2X receptors soon taking their place alongside other ion channel proteins as therapeutically important drug targets. PMID:23253448

  8. Therapeutic antibody targeting of individual Notch receptors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Cain-Hom, Carol; Choy, Lisa; Hagenbeek, Thijs J; de Leon, Gladys P; Chen, Yongmei; Finkle, David; Venook, Rayna; Wu, Xiumin; Ridgway, John; Schahin-Reed, Dorreyah; Dow, Graham J; Shelton, Amy; Stawicki, Scott; Watts, Ryan J; Zhang, Jeff; Choy, Robert; Howard, Peter; Kadyk, Lisa; Yan, Minhong; Zha, Jiping; Callahan, Christopher A; Hymowitz, Sarah G; Siebel, Christian W

    2010-04-15

    The four receptors of the Notch family are widely expressed transmembrane proteins that function as key conduits through which mammalian cells communicate to regulate cell fate and growth. Ligand binding triggers a conformational change in the receptor negative regulatory region (NRR) that enables ADAM protease cleavage at a juxtamembrane site that otherwise lies buried within the quiescent NRR. Subsequent intramembrane proteolysis catalysed by the gamma-secretase complex liberates the intracellular domain (ICD) to initiate the downstream Notch transcriptional program. Aberrant signalling through each receptor has been linked to numerous diseases, particularly cancer, making the Notch pathway a compelling target for new drugs. Although gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) have progressed into the clinic, GSIs fail to distinguish individual Notch receptors, inhibit other signalling pathways and cause intestinal toxicity, attributed to dual inhibition of Notch1 and 2 (ref. 11). To elucidate the discrete functions of Notch1 and Notch2 and develop clinically relevant inhibitors that reduce intestinal toxicity, we used phage display technology to generate highly specialized antibodies that specifically antagonize each receptor paralogue and yet cross-react with the human and mouse sequences, enabling the discrimination of Notch1 versus Notch2 function in human patients and rodent models. Our co-crystal structure shows that the inhibitory mechanism relies on stabilizing NRR quiescence. Selective blocking of Notch1 inhibits tumour growth in pre-clinical models through two mechanisms: inhibition of cancer cell growth and deregulation of angiogenesis. Whereas inhibition of Notch1 plus Notch2 causes severe intestinal toxicity, inhibition of either receptor alone reduces or avoids this effect, demonstrating a clear advantage over pan-Notch inhibitors. Our studies emphasize the value of paralogue-specific antagonists in dissecting the contributions of distinct Notch receptors to

  9. Pharmacological approaches to targeting muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Matera, Carlo; Tata, Ada M

    2014-01-01

    The presence of cholinergic system markers and muscarinic receptor subtypes in several tissues also of nonneuronal type has been largely demonstrated. Acetylcholine, synthesized in the nervous system, can locally contribute to modulate cell proliferation, survival and apoptosis. Considering that the cholinergic system functions are impaired in a number of disorders, the identification of new drugs regulating these functions appears of great clinical relevance. The possible involvement of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in different pathologies has been proposed in recent years and is becoming an important area of study. However, the lack of selective muscarinic receptor ligands has for long time limited the therapeutic treatment based on muscarinic receptors as targets. To date, some muscarinic ligands such as xanomeline (patent, US5980933) or cevimeline (patents US4855290, US5571918) have been developed for the treatment of several pathologies (Alzheimer's and Sjogren's diseases). The present review will be focused on the potential effects produced by muscarinic receptor activation in different pathologies, including tumors. In fact, the potential use of muscarinic ligands in therapeutic protocols in cancer therapy will be discussed, considering that several muscarinic antagonists, already used in the treatment of genitourinary diseases (e.g. darifenacin, patent, US5096890, US6106864), have also been demonstrated to arrest the tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, the contribution of muscarinic receptors to analgesia is also reviewed. Finally, some of the most significant achievements in the field of bitopic/dualsteric ligands will be discussed and the molecules patented so far will be presented.

  10. Glutaraldehyde pretreatment blocks phospholipase A2 modulation of adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Cohen, R M; McLellan, C; Dauphin, M; Hirata, F

    1985-01-07

    Treatment of rat cerebral cortical membranes with phospholipase A2 affects, in a parallel fashion, beta-, alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenergic receptor binding, but not the affinity of these receptors for their respective ligands. Pretreatment of membranes with 0.1 percent glutaraldehyde blocks the effects of phospholipase A2 on adrenergic receptor binding. The results support the hypothesis that desensitization or "masking" of adrenergic receptors may involve changes in membrane lipid composition. Furthermore, glutaraldehyde may prove a useful tool in the investigation of the dynamic roles of lipids in receptor function and more specifically, their regulation and coupling to physiological events.

  11. Customizing the targeting of IGF-1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Baserga, Renato

    2009-02-01

    The type 1 IGF receptor (IGF-IR) is activated by two ligands, IGF-1 and IGF-2, and by insulin at supraphysiological concentrations. It plays a significant role in the growth of normal and abnormal cells, and antibodies against the IGF-IR are now in clinical trials. Targeting of the IGF-IR in cancer cells (by antibodies or other means) can be improved by the appropriate selection of responsive tumors. This review focuses on the optimization of IGF-IR targeting in human cancer.

  12. Adenosine A2B receptor: from cell biology to human diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ying; Huang, Pingbo

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular adenosine is a ubiquitous signaling molecule that modulates a wide array of biological processes. Recently, significant advances have been made in our understanding of A2B adenosine receptor (A2BAR). In this review, we first summarize some of the general characteristics of A2BAR, and then we describe the multiple binding partners of the receptor, such as newly identified α-actinin-1 and p105, and discuss how these associated proteins could modulate A2BAR’s functions, including certain seemingly paradoxical functions of the receptor. Growing evidence indicates a critical role of A2BAR in cancer, renal disease, and diabetes, in addition to its importance in the regulation of vascular diseases and lung disease. Here, we also discuss the role of A2BAR in cancer, renal disease, and diabetes and the potential of the receptor as a target for treating these three diseases.

  13. Death receptors as targets in cancer.

    PubMed

    Micheau, O; Shirley, S; Dufour, F

    2013-08-01

    Anti-tumour therapies based on the use pro-apoptotic receptor agonists, including TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) or monoclonal antibodies targeting TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2, have been disappointing so far, despite clear evidence of clinical activity and lack of adverse events for the vast majority of these compounds, whether combined or not with conventional or targeted anti-cancer therapies. This brief review aims at discussing the possible reasons for the lack of apparent success of these therapeutic approaches and at providing hints in order to rationally design optimal protocols based on our current understanding of TRAIL signalling regulation or resistance for future clinical trials. This article is part of a themed section on Emerging Therapeutic Aspects in Oncology. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.169.issue-8. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Targeted Radiotherapy of Estrogen Receptor Positive Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavan Rajagopalan

    The overall objectives of the proposal were to develop estrogen receptor (ER) binding small molecule radiopharmaceuticals for targeted radiotherapy of ER positive (ER+) tumors. In particular, this proposal focused on embedding a {sup 186,188}Re or a {sup 32}P radionuclide into an estrogen steroidal framework by isosteric substitution such that the resulting structure is topologically similar to the estrogen (estrogen mimic). The estrogen mimic molecules expected to bind to the ER and exhibit biodistribution akin to that of native estrogen due to structural mimicry. It is anticipated that the {sup 186,188}Re- or a {sup 32}P-containing estrogen mimics will be useful formore » targeted molecular radiotherapy of ER+ tumors. It is well established that the in vivo target tissue uptake of estrogen like steroidal molecules is related to the binding of the steroids to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). SHBG is important in the uptake of estrogens and testosterone in target tissues by SHBG receptors on the cell surface. However, hitherto the design of estrogen like small molecule radiopharmaceuticals was focused on optimizing ER binding characteristics without emphasis on SHBG binding properties. Consequently, even the molecules with good ER affinity in vitro, performed poorly in biodistribution studies. Based on molecular modeling studies the proposal focused on developing estrogen mimics 1-3 which were topologically similar to native estrogens, and form hydrogen bonds in ER and SHBG in the same manner as those of native estrogens. To this end the technical objectives of the proposal focused on synthesizing the rhenium-estrone and estradiol mimics 1 and 2 respectively, and phosphorous estradiol mimic 3 and to assess their stability and in vitro binding characteristics to ER and SHBG.« less

  15. Somatostatin Analogues for Receptor Targeted Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kaščáková, Slávka; Hofland, Leo J.; De Bruijn, Henriette S.; Ye, Yunpeng; Achilefu, Samuel; van der Wansem, Katy; van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, Angelique; van Koetsveld, Peter M.; Brugts, Michael P.; van der Lelij, Aart-Jan; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; ten Hagen, Timo L. M.; Robinson, Dominic J.; van Hagen, Martin P.

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an established treatment modality, used mainly for anticancer therapy that relies on the interaction of photosensitizer, light and oxygen. For the treatment of pathologies in certain anatomical sites, improved targeting of the photosensitizer is necessary to prevent damage to healthy tissue. We report on a novel dual approach of targeted PDT (vascular and cellular targeting) utilizing the expression of neuropeptide somatostatin receptor (sst2) on tumor and neovascular-endothelial cells. We synthesized two conjugates containing the somatostatin analogue [Tyr3]-octreotate and Chlorin e6 (Ce6): Ce6-K3-[Tyr3]-octreotate (1) and Ce6-[Tyr3]-octreotate-K3-[Tyr3]-octreotate (2). Investigation of the uptake and photodynamic activity of conjugates in-vitro in human erythroleukemic K562 cells showed that conjugation of [Tyr3]-octreotate with Ce6 in conjugate 1 enhances uptake (by a factor 2) in cells over-expressing sst2 compared to wild-type cells. Co-treatment with excess free Octreotide abrogated the phototoxicity of conjugate 1 indicative of a specific sst2-mediated effect. In contrast conjugate 2 showed no receptor-mediated effect due to its high hydrophobicity. When compared with un-conjugated Ce6, the PDT activity of conjugate 1 was lower. However, it showed higher photostability which may compensate for its lower phototoxicity. Intra-vital fluorescence pharmacokinetic studies of conjugate 1 in rat skin-fold observation chambers transplanted with sst2 + AR42J acinar pancreas tumors showed significantly different uptake profiles compared to free Ce6. Co-treatment with free Octreotide significantly reduced conjugate uptake in tumor tissue (by a factor 4) as well as in the chamber neo-vasculature. These results show that conjugate 1 might have potential as an in-vivo sst2 targeting photosensitizer conjugate. PMID:25111655

  16. Targeting the adenosine 2A receptor enhances chimeric antigen receptor T cell efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Beavis, Paul A.; Henderson, Melissa A.; Giuffrida, Lauren; Mills, Jane K.; Sek, Kevin; Cross, Ryan S.; Davenport, Alexander J.; John, Liza B.; Mardiana, Sherly; Slaney, Clare Y.; Johnstone, Ricky W.; Trapani, Joseph A.; Stagg, John; Loi, Sherene; Kats, Lev; Gyorki, David; Kershaw, Michael H.; Darcy, Phillip K.

    2017-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have been highly successful in treating hematological malignancies, including acute and chronic lymphoblastic leukemia. However, treatment of solid tumors using CAR T cells has been largely unsuccessful to date, partly because of tumor-induced immunosuppressive mechanisms, including adenosine production. Previous studies have shown that adenosine generated by tumor cells potently inhibits endogenous antitumor T cell responses through activation of adenosine 2A receptors (A2ARs). Herein, we have observed that CAR activation resulted in increased A2AR expression and suppression of both murine and human CAR T cells. This was reversible using either A2AR antagonists or genetic targeting of A2AR using shRNA. In 2 syngeneic HER2+ self-antigen tumor models, we found that either genetic or pharmacological targeting of the A2AR profoundly increased CAR T cell efficacy, particularly when combined with PD-1 blockade. Mechanistically, this was associated with increased cytokine production of CD8+ CAR T cells and increased activation of both CD8+ and CD4+ CAR T cells. Given the known clinical relevance of the CD73/adenosine pathway in several solid tumor types, and the initiation of phase I trials for A2AR antagonists in oncology, this approach has high translational potential to enhance CAR T cell efficacy in several cancer types. PMID:28165340

  17. REV-ERB and ROR nuclear receptors as drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Kojetin, Douglas J.; Burris, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear receptors REV-ERB (consisting of REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ) and retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors (RORs; consisting of RORα, RORβ and RORγ) are involved in many physiological processes, including regulation of metabolism, development and immunity as well as the circadian rhythm. The recent characterization of endogenous ligands for these former orphan nuclear receptors has stimulated the development of synthetic ligands and opened up the possibility of targeting these receptors to treat several diseases, including diabetes, atherosclerosis, autoimmunity and cancer. This Review focuses on the latest developments in ROR and REV-ERB pharmacology indicating that these nuclear receptors are druggable targets and that ligands targeting these receptors may be useful in the treatment of several disorders. PMID:24577401

  18. EphrinA2 Receptor (EphA2) Is an Invasion and Intracellular Signaling Receptor for Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Subbarayal, Prema; Karunakaran, Karthika; Winkler, Ann-Cathrin; Rother, Marion; Gonzalez, Erik; Meyer, Thomas F.; Rudel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis invades into host cells to replicate inside a membrane-bound vacuole called inclusion. Multiple different host proteins are recruited to the inclusion and are functionally modulated to support chlamydial development. Invaded and replicating Chlamydia induces a long-lasting activation of the PI3 kinase signaling pathway that is required for efficient replication. We identified the cell surface tyrosine kinase EphrinA2 receptor (EphA2) as a chlamydial adherence and invasion receptor that induces PI3 kinase (PI3K) activation, promoting chlamydial replication. Interfering with binding of C. trachomatis serovar L2 (Ctr) to EphA2, downregulation of EphA2 expression or inhibition of EphA2 activity significantly reduced Ctr infection. Ctr interacts with and activates EphA2 on the cell surface resulting in Ctr and receptor internalization. During chlamydial replication, EphA2 remains active accumulating around the inclusion and interacts with the p85 regulatory subunit of PI3K to support the activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway that is required for normal chlamydial development. Overexpression of full length EphA2, but not the mutant form lacking the intracellular cytoplasmic domain, enhanced PI3K activation and Ctr infection. Despite the depletion of EphA2 from the cell surface, Ctr infection induces upregulation of EphA2 through the activation of the ERK pathway, which keeps the infected cell in an apoptosis-resistant state. The significance of EphA2 as an entry and intracellular signaling receptor was also observed with the urogenital C. trachomatis-serovar D. Our findings provide the first evidence for a host cell surface receptor that is exploited for invasion as well as for receptor-mediated intracellular signaling to facilitate chlamydial replication. In addition, the engagement of a cell surface receptor at the inclusion membrane is a new mechanism by which Chlamydia subverts the host cell and

  19. EphrinA2 receptor (EphA2) is an invasion and intracellular signaling receptor for Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Subbarayal, Prema; Karunakaran, Karthika; Winkler, Ann-Cathrin; Rother, Marion; Gonzalez, Erik; Meyer, Thomas F; Rudel, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis invades into host cells to replicate inside a membrane-bound vacuole called inclusion. Multiple different host proteins are recruited to the inclusion and are functionally modulated to support chlamydial development. Invaded and replicating Chlamydia induces a long-lasting activation of the PI3 kinase signaling pathway that is required for efficient replication. We identified the cell surface tyrosine kinase EphrinA2 receptor (EphA2) as a chlamydial adherence and invasion receptor that induces PI3 kinase (PI3K) activation, promoting chlamydial replication. Interfering with binding of C. trachomatis serovar L2 (Ctr) to EphA2, downregulation of EphA2 expression or inhibition of EphA2 activity significantly reduced Ctr infection. Ctr interacts with and activates EphA2 on the cell surface resulting in Ctr and receptor internalization. During chlamydial replication, EphA2 remains active accumulating around the inclusion and interacts with the p85 regulatory subunit of PI3K to support the activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway that is required for normal chlamydial development. Overexpression of full length EphA2, but not the mutant form lacking the intracellular cytoplasmic domain, enhanced PI3K activation and Ctr infection. Despite the depletion of EphA2 from the cell surface, Ctr infection induces upregulation of EphA2 through the activation of the ERK pathway, which keeps the infected cell in an apoptosis-resistant state. The significance of EphA2 as an entry and intracellular signaling receptor was also observed with the urogenital C. trachomatis-serovar D. Our findings provide the first evidence for a host cell surface receptor that is exploited for invasion as well as for receptor-mediated intracellular signaling to facilitate chlamydial replication. In addition, the engagement of a cell surface receptor at the inclusion membrane is a new mechanism by which Chlamydia subverts the host cell and

  20. Adenosine A2A receptor agonists with potent antiplatelet activity.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Fuentes, Manuel; Caballero, Julio; Palomo, Iván; Hinz, Sonja; El-Tayeb, Ali; Müller, Christa E

    2018-05-01

    Selected adenosine A 2A receptor agonists (PSB-15826, PSB-12404, and PSB-16301) have been evaluated as new antiplatelet agents. In addition, radioligand-binding studies and receptor-docking experiments were performed in order to explain their differential biological effects on a molecular level. Among the tested adenosine derivatives, PSB-15826 was the most potent compound to inhibit platelet aggregation (EC 50 0.32 ± 0.05 µmol/L) and platelet P-selectin cell-surface localization (EC 50 0.062 ± 0.2 µmol/L), and to increase intraplatelets cAMP levels (EC 50 0.24 ± 0.01 µmol/L). The compound was more active than CGS21680 (EC 50 0.97±0.07 µmol/L) and equipotent to NECA (EC 50 0.31 ± 0.05 µmol/L) in platelet aggregation induced by ADP. In contrast to the results from cAMP assays, K i values determined in radioligand-binding studies were not predictive of the A 2A agonists' antiplatelet activity. Docking studies revealed the key molecular determinants of this new family of adenosine A 2A receptor agonists: differences in activities are related to π-stacking interactions between the ligands and the residue His264 in the extracellular loop of the adenosine A 2A receptor which may result in increased residence times. In conclusion, these results provide an improved understanding of the requirements of antiplatelet adenosine A 2A receptor agonists.

  1. Delta-opioid receptors as targets for migraine therapy.

    PubMed

    Charles, Andrew; Pradhan, Amynah A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to contrast the properties of the δ-opioid receptor with those of the μ-opioid receptor, which is the primary target of most currently available opioid analgesics. We also discuss preclinical evidence that indicates the potential efficacy of δ-opioid receptor agonists as migraine therapy. The use of currently available opioid analgesics is highly problematic for patients with migraine. Delta-opioid receptors have key differences from μ receptors; these differences make the δ receptor an attractive therapeutic target for migraine. Delta-opioid receptors are expressed in both the peripheral and central nervous system in anatomical regions and cell types that are believed to play a role in migraine. Delta-receptor agonists have also shown promising effects in multiple migraine models, including nitroglycerin evoked hyperalgesia and conditioned place aversion, and cortical spreading depression. Evidence from animal models indicates that activation of δ receptors is less likely to cause tolerance and dependence, and less likely to cause hyperalgesia. In addition, δ receptors may have antidepressant and anxiolytic properties that are distinct from those of μ receptors. In human studies investigating other conditions, δ-receptor agonists have been generally safe and well tolerated. Delta-opioid receptor agonists have promising potential as acute and/or preventive migraine therapies, without the problems associated with currently used opioid analgesics.

  2. Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    DDRs), a set of kinase receptors that signal in response to collagen . The project’s goal is to define the expression and therapeutic potential of...antibody, which blocks receptor activation by collagen I. Mice were inoculated with PC3 cells and anti-DDR1 or control antibody treatment. The study... collagen , the major organic component of the bone extracellular matrix. Purpose: To investigate the expression, therapeutic potential, and

  3. Design, Synthesis and Bio-evaluation of an EphA2-based Targeted Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Barile, Elisa; Wang, Si; Das, Swadesh K.; Noberini, Roberta; Dahl, Russell; Stebbins, John L.; Pasquale, Elena B.; Fisher, Paul B.; Pellecchia, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    We recently described a new targeted delivery system based on specific EphA2 receptor targeting peptides conjugated with the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel. In this manuscript we investigate the chemical determinants responsible for the stability and degradation of these agents in plasma. Introducing modifications in both the peptide and the linker between the peptide and paclitaxel, resulted in drug conjugates that are both long-lived in rat plasma and that markedly reduced tumor size in a prostate cancer xenograft model compared to paclitaxel alone treatment. These studies identify critical rate-limiting degradation sites on the peptide-drug conjugates, enabling the design of agents with increased stability and efficacy. These results provide support for our central hypothesis that peptide-drug conjugates targeting the EphA2 receptor represent an innovative and potentially effective strategy to selectively deliver cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells. PMID:24677792

  4. Targeting nuclear receptors for the treatment of fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Naoki; Aoyama, Toshifumi; Kimura, Shioko; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2017-11-01

    Ligand-activated nuclear receptors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), pregnane X receptor, and constitutive androstane receptor, were first identified as key regulators of the responses against chemical toxicants. However, numerous studies using mouse disease models and human samples have revealed critical roles for these receptors and others, such as PPARβ/δ, PPARγ, farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and liver X receptor (LXR), in maintaining nutrient/energy homeostasis in part through modulation of the gut-liver-adipose axis. Recently, disorders associated with disrupted nutrient/energy homeostasis, e.g., obesity, metabolic syndrome, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), are increasing worldwide. Notably, in NAFLD, a progressive subtype exists, designated as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) that is characterized by typical histological features resembling alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), and NASH/ASH are recognized as major causes of hepatitis virus-unrelated liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Since hepatic steatosis is basically caused by an imbalance between fat/energy influx and utilization, abnormal signaling of these nuclear receptors contribute to the pathogenesis of fatty liver disease. Standard therapeutic interventions have not been fully established for fatty liver disease, but some new agents that activate or inhibit nuclear receptor signaling have shown promise as possible therapeutic targets. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the roles of nuclear receptors in fatty liver disease and discuss future perspectives to develop promising pharmacological strategies targeting nuclear receptors for NAFLD/NASH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. YSA-conjugated mesoporous silica nanoparticles effectively target EphA2-overexpressing breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Tao, Zijian; Zhang, Qing; Wan, Song; Zhang, Fenglin; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Guanyu; Wang, Jiandong

    2018-04-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used to treat patients with locally advanced breast cancer and a common option for primary operable disease. However, systemic toxicity including cardiotoxicity and inefficient delivery are significant challenges form any chemotherapeutics. The development of targeted treatments that lower the risk of toxicity has, therefore, become an active area of research in the field of novel cancer therapeutics. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have attracted significant attention as efficient drug delivery carriers, due to their high surface area and tailorable mesoporous structures. Eph receptors are the largest receptor tyrosine kinase family, which are divided into the A- and the B-type. Eph receptors play critical roles in embryonic development and human diseases including cancer. EphA2 is expressed in breast cancer cells and has roles in carcinogenesis, progression and prognosis of breast cancer. A homing peptide with the sequence YSAYPDSVPMMSK (YSA) that binds specifically to EphA2 was used to functionalize MSN. We focus on a novel EphA2-targeted delivery MSN system for breast cancer cells. We show that the EphA2 receptor is differentially expressed in breast cancer cells and highly expressed in the HER2-negative breast cancer cell line MCF7. Our results suggest that EphA2-targeted MSN for doxorubicin delivery (MSN-YSA-DOX) are more effective than MSN-DOX in treating breast cancer cell lines in vitro. Our preliminary observations suggest that the EphA2-targeted MSN delivery system may provide a strategy for enhancing delivery of therapeutic agents to breast cancer cells expressing EphA2, and potentially reduce toxicity while enhancing therapeutic efficacy.

  6. ST 1535: a preferential A2A adenosine receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Stasi, Maria Antonietta; Borsini, Franco; Varani, Katia; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Di Cesare, Maria Assunta; Minetti, Patrizia; Ghirardi, Orlando; Carminati, Paolo

    2006-10-01

    Antagonism of the A2A adenosine function has proved beneficial in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, in that it increases L-dopa therapeutical effects without concomitant worsening of its side-effects. In this paper we describe a preferential A2A adenosine antagonist, ST 1535, with long-lasting pharmacodynamic effects. It competitively antagonizes the effects of the A2A adenosine agonist NECA on cAMP in cells cloned with the human A2A adenosine receptor (IC50=353+/-30 nM), and the effects of the A1 adenosine agonist CHA on cAMP in cells cloned with the human A1 adenosine receptor (IC50=510+/-38 nM). ST 1535, at oral doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg, antagonizes catalepsy induced by intracerebroventricular administration of the A2A adenosine agonist CGS 21680 (10 microg/5 microl) in mice. At oral doses ranging between 5 and 20 mg/kg, ST 1535 induces hypermotility and antagonizes haloperidol-induced catalepsy in mice up to 7 h. Oral ST 1535, at 1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg, potentiates L-dopa effects in reducing haloperidol-induced catalepsy. ST 1535 represents a potential new compound, with long-lasting activity, for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  7. Targeting multiple opioid receptors - improved analgesics with reduced side effects?

    PubMed

    Günther, Thomas; Dasgupta, Pooja; Mann, Anika; Miess, Elke; Kliewer, Andrea; Fritzwanker, Sebastian; Steinborn, Ralph; Schulz, Stefan

    2017-04-05

    Classical opioid analgesics, including morphine, mediate all of their desired and undesired effects by specific activation of the μ-opioid receptorreceptor). The use of morphine for treating chronic pain, however, is limited by the development of constipation, respiratory depression, tolerance and dependence. Analgesic effects can also be mediated through other members of the opioid receptor family such as the κ-opioid receptorreceptor), δ-opioid receptorreceptor) and the nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide receptor (NOP receptor). Currently, a new generation of opioid analgesics is being developed that can simultaneously bind with high affinity to multiple opioid receptors. With this new action profile, it is hoped that additional analgesic effects and fewer side effects can be achieved. Recent research is mainly focused on the development of bifunctional μ/NOP receptor agonists, which has already led to novel lead structures such as the spiroindole-based cebranopadol and a compound class with a piperidin-4-yl-1,3-dihydroindol-2-one backbone (SR16835/AT-202 and SR14150/AT-200). In addition, the ornivol BU08028 is an analogue of the clinically well-established buprenorphine. Moreover, the morphinan-based nalfurafine exerts its effect with a dominant κ receptor-component and is therefore utilized in the treatment of pruritus. The very potent dihydroetorphine is a true multi-receptor opioid ligand in that it binds to μ, κ and δ receptors. The main focus of this review is to assess the paradigm of opioid ligands targeting multiple receptors with a single chemical entity. We reflect on this rationale by discussing the biological actions of particular multi-opioid receptor ligands, but not on their medicinal chemistry and design. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Androgen Receptor: A Complex Therapeutic Target for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Ramesh; Dalton, James T.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular and histopathological profiling have classified breast cancer into multiple sub-types empowering precision treatment. Although estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2) are the mainstay therapeutic targets in breast cancer, the androgen receptor (AR) is evolving as a molecular target for cancers that have developed resistance to conventional treatments. The high expression of AR in breast cancer and recent discovery and development of new nonsteroidal drugs targeting the AR provide a strong rationale for exploring it again as a therapeutic target in this disease. Ironically, both nonsteroidal agonists and antagonists for the AR are undergoing clinical trials, making AR a complicated target to understand in breast cancer. This review provides a detailed account of AR’s therapeutic role in breast cancer. PMID:27918430

  9. Tumor-targeting domains for chimeric antigen receptor T cells.

    PubMed

    Bezverbnaya, Ksenia; Mathews, Ashish; Sidhu, Jesse; Helsen, Christopher W; Bramson, Jonathan L

    2017-01-01

    Immunotherapy with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells has been advancing steadily in clinical trials. Since the ability of engineered T cells to recognize intended tumor-associated targets is crucial for the therapeutic success, antigen-binding domains play an important role in shaping T-cell responses. Single-chain antibody and T-cell receptor fragments, natural ligands, repeat proteins, combinations of the above and universal tag-specific domains have all been used in the antigen-binding moiety of chimeric receptors. Here we outline the advantages and disadvantages of different domains, discuss the concepts of affinity and specificity, and highlight the recent progress of each targeting strategy.

  10. Silencing Receptor EphA2 Enhanced Sensitivity to Lipoplatin™ in Lung Tumor and MPM Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hung-Yen; Mohammed, Kamal A; Goldberg, Eugene P; Kaye, Frederic; Najmunnisa, Nasreen

    2016-08-08

    Receptor EphA2 is overexpressed in lung cancer and malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) which promote tumorogenesis. Lipoplatin™, a new liposomal cisplatin formulation, is used against resistant tumors. Use of cisplatin-based drugs leads to unacceptable toxicities. To improve the effectiveness of Lipoplatin, enhancing the cellular sensitivity of lung tumor and MPM cells is critical. Therefore, we targeted receptor EphA2 by silencing interference RNA (siRNA) and treated tumor cells with Lipoplatin. The combined effects of siRNA-EphA2 and Lipoplatin were determined. We report that silencing EphA2 significantly enhanced the cellular sensitivity of lung tumor and MPM cells to Lipoplatin and maybe a potential therapy for lung cancer.

  11. Targeting xenobiotic receptors PXR and CAR in human diseases

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Monimoy; Robbins, Delira; Chen, Taosheng

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear receptors such as the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are xenobiotic receptors regulating not only drug metabolism and disposition but also various human diseases such as cancer, diabetes, inflammatory disease, metabolic disease and liver diseases, suggesting that PXR and CAR are promising targets for drug discovery. Consequently, there is an urgent need to discover and develop small molecules that target these PXR- and/or CAR-mediated human-disease-related pathways for relevant therapeutic applications. This review proposes approaches to target PXR and CAR, either individually or simultaneously, in the context of various human diseases, taking into consideration the structural differences between PXR and CAR. PMID:25463033

  12. Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-01

    tumor incidence by bioluminescence. Thus, DDR1 may play a role in the initial seeding of tumor cells within the bone milieu. We are currently...conducting the quantitative analyses of bioluminescence and the histomorphometry analyses and evaluation of effects on bone remodeling. Studies on DDR1...regulation and function in culture cells is ongoing. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate cancer, bone metastases, discoidin domain receptors, kinases

  13. Structure-based receptor MIMICS targeted against bacterial superantigen toxins

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Goutam [Santa Fe, NM; Hong-Geller, Elizabeth [Los Alamos, NM; Shiflett, Patrick R [Los Alamos, NM; Lehnert, Nancy M [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-08-18

    The invention provides therapeutic compositions useful in the treatment of bacterial superantigen mediated conditions, such as Toxic Shock Syndrome. The compositions comprise genetically engineered bifunctional polypeptides containing a specific T-cell receptor binding domain and a specific MHC class II receptor binding domain, each targeting non-overlapping epitopes on a superantigen molecule against which they are designed. The anti-superantigen "receptor mimetics" or "chimeras" are rationally designed to recreate the modality of superantigen binding directly to both the TCR and the MHC-II receptor, and are capable of acting as decoys for superantigen binding, effectively out-competing the host T-cell and MHC-II receptors, the natural host receptors.

  14. Adenosine A2A receptors in ventral striatum, hypothalamus and nociceptive circuitry. Implications for drug addiction, sleep and pain

    PubMed Central

    Ferré, S.; Diamond, I.; Goldberg, S.R.; Yao, L.; Hourani, S.M.O.; Huang, Z.L.; Urade, Y.; Kitchen, I.

    2007-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors localized in the dorsal striatum are considered as a new target for the development of antiparkinsonian drugs. Co-administration of A2A receptor antagonists has shown a significant improvement of the effects of L-DOPA. The present review emphasizes the possible application of A2A receptor antagonists in pathological conditions other than parkinsonism, including drug addiction, sleep disorders and pain. In addition to the dorsal striatum, the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) contains a high density of A2A receptors, which presynaptically and postsynaptically regulate glutamatergic transmission in the cortical glutamatergic projections to the nucleus accumbens. It is currently believed that molecular adaptations of the cortico-accumbens glutamatergic synapses are involved in compulsive drug seeking and relapse. Here we review recent experimental evidence suggesting that A2A antagonists could become new therapeutic agents for drug addiction. Morphological and functional studies have identified lower levels of A2A receptors in brain areas other than the striatum, such as the ventrolateral preoptic area of the hypothalamus, where adenosine plays an important role in sleep regulation. Although initially believed to be mostly dependent on A1 receptors, here we review recent studies that demonstrate that the somnogenic effects of adenosine are largely mediated by hypothalamic A2A receptors. A2A receptor antagonists could therefore be considered as a possible treatment for narcolepsy and other sleep-related disorders. Finally, nociception is another adenosine-regulated neural function previously thought to mostly involve A1 receptors. Although there is some conflicting literature on the effects of agonists and antagonists, which may partly be due to the lack of selectivity of available drugs, the studies in A2A receptor knockout mice suggest that A2A receptor antagonists might have some therapeutic potential in pain states, in particular where

  15. EphA2 Receptor Unliganded Dimers Suppress EphA2 Pro-tumorigenic Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Deo R.; Ahmed, Fozia; King, Christopher; Gupta, Nisha; Salotto, Matt; Pasquale, Elena B.; Hristova, Kalina

    2015-01-01

    The EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase promotes cell migration and cancer malignancy through a ligand- and kinase-independent distinctive mechanism that has been linked to high Ser-897 phosphorylation and low tyrosine phosphorylation. Here, we demonstrate that EphA2 forms dimers in the plasma membrane of HEK293T cells in the absence of ephrin ligand binding, suggesting that the current seeding mechanism model of EphA2 activation is incomplete. We also characterize a dimerization-deficient EphA2 mutant that shows enhanced ability to promote cell migration, concomitant with increased Ser-897 phosphorylation and decreased tyrosine phosphorylation compared with EphA2 wild type. Our data reveal a correlation between unliganded dimerization and tumorigenic signaling and suggest that EphA2 pro-tumorigenic activity is mediated by the EphA2 monomer. Thus, a therapeutic strategy that aims at the stabilization of EphA2 dimers may be beneficial for the treatment of cancers linked to EphA2 overexpression. PMID:26363067

  16. EphA2 Receptor Unliganded Dimers Suppress EphA2 Pro-tumorigenic Signaling.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deo R; Ahmed, Fozia; King, Christopher; Gupta, Nisha; Salotto, Matt; Pasquale, Elena B; Hristova, Kalina

    2015-11-06

    The EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase promotes cell migration and cancer malignancy through a ligand- and kinase-independent distinctive mechanism that has been linked to high Ser-897 phosphorylation and low tyrosine phosphorylation. Here, we demonstrate that EphA2 forms dimers in the plasma membrane of HEK293T cells in the absence of ephrin ligand binding, suggesting that the current seeding mechanism model of EphA2 activation is incomplete. We also characterize a dimerization-deficient EphA2 mutant that shows enhanced ability to promote cell migration, concomitant with increased Ser-897 phosphorylation and decreased tyrosine phosphorylation compared with EphA2 wild type. Our data reveal a correlation between unliganded dimerization and tumorigenic signaling and suggest that EphA2 pro-tumorigenic activity is mediated by the EphA2 monomer. Thus, a therapeutic strategy that aims at the stabilization of EphA2 dimers may be beneficial for the treatment of cancers linked to EphA2 overexpression. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Behavioral control by striatal adenosine A2A -dopamine D2 receptor heteromers.

    PubMed

    Taura, J; Valle-León, M; Sahlholm, K; Watanabe, M; Van Craenenbroeck, K; Fernández-Dueñas, V; Ferré, S; Ciruela, F

    2018-04-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) exhibit the ability to form receptor complexes that include molecularly different GPCR (ie, GPCR heteromers), which endow them with singular functional and pharmacological characteristics. The relative expression of GPCR heteromers remains a matter of intense debate. Recent studies support that adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A R) and dopamine D 2 receptors (D 2 R) predominantly form A 2A R-D 2 R heteromers in the striatum. The aim of the present study was evaluating the behavioral effects of pharmacological manipulation and genetic blockade of A 2A R and D 2 R within the frame of such a predominant striatal heteromeric population. First, in order to avoid possible strain-related differences, a new D 2 R-deficient mouse with the same genetic background (CD-1) than the A 2A R knock-out mouse was generated. Locomotor activity, pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) and drug-induced catalepsy were then evaluated in wild-type, A 2A R and D 2 R knock-out mice, with and without the concomitant administration of either the D 2 R agonist sumanirole or the A 2A R antagonist SCH442416. SCH442416-mediated locomotor effects were demonstrated to be dependent on D 2 R signaling. Similarly, a significant dependence on A 2A R signaling was observed for PPI and for haloperidol-induced catalepsy. The results could be explained by the existence of one main population of striatal postsynaptic A 2A R-D 2 R heteromers, which may constitute a relevant target for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  18. Receptor-Mediated Drug Delivery Systems Targeting to Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shanshan; Meng, Ying; Li, Chengyi; Qian, Min; Huang, Rongqin

    2015-01-01

    Glioma has been considered to be the most frequent primary tumor within the central nervous system (CNS). The complexity of glioma, especially the existence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), makes the survival and prognosis of glioma remain poor even after a standard treatment based on surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. This provides a rationale for the development of some novel therapeutic strategies. Among them, receptor-mediated drug delivery is a specific pattern taking advantage of differential expression of receptors between tumors and normal tissues. The strategy can actively transport drugs, such as small molecular drugs, gene medicines, and therapeutic proteins to glioma while minimizing adverse reactions. This review will summarize recent progress on receptor-mediated drug delivery systems targeting to glioma, and conclude the challenges and prospects of receptor-mediated glioma-targeted therapy for future applications. PMID:28344260

  19. Rethinking Nuclear Receptors as Potential Therapeutic Targets for Retinal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Mayur; Malek, Goldis

    2016-12-01

    Collectively, retinal diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, and diabetic retinopathy, result in severe vision impairment worldwide. The absence and/or limited availability of successful drug therapies for these blinding disorders necessitates further understanding their pathobiology and identifying new targetable signaling pathways. Nuclear receptors are transcription regulators of many key aspects of human physiology, as well as pathophysiology, with reported roles in development, aging, and disease. Some of the pathways regulated by nuclear receptors include, but are not limited to, angiogenesis, inflammation, and lipid metabolic dysregulation, mechanisms also important in the initiation and development of several retinal diseases. Herein, we present an overview of the biology of three diseases affecting the posterior eye, summarize a growing body of evidence that suggests direct or indirect involvement of nuclear receptors in disease progression, and discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting nuclear receptors for treatment.

  20. Rethinking Nuclear Receptors as Potential Therapeutic Targets for Retinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Mayur; Malek, Goldis

    2017-01-01

    Collectively, retinal diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, and diabetic retinopathy, result in severe vision impairment worldwide. The absence and/or limited availability of successful drug therapies for these blinding disorders necessitates further understanding their pathobiology and identifying new targetable signaling pathways. Nuclear receptors are transcription regulators of many key aspects of human physiology, as well as pathophysiology, with reported roles in development, aging, and disease. Some of the pathways regulated by nuclear receptors include, but are not limited to, angiogenesis, inflammation, and lipid metabolic dysregulation, mechanisms also important in the initiation and development of several retinal diseases. Herein, we present an overview of the biology of three diseases affecting the posterior eye, summarize a growing body of evidence that suggests direct or indirect involvement of nuclear receptors in disease progression, and discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting nuclear receptors for treatment. PMID:27455994

  1. Tobacco smoke induces epithelial barrier dysfunction via receptor EphA2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Nasreen, Najmunnisa; Khodayari, Nazli; Sriram, Peruvemba S; Patel, Jawaharlal; Mohammed, Kamal A

    2014-06-15

    Erythropoietin-producing human hepatocellular carcinoma (Eph) receptors are the largest family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) that mediate various cellular and developmental processes. The degrees of expression of these key molecules control the cell-cell interactions. Although the role of Eph receptors and their ligand Ephrins is well studied in developmental processes, their function in tobacco smoke (TS)-induced epithelial barrier dysfunction is unknown. We hypothesized that TS may induce permeability in bronchial airway epithelial cell (BAEpC) monolayer by modulating receptor EphA2 expression, actin cytoskeleton, adherens junction, and focal adhesion proteins. Here we report that in BAEpCs, acute TS exposure significantly upregulated EphA2 and EphrinA1 expression, disrupted the actin filaments, decreased E-cadherin expression, and increased protein permeability, whereas the focal adhesion protein paxillin was unaffected. Silencing the receptor EphA2 expression with silencing interference RNA (siRNA) significantly attenuated TS-induced hyperpermeability in BAEpCs. In addition, when BAEpC monolayer was transfected with EphA2-expressing plasmid and treated with recombinant EphrinA1, the transepithelial electrical resistance decreased significantly. Furthermore, TS downregulated E-cadherin expression and induced hyperpermeability across BAEpC monolayer in a Erk1/Erk2, p38, and JNK MAPK-dependent manner. TS induced hyperpermeability in BAEpC monolayer by targeting cell-cell adhesions, and interestingly cell-matrix adhesions were unaffected. The present data suggest that TS causes significant damage to the BAEpCs via induction of EphA2 and downregulation of E-cadherin. Induction of EphA2 in the BAEpCs exposed to TS may be an important signaling event in the pathogenesis of TS-induced epithelial injury.

  2. Cannabinoid Receptors: A Novel Target for Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    cannabi - 25. Lee C, Sutkowski DM, Sensibar JA, et al. Regulation activation of the CB(2) cannabinoid receptor. Cancer noids. Nature 1993;365:61-5. of...q0 AD Award Number: W81XWH-04-1-0217 TITLE: Cannabinoid Receptors: A Novel Target for Therapy of Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Hasan...2005 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual 20060215 099 PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION

  3. Orphan Nuclear Receptors as Targets for Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Subhajit

    2012-01-01

    Orphan nuclear receptors regulate diverse biological processes. These important molecules are ligand-activated transcription factors that act as natural sensors for a wide range of steroid hormones and xenobiotic ligands. Because of their importance in regulating various novel signaling pathways, recent research has focused on identifying xenobiotics targeting these receptors for the treatment of multiple human diseases. In this review, we will highlight these receptors in several physiologic and pathophysiologic actions and demonstrate how their functions can be exploited for the successful development of newer drugs. PMID:20372994

  4. Targeted Silencing of Anthrax Toxin Receptors Protects against Anthrax Toxins*

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo, Maria T.; Navarro, Ashley; Arico, Chenoa D.; Li, Junwei; Alkhatib, Omar; Chen, Shan; Diaz-Arévalo, Diana; Zeng, Mingtao

    2014-01-01

    Anthrax spores can be aerosolized and dispersed as a bioweapon. Current postexposure treatments are inadequate at later stages of infection, when high levels of anthrax toxins are present. Anthrax toxins enter cells via two identified anthrax toxin receptors: tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) and capillary morphogenesis protein 2 (CMG2). We hypothesized that host cells would be protected from anthrax toxins if anthrax toxin receptor expression was effectively silenced using RNA interference (RNAi) technology. Thus, anthrax toxin receptors in mouse and human macrophages were silenced using targeted siRNAs or blocked with specific antibody prior to challenge with anthrax lethal toxin. Viability assays were used to assess protection in macrophages treated with specific siRNA or antibody as compared with untreated cells. Silencing CMG2 using targeted siRNAs provided almost complete protection against anthrax lethal toxin-induced cytotoxicity and death in murine and human macrophages. The same results were obtained by prebinding cells with specific antibody prior to treatment with anthrax lethal toxin. In addition, TEM8-targeted siRNAs also offered significant protection against lethal toxin in human macrophage-like cells. Furthermore, silencing CMG2, TEM8, or both receptors in combination was also protective against MEK2 cleavage by lethal toxin or adenylyl cyclase activity by edema toxin in human kidney cells. Thus, anthrax toxin receptor-targeted RNAi has the potential to be developed as a life-saving, postexposure therapy against anthrax. PMID:24742682

  5. Targeting thyroid diseases with TSH receptor analogs.

    PubMed

    Galofré, Juan C; Chacón, Ana M; Latif, Rauf

    2013-12-01

    The thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (TSHR) is a major regulator of thyroid function and growth, and is the key antigen in several pathological conditions including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and thyroid tumors. Various effective treatment strategies are currently available for many of these clinical conditions such as antithyroid drugs or radioiodine therapy, but they are not devoid of side effects. In addition, treatment of complications of Graves' disease such as Graves' ophthalmopathy is often difficult and unsatisfactory using current methods. Recent advances in basic research on both in vitro and in vivo models have suggested that TSH analogs could be used for diagnosis and treatment of some of the thyroid diseases. The advent of high-throughput screening methods has resulted in a group of TSH analogs called small molecules, which have the potential to be developed as promising drugs. Small molecules are low molecular weight compounds with agonist, antagonist and, in some cases, inverse agonist activity on TSHR. This short review will focus on current advances in development of TSH analogs and their potential clinical applications. Rapid advances in this field may lead to the conduct of clinical trials of small molecules related to TSHR for the management of Graves' disease, thyroid cancer, and thyroid-related osteoporosis in the coming years. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. A2A-D2 receptor-receptor interaction modulates gliotransmitter release from striatal astrocyte processes.

    PubMed

    Cervetto, Chiara; Venturini, Arianna; Passalacqua, Mario; Guidolin, Diego; Genedani, Susanna; Fuxe, Kjell; Borroto-Esquela, Dasiel O; Cortelli, Pietro; Woods, Amina; Maura, Guido; Marcoli, Manuela; Agnati, Luigi F

    2017-01-01

    Evidence for striatal A2A-D2 heterodimers has led to a new perspective on molecular mechanisms involved in schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Despite the increasing recognition of astrocytes' participation in neuropsychiatric disease vulnerability, involvement of striatal astrocytes in A2A and D2 receptor signal transmission has never been explored. Here, we investigated the presence of D2 and A2A receptors in isolated astrocyte processes prepared from adult rat striatum by confocal imaging; the effects of receptor activation were measured on the 4-aminopyridine-evoked release of glutamate from the processes. Confocal analysis showed that A2A and D2 receptors were co-expressed on the same astrocyte processes. Evidence for A2A-D2 receptor-receptor interactions was obtained by measuring the release of the gliotransmitter glutamate: D2 receptors inhibited the glutamate release, while activation of A2A receptors, per se ineffective, abolished the effect of D2 receptor activation. The synthetic D2 peptide VLRRRRKRVN corresponding to the receptor region involved in electrostatic interaction underlying A2A-D2 heteromerization abolished the ability of the A2A receptor to antagonize the D2 receptor-mediated effect. Together, the findings are consistent with heteromerization of native striatal astrocytic A2A-D2 receptors that via allosteric receptor-receptor interactions could play a role in the control of striatal glutamatergic transmission. These new findings suggest possible new pathogenic mechanisms and/or therapeutic approaches to neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  7. Sigma-1 receptor: the novel intracellular target of neuropsychotherapeutic drugs.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptor ligands have been long expected to serve as drugs for treatment of human diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders, depression, idiopathic pain, drug abuse, and cancer. Recent research exploring the molecular function of the sigma-1 receptor started unveiling underlying mechanisms of the therapeutic activity of those ligands. Via the molecular chaperone activity, the sigma-1 receptor regulates protein folding/degradation, ER/oxidative stress, and cell survival. The chaperone activity is activated or inhibited by synthetic sigma-1 receptor ligands in an agonist-antagonist manner. Sigma-1 receptors are localized at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes that are physically associated with the mitochondria (MAM: mitochondria-associated ER membrane). In specific types of neurons (e.g., those at the spinal cord), sigma-1 receptors are also clustered at ER membranes that juxtapose postsynaptic plasma membranes. Recent studies indicate that sigma-1 receptors, partly in sake of its unique subcellular localization, regulate the mitochondria function that involves bioenergetics and free radical generation. The sigma-1 receptor may thus provide an intracellular drug target that enables controlling ER stress and free radical generation under pathological conditions. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sigma receptors as potential therapeutic targets for neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Linda; Kaushal, Nidhi; Robson, Matthew J; Matsumoto, Rae R

    2014-11-15

    Sigma receptors comprise a unique family of proteins that have been implicated in the pathophysiology and treatment of many central nervous system disorders, consistent with their high level of expression in the brain and spinal cord. Mounting evidence indicate that targeting sigma receptors may be particularly beneficial in a number of neurodegenerative conditions including Alzheimer׳s disease, Parkinson׳s disease, stroke, methamphetamine neurotoxicity, Huntington׳s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and retinal degeneration. In this perspective, a brief overview is given on sigma receptors, followed by a focus on common mechanisms of neurodegeneration that appear amenable to modulation by sigma receptor ligands to convey neuroprotective effects and/or restorative functions. Within each of the major mechanisms discussed herein, the neuroprotective effects of sigma ligands are summarized, and when known, the specific sigma receptor subtype(s) involved are identified. Together, the literature suggests sigma receptors may provide a novel target for combatting neurodegenerative diseases through both neuronal and glial mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Targeting Androgen Receptor Aberrations in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Adam; Welti, Jonathan; Blagg, Julian; de Bono, Johann S

    2016-09-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) splice variants (SV) have been implicated in the development of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and resistance to AR targeting therapies, including abiraterone and enzalutamide. Agents targeting AR-SV are urgently needed to test this hypothesis and further improve the outcome of patients suffering from this lethal disease. Clin Cancer Res; 22(17); 4280-2. ©2016 AACRSee related article by Yang et al., p. 4466. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Identification of Molecular Receptors for Therapeutic Targeting in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    prostate cancer: potential role of androgen and ErbB receptor signal transduction crosstalk. Neoplasia. 5, 99-109 (2003). 10. Kolonin, M., Pasqualini , R...and Arap, W. Molecular addresses in blood vessels as targets for therapy. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 5, 308-313 (2001). 11. Pasqualini , R., and...Ruoslahti, E. Organ targeting in vivo using phage display peptide libraries. Nature 380, 364-366 (1996). 12. Arap, W., Pasqualini , R., and Ruoslahti, E

  11. Adenosine A2B Receptor Deficiency Promotes Host Defenses against Gram-Negative Bacterial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Barletta, Kathryn E.; Cagnina, R. Elaine; Burdick, Marie D.; Linden, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Activation of the adenosine A2B receptor (A2BR) promotes antiinflammatory effects in diverse biological settings, but the role of this receptor in antimicrobial host defense in the lung has not been established. Gram-negative bacillary pneumonia is a common and serious illness associated with high morbidity and mortality, the treatment of which is complicated by increasing rates of antibiotic resistance. Objectives: To test the hypothesis that absence of adenosine A2B receptor signaling promotes host defense against bacterial pneumonia. Methods: We used a model of Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia in wild-type mice and mice with targeted deletion of the A2BR. Host responses were compared in vivo and leukocyte responses to the bacteria were examined in vitro. Measurements and Main Results: A2BR–/– mice demonstrated enhanced bacterial clearance from the lung and improved survival after infection with K. pneumoniae compared with wild-type controls, an effect that was mediated by bone marrow–derived cells. Leukocyte recruitment to the lungs and expression of inflammatory cytokines did not differ between A2BR–/– and wild-type mice, but A2BR–/– neutrophils exhibited sixfold greater bactericidal activity and enhanced production of neutrophil extracellular traps compared with wild-type neutrophils when incubated with K. pneumoniae. Consistent with this finding, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from A2BR–/– mice with Klebsiella pneumonia contained more extracellular DNA compared with wild-type mice with pneumonia. Conclusions: These data suggest that the absence of A2BR signaling enhances antimicrobial activity in gram-negative bacterial pneumonia. PMID:22997203

  12. Peptide receptor targeting in cancer: the somatostatin paradigm.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Federica; Bajetto, Adriana; Pattarozzi, Alessandra; Gatti, Monica; Würth, Roberto; Thellung, Stefano; Corsaro, Alessandro; Villa, Valentina; Nizzari, Mario; Florio, Tullio

    2013-01-01

    Peptide receptors involved in pathophysiological processes represent promising therapeutic targets. Neuropeptide somatostatin (SST) is produced by specialized cells in a large number of human organs and tissues. SST primarily acts as inhibitor of endocrine and exocrine secretion via the activation of five G-protein-coupled receptors, named sst1-5, while in central nervous system, SST acts as a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator, regulating locomotory and cognitive functions. Critical points of SST/SST receptor biology, such as signaling pathways of individual receptor subtypes, homo- and heterodimerization, trafficking, and cross-talk with growth factor receptors, have been extensively studied, although functions associated with several pathological conditions, including cancer, are still not completely unraveled. Importantly, SST exerts antiproliferative and antiangiogenic effects on cancer cells in vitro, and on experimental tumors in vivo. Moreover, SST agonists are clinically effective as antitumor agents for pituitary adenomas and gastro-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. However, SST receptors being expressed by tumor cells of various tumor histotypes, their pharmacological use is potentially extendible to other cancer types, although to date no significant results have been obtained. In this paper the most recent findings on the expression and functional roles of SST and SST receptors in tumor cells are discussed.

  13. Targeting the folate receptor: improving efficacy in inorganic medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Carron, Pauraic Mc; Crowley, Aisling; O'Shea, Denis; McCann, Malachy; Howe, Orla; Hunt, Mary; Devereux, Michael

    2018-02-09

    The discovery of the high-affinity, high-specificity folate receptor in mamalian kidney cells, coupled with the ability of folate to enter cells by folate receptor-mediated endocytosis and the subsequent elucidation of the folate receptor's overexpression in specific cancer cell types; heralded the arrival of the area of chemotherapeutic folate targeting. The application of purely organic folate-based small-molecule drug conjugates that selectively target the folate receptor, which is over expressed in several diseases such as cancer, is well established. The application of inorganic folate-targeted drugs offers significant potential to expand and enhance this therapeutic approach. From the data made available to date, it is apparent that this aspect of inorganic medicinal chemistry is in its youth but has the capability to contribute greatly to cancer research, both in therapy and diagnosis. The union of folate-receptor targeting and inorganic medicine may also lead to the development of treatments for disorders such as chronic-inflammation, tuberculosis, neurodegenerative disease and leishmaniasis. In this review, we summarize what is known about the coordination chemistry of folic acid and the therapeutic potential of such complexes. We also describe approaches adopted to conjugate platinum drugs to folate- or folate-carrier- systems and their prospective ability to overcome problems associated with unwanted side-effects and resistance by improving their delivery and/or selectivity. The literature pertaining to non-platinum metal complex conjugates with folic acid is also reviewed revealing that this is an area that offers significant potential to develop targeted therapeutic approaches in areas such as chemotherapy and molecular imaging for diagnostics. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Extracting ligands from receptors by reversed targeted molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Romain M

    2015-11-01

    Short targeted MD trajectories are used to expel ligands from binding sites. The expulsion is governed by a linear increase of the target RMSD value, growing from zero to an arbitrary chosen final RMSD that forces the ligand to a selected distance outside of the receptor. The RMSD lag (i.e., the difference between the imposed and the actual RMSD) can be used to follow barriers encountered by the ligand during its way out of the receptor. The force constant used for the targeted MD can transform the RMSD lag into a strain energy. Integration of the (time-dependent) strain energy over time yields a value with the dimensions of "action" (i.e, energy multiplied by time) and can serve as a measure for the overall effort required to extract the ligand from its binding site. Possibilities to compare (numerically and graphically) the randomly detected exit pathways are discussed. As an example, the method is tested on the exit of bisphenol A from the human estrogen-related receptor [Formula: see text] and of GW0072 from the peroxysome proliferator activated receptor.

  15. Epidermal growth factor receptor and variant III targeted immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Congdon, Kendra L.; Gedeon, Patrick C.; Suryadevara, Carter M.; Caruso, Hillary G.; Cooper, Laurence J.N.; Heimberger, Amy B.; Sampson, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Immunotherapeutic approaches to cancer have shown remarkable promise. A critical barrier to successfully executing such immune-mediated interventions is the selection of safe yet immunogenic targets. As patient deaths have occurred when tumor-associated antigens shared by normal tissue have been targeted by strong cellular immunotherapeutic platforms, route of delivery, target selection and the immune-mediated approach undertaken must work together to maximize efficacy with safety. Selected tumor-specific targets can spare potential toxicity to normal tissue; however, they are far less common than tumor-associated antigens and may not be present on all patients. In the context of immunotherapy for high-grade glioma, 2 of the most prominently studied antigens are the tumor-associated epidermal growth factor receptor and its tumor-specific genetic deletion variant III. In this review, we will summarize the immune-mediated strategies employed against these targets as well as the caveats particular to these approaches. PMID:25342601

  16. Lubiprostone targets prostanoid EP₄ receptors in ovine airways.

    PubMed

    Cuthbert, A W

    2011-01-01

    Lubiprostone, a prostaglandin E₁ derivative, is reported to activate ClC-2 chloride channels located in the apical membranes of a number of transporting epithelia. Lack of functioning CFTR chloride channels in epithelia is responsible for the genetic disease cystic fibrosis, therefore, surrogate channels that can operate independently of CFTR are of interest. This study explores the target receptor(s) for lubiprostone in airway epithelium. All experiments were performed on the ventral tracheal epithelium of sheep. Epithelia were used to measure anion secretion from the apical surface as short circuit current or as fluid secretion from individual airway submucosal glands, using an optical method. The EP₄ antagonists L-161982 and GW627368 inhibited short circuit current responses to lubiprostone, while EP₁(,)₂(&)₃ receptor antagonists were without effect. Similarly, lubiprostone induced secretion in airway submucosal glands was inhibited by L-161982. L-161982 effectively competed with lubiprostone with a K(d) value of 0.058 µM, close to its value for binding to human EP₄ receptors (0.024 µM). The selective EP₄ agonist L-902688 and lubiprostone behaved similarly with respect to EP₄ receptor antagonists. Results of experiments with H89, a protein kinase A inhibitor, were consistent with lubiprostone acting through a G(s) -protein coupled EP₄ receptor/cAMP cascade. Lubiprostone-induced short-circuit currents and submucosal gland secretions were inhibited by selective EP₄ receptor antagonists. The results suggest EP₄ receptor activation by lubiprostone triggers cAMP production necessary for CFTR activation and the secretory responses, a possibility precluded in CF tissues. © 2010 The Author. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2010 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Lubiprostone targets prostanoid EP4 receptors in ovine airways

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbert, AW

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Lubiprostone, a prostaglandin E1 derivative, is reported to activate ClC-2 chloride channels located in the apical membranes of a number of transporting epithelia. Lack of functioning CFTR chloride channels in epithelia is responsible for the genetic disease cystic fibrosis, therefore, surrogate channels that can operate independently of CFTR are of interest. This study explores the target receptor(s) for lubiprostone in airway epithelium. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH All experiments were performed on the ventral tracheal epithelium of sheep. Epithelia were used to measure anion secretion from the apical surface as short circuit current or as fluid secretion from individual airway submucosal glands, using an optical method. KEY RESULTS The EP4 antagonists L-161982 and GW627368 inhibited short circuit current responses to lubiprostone, while EP1,2&3 receptor antagonists were without effect. Similarly, lubiprostone induced secretion in airway submucosal glands was inhibited by L-161982. L-161982 effectively competed with lubiprostone with a Kd value of 0.058 µM, close to its value for binding to human EP4 receptors (0.024 µM). The selective EP4 agonist L-902688 and lubiprostone behaved similarly with respect to EP4 receptor antagonists. Results of experiments with H89, a protein kinase A inhibitor, were consistent with lubiprostone acting through a Gs-protein coupled EP4 receptor/cAMP cascade. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Lubiprostone-induced short-circuit currents and submucosal gland secretions were inhibited by selective EP4 receptor antagonists. The results suggest EP4 receptor activation by lubiprostone triggers cAMP production necessary for CFTR activation and the secretory responses, a possibility precluded in CF tissues. PMID:20883477

  18. Protease activated receptor-2 (PAR2): possible target of phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Kakarala, Kavita Kumari; Jamil, Kaiser

    2015-09-01

    The use of phytochemicals either singly or in combination with other anticancer drugs comes with an advantage of less toxicity and minimal side effects. Signaling pathways play central role in cell cycle, cell growth, metabolism, etc. Thus, the identification of phytochemicals with promising antagonistic effect on the receptor/s playing key role in single transduction may have better therapeutic application. With this background, phytochemicals were screened against protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2). PAR2 belongs to the superfamily of GPCRs and is an important target for breast cancer. Using in silico methods, this study was able to identify the phytochemicals with promising binding affinity suggesting their therapeutic potential in the treatment of breast cancer. The findings from this study acquires importance as the information on the possible agonists and antagonists of PAR2 is limited due its unique mechanism of activation.

  19. Adenosine A2A Receptors in the Nucleus Accumbens Bi-Directionally Alter Cocaine Seeking in Rats

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Casey E; LeTendre, Mckenzie L; Bachtell, Ryan K

    2012-01-01

    Repeated cocaine administration enhances dopamine D2 receptor sensitivity in the mesolimbic dopamine system, which contributes to drug relapse. Adenosine A2A receptors are colocalized with D2 receptors on nucleus accumbens (NAc) medium spiny neurons where they antagonize D2 receptor activity. Thus, A2A receptors represent a target for reducing enhanced D2 receptor sensitivity that contributes to cocaine relapse. The aim of these studies were to determine the effects of adenosine A2A receptor modulation in the NAc on cocaine seeking in rats that were trained to lever press for cocaine. Following at least 15 daily self-administration sessions and 1 week of abstinence, lever pressing was extinguished in daily extinction sessions. We subsequently assessed the effects of intra-NAc core microinjections of the A2A receptor agonist, CGS 21680 (4-[2-[[6-amino-9-(N-ethyl-b--ribofuranuronamidosyl)-9H-purin-2-yl]amino]ethyl]benzenepropanoic acid hydrochloride), and the A2A receptor antagonist, MSX-3 (3,7-dihydro-8-[(1E)-2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-7-methyl-3-[3-(phosphonooxy)propyl-1-(2-propynyl)-1H-purine-2,6-dione disodium salt hydrate), in modulating cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement to cocaine seeking. Intra-NAc pretreatment of CGS 21680 reduced both cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement. These effects were specific to cocaine reinstatement as intra-NAc CGS 21680 had no effect on sucrose seeking in rats trained to self-administer sucrose pellets. Intra-NAc treatment with MSX-3 modestly reinstated cocaine seeking when given alone, and exacerbated both cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement. Interestingly, the exacerbation of cocaine seeking produced by MSX-3 was only observed at sub-threshold doses of cocaine and quinpirole, suggesting that removing tonic A2A receptor activity enables behaviors mediated by dopamine receptors. Taken together, these findings suggest that A2A receptor stimulation reduces, while A2A blockade amplifies, D2 receptor

  20. Adenosine A2A receptors in the nucleus accumbens bi-directionally alter cocaine seeking in rats.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Casey E; LeTendre, McKenzie L; Bachtell, Ryan K

    2012-04-01

    Repeated cocaine administration enhances dopamine D(2) receptor sensitivity in the mesolimbic dopamine system, which contributes to drug relapse. Adenosine A(2A) receptors are colocalized with D(2) receptors on nucleus accumbens (NAc) medium spiny neurons where they antagonize D(2) receptor activity. Thus, A(2A) receptors represent a target for reducing enhanced D(2) receptor sensitivity that contributes to cocaine relapse. The aim of these studies were to determine the effects of adenosine A(2A) receptor modulation in the NAc on cocaine seeking in rats that were trained to lever press for cocaine. Following at least 15 daily self-administration sessions and 1 week of abstinence, lever pressing was extinguished in daily extinction sessions. We subsequently assessed the effects of intra-NAc core microinjections of the A(2A) receptor agonist, CGS 21680 (4-[2-[[6-amino-9-(N-ethyl-b-D-ribofuranuronamidosyl)-9H-purin-2-yl]amino]ethyl]benzenepropanoic acid hydrochloride), and the A(2A) receptor antagonist, MSX-3 (3,7-dihydro-8-[(1E)-2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-7-methyl-3-[3-(phosphonooxy)propyl-1-(2-propynyl)-1H-purine-2,6-dione disodium salt hydrate), in modulating cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement to cocaine seeking. Intra-NAc pretreatment of CGS 21680 reduced both cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement. These effects were specific to cocaine reinstatement as intra-NAc CGS 21680 had no effect on sucrose seeking in rats trained to self-administer sucrose pellets. Intra-NAc treatment with MSX-3 modestly reinstated cocaine seeking when given alone, and exacerbated both cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement. Interestingly, the exacerbation of cocaine seeking produced by MSX-3 was only observed at sub-threshold doses of cocaine and quinpirole, suggesting that removing tonic A(2A) receptor activity enables behaviors mediated by dopamine receptors. Taken together, these findings suggest that A(2A) receptor stimulation reduces, while A(2A) blockade

  1. Glutamate and Its Receptors as Therapeutic Targets for Migraine.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Jan; Charles, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    There is substantial evidence indicating a role for glutamate in migraine. Levels of glutamate are higher in the brain and possibly also in the peripheral circulation in migraine patients, particularly during attacks. Altered blood levels of kynurenines, endogenous modulators of glutamate receptors, have been reported in migraine patients. Population genetic studies implicate genes that are involved with glutamate signaling in migraine, and gene mutations responsible for familial hemiplegic migraine and other familial migraine syndromes may influence glutamate signaling. Animal studies indicate that glutamate plays a key role in pain transmission, central sensitization, and cortical spreading depression. Multiple therapies that target glutamate receptors including magnesium, topiramate, memantine, and ketamine have been reported to have efficacy in the treatment of migraine, although with the exception of topiramate, the evidence for the efficacy of these therapies is not strong. Also, because all of these therapies have other mechanisms of action, it is not possible to conclude that the efficacy of these drugs is entirely due to their effects on glutamate receptors. Further studies are needed to more clearly delineate the possible roles of glutamate and its specific receptor subtypes in migraine and to identify new ways of targeting glutamate for migraine therapy.

  2. EphA2 Is a Therapy Target in EphA2-Positive Leukemias but Is Not Essential for Normal Hematopoiesis or Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Charmsaz, Sara; Beckett, Kirrilee; Smith, Fiona M.; Bruedigam, Claudia; Moore, Andrew S.; Al-Ejeh, Fares; Lane, Steven W.; Boyd, Andrew W.

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases and their membrane bound ephrin ligands have been shown to play critical roles in many developmental processes and more recently have been implicated in both normal and pathological processes in post-embryonic tissues. In particular, expression studies of Eph receptors and limited functional studies have demonstrated a role for the Eph/ephrin system in hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis. In particular, EphA2 was reported on hematopoietic stem cells and stromal cells. There are also reports of EphA2 expression in many different types of malignancies including leukemia, however there is a lack of knowledge in understanding the role of EphA2 in hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis. We explored the role of EphA2 in hematopoiesis by analyzing wild type and EphA2 knockout mice. Mature, differentiated cells, progenitors and hematopoietic stem cells derived from knockout and control mice were analyzed and no significant abnormality was detected. These studies showed that EphA2 does not have an obligatory role in normal hematopoiesis. Comparative studies using EphA2-negative MLL-AF9 leukemias derived from EphA2-knockout animals showed that there was no detectable functional role for EphA2 in the initiation or progression of the leukemic process. However, expression of EphA2 in leukemias initiated by MLL-AF9 suggested that this protein might be a possible therapy target in this type of leukemia. We showed that treatment with EphA2 monoclonal antibody IF7 alone had no effect on tumorigenicity and latency of the MLL-AF9 leukemias, while targeting of EphA2 using EphA2 monoclonal antibody with a radioactive payload significantly impaired the leukemic process. Altogether, these results identify EphA2 as a potential radio-therapeutic target in leukemias with MLL translocation. PMID:26083390

  3. EphA2 Is a Therapy Target in EphA2-Positive Leukemias but Is Not Essential for Normal Hematopoiesis or Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Charmsaz, Sara; Beckett, Kirrilee; Smith, Fiona M; Bruedigam, Claudia; Moore, Andrew S; Al-Ejeh, Fares; Lane, Steven W; Boyd, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases and their membrane bound ephrin ligands have been shown to play critical roles in many developmental processes and more recently have been implicated in both normal and pathological processes in post-embryonic tissues. In particular, expression studies of Eph receptors and limited functional studies have demonstrated a role for the Eph/ephrin system in hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis. In particular, EphA2 was reported on hematopoietic stem cells and stromal cells. There are also reports of EphA2 expression in many different types of malignancies including leukemia, however there is a lack of knowledge in understanding the role of EphA2 in hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis. We explored the role of EphA2 in hematopoiesis by analyzing wild type and EphA2 knockout mice. Mature, differentiated cells, progenitors and hematopoietic stem cells derived from knockout and control mice were analyzed and no significant abnormality was detected. These studies showed that EphA2 does not have an obligatory role in normal hematopoiesis. Comparative studies using EphA2-negative MLL-AF9 leukemias derived from EphA2-knockout animals showed that there was no detectable functional role for EphA2 in the initiation or progression of the leukemic process. However, expression of EphA2 in leukemias initiated by MLL-AF9 suggested that this protein might be a possible therapy target in this type of leukemia. We showed that treatment with EphA2 monoclonal antibody IF7 alone had no effect on tumorigenicity and latency of the MLL-AF9 leukemias, while targeting of EphA2 using EphA2 monoclonal antibody with a radioactive payload significantly impaired the leukemic process. Altogether, these results identify EphA2 as a potential radio-therapeutic target in leukemias with MLL translocation.

  4. Prostanoid receptor EP2 as a therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Thota

    2014-06-12

    Cycoloxygenase-2 (COX-2) induction is prevalent in a variety of (brain and peripheral) injury models where COX-2 levels correlate with disease progression. Thus, COX-2 has been widely explored for anti-inflammatory therapy with COX-2 inhibitors, which proved to be effective in reducing the pain and inflammation in patients with arthritis and menstrual cramps, but they have not provided any benefit to patients with chronic inflammatory neurodegenerative disease. Recently, two COX-2 drugs, rofecoxib and valdecoxib, were withdrawn from the United States market due to cardiovascular side effects. Thus, future anti-inflammatory therapy could be targeted through a specific prostanoid receptor downstream of COX-2. The PGE2 receptor EP2 is emerging as a pro-inflammatory target in a variety of CNS and peripheral diseases. Here we highlight the latest developments on the role of EP2 in diseases, mechanism of activation, and small molecule discovery targeted either to enhance or to block the function of this receptor.

  5. Adenosine A2A Receptors in the Amygdala Control Synaptic Plasticity and Contextual Fear Memory.

    PubMed

    Simões, Ana Patrícia; Machado, Nuno J; Gonçalves, Nélio; Kaster, Manuella P; Simões, Ana T; Nunes, Ana; Pereira de Almeida, Luís; Goosens, Ki Ann; Rial, Daniel; Cunha, Rodrigo A

    2016-11-01

    The consumption of caffeine modulates working and reference memory through the antagonism of adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A Rs) controlling synaptic plasticity processes in hippocampal excitatory synapses. Fear memory essentially involves plastic changes in amygdala circuits. However, it is unknown if A 2A Rs in the amygdala regulate synaptic plasticity and fear memory. We report that A 2A Rs in the amygdala are enriched in synapses and located to glutamatergic synapses, where they selectively control synaptic plasticity rather than synaptic transmission at a major afferent pathway to the amygdala. Notably, the downregulation of A 2A Rs selectively in the basolateral complex of the amygdala, using a lentivirus with a silencing shRNA (small hairpin RNA targeting A 2A R (shA 2A R)), impaired fear acquisition as well as Pavlovian fear retrieval. This is probably associated with the upregulation and gain of function of A 2A Rs in the amygdala after fear acquisition. The importance of A 2A Rs to control fear memory was further confirmed by the ability of SCH58261 (0.1 mg/kg; A 2A R antagonist), caffeine (5 mg/kg), but not DPCPX (0.5 mg/kg; A 1 R antagonist), treatment for 7 days before fear conditioning onwards, to attenuate the retrieval of context fear after 24-48 h and after 7-8 days. These results demonstrate that amygdala A 2A Rs control fear memory and the underlying process of synaptic plasticity in this brain region. This provides a neurophysiological basis for the association between A 2A R polymorphisms and phobia or panic attacks in humans and prompts a therapeutic interest in A 2A Rs to manage fear-related pathologies.

  6. Targeting the androgen receptor in triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gucalp, Ayca; Traina, Tiffany A

    Triple-negative breast cancer represents approximately 15%-20% of all newly diagnosed breast cancers, but it accounts for a disproportionate number of breast cancer-related deaths each year. Owing to the lack of estrogen, progesterone, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression, patients with triple-negative breast cancer do not benefit from generally well-tolerated and effective therapies targeting the estrogen and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 signaling pathways and are faced with an increased risk of disease progression and poorer overall survival. The heterogeneity of triple-negative breast cancer has been increasingly recognized and this may lead to therapeutic opportunities because of newly defined oncogenic drivers and targets. A subset of triple-negative breast tumors expresses the androgen receptor (AR) and this may benefit from treatments that inhibit the AR-signaling pathway. The first proof-of-concept trial established activity of the AR antagonist, bicalutamide, in patients with advanced AR+ triple-negative breast cancer. Since that time, evidence further supports the activity of other next-generation AR-targeted agents such as enzalutamide. Not unlike in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, mechanisms of resistance are being investigated and rationale exists for thoughtful, well-designed combination regimens such as AR antagonism with CDK4/6 pathway inhibitors or PI3K inhibitors. Furthermore, novel agents developed for the treatment of prostate cancer, which reduce androgen production such as abiraterone acetate and seviteronel, are being tested as well. This review summarizes the underlying biology of AR signaling in breast cancer development and the available clinical trial data for the use of anti-androgen therapy in the treatment of AR+ triple-negative breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ocular Purine Receptors as Drug Targets in the Eye

    PubMed Central

    Civan, Mortimer M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Agonists and antagonists of various subtypes of G protein coupled adenosine receptors (ARs), P2Y receptors (P2YRs), and ATP-gated P2X receptor ion channels (P2XRs) are under consideration as agents for the treatment of ocular diseases, including glaucoma and dry eye. Numerous nucleoside and nonnucleoside modulators of the receptors are available as research tools and potential therapeutic molecules. Three of the 4 subtypes of ARs have been exploited with clinical candidate molecules for treatment of the eye: A1, A2A, and A3. An A1AR agonist is in clinical trials for glaucoma, A2AAR reduces neuroinflammation, A3AR protects retinal ganglion cells from apoptosis, and both A3AR agonists and antagonists had been reported to lower intraocular pressure (IOP). Extracellular concentrations of endogenous nucleotides, including dinucleoside polyphosphates, are increased in pathological states, activating P2Y and P2XRs throughout the eye. P2YR agonists, including P2Y2 and P2Y6, lower IOP. Antagonists of the P2X7R prevent the ATP-induced neuronal apoptosis in the retina. Thus, modulators of the purinome in the eye might be a source of new therapies for ocular diseases. PMID:27574786

  8. Ocular Purine Receptors as Drug Targets in the Eye.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Kenneth A; Civan, Mortimer M

    2016-10-01

    Agonists and antagonists of various subtypes of G protein coupled adenosine receptors (ARs), P2Y receptors (P2YRs), and ATP-gated P2X receptor ion channels (P2XRs) are under consideration as agents for the treatment of ocular diseases, including glaucoma and dry eye. Numerous nucleoside and nonnucleoside modulators of the receptors are available as research tools and potential therapeutic molecules. Three of the 4 subtypes of ARs have been exploited with clinical candidate molecules for treatment of the eye: A 1 , A 2A , and A 3 . An A 1 AR agonist is in clinical trials for glaucoma, A 2A AR reduces neuroinflammation, A 3 AR protects retinal ganglion cells from apoptosis, and both A 3 AR agonists and antagonists had been reported to lower intraocular pressure (IOP). Extracellular concentrations of endogenous nucleotides, including dinucleoside polyphosphates, are increased in pathological states, activating P2Y and P2XRs throughout the eye. P2YR agonists, including P2Y 2 and P2Y 6 , lower IOP. Antagonists of the P2X7R prevent the ATP-induced neuronal apoptosis in the retina. Thus, modulators of the purinome in the eye might be a source of new therapies for ocular diseases.

  9. Transcriptional targets shared by estrogen receptor- related receptors (ERRs) and estrogen receptor (ER) alpha, but not by ERbeta.

    PubMed Central

    Vanacker, J M; Pettersson, K; Gustafsson, J A; Laudet, V

    1999-01-01

    The physiological activities of estrogens are thought to be mediated by specific nuclear receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta. However, certain tissues, such as the bone, that are highly responsive to estrogens only express a low level of these receptors. Starting from this apparent contradiction, we have evaluated the potentials of two related receptors ERRalpha and ERRbeta to intervene in estrogen signaling. ERalpha, ERRalpha and ERRbeta bind to and activate transcription through both the classical estrogen response element (ERE) and the SF-1 response element (SFRE). In contrast, ERbeta DNA-binding and transcriptional activity is restricted to the ERE. Accordingly, the osteopontin gene promoter is stimulated through SFRE sequences, by ERRalpha as well as by ERalpha, but not by ERbeta. Analysis of the cross-talk within the ER/ERR subgroup of nuclear receptors thus revealed common targets but also functional differences between the two ERs. PMID:10428965

  10. The Sam Domain of EphA2 Receptor and its Relevance to Cancer: A Novel Challenge for Drug Discovery?

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Flavia A; Leone, Marilisa

    2016-01-01

    Eph receptors play important functions in developmental processes and diseases and among them EphA2 is well known for its controversial role in cancer. Drug discovery strategies are mainly centered on EphA2 extracellular ligand-binding domain however, the receptor also contains a largely unexplored cytosolic Sam (Sterile alpha motif) domain at the C-terminus. EphA2-Sam binds the Sam domain from the lipid phosphatase Ship2 and the first Sam domain of Odin. Sam-Sam interactions may be important to regulate ligand-induced receptor endocytosis and degradation i.e., processes that could be engaged against tumor malignancy. We critically analyzed literature related to a) Eph receptors with particular emphasis on EphA2 and its role in cancer, b) Sam domains, c) heterotypic Sam-Sam interactions involving EphA2-Sam. While literature data indicate that binding of EphA2-Sam to Ship2-Sam should largely generate pro-oncogenic effects in cancer cells, the correlation between EphA2- Sam/Odin-Sam1 complex and the disease is unclear. Recently a few linear peptides encompassing binding interfaces from either Ship2-Sam and Odin-Sam1 have been characterized but failed to efficiently block heterotypic Sam-Sam interactions involving EphA2-Sam due to the lack of a native like fold. Molecule antagonists of heterotypic EphA2-Sam associations could work as potential anticancer agents or be implemented as tools to further clarify receptor functions and eventually validate its role as a novel target in the field of anti-cancer drug discovery. Due to the failure of linear peptides there is a crucial need for novel approaches, based on cyclic or helical molecules, to target Sam-Sam interfaces.

  11. Peptide drugs to target G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Bellmann-Sickert, Kathrin; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

    2010-09-01

    Major indications for use of peptide-based therapeutics include endocrine functions (especially diabetes mellitus and obesity), infectious diseases, and cancer. Whereas some peptide pharmaceuticals are drugs, acting as agonists or antagonists to directly treat cancer, others (including peptide diagnostics and tumour-targeting pharmaceuticals) use peptides to 'shuttle' a chemotherapeutic agent or a tracer to the tumour and allow sensitive imaging or targeted therapy. Significant progress has been made in the last few years to overcome disadvantages in peptide design such as short half-life, fast proteolytic cleavage, and low oral bioavailability. These advances include peptide PEGylation, lipidisation or multimerisation; the introduction of peptidomimetic elements into the sequences; and innovative uptake strategies such as liposomal, capsule or subcutaneous formulations. This review focuses on peptides targeting G protein-coupled receptors that are promising drug candidates or that have recently entered the pharmaceutical market. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Muscarinic Receptors as Targets for Metronomic Therapy in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sales, María Elena

    2016-01-01

    It is actually known that acetylcholine works as a signaling molecule in non-neuronal cells and tissues, in addition to its neuronal function as neurotransmitter. It can act on two types of receptors nicotinic and muscarinic receptors (mAChRs). The latter belong to the G protein coupled receptor family and there are five subtypes genetically cloned. Their activation triggers classical and non-classical intracellular signals that could be linked to the proliferation of normal and/or transformed cells. The M3 subtype was identified in different types of tumors and its stimulation with agonists triggers cell proliferation, migration, invasion and metastasis. Our laboratory has extensively investigated the expression and function of mAChRs in breast tumors from animal and human origins. We found a profuse expression of mAChRs in breast tumors, but opposite to this, an absence of these receptors in normal breast cells and tissues. The stimulation of mAChRs with the cholinergic agonist carbachol for 20 h increased tumor cell death. Moreover, the combination of subthreshold concentrations of the agonist with paclitaxel potentiates cell death. The usage of low dose chemotherapy with short drug free intervals was named metronomic therapy and it has emerged as a novel regimen for cancer treatment with very low incidence of side effects. Our work and that of others indicate that mAChRs that are over-expressed in different types of tumor cells could be a useful target for metronomic therapy in cancer treatment.

  13. P2X7 Receptor as a Therapeutic Target.

    PubMed

    De Marchi, Elena; Orioli, Elisa; Dal Ben, Diego; Adinolfi, Elena

    2016-01-01

    P2X7 receptor is an ATP-gated cation channel that upon agonist interaction leads to cellular influx of Na(+) and Ca(2+) and efflux of K(+). P2X7 is expressed by a wide variety of cells and its activation mediates a large number of biological processes like inflammation, neuromodulation, cell death or cell proliferation and it has been associated to related pathological conditions including infectious, inflammatory, autoimmune, neurological, and musculoskeletal disorders and, in the last years, to cancer. This chapter describes structural features of P2X7, chemical properties of its agonist, antagonist, and allosteric modulators and summarizes recent advances on P2X7 receptor as therapeutic target in the aforementioned diseases. We also give an overview on recent literature suggesting that P2X7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms could be exploited as diagnostic biomarkers for the development of tailored therapies. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Glutamate metabotropic receptors as targets for drug therapy in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Moldrich, Randal X; Chapman, Astrid G; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Meldrum, Brian S

    2003-08-22

    Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors have multiple actions on neuronal excitability through G-protein-linked modifications of enzymes and ion channels. They act presynaptically to modify glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic transmission and can contribute to long-term changes in synaptic function. The recent identification of subtype-selective agonists and antagonists has permitted evaluation of mGlu receptors as potential targets in the treatment of epilepsy. Agonists acting on group I mGlu receptors (mGlu1 and mGlu5) are convulsant. Antagonists acting on mGlu1 or mGlu5 receptors are anticonvulsant against 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG)-induced seizures and in mouse models of generalized motor seizures and absence seizures. The competitive, phenylglycine mGlu1/5 receptor antagonists generally require intracerebroventricular administration for potent anticonvulsant efficacy but noncompetitive antagonists, e.g., (3aS,6aS)-6a-naphthalen-2-ylmethyl-5-methyliden-hexahydrocyclopenta[c]furan-1-on (BAY36-7620), 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine hydrochloride (MPEP), and 2-methyl-6-(2-phenylethenyl)pyridine (SIB-1893) block generalized seizures with systemic administration. Agonists acting on group II mGlu receptors (mGlu2, mGlu3) to reduce glutamate release are anticonvulsant, e.g., 2R,4R-aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate [(2R,4R)-APDC], (+)-2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (LY354740), and (-)-2-oxa-4-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-4,6-dicarboxylate (LY379268). The classical agonists acting on group III mGlu receptors such as L-(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid, and L-serine-O-phosphate are acutely proconvulsant with some anticonvulsant activity. The more recently identified agonists (R,S)-4-phosphonophenylglycine [(R,S)-PPG] and (S)-3,4-dicarboxyphenylglycine [(S)-3,4-DCPG] and (1S,3R,4S)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid [ACPT-1] are all anticonvulsant without proconvulsant effects. Studies in animal models of kindling

  15. Adenosine A2B and A3 receptor location at the mouse neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Neus; Priego, Mercedes; Hurtado, Erica; Obis, Teresa; Santafe, Manel M; Tomàs, Marta; Lanuza, Maria Angel; Tomàs, Josep

    2014-07-01

    To date, four subtypes of adenosine receptors have been cloned (A(1)R, A(2A)R, A(2B)R, and A(3)R). In a previous study we used confocal immunocytochemistry to identify A(1)R and A(2A)R receptors at mouse neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). The data shows that these receptors are localized differently in the three cells (muscle, nerve and glia) that configure the NMJs. A(1)R localizes in the terminal teloglial Schwann cell and nerve terminal, whereas A(2A)R localizes in the postsynaptic muscle and in the axon and nerve terminal. Here, we use Western blotting to investigate the presence of A(2B)R and A(3)R receptors in striated muscle and immunohistochemistry to localize them in the three cells of the adult neuromuscular synapse. The data show that A(2B)R and A(3)R receptors are present in the nerve terminal and muscle cells at the NMJs. Neither A(2B)R nor A(3)R receptors are localized in the Schwann cells. Thus, the four subtypes of adenosine receptors are present in the motor endings. The presence of these receptors in the neuromuscular synapse allows the receptors to be involved in the modulation of transmitter release. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  16. EphA2 is a functional receptor for the growth factor progranulin.

    PubMed

    Neill, Thomas; Buraschi, Simone; Goyal, Atul; Sharpe, Catherine; Natkanski, Elizabeth; Schaefer, Liliana; Morrione, Andrea; Iozzo, Renato V

    2016-12-05

    Although the growth factor progranulin was discovered more than two decades ago, the functional receptor remains elusive. Here, we discovered that EphA2, a member of the large family of Ephrin receptor tyrosine kinases, is a functional signaling receptor for progranulin. Recombinant progranulin bound with high affinity to EphA2 in both solid phase and solution. Interaction of progranulin with EphA2 caused prolonged activation of the receptor, downstream stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt, and promotion of capillary morphogenesis. Furthermore, we found an autoregulatory mechanism of progranulin whereby a feed-forward loop occurred in an EphA2-dependent manner that was independent of the endocytic receptor sortilin. The discovery of a functional signaling receptor for progranulin offers a new avenue for understanding the underlying mode of action of progranulin in cancer progression, tumor angiogenesis, and perhaps neurodegenerative diseases. © 2016 Neill et al.

  17. EphA2 is a functional receptor for the growth factor progranulin

    PubMed Central

    Neill, Thomas; Goyal, Atul; Sharpe, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Although the growth factor progranulin was discovered more than two decades ago, the functional receptor remains elusive. Here, we discovered that EphA2, a member of the large family of Ephrin receptor tyrosine kinases, is a functional signaling receptor for progranulin. Recombinant progranulin bound with high affinity to EphA2 in both solid phase and solution. Interaction of progranulin with EphA2 caused prolonged activation of the receptor, downstream stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt, and promotion of capillary morphogenesis. Furthermore, we found an autoregulatory mechanism of progranulin whereby a feed-forward loop occurred in an EphA2-dependent manner that was independent of the endocytic receptor sortilin. The discovery of a functional signaling receptor for progranulin offers a new avenue for understanding the underlying mode of action of progranulin in cancer progression, tumor angiogenesis, and perhaps neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27903606

  18. Current drug treatments targeting dopamine D3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Leggio, Gian Marco; Bucolo, Claudio; Platania, Chiara Bianca Maria; Salomone, Salvatore; Drago, Filippo

    2016-09-01

    Dopamine receptors (DR) have been extensively studied, but only in recent years they became object of investigation to elucidate the specific role of different subtypes (D1R, D2R, D3R, D4R, D5R) in neural transmission and circuitry. D1-like receptors (D1R and D5R) and D2-like receptors (D2R, D2R and D4R) differ in signal transduction, binding profile, localization in the central nervous system and physiological effects. D3R is involved in a number of pathological conditions, including schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, addiction, anxiety, depression and glaucoma. Development of selective D3R ligands has been so far challenging, due to the high sequence identity and homology shared by D2R and D3R. As a consequence, despite a rational design of selective DR ligands has been carried out, none of currently available medicines selectively target a given D2-like receptor subtype. The availability of the D3R ligand [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO for positron emission tomography studies in animal models as well as in humans, allows researchers to estimate the expression of D3R in vivo; displacement of [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO binding by concurrent drug treatments is used to estimate the in vivo occupancy of D3R. Here we provide an overview of studies indicating D3R as a target for pharmacological therapy, and a review of market approved drugs endowed with significant affinity at D3R that are used to treat disorders where D3R plays a relevant role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A compound chimeric antigen receptor strategy for targeting multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Chen, K H; Wada, M; Pinz, K G; Liu, H; Shuai, X; Chen, X; Yan, L E; Petrov, J C; Salman, H; Senzel, L; Leung, E L H; Jiang, X; Ma, Y

    2018-02-01

    Current clinical outcomes using chimeric-antigen receptors (CARs) against multiple myeloma show promise in the eradication of bulk disease. However, these anti-BCMA (CD269) CARs observe relapse as a common phenomenon after treatment due to the reemergence of either antigen-positive or -negative cells. Hence, the development of improvements in CAR design to target antigen loss and increase effector cell persistency represents a critical need. Here, we report on the anti-tumor activity of a CAR T-cell possessing two complete and independent CAR receptors against the multiple myeloma antigens BCMA and CS1. We determined that the resulting compound CAR (cCAR) T-cell possesses consistent, potent and directed cytotoxicity against each target antigen population. Using multiple mouse models of myeloma and mixed cell populations, we are further able to show superior in vivo survival by directed cytotoxicity against multiple populations compared to a single-expressing CAR T-cell. These findings indicate that compound targeting of BCMA and CS1 on myeloma cells can potentially be an effective strategy for augmenting the response against myeloma bulk disease and for initiation of broader coverage CAR therapy.

  20. Nicotinic receptors as CNS targets for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Quik, Maryka; Bordia, Tanuja; O'Leary, Kathryn

    2007-10-15

    Parkinson's disease is a debilitating neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by damage to the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. Current therapies are symptomatic only and may be accompanied by serious side effects. There is therefore a continual search for novel compounds for the treatment of Parkinson's disease symptoms, as well as to reduce or halt disease progression. Nicotine administration has been reported to improve motor deficits that arise with nigrostriatal damage in parkinsonian animals and in Parkinson's disease. In addition, nicotine protects against nigrostriatal damage in experimental models, findings that have led to the suggestion that the reduced incidence of Parkinson's disease in smokers may be due to the nicotine in tobacco. Altogether, these observations suggest that nicotine treatment may be beneficial in Parkinson's disease. Nicotine interacts with multiple nicotinic receptor (nAChR) subtypes in the peripheral and central nervous system, as well as in skeletal muscle. Work to identify the subtypes affected in Parkinson's disease is therefore critical for the development of targeted therapies. Results show that striatal alpha6beta2-containing nAChRs are particularly susceptible to nigrostriatal damage, with a decline in receptor levels that closely parallels losses in striatal dopamine. In contrast, alpha4beta2-containing nAChRs are decreased to a much smaller extent under the same conditions. These observations suggest that development of nAChR agonists or antagonists targeted to alpha6beta2-containing nAChRs may represent a particularly relevant target for Parkinson's disease therapeutics.

  1. Novel therapy in Parkinson's disease: adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Nikoletta; Kincses, Zsigmond Tamás; Vécsei, László

    2011-04-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. To date, most of the currently available therapies in PD target the dopaminergic system and none of these therapeutic approaches have been proven to modify the course of the disease. To various extents, these drugs can also cause motor and non-motor complications. A novel target, the adenosine A(2A) receptor (AA2AR), was recently identified, blockade of which may alleviate Parkinsonian symptoms, reduce motor fluctuations and potentially afford neuroprotection. This review is based on a PubMed search covering the relationship of the adenosine receptors and PD. The role of the AA2AR is reviewed and the results of preclinical investigations of antagonists are assessed. A synopsis of current drug development is provided, with a special focus on the pharmacokinetics and relevant clinical trials. The localization of the AA2AR in the central nervous system, the ultra structural localization and the molecular mechanism of its action reveal the potential importance of the AA2AR in movement disorders. The theoretical background and experimental data indicate that AA2AR antagonists may have a potential therapeutic effect in Parkinson's disease. More importantly, the putative neuroprotective effect needs further investigation.

  2. Epidermal growth factor receptor and variant III targeted immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Congdon, Kendra L; Gedeon, Patrick C; Suryadevara, Carter M; Caruso, Hillary G; Cooper, Laurence J N; Heimberger, Amy B; Sampson, John H

    2014-10-01

    Immunotherapeutic approaches to cancer have shown remarkable promise. A critical barrier to successfully executing such immune-mediated interventions is the selection of safe yet immunogenic targets. As patient deaths have occurred when tumor-associated antigens shared by normal tissue have been targeted by strong cellular immunotherapeutic platforms, route of delivery, target selection and the immune-mediated approach undertaken must work together to maximize efficacy with safety. Selected tumor-specific targets can spare potential toxicity to normal tissue; however, they are far less common than tumor-associated antigens and may not be present on all patients. In the context of immunotherapy for high-grade glioma, 2 of the most prominently studied antigens are the tumor-associated epidermal growth factor receptor and its tumor-specific genetic deletion variant III. In this review, we will summarize the immune-mediated strategies employed against these targets as well as the caveats particular to these approaches. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Yersinia pestis targets neutrophils via complement receptor 3

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Peter M.; Nero, Thomas; Bohman, Lesley; Felek, Suleyman; Krukonis, Eric S.; Marketon, Melanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia species display a tropism for lymphoid tissues during infection, and the bacteria select innate immune cells for delivery of cytotoxic effectors by the type III secretion system. Yet the mechanism for target cell selection remains a mystery. Here we investigate the interaction of Yersinia pestis with murine splenocytes to identify factors that participate in the targeting process. We find that interactions with primary immune cells rely on multiple factors. First, the bacterial adhesin Ail is required for efficient targeting of neutrophils in vivo. However, Ail does not appear to directly mediate binding to a specific cell type. Instead, we find that host serum factors direct Y. pestis to specific innate immune cells, particularly neutrophils. Importantly, specificity towards neutrophils was increased in the absence of bacterial adhesins due to reduced targeting of other cell types, but this phenotype was only visible in the presence of mouse serum. Addition of antibodies against complement receptor 3 and CD14 blocked target cell selection, suggesting that a combination of host factors participate in steering bacteria toward neutrophils during plague infection. PMID:25359083

  4. Adenosine A2a receptors and O2 sensing in development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Reduced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, via activation of adenylate kinase and the resulting exponential rise in the cellular AMP/ATP ratio, appears to be a critical factor underlying O2 sensing in many chemoreceptive tissues in mammals. The elevated AMP/ATP ratio, in turn, activates key enzymes that are involved in physiologic adjustments that tend to balance ATP supply and demand. An example is the conversion of AMP to adenosine via 5′-nucleotidase and the resulting activation of adenosine A2A receptors, which are involved in acute oxygen sensing by both carotid bodies and the brain. In fetal sheep, A2A receptors associated with carotid bodies trigger hypoxic cardiovascular chemoreflexes, while central A2A receptors mediate hypoxic inhibition of breathing and rapid eye movements. A2A receptors are also involved in hypoxic regulation of fetal endocrine systems, metabolism, and vascular tone. In developing lambs, A2A receptors play virtually no role in O2 sensing by the carotid bodies, but brain A2A receptors remain critically involved in the roll-off ventilatory response to hypoxia. In adult mammals, A2A receptors have been implicated in O2 sensing by carotid glomus cells, while central A2A receptors likely blunt hypoxic hyperventilation. In conclusion, A2A receptors are crucially involved in the transduction mechanisms of O2 sensing in fetal carotid bodies and brains. Postnatally, central A2A receptors remain key mediators of hypoxic respiratory depression, but they are less critical for O2 sensing in carotid chemoreceptors, particularly in developing lambs. PMID:21677265

  5. The Insulin Receptor: A New Target for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Malaguarnera, Roberta; Belfiore, Antonino

    2011-01-01

    A large body of evidences have shown that both the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) and the insulin receptor (IR) play a role in cancer development and progression. In particular, IR overactivation by IGF-II is common in cancer cells, especially in dedifferentiated/stem-like cells. In spite of these findings, until very recently, only IGF-IR but not IR has been considered a target in cancer therapy. Although several preclinical studies have showed a good anti-cancer activity of selective anti-IGF-IR drugs, the results of the clinical first trials have been disappointing. In fact, only a small subset of malignant tumors has shown an objective response to these therapies. Development of resistance to anti-IGF-IR drugs may include upregulation of IR isoform A (IR-A) in cancer cells and its overactivation by increased secretion of autocrine IGF-II. These findings have led to the concept that co-targeting IR together with IGF-IR may increase therapy efficacy and prevent adaptive resistance to selective anti-IGF-IR drugs. IR blockade should be especially considered in tumors with high IR-A:IGF-IR ratio and high levels of autocrine IGF-II. Conversely, insulin sensitizers, which ameliorate insulin resistance associated with metabolic disorders and cancer treatments, may have important implications for cancer prevention and management. Only few drugs co-targeting the IR and IGF-IR are currently available. Ideally, future IR targeting strategies should be able to selectively inhibit the tumor promoting effects of IR without impairing its metabolic effects. PMID:22654833

  6. Antiphospholipase A2 Receptor Autoantibodies: A Step Forward in the Management of Primary Membranous Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Obrisca, Bogdan; Ismail, Gener; Jurubita, Roxana; Baston, Catalin; Andronesi, Andreea; Mircescu, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Since the identification of PLA2R (M-type phospholipase A2 receptor) as the first human antigenic target in primary membranous nephropathy (MN), perpetual progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. Accumulating clinical data support a pathogenic role for the anti-PLA2R antibodies (PLA2R ABs), but confirmation in an animal model is still lacking. However, PLA2R ABs were related to disease activity and outcome, as well as to response therapy. Accordingly, PLA2R ABs assay seems to be promising tool not only to diagnose MN but also to predict the course of the disease and could open the way to personalize therapy. Nevertheless, validation of a universal assay with high precision and definition of cut-off levels, followed by larger studies with a prolonged follow-up period, are needed to confirm these prospects. PMID:26576418

  7. Antiphospholipase A2 Receptor Autoantibodies: A Step Forward in the Management of Primary Membranous Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Obrisca, Bogdan; Ismail, Gener; Jurubita, Roxana; Baston, Catalin; Andronesi, Andreea; Mircescu, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Since the identification of PLA2R (M-type phospholipase A2 receptor) as the first human antigenic target in primary membranous nephropathy (MN), perpetual progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. Accumulating clinical data support a pathogenic role for the anti-PLA2R antibodies (PLA2R ABs), but confirmation in an animal model is still lacking. However, PLA2R ABs were related to disease activity and outcome, as well as to response therapy. Accordingly, PLA2R ABs assay seems to be promising tool not only to diagnose MN but also to predict the course of the disease and could open the way to personalize therapy. Nevertheless, validation of a universal assay with high precision and definition of cut-off levels, followed by larger studies with a prolonged follow-up period, are needed to confirm these prospects.

  8. Design and synthesis of small molecule agonists of EphA2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Petty, Aaron; Idippily, Nethrie; Bobba, Viharika; Geldenhuys, Werner J; Zhong, Bo; Su, Bin; Wang, Bingcheng

    2018-01-01

    Ligand-independent activation of EphA2 receptor kinase promotes cancer metastasis and invasion. Activating EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase with small molecule agonist is a novel strategy to treat EphA2 overexpressing cancer. In this study, we performed a lead optimization of a small molecule Doxazosin that was identified as an EphA2 receptor agonist. 33 new analogs were developed and evaluated; a structure-activity relationship was summarized based on the EphA2 activation of these derivatives. Two new derivative compounds 24 and 27 showed much improved activity compared to Doxazosin. Compound 24 possesses a bulky amide moiety, and compound 27 has a dimeric structure that is very different to the parental compound. Compound 27 with a twelve-carbon linker of the dimer activated the kinase and induced receptor internalization and cell death with the best potency. Another dimer with a six-carbon linker has significantly reduced potency compared to the dimer with a longer linker, suggesting that the length of the linker is critical for the activity of the dimeric agonist. To explore the receptor binding characteristics of the new molecules, we applied a docking study to examine how the small molecule binds to the EphA2 receptor. The results reveal that compounds 24 and 27 form more hydrogen bonds to EphA2 than Doxazosin, suggesting that they may have higher binding affinity to the receptor. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Designer interface peptide grafts target estrogen receptor alpha dimerization

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, S.; Asare, B.K.; Biswas, P.K., E-mail: pbiswas@tougaloo.edu

    The nuclear transcription factor estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), triggered by its cognate ligand estrogen, regulates a variety of cellular signaling events. ERα is expressed in 70% of breast cancers and is a widely validated target for anti-breast cancer drug discovery. Administration of anti-estrogen to block estrogen receptor activation is still a viable anti-breast cancer treatment option but anti-estrogen resistance has been a significant bottle-neck. Dimerization of estrogen receptor is required for ER activation. Blocking ERα dimerization is therefore a complementary and alternative strategy to combat anti-estrogen resistance. Dimer interface peptide “I-box” derived from ER residues 503–518 specifically blocks ER dimerization.more » Recently using a comprehensive molecular simulation we studied the interaction dynamics of ERα LBDs in a homo-dimer. Based on this study, we identified three interface recognition peptide motifs LDKITDT (ERα residues 479–485), LQQQHQRLAQ (residues 497–506), and LSHIRHMSNK (residues 511–520) and reported the suitability of using LQQQHQRLAQ (ER 497–506) as a template to design inhibitors of ERα dimerization. Stability and self-aggregation of peptide based therapeutics poses a significant bottle-neck to proceed further. In this study utilizing peptide grafted to preserve their pharmacophoric recognition motif and assessed their stability and potential to block ERα mediated activity in silico and in vitro. The Grafted peptides blocked ERα mediated cell proliferation and viability of breast cancer cells but did not alter their apoptotic fate. We believe the structural clues identified in this study can be used to identify novel peptidometics and small molecules that specifically target ER dimer interface generating a new breed of anti-cancer agents. - Highlights: • Designer peptide grafts retain core molecular recognition motif during MD simulations. • Designer peptide grafts with Poly-ALA helix form stable

  10. A Multi-Receptor and Multi-Species Assay for Potential Endocrine Disruptor Targets (SLAS meeting)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Screening methods for detecting potential endocrine disrupting chemicals rely chiefly on transactivation assays targeting nuclear receptors such as the estrogen (ER) and androgen receptors (AR). These assays are predominately human-based; yet environmental exposure can affect div...

  11. Androgen receptor activation: a prospective therapeutic target for bladder cancer?

    PubMed

    Mizushima, Taichi; Tirador, Kathleen A; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Patients with non-muscle-invasive or muscle-invasive bladder cancer undergoing surgery and currently available conventional therapy remain having a high risk of tumor recurrence or progression, respectively. Novel targeted molecular therapy is therefore expected to improve patient outcomes. Meanwhile, substantially higher incidence of bladder cancer in men has prompted research on androgen-mediated androgen receptor (AR) signaling in this malignancy. Indeed, preclinical evidence has suggested that AR signaling plays an important role in urothelial carcinogenesis and tumor outgrowth as well as resistance to some of the currently available conventional non-surgical therapies. Areas covered: We summarize and discuss available data suggesting the involvement of AR and its potential downstream targets in the development and progression of bladder cancer. Associations between AR signaling and sensitivity to cisplatin/doxorubicin or bacillus Calmette-Guérin treatment are also reviewed. Expert opinion: AR activation is likely to correlate with the promotion of urothelial carcinogenesis and cancer outgrowth as well as resistance to conventional therapies. Molecular therapy targeting the AR may thus provide effective chemopreventive and therapeutic approaches for urothelial cancer. Accordingly, bladder cancer can now be considered as an endocrine-related neoplasm. Clinical application of various anti-AR therapies available for AR-dependent prostate cancer to bladder cancer patients is anticipated.

  12. Genistein Ameliorates Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease by Targeting the Thromboxane A2 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenzhe; Chen, Junliang; Mao, Jinyan; Li, Hongling; Wang, Mingfu; Zhang, Hao; Li, Haitao; Chen, Wei

    2018-06-13

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now a public health issue worldwide, but no drug has yet received approval. Genistein, an isoflavonoid derived from soybean, ameliorates high-fat-diet-induced NAFLD in mice, but the molecular underpinnings remain largely elusive. Arachidonic acid (AA) is a major ingredient of animal fats, and the AA cascade has been implicated in chronic inflammation. In this study, we investigated whether genistein was against NAFLD by targeting the AA cascade. Using a mouse model, we showed that genistein supplementation improved high-fat-diet-induced NAFLD by normalizing hepatomegaly, liver steatosis, aminotransferase abnormalities, and glucose tolerance. The thromboxane A 2 (TXA 2 ) pathway was aberrantly active in NAFLD, evidenced by an elevation of circulating TXA 2 and hepatic thromboxane A 2 receptor expression. Mechanistically, we found that genistein directly targeted cyclooxygenase-1 activity as well as its downstream TXA 2 biosynthesis, while the TXA 2 pathway might mediate NAFLD progression by impairing insulin sensitivity. Taken together, our study revealed a crucial pathophysiological role of the TXA 2 pathway in NAFLD and provided an explanation as to how genistein was against NAFLD progression.

  13. A2BR adenosine receptor modulates sweet taste in circumvallate taste buds.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Shinji; Baquero, Arian; Yang, Dan; Shultz, Nicole; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Ravid, Katya; Kinnamon, Sue C; Finger, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3) on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR) is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate), but not anterior (fungiform, palate) taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields.

  14. A2BR Adenosine Receptor Modulates Sweet Taste in Circumvallate Taste Buds

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dan; Shultz, Nicole; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Ravid, Katya; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3) on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR) is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate), but not anterior (fungiform, palate) taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields. PMID:22253866

  15. Targeting GLP-1 receptor trafficking to improve agonist efficacy.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ben; Buenaventura, Teresa; Kanda, Nisha; Chabosseau, Pauline; Owen, Bryn M; Scott, Rebecca; Goldin, Robert; Angkathunyakul, Napat; Corrêa, Ivan R; Bosco, Domenico; Johnson, Paul R; Piemonti, Lorenzo; Marchetti, Piero; Shapiro, A M James; Cochran, Blake J; Hanyaloglu, Aylin C; Inoue, Asuka; Tan, Tricia; Rutter, Guy A; Tomas, Alejandra; Bloom, Stephen R

    2018-04-23

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation promotes insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells, causes weight loss, and is an important pharmacological target in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Like other G protein-coupled receptors, the GLP-1R undergoes agonist-mediated endocytosis, but the functional and therapeutic consequences of modulating GLP-1R endocytic trafficking have not been clearly defined. Here, we investigate a series of biased GLP-1R agonists with variable propensities for GLP-1R internalization and recycling. Compared to a panel of FDA-approved GLP-1 mimetics, compounds that retain GLP-1R at the plasma membrane produce greater long-term insulin release, which is dependent on a reduction in β-arrestin recruitment and faster agonist dissociation rates. Such molecules elicit glycemic benefits in mice without concomitant increases in signs of nausea, a common side effect of GLP-1 therapies. Our study identifies a set of agents with specific GLP-1R trafficking profiles and the potential for greater efficacy and tolerability as T2D treatments.

  16. Transient Receptor Potential Channels as Targets for Phytochemicals

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    To date, 28 mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channels have been cloned and characterized. They are grouped into six subfamilies on the basis of their amino acid sequence homology: TRP Ankyrin (TRPA), TRP Canonical (TRPC), TRP Melastatin (TRPM), TRP Mucolipin (TRPML), TRP Polycystin (TRPP), and TRP Vanilloid (TRPV). Most of the TRP channels are nonselective cation channels expressed on the cell membrane and exhibit variable permeability ratios for Ca2+ versus Na+. They mediate sensory functions (such as vision, nociception, taste transduction, temperature sensation, and pheromone signaling) and homeostatic functions (such as divalent cation flux, hormone release, and osmoregulation). Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the specific roles of these TRP channels and their activation mechanisms. In this Review, the emphasis will be on the activation of TRP channels by phytochemicals that are claimed to exert health benefits. Recent findings complement the anecdotal evidence that some of these phytochemicals have specific receptors and the activation of which is responsible for the physiological effects. Now, the targets for these phytochemicals are being unveiled; a specific hypothesis can be proposed and tested experimentally to infer a scientific validity of the claims of the health benefits. The broader and pressing issues that have to be addressed are related to the quantities of the active ingredients in a given preparation, their bioavailability, metabolism, adverse effects, excretion, and systemic versus local effects. PMID:24926802

  17. Nicotinic ACh Receptors as Therapeutic Targets in CNS Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dineley, Kelly T.; Pandya, Anshul A.; Yakel, Jerrel L.

    2015-01-01

    The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) can regulate neuronal excitability by acting on the cys-loop cation-conducting ligand-gated nicotinic ACh receptor channels (nAChRs). These receptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system, being expressed on neurons and non-neuronal cells, where they participate in a variety of physiological responses such as anxiety, the central processing of pain, food intake, nicotine seeking behavior, and cognitive functions. In the mammalian brain, nine different subunits have been found thus far, which assemble into pentameric complexes with much subunit diversity; however the α7 and α4β2 subtypes predominate in the CNS. Neuronal nAChR dysfunction is involved in the pathophysiology of many neurological disorders. Here we will briefly discuss the functional makeup and expression of the nAChRs in the mammalian brain, and their role as targets in neurodegenerative diseases (in particular Alzheimer’s disease), neurodevelopmental disorders (in particular autism and schizophrenia), and neuropathic pain. PMID:25639674

  18. Nicotinic ACh receptors as therapeutic targets in CNS disorders.

    PubMed

    Dineley, Kelly T; Pandya, Anshul A; Yakel, Jerrel L

    2015-02-01

    The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) can regulate neuronal excitability by acting on the cys-loop cation-conducting ligand-gated nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) channels. These receptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS), being expressed on neurons and non-neuronal cells, where they participate in a variety of physiological responses such as anxiety, the central processing of pain, food intake, nicotine seeking behavior, and cognitive functions. In the mammalian brain, nine different subunits have been found thus far, which assemble into pentameric complexes with much subunit diversity; however, the α7 and α4β2 subtypes predominate in the CNS. Neuronal nAChR dysfunction is involved in the pathophysiology of many neurological disorders. Here we will briefly discuss the functional makeup and expression of the nAChRs in mammalian brain, and their role as targets in neurodegenerative diseases (in particular Alzheimer's disease, AD), neurodevelopmental disorders (in particular autism and schizophrenia), and neuropathic pain. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Muscarinic receptors as targets for anti-inflammatory therapy.

    PubMed

    Sales, María Elena

    2010-11-01

    ACh, the main neurotransmitter in the neuronal cholinergic system, is synthesized by pre-ganglionic fibers of the sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nervous system and by post-ganglionic parasympathetic fibers. There is increasing experimental evidence that ACh is widely expressed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic non-neuronal cells. The neuronal and non-neuronal cholinergic systems comprise ACh, choline acetyltransferase and cholinesterase, enzymes that synthesize and catabolize ACh, and the nicotinic and muscarinic ACh receptors (nAChRs and mAChRs, respectively), which are the targets for ACh action. This review analyzes the participation of the cholinergic system, particularly through mAChRs, in inflammation, and discusses the role of the different mAChR antagonists that have been used to treat skin inflammatory disorders, asthma and COPD, as well as intestinal inflammation and systemic inflammatory diseases, to assess the potential application of these compounds as therapeutic tools.

  20. Targeting mutant fibroblast growth factor receptors in cancer.

    PubMed

    Greulich, Heidi; Pollock, Pamela M

    2011-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) play diverse roles in the control of cell proliferation, cell differentiation, angiogenesis and development. Activating the mutations of FGFRs in the germline has long been known to cause a variety of skeletal developmental disorders, but it is only recently that a similar spectrum of somatic FGFR mutations has been associated with human cancers. Many of these somatic mutations are gain-of-function and oncogenic and create dependencies in tumor cell lines harboring such mutations. A combination of knockdown studies and pharmaceutical inhibition in preclinical models has further substantiated genomically altered FGFR as a therapeutic target in cancer, and the oncology community is responding with clinical trials evaluating multikinase inhibitors with anti-FGFR activity and a new generation of specific pan-FGFR inhibitors. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Ligand-Dependent Activation and Deactivation of the Human Adenosine A2A Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianing; Jonsson, Amanda L.; Beuming, Thijs; Shelley, John C.; Voth, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are membrane proteins with critical functions in cellular signal transduction, representing a primary class of drug targets. Acting by direct binding, many drugs modulate GPCR activity and influence the signaling pathways associated with numerous diseases. However, complete details of ligand-dependent GPCR activation/deactivation are difficult to obtain from experiments. Therefore, it remains unclear how ligands modulate a GPCR’s activity. To elucidate the ligand-dependent activation/deactivation mechanism of the human adenosine A2A receptor (AA2AR), a member of the class A GPCRs, we performed large-scale unbiased molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations of the receptor embedded in a membrane. At the atomic level, we have observed distinct structural states that resemble the active and inactive states. In particular we noted key structural elements changing in a highly concerted fashion during the conformational transitions, including six conformational states of a tryptophan (Trp2466.48). Our findings agree with a previously proposed view, that during activation, this tryptophan residue undergoes a rotameric transition that may be coupled to a series of coherent conformational changes, resulting in the opening of the G protein-binding site. Further, metadynamics simulations provide quantitative evidence for this mechanism, suggesting how ligand binding shifts the equilibrium between the active and inactive states. Our analysis also proposes that a few specific residues are associated with agonism/antagonism, affinity and selectivity, and suggests that the ligand-binding pocket can be thought of as having three distinct regions, providing dynamic features for structure-based design. Additional simulations with AA2AR bound to a novel ligand are consistent with our proposed mechanism. Generally, our study provides insights into the ligand-dependent AA2AR activation/deactivation in addition to what has been found in crystal

  2. Ligand-dependent activation and deactivation of the human adenosine A(2A) receptor.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianing; Jonsson, Amanda L; Beuming, Thijs; Shelley, John C; Voth, Gregory A

    2013-06-12

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are membrane proteins with critical functions in cellular signal transduction, representing a primary class of drug targets. Acting by direct binding, many drugs modulate GPCR activity and influence the signaling pathways associated with numerous diseases. However, complete details of ligand-dependent GPCR activation/deactivation are difficult to obtain from experiments. Therefore, it remains unclear how ligands modulate a GPCR's activity. To elucidate the ligand-dependent activation/deactivation mechanism of the human adenosine A2A receptor (AA2AR), a member of the class A GPCRs, we performed large-scale unbiased molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations of the receptor embedded in a membrane. At the atomic level, we have observed distinct structural states that resemble the active and inactive states. In particular, we noted key structural elements changing in a highly concerted fashion during the conformational transitions, including six conformational states of a tryptophan (Trp246(6.48)). Our findings agree with a previously proposed view that, during activation, this tryptophan residue undergoes a rotameric transition that may be coupled to a series of coherent conformational changes, resulting in the opening of the G-protein binding site. Further, metadynamics simulations provide quantitative evidence for this mechanism, suggesting how ligand binding shifts the equilibrium between the active and inactive states. Our analysis also proposes that a few specific residues are associated with agonism/antagonism, affinity, and selectivity, and suggests that the ligand-binding pocket can be thought of as having three distinct regions, providing dynamic features for structure-based design. Additional simulations with AA2AR bound to a novel ligand are consistent with our proposed mechanism. Generally, our study provides insights into the ligand-dependent AA2AR activation/deactivation in addition to what has been found in

  3. Activation of Adenosine A2A Receptors Inhibits Neutrophil Transuroepithelial Migration ▿

    PubMed Central

    Säve, Susanne; Mohlin, Camilla; Vumma, Ravi; Persson, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine has been identified as a significant inhibitor of inflammation by acting on adenosine A2A receptors. In this study, we examined the role of adenosine and A2A receptors in the transmigration of human neutrophils across an in vitro model of the transitional bladder urothelium. Human uroepithelial cells (UROtsa) were grown on transwell inserts; uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and neutrophils were added to the transwell system; and the number of migrating neutrophils was evaluated. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry were used to investigate the expression of adenosine receptors, the epithelial adhesion molecule ICAM-1, and the neutrophil integrin CD11b. Levels of proinflammatory interleukin-8 (IL-8) and phosphorylated IκBα were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and Luminex assays, respectively. The neutrophils expressed all four adenosine receptor subtypes (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 receptors), but A3 receptors were not expressed by UROtsa cells. UPEC stimulated neutrophil transuroepithelial migration, which was significantly decreased in response to the specific A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680. The inhibitory effect of CGS 21680 on neutrophil migration was reversed by the A2A receptor antagonist SCH 58261. The production of chemotactic IL-8 and the expression of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1 or CD11b were not significantly affected by CGS 21680. However, a significant decrease in the level of phosporylated IκBα was revealed in response to CGS 21680. In conclusion, UPEC infection in vitro evoked neutrophil migration through a multilayered human uroepithelium. The UPEC-evoked neutrophil transmigration decreased in response to A2A receptor activation, possibly through inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:21646447

  4. Progranulin and the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2, partners in crime?

    PubMed Central

    Chitramuthu, Babykumari; Bateman, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Progranulin is a secreted protein with roles in tumorigenesis, inflammation, and neurobiology, but its signaling receptors have remained unclear. In this issue, Neill et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201603079) identify the tyrosine kinase EphA2 as a strong candidate for such a receptor, providing insight into progranulin and EphA2 signaling. PMID:27903608

  5. A2A adenosine receptor ligand binding and signalling is allosterically modulated by adenosine deaminase.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Eduard; Pérez-Capote, Kamil; Moreno, Estefanía; Barkešová, Jana; Mallol, Josefa; Lluís, Carme; Franco, Rafael; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Canela, Enric I

    2011-05-01

    A2ARs (adenosine A2A receptors) are highly enriched in the striatum, which is the main motor control CNS (central nervous system) area. BRET (bioluminescence resonance energy transfer) assays showed that A2AR homomers may act as cell-surface ADA (adenosine deaminase; EC 3.5.4.4)-binding proteins. ADA binding affected the quaternary structure of A2ARs present on the cell surface. ADA binding to adenosine A2ARs increased both agonist and antagonist affinity on ligand binding to striatal membranes where these proteins are co-expressed. ADA also increased receptor-mediated ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) phosphorylation. Collectively, the results of the present study show that ADA, apart from regulating the concentration of extracellular adenosine, may behave as an allosteric modulator that markedly enhances ligand affinity and receptor function. This powerful regulation may have implications for the physiology and pharmacology of neuronal A2ARs.

  6. Adenosine A2A Receptor in the Monkey Basal Ganglia: Ultrastructural Localization and Colocalization With the Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 in the Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Bogenpohl, James W.; Ritter, Stefanie L.; Hall, Randy A.; Smith, Yoland

    2012-01-01

    The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) is a potential drug target for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and other neurological disorders. In rodents, the therapeutic efficacy of A2AR modulation is improved by concomitant modulation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). To elucidate the anatomical substrate(s) through which these therapeutic benefits could be mediated, pre-embedding electron microscopy immunohistochemistry was used to conduct a detailed, quantitative ultrastructural analysis of A2AR localization in the primate basal ganglia and to assess the degree of A2AR/mGluR5 colocalization in the striatum. A2AR immunoreactivity was found at the highest levels in the striatum and external globus pallidus (GPe). However, the monkey, but not the rat, substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) also harbored a significant level of neuropil A2AR immunoreactivity. At the electron microscopic level, striatal A2AR labeling was most commonly localized in postsynaptic elements (58% ± 3% of labeled elements), whereas, in the GPe and SNr, the labeling was mainly presynaptic (71% ± 5%) or glial (27% ± 6%). In both striatal and pallidal structures, putative inhibitory and excitatory terminals displayed A2AR immunoreactivity. Striatal A2AR/mGluR5 colocalization was commonly found; 60–70% of A2AR-immunoreactive dendrites or spines in the monkey striatum coexpress mGluR5. These findings provide the first detailed account of the ultrastructural localization of A2AR in the primate basal ganglia and demonstrate that A2AR and mGluR5 are located to interact functionally in dendrites and spines of striatal neurons. Together, these data foster a deeper understanding of the substrates through which A2AR could regulate primate basal ganglia function and potentially mediate its therapeutic effects in parkinsonism. PMID:21858817

  7. Targeted delivery of anti-tuberculosis drugs to macrophages: targeting mannose receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatova, L. Yu; Klyachko, N. L.; Kudryashova, E. V.

    2018-04-01

    The development of systems for targeted delivery of anti-tuberculosis drugs is a challenge of modern biotechnology. Currently, these drugs are encapsulated in a variety of carriers such as liposomes, polymers, emulsions and so on. Despite successful in vitro testing of these systems, virtually no success was achieved in vivo, because of low accessibility of the foci of infection located in alveolar macrophage cells. A promising strategy for increasing the efficiency of therapeutic action of anti-tuberculosis drugs is to encapsulate the agents into mannosylated carriers targeting the mannose receptors of alveolar macrophages. The review addresses the methods for modification of drug substance carriers, such as liposomes and biodegradable polymers, with mannose residues. The use of mannosylated carriers to deliver anti-tuberculosis agents increases the drug circulation time in the blood stream and increases the drug concentration in alveolar macrophage cells. The bibliography includes 113 references.

  8. Caffeine acts through neuronal adenosine A2A receptors to prevent mood and memory dysfunction triggered by chronic stress

    PubMed Central

    Kaster, Manuella P.; Machado, Nuno J.; Silva, Henrique B.; Nunes, Ana; Ardais, Ana Paula; Santana, Magda; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E.; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S.; Porciúncula, Lisiane O.; Chen, Jiang Fan; Tomé, Ângelo R.; Agostinho, Paula; Canas, Paula M.; Cunha, Rodrigo A.

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of caffeine (an adenosine receptor antagonist) correlates inversely with depression and memory deterioration, and adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonists emerge as candidate therapeutic targets because they control aberrant synaptic plasticity and afford neuroprotection. Therefore we tested the ability of A2AR to control the behavioral, electrophysiological, and neurochemical modifications caused by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), which alters hippocampal circuits, dampens mood and memory performance, and enhances susceptibility to depression. CUS for 3 wk in adult mice induced anxiogenic and helpless-like behavior and decreased memory performance. These behavioral changes were accompanied by synaptic alterations, typified by a decrease in synaptic plasticity and a reduced density of synaptic proteins (synaptosomal-associated protein 25, syntaxin, and vesicular glutamate transporter type 1), together with an increased density of A2AR in glutamatergic terminals in the hippocampus. Except for anxiety, for which results were mixed, CUS-induced behavioral and synaptic alterations were prevented by (i) caffeine (1 g/L in the drinking water, starting 3 wk before and continued throughout CUS); (ii) the selective A2AR antagonist KW6002 (3 mg/kg, p.o.); (iii) global A2AR deletion; and (iv) selective A2AR deletion in forebrain neurons. Notably, A2AR blockade was not only prophylactic but also therapeutically efficacious, because a 3-wk treatment with the A2AR antagonist SCH58261 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the mood and synaptic dysfunction caused by CUS. These results herald a key role for synaptic A2AR in the control of chronic stress-induced modifications and suggest A2AR as candidate targets to alleviate the consequences of chronic stress on brain function. PMID:26056314

  9. Caffeine acts through neuronal adenosine A2A receptors to prevent mood and memory dysfunction triggered by chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Kaster, Manuella P; Machado, Nuno J; Silva, Henrique B; Nunes, Ana; Ardais, Ana Paula; Santana, Magda; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Porciúncula, Lisiane O; Chen, Jiang Fan; Tomé, Ângelo R; Agostinho, Paula; Canas, Paula M; Cunha, Rodrigo A

    2015-06-23

    The consumption of caffeine (an adenosine receptor antagonist) correlates inversely with depression and memory deterioration, and adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonists emerge as candidate therapeutic targets because they control aberrant synaptic plasticity and afford neuroprotection. Therefore we tested the ability of A2AR to control the behavioral, electrophysiological, and neurochemical modifications caused by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), which alters hippocampal circuits, dampens mood and memory performance, and enhances susceptibility to depression. CUS for 3 wk in adult mice induced anxiogenic and helpless-like behavior and decreased memory performance. These behavioral changes were accompanied by synaptic alterations, typified by a decrease in synaptic plasticity and a reduced density of synaptic proteins (synaptosomal-associated protein 25, syntaxin, and vesicular glutamate transporter type 1), together with an increased density of A2AR in glutamatergic terminals in the hippocampus. Except for anxiety, for which results were mixed, CUS-induced behavioral and synaptic alterations were prevented by (i) caffeine (1 g/L in the drinking water, starting 3 wk before and continued throughout CUS); (ii) the selective A2AR antagonist KW6002 (3 mg/kg, p.o.); (iii) global A2AR deletion; and (iv) selective A2AR deletion in forebrain neurons. Notably, A2AR blockade was not only prophylactic but also therapeutically efficacious, because a 3-wk treatment with the A2AR antagonist SCH58261 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the mood and synaptic dysfunction caused by CUS. These results herald a key role for synaptic A2AR in the control of chronic stress-induced modifications and suggest A2AR as candidate targets to alleviate the consequences of chronic stress on brain function.

  10. Targeting EphA2 impairs cell cycle progression and growth of basal-like/triple-negative breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Song, W; Hwang, Y; Youngblood, V M; Cook, R S; Balko, J M; Chen, J; Brantley-Sieders, D M

    2017-10-05

    Basal-like/triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are among the most aggressive forms of breast cancer, and disproportionally affects young premenopausal women and women of African descent. Patients with TNBC suffer a poor prognosis due in part to a lack of molecularly targeted therapies, which represents a critical barrier for effective treatment. Here, we identify EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase as a clinically relevant target for TNBC. EphA2 expression is enriched in the basal-like molecular subtype in human breast cancers. Loss of EphA2 function in both human and genetically engineered mouse models of TNBC reduced tumor growth in culture and in vivo. Mechanistically, targeting EphA2 impaired cell cycle progression through S-phase via downregulation of c-Myc and stabilization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27/KIP1. A small molecule kinase inhibitor of EphA2 effectively suppressed tumor cell growth in vivo, including TNBC patient-derived xenografts. Thus, our data identify EphA2 as a novel molecular target for TNBC.

  11. Targeting EphA2 impairs cell cycle progression and growth of basal-like/triple-negative breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Song, W; Hwang, Y; Youngblood, V M; Cook, R S; Balko, J M; Chen, J; Brantley-Sieders, D M

    2017-01-01

    Basal-like/triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are among the most aggressive forms of breast cancer, and disproportionally affects young premenopausal women and women of African descent. Patients with TNBC suffer a poor prognosis due in part to a lack of molecularly targeted therapies, which represents a critical barrier for effective treatment. Here, we identify EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase as a clinically relevant target for TNBC. EphA2 expression is enriched in the basal-like molecular subtype in human breast cancers. Loss of EphA2 function in both human and genetically engineered mouse models of TNBC reduced tumor growth in culture and in vivo. Mechanistically, targeting EphA2 impaired cell cycle progression through S-phase via downregulation of c-Myc and stabilization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27/KIP1. A small molecule kinase inhibitor of EphA2 effectively suppressed tumor cell growth in vivo, including TNBC patient-derived xenografts. Thus, our data identify EphA2 as a novel molecular target for TNBC. PMID:28581527

  12. A role of the SAM domain in EphA2 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaojun; Hapiak, Vera; Zheng, Ji; Muller-Greven, Jeannine; Bowman, Deanna; Lingerak, Ryan; Buck, Matthias; Wang, Bing-Cheng; Smith, Adam W

    2017-03-24

    Among the 20 subfamilies of protein receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), Eph receptors are unique in possessing a sterile alpha motif (SAM domain) at their C-terminal ends. However, the functions of SAM domains in Eph receptors remain elusive. Here we report on a combined cell biology and quantitative fluorescence study to investigate the role of the SAM domain in EphA2 function. We observed elevated tyrosine autophosphorylation levels upon deletion of the EphA2 SAM domain (EphA2ΔS) in DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cells and a skin tumor cell line derived from EphA1/A2 knockout mice. These results suggest that SAM domain deletion induced constitutive activation of EphA2 kinase activity. In order to explain these effects, we applied fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to investigate the lateral molecular organization of EphA2. Our results indicate that SAM domain deletion (EphA2ΔS-GFP) increases oligomerization compared to the full length receptor (EphA2FL-GFP). Stimulation with ephrinA1, a ligand for EphA2, induced further oligomerization and activation of EphA2FL-GFP. The SAM domain deletion mutant, EphA2ΔS-GFP, also underwent further oligomerization upon ephrinA1 stimulation, but the oligomers were larger than those observed for EphA2FL-GFP. Based on these results, we conclude that the EphA2 SAM domain inhibits kinase activity by reducing receptor oligomerization.

  13. The blood-brain barrier internalises Cryptococcus neoformans via the EphA2-tyrosine kinase receptor.

    PubMed

    Aaron, Phylicia A; Jamklang, Mantana; Uhrig, John P; Gelli, Angie

    2018-03-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes life-threatening meningitis most commonly in populations with impaired immunity. Here, we resolved the transcriptome of the human brain endothelium challenged with C. neoformans to establish whether C. neoformans invades the CNS by co-opting particular signalling pathways as a means to promote its own entry. Among the 5 major pathways targeted by C. neoformans, the EPH-EphrinA1 (EphA2) tyrosine kinase receptor-signalling pathway was examined further. Silencing the EphA2 receptor transcript in a human brain endothelial cell line or blocking EphA2 activity with an antibody or chemical inhibitor prevented transmigration of C. neoformans in an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In contrast, treating brain endothelial cells with an EphA2 chemical agonist or an EphA2 ligand promoted greater migration of fungal cells across the BBB. C. neoformans activated the EPH-tyrosine kinase pathway through a CD44-dependent phosphorylation of EphA2, promoting clustering and internalisation of EphA2 receptors. Moreover, HEK293T cells expressing EphA2 revealed an association between EphA2 and C. neoformans that boosted internalisation of C. neoformans. Collectively, the results suggest that C. neoformans promotes EphA2 activity via CD44, and this in turn creates a permeable barrier that facilitates the migration of C. neoformans across the BBB. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Deletion of striatal adenosine A2A receptor spares latent inhibition and prepulse inhibition but impairs active avoidance learning

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Philipp; Wei, Catherine J.; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Boison, Detlev; Yee, Benjamin K.

    2013-01-01

    Following early clinical leads, the adenosine A2AR receptor (A2AR) has continued to attract attention as a potential novel target for treating schizophrenia; especially against the negative and cognitive symptoms of the disease because of A2AR’s unique modulatory action over glutamatergic in addition to dopaminergic signaling. Through the antagonistic interaction with the dopamine D2 receptor, and by regulating glutamate release and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor function, striatal A2AR is ideally positioned to fine-tune the dopamine-glutamate balance whose disturbance is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, the precise function of striatal A2ARsin the regulation of schizophrenia-relevant behavior is poorly understood. Here, we tested the impact of conditional striatum-specific A2AR knockout (st-A2AR-KO) on latent inhibition (LI) and prepulse inhibition (PPI) – behavior that is tightly regulated by striatal dopamine and glutamate. These are two common cross-species translational tests for the assessment of selective attention and sensorimotor gating deficits reported in schizophrenia patients; and enhanced performance in these tests is associated with antipsychotic drug action. We found that neither LI nor PPI was significantly affected in st-A2AR-KO mice; although a deficit in active avoidance learning was identified in these animals. The latter phenotype, however, was not replicated in another form of aversive conditioning – conditioned taste aversion. Hence, the present study shows that neither learned inattention (as measured by LI) nor sensory gating (as indexed by PPI) requires the integrity of striatal A2ARs– a finding that may undermine the hypothesized importance of A2AR in the genesis and/or treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:23276608

  15. Genetic polymorphism of the adenosine A2A receptor is associated with habitual caffeine consumption.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Marilyn C; El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Campos, Hannia

    2007-07-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed stimulant in the world, and individual differences in response to its stimulating effects may explain some of the variability in caffeine consumption within a population. We examined whether genetic variability in caffeine metabolism [cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) -163A-->C] or the main target of caffeine action in the nervous system [adenosine A(2A) receptor (ADORA2A) 1083C-->T] is associated with habitual caffeine consumption. Subjects (n=2735) were participants from a study of gene-diet interactions and risk of myocardial infarction who did not have a history of hypertension. Genotype frequencies were examined among persons who were categorized according to their self-reported daily caffeine intake, as assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. The ADORA2A, but not the CYP1A2, genotype was associated with different amounts of caffeine intake. Compared with persons consuming <100 mg caffeine/d, the odds ratios for having the ADORA2A TT genotype were 0.74 (95% CI: 0.53, 1.03), 0.63 (95% CI: 0.48, 0.83), and 0.57 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.77) for those consuming 100-200, >200-400, and >400 mg caffeine/d, respectively. The association was more pronounced among current smokers than among nonsmokers (P for interaction = 0.07). Persons with the ADORA2A TT genotype also were significantly more likely to consume less caffeine (ie, <100 mg/d) than were carriers of the C allele [P=0.011 (nonsmokers), P=0.008 (smokers)]. Our findings show that the probability of having the ADORA2A 1083TT genotype decreases as habitual caffeine consumption increases. This observation provides a biologic basis for caffeine consumption behavior and suggests that persons with this genotype may be less vulnerable to caffeine dependence.

  16. Allosteric interactions between agonists and antagonists within the adenosine A2A receptor-dopamine D2 receptor heterotetramer

    PubMed Central

    Bonaventura, Jordi; Navarro, Gemma; Casadó-Anguera, Verònica; Azdad, Karima; Rea, William; Moreno, Estefanía; Brugarolas, Marc; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I.; Lluís, Carme; Cortés, Antoni; Volkow, Nora D.; Schiffmann, Serge N.; Ferré, Sergi; Casadó, Vicent

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromers are key modulators of striatal neuronal function. It has been suggested that the psychostimulant effects of caffeine depend on its ability to block an allosteric modulation within the A2AR-D2R heteromer, by which adenosine decreases the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of dopamine at the D2R. We describe novel unsuspected allosteric mechanisms within the heteromer by which not only A2AR agonists, but also A2AR antagonists, decrease the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of D2R agonists and the affinity of D2R antagonists. Strikingly, these allosteric modulations disappear on agonist and antagonist coadministration. This can be explained by a model that considers A2AR-D2R heteromers as heterotetramers, constituted by A2AR and D2R homodimers, as demonstrated by experiments with bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and bimolecular fluorescence and bioluminescence complementation. As predicted by the model, high concentrations of A2AR antagonists behaved as A2AR agonists and decreased D2R function in the brain. PMID:26100888

  17. Allosteric interactions between agonists and antagonists within the adenosine A2A receptor-dopamine D2 receptor heterotetramer.

    PubMed

    Bonaventura, Jordi; Navarro, Gemma; Casadó-Anguera, Verònica; Azdad, Karima; Rea, William; Moreno, Estefanía; Brugarolas, Marc; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Lluís, Carme; Cortés, Antoni; Volkow, Nora D; Schiffmann, Serge N; Ferré, Sergi; Casadó, Vicent

    2015-07-07

    Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromers are key modulators of striatal neuronal function. It has been suggested that the psychostimulant effects of caffeine depend on its ability to block an allosteric modulation within the A2AR-D2R heteromer, by which adenosine decreases the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of dopamine at the D2R. We describe novel unsuspected allosteric mechanisms within the heteromer by which not only A2AR agonists, but also A2AR antagonists, decrease the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of D2R agonists and the affinity of D2R antagonists. Strikingly, these allosteric modulations disappear on agonist and antagonist coadministration. This can be explained by a model that considers A2AR-D2R heteromers as heterotetramers, constituted by A2AR and D2R homodimers, as demonstrated by experiments with bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and bimolecular fluorescence and bioluminescence complementation. As predicted by the model, high concentrations of A2AR antagonists behaved as A2AR agonists and decreased D2R function in the brain.

  18. Targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling inhibits prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shu; Shao, Longjiang; Yu, Wendong; Gavine, Paul; Ittmann, Michael

    2012-07-15

    Extensive correlative studies in human prostate cancer as well as studies in vitro and in mouse models indicate that fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling plays an important role in prostate cancer progression. In this study, we used a probe compound for an FGFR inhibitor, which potently inhibits FGFR-1-3 and significantly inhibits FGFR-4. The purpose of this study is to determine whether targeting FGFR signaling from all four FGFRs will have in vitro activities consistent with inhibition of tumor progression and will inhibit tumor progression in vivo. Effects of AZ8010 on FGFR signaling and invasion were analyzed using immortalized normal prostate epithelial (PNT1a) cells and PNT1a overexpressing FGFR-1 or FGFR-4. The effect of AZ8010 on invasion and proliferation in vitro was also evaluated in prostate cancer cell lines. Finally, the impact of AZ8010 on tumor progression in vivo was evaluated using a VCaP xenograft model. AZ8010 completely inhibits FGFR-1 and significantly inhibits FGFR-4 signaling at 100 nmol/L, which is an achievable in vivo concentration. This results in marked inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and invasion in PNT1a cells expressing FGFR-1 and FGFR-4 and all prostate cancer cell lines tested. Treatment in vivo completely inhibited VCaP tumor growth and significantly inhibited angiogenesis and proliferation and increased cell death in treated tumors. This was associated with marked inhibition of ERK phosphorylation in treated tumors. Targeting FGFR signaling is a promising new approach to treating aggressive prostate cancer.

  19. Adenosine A(2A) receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Pagnussat, N; Almeida, A S; Marques, D M; Nunes, F; Chenet, G C; Botton, P H S; Mioranzza, S; Loss, C M; Cunha, R A; Porciúncula, L O

    2015-08-01

    Caffeine (a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist) prevents memory deficits in aging and Alzheimer's disease, an effect mimicked by adenosine A2 A receptor, but not A1 receptor, antagonists. Hence, we investigated the effects of adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists on memory performance and scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. We determined whether A2 A receptors are necessary for the emergence of memory impairments induced by scopolamine and whether A2 A receptor activation triggers memory deficits in naïve mice, using three tests to assess short-term memory, namely the object recognition task, inhibitory avoidance and modified Y-maze. Scopolamine (1.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.) impaired short-term memory performance in all three tests and this scopolamine-induced amnesia was prevented by the A2 A receptor antagonist (SCH 58261, 0.1-1.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.) and by the A1 receptor antagonist (DPCPX, 0.2-5.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.), except in the modified Y-maze where only SCH58261 was effective. Both antagonists were devoid of effects on memory or locomotion in naïve rats. Notably, the activation of A2 A receptors with CGS 21680 (0.1-0.5 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.) before the training session was sufficient to trigger memory impairment in the three tests in naïve mice, and this effect was prevented by SCH 58261 (1.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.). Furthermore, i.c.v. administration of CGS 21680 (50 nmol) also impaired recognition memory in the object recognition task. These results show that A2 A receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment and further suggest that A1 receptors might also be selectively engaged to control the cholinergic-driven memory impairment. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. a2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Influence Hippocampus-Dependent Learning and Memory in Adolescent Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotfipour, Shahrdad; Mojica, Celina; Nakauchi, Sakura; Lipovsek, Marcela; Silverstein, Sarah; Cushman, Jesse; Tirtorahardjo, James; Poulos, Andrew; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén; Sumikawa, Katumi; Fanselow, Michael S.; Boulter, Jim

    2017-01-01

    The absence of a2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in oriens lacunosum moleculare (OLM) GABAergic interneurons ablate the facilitation of nicotine-induced hippocampal CA1 long-term potentiation and impair memory. The current study delineated whether genetic mutations of a2* nAChRs ("Chrna2"[superscript L9'S/L9'S] and…

  1. Towards Targeting the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Paolicelli, Giuseppe; De Luca, Antonella; Renga, Giorgia; Borghi, Monica; Pariano, Marilena; Stincardini, Claudia; Scaringi, Lucia; Ricci, Maurizio; Romani, Luigina

    2018-01-01

    Tryptophan (trp) metabolism is an important regulatory component of gut mucosal homeostasis and the microbiome. Metabolic pathways targeting the trp can lead to a myriad of metabolites, of both host and microbial origins, some of which act as endogenous low-affinity ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a cytosolic, ligand-operated transcription factor that is involved in many biological processes, including development, cellular differentiation and proliferation, xenobiotic metabolism, and the immune response. Low-level activation of AhR by endogenous ligands is beneficial in the maintenance of immune health and intestinal homeostasis. We have defined a functional node whereby certain bacteria species contribute to host/microbial symbiosis and mucosal homeostasis. A microbial trp metabolic pathway leading to the production of indole-3-aldehyde (3-IAld) by lactobacilli provided epithelial protection while inducing antifungal resistance via the AhR/IL-22 axis. In this review, we highlight the role of AhR in inflammatory lung diseases and discuss the possible therapeutic use of AhR ligands in cystic fibrosis. PMID:29670460

  2. Asialoglycoprotein receptor targeted delivery of doxorubicin nanoparticles for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pranatharthiharan, Sandhya; Patel, Mitesh D; Malshe, Vinod C; Pujari, Vaishali; Gorakshakar, Ajit; Madkaikar, Manisha; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Devarajan, Padma V

    2017-11-01

    We report asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR)-targeted doxorubicin hydrochloride (Dox) nanoparticles (NPs) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Polyethylene sebacate (PES)-Gantrez® AN 119 Dox NPs of average size 220 nm with PDI < 0.62 and ∼20% Dox loading were prepared by modified nanoprecipitation. ASGPR ligands, pullulan (Pul), arabinogalactan (AGn), and the combination (Pul-AGn), were anchored by adsorption. Ligand anchoring enabled high liver uptake with a remarkable hepatocyte:nonparenchymal cell ratio of 85:15. Furthermore, Pul-AGn NPs exhibited an additive effect implying incredibly high hepatocyte accumulation. Galactose-mediated competitive inhibition confirmed ASGPR-mediated uptake of ligand-anchored NPs in HepG2 cell lines. Subacute toxicity in rats confirmed the safety of the NP groups. However, histopathological evaluation suggested mild renal toxicity of AGn. Pul NPs revealed sustained reduction in tumor volume in PLC/PRF/5 liver tumor-bearing Nod/Scid mice up to 46 days. Extensive tumor necrosis, reduced collagen content, reduction in the HCC biomarker serum α-fetoprotein (p < 0.05), a mitotic index of 1.135 (day 46), and tumor treated/tumor control (T/C) values of <0.42 signified superior efficacy of Pul NPs. Furthermore, weight gain in the NP groups, and no histopathological alterations indicated that they were well tolerated by the mice. The high efficacy coupled with greater safety portrayed Pul Dox NPs as a promising nanocarrier for improved therapy of HCC.

  3. Selective inactivation of adenosine A2A receptors in striatal neurons enhances working memory and reversal learning

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Catherine J.; Singer, Philipp; Coelho, Joana; Boison, Detlev; Feldon, Joram; Yee, Benjamin K.; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2011-01-01

    The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) is highly enriched in the striatum where it is uniquely positioned to integrate dopaminergic, glutamatergic, and other signals to modulate cognition. Although previous studies support the hypothesis that A2AR inactivation can be pro-cognitive, analyses of A2AR's effects on cognitive functions have been restricted to a small subset of cognitive domains. Furthermore, the relative contribution of A2ARs in distinct brain regions remains largely unknown. Here, we studied the regulation of multiple memory processes by brain region-specific populations of A2ARs. Specifically, we evaluated the cognitive impacts of conditional A2AR deletion restricted to either the entire forebrain (i.e., cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and striatum, fb-A2AR KO) or to striatum alone (st-A2AR KO) in recognition memory, working memory, reference memory, and reversal learning. This comprehensive, comparative analysis showed for the first time that depletion of A2AR-dependent signaling in either the entire forebrain or striatum alone is associated with two specific phenotypes indicative of cognitive flexibility—enhanced working memory and enhanced reversal learning. These selective pro-cognitive phenotypes seemed largely attributed to inactivation of striatal A2ARs as they were captured by A2AR deletion restricted to striatal neurons. Neither spatial reference memory acquisition nor spatial recognition memory were grossly affected, and no evidence for compensatory changes in striatal or cortical D1, D2, or A1 receptor expression was found. This study provides the first direct demonstration that targeting striatal A2ARs may be an effective, novel strategy to facilitate cognitive flexibility under normal and pathologic conditions. PMID:21693634

  4. Selective inactivation of adenosine A(2A) receptors in striatal neurons enhances working memory and reversal learning.

    PubMed

    Wei, Catherine J; Singer, Philipp; Coelho, Joana; Boison, Detlev; Feldon, Joram; Yee, Benjamin K; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2011-01-01

    The adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R) is highly enriched in the striatum where it is uniquely positioned to integrate dopaminergic, glutamatergic, and other signals to modulate cognition. Although previous studies support the hypothesis that A(2A)R inactivation can be pro-cognitive, analyses of A(2A)R's effects on cognitive functions have been restricted to a small subset of cognitive domains. Furthermore, the relative contribution of A(2A)Rs in distinct brain regions remains largely unknown. Here, we studied the regulation of multiple memory processes by brain region-specific populations of A(2A)Rs. Specifically, we evaluated the cognitive impacts of conditional A(2A)R deletion restricted to either the entire forebrain (i.e., cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and striatum, fb-A(2A)R KO) or to striatum alone (st-A(2A)R KO) in recognition memory, working memory, reference memory, and reversal learning. This comprehensive, comparative analysis showed for the first time that depletion of A(2A)R-dependent signaling in either the entire forebrain or striatum alone is associated with two specific phenotypes indicative of cognitive flexibility-enhanced working memory and enhanced reversal learning. These selective pro-cognitive phenotypes seemed largely attributed to inactivation of striatal A(2A)Rs as they were captured by A(2A)R deletion restricted to striatal neurons. Neither spatial reference memory acquisition nor spatial recognition memory were grossly affected, and no evidence for compensatory changes in striatal or cortical D(1), D(2), or A(1) receptor expression was found. This study provides the first direct demonstration that targeting striatal A(2A)Rs may be an effective, novel strategy to facilitate cognitive flexibility under normal and pathologic conditions.

  5. Transient receptor potential ankyrin receptor 1 is a novel target for pro-tussive agents.

    PubMed

    Andrè, E; Gatti, R; Trevisani, M; Preti, D; Baraldi, P G; Patacchini, R; Geppetti, P

    2009-11-01

    The transient receptor potential ankyrin receptor 1 (TRPA1) is a cation channel, co-expressed with the pro-tussive transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channel in primary sensory neurons. TRPA1 is activated by a series of irritant exogenous and endogenous alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes which seem to play a role in airway diseases. We investigated whether TRPA1 agonists provoke cough in guinea pigs and whether TRPA1 antagonists inhibit this response. Animals were placed in a Perspex box, and cough sounds were recorded and counted by observers unaware of the treatment used. Inhalation of two selective TRPA1 agonists, allyl isothiocyanate and cinnamaldehyde, dose-dependently caused cough in control guinea pigs, but not in those with airway sensory nerves desensitized by capsaicin. Coughs elicited by TRPA1 agonists were reduced by non-selective (camphor and gentamicin) and selective (HC-030031) TRPA1 antagonists, whereas they were unaffected by the TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine. Acrolein and crotonaldehyde, two alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes recently identified as TRPA1 stimulants and contained in cigarette smoke, air pollution or produced endogenously by oxidative stress, caused a remarkable tussive effect, a response that was selectively inhibited by HC-030031. Part of the cough response induced by cigarette smoke inhalation was inhibited by HC-030031, suggesting the involvement of TRPA1. A novel pro-tussive pathway involves the TRPA1 channel, expressed by capsaicin-sensitive airway sensory nerves and is activated by a series of exogenous (cigarette smoke) and endogenous irritants. These results suggest TRPA1 may be a novel target for anti-tussive medicines.

  6. Adenosine A2A receptor deletion affects social behaviors and anxiety in mice: Involvement of anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala.

    PubMed

    López-Cruz, Laura; Carbó-Gas, Maria; Pardo, Marta; Bayarri, Pilar; Valverde, Olga; Ledent, Catherine; Salamone, John D; Correa, Mercè

    2017-03-15

    Blockade of adenosine A 2A receptors can potentiate motivation to work for natural reinforcers such as food. Conspecific interaction is a potent natural reinforcer in social animals that can be manifested as preference for social exploration versus other sources of novel stimulation. Deficiencies in this type of motivated behavior (social withdrawal) have been seen in several pathologies such as autism and depression. However, the role of A 2A receptors in motivation for social interaction has not been widely explored. Social interaction paradigms evaluate the natural preference of animals for exploring other conspecifics, and the ability to differentiate between familiar versus novel ones. Anxiety is one of the factors that can induce avoidance of social interaction. In the present study, adenosine A 2A knockout (A 2A KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were assessed for social and anxiety-related behaviors. c-Fos immunoreactivity was evaluated as a measure of neuronal activation in brain areas involved in different aspects of motivation and emotional processes. Although A 2A KO mice showed an anxious profile, they displayed higher levels of sociability and were less sensitive to social novelty. WT mice displayed a typical pattern of social recognition 24h later, but not A 2A KO mice, which explored equally both conspecifics. There were no differences between strains in aggressiveness, perseverance or social odor preferences. c-Fos immunoreactivity in A 2A KO mice was higher in anterior cingulate and amygdala compared to WT mice. Thus, A 2A receptors appear to be potential targets for the improvement of pathologies related to social function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Concepts in receptor optimization: targeting the RGD peptide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Chang, Chia-en; Gilson, Michael K

    2006-04-12

    Synthetic receptors have a wide range of potential applications, but it has been difficult to design low molecular weight receptors that bind ligands with high, "proteinlike" affinities. This study uses novel computational methods to understand why it is hard to design a high-affinity receptor and to explore the limits of affinity, with the bioactive peptide RGD as a model ligand. The M2 modeling method is found to yield excellent agreement with experiment for a known RGD receptor and then is used to analyze a series of receptors generated in silico with a de novo design algorithm. Forces driving binding are found to be systematically opposed by proportionate repulsions due to desolvation and entropy. In particular, strong correlations are found between Coulombic attractions and the electrostatic desolvation penalty and between the mean energy change on binding and the cost in configurational entropy. These correlations help explain why it is hard to achieve high affinity. The change in surface area upon binding is found to correlate poorly with affinity within this series. Measures of receptor efficiency are formulated that summarize how effectively a receptor uses surface area, total energy, and Coulombic energy to achieve affinity. Analysis of the computed efficiencies suggests that a low molecular weight receptor can achieve proteinlike affinity. It is also found that macrocyclization of a receptor can, unexpectedly, increase the entropy cost of binding because the macrocyclic structure further restricts ligand motion.

  8. MicroRNA-26b Enhances the Radiosensitivity of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Targeting EphA2.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qiao; Li, Xiang Jun; Cao, Pei Guo

    2016-02-01

    Sensitizing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells to irradiation is important to achieve satisfactory therapeutic effect with low-dose radiotherapy. Erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma A2 (EphA2) is a member of the Eph receptor family that constitutes the largest family of tyrosine kinase receptors. EphA2 overexpression is one of the poor prognostic factors in many progressive cancers. Importantly, EphA2 is a potential target of microRNA-26b (miR-26b), and miR-26b expression is down-regulated in several types of cancer. In this study, we measured the expression levels of miR-26b and EphA2 protein in seven human HCC cell lines by quantitative PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. Overall, lower miR-26b expression levels tended to be associated with higher EphA2 levels in HCC cell lines. Among the cell lines examined, 97H HCC cells expressed the lowest level of miR-26b and highest level of EphA2 protein. Thus, using 97H HCC cells, EphA2 mRNA was verified as the target of miR-26b by the luciferase reporter assay. Accordingly, a synthetic miR-26b, miR-26b mimics, was used to mimic the function of endogenous miR-26b. In 97H HCC cells transfected with miR-26b mimics or short-hairpin RNA targeting EphA2 mRNA, expression of EphA2 protein was reduced, which was associated with significantly lower proliferation rate and invasion ability and with higher apoptosis rate in response to low-dose irradiation, compared to control cells. In contrast, 97H HCC cells over-expressing EphA2 showed higher proliferation rate and invasion ability and lower apoptosis rate upon irradiation. These data suggest that miR-26b enhances the radiosensitivity of 97H HCC cells by targeting EphA2 protein.

  9. The A2a adenosine receptor modulates the reinforcement efficacy and neurotoxicity of MDMA.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Medina, Jessica; Ledent, Catherine; Carretón, Olga; Valverde, Olga

    2011-04-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that plays a neuromodulatory role in the central nervous system. A2a adenosine receptors have been involved in reward-related processes, inflammatory phenomena and neurotoxicity reactions. In the present study, we investigated the role of A2a adenosine receptors on the acute pharmacological effects, reinforcement and neuroinflammation induced by MDMA administration. First, the acute effects of MDMA on body temperature, locomotor activity and anxiety-like responses were measured in A2a knockout mice and wild-type littermates. Second, MDMA reinforcing properties were evaluated using the intravenous self-administration paradigm. Finally, we assessed striatal astrogliosis and microgliosis as markers of MDMA neurotoxicity. Our results showed that acute MDMA produced a biphasic effect on body temperature and increased locomotor activity and anxiogenic-like responses in both genotypes. However, MDMA reinforcing properties were dramatically affected by the lack of A2a adenosine receptors. Thus, wild-type mice maintained MDMA self-administration under a fixed ratio 1 reinforcement schedule, whereas the operant response appeared completely abolished in A2a knockout mice. In addition, the MDMA neurotoxic regime produced an enhanced inflammatory response in striatum of wild-type mice, revealed by a significant increase in glial expression, whereas such activation was attenuated in mutant mice. This is the first report indicating that A2a adenosine receptors play a key role in reinforcement and neuroinflammation induced by the widely used psychostimulant.

  10. Mechanisms of the adenosine A2A receptor-induced sensitization of esophageal C fibers

    PubMed Central

    Brozmanova, M.; Mazurova, L.; Ru, F.; Tatar, M.; Hu, Y.; Yu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies indicate that adenosine contributes to esophageal mechanical hypersensitivity in some patients with pain originating in the esophagus. We have previously reported that the esophageal vagal nodose C fibers express the adenosine A2A receptor. Here we addressed the hypothesis that stimulation of the adenosine A2A receptor induces mechanical sensitization of esophageal C fibers by a mechanism involving transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1). Extracellular single fiber recordings of activity originating in C-fiber terminals were made in the ex vivo vagally innervated guinea pig esophagus. The adenosine A2A receptor-selective agonist CGS21680 induced robust, reversible sensitization of the response to esophageal distention (10–60 mmHg) in a concentration-dependent fashion (1–100 nM). At the half-maximally effective concentration (EC50: ≈3 nM), CGS21680 induced an approximately twofold increase in the mechanical response without causing an overt activation. This sensitization was abolished by the selective A2A antagonist SCH58261. The adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin mimicked while the nonselective protein kinase inhibitor H89 inhibited mechanical sensitization by CGS21680. CGS21680 did not enhance the response to the purinergic P2X receptor agonist α,β-methylene-ATP, indicating that CGS21680 does not nonspecifically sensitize to all stimuli. Mechanical sensitization by CGS21680 was abolished by pretreatment with two structurally different TRPA1 antagonists AP18 and HC030031. Single cell RT-PCR and whole cell patch-clamp studies in isolated esophagus-specific nodose neurons revealed the expression of TRPA1 in A2A-positive C-fiber neurons and demonstrated that CGS21682 potentiated TRPA1 currents evoked by allylisothiocyanate. We conclude that stimulation of the adenosine A2A receptor induces mechanical sensitization of nodose C fibers by a mechanism sensitive to TRPA1 antagonists indicating the involvement of TRPA1. PMID:26564719

  11. Telomerase as an Androgen Receptor-Regulated Target in Selenium Chemoprevention of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    TITLE: Telomerase as an Androgen Receptor-Regulated Target in Selenium Chemoprevention of Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...May 2009 - 30 Apr 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Telomerase as an Androgen Receptor-Regulated Target in Selenium Chemoprevention of Prostate Cancer...telomerase as a potential target of AR signaling suppression by selenium . We found that combination of selenium and bicalutamide produced a robust down

  12. Biological functionalization of drug delivery carriers to bypass size restrictions of receptor-mediated endocytosis independently from receptor targeting.

    PubMed

    Ansar, Maria; Serrano, Daniel; Papademetriou, Iason; Bhowmick, Tridib Kumar; Muro, Silvia

    2013-12-23

    Targeting of drug carriers to cell-surface receptors involved in endocytosis is commonly used for intracellular drug delivery. However, most endocytic receptors mediate uptake via clathrin or caveolar pathways associated with ≤200-nm vesicles, restricting carrier design. We recently showed that endocytosis mediated by intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), which differs from clathrin- and caveolae-mediated pathways, allows uptake of nano- and microcarriers in cell culture and in vivo due to recruitment of cellular sphingomyelinases to the plasmalemma. This leads to ceramide generation at carrier binding sites and formation of actin stress-fibers, enabling engulfment and uptake of a wide size-range of carriers. Here we adapted this paradigm to enhance uptake of drug carriers targeted to receptors associated with size-restricted pathways. We coated sphingomyelinase onto model (polystyrene) submicro- and microcarriers targeted to clathrin-associated mannose-6-phosphate receptor. In endothelial cells, this provided ceramide enrichment at the cell surface and actin stress-fiber formation, modifying the uptake pathway and enhancing carrier endocytosis without affecting targeting, endosomal transport, cell-associated degradation, or cell viability. This improvement depended on the carrier size and enzyme dose, and similar results were observed for other receptors (transferrin receptor) and cell types (epithelial cells). This phenomenon also enhanced tissue accumulation of carriers after intravenous injection in mice. Hence, it is possible to maintain targeting toward a selected receptor while bypassing natural size restrictions of its associated endocytic route by functionalization of drug carriers with biological elements mimicking the ICAM-1 pathway. This strategy holds considerable promise to enhance flexibility of design of targeted drug delivery systems.

  13. Biological Functionalization of Drug Delivery Carriers to Bypass Size Restrictions of Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis Independently from Receptor Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Ansar, Maria; Serrano, Daniel; Papademetriou, Iason; Bhowmick, Tridib Kumar; Muro, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Targeting of drug carriers to cell-surface receptors involved in endocytosis is commonly used for intracellular drug delivery. However, most endocytic receptors mediate uptake via clathrin or caveolar pathways associated with ≤200-nm vesicles, restricting carrier design. We recently showed that endocytosis mediated by intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), which differs from clathrin- and caveolar-mediated pathways, allows uptake of nano- and micro-carriers in cell culture and in vivo due to recruitment of cellular sphingomyelinases to the plasmalemma. This leads to ceramide generation at carrier binding sites and formation of actin stress-fibers, enabling engulfment and uptake of a wide size-range of carriers. Here we adapted this paradigm to enhance uptake of drug carriers targeted to receptors associated with size-restricted pathways. We coated sphingomyelinase onto model (polystyrene) submicro- and micro-carriers targeted to clathrin-associated mannose-6-phosphate receptor. In endothelial cells, this provided ceramide enrichment at the cell surface and actin stress-fiber formation, modifying the uptake pathway and enhancing carrier endocytosis without affecting targeting, endosomal transport, cell-associated degradation, or cell viability. This improvement depended on the carrier size and enzyme dose, and similar results were observed for other receptors (transferrin receptor) and cell types (epithelial cells). This phenomenon also enhanced tissue accumulation of carriers after intravenous injection in mice. Hence, it is possible to maintain targeting toward a selected receptor while bypassing natural size-restrictions of its associated endocytic route by functionalization of drug carriers with biological elements mimicking the ICAM-1 pathway. This strategy holds considerable promise to enhance flexibility of design of targeted drug delivery systems. PMID:24237309

  14. Cocaine self-administration differentially affects allosteric A2A-D2 receptor-receptor interactions in the striatum. Relevance for cocaine use disorder.

    PubMed

    Pintsuk, Julia; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Pomierny, Bartosz; Wydra, Karolina; Zaniewska, Magdalena; Filip, Malgorzata; Fuxe, Kjell

    2016-05-01

    In the current study behavioral and biochemical experiments were performed to study changes in the allosteric A2AR-D2R interactions in the ventral and dorsal striatum after cocaine self-administration versus corresponding yoked saline control. By using ex vivo [(3)H]-raclopride/quinpirole competition experiments, the effects of the A2AR agonist CGS 21680 (100 nM) on the KiH and KiL values of the D2-like receptor (D2-likeR) were determined. One major result was a significant reduction in the D2-likeR agonist high affinity state observed with CGS 21680 after cocaine self-administration in the ventral striatum compared with the yoked saline group. The results therefore support the hypothesis that A2AR agonists can at least in part counteract the motivational actions of cocaine. This action is mediated via the D2-likeR by targeting the A2AR protomer of A2AR-D2-like R heteroreceptor complexes in the ventral striatum, which leads to the reduction of D2-likeR protomer recognition through the allosteric receptor-receptor interaction. In contrast, in the dorsal striatum the CGS 21680-induced antagonistic modulation in the D2-likeR agonist high affinity state was abolished after cocaine self-administration versus the yoked saline group probably due to a local dysfunction/disruption of the A2AR-D2-like R heteroreceptor complexes. Such a change in the dorsal striatum in cocaine self-administration can contribute to the development of either locomotor sensitization, habit-forming learning and/or the compulsive drug seeking by enhanced D2-likeR protomer signaling. Potential differences in the composition and stoichiometry of the A2AR-D2R heteroreceptor complexes, including differential recruitment of sigma 1 receptor, in the ventral and dorsal striatum may explain the differential regional changes observed in the A2A-D2-likeR interactions after cocaine self-administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Lipid-sensors, enigmatic-orphan and orphan nuclear receptors as therapeutic targets in breast-cancer.

    PubMed

    Garattini, Enrico; Bolis, Marco; Gianni', Maurizio; Paroni, Gabriela; Fratelli, Maddalena; Terao, Mineko

    2016-07-05

    Breast-cancer is heterogeneous and consists of various groups with different biological characteristics. Innovative pharmacological approaches accounting for this heterogeneity are needed. The forty eight human Nuclear-Hormone-Receptors are ligand-dependent transcription-factors and are classified into Endocrine-Receptors, Adopted-Orphan-Receptors (Lipid-sensors and Enigmatic-Orphans) and Orphan-receptors. Nuclear-Receptors represent ideal targets for the design/synthesis of pharmacological ligands. We provide an overview of the literature available on the expression and potential role played by Lipid-sensors, Enigmatic-Orphans and Orphan-Receptors in breast-cancer. The data are complemented by an analysis of the expression levels of each selected Nuclear-Receptor in the PAM50 breast-cancer groups, following re-elaboration of the data publicly available. The major aim is to support the idea that some of the Nuclear-Receptors represent largely unexploited therapeutic-targets in breast-cancer treatment/chemo-prevention. On the basis of our analysis, we conclude that the Lipid-Sensors, NR1C3, NR1H2 and NR1H3 are likely to be onco-suppressors in breast-cancer. The Enigmatic-Orphans, NR1F1 NR2A1 and NR3B3 as well as the Orphan-Receptors, NR0B1, NR0B2, NR1D1, NR2F1, NR2F2 and NR4A3 exert a similar action. These Nuclear-Receptors represent candidates for the development of therapeutic strategies aimed at increasing their expression or activating them in tumor cells. The group of Nuclear-Receptors endowed with potential oncogenic properties consists of the Lipid-Sensors, NR1C2 and NR1I2, the Enigmatic-Orphans, NR1F3, NR3B1 and NR5A2, as well as the Orphan-Receptors, NR2E1, NR2E3 and NR6A1. These oncogenic Nuclear-Receptors should be targeted with selective antagonists, reverse-agonists or agents/strategies capable of reducing their expression in breast-cancer cells.

  16. Adenosine A2A Receptor Blockade or Deletion Diminishes Fibrocyte Accumulation in the Skin in a Murine Model of Scleroderma, Bleomycin-induced Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Katebi, Majid; Fernandez, Patricia; Chan, Edwin S. L.; Cronstein, Bruce N.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral blood fibrocytes are a newly identified circulating leukocyte subpopulation that migrates into injured tissue where it may display fibroblast-like properties and participate in wound healing and fibrosis of skin and other organs. Previous studies in our lab demonstrated that A2A receptor-deficient and A2A antagonist-treated mice were protected from developing bleomycin-induced dermal fibrosis, thus the aim of this study was to determine whether the adenosine A2A receptor regulates recruitment of fibrocytes to the dermis in this bleomycin-induced model of dermal fibrosis. Sections of skin from normal mice and bleomycin-treated wild type, A2A knockout and A2A antagonist-treated mice were stained for Procollagen α2 Type I and CD34 and the double stained cells, fibrocytes, were counted in the tissue sections. There were more fibrocytes in the dermis of bleomycin-treated mice than normal mice and the increase was abrogated by deletion or blockade of adenosine A2A receptors. Because fibrocytes play a central role in tissue fibrosis these results suggest that diminished adenosine A2A receptor-mediated recruitment of fibrocytes into tissue may play a role in the pathogenesis of fibrosing diseases of the skin. Moreover, these results provide further evidence that adenosine A2A receptors may represent a new target for the treatment of such fibrosing diseases as scleroderma or nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy. PMID:18709547

  17. Orphan nuclear receptor NR4A2 inhibits hepatic stellate cell proliferation through MAPK pathway in liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pengguo; Li, Jie; Huo, Yan; Lu, Jin; Wan, Lili; Li, Bin; Gan, Run; Guo, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a crucial role in liver fibrosis, which is a pathological process characterized by extracellular matrix accumulation. NR4A2 is a nuclear receptor belonging to the NR4A subfamily and vital in regulating cell growth, metabolism, inflammation and other biological functions. However, its role in HSCs is unclear. We analyzed NR4A2 expression in fibrotic liver and stimulated HSCs compared with control group and studied the influence on cell proliferation, cell cycle, cell apoptosis and MAPK pathway after NR4A2 knockdown. NR4A2 expression was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analyses. NR4A2 expression was significantly lower in fibrotic liver tissues and PDGF BB or TGF-β stimulated HSCs compared with control group. After NR4A2 knockdown α-smooth muscle actin and Col1 expression increased. In addition, NR4A2 silencing led to the promotion of cell proliferation, increase of cell percentage in S phase and reduced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, P38 and JNK in HSCs. These results indicate that NR4A2 can inhibit HSC proliferation through MAPK pathway and decrease extracellular matrix in liver fibrogenesis. NR4A2 may be a promising therapeutic target for liver fibrosis.

  18. Active radar guides missile to its target: receptor-based targeted treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma by nanoparticulate systems.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jing-Jun; Liao, Jia-Zhi; Lin, Ju-Sheng; He, Xing-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) usually present at advanced stages and do not benefit from surgical resection, so drug therapy should deserve a prominent place in unresectable HCC treatment. But chemotherapy agents, such as doxorubicin, cisplatin, and paclitaxel, frequently encounter important problems such as low specificity and non-selective biodistribution. Recently, the development of nanotechnology led to significant breakthroughs to overcome these problems. Decorating the surfaces of nanoparticulate-based drug carriers with homing devices has demonstrated its potential in concentrating chemotherapy agents specifically to HCC cells. In this paper, we reviewed the current status of active targeting strategies for nanoparticulate systems based on various receptors such as asialoglycoprotein receptor, transferrin receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, folate receptor, integrin, and CD44, which are abundantly expressed on the surfaces of hepatocytes or liver cancer cells. Furthermore, we pointed out their merits and defects and provided theoretical references for further research.

  19. The EGF receptor family as targets for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, J; Baselga, J

    2000-12-27

    Human carcinomas frequently express high levels of receptors in the EGF receptor family, and overexpression of at least two of these receptors, the EGF receptor (EGFr) and closely related ErbB2, has been associated with a more aggressive clinical behavior. Further, transfection or activation of high levels of these two receptors in nonmalignant cell lines can lead to a transformed phenotype. For these reasons therapies directed at preventing the function of these receptors have the potential to be useful anti-cancer treatments. In the last two decades monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) which block activation of the EGFr and ErbB2 have been developed. These MAbs have shown promising preclinical activity and 'chimeric' and 'humanized' MAbs have been produced in order to obviate the problem of host immune reactions. Clinical activity with these antibodies has been documented: trastuzumab, a humanized anti-ErbB2 MAb, is active and was recently approved in combination with paclitaxel for the therapy of patients with metastatic ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer; IMC-C225, a chimeric anti-EGFr MAb, has shown impressive activity when combined with radiation therapy and reverses resistance to chemotherapy. In addition to antibodies, compounds that directly inhibit receptor tyrosine kinases have shown preclinical activity and early clinical activity has been reported. A series of phase III studies with these antibodies and direct tyrosine kinase inhibitors are ongoing or planned, and will further address the role of these active anti-receptor agents in the treatment of patients with cancer.

  20. High-level expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae enables isolation and spectroscopic characterization of functional human adenosine A2a receptor

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Michelle A.; Lazarova, Tzvetana; Britton, Zachary T.; Robinson, Anne S.

    2007-01-01

    The G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a class of membrane proteins that trigger cellular responses to external stimuli, and are believed to be targets for nearly half of all pharmaceutical drugs on the market. However, little is known regarding their folding and cellular interactions, as well as what factors are crucial for their activity. Further structural characterization of GPCRs has largely been complicated by problems with expression, purification, and preservation of activity in vitro. Previously, we have demonstrated high-level expression (~4 mg/L of culture) of functional human adenosine A2a receptor fused to a green fluorescent protein (A2aR-GFP) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this work we re-engineered A2aR with a purification tag, developed an adequate purification scheme, and performed biophysical characterization on purified receptors. Milligram amounts per liter of culture of A2aR and A2aR-GFP were functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae, with a C-terminal deca-histidine tag. Lysis procedures were developed for optimal membrane protein solubilization and recovery through monitoring fluorescence of A2aR-GFP-His10. One-step purification of the protein was achieved through immobilized metal affinity chromatography. After initial solubilization in n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside (DDM), a combination of added cholesterol hemisuccinate (CHS) in 3-(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammoniopropane sulfonate (CHAPS) was required to stabilize the functional state of the protein. Isolated A2aR under these conditions was found to be largely alpha-helical, and properly incorporated into a mixed-micelle environment. The A2a-His10 receptor was purified in quantities of 6 +/− 2 mg/L of culture, with ligand-binding yields of 1 mg/L, although all protein bound to xanthine affinity resin. This represents the highest purified total and functional yields for A2aR yet achieved from any heterologous expression system. PMID:17591446

  1. Angiotensin receptors in Dupuytren's disease: a target for pharmacological treatment?

    PubMed

    Stephen, Christopher; Touil, Leila; Vaiude, Partha; Singh, Jaipaul; McKirdy, Stuart

    2018-02-01

    Attempts at the pharmacological treatment of Dupuytren's disease have so far been unsuccessful, and the disease is not yet fully understood on a cellular level. The Renin-Angiotensin System has long been understood to play a circulating hormonal role. However, there is much evidence showing Angiotensin II to play a local role in wound healing and fibrosis, with ACE inhibitors being widely used as an anti-fibrotic agent in renal and cardiac disease. This study was designed to investigate the presence of Angiotensin II receptors 1 (AT1) and 2 (AT2) in Dupuytren's tissue to form a basis for further study into the pharmacological treatment of this condition. Tissue was harvested from 11 patients undergoing surgery for Dupuytren's disease. Each specimen was processed into frozen sections and immunostaining was employed to identify AT1 and AT2 receptors. Immunostaining for AT1 receptors was mildly positive in one patient and negative in all the remaining patients. However, all specimens stained extensively for AT2 receptors. This suggests that the expression of AT2 receptors is more prominent than AT1 receptors in Dupuytren's disease. These findings have opened a new avenue for future research involving ACE inhibitors, AT2 agonists, and AT2 antagonists in Dupuytren's disease.

  2. Novel receptor-targeted contrast agents for optical imaging of tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Andreas; Hessenius, Carsten; Bhargava, Sarah; Ebert, Bernd; Sukowski, Uwe; Rinneberg, Herbert H.; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Semmler, Wolfhard; Licha, Kai

    2000-04-01

    Many gastroenteropancreatic tumors express receptors for somatostatin (SST) and/or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). These receptors can be used as molecular targets for the delivery of contrast agents for tumor diagnostics. We have synthesized conjugates consisting of a cyanine dye and an SST analogue or VIP for use as contrast agents in optical imaging. Receptor binding and internalization of these compounds were examined with optical methods in transfected RIN38 tumor cells expressing the SST2 receptor or a GFP- labeled VIP (VPAC1) receptor. Furthermore, biodistribution of the conjugates was examined by laser-induced fluorescence imaging in nude mice bearing SST2 or VPAC1 receptor- expressing tumors. After incubation of RIN38 SSTR2 cells in the presence of 100 nM indotricarbocyanine-SST analogue, cell-associated fluorescence increased, whereas no increase was observed when receptor-medicated endocytosis was inhibited. Indodicarbocyanine-VIP accumulated in RIN38 VPAC1 cells and co-localization with the GFP-labeled VPAC1 receptor was observed. After injection of indotricarbocyanine-SST analogue into tumor-bearing nude mice, SST2 receptor-positive tumors could be visualized for a time period from 10 min to at least 48 h. After application of indodicarbocyanine-VIP, a fluorescence signal in VIP1 receptor-expressing tumors was only detected during the first hour. We conclude that cyanine dye-labeled VIP and SST analogue are novel, targeted contrast agents for the optical imaging of tumors expressing the relevant receptor.

  3. Lorcaserin and pimavanserin: emerging selectivity of serotonin receptor subtype–targeted drugs

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, Herbert Y.; Roth, Bryan L.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) receptors mediate a plethora of physiological phenomena in the brain and the periphery. Additionally, serotonergic dysfunction has been implicated in nearly every neuropsychiatric disorder. The effects of serotonin are mediated by fourteen GPCRs. Both the therapeutic actions and side effects of commonly prescribed drugs are frequently due to nonspecific actions on various 5-HT receptor subtypes. For more than 20 years, the search for clinically efficacious drugs that selectively target 5-HT receptor subtypes has been only occasionally successful. This review provides an overview of 5-HT receptor pharmacology and discusses two recent 5-HT receptor subtype–selective drugs, lorcaserin and pimavanserin, which target the 5HT2C and 5HT2A receptors and provide new treatments for obesity and Parkinson’s disease psychosis, respectively. PMID:24292660

  4. Lorcaserin and pimavanserin: emerging selectivity of serotonin receptor subtype-targeted drugs.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Herbert Y; Roth, Bryan L

    2013-12-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) receptors mediate a plethora of physiological phenomena in the brain and the periphery. Additionally, serotonergic dysfunction has been implicated in nearly every neuropsychiatric disorder. The effects of serotonin are mediated by fourteen GPCRs. Both the therapeutic actions and side effects of commonly prescribed drugs are frequently due to nonspecific actions on various 5-HT receptor subtypes. For more than 20 years, the search for clinically efficacious drugs that selectively target 5-HT receptor subtypes has been only occasionally successful. This review provides an overview of 5-HT receptor pharmacology and discusses two recent 5-HT receptor subtype-selective drugs, lorcaserin and pimavanserin, which target the 5HT2C and 5HT2A receptors and provide new treatments for obesity and Parkinson's disease psychosis, respectively.

  5. Drug delivery to the human and mouse uterus using immunoliposomes targeted to the oxytocin receptor.

    PubMed

    Paul, Jonathan W; Hua, Susan; Ilicic, Marina; Tolosa, Jorge M; Butler, Trent; Robertson, Sarah; Smith, Roger

    2017-03-01

    The ability to provide safe and effective pharmacotherapy during obstetric complications, such as preterm labor or postpartum hemorrhage, is hampered by the systemic toxicity of therapeutic agents leading to adverse side effects in the mother and fetus. Development of novel strategies to target tocolytic and uterotonic agents specifically to uterine myocytes would improve therapeutic efficacy while minimizing the risk of side effects. Ligand-targeted liposomes have emerged as a reliable and versatile platform for targeted drug delivery to specific cell types, tissues or organs. Our objective was to develop a targeted drug delivery system for the uterus utilizing an immunoliposome platform targeting the oxytocin receptor. We conjugated liposomes to an antibody that recognizes an extracellular domain of the oxytocin receptor. We then examined the ability of oxytocin receptor-targeted liposomes to deliver contraction-blocking (nifedipine, salbutamol and rolipram) or contraction-enhancing (dofetilide) agents to strips of spontaneously contracting myometrial tissue in vitro (human and mouse). We evaluated the ability of oxytocin receptor-targeted liposomes to localize to uterine tissue in vivo, and assessed if targeted liposomes loaded with indomethacin were capable of preventing lipopolysaccharide-induced preterm birth in mice. Oxytocin receptor-targeted liposomes loaded with nifedipine, salbutamol or rolipram consistently abolished human myometrial contractions in vitro, while oxytocin receptor-targeted liposomes loaded with dofetilide increased contraction duration. Nontargeted control liposomes loaded with these agents had no effect. Similar results were observed in mouse uterine strips. Following in vivo administration to pregnant mice, oxytocin receptor-targeted liposomes localized specifically to the uterine horns and mammary tissue. Targeting increased localization to the uterus 7-fold. Localization was not detected in the maternal brain or fetus. Targeted

  6. Overexpression of Adenosine A2A Receptors in Rats: Effects on Depression, Locomotion, and Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Joana E; Alves, Pedro; Canas, Paula M; Valadas, Jorge S; Shmidt, Tatiana; Batalha, Vânia L; Ferreira, Diana G; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Bader, Michael; Cunha, Rodrigo A; do Couto, Frederico Simões; Lopes, Luísa V

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) are a sub-type of receptors enriched in basal ganglia, activated by the neuromodulator adenosine, which interact with dopamine D2 receptors. Although this reciprocal antagonistic interaction is well-established in motor function, the outcome in dopamine-related behaviors remains uncertain, in particular in depression and anxiety. We have demonstrated an upsurge of A2AR associated to aging and chronic stress. Furthermore, Alzheimer's disease patients present A2AR accumulation in cortical areas together with depressive signs. We now tested the impact of overexpressing A2AR in forebrain neurons on dopamine-related behavior, namely depression. Adult male rats overexpressing human A2AR under the control of CaMKII promoter [Tg(CaMKII-hA2AR)] and aged-matched wild-types (WT) of the same strain (Sprague-Dawley) were studied. The forced swimming test (FST), sucrose preference test (SPT), and the open-field test (OFT) were performed to evaluate behavioral despair, anhedonia, locomotion, and anxiety. Tg(CaMKII-hA2AR) animals spent more time floating and less time swimming in the FST and presented a decreased sucrose preference at 48 h in the SPT. They also covered higher distances in the OFT and spent more time in the central zone than the WT. The results indicate that Tg(CaMKII-hA2AR) rats exhibit depressive-like behavior, hyperlocomotion, and altered exploratory behavior. This A2AR overexpression may explain the depressive signs found in aging, chronic stress, and Alzheimer's disease.

  7. A2A adenosine receptor agonists and their potential therapeutic applications. An update.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Angel

    2018-03-12

    In the last 20 years, an increasing interest of medicinal chemists on the development of potent and selective agonists and antagonists of adenosine receptors has been noticed due to the large impact they have shown in a variety of important biological processes and diseases. Among these, it should be mentioned vasodilation, inflammation, cancer, wound healing, ischemia reperfusion injury, Parkinson disease, infectious diseases, and other CNS disorders. In this review, I will provide an update of the structures of the A2A agonists known, their selectivity versus other adenosine receptors, and their latest therapeutic applications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Restriction of Receptor Movement Alters Cellular Response: Physical Force Sensing by EphA2

    SciTech Connect

    Salaita, Khalid; Nair, Pradeep M; Petit, Rebecca S

    2009-09-09

    Activation of the EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase by ephrin-A1 ligands presented on apposed cell surfaces plays important roles in development and exhibits poorly understood functional alterations in cancer. We reconstituted this intermembrane signaling geometry between live EphA2-expressing human breast cancer cells and supported membranes displaying laterally mobile ephrin-A1. Receptor-ligand binding, clustering, and subsequent lateral transport within this junction were observed. EphA2 transport can be blocked by physical barriers nanofabricated onto the underlying substrate. This physical reorganization of EphA2 alters the cellular response to ephrin-A1, as observed by changes in cytoskeleton morphology and recruitment of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10. Quantitativemore » analysis of receptor-ligand spatial organization across a library of 26 mammary epithelial cell lines reveals characteristic differences that strongly correlate with invasion potential. These observations reveal a mechanism for spatio-mechanical regulation of EphA2 signaling pathways.« less

  9. A2A Adenosine Receptor Antagonists as Therapeutic Candidates: are they still an interesting challenge?

    PubMed

    Cacciari, Barbara; Federico, Stephanie; Spalluto, Giampiero

    2018-04-22

    In the past decades, many efforts were done to develope ligands for the adenosine receptors, with the purpose to individuate agonists and antagonists affine and selective for each subtypes , named A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. These intense studies allowed a deeper and deeper knowledge of the nature and, moreover, of the pathophysiological roles of all the adenosine receptor subtypes. In particular, the involvment of the A2A adenosine receptor subtype in some physiological mechanisms in the brain, that could be related to important diseases such as the Parkinson's disease, encouraged the research in this field. Particular attention was given to the antagonists endowed with high affinity and selectivity since they could have a real employment in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, and some compounds, such as istradefylline, preladenant and tozadenant, are already studied in clinical trials. Actually, the role of A2A antagonists in Parkinson's disease is becoming contradictory due to contrasting results in the last studies, but, at the same time, new possible employments are emerging for this class of antagonists in cancer pathologies as much interesting to legitimate further efforts in the research of A2A ligands. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Targeting EphA2-Sam and Its Interactome: Design and Evaluation of Helical Peptides Enriched in Charged Residues.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Flavia A; Marasco, Daniela; Di Natale, Concetta; Pirone, Luciano; Costantini, Susan; Pedone, Emilia M; Leone, Marilisa

    2016-11-17

    The EphA2 receptor controls diverse physiological and pathological conditions and its levels are often upregulated in cancer. Targeting receptor overexpression, through modulation of endocytosis and consequent degradation, appears to be an appealing strategy for attacking tumor malignancy. In this scenario, the Sam domain of EphA2 plays a pivotal role because it is the site where protein regulators of endocytosis and stability are recruited by means of heterotypic Sam-Sam interactions. Because EphA2-Sam heterotypic complexes are largely based on electrostatic contacts, we have investigated the possibility of attacking these interactions with helical peptides enriched in charged residues. Several peptide sequences with high predicted helical propensities were designed, and detailed conformational analyses were conducted by diverse techniques including NMR, CD, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Interaction studies were also performed by NMR, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and microscale thermophoresis (MST) and led to the identification of two peptides capable of binding to the first Sam domain of Odin. These molecules represent early candidates for the generation of efficient Sam domain binders and antagonists of Sam-Sam interactions involving EphA2. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Aberrant methylation of the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor gene in leukemic cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R1) plays a crucial role in several signaling pathways and may act as tumor-suppressor. This study examined the expression and methylation of the PLA2R1 gene in Jurkat and U937 leukemic cell lines and its methylation in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute leukemia. Methods Sites of methylation of the PLA2R1 locus were identified by sequencing bisulfite-modified DNA fragments. Methylation specific-high resolution melting (MS-HRM) analysis was then carried out to quantify PLA2R1 methylation at 5`-CpG sites identified with differences in methylation between healthy control subjects and leukemic patients using sequencing of bisulfite-modified genomic DNA. Results Expression of PLA2R1 was found to be completely down-regulated in Jurkat and U937 cells, accompanied by complete methylation of PLA2R1 promoter and down-stream regions; PLA2R1 was re-expressed after exposure of cells to 5-aza-2´-deoxycytidine. MS-HRM analysis of the PLA2R1 locus in patients with different types of leukemia indicated an average methylation of 28.9% ± 17.8%, compared to less than 9% in control subjects. In MDS patients the extent of PLA2R1 methylation significantly increased with disease risk. Furthermore, measurements of PLA2R1 methylation appeared useful for predicting responsiveness to the methyltransferase inhibitor, azacitidine, as a pre-emptive treatment to avoid hematological relapse in patients with high-risk MDS or acute myeloid leukemia. Conclusions The study shows for the first time that PLA2R1 gene sequences are a target of hypermethylation in leukemia, which may have pathophysiological relevance for disease evolution in MDS and leukemogenesis. PMID:23217014

  12. Targeting Prostate Cancer with Bifunctional Modulators of the Androgen Receptor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    androgen receptor/coactivator disruptors. ACS Chem. Biol. 2009, 4, 435–440. (7) Guenther, M.; Barak , O.; Lazar, M. The SMRT and N-CoR corepressors are...17) Welsbie, D. S.; Xu, J.; Chen, Y.; Borsu, L.; Scher, H. I.; Rosen , N.; Sawyers, C. L. Histone deacetylases are required for androgen receptor...J.; Di Vizio, D.; Zhang, X.; Albanese, C.; Balk, S.; Chang, C.; Fan, S.; Rosen , E.; Palvimo, J. J.; Jänne, O. A.; Muratoglu, S.; Avantaggiati, M. L

  13. Reconstitution of Homomeric GluA2flop Receptors in Supported Lipid Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Baranovic, Jelena; Ramanujan, Chandra S.; Kasai, Nahoko; Midgett, Charles R.; Madden, Dean R.; Torimitsu, Keiichi; Ryan, John F.

    2013-01-01

    AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are glutamate-gated ion channels ubiquitous in the vertebrate central nervous system, where they mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission and act as molecular determinants of memory formation and learning. Together with detailed analyses of individual AMPAR domains, structural studies of full-length AMPARs by electron microscopy and x-ray crystallography have provided important insights into channel assembly and function. However, the correlation between the structure and functional states of the channel remains ambiguous particularly because these functional states can be assessed only with the receptor bound within an intact lipid bilayer. To provide a basis for investigating AMPAR structure in a membrane environment, we developed an optimized reconstitution protocol using a receptor whose structure has previously been characterized by electron microscopy. Single-channel recordings of reconstituted homomeric GluA2flop receptors recapitulate key electrophysiological parameters of the channels expressed in native cellular membranes. Atomic force microscopy studies of the reconstituted samples provide high-resolution images of membrane-embedded full-length AMPARs at densities comparable to those in postsynaptic membranes. The data demonstrate the effect of protein density on conformational flexibility and dimensions of the receptors and provide the first structural characterization of functional membrane-embedded AMPARs, thus laying the foundation for correlated structure-function analyses of the predominant mediators of excitatory synaptic signals in the brain. PMID:23382380

  14. Transferrin receptors and the targeted delivery of therapeutic agents against cancer

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Tracy R.; Bernabeu, Ezequiel; Rodríguez, José A.; Patel, Shabnum; Kozman, Maggie; Chiappetta, Diego A.; Holler, Eggehard; Ljubimova, Julia Y.; Helguera, Gustavo; Penichet, Manuel L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional cancer therapy can be successful in destroying tumors, but can also cause dangerous side effects. Therefore, many targeted therapies are in development. The transferrin receptor (TfR) functions in cellular iron uptake through its interaction with transferrin. This receptor is an attractive molecule for the targeted therapy of cancer since it is upregulated on the surface of many cancer types and is efficiently internalized. This receptor can be targeted in two ways: 1) for the delivery of therapeutic molecules into malignant cells or 2) to block the natural function of the receptor leading directly to cancer cell death. Scope of review In the present article we discuss the strategies used to target the TfR for the delivery of therapeutic agents into cancer cells. We provide a summary of the vast types of anti-cancer drugs that have been delivered into cancer cells employing a variety of receptor binding molecules including Tf, anti-TfR antibodies, or TfR-binding peptides alone or in combination with carrier molecules including nanoparticles and viruses. Major conclusions Targeting the TfR has been shown to be effective in delivering many different therapeutic agents and causing cytotoxic effects in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. General significance The extensive use of TfR for targeted therapy attests to the versatility of targeting this receptor for therapeutic purposes against malignant cells. More advances in this area are expected to further improve the therapeutic potential of targeting the TfR for cancer therapy leading to an increase in the number of clinical trials of molecules targeting this receptor. PMID:21851850

  15. The A2 Adenosine Receptor: Guanine Nucleotide Modulation of Agonist Binding Is Enhanced by Proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    NANOFF, CHRISTIAN; JACOBSON, KENNETH A.; STILES, GARY L.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Agonist binding to the A2 adenosine receptor (A2AR) and its regulation by guanine nucleotides was studied using the newly developed radioligand 125l-2-[4-(2-{2-[(4-ammnophenyl)methylcarbonylamino]ethylaminnocarbonyl}ethyl)phenyl]ethylamino-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (1251-PAPA-APEC) and its photoaffinity analog 125l-azido-PAPA-APEC. A single protein of Mr 45,000, displaying the appropriate A2AR pharmacology, is Iabeled in membranes from bovine striatum, PC12 cells, and frog erythrocytes. In DDT1 MF2 cells the labeled protein has a slightly lower molecular weight. Incorporation of 125l-azido-PAPA-APEC into membranes from rabbit striatum, however, reveals two specifically labeled peptides (Mr ~47,O00 and 38,000), both of which display A2AR pharmacology. Inhibition of protease activity leads to a decrease in the amount of the Mr 38,000 protein, with only the Mr 47,000 protein remaining. This suggests that the Mr 38,000 peptide is a proteolytic product of the Mr 47,000 A2AR protein. In membranes containing the intact undigested A2AR protein, guanine nucleotides induce a small to insignificant decrease in agonist binding, which is atypical of stimulatory Gs-coupled receptors. This minimal effect is observed in rabbit striatal membranes prepared in the presence of protease inhibitors, as well as in the other tissues studied. Binding to rabbit stnatal membranes that possess the partially digested receptor protein, however, reveals a 50% reduction in maximal specific agonist binding upon addition of guanine nucleotides. Inhibition of proteolysis in rabbit striatum, on the other hand, results in a diminished ability of guanine nucleotides to regulate agonist binding. Thus, the enhanced effectiveness of guanine nucleotides in rabbit striatal membranes is associated with the generation of the Mr 38,000 peptide fragment. Guanosine 5′-(β,γ-imido)triphosphate reduces photoaffinity labeling by 55% in the Mr 38,000 protein, whereas the labeling is decreased by

  16. Group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 (GIIA) mediates apoptotic death during NMDA receptor activation in rat primary cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Chiricozzi, Elena; Fernandez-Fernandez, Seila; Nardicchi, Vincenza; Almeida, Angeles; Bolaños, Juan Pedro; Goracci, Gianfrancesco

    2010-03-01

    Phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)) participate in neuronal death signalling pathways because of their ability to release lipid mediators, although the contribution of each isoform and mechanism of neurotoxicity are still elusive. Using a novel fluorogenic method to assess changes in a PLA(2) activity by flow cytometry, here we show that the group IIA secretory phospholipase A(2) isoform (GIIA) was specifically activated in cortical neurons following stimulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor subtype (NMDAR). For activation, GIIA required Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, and inhibition of its activity fully prevented NMDAR-mediated neuronal apoptotic death. Superoxide, nitric oxide or peroxynitrite donors stimulated GIIA activity, which mediated neuronal death. Intriguingly, we also found that GIIA activity induced mitochondrial superoxide production after NMDAR stimulation. These results reveal a novel role for GIIA in excitotoxicity both as target and producer of superoxide in a positive-loop of activation that may contribute to the propagation of neurodegeneration.

  17. Iterative use of nuclear receptor Nr5a2 regulates multiple stages of liver and pancreas development.

    PubMed

    Nissim, Sahar; Weeks, Olivia; Talbot, Jared C; Hedgepeth, John W; Wucherpfennig, Julia; Schatzman-Bone, Stephanie; Swinburne, Ian; Cortes, Mauricio; Alexa, Kristen; Megason, Sean; North, Trista E; Amacher, Sharon L; Goessling, Wolfram

    2016-10-01

    The stepwise progression of common endoderm progenitors into differentiated liver and pancreas organs is regulated by a dynamic array of signals that are not well understood. The nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, member 2 gene nr5a2, also known as Liver receptor homolog-1 (Lrh-1) is expressed in several tissues including the developing liver and pancreas. Here, we interrogate the role of Nr5a2 at multiple developmental stages using genetic and chemical approaches and uncover novel pleiotropic requirements during zebrafish liver and pancreas development. Zygotic loss of nr5a2 in a targeted genetic null mutant disrupted the development of the exocrine pancreas and liver, while leaving the endocrine pancreas intact. Loss of nr5a2 abrogated exocrine pancreas markers such as trypsin, while pancreas progenitors marked by ptf1a or pdx1 remained unaffected, suggesting a role for Nr5a2 in regulating pancreatic acinar cell differentiation. In the developing liver, Nr5a2 regulates hepatic progenitor outgrowth and differentiation, as nr5a2 mutants exhibited reduced hepatoblast markers hnf4α and prox1 as well as differentiated hepatocyte marker fabp10a. Through the first in vivo use of Nr5a2 chemical antagonist Cpd3, the iterative requirement for Nr5a2 for exocrine pancreas and liver differentiation was temporally elucidated: chemical inhibition of Nr5a2 function during hepatopancreas progenitor specification was sufficient to disrupt exocrine pancreas formation and enhance the size of the embryonic liver, suggesting that Nr5a2 regulates hepatic vs. pancreatic progenitor fate choice. Chemical inhibition of Nr5a2 at a later time during pancreas and liver differentiation was sufficient to block the formation of mature acinar cells and hepatocytes. These findings define critical iterative and pleiotropic roles for Nr5a2 at distinct stages of pancreas and liver organogenesis, and provide novel perspectives for interpreting the role of Nr5a2 in disease. Copyright © 2016

  18. Iterative use of nuclear receptor Nr5a2 regulates multiple stages of liver and pancreas development

    PubMed Central

    Nissim, Sahar; Weeks, Olivia; Talbot, Jared C.; Hedgepeth, John W.; Wucherpfennig, Julia; Schatzman-Bone, Stephanie; Swinburne, Ian; Cortes, Mauricio; Alexa, Kristen; Megason, Sean; North, Trista E.; Amacher, Sharon L.; Goessling, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    The stepwise progression of common endoderm progenitors into differentiated liver and pancreas organs is regulated by a dynamic array of signals that are not well understood. The nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, member 2 gene nr5a2, also known as Liver receptor homolog-1 (Lrh-1) is expressed in several tissues including the developing liver and pancreas. Here, we interrogate the role of Nr5a2 at multiple developmental stages using genetic and chemical approaches and uncover novel pleiotropic requirements during zebrafish liver and pancreas development. Zygotic loss of nr5a2 in a targeted genetic null mutant disrupted the development of the exocrine pancreas and liver, while leaving the endocrine pancreas intact. Loss of nr5a2 abrogated exocrine pancreas markers such as trypsin, while pancreas progenitors marked by ptf1a or pdx1 remained unaffected, suggesting a role for Nr5a2 in regulating pancreatic acinar cell differentiation. In the developing liver, Nr5a2 regulates hepatic progenitor outgrowth and differentiation, as nr5a2 mutants exhibited reduced hepatoblast markers hnf4α and prox1 as well as differentiated hepatocyte marker fabp10a. Through the first in vivo use of Nr5a2 chemical antagonist Cpd3, the iterative requirement for Nr5a2 for exocrine pancreas and liver differentiation was temporally elucidated: chemical inhibition of Nr5a2 function during hepatopancreas progenitor specification was sufficient to disrupt exocrine pancreas formation and enhance the size of the embryonic liver, suggesting that Nr5a2 regulates hepatic versus pancreatic progenitor fate choice. Chemical inhibition of Nr5a2 at a later time during pancreas and liver differentiation was sufficient to block the formation of mature acinar cells and hepatocytes. These findings define critical iterative and pleiotropic roles for Nr5a2 at distinct stages of pancreas and liver organogenesis, and provide novel perspectives for interpreting the role of Nr5a2 in disease. PMID:27474396

  19. Interleukin 1 amplifies receptor-mediated activation of phospholipase A2 in 3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Burch, R M; Connor, J R; Axelrod, J

    1988-01-01

    Human recombinant interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) and IL-1 beta stimulated prostaglandin E2 synthesis in 3T3 fibroblasts in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Enhanced prostaglandin E2 synthesis after IL-1 treatment was apparent by 1 hr and continued to increase for at least 2 days. Half-maximal stimulation occurred at 0.5 pM IL-1 alpha or IL-1 beta, and both interleukins were equally effective, with maximal stimulation occurring in response to 5-10 pM IL-1. In contrast to IL-1, bradykinin stimulation of prostaglandin E2 synthesis is rapid; its effect is maximal by 5 min. In cells that had been pretreated with IL-1 for 24 hr, prostaglandin E2 synthesis in response to bradykinin was amplified more than 10-fold. IL-1 also amplified the receptor-mediated formation of prostaglandin E2 by bombesin and thrombin. The lymphokine did not affect bradykinin receptor number or affinity. IL-1 treatment induced phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase but not phospholipase C or prostaglandin E isomerase. It also enhanced bradykinin-stimulated GTPase activity, suggesting possible induction of the GTP-binding regulatory protein coupled to the bradykinin receptor. Thus, IL-1 enhanced receptor-mediated release of prostaglandin E2 in response to bradykinin, bombesin, and thrombin by increasing the cellular levels of phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase, and GTP-binding regulatory protein(s). PMID:2901097

  20. Minoxidil-induced hair growth is mediated by adenosine in cultured dermal papilla cells: possible involvement of sulfonylurea receptor 2B as a target of minoxidil.

    PubMed

    Li, M; Marubayashi, A; Nakaya, Y; Fukui, K; Arase, S

    2001-12-01

    The mechanism by which minoxidil, an adenosine-triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener, induces hypertrichosis remains to be elucidated. Minoxidil has been reported to stimulate the production of vascular endothelial growth factor, a possible promoter of hair growth, in cultured dermal papilla cells. The mechanism of production of vascular endothelial growth factor remains unclear, however. We hypothesize that adenosine serves as a mediator of vascular endothelial growth factor production. Minoxidil-induced increases in levels of intracellular Ca(2+) and vascular endothelial growth factor production in cultured dermal papilla cells were found to be inhibited by 8-sulfophenyl theophylline, a specific antagonist for adenosine receptors, suggesting that dermal papilla cells possess adenosine receptors and sulfonylurea receptors, the latter of which is a well-known target receptor for adenosine-triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel openers. The expression of sulfonylurea receptor 2B and of the adenosine A1, A2A, and A2B receptors was detected in dermal papilla cells by means of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. In order to determine which of the adenosine receptor subtypes contribute to minoxidil-induced hair growth, the effects of subtype-specific antagonists for adenosine receptors were investigated. Significant inhibition in increase in intracellular calcium level by minoxidil or adenosine was observed as the result of pretreatment with 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, an antagonist for adenosine A1 receptor, but not by 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargyl-xanthine, an antagonist for adenosine A2 receptor, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor production was blocked by both adenosine A1 and A2 receptor antagonists. These results indicate that the effect of minoxidil is mediated by adenosine, which triggers intracellular signal transduction via both adenosine A1 and A2 receptors, and that the expression of sulfonylurea receptor 2B in

  1. Selecting an optimal number of binding site waters to improve virtual screening enrichments against the adenosine A2A receptor.

    PubMed

    Lenselink, Eelke B; Beuming, Thijs; Sherman, Woody; van Vlijmen, Herman W T; IJzerman, Adriaan P

    2014-06-23

    A major challenge in structure-based virtual screening (VS) involves the treatment of explicit water molecules during docking in order to improve the enrichment of active compounds over decoys. Here we have investigated this in the context of the adenosine A2A receptor, where water molecules have previously been shown to be important for achieving high enrichment rates with docking, and where the positions of some binding site waters are known from a high-resolution crystal structure. The effect of these waters (both their presence and orientations) on VS enrichment was assessed using a carefully curated set of 299 high affinity A2A antagonists and 17,337 decoys. We show that including certain crystal waters greatly improves VS enrichment and that optimization of water hydrogen positions is needed in order to achieve the best results. We also show that waters derived from a molecular dynamics simulation - without any knowledge of crystallographic waters - can improve enrichments to a similar degree as the crystallographic waters, which makes this strategy applicable to structures without experimental knowledge of water positions. Finally, we used decision trees to select an ensemble of structures with different water molecule positions and orientations that outperforms any single structure with water molecules. The approach presented here is validated against independent test sets of A2A receptor antagonists and decoys from the literature. In general, this water optimization strategy could be applied to any target with waters-mediated protein-ligand interactions.

  2. P2X receptors in the cardiovascular system and their potential as therapeutic targets in disease.

    PubMed

    Ralevic, Vera

    2015-01-01

    This review considers the expression and roles of P2X receptors in the cardiovascular system in health and disease and their potential as therapeutic targets. P2X receptors are ligand gated ion channels which are activated by the endogenous ligand ATP. They are formed from the assembly of three P2X subunit proteins from the complement of seven (P2X1-7), which can associate to form homomeric or heteromeric P2X receptors. The P2X1 receptor is widely expressed in the cardiovascular system, being located in the heart, in the smooth muscle of the majority of blood vessels and in platelets. P2X1 receptors expressed in blood vessels can be activated by ATP coreleased with noradrenaline as a sympathetic neurotransmitter, leading to smooth muscle depolarisation and contraction. There is evidence that the purinergic component of sympathetic neurotransmission is increased in hypertension, identifying P2X1 receptors as a possible therapeutic target in this disorder. P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors are expressed on cardiac sympathetic neurones and may, through positive feedback of neuronal ATP at this prejunctional site, amplify sympathetic neurotransmission. Activation of P2X receptors expressed in the heart increases cardiac myocyte contractility, and an important role of the P2X4 receptor in this has been identified. Deletion of P2X4 receptors in the heart depresses contractile performance in models of heart failure, while overexpression of P2X4 receptors has been shown to be cardioprotective, thus P2X4 receptors may be therapeutic targets in the treatment of heart disease. P2X receptors have been identified on endothelial cells. Although immunoreactivity for all P2X1-7 receptor proteins has been shown on the endothelium, relatively little is known about their function, with the exception of the endothelial P2X4 receptor, which has been shown to mediate endothelium-dependent vasodilatation to ATP released during shear stress. The potential of P2X receptors as therapeutic targets

  3. MicroRNA and receptor mediated signaling pathways as potential therapeutic targets in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Simonetta, Irene; Pinto, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Cardiac remodelling is a complex pathogenetic pathway involving genome expression, molecular, cellular, and interstitial changes that cause changes in size, shape and function of the heart after cardiac injury. Areas covered: We will review recent advances in understanding the role of several receptor-mediated signaling pathways and micro-RNAs, in addition to their potential as candidate target pathways in the pathogenesis of heart failure. The myocyte is the main target cell involved in the remodelling process via ischemia, cell necrosis and apoptosis (by means of various receptor pathways), and other mechanisms mediated by micro-RNAs. We will analyze the role of some receptor mediated signaling pathways such as natriuretic peptides, mediators of glycogen synthase kinase 3 and ERK1/2 pathways, beta-adrenergic receptor subtypes and relaxin receptor signaling mechanisms, TNF/TNF receptor family and TWEAK/Fn14 axis, and some micro-RNAs as candidate target pathways in pathogenesis of heart failure. These mediators of receptor-mediated pathways and micro-RNA are the most addressed targets of emerging therapies in modern heart failure treatment strategies. Expert opinion: Future treatment strategies should address mediators involved in multiple steps within heart failure pathogenetic pathways.

  4. Regulation of lung endothelial permeability and inflammatory responses by prostaglandin A2: role of EP4 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ohmura, Tomomi; Tian, Yufeng; Sarich, Nicolene; Ke, Yunbo; Meliton, Angelo; Shah, Alok S.; Andreasson, Katrin; Birukov, Konstantin G.; Birukova, Anna A.

    2017-01-01

    The role of prostaglandin A2 (PGA2) in modulation of vascular endothelial function is unknown. We investigated effects of PGA2 on pulmonary endothelial cell (EC) permeability and inflammatory activation and identified a receptor mediating these effects. PGA2 enhanced the EC barrier and protected against barrier dysfunction caused by vasoactive peptide thrombin and proinflammatory bacterial wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Receptor screening using pharmacological and molecular inhibitory approaches identified EP4 as a novel PGA2 receptor. EP4 mediated barrier-protective effects of PGA2 by activating Rap1/Rac1 GTPase and protein kinase A targets at cell adhesions and cytoskeleton: VE-cadherin, p120-catenin, ZO-1, cortactin, and VASP. PGA2 also suppressed LPS-induced inflammatory signaling by inhibiting the NFκB pathway and expression of EC adhesion molecules ICAM1 and VCAM1. These effects were abolished by pharmacological or molecular inhibition of EP4. In vivo, PGA2 was protective in two distinct models of acute lung injury (ALI): LPS-induced inflammatory injury and two-hit ALI caused by suboptimal mechanical ventilation and injection of thrombin receptor–activating peptide. These protective effects were abolished in mice with endothelial-specific EP4 knockout. The results suggest a novel role for the PGA2–EP4 axis in vascular EC protection that is critical for improvement of pathological states associated with increased vascular leakage and inflammation. PMID:28428256

  5. Adenosine A2A Receptor Activation and Macrophage-mediated Experimental Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Gabriela E.; Truong, Luan D.; Li, Ping; Zhang, Ping; Du, Jie; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Feng, Lili

    2010-01-01

    In immune-induced inflammation, leukocytes are key mediators of tissue damage. Since A2A adenosine receptors (A2AR) are endogenous suppressors of inflammation, we examined cellular and molecular mechanisms of kidney damage to determine whether selective activation of A2AR will suppress inflammation in a rat model of glomerulonephritis. Activation of A2AR reduced the degree of kidney injury in both the acute inflammatory phase and the progressive phase of glomerulonephritis. This protection against acute and chronic inflammation was associated with suppression of the glomerular expression of the MDC/CCL22 chemokine and down-regulation of MIP-1α/CCL3, RANTES/CCL5, MIP-1β/CCL4, and MCP-1/CCL2 chemokines. The expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-4 and IL-10, also increased. The mechanism for these anti-inflammatory responses to the A2AR agonist was suppression of macrophages function. A2AR expression was increased in macrophages, macrophage-derived chemokines were reduced in response to the A2AR agonist, and chemokines not expressed in macrophages did not respond to A2AR activation. Thus, activation of the A2AR on macrophages inhibits immune-associated inflammation. In glomerulonephritis, A2AR activation modulates inflammation and tissue damage even in the progressive phase of glomerulonephritis. Accordingly, pharmacological activation of A2AR could be developed into a novel treatment for glomerulonephritis and other macrophage-related inflammatory diseases. PMID:17898087

  6. Role of Adenosine Receptor A2A in Traumatic Optic Neuropathies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    in Traumatic Optic Neuropathies ” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gregory I. Liou, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Georgia Health Sciences...Adenosine Receptor A2A in Traumatic Optic Neuropathies 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0046 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...ABSTRACT Our goal is to develop an early therapeutic intervention before the progression of traumatic optic neuropathy (TON), a vision-threatening

  7. Linear scaffolds for multivalent targeting of melanocortin receptors.

    PubMed

    Dehigaspitiya, Dilani Chathurika; Anglin, Bobbi L; Smith, Kara R; Weber, Craig S; Lynch, Ronald M; Mash, Eugene A

    2015-12-21

    Molecules bearing one, two, three, or four copies of the tetrapeptide His-dPhe-Arg-Trp were attached to scaffolds based on ethylene glycol, glycerol, and d-mannitol by means of the copper-assisted azide-alkyne cyclization. The abilities of these compounds to block binding of a probe at the melanocortin 4 receptor were evaluated using a competitive binding assay. All of the multivalent molecules studied exhibited 30- to 40-fold higher apparent affinites when compared to a monovalent control. These results are consistent with divalent binding to receptor dimers. No evidence for tri- or tetravalent binding was obtained. Differences in the interligand spacing required for divalent binding, as opposed to tri- or tetravalent binding, may be responsible for these results.

  8. Platelet receptors as therapeutic targets: Past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Jamasbi, Janina; Ayabe, Keng; Goto, Shinya; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Peter, Karlheinz; Siess, Wolfgang

    2017-06-28

    Anti-platelet drugs reduce arterial thrombosis after plaque rupture and erosion, prevent stent thrombosis and are used to prevent and treat myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke. Some of them may also be helpful in treating less frequent diseases such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. The present concise review aims to cover current and future developments of anti-platelet drugs interfering with the interaction of von Willebrand factor (VWF) with glycoprotein (GP) Ibα, and directed against GPVI, GPIIb/IIIa (integrin α IIb β 3 ), the thrombin receptor PAR-1, and the ADP receptor P2Y 12 . The high expectations of having novel antiplatelet drugs which selectively inhibit arterial thrombosis without interfering with normal haemostasis could possibly be met in the near future.

  9. INTELLIGENCE SUPPORT TO JOINT TARGETING IN THE A2/AD ENVIRONMENT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-10

    budgets. Finally, the dismal state of targeting personnel training and development must be rectified . These steps must be taken before the United... rectified . These steps must be taken before the United States faces a near-peer adversary employing A2/AD capabilities. Bibliography ACC/A2. Air Force

  10. Cannabinoid Receptors: A Novel Target for Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    experiments, the long term implications of our study could be to develop nonhabit-forming cannabi - noid agonist (s) for the management of prostate cancer ...independent prostate cancer cell invasion. Cancer Res 2004;64:8826–30. 14. Sarfaraz S, Afaq F, Adhami VM, et al. Cannabi - noid receptors agonist WIN-55,212–2...for Therapy for Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Hasan Mukhtar, Ph.D. Farrukh Afaq, Ph.D. Sami Sarfaraz, Ph.D

  11. Decreased circulation time offsets increased efficacy of PEGylated nanocarriers targeting folate receptors of glioma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeeley, Kathleen M.; Annapragada, Ananth; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.

    2007-09-01

    Liposomal and other nanocarrier based drug delivery vehicles can localize to tumours through passive and/or active targeting. Passively targeted liposomal nanocarriers accumulate in tumours via 'leaky' vasculature through the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Passive accumulation depends upon the circulation time and the degree of tumour vessel 'leakiness'. After extravasation, actively targeted liposomal nanocarriers efficiently deliver their payload by receptor-mediated uptake. However, incorporation of targeting moieties can compromise circulation time in the blood due to recognition and clearance by the reticuloendothelial system, decreasing passive accumulation. Here, we compare the efficacy of passively targeted doxorubicin-loaded PEGylated liposomal nanocarriers to that of actively targeted liposomal nanocarriers in a rat 9L brain tumour model. Although folate receptor (FR)-targeted liposomal nanocarriers had significantly reduced blood circulation time compared to PEGylated liposomal nanocarriers; intratumoural drug concentrations both at 20 and 50 h after administration were equal for both treatments. Both treatments significantly increased tumour inoculated animal survival by 60-80% compared to non-treated controls, but no difference in survival was observed between FR-targeted and passively targeted nanocarriers. Therefore, alternate approaches allowing for active targeting without compromising circulation time may be important for fully realizing the benefits of receptor-mediated active targeting of gliomas.

  12. Targeting striatal metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 in Parkinson's disease: bridging molecular studies and clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Vallano, A; Fernandez-Duenas, V; Garcia-Negredo, G; Quijada, M A; Simon, C P; Cuffí, M L; Carbonell, L; Sanchez, S; Arnau, J M; Ciruela, F

    2013-12-01

    Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are G protein-coupled receptors expressed primarily on neurons and glial cells modulating the effects of glutamatergic neurotransmission. The pharmacological manipulation of these receptors has been postulated to be valuable in the management of some neurological disorders. Accordingly, the targeting of mGlu5 receptors as a therapeutic approach for Parkinson's disease (PD) has been proposed, especially to manage the adverse symptoms associated to chronic treatment with classical PD drugs. Thus, the specific pharmacological blocking of mGlu5 receptors constitutes one of the most attractive non-dopaminergic-based strategies for PD management in general and for the L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) in particular. Overall, we provide here an update of the current state of the art of these mGlu5 receptor-based approaches that are under clinical study as agents devoted to alleviate PD symptoms.

  13. Endothelial microparticle uptake in target cells is annexin I/phosphatidylserine receptor dependent and prevents apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Felix; Yang, Xiaoyan; Hoyer, Friedrich Felix; Paul, Kathrin; Heiermann, Nadine; Becher, Marc Ulrich; Abu Hussein, Nebal; Kebschull, Moritz; Bedorf, Jörg; Franklin, Bernardo S; Latz, Eicke; Nickenig, Georg; Werner, Nikos

    2012-08-01

    Endothelial microparticles (EMP) are released from activated or apoptotic cells, but their effect on target cells and the exact way of incorporation are largely unknown. We sought to determine the uptake mechanism and the biological effect of EMP on endothelial and endothelial-regenerating cells. EMP were generated from starved endothelial cells and isolated by ultracentrifugation. Caspase 3 activity assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay showed that EMP protect target endothelial cells against apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Proteomic analysis was performed to identify molecules contained in EMP, which might be involved in EMP uptake. Expression of annexin I in EMP was found and confirmed by Western blot, whereas the corresponding receptor phosphatidylserine receptor was present on endothelial target cells. Silencing either annexin I on EMP or phosphatidylserine receptor on target cells using small interfering RNA showed that the uptake of EMP by human coronary artery endothelial cells is annexin I/phosphatidylserine receptor dependent. Annexin I-downregulated EMP abrogated the EMP-mediated protection against apoptosis of endothelial target cells. p38 activation was found to mediate camptothecin-induced apoptosis. Finally, human coronary artery endothelial cells pretreated with EMP inhibited camptothecin-induced p38 activation. EMP are incorporated by endothelial cells in an annexin I/phosphatidylserine receptor-dependent manner and protect target cells against apoptosis. Inhibition of p38 activity is involved in EMP-mediated protection against apoptosis.

  14. FFA4 receptor (GPR120): A hot target for the development of anti-diabetic therapies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Da; Wang, Wen-bo; Xu, Zhi-gang; Liu, Chang-hong; He, Dong-fang; Du, Lv-Pei; Li, Min-Yong; Yu, Xiao; Sun, Jin-peng

    2015-09-15

    Free Fatty Acid 4 receptor (FFA4 receptor or GPR120), a rhodopsin-like G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) subfamily member, is a receptor that senses specific fatty acids such as ω-3 fatty acid in fish oil or the endogenous signaling lipid, PHASA. FFA4 receptor is enriched in lung, colon and adipose tissue but is also detected in many other tissues and cells. The activation of FFA4 receptor has multiple effects, including but not limited to inhibition of inflammation, improving insulin sensitivity and adipogenesis, and regulating hormone secretion from the gastro-intestinal system and pancreatic islets. The important role of FFA4 receptor in maintaining metabolic homeostasis strongly indicates the great potential of selective FFA4 receptor agonizts to treat diabetes and inflammation. In this review, we summarize recent research progress in the physiological and biochemical studies of FFA4 receptor and highlight its underlying signaling mechanisms and ligand identification to assist future research to exploit FFA4 receptor as a drug target. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Prostaglandins and Their Receptors in Eosinophil Function and As Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Peinhaupt, Miriam; Sturm, Eva M.; Heinemann, Akos

    2017-01-01

    Of the known prostanoid receptors, human eosinophils express the prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) receptors DP1 [also D-type prostanoid (DP)] and DP2 (also chemoattractant receptor homologous molecule, expressed on Th2 cells), the prostaglandin E2 receptors EP2 and EP4, and the prostacyclin (PGI2) receptor IP. Prostanoids can bind to either one or multiple receptors, characteristically have a short half-life in vivo, and are quickly degraded into metabolites with altered affinity and specificity for a given receptor subtype. Prostanoid receptors signal mainly through G proteins and naturally activate signal transduction pathways according to the G protein subtype that they preferentially interact with. This can lead to the activation of sometimes opposing signaling pathways. In addition, prostanoid signaling is often cell-type specific and also the combination of expressed receptors can influence the outcome of the prostanoid impulse. Accordingly, it is assumed that eosinophils and their (patho-)physiological functions are governed by a sensitive prostanoid signaling network. In this review, we specifically focus on the functions of PGD2, PGE2, and PGI2 and their receptors on eosinophils. We discuss their significance in allergic and non-allergic diseases and summarize potential targets for drug intervention. PMID:28770200

  16. Bypassing Protein Corona Issue on Active Targeting: Zwitterionic Coatings Dictate Specific Interactions of Targeting Moieties and Cell Receptors.

    PubMed

    Safavi-Sohi, Reihaneh; Maghari, Shokoofeh; Raoufi, Mohammad; Jalali, Seyed Amir; Hajipour, Mohammad J; Ghassempour, Alireza; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2016-09-07

    Surface functionalization strategies for targeting nanoparticles (NP) to specific organs, cells, or organelles, is the foundation for new applications of nanomedicine to drug delivery and biomedical imaging. Interaction of NPs with biological media leads to the formation of a biomolecular layer at the surface of NPs so-called as "protein corona". This corona layer can shield active molecules at the surface of NPs and cause mistargeting or unintended scavenging by the liver, kidney, or spleen. To overcome this corona issue, we have designed biotin-cysteine conjugated silica NPs (biotin was employed as a targeting molecule and cysteine was used as a zwitterionic ligand) to inhibit corona-induced mistargeting and thus significantly enhance the active targeting capability of NPs in complex biological media. To probe the targeting yield of our engineered NPs, we employed both modified silicon wafer substrates with streptavidin (i.e., biotin receptor) to simulate a target and a cell-based model platform using tumor cell lines that overexpress biotin receptors. In both cases, after incubation with human plasma (thus forming a protein corona), cellular uptake/substrate attachment of the targeted NPs with zwitterionic coatings were significantly higher than the same NPs without zwitterionic coating. Our results demonstrated that NPs with a zwitterionic surface can considerably facilitate targeting yield of NPs and provide a promising new type of nanocarriers in biological applications.

  17. Dopamine D2 heteroreceptor complexes and their receptor-receptor interactions in ventral striatum: novel targets for antipsychotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Fuxe, Kjell; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Tarakanov, Alexander O; Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Ferraro, Luca; Tanganelli, Sergio; Perez-Alea, Mileidys; Di Palma, Michael; Agnati, Luigi F

    2014-01-01

    This review is focused on the D2 heteroreceptor complexes within the ventral striatum with their receptor-receptor interactions and relevance for the treatment of schizophrenia. A "guide-and-clasp" manner for receptor-receptor interactions is proposed where "adhesive guides" may be amino acid triplet homologies, which were determined for different kinds of D2 heteroreceptor complexes. The first putative D2 heteroreceptor complex to be discovered in relation to schizophrenia was the A2A-D2 heteroreceptor complex where antagonistic A2A-D2 receptor-receptor interactions were demonstrated after A2A agonist treatment in the ventral striatum. The A2A agonist CGS 21680 with atypical antipsychotic properties may at least in part act by increasing β-arrestin2 signaling over the D2 protomer in the A2A-D2 heteroreceptor complex in the ventral striatum. The antagonistic NTS1-D2 interactions in the NTS1-D2 heteroreceptor complex in the ventral striatum are proposed as one molecular mechanism for the potential antipsychotic effects of NT. Indications were obtained that the psychotic actions of the 5-HT2AR hallucinogens LSD and DOI can involve enhancement of D2R protomer signaling via a biased agonist action at the 5-HT2A protomer in the D2-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complex in the ventral striatum. Facilitatory allosteric D2likeR-OTR interactions in heteroreceptor complexes in nucleus accumbens may have a role in social and emotional behaviors. By blocking the D2 protomers of these heteroreceptor complexes, antipsychotics can fail to reduce the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. The discovery of different types of D2 heteroreceptor complexes gives an increased understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in causing schizophrenia and new strategies for its treatment and understanding the side effects of antipsychotics. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Targeting the androgen receptor in prostate and breast cancer – several new agents in development

    PubMed Central

    Proverbs-Singh, Tracy; Feldman, Jarett L.; Morris, Michael J.; Autio, Karen A.; Traina, Tiffany A.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer and breast cancer share similarities as hormone-sensitive cancers with a wide heterogeneity of both phenotype and biology. The androgen receptor (AR) is a hormone receptor involved in both benign and malignant processes. Targeting androgen synthesis and the AR pathway has been and remains central to prostate cancer therapy. Recently, there is increased interest in the role of the AR in breast cancer development and growth, with data suggesting AR co-expression with estrogen, progesterone and human epidermal growth factor receptors, across all intrinsic subtypes of breast cancer. Targeting the AR axis is an evolving field with novel therapies in development which may ultimately be applicable for both tumor types. In this review, we offer an overview of available agents which target the AR axis in both prostate and breast cancer and provide insight into the novel drugs in development for targeting this signaling pathway. PMID:25722318

  19. Structure-activity relationships and mechanism of action of Eph-ephrin antagonists: interaction of cholanic acid with the EphA2 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Tognolini, Massimiliano; Incerti, Matteo; Mohamed, Iftiin Hassan; Giorgio, Carmine; Russo, Simonetta; Bruni, Renato; Lelli, Barbara; Bracci, Luisa; Noberini, Roberta; Pasquale, Elena B.; Barocelli, Elisabetta; Vicini, Paola; Mor, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The Eph–ephrin system, including the EphA2 receptor and the ephrin-A1 ligand, plays a critical role in tumor and vascular functions during carcinogenesis. We previously identified (3α,5β)-3-hydroxycholan-24-oic acid (lithocholic acid) as an Eph-ephrin antagonist able to inhibit EphA2 receptor activation and therefore potentially useful as a novel EphA2 receptor targeting agent. Here, we explore the structure-activity relationships of a focused set of lithocholic acid derivatives, based on molecular modelling investigation and displacement binding assays. Our exploration shows that while the 3-α-hydroxyl group of lithocholic acid has a negligible role in the recognition of the EphA2 receptor, its carboxylate group is critical for disrupting the binding of ephrin-A1 to the EphA2. As a result of our investigation, we identified (5β)-cholan-24-oic acid (cholanic acid) as a novel compound that competitively inhibits EphA2-ephrin-A1 interaction with higher potency than lithocholic acid. Surface plasmon resonance analysis indicates that cholanic acid binds specifically and reversibly to the ligand-binding domain of EphA2, with a steady-state dissociation constant (KD) in the low micromolar range. Furthermore, cholanic acid blocks the phosphorylation of EphA2 and cell retraction and rounding in PC3 prostate cancer cells, two effects that depend on EphA2 activation by the ephrin-A1 ligand. These findings suggest that cholanic acid can be used as a template structure to design effective EphA2 antagonists, with potential impact in the elucidation of the role played by this receptor in pathological conditions. PMID:22529030

  20. Resetting microbiota by Lactobacillus reuteri inhibits T reg deficiency–induced autoimmunity via adenosine A2A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Thomas K.; Tian, Xiangjun; Luo, Meng; Zhou, Jain; Tatevian, Nina; Molina, Jose G.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Gomez, Thomas H.

    2017-01-01

    Regulatory T (T reg) cell deficiency causes lethal, CD4+ T cell–driven autoimmune diseases. Stem cell transplantation is used to treat these diseases, but this procedure is limited by the availability of a suitable donor. The intestinal microbiota drives host immune homeostasis by regulating the differentiation and expansion of T reg, Th1, and Th2 cells. It is currently unclear if T reg cell deficiency–mediated autoimmune disorders can be treated by targeting the enteric microbiota. Here, we demonstrate that Foxp3+ T reg cell deficiency results in gut microbial dysbiosis and autoimmunity over the lifespan of scurfy (SF) mouse. Remodeling microbiota with Lactobacillus reuteri prolonged survival and reduced multiorgan inflammation in SF mice. L. reuteri changed the metabolomic profile disrupted by T reg cell deficiency, and a major effect was to restore levels of the purine metabolite inosine. Feeding inosine itself prolonged life and inhibited multiorgan inflammation by reducing Th1/Th2 cells and their associated cytokines. Mechanistically, the inhibition of inosine on the differentiation of Th1 and Th2 cells in vitro depended on adenosine A2A receptors, which were also required for the efficacy of inosine and of L. reuteri in vivo. These results reveal that the microbiota–inosine–A2A receptor axis might represent a potential avenue for combatting autoimmune diseases mediated by T reg cell dysfunction. PMID:27994068

  1. Free fatty acid receptors: emerging targets for treatment of diabetes and its complications

    PubMed Central

    Vangaveti, Venkat; Shashidhar, Venkatesh; Jarrod, Ghassan; Baune, Bernhard T.; Kennedy, R. Lee

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are important as metabolic substrates and as structural components of biological membranes. However, they also function as signalling molecules. Recently, a series of G protein-coupled receptors (GPRs) for FAs has been described and characterized. These receptors have differing specificities for FAs of differing chain length and degree of saturation, for FA derivatives such as oleoylethanolamide, and for oxidized FAs. They are a critical component of the body's nutrient sensing apparatus, and small molecule agonists and antagonists of these receptors show considerable promise in the management of diabetes and its complications. Agonists of the long-chain free fatty acid receptors FFAR1 and GPR119 act as insulin secretagogues, both directly and by increasing incretins. Although, drugs acting at short-chain FFA receptors (FFAR2 and FFAR3) have not yet been developed, they are attractive targets as they regulate nutrient balance through effects in the intestine and adipose tissue. These include regulation of the secretion of cholecystokinin, peptide YY and leptin. Finally, GPR132 is a receptor for oxidized FAs, which may be a sensor of lipid overload and oxidative stress, and which is involved in atherosclerosis. Regulation of its signalling pathways with drugs may decrease the macrovascular risk experienced by diabetic patients. In summary, FA receptors are emerging drug targets that are involved in the regulation of nutrient status and carbohydrate tolerance, and modulators of these receptors may well figure prominently in the next generation of antidiabetic drugs. PMID:23148161

  2. Specific Retrograde Transduction of Spinal Motor Neurons Using Lentiviral Vectors Targeted to Presynaptic NMJ Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Eleftheriadou, I; Trabalza, A; Ellison, SM; Gharun, K; Mazarakis, ND

    2014-01-01

    To understand how receptors are involved in neuronal trafficking and to be able to utilize them for specific targeting via the peripheral route would be of great benefit. Here, we describe the generation of novel lentiviral vectors with tropism to motor neurons that were made by coexpressing onto the lentiviral surface a fusogenic glycoprotein (mutated sindbis G) and an antibody against a cell-surface receptor (Thy1.1, p75NTR, or coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor) on the presynaptic terminal of the neuromuscular junction. These vectors exhibit binding specificity and efficient transduction of receptor positive cell lines and primary motor neurons in vitro. Targeting of each of these receptors conferred to these vectors the capability of being transported retrogradely from the axonal tip, leading to transduction of motor neurons in vitro in compartmented microfluidic cultures. In vivo delivery of coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor-targeted vectors in leg muscles of mice resulted in predicted patterns of motor neuron labeling in lumbar spinal cord. This opens up the clinical potential of these vectors for minimally invasive administration of central nervous system-targeted therapeutics in motor neuron diseases. PMID:24670531

  3. Adenosine A2A Receptor Activation Prevents Wear Particle-Induced Osteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Mediero, Aránzazu; Frenkel, Sally R.; Wilder, Tuere; He, Wenjie; Mazumder, Amitabha; Cronstein, Bruce N.

    2012-01-01

    Prosthesis loosening, associated with wear-particle–induced inflammation and osteoclast-mediated bone destruction, is a common cause for joint implant failure, leading to revision surgery. Adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) mediate potent anti-inflammatory effects in many tissues and prevent osteoclast differentiation. We tested the hypothesis that an A2AR agonist could reduce osteoclast-mediated bone resorption in a murine calvaria model of wear-particle–induced bone resorption. C57Bl/6 and A2A knockout (A2ARKO) mice received ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene particles (UHMWPE) and were treated daily with either saline or the A2AR agonist CGS21680. After 2 weeks, micro-computed tomography of calvaria demonstrated that CGS21680 reduced particle-induced bone pitting and porosity in a dose-dependent manner, increasing cortical bone and bone volume compared to control mice. Histological examination demonstrated diminished inflammation after treatment with CGS21680. In A2AKO mice, CGS21680 did not affect osteoclast-mediated bone resorption or inflammation. Levels of bone-resorption markers receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB (RANK), RANK ligand (RANKL), cathepsin K, CD163, and osteopontin were reduced following CGS21680 treatment, together with a reduction in osteoclasts. Secretion of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and TNFα was significantly decreased, whereas IL-10 was markedly increased in bone by CGS21680. These results in mice suggest that site-specific delivery of an adenosine A2AR agonist could enhance implant survival, delaying or eliminating the need for revision arthroplastic surgery. PMID:22623741

  4. Brain-Targeted (Pro)Renin Receptor Knockdown attenuates Angiotensin II-Dependent Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wencheng; Peng, Hua; Cao, Theresa; Sato, Ryosuke; McDaniels, Sarah. J.; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Navar, L. Gabriel; Feng, Yumei

    2012-01-01

    The (pro)renin receptor is a newly discovered member of the brain renin-angiotensin system. To investigate the role of brain (pro)renin receptor in hypertension, adeno-associated virus-mediated (pro)renin receptor shRNA was used to knockdown (pro)renin receptor expression in the brain of non-transgenic normotensive and human renin-angiotensinogen double transgenic hypertensive mice. Blood pressure was monitored using implanted telemetric probes in conscious animals. Real-time PCR and immunostaining were performed to determine (pro)renin receptor, angiotensin II type 1 receptor and vasopressin mRNA levels. Plasma vasopressin levels were determined by Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay. Double transgenic mice exhibited higher blood pressure, elevated cardiac and vascular sympathetic tone, and impaired spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity. Intracerebroventricular delivery of (pro)renin receptor shRNA significantly reduced blood pressure, cardiac and vasomotor sympathetic tone, and improved baroreflex sensitivity compared to the control virus treatment in double transgenic mice. (Pro)renin receptor knockdown significantly reduced angiotensin II type 1 receptor and vasopressin levels in double transgenic mice. These data indicate that (pro)renin receptor knockdown in the brain attenuates angiotensin II-dependent hypertension and is associated with a decrease insympathetic tone and an improvement of the baroreflex sensitivity. In addition, brain-targeted (pro)renin receptor knockdown is associated with down-regulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and vasopressin levels. We conclude that central (pro)renin receptor contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension in human renin-angiotensinogen transgenic mice. PMID:22526255

  5. Folate receptor 1 (FOLR1) targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells for the treatment of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pyo, Suhkneung; Kang, Chung Hyo; Lee, Chong Ock; Lee, Heung Kyoung; Choi, Sang Un; Park, Chi Hoon

    2018-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a malignancy that has a high mortality rate. Although progress has been made in the treatment of gastric cancer, many patients experience cancer recurrence and metastasis. Folate receptor 1 (FOLR1) is overexpressed on the cell surface in over one-third of gastric cancer patients, but rarely is expressed in normal tissue. This makes FOLR1 a potential target for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell immunotherapy, although the function of FOLR1 has not been elucidated. CAR are engineered fusion receptor composed of an antigen recognition region and signaling domains. T cells expressing CAR have specific activation and cytotoxic effects against cancer cells containing the target antigen. In this study, we generated a CAR that targets FOLR1 composed of a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) of FOLR1 antibody and signaling domains consisting of CD28 and CD3ζ. Both FOLR1-CAR KHYG-1, a natural killer cell line, and FOLR1-CAR T cells recognized FOLR1-positive gastric cancer cells in a MHC-independent manner and induced secretion of various cytokines and caused cell death. Conclusively, this is the first study to demonstrate that CAR KHYG-1/T cells targeting FOLR1 are effective against FOLR1-positive gastric cancer cells. PMID:29874279

  6. Identification of Molecular Receptors for Therapeutic Targeting in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    125:385–398. 11. Arap W, et al. (2002) Steps toward mapping the human vasculature by phage display. Nat Med 8:121–127. 12. Arap W, Pasqualini R...surface expression of the stress response chaperone GRP78 enables tumor targeting by circulating ligands. Cancer Cell 6:275–284. 14. Pasqualini R...Ruoslahti E (1996) Organ targeting in vivo using phage display peptide libraries. Nature 380:364–366. 15. Pasqualini R, Arap W, Rajotte D, Ruoslahti E (2001

  7. Pancreatic and snake venom presynaptically active phospholipases A2 inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Vulfius, Catherine A; Kasheverov, Igor E; Kryukova, Elena V; Spirova, Ekaterina N; Shelukhina, Irina V; Starkov, Vladislav G; Andreeva, Tatyana V; Faure, Grazyna; Zouridakis, Marios; Tsetlin, Victor I; Utkin, Yuri N

    2017-01-01

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are enzymes found throughout the animal kingdom. They hydrolyze phospholipids in the sn-2 position producing lysophospholipids and unsaturated fatty acids, agents that can damage membranes. PLA2s from snake venoms have numerous toxic effects, not all of which can be explained by phospholipid hydrolysis, and each enzyme has a specific effect. We have earlier demonstrated the capability of several snake venom PLA2s with different enzymatic, cytotoxic, anticoagulant and antiproliferative properties, to decrease acetylcholine-induced currents in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons, and to compete with α-bungarotoxin for binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and acetylcholine binding protein. Since nAChRs are implicated in postsynaptic and presynaptic activities, in this work we probe those PLA2s known to have strong presynaptic effects, namely β-bungarotoxin from Bungarus multicinctus and crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus. We also wished to explore whether mammalian PLA2s interact with nAChRs, and have examined non-toxic PLA2 from porcine pancreas. It was found that porcine pancreatic PLA2 and presynaptic β-bungarotoxin blocked currents mediated by nAChRs in Lymnaea neurons with IC50s of 2.5 and 4.8 μM, respectively. Crotoxin competed with radioactive α-bungarotoxin for binding to Torpedo and human α7 nAChRs and to the acetylcholine binding protein. Pancreatic PLA2 interacted similarly with these targets; moreover, it inhibited radioactive α-bungarotoxin binding to the water-soluble extracellular domain of human α9 nAChR, and blocked acetylcholine induced currents in human α9α10 nAChRs heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. These and our earlier results show that all snake PLA2s, including presynaptically active crotoxin and β-bungarotoxin, as well as mammalian pancreatic PLA2, interact with nAChRs. The data obtained suggest that this interaction may be a general property of all PLA2s, which should be proved by

  8. EphA2 is an epithelial cell pattern recognition receptor for fungal β-glucans

    PubMed Central

    Swidergall, Marc; Solis, Norma V.; Lionakis, Michail S.; Filler, Scott G.

    2017-01-01

    Oral epithelial cells discriminate between pathogenic and non-pathogenic stimuli, and only induce an inflammatory response when they are exposed to high levels of a potentially harmful microorganism. The pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in epithelial cells that mediate this differential response are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EphA2) is an oral epithelial cell PRR that binds to exposed β-glucans on the surface of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Binding of C. albicans to EphA2 on oral epithelial cells activates signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in an inoculum-dependent manner, and is required for induction of a pro-inflammatory and antifungal response. EphA2−/− mice have impaired inflammatory responses and reduced IL-17 signaling during oropharyngeal candidiasis, resulting in more severe disease. Our study reveals that EphA2 functions as PRR for β-glucans that senses epithelial cell fungal burden and is required for the maximal mucosal inflammatory response to C. albicans. PMID:29133884

  9. New Receptor Targets for Medical Therapy in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite setbacks to the approval of new medications for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, interim guidelines on endpoints for IBS trials have enhanced interest as new targets for medical therapy are proposed based on novel mechanisms or chemical entities. Aim To review the approved lubiprostone, two targets that are not meeting expectations (tachykinins and corticotrophin-releasing hormone), the efficacy and safety of new 5-HT4 agonists, intestinal secretagogues (chloride channel activators, and guanylate cyclase-C agonists), bile acid modulation, anti-inflammatory agents and visceral analgesics. Methods Review of selected articles based on PubMed search and clinically relevant information on mechanism of action, safety, pharmacodynamics, and efficacy Conclusions The spectrum of peripheral targets of medical therapy address chiefly the bowel dysfunction of IBS, and these effects are associated with pain relief. There are less clear targets related to the abdominal pain or visceral sensation in IBS. The new 5-HT4 agonists are more specific than older agents, and show cardiovascular safety to date. Secretory agents have high specificity, low bioavailability, and efficacy. The potential risks of agents “borrowed” from other indications (like hyperlipidemia, inflammatory bowel disease or somatic pain) deserve further study. There is reason for optimism in medical treatment of IBS. PMID:19785622

  10. EphA2 receptor is a key player in the metastatic onset of Ewing sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Monclús, Silvia; López-Alemany, Roser; Almacellas-Rabaiget, Olga; Herrero-Martín, David; Huertas-Martinez, Juan; Lagares-Tena, Laura; Alba-Pavón, Piedad; Hontecillas-Prieto, Lourdes; Mora, Jaume; de Álava, Enrique; Rello-Varona, Santi; Giangrande, Paloma H; Tirado, Oscar M

    2018-03-26

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) is the second most common bone malignancy affecting children and young adults with poor prognosis due to high metastasis incidence. Our group previously described that EphA2, a tyrosine kinase receptor, promotes angiogenesis in Ewing sarcoma (ES) cells via ligand-dependent signaling. Now we wanted to explore EphA2 ligand-independent activity, controlled upon phosphorylation at S897 (p-EphA2 S897 ), as it has been linked to metastasis in several malignancies. By reverse genetic engineering we explored the phenotypic changes after EphA2 removal or reintroduction. Gene expression microarray was used to identify key players in EphA2 signaling. Mice were employed to reproduce metastatic processes from orthotopically implanted engineered cells. We established a correlation between ES cells aggressiveness and p-EphA2 S897 . Moreover, stable overexpression of EphA2 in low EphA2 expression ES cells enhanced proliferation and migration, but not a non-phosphorylable mutant (S987A). Consistently, silencing of EphA2 reduced tumorigenicity, migration and invasion in vitro, and lung metastasis incidence in experimental and spontaneous metastasis assays in vivo. A gene expression microarray revealed the implication of EphA2 in cell signaling, cellular movement and survival. ADAM19 knockdown by siRNA technology strongly reproduced the negative effects on cell migration observed after EphA2 silencing. Altogether, our results suggest that p-EphA2 S897 correlates with aggressiveness in ES, so blocking its function may be a promising treatment. © 2018 UICC.

  11. The NMDA receptor as a target for cognitive enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Collingridge, Graham L.; Volianskis, Arturas; Bannister, Neil; France, Grace; Hanna, Lydia; Mercier, Marion; Tidball, Patrick; Fang, Guangyu; Irvine, Mark W.; Costa, Blaise M.; Monaghan, Daniel T.; Bortolotto, Zuner A.; Molnár, Elek; Lodge, David; Jane, David E.

    2015-01-01

    NMDA receptors (NMDAR) play an important role in neural plasticity including long-term potentiation and long-term depression, which are likely to explain their importance for learning and memory. Cognitive decline is a major problem facing an ageing human population, so much so that its reversal has become an important goal for scientific research and pharmaceutical development. Enhancement of NMDAR function is a core strategy toward this goal. In this review we indicate some of the major ways of potentiating NMDAR function by both direct and indirect modulation. There is good evidence that both positive and negative modulation can enhance function suggesting that a subtle approach correcting imbalances in particular clinical situations will be required. Excessive activation and the resultant deleterious effects will need to be carefully avoided. Finally we describe some novel positive allosteric modulators of NMDARs, with some subunit selectivity, and show initial evidence of their ability to affect NMDAR mediated events. PMID:22796429

  12. B cell receptor inhibition as a target for CLL therapy.

    PubMed

    Jeyakumar, Deepa; O'Brien, Susan

    2016-03-01

    Inhibitors of the B cell receptor (BCR) represent an attractive therapeutic option for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Recently approved inhibitors of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (ibrutinib) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (idelalisib), are promising agents because they are generally well tolerated and highly effective. These agents may be particularly important in the treatment of older patients who are less able to tolerate the myelosuppression (and infections) associated with chemoimmunotherapy. As a class of medications, BCR inhibitors have some unique side effects including redistribution lymphocytosis. Ibrutinib has specific toxicities including increased risk for bleeding and atrial fibrillation. Idelalisib also has some unique toxicities consisting of transaminitis, diarrhea and pneumonitis. Ongoing clinical trials are evaluating these agents in combination with antibodies, chemotherapy and other small molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Insect odorant receptors are molecular targets of the insect repellent DEET.

    PubMed

    Ditzen, Mathias; Pellegrino, Maurizio; Vosshall, Leslie B

    2008-03-28

    DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) is the world's most widely used topical insect repellent, with broad effectiveness against most insects. Its mechanism of action and molecular target remain unknown. Here, we show that DEET blocks electrophysiological responses of olfactory sensory neurons to attractive odors in Anopheles gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster. DEET inhibits behavioral attraction to food odors in Drosophila, and this inhibition requires the highly conserved olfactory co-receptor OR83b. DEET inhibits odor-evoked currents mediated by the insect odorant receptor complex, comprising a ligand-binding subunit and OR83b. We conclude that DEET masks host odor by inhibiting subsets of heteromeric insect odorant receptors that require the OR83b co-receptor. The identification of candidate molecular targets for the action of DEET may aid in the design of safer and more effective insect repellents.

  14. Targeting receptor-mediated endocytotic pathways with nanoparticles: rationale and advances

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shi; Olenyuk, Bogdan Z.; Okamoto, Curtis T.; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F.

    2012-01-01

    Targeting of drugs and their carrier systems by using receptor-mediated endocytotic pathways was in its nascent stages 25 years ago. In the intervening years, an explosion of knowledge focused on design and synthesis of nanoparticulate delivery systems as well as elucidation of the cellular complexity of what was previously-termed receptor-mediated endocytosis has now created a situation when it has become possible to design and test the feasibility of delivery of highly specific nanoparticle drug carriers to specific cells and tissue. This review outlines the mechanisms governing the major modes of receptor-mediated endocytosis used in drug delivery and highlights recent approaches using these as targets for in vivo drug delivery of nanoparticles. The review also discusses some of the inherent complexity associated with the simple shift from a ligand-drug conjugate versus a ligand-nanoparticle conjugate, in terms of ligand valency and its relationship to the mode of receptor-mediated internalization. PMID:23026636

  15. Defective lysosomal targeting of activated fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 in achondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jay Y; Guo, Changsheng; Torello, Monica; Lunstrum, Gregory P; Iwata, Tomoko; Deng, Chuxia; Horton, William A

    2004-01-13

    Mutations of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) are responsible for achondroplasia (ACH) and related dwarfing conditions in humans. The pathogenesis involves constitutive activation of FGFR3, which inhibits proliferation and differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes. Here we report that activating mutations in FGFR3 increase the stability of the receptor. Our results suggest that the mutations disrupt c-Cbl-mediated ubiquitination that serves as a targeting signal for lysosomal degradation and termination of receptor signaling. The defect allows diversion of actively signaling receptors from lysosomes to a recycling pathway where their survival is prolonged, and, as a result, their signaling capacity is increased. The lysosomal targeting defect is additive to other mechanisms proposed to explain the pathogenesis of ACH.

  16. EphA2 Receptor Signaling Mediates Inflammatory Responses in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji Young; Shin, Mi Hwa; Chung, Kyung Soo; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Ji Ye; Kang, Young Ae; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Park, Moo Suk

    2015-07-01

    Eph receptors and ephrin ligands have several functions including angiogenesis, cell migration, axon guidance, fluid homeostasis, oncogenesis, inflammation and injury repair. The EphA2 receptor potentially mediates the regulation of vascular permeability and inflammation in response to lung injury. Mice were divided into 3 experimental groups to study the role of EphA2 signaling in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury model i.e., IgG+phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) group (IgG instillation before PBS exposure), IgG+LPS group (IgG instillation before LPS exposure) and EphA2 monoclonal antibody (mAb)+LPS group (EphA2 mAb pretreatment before LPS exposure). EphA2 and ephrinA1 were upregulated in LPS-induced lung injury. The lung injury score of the EphA2 mAb+LPS group was lower than that of the IgG+LPS group (4.30±2.93 vs. 11.45±1.20, respectively; p=0.004). Cell counts (EphA2 mAb+LPS: 11.33×10(4)±8.84×10(4) vs. IgG+LPS: 208.0×10(4)±122.6×10(4); p=0.018) and total protein concentrations (EphA2 mAb+LPS: 0.52±0.41 mg/mL vs. IgG+LPS: 1.38±1.08 mg/mL; p=0.192) were decreased in EphA2 mAb+LPS group, as compared to the IgG+LPS group. In addition, EphA2 antagonism reduced the expression of phospho-p85, phosphoinositide 3-kinase 110γ, phospho-Akt, nuclear factor κB, and proinflammatory cytokines. This results of the study indicated a role for EphA2-ephrinA1 signaling in the pathogenesis of LPS-induced lung injury. Furthermore, EphA2 antagonism inhibits the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt pathway and attenuates inflammation.

  17. Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Modified T Cells Redirected to EphA2 for the Immunotherapy of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Liu, Shaohui; Sun, Mingjiao; Chen, Wei; Xu, Xiaogang; Zeng, Zhu; Tang, Yemin; Dong, Yongquan; Chang, Alex H; Zhao, Qiong

    2018-02-01

    Erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma A2 (EphA2) is overexpressed in more than 90% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but not significantly in normal lung tissue. It is therefore an important tumor antigen target for chimeric antigen receptors (CAR)-T-based therapy in NSCLC. Here, we developed a specific CAR targeted to EphA2, and the anti-tumor effects of this CAR were investigated. A second generation CAR with co-stimulatory receptor 4-1BB targeted to EphA2 was developed. The functionality of EphA2-specific T cells in vitro was tested with flow cytometry and real-time cell electronic sensing system assays. The effect in vivo was evaluated in xenograft SCID Beige mouse model of EphA2 positive NSCLC. These EphA2-specifc T cells can cause tumor cell lysis by producing the cytokines IFN-γ when cocultured with EphA2-positive targets, and the cytotoxicity effects was specific in vitro. In vivo, the tumor signals of mice treated with EphA2-specifc T cells presented the tendency of decrease, and was much lower than the mice treated with non-transduced T cells. The anti-tumor effects of this CAR-T technology in vivo and vitro had been confirmed. Thus, EphA2-specific T-cell immunotherapy may be a promising approach for the treatment of EphA2-positive NSCLC. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification of novel modulators for ionotropic glutamate receptor, iGluA2 by in-silico screening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluAs, IUPHAR nomenclature) are the major excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter receptors in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). iGluAs are potential therapeutic drug targets for various neurological disorders including ischemia, epilepsy, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. The known iGluA modulators, cyclothiazide (CTZ), IDRA-21, and other benzothiadiazide derivatives (ALTZ, HCTZ, and CLTZ) bind to the ligand-binding domain of flip-form of iGluA2 at the dimer interface, thereby increasing steady-state activation by reducing desensitization. Methods To discover new modulator compounds, we performed virtual screening for the ligand binding domain (LBD) of iGluA2 against NCI Diversity Set III library containing 1597 compounds, and subsequently performed binding-energy analysis for selected compounds. The crystal structure of rat iGluA2 S1S2J (PDB ID: 3IJO) was used for docking studies. Results and conclusion From this study, we obtained four compounds: (1) 10-2(methoxyethyl)-3-phenylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4-dione, (2) 2-benzo[e]benzotriazol-2-yl-aniline, (3) 9-nitro-6H-indolo-(2,3,-b)quinoxaline, and (4) 1-hydroxy-n-(3-nitrophenyl)-2-napthamide. The binding mode of these four compounds is very similar to that of abovementioned established modulators: two molecules of each compound independently bind to the protein symmetrically at the dimer interface; occupy the subsites B, C, B’ and C’; potentially interact with Ser518 and Ser775. Binding energy analysis shows that all the four hits are comparable to the drug molecule, CTZ, and hence, we propose that the discovered hits may be potential molecules to develop new chemical libraries for modulating the flip form of iGluA2 function. PMID:23855825

  19. Identification of novel modulators for ionotropic glutamate receptor, iGluA2 by in-silico screening.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Balasundaram

    2013-07-15

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluAs, IUPHAR nomenclature) are the major excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter receptors in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). iGluAs are potential therapeutic drug targets for various neurological disorders including ischemia, epilepsy, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. The known iGluA modulators, cyclothiazide (CTZ), IDRA-21, and other benzothiadiazide derivatives (ALTZ, HCTZ, and CLTZ) bind to the ligand-binding domain of flip-form of iGluA2 at the dimer interface, thereby increasing steady-state activation by reducing desensitization. To discover new modulator compounds, we performed virtual screening for the ligand binding domain (LBD) of iGluA2 against NCI Diversity Set III library containing 1597 compounds, and subsequently performed binding-energy analysis for selected compounds. The crystal structure of rat iGluA2 S1S2J (PDB ID: 3IJO) was used for docking studies. From this study, we obtained four compounds: (1) 10-2(methoxyethyl)-3-phenylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4-dione, (2) 2-benzo[e]benzotriazol-2-yl-aniline, (3) 9-nitro-6H-indolo-(2,3,-b)quinoxaline, and (4) 1-hydroxy-n-(3-nitrophenyl)-2-napthamide. The binding mode of these four compounds is very similar to that of abovementioned established modulators: two molecules of each compound independently bind to the protein symmetrically at the dimer interface; occupy the subsites B, C, B' and C'; potentially interact with Ser518 and Ser775. Binding energy analysis shows that all the four hits are comparable to the drug molecule, CTZ, and hence, we propose that the discovered hits may be potential molecules to develop new chemical libraries for modulating the flip form of iGluA2 function.

  20. Genetic Inactivation of the Adenosine A2A Receptor Attenuates Pathologic but Not Developmental Angiogenesis in the Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Ling; Zhou, Rong; Pan, Qi-Qi; Jia, Xiao-Lin; Gao, Wei-Na; Wu, Jun; Lin, Jing; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) modulates normal vascularization and pathologic angiogenesis in many tissues and may contribute to the pathogenesis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) characterized by abnormal retinal vascularization in surviving premature infants. Here, the authors studied the effects of the genetic inactivation of A2AR on normal retinal vascularization and the development of pathologic angiogenesis in oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), an animal model of ROP. Methods. After exposure to 75% oxygen for 5 days (postnatal day [P] 7–P12) and subsequently to room air for the next 9 days (P13–P21), we evaluated retinal vascular morphology by ADPase staining in retinal whole mounts, retinal neovascularization response by histochemistry in serial retinal sections, and retinal VEGF gene expression by real-time PCR analysis in A2AR knockout (KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates. Results. At P17, A2AR KO mice displayed attenuated OIR compared with WT littermates, as evidenced by reduced vaso-obliteration and areas of nonperfusion in the center of the retina, reduced pathologic angiogenesis as evident by decreased non-ganglion cells and neovascular nuclei, and inhibited hypoxia-induced retinal VEGF gene expression. Notably, the attenuation of pathologic angiogenesis by A2AR inactivation was selective for OIR because it did not affect normal retinal vascularization during postnatal development. Conclusions. These findings provide the first evidence that A2AR is critical for the development of OIR and suggest a novel therapeutic approach of A2AR inactivation for ROP by selectively targeting pathologic but not developmental angiogenesis in the retina. PMID:20610844

  1. The A2A adenosine receptor rescues the urea cycle deficiency of Huntington's disease by enhancing the activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Ming-Chang; Chen, Hui-Mei; Lai, Hsing-Lin; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Chou, Szu-Yi; Chen, Chiung-Mei; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chern, Yijuang

    2009-08-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by a CAG trinucleotide expansion in the Huntingtin (Htt) gene. The resultant mutant Htt protein (mHtt) forms aggregates in the brain and several peripheral tissues (e.g. the liver) and causes devastating neuronal degeneration. Metabolic defects resulting from Htt aggregates in peripheral tissues also contribute to HD pathogenesis. Simultaneous improvement of defects in both the CNS and peripheral tissues is thus the most effective therapeutic strategy and is highly desirable. We earlier showed that an agonist of the A(2A) adenosine receptor (A(2A) receptor), CGS21680 (CGS), attenuates neuronal symptoms of HD. We found herein that the A(2A) receptor also exists in the liver, and that CGS ameliorated the urea cycle deficiency by reducing mHtt aggregates in the liver. By suppressing aggregate formation, CGS slowed the hijacking of a crucial transcription factor (HSF1) and two protein chaperons (Hsp27 and Hsp70) into hepatic Htt aggregates. Moreover, the abnormally high levels of high-molecular-mass ubiquitin conjugates in the liver of an HD mouse model (R6/2) were also ameliorated by CGS. The protective effect of CGS against mHtt-induced aggregate formation was reproduced in two cells lines and was prevented by an antagonist of the A(2A) receptor and a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. Most importantly, the mHtt-induced suppression of proteasome activity was also normalized by CGS through PKA. Our findings reveal a novel therapeutic pathway of A(2A) receptors in HD and further strengthen the concept that the A(2A) receptor can be a drug target in treating HD.

  2. Emerging Paradigm of Intracellular Targeting of G Protein-Coupled Receptors.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Madhu; Schilling, Justin; Beautrait, Alexandre; Bouvier, Michel; Benovic, Jeffrey L; Shukla, Arun K

    2018-05-04

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) recognize a diverse array of extracellular stimuli, and they mediate a broad repertoire of signaling events involved in human physiology. Although the major effort on targeting GPCRs has typically been focused on their extracellular surface, a series of recent developments now unfold the possibility of targeting them from the intracellular side as well. Allosteric modulators binding to the cytoplasmic surface of GPCRs have now been described, and their structural mechanisms are elucidated by high-resolution crystal structures. Furthermore, pepducins, aptamers, and intrabodies targeting the intracellular face of GPCRs have also been successfully utilized to modulate receptor signaling. Moreover, small molecule compounds, aptamers, and synthetic intrabodies targeting β-arrestins have also been discovered to modulate GPCR endocytosis and signaling. Here, we discuss the emerging paradigm of intracellular targeting of GPCRs, and outline the current challenges, potential opportunities, and future outlook in this particular area of GPCR biology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The sigma-2 receptor as a therapeutic target for drug delivery in triple negative breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Makvandi, Mehran; Tilahun, Estifanos D.; Lieberman, Brian P.

    Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is associated with high relapse rates and increased mortality when compared with other breast cancer subtypes. In contrast to receptor positive breast cancers, there are no approved targeted therapies for TNBC. Identifying biomarkers for TNBC is of high importance for the advancement of patient care. The sigma-2 receptor has been shown to be overexpressed in triple negative breast cancer in vivo and has been characterized as a marker of proliferation. The aim of the present study was to define the sigma-2 receptor as a target for therapeutic drug delivery and biomarker in TNBC. Methods: Three TNBCmore » cell lines were evaluated: MDA-MB-231, HCC1937 and HCC1806. Sigma-2 compounds were tested for pharmacological properties specific to the sigma-2 receptor through competitive inhibition assays. Sigma-2 receptor expression was measured through radioligand receptor saturation studies. Drug sensitivity for taxol was compared to a sigma-2 targeting compound conjugated to a cytotoxic payload, SW IV-134. Cell viability was assessed after treatments for 2 or 48 h. Sigma-2 blockade was assessed to define sigma-2 mediated cytotoxicity of SW IV-134. Caspase 3/7 activation induced by SW IV-134 was measured at corresponding treatment time points. Results: SW IV-134 was the most potent compound tested in two of the three cell lines and was similarly effective in all three. MDA-MB-231 displayed a statistically significant higher sigma-2 receptor expression and also was the most sensitive cell line evaluated to SW IV-134. Conclusion: Targeting the sigma-2 receptor with a cytotoxic payload was effective in all the three cell lines evaluated and provides the proof of concept for future development of a therapeutic platform for the treatment of TNBC. - Highlights: • TNBC cells are sensitive to sigma-2 receptor targeted drug conjugate SW IV-134. • MDA-MB-231 displayed the highest amount of sigma-2 receptors and corresponded well

  4. Functional autoantibodies targeting G protein-coupled receptors in rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Cabral-Marques, Otavio; Riemekasten, Gabriela

    2017-11-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise the largest and most diverse family of integral membrane proteins that participate in different physiological processes such as the regulation of the nervous and immune systems. Besides the endogenous ligands of GPCRs, functional autoantibodies are also able to bind GPCRs to trigger or block intracellular signalling pathways, resulting in agonistic or antagonistic effects, respectively. In this Review, the effects of functional GPCR-targeting autoantibodies on the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatic diseases, are discussed. Autoantibodies targeting β1 and β2 adrenergic receptors, which are expressed by cardiac and airway smooth muscle cells, respectively, have an important role in the development of asthma and cardiovascular diseases. In addition, high levels of autoantibodies against the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 as well as those targeting endothelin receptor type A and type 1 angiotensin II receptor have several implications in the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases such as Sjögren syndrome and systemic sclerosis. Expanding the knowledge of the pathophysiological roles of autoantibodies against GPCRs will shed light on the biology of these receptors and open avenues for new therapeutic approaches.

  5. Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Signaling in Neurodegenerative Disorders: From Pathogenesis to a Promising Therapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Cassano, Tommaso; Calcagnini, Silvio; Pace, Lorenzo; De Marco, Federico; Romano, Adele; Gaetani, Silvana

    2017-01-01

    As a consequence of an increasingly aging population, the number of people affected by neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, is rapidly increasing. Although the etiology of these diseases has not been completely defined, common molecular mechanisms including neuroinflammation, excitotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction have been confirmed and can be targeted therapeutically. Moreover, recent studies have shown that endogenous cannabinoid signaling plays a number of modulatory roles throughout the central nervous system (CNS), including the neuroinflammation and neurogenesis. In particular, the up-regulation of type-2 cannabinoid (CB2) receptors has been found in a number of neurodegenerative disorders. Thus, the modulation of CB2 receptor signaling may represent a promising therapeutic target with minimal psychotropic effects that can be used to modulate endocannabinoid-based therapeutic approaches and to reduce neuronal degeneration. For these reasons this review will focus on the CB2 receptor as a promising pharmacological target in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:28210207

  6. Cardio-oncology Related to Heart Failure: Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Target-Based Therapy.

    PubMed

    Kenigsberg, Benjamin; Jain, Varun; Barac, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Cancer therapy targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene B (ErbB)/human EGFR receptor (HER) family of tyrosine kinases has been successfully used in treatment of several malignancies. The ErbB pathways play a role in the maintenance of cardiac homeostasis. This article summarizes current knowledge about EGFR/ErbB/HER receptor-targeted cancer therapeutics focusing on their cardiotoxicity profiles, molecular mechanisms, and implications in clinical cardio-oncology. The article discusses challenges in predicting, monitoring, and treating cardiac dysfunction and heart failure associated with ErbB-targeted cancer therapeutics and highlights opportunities for researchers and clinical investigators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Past, present and future of A2A adenosine receptor antagonists in the therapy of Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Armentero, Marie Therese; Pinna, Annalisa; Ferré, Sergi; Lanciego, José Luis; Müller, Christa E.; Franco, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Several selective antagonists for adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) are currently under evaluation in clinical trials (phases I to III) to treat Parkinson’s disease, and they will probably soon reach the market. The usefulness of these antagonists has been deduced from studies demonstrating functional interactions between dopamine D2 and adenosine A2A receptors in the basal ganglia. At present it is believed that A2AR antagonists can be used in combination with the dopamine precursor L-DOPA to minimize the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s patients. However, a considerable body of data indicates that in addition to ameliorating motor symptoms, adenosine A2AR antagonists may also prevent neurodegeneration. Despite these promising indications, one further issue must be considered in order to develop fully optimized anti-parkinsonian drug therapy, namely the existence of receptor (hetero)dimers/oligomers of G protein-coupled receptors, a topic currently the focus of intense debate within the scientific community. Dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) expressed in the striatum are known to form heteromers with A2A adenosine receptors. Thus, the development of heteromer-specific A2A receptor antagonists represents a promising strategy for the identification of more selective and safer drugs. PMID:21810444

  8. Simultaneous Vascular Targeting and Tumor Targeting of Cerebral Breast Cancer Metastases Using a T-Cell Receptor Mimic Antibody

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    in May 2013, the difference between nude mice (which lack T- cells , but still have a partially functional adaptive and innate immune system) and NSG...Mangada J, Greiner DL, Handgretinger R. Human lymphoid and myeloid cell development in NOD/LtSz-scid IL2R gamma null mice engrafted with mobilized human...Targeting of Cerebral Breast Cancer Metastases Using a T- Cell Receptor Mimic Antibody PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ulrich Bickel

  9. Bladder sensory physiology: neuroactive compounds and receptors, sensory transducers, and target-derived growth factors as targets to improve function

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Eric J.; Merrill, Liana

    2014-01-01

    Urinary bladder dysfunction presents a major problem in the clinical management of patients suffering from pathological conditions and neurological injuries or disorders. Currently, the etiology underlying altered visceral sensations from the urinary bladder that accompany the chronic pain syndrome, bladder pain syndrome (BPS)/interstitial cystitis (IC), is not known. Bladder irritation and inflammation are histopathological features that may underlie BPS/IC that can change the properties of lower urinary tract sensory pathways (e.g., peripheral and central sensitization, neurochemical plasticity) and contribute to exaggerated responses of peripheral bladder sensory pathways. Among the potential mediators of peripheral nociceptor sensitization and urinary bladder dysfunction are neuroactive compounds (e.g., purinergic and neuropeptide and receptor pathways), sensory transducers (e.g., transient receptor potential channels) and target-derived growth factors (e.g., nerve growth factor). We review studies related to the organization of the afferent limb of the micturition reflex and discuss neuroplasticity in an animal model of urinary bladder inflammation to increase the understanding of functional bladder disorders and to identify potential novel targets for development of therapeutic interventions. Given the heterogeneity of BPS/IC and the lack of consistent treatment benefits, it is unlikely that a single treatment directed at a single target in micturition reflex pathways will have a mass benefit. Thus, the identification of multiple targets is a prudent approach, and use of cocktail treatments directed at multiple targets should be considered. PMID:24760999

  10. Folate Receptor Targeted Alpha-Therapy Using Terbium-149

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Cristina; Reber, Josefine; Haller, Stephanie; Dorrer, Holger; Köster, Ulli; Johnston, Karl; Zhernosekov, Konstantin; Türler, Andreas; Schibli, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Terbium-149 is among the most interesting therapeutic nuclides for medical applications. It decays by emission of short-range α-particles (Eα = 3.967 MeV) with a half-life of 4.12 h. The goal of this study was to investigate the anticancer efficacy of a 149Tb-labeled DOTA-folate conjugate (cm09) using folate receptor (FR)-positive cancer cells in vitro and in tumor-bearing mice. 149Tb was produced at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. Radiolabeling of cm09 with purified 149Tb resulted in a specific activity of ~1.2 MBq/nmol. In vitro assays performed with 149Tb-cm09 revealed a reduced KB cell viability in a FR-specific and activity concentration-dependent manner. Tumor-bearing mice were injected with saline only (group A) or with 149Tb-cm09 (group B: 2.2 MBq; group C: 3.0 MBq). A significant tumor growth delay was found in treated animals resulting in an increased average survival time of mice which received 149Tb-cm09 (B: 30.5 d; C: 43 d) compared to untreated controls (A: 21 d). Analysis of blood parameters revealed no signs of acute toxicity to the kidneys or liver in treated mice over the time of investigation. These results demonstrated the potential of folate-based α-radionuclide therapy in tumor-bearing mice. PMID:24633429

  11. Receptor-Targeted, Magneto-Mechanical Stimulation of Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bin; El Haj, Alicia J; Dobson, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical cues are employed to promote stem cell differentiation and functional tissue formation in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. We have developed a Magnetic Force Bioreactor (MFB) that delivers highly targeted local forces to cells at a pico-newton level, utilizing magnetic micro- and nano-particles to target cell surface receptors. In this study, we investigated the effects of magnetically targeting and actuating specific two mechanical-sensitive cell membrane receptors—platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) and integrin ανβ3. It was found that a higher mineral-to-matrix ratio was obtained after three weeks of magneto-mechanical stimulation coupled with osteogenic medium culture by initially targeting PDGFRα compared with targeting integrin ανβ3 and non-treated controls. Moreover, different initiation sites caused a differentiated response profile when using a 2-day-lagged magneto-mechanical stimulation over culture periods of 7 and 12 days). However, both resulted in statistically higher osteogenic marker genes expression compared with immediate magneto-mechanical stimulation. These results provide insights into important parameters for designing appropriate protocols for ex vivo induced bone formation via magneto-mechanical actuation. PMID:24065106

  12. Extrasynaptic targeting of NMDA receptors following D1 dopamine receptor activation and cocaine self-administration

    PubMed Central

    Ortinski, Pavel I.; Turner, Jill R.; Pierce, R. Christopher

    2013-01-01

    We previously showed that after repeated exposure to cocaine, D1-like dopamine receptor (D1DR) stimulation reverses plastic changes of AMPA receptor-mediated signaling in the nucleus accumbens shell. However, there is little information on the impact of cocaine self-administration on D1-NMDA receptor interactions in this brain region. Here, we assessed whether cocaine self-administration alters the effects of D1DR stimulation on synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs) using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. In slices from cocaine-naïve rats, pre-treatment with a D1DR agonist decreased synaptic NMDAR receptor-mediated currents and increased the contribution of extrasynaptic NMDARs. In contrast, neither cocaine self-administration alone nor cocaine experience followed by D1DR stimulation had an effect on synaptic or extrasynaptic NMDAR signaling. Activation of extrasynaptic NMDARs relies on the availability of extracellular glutamate, which is regulated primarily by glutamate transporters. In cocaine-experienced animals, administration of a glutamate re-uptake blocker, DL-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA), revealed increased extrasynaptic NMDAR activity and stronger baseline activity of glutamate uptake transporters relative to cocaine-naïve rats. In cocaine-naïve rats, the D1DR-mediated increase in extrasynaptic NMDAR signaling was independent of the activity of glutamate re-uptake transporters. Taken together, these results indicate that cocaine experience blunts the influence of D1DRs on synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDAR signaling. Additionally, prior cocaine self-administration limits activation of the extrasynaptic NMDAR pool by increasing glutamate re-uptake. These findings outline a pattern of adaptive interactions between D1DRs and NMDARs in the nucleus accumbens shell and demonstrate up-regulation of extrasynaptic NMDAR signaling as a novel consequence of cocaine self-administration. PMID:23719812

  13. Adenosine A2A receptor deficiency attenuates the somnogenic effect of prostaglandin D2 in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin-jia; Huang, Zhi-li; Chen, Jiang-fan; Urade, Yoshihiro; Qu, Wei-min

    2017-01-01

    Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) is one of the most potent endogenous sleep promoting substances. PGD2 activates the PGD2 receptor (DPR) and increases the extracellular level of adenosine in wild-type (WT) mice but not DPR knockout (KO) mice, suggesting that PGD2-induced sleep is DPR-dependent, and adenosine may be the signaling molecule that mediates the somnogenic effect of PGD2. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) in PGD2-induced sleep. We infused PGD2 into the lateral ventricle of WT and A2AR KO mice between 20:00 and 2:00 for 6 h, and electroencephalograms and electromyograms were simultaneously recorded. In WT mice, PGD2 infusion dose-dependently increased non-rapid eye movement (non-REM, NREM) sleep, which was 139.1%, 145.0% and 202.7% as large as that of vehicle-treated mice at doses of 10, 20 and 50 pmol/min, respectively. PGD2 infusion at doses of 20 and 50 pmol/min also increased REM sleep during the 6-h PGD2 infusion and 4-h post-dosing periods in WT mice to 148.9% and 166.7%, respectively. In A2AR KO mice, however, PGD2 infusion at 10 pmol/min did not change the sleep profile, whereas higher doses at 20 and 50 pmol/min increased the NREM sleep during the 6-h PGD2 infusion to 117.5% and 155.6%, respectively, but did not change the sleep in the post-dosing period. Moreover, PGD2 infusion at 50 pmol/min significantly increased the episode number in both genotypes but only enhanced the episode duration in WT mice. The results demonstrate that PGD2-induced sleep in mice is mediated by both adenosine A2AR-dependent and -independent systems. PMID:28112177

  14. A plurality of molecular targets: The receptor ecosystem for bisphenol-A (BPA).

    PubMed

    MacKay, Harry; Abizaid, Alfonso

    2018-05-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a well-known endocrine disrupting compound (EDC), capable of affecting the normal function and development of the reproductive system, brain, adipose tissue, and more. In spite of these diverse and well characterized effects, there is often comparatively little known about the molecular mechanisms which bring them about. BPA has traditionally been regarded as a primarily estrogenic EDC, and this perspective is often what guides research into the effects of BPA. However, emerging data from in-vitro and in-silico models show that BPA binds with a significant number of hormone receptors, including a number of nuclear and membrane-bound estrogen receptors, androgen receptors, as well as the thyroid hormone receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, and PPARγ. With this increased diversity of receptor targets, it may be possible to explain some of the more puzzling aspects of BPA pharmacology, including its non-monotonic dose-response curve, as well as experimental results which disagree with estrogenic positive controls. This paper reviews the receptors for which BPA has a known interaction, and discusses the implications of taking these receptors into account when studying the disruptive effects of BPA on growth and development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Targeting of membrane receptor tyrosine kinases: is there resistance in the HER?].

    PubMed

    Monnier, Lucile; Milano, Gérard; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Merlin, Jean-Louis

    2004-09-01

    Human Epidermal growth factor Receptors (HER) play an important role in cellular proliferation, and differentiation. Their overexpression in tumor tissues is often associated with a poor prognosis. Consequently, HER receptors are interesting therapeutic targets for cancer treatment. Two strategies are proposed. First, monoclonal antibodies can be used to inhibit the binding of one ligand to its receptor. The second approach is based upon the designing of tyrosine kinase inhibitors capable to bind into the phosphorylation site of the receptor. Consequently, both approaches block the signal transduction downstream. Resistance to anti receptor tyrosine kinase therapy can lead to enhanced morbidity associated with high therapeutic cost. Different mechanisms can be implicated. Non specific mechanisms include alterations of the signal transduction pathways (PI3K/AKT), recruitment of alternative receptor tyrosine kinase pathways (IGFR, VEGFR) and proteasome degradation inhibition. Other mechanisms are specific to HER and rely on inhibition of the binding of monoclonal antibodies (sialomucin-MUC4), heterodimerisation of HER, truncated soluble receptors intervention and mutated variants, as demonstrated very recently with EGF receptors, or genetic polymorphism. This paper reviews these different resistance mechanisms that have been identified in preclinical and clinical situations.

  16. Targeting the dopamine D3 receptor: an overview of drug design strategies.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Antoni; Moreno, Estefanía; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Mar; Canela, Enric I; Casadó, Vicent

    2016-07-01

    Dopamine is a neurotransmitter widely distributed in both the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS). Its physiological effects are mediated by five closely related G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are divided into two major subclasses: the D1-like (D1, D5) and the D2-like (D2, D3, D4) receptors. D3 receptors (D3Rs) have the highest density in the limbic areas of the brain, which are associated with cognitive and emotional functions. These receptors are therefore attractive targets for therapeutic management. This review summarizes the functional and pharmacological characteristics of D3Rs, including the design and clinical relevance of full agonists, partial agonists and antagonists, as well as the capacity of these receptors to form active homodimers, heterodimers or higher order receptor complexes as pharmacological targets in several neurological and neurodegenerative disorders. The high sequence homology between D3R and the D2-type challenges the development of D3R-selective compounds. The design of new D3R-preferential ligands with improved physicochemical properties should provide a better pharmacokinetic/bioavailability profile and lesser toxicity than is found with existing D3R ligands. It is also essential to optimize D3R affinity and, especially, D3R vs. D2-type binding and functional selectivity ratios. Developing allosteric and bitopic ligands should help to improve the D3R selectivity of these drugs. As most evidence points to the ability of GPCRs to form homomers and heteromers, the most promising therapeutic strategy in the future is likely to involve the application of heteromer-selective drugs. These selective ligands would display different affinities for a given receptor depending on the receptor partners within the heteromer. Therefore, designing novel compounds that specifically target and modulate D1R-D3R heteromers would be an interesting approach for the treatment of levodopa (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesias.

  17. Host target modification as a strategy to counter pathogen hijacking of the jasmonate hormone receptor

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Li; Yao, Jian; Withers, John; ...

    2015-11-02

    In the past decade, characterization of the host targets of pathogen virulence factors took a center stage in the study of pathogenesis and disease susceptibility in plants and humans. However, the impressive knowledge of host targets has not been broadly exploited to inhibit pathogen infection. In this paper, we show that host target modification could be a promising new approach to “protect” the disease-vulnerable components of plants. In particular, recent studies have identified the plant hormone jasmonate (JA) receptor as one of the common targets of virulence factors from highly evolved biotrophic/hemibiotrophic pathogens. Strains of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae,more » for example, produce proteinaceous effectors, as well as a JA-mimicking toxin, coronatine (COR), to activate JA signaling as a mechanism to promote disease susceptibility. Guided by the crystal structure of the JA receptor and evolutionary clues, we succeeded in modifying the JA receptor to allow for sufficient endogenous JA signaling but greatly reduced sensitivity to COR. Transgenic Arabidopsis expressing this modified receptor not only are fertile and maintain a high level of insect defense, but also gain the ability to resist COR-producing pathogens Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and P. syringae pv. maculicola. Finally, our results provide a proof-of-concept demonstration that host target modification can be a promising new approach to prevent the virulence action of highly evolved pathogens.« less

  18. Binding of the Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus to the Ephrin Binding Surface of the EphA2 Receptor and Its Inhibition by a Small Molecule

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ephrin receptor tyrosine kinase A2 (EphA2) is an entry receptor for Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) that is engaged by the virus through its gH/gL glycoprotein complex. We describe here that natural ephrin ligands inhibit the gH/gL-EphA2 interaction. The effects of point mutations within EphA2 demonstrated that KSHV gH/gL interacts with EphA2 through a restricted set of the same residues that mediate binding of A-type ephrins. Two previously described inhibitors of the EphA2 interaction with ephrin A5 also inhibited binding of KSHV gH/gL to EphA2. The more potent of the two compounds inhibited KSHV infection of blood vessel and lymphatic endothelial cells in the micromolar concentration range. Our results demonstrate that interaction of KSHV with EphA2 occurs in a fashion similar to that of the natural ephrin ligands. Our data further indicate a new avenue for drug development against KSHV. IMPORTANCE Our study reports two important findings. First, we show that KSHV engages its receptor, the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2, at a site that overlaps the binding site of the natural ephrin ligands. Second, we demonstrate that KSHV infection of target cells can be blocked by a small-molecule inhibitor of the viral glycoprotein-EphA2 interaction. These findings represent a novel avenue for the development of strategies to treat KSHV-associated diseases. PMID:24899181

  19. Virus-encoded chemokine receptors--putative novel antiviral drug targets.

    PubMed

    Rosenkilde, Mette M

    2005-01-01

    Large DNA viruses, in particular herpes- and poxviruses, have evolved proteins that serve as mimics or decoys for endogenous proteins in the host. The chemokines and their receptors serve key functions in both innate and adaptive immunity through control of leukocyte trafficking, and have as such a paramount role in the antiviral immune responses. It is therefore not surprising that viruses have found ways to exploit and subvert the chemokine system by means of molecular mimicry. By ancient acts of molecular piracy and by induction and suppression of endogenous genes, viruses have utilized chemokines and their receptors to serve a variety of roles in viral life-cycle. This review focuses on the pharmacology of virus-encoded chemokine receptors, yet also the family of virus-encoded chemokines and chemokine-binding proteins will be touched upon. Key properties of the virus-encoded receptors, compared to their closest endogenous homologs, are interactions with a wider range of chemokines, which can act as agonists, antagonists and inverse agonists, and the exploitation of many signal transduction pathways. High constitutive activity is another key property of some--but not all--of these receptors. The chemokine receptors belong to the superfamily of G-protein coupled 7TM receptors that per se are excellent drug targets. At present, non-peptide antagonists have been developed against many chemokine receptors. The potentials of the virus-encoded chemokine receptors as drug targets--ie. as novel antiviral strategies--will be highlighted here together with the potentials of the virus-encoded chemokines and chemokine-binding proteins as novel anti-inflammatory biopharmaceutical strategies.

  20. Evidence for an A2/Ra adenosine receptor in the guinea-pig trachea

    PubMed Central

    Brown, C.M.; Collis, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    1 An attempt was made to determine whether the extracellular adenosine receptor that mediates relaxation in the guinea-pig trachea is of the A1/Ri or A2/Ra subtype. 2 Dose-response curves to adenosine and a number of 5′- and N6-substituted analogues were constructed for the isolated guinea-pig trachea, contracted with carbachol. 3 The 5′-substituted analogues of adenosine were the most potent compounds tested, the order of potency being 5′-N-cyclopropylcarboxamide adenosine (NCPCA) > 5′-N-ethylcarboxamide adenosine (NECA) > 2-chloroadenosine > L-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine (L-PIA) > adenosine > D-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine (D-PIA). 4 The difference in potency between the stereoisomers D- and L-PIA on the isolated trachea was at the most five fold. 5 Responses to low doses of adenosine and its analogues were attenuated after treatment with either theophylline or 8-phenyltheophylline. The responses to 2-chloroadenosine were affected to a lesser extent than were those to the other purines. 6 Adenosine transport inhibitors, dipyridamole and dilazep, potentiated responses to adenosine, did not affect those to NCPCA, NECA, L-PIA and D-PIA but significantly reduced the responses to high doses of 2-chloroadenosine. 7 Relaxations evoked by 9-β-D-xylofuranosyladenosine which can activate intracellular but not extracellular adenosine receptors, were attenuated by dipyridamole but unaffected by 8-phenyltheophylline. 8 The results support the existence of an extracellular A2/Ra subtype of adenosine receptor and an intracellular purine-sensitive site, both of which mediate relaxation. PMID:6286021

  1. EphA2 as a Diagnostic Imaging Target in Glioblastoma: A Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Puttick, Simon; Stringer, Brett W; Day, Bryan W; Bruce, Zara C; Ensbey, Kathleen S; Mardon, Karine; Cowin, Gary J; Thurecht, Kristofer J; Whittaker, Andrew K; Fay, Michael; Boyd, Andrew W; Rose, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive imaging is a critical technology for diagnosis, classification, and subsequent treatment planning for patients with glioblastoma. It has been shown that the EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) is overexpressed in a number of tumors, including glioblastoma. Expression levels of Eph RTKs have been linked to tumor progression, metastatic spread, and poor patient prognosis. As EphA2 is expressed at low levels in normal neural tissues, this protein represents an attractive imaging target for delineation of tumor infiltration, providing an improved platform for image-guided therapy. In this study, EphA2-4B3, a monoclonal antibody specific to human EphA2, was labeled with 64Cu through conjugation to the chelator 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA). The resulting complex was used as a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for the acquisition of high-resolution longitudinal PET/magnetic resonance images. EphA2-4B3-NOTA-64Cu images were qualitatively and quantitatively compared to the current clinical standards of [18F]FDOPA and gadolinium (Gd) contrast-enhanced MRI. We show that EphA2-4B3-NOTA-64Cu effectively delineates tumor boundaries in three different mouse models of glioblastoma. Tumor to brain contrast is significantly higher in EphA2-4B3-NOTA-64Cu images than in [18F]FDOPA images and Gd contrast-enhanced MRI. Furthermore, we show that nonspecific uptake in the liver and spleen can be effectively blocked by a dose of nonspecific (isotype control) IgG.

  2. Elevated Adenosine Induces Placental DNA Hypomethylation Independent of A2B Receptor Signaling in Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Aji; Wu, Hongyu; Iriyama, Takayuki; Zhang, Yujin; Sun, Kaiqi; Song, Anren; Liu, Hong; Peng, Zhangzhe; Tang, Lili; Lee, Minjung; Huang, Yun; Ni, Xin; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2017-07-01

    Preeclampsia is a prevalent pregnancy hypertensive disease with both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Emerging evidence indicates that global placental DNA hypomethylation is observed in patients with preeclampsia and is linked to altered gene expression and disease development. However, the molecular basis underlying placental epigenetic changes in preeclampsia remains unclear. Using 2 independent experimental models of preeclampsia, adenosine deaminase-deficient mice and a pathogenic autoantibody-induced mouse model of preeclampsia, we demonstrate that elevated placental adenosine not only induces hallmark features of preeclampsia but also causes placental DNA hypomethylation. The use of genetic approaches to express an adenosine deaminase minigene specifically in placentas, or adenosine deaminase enzyme replacement therapy, restored placental adenosine to normal levels, attenuated preeclampsia features, and abolished placental DNA hypomethylation in adenosine deaminase-deficient mice. Genetic deletion of CD73 (an ectonucleotidase that converts AMP to adenosine) prevented the elevation of placental adenosine in the autoantibody-induced preeclampsia mouse model and ameliorated preeclampsia features and placental DNA hypomethylation. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that elevated placental adenosine-mediated DNA hypomethylation predominantly occurs in spongiotrophoblasts and labyrinthine trophoblasts and that this effect is independent of A2B adenosine receptor activation in both preeclampsia models. Extending our mouse findings to humans, we used cultured human trophoblasts to demonstrate that adenosine functions intracellularly and induces DNA hypomethylation without A2B adenosine receptor activation. Altogether, both mouse and human studies reveal novel mechanisms underlying placental DNA hypomethylation and potential therapeutic approaches for preeclampsia. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Identification of insulin as a novel retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor α target gene.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Jiangying; Hou, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jinlong; Chen, Yulong; Su, Zhiguang

    2014-03-18

    Insulin plays an important role in regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor α (RORα) modulates physiopathological processes such as dyslipidemia and diabetes. In this study, we found overexpression of RORα in INS1 cells resulted in increased expression and secretion of insulin. Suppression of endogenous RORα caused a decrease of insulin expression. Luciferase and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) assays demonstrated that RORα activated insulin transcription via direct binding to its promoter. RORα was also observed to regulate BETA2 expression, which is one of the insulin active transfactors. In vivo analyses showed that the insulin transcription is increased by the synthetic RORα agonist SR1078. These findings identify RORα as a transcriptional activator of insulin and suggest novel therapeutic opportunities for management of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Adenosine A2B receptor modulates intestinal barrier function under hypoxic and ischemia/reperfusion conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Qiu, Yuan; Wang, Wensheng; Xiao, Weidong; Liang, Hongyin; Zhang, Chaojun; Yang, Hanwenbo; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Sun, Li-Hua; Yang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal barrier function failure from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and acute hypoxia has been implicated as a critical determinant in the predisposition to intestinal inflammation and a number of inflammatory disorders. Here, we identified the role of Adenosine A2B receptor (A2BAR) in the regulation of intestinal barrier function under I/R and acute hypoxic conditions. C57BL/6J mice were used, and were randomized into three groups: Sham, I/R, IR+PSB1115 (a specific A2BAR antagonist) groups. After surgery, the small bowel was harvested for immunohistochemical staining, RNA and protein content, and intestinal permeability analyses. Using an epithelial cell culture model, we investigated the influence of hypoxia on the epithelial function, and the role of A2BAR in the expressions of tight junction and epithelial permeability. The expressions of Claudin-1, occludin and ZO-1 were detected by RT-PCR and Western-Blot. Epithelial barrier function was assessed with transepithelial resistance (TER). The A2BAR antagonist, PSB1115, significantly increased tight junction protein expression after intestinal I/R or acute hypoxia conditions. PSB1115 also attenuated the disrupted distribution of TJ proteins. Furthermore, inhibition of A2BAR attenuated the decrease in TER induced by I/R or acute hypoxic conditions, and maintained intestinal barrier function. Antagonism of A2BAR activity improves intestinal epithelial structure and barrier function in a mouse model of intestinal I/R and a cell model of acute hypoxia. These findings support a potentially destructive role for A2BAR under intestinal I/R and acute hypoxic conditions.

  5. IL-13 and the IL-13 receptor as therapeutic targets for asthma and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jesse; Dimov, Vesselin; Townley, Robert G

    2010-05-01

    It is widely accepted that T-helper 2 cell (Th2) cytokines play an important role in the maintenance of asthma and allergy. Emerging evidence has highlighted the role of IL-13 in the pathogenesis of these diseases. In particular, IL-13 is involved in the regulation of IgE synthesis, mucus hypersecretion, subepithelial fibrosis and eosinophil infiltration, and has been associated with the regulation of certain chemokine receptors, notably CCR5. Thus, targeting IL-13 and its associated receptors may be a therapeutic approach to the treatment of asthma and/or allergy. Pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies are researching various strategies, based on this approach, aimed at binding IL-13, increasing the level of the IL-13 decoy receptor, IL-13Ralpha2, or blocking the effect of the chemokine receptor CCR5. This review focuses on the therapeutic potential of anti-IL-13 agents and their role in the treatment of asthma and allergy.

  6. The challenges of modulating the 'rest and digest' system: acetylcholine receptors as drug targets.

    PubMed

    VanPatten, Sonya; Al-Abed, Yousef

    2017-01-01

    Acetylcholine, a major neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems, was discovered in the early 1900s. Over the years, researchers have revealed much about its regulation, properties of its receptors and features of the downstream signaling that influence its terminal effects. The acetylcholine system, traditionally associated with neuromuscular communication, is now known to play a crucial part in modulation of the immune system and other 'rest and digest' effects. Recent research seeks to elucidate the system's role in brain functions including cognition, sleep, arousal, motivation, reward and pain. We highlight clinically approved and experimental drugs that modulate the acetylcholine receptors. The complexities in targeting the acetylcholine receptors are vast and finding future indications for drug development associated with specific acetylcholine receptors remains a challenge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Targeting neurotransmitter receptors with nanoparticles in vivo allows single-molecule tracking in acute brain slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, Juan A.; Dupuis, Julien P.; Etchepare, Laetitia; Espana, Agnès; Cognet, Laurent; Groc, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Single-molecule imaging has changed the way we understand many biological mechanisms, particularly in neurobiology, by shedding light on intricate molecular events down to the nanoscale. However, current single-molecule studies in neuroscience have been limited to cultured neurons or organotypic slices, leaving as an open question the existence of fast receptor diffusion in intact brain tissue. Here, for the first time, we targeted dopamine receptors in vivo with functionalized quantum dots and were able to perform single-molecule tracking in acute rat brain slices. We propose a novel delocalized and non-inflammatory way of delivering nanoparticles (NPs) in vivo to the brain, which allowed us to label and track genetically engineered surface dopamine receptors in neocortical neurons, revealing inherent behaviour and receptor activity regulations. We thus propose a NP-based platform for single-molecule studies in the living brain, opening new avenues of research in physiological and pathological animal models.

  8. Drug addiction: targeting dynamic neuroimmune receptor interactions as a potential therapeutic strategy.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Jonathan Henry W; Hutchinson, Mark R; Mustafa, Sanam

    2016-02-01

    Drug addiction and dependence have proven to be difficult psychiatric disorders to treat. The limited efficacy of neuronally acting medications, such as acamprosate and naltrexone, highlights the need to identify novel targets. Recent research has underscored the importance of the neuroimmune system in many behavioural manifestations of drug addiction. In this review, we propose that our appreciation for complex phenotypes such as drug addiction and dependence will come with a greater understanding that these disorders are the result of intricate, interconnected signalling pathways that are, if only partially, determined at the receptor level. The idea of receptor heteromerisation and receptor mosaics will be introduced to explain cross talk between the receptors and signalling molecules implicated in neuroimmune signalling pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Multi-Inhibitory Effects of A2A Adenosine Receptor Signaling on Neutrophil Adhesion Under Flow.

    PubMed

    Yago, Tadayuki; Tsukamoto, Hiroki; Liu, Zhenghui; Wang, Ying; Thompson, Linda F; McEver, Rodger P

    2015-10-15

    A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR) signaling negatively regulates inflammatory responses in many disease models, but the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. We used the selective A2AAR agonist, ATL313, to examine how A2AAR signaling affects human and murine neutrophil adhesion under flow. Treating neutrophils with ATL313 inhibited selectin-induced, β2 integrin-dependent slow rolling and chemokine-induced, β2 integrin-dependent arrest on ICAM-1. ATL313 inhibited selectin-induced β2 integrin extension, which supports slow rolling, and chemokine-induced hybrid domain "swing-out," which supports arrest. Furthermore, ATL313 inhibited integrin outside-in signaling as revealed by reduced neutrophil superoxide production and spreading on immobilized anti-β2 integrin Ab. ATL313 suppressed selectin-triggered activation of Src family kinases (SFKs) and p38 MAPK, chemokine-triggered activation of Ras-related protein 1, and β2 integrin-triggered activation of SFKs and Vav cytoskeletal regulatory proteins. ATL313 activated protein kinase A and its substrate C-terminal Src kinase, an inhibitor of SFKs. Treating neutrophils with a protein kinase A inhibitor blocked the actions of ATL313. In vivo, ATL313-treated neutrophils rolled faster and arrested much less frequently in postcapillary venules of the murine cremaster muscle after TNF-α challenge. Furthermore, ATL313 markedly suppressed neutrophil migration into the peritoneum challenged with thioglycollate. ATL313 did not affect A2AAR-deficient neutrophils, confirming its specificity. Our findings provide new insights into the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of A2AAR signaling and the potential utility of A2AAR agonists in inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. Multi-inhibitory effects of A2A adenosine receptor signaling on neutrophil adhesion under flow**

    PubMed Central

    Yago, Tadayuki; Tsukamoto, Hiroki; Liu, Zhenghui; Wang, Ying; Thompson, Linda F.; McEver, Rodger P.

    2015-01-01

    A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR) signaling negatively regulates inflammatory responses in many disease models, but the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. We used the selective A2AAR agonist, ATL313, to examine how A2AAR signaling affects human and murine neutrophil adhesion under flow. Treating neutrophils with ATL313 inhibited selectin-induced, β2 integrin-dependent slow rolling and chemokine-induced, β2 integrin-dependent arrest on ICAM-1. ATL313 inhibited selectin-induced β2 integrin extension, which supports slow rolling, and chemokine-induced hybrid domain “swing-out”, which supports arrest. Furthermore, ATL313 inhibited integrin outside-in signaling as revealed by reduced neutrophil superoxide production and spreading on immobilized anti-β2 integrin antibody. ATL313 suppressed selectin-triggered activation of Src family kinases (SFKs) and p38 MAPK, chemokine-triggered activation of Ras-related protein 1 (Rap1), and β2 integrin-triggered activation of SFKs and Vav cytoskeletal regulatory proteins. ATL313 activated protein kinase A (PKA) and its substrate C-terminal Src kinase (Csk), an inhibitor of SFKs. Treating neutrophils with a PKA inhibitor blocked the actions of ATL313. In vivo, ATL313-treated neutrophils rolled faster and arrested much less frequently in postcapillary venules of the murine cremaster muscle after TNF-α challenge. Furthermore, ATL313 markedly suppressed neutrophil migration into the peritoneum challenged with thioglycollate. ATL313 did not affect A2AAR-deficient neutrophils, confirming its specificity. Our findings provide new insights into the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of A2AAR signaling and the potential utility of A2AAR agonists in inflammatory diseases. PMID:26355151

  11. Selective targeting of G-protein-coupled receptor subtypes with venom peptides.

    PubMed

    Näreoja, K; Näsman, J

    2012-02-01

    The G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family is one of the largest gene superfamilies with approx. 370 members responding to endogenous ligands in humans and a roughly equal amount of receptors sensitive to external stimuli from the surrounding. A number of receptors from this superfamily are well recognized targets for medical treatment of various disease conditions, whereas for many others the potential medical benefit of interference is still obscure. A general problem associated with GPCR research and therapeutics is the insufficient specificity of available ligands to differentiate between closely homologous receptor subtypes. In this context, venom peptides could make a significant contribution to the development of more specific drugs. Venoms from certain animals specialized in biochemical hunting contain a mixture of molecules that are directed towards a variety of membrane proteins. Peptide toxins isolated from these mixtures usually exhibit high specificity for their targets. Muscarinic toxins found from mamba snakes attracted much attention during the 1990s. These are 65-66 amino acid long peptides with a structural three-finger folding similar to the α-neurotoxins and they target the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in a subtype-selective manner. Recently, several members of the three-finger toxins from mamba snakes as well as conotoxins from marine cone snails have been shown to selectively interact with subtypes of adrenergic receptors. In this review, we will discuss the GPCR-directed peptide toxins found from different venoms and how some of these can be useful in exploring specific roles of receptor subtypes. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Physiologica © 2011 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  12. A COMPUTATIONAL LIBRARY OF THE BIOMOLECULAR TARGETS FOR TOXICITY: RECEPTORS IN THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Computational Library of the Biomolecular Targets for Toxicity: Receptors in the Endocrine System

    Authors: James R. Rabinowitz and Stephen B. Little, MTB/ECD/NHEERL/ORD, and Huajun Fan, Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina
    Structure activity models ...

  13. Targeting NK-1 Receptors to Prevent and Treat Pancreatic Cancer: A New Therapeutic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Miguel; Coveñas, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer related-deaths in both men and women, and the 1- and 5-year relative survival rates are 25% and 6%, respectively. It is known that smoking, alcoholism and psychological stress are risk factors that can promote PC and increase PC progression. To date, the prevention of PC is crucial because there is no curative treatment. After binding to the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor (a receptor coupled to the stimulatory G-protein Gαs that activates adenylate cyclase), the peptide substance P (SP)—at high concentrations—is involved in many pathophysiological functions, such as depression, smoking, alcoholism, chronic inflammation and cancer. It is known that PC cells and samples express NK-1 receptors; that the NK-1 receptor is overexpressed in PC cells in comparison with non-tumor cells, and that nanomolar concentrations of SP induce PC cell proliferation. By contrast, NK-1 receptor antagonists exert antidepressive, anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory effects and anti-alcohol addiction. These antagonists also exert an antitumor action since in vitro they inhibit PC cell proliferation (PC cells death by apoptosis), and in a xenograft PC mouse model they exert both antitumor and anti-angiogenic actions. NK-1 receptor antagonists could be used for the treatment of PC and hence the NK-1 receptor could be a new promising therapeutic target in PC. PMID:26154566

  14. Effects of targeted deletion of A1 adenosine receptors on postischemic cardiac function and expression of adenosine receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Morrison, R Ray; Teng, Bunyen; Oldenburg, Peter J; Katwa, Laxmansa C; Schnermann, Jurgen B; Mustafa, S Jamal

    2006-10-01

    To examine ischemic tolerance in the absence of A(1) adenosine receptors (A(1)ARs), isolated wild-type (WT) and A(1)AR knockout (A(1)KO) murine hearts underwent global ischemia-reperfusion, and injury was measured in terms of functional recovery and efflux of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Hearts were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR both at baseline and at intervals during ischemia-reperfusion to determine whether compensatory expression of other adenosine receptor subtypes occurs with either A(1)AR deletion and/or ischemia-reperfusion. A(1)KO hearts had higher baseline coronary flow (CF) and left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) than WT hearts, whereas heart rate was unchanged by A(1)AR deletion. After 20 min of ischemia, CF was attenuated in A(1)KO compared with WT hearts, and this reduction persisted throughout reperfusion. Final recovery of LVDP was decreased in A(1)KO hearts (54.4 +/- 5.1 vs. WT 81.1 +/- 3.4% preischemic baseline) and correlated with higher diastolic pressure during reperfusion. Postischemic efflux of LDH was greater in A(1)KO compared with WT hearts. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated the absence of A(1)AR transcript in A(1)KO hearts, and the message for A(2A), A(2B), and A(3) adenosine receptors was similar in uninstrumented A(1)KO and WT hearts. Ischemia-reperfusion increased A(2B) mRNA expression 2.5-fold in both WT and A(1)KO hearts without changing A(1) or A(3) expression. In WT hearts, ischemia transiently doubled A(2A) mRNA, which returned to preischemic level upon reperfusion, a pattern not observed in A(1)KO hearts. Together, these data affirm the cardioprotective role of A(1)ARs and suggest that induced expression of other adenosine receptor subtypes may participate in the response to ischemia-reperfusion in isolated murine hearts.

  15. Reinforcing and neurochemical effects of cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists, but not cocaine, are altered by an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Justinová, Zuzana; Ferré, Sergi; Redhi, Godfrey H; Mascia, Paola; Stroik, Jessica; Quarta, Davide; Yasar, Sevil; Müller, Christa E; Franco, Rafael; Goldberg, Steven R

    2011-07-01

    Several recent studies suggest functional and molecular interactions between striatal adenosine A(2A) and cannabinoid CB(1) receptors. Here, we demonstrate that A(2A) receptors selectively modulate reinforcing effects of cannabinoids. We studied effects of A(2A) receptor blockade on the reinforcing effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the endogenous CB(1) receptor ligand anandamide under a fixed-ratio schedule of intravenous drug injection in squirrel monkeys. A low dose of the selective adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 (1 mg/kg) caused downward shifts of THC and anandamide dose-response curves. In contrast, a higher dose of MSX-3 (3 mg/kg) shifted THC and anandamide dose-response curves to the left. MSX-3 did not modify cocaine or food pellet self-administration. Also, MSX-3 neither promoted reinstatement of extinguished drug-seeking behavior nor altered reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior by non-contingent priming injections of THC. Finally, using in vivo microdialysis in freely-moving rats, a behaviorally active dose of MSX-3 significantly counteracted THC-induced, but not cocaine-induced, increases in extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens shell. The significant and selective results obtained with the lower dose of MSX-3 suggest that adenosine A(2A) antagonists acting preferentially at presynaptic A(2A) receptors might selectively reduce reinforcing effects of cannabinoids that lead to their abuse. However, the appearance of potentiating rather than suppressing effects on cannabinoid reinforcement at the higher dose of MSX-3 would likely preclude the use of such a compound as a medication for cannabis abuse. Adenosine A(2A) antagonists with more selectivity for presynaptic versus postsynaptic receptors could be potential medications for treatment of cannabis abuse. Addiction Biology © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction. No claim to original US government works.

  16. Novel drugs that target the estrogen-related receptor alpha: their therapeutic potential in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    May, Felicity EB

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer continues to rise: 1.7 million women were diagnosed with and 521,000 women died from breast cancer in 2012. This review considers first current treatment options: surgery; radiotherapy; and systemic endocrine, anti-biological, and cytotoxic therapies. Clinical management includes prevention, early detection by screening, treatment with curative intent, management of chronic disease, and palliative control of advanced breast cancer. Next, the potential of novel drugs that target DNA repair, growth factor dependence, intracellular and intercellular signal transduction, and cell cycle are considered. Estrogen-related receptor alpha has attracted attention as a therapeutic target in triple-negative breast cancers with de novo resistance to, and in breast cancers with acquired resistance to, endocrine therapies such as antiestrogens and aromatase inhibitors. Estrogen-related receptor alpha is an orphan receptor and transcription factor. Its activity is regulated by coregulator proteins and posttranslational modification. It is an energy sensor that controls adaptation to energy demand and may facilitate glycolytic metabolism and mitochondrial oxidative respiration in breast cancer cells. Estrogen-related receptor alpha increases breast cancer cell migration, proliferation, and tumor development. It is expressed at high levels in estrogen receptor-negative tumors, and is proposed to activate estrogen-responsive genes in endocrine-resistant tumors. The structures and functions of the ligand-binding domains of estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen-related receptor alpha, their ability to bind estrogens, phytoestrogens, and synthetic ligands, and the effects of ligand agonists, antagonists, and inverse agonists on biological activity, are evaluated. Synthetic ligands of estrogen-related receptor alpha have activity in preclinical models of metabolic disorders, diabetes, osteoporosis, and oncology. The clinical settings in which these novel

  17. The 5-HT7 receptor as a potential target for treating drug and alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Sheketha R.; Hedlund, Peter B.; Roberts, Amanda J.; Sari, Youssef; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse take a large toll on society and affected individuals. However, very few effective treatments are currently available to treat alcohol and drug addiction. Basic and clinical research has begun to provide some insights into the underlying neurobiological systems involved in the addiction process. Several neurotransmitter pathways have been implicated and distinct reward neurocircuitry have been proposed—including the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (MCL-DA) system and the extended amygdala. The serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter system is of particular interest and multiple 5-HT receptors are thought to play significant roles in alcohol and drug self-administration and the development of drug dependence. Among the 5-HT receptors, the 5-HT7 receptor is currently undergoing characterization as a potential target for the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Although this receptor has received only limited research regarding addictive behaviors, aspects of its neuroanatomical, biochemical, physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral profiles suggest that it could play a key role in the addiction process. For instance, genomic studies in humans have suggested a link between variants in the gene encoding the 5-HT7 receptor and alcoholism. Recent behavioral testing using high-affinity antagonists in mice and preliminary tests with alcohol-preferring rats suggest that this receptor could mediate alcohol consumption and/or reinforcement and play a role in seeking/craving behavior. Interest in the development of new and more selective pharmacological agents for this receptor will aid in examining the 5-HT7 receptor as a novel target for treating addiction. PMID:25628528

  18. Therapeutic targeting of angiotensin II receptor type 1 to regulate androgen receptor in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Satoru; Uemura, Hiroji; Seeni, Azman; Tang, Mingxi; Komiya, Masami; Long, Ne; Ishiguro, Hitoshi; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2012-10-01

    With the limited strategies for curative treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), public interest has focused on the potential prevention of prostate cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) has the potential to decrease serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and improve performance status in CRPC patients. These facts prompted us to investigate the direct effects of ARBs on prostate cancer growth and progression. Transgenic rat for adenocarcinoma of prostate (TRAP) model established in our laboratory was used. TRAP rats of 3 weeks of age received ARB (telmisartan or candesartan) at the concentration of 2 or 10 mg/kg/day in drinking water for 12 weeks. In vitro analyses for cell growth, ubiquitylation or reporter gene assay were performed using LNCaP cells. We found that both telmisartan and candesartan attenuated prostate carcinogenesis in TRAP rats by augmentation of apoptosis resulting from activation of caspases, inactivation of p38 MAPK and down-regulation of the androgen receptor (AR). Further, microarray analysis demonstrated up-regulation of estrogen receptor β (ERβ) by ARB treatment. In both parental and androgen-independent LNCaP cells, ARB inhibited both cell growth and AR-mediated transcriptional activity. ARB also exerted a mild additional effect on AR-mediated transcriptional activation by the ERβ up-regulation. An intervention study revealed that PSA progression was prolonged in prostate cancer patients given an ARB compared with placebo control. These data provide a new concept that ARBs are promising potential chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents for prostate cancer. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Computer-aided design of multi-target ligands at A1R, A2AR and PDE10A, key proteins in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Kalash, Leen; Val, Cristina; Azuaje, Jhonny; Loza, María I; Svensson, Fredrik; Zoufir, Azedine; Mervin, Lewis; Ladds, Graham; Brea, José; Glen, Robert; Sotelo, Eddy; Bender, Andreas

    2017-12-30

    Compounds designed to display polypharmacology may have utility in treating complex diseases, where activity at multiple targets is required to produce a clinical effect. In particular, suitable compounds may be useful in treating neurodegenerative diseases by promoting neuronal survival in a synergistic manner via their multi-target activity at the adenosine A 1 and A 2A receptors (A 1 R and A 2A R) and phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A), which modulate intracellular cAMP levels. Hence, in this work we describe a computational method for the design of synthetically feasible ligands that bind to A 1 and A 2A receptors and inhibit phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A), involving a retrosynthetic approach employing in silico target prediction and docking, which may be generally applicable to multi-target compound design at several target classes. This approach has identified 2-aminopyridine-3-carbonitriles as the first multi-target ligands at A 1 R, A 2A R and PDE10A, by showing agreement between the ligand and structure based predictions at these targets. The series were synthesized via an efficient one-pot scheme and validated pharmacologically as A 1 R/A 2A R-PDE10A ligands, with IC 50 values of 2.4-10.0 μM at PDE10A and K i values of 34-294 nM at A 1 R and/or A 2A R. Furthermore, selectivity profiling of the synthesized 2-amino-pyridin-3-carbonitriles against other subtypes of both protein families showed that the multi-target ligand 8 exhibited a minimum of twofold selectivity over all tested off-targets. In addition, both compounds 8 and 16 exhibited the desired multi-target profile, which could be considered for further functional efficacy assessment, analog modification for the improvement of selectivity towards A 1 R, A 2A R and PDE10A collectively, and evaluation of their potential synergy in modulating cAMP levels.

  20. Crosstalk of the EphA2 Receptor with a Serine/Threonine Phosphatase Suppresses the Akt-mTORC1 Pathway in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Nai-Ying; Fernandez, Carlos; Richter, Melanie; Xiao, Zhan; Valencia, Fatima; Tice, David A.; Pasquale, Elena B.

    2010-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases of the Eph family play multiple roles in the physiological regulation of tissue homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of various diseases, including cancer. The EphA2 receptor is highly expressed in most cancer cell types, where it has disparate activities that are not well understood. It has been reported that interplay of EphA2 with oncogenic signaling pathways promotes cancer cell malignancy independently of ephrin ligand binding and receptor kinase activity. In contrast, stimulation of EphA2 signaling with ephrin-A ligands can suppress malignancy by inhibiting the Ras-MAP kinase pathway, integrin-mediated adhesion, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Here we show that ephrin-A1 ligand-dependent activation of EphA2 decreases the growth of PC3 prostate cancer cells and profoundly inhibits the Akt-mTORC1 pathway, which is hyperactivated due to loss of the PTEN tumor suppressor. Our results do not implicate changes in the activity of Akt upstream regulators (such as Ras family GTPases, PI3 kinase, integrins, or the Ship2 lipid phosphatase) in the observed loss of Akt T308 and S473 phosphorylation downstream of EphA2. Indeed, EphA2 can inhibit Akt phosphorylation induced by oncogenic mutations of not only PTEN but also PI3 kinase. Furthermore, it can decrease the hyperphosphorylation induced by constitutive membrane-targeting of Akt. Our data suggest a novel signaling mechanism whereby EphA2 inactivates the Akt-mTORC1 oncogenic pathway through Akt dephosphorylation mediated by a serine/threonine phosphatase. Ephrin-A1-induced Akt dephosphorylation was observed not only in PC3 prostate cancer cells but also in other cancer cell types. Thus, activation of EphA2 signaling represents a possible new avenue for anti-cancer therapies that exploit the remarkable ability of this receptor to counteract multiple oncogenic signaling pathways. PMID:20837138

  1. Targeting of peptide conjugated magnetic nanoparticles to urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expressing cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Line; Unmack Larsen, Esben Kjær; Nielsen, Erik Holm; Iversen, Frank; Liu, Zhuo; Thomsen, Karen; Pedersen, Michael; Skrydstrup, Troels; Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Ploug, Michael; Kjems, Jørgen

    2013-08-01

    Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles are currently being used as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent in vivo, mainly by their passive accumulation in tissues of interest. However, a higher specificity can ideally be achieved when the nanoparticles are targeted towards cell specific receptors and this may also facilitate specific drug delivery by an enhanced target-mediated endocytosis. We report efficient peptide-mediated targeting of magnetic nanoparticles to cells expressing the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), a surface biomarker for poor patient prognosis shared by several cancers including breast, colorectal, and gastric cancers. Conjugation of a uPAR specific targeting peptide onto polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated USPIO nanoparticles by click chemistry resulted in a five times higher uptake in vitro in a uPAR positive cell line compared to nanoparticles carrying a non-binding control peptide. In accordance with specific receptor-mediated recognition, a low uptake was observed in the presence of an excess of ATF, a natural ligand for uPAR. The uPAR specific magnetic nanoparticles can potentially provide a useful supplement for tumor patient management when combined with MRI and drug delivery.Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles are currently being used as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent in vivo, mainly by their passive accumulation in tissues of interest. However, a higher specificity can ideally be achieved when the nanoparticles are targeted towards cell specific receptors and this may also facilitate specific drug delivery by an enhanced target-mediated endocytosis. We report efficient peptide-mediated targeting of magnetic nanoparticles to cells expressing the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), a surface biomarker for poor patient prognosis shared by several cancers including breast, colorectal, and gastric cancers. Conjugation of a uPAR specific

  2. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor targeting in non-small cell lung cancer: revisiting different strategies against the same target.

    PubMed

    Castañón, Eduardo; Martín, Patricia; Rolfo, Christian; Fusco, Juan P; Ceniceros, Lucía; Legaspi, Jairo; Santisteban, Marta; Gil-Bazo, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have changed the paradigm of treatment in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The molecular biology study of EGFR has led to clinical trials that select patients more accurately, regarding the presence of EGFR activating mutations. Nonetheless, a lack of response or a temporary condition of the response has been detected in patients on EGFR TKIs. This has urged to study potential resistance mechanisms underneath. The most important ones are the presence of secondary mutations in EGFR, such as T790M, or the overexpression of mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET) that may explain why patients who initially respond to EGFR TKIs, may ultimately become refractory. Several approaches have been taken and new drugs both targeting EGFR resistance-mutation or MET are currently being developed. Here we review and update the EGFR biological pathway as well as the clinical data leading to approval of the EGFR TKIs currently in the market. New compounds under investigation targeting resistance mutations or dually targeting EGFR and other relevant receptors are also reviewed and discussed.

  3. Chimeric antigen receptor T cells targeting Fc μ receptor selectively eliminate CLL cells while sparing healthy B cells.

    PubMed

    Faitschuk, Elena; Hombach, Andreas A; Frenzel, Lukas P; Wendtner, Clemens-Martin; Abken, Hinrich

    2016-09-29

    Adoptive cell therapy of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells targeting CD19 induced lasting remission of this refractory disease in a number of patients. However, the treatment is associated with prolonged "on-target off-tumor" toxicities due to the targeted elimination of healthy B cells demanding more selectivity in targeting CLL cells. We identified the immunoglobulin M Fc receptor (FcμR), also known as the Fas apoptotic inhibitory molecule-3 or TOSO, as a target for a more selective treatment of CLL by CAR T cells. FcμR is highly and consistently expressed by CLL cells; only minor levels are detected on healthy B cells or other hematopoietic cells. T cells with a CAR specific for FcμR efficiently responded toward CLL cells, released a panel of proinflammatory cytokines and lytic factors, like soluble FasL and granzyme B, and eliminated the leukemic cells. In contrast to CD19 CAR T cells, anti-FcμR CAR T cells did not attack healthy B cells. T cells with anti-FcμR CAR delayed outgrowth of Mec-1-induced leukemia in a xenograft mouse model. T cells from CLL patients in various stages of the disease, modified by the anti-FcμR CAR, purged their autologous CLL cells in vitro without reducing the number of healthy B cells, which is the case with anti-CD19 CAR T cells. Compared with the currently used therapies, the data strongly imply a superior therapeutic index of anti-FcμR CAR T cells for the treatment of CLL. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  4. P2X receptors as targets for the treatment of status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Henshall, David C.; Diaz-Hernandez, Miguel; Miras-Portugal, M. Teresa; Engel, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged seizures are amongst the most common neurological emergencies. Status epilepticus is a state of continuous seizures that is life-threatening and prompt termination of status epilepticus is critical to protect the brain from permanent damage. Frontline treatment comprises parenteral administration of anticonvulsants such as lorazepam that facilitate γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) transmission. Because status epilepticus can become refractory to anticonvulsants in a significant proportion of patients, drugs which act on different neurotransmitter systems may represent potential adjunctive treatments. P2X receptors are a class of ligand-gated ion channel activated by ATP that contributes to neuro- and glio-transmission. P2X receptors are expressed by both neurons and glia in various brain regions, including the hippocampus. Electrophysiology, pharmacology and genetic studies suggest certain P2X receptors are activated during pathologic brain activity. Expression of several members of the family including P2X2, P2X4, and P2X7 receptors has been reported to be altered in the hippocampus following status epilepticus. Recent studies have shown that ligands of the P2X7 receptor can have potent effects on seizure severity during status epilepticus and mice lacking this receptor display altered seizures in response to chemoconvulsants. Antagonists of the P2X7 receptor also modulate neuronal death, microglial responses and neuroinflammatory signaling. Recent work also found altered neuronal injury and inflammation after status epilepticus in mice lacking the P2X4 receptor. In summary, members of the P2X receptor family may serve important roles in the pathophysiology of status epilepticus and represent novel targets for seizure control and neuroprotection. PMID:24324404

  5. P2X receptors as targets for the treatment of status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Henshall, David C; Diaz-Hernandez, Miguel; Miras-Portugal, M Teresa; Engel, Tobias

    2013-11-26

    Prolonged seizures are amongst the most common neurological emergencies. Status epilepticus is a state of continuous seizures that is life-threatening and prompt termination of status epilepticus is critical to protect the brain from permanent damage. Frontline treatment comprises parenteral administration of anticonvulsants such as lorazepam that facilitate γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) transmission. Because status epilepticus can become refractory to anticonvulsants in a significant proportion of patients, drugs which act on different neurotransmitter systems may represent potential adjunctive treatments. P2X receptors are a class of ligand-gated ion channel activated by ATP that contributes to neuro- and glio-transmission. P2X receptors are expressed by both neurons and glia in various brain regions, including the hippocampus. Electrophysiology, pharmacology and genetic studies suggest certain P2X receptors are activated during pathologic brain activity. Expression of several members of the family including P2X2, P2X4, and P2X7 receptors has been reported to be altered in the hippocampus following status epilepticus. Recent studies have shown that ligands of the P2X7 receptor can have potent effects on seizure severity during status epilepticus and mice lacking this receptor display altered seizures in response to chemoconvulsants. Antagonists of the P2X7 receptor also modulate neuronal death, microglial responses and neuroinflammatory signaling. Recent work also found altered neuronal injury and inflammation after status epilepticus in mice lacking the P2X4 receptor. In summary, members of the P2X receptor family may serve important roles in the pathophysiology of status epilepticus and represent novel targets for seizure control and neuroprotection.

  6. Targeting Anti-Insulin B Cell Receptors Improves Receptor Editing in Type 1 Diabetes-Prone Mice1, 2, 3

    PubMed Central

    Bonami, Rachel H.; Thomas, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Autoreactive B lymphocytes that commonly arise in the developing repertoire can be salvaged by receptor editing, a central tolerance mechanism that alters BCR specificity through continued L chain rearrangement. It is unknown whether autoantigens with weak cross-linking potential, such as insulin, elicit receptor editing, or if this process is dysregulated in related autoimmunity. To resolve these issues, an editing-competent model was developed in which anti-insulin Vκ125 was targeted to the Igκ locus and paired with anti-insulin VH125Tg. Physiologic, circulating insulin increased RAG-2 expression and was associated with BCR replacement that eliminated autoantigen recognition in a proportion of developing anti-insulin B lymphocytes. The proportion of anti-insulin B cells that underwent receptor editing was reduced in the type 1 diabetes-prone NOD strain relative to a non-autoimmune strain. Resistance to editing was associated with increased surface IgM expression on immature (but not transitional or mature) anti-insulin B cells in the NOD strain. The actions of mAb123 on central tolerance were also investigated, as selective targeting of insulin-occupied BCR by mAb123 eliminates anti-insulin B lymphocytes and prevents type 1 diabetes. Autoantigen-targeting by mAb123 increased RAG-2 expression and dramatically enhanced BCR replacement in newly developed B lymphocytes. Administering F(ab’)2123 induced IgM downregulation and reduced the frequency of anti-insulin B lymphocytes within the polyclonal repertoire of VH125Tg/NOD mice, suggesting enhanced central tolerance by direct BCR interaction. These findings indicate that weak or faulty checkpoints for central tolerance can be overcome by autoantigen-specific immunomodulatory therapy. PMID:26432895

  7. Role of central and peripheral adenosine receptors in the cardiovascular responses to intraperitoneal injections of adenosine A1 and A2A subtype receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Charles W; Karcz-Kubicha, Marzena; Thorndike, Eric B; Müller, Christa E; Tella, Srihari R; Ferré, Sergi; Goldberg, Steven R

    2005-03-01

    1. The cardiovascular effects of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) and the adenosine A2A receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680) were investigated in rats implanted with telemetry transmitters for the measurement of blood pressure and heart rate. 2. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist CPA led to dose-dependent decreases in both blood pressure and heart rate. These effects of 0.3 mg kg(-1) CPA were antagonized by i.p. injections of the adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethyl-xanthine (CPT), but not by i.p. injections of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist 3-(3-hydroxypropyl)-8-(m-methoxystyryl)-7-methyl-1-propargylxanthine phosphate disodium salt (MSX-3). Injections (i.p.) of the peripherally acting nonselective adenosine antagonist 8-sulfophenyltheophylline (8-SPT) and the purported nonselective adenosine antagonist caffeine also antagonized the cardiovascular effects of CPA. 3. The adenosine A2A agonist CGS 21680 given i.p. produced a dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure and an increase in heart rate. These effects of 0.5 mg kg(-1) CGS 21680 were antagonized by i.p. injections of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3, but not by i.p. injections of the antagonists CPT, 8-SPT or caffeine. 4. Central administration (intracerebral ventricular) of CGS 21680 produced an increase in heart rate, but no change in blood pressure. MSX-3 given i.p. antagonized the effects of the central injection of CGS 21680. 5. These results suggest that adenosine A1 receptor agonists produce decreases in blood pressure and heart rate that are mediated by A1 receptors in the periphery, with little or no contribution of central adenosine A1 receptors to those effects. 6. The heart rate increasing effect of adenosine A2A agonists appears to be mediated by adenosine A2A receptors in the central nervous system. The blood pressure decreasing

  8. Novel Dual Mitochondrial and CD44 Receptor Targeting Nanoparticles for Redox Stimuli-Triggered Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kaili; Qi, Mengjiao; Guo, Chunjing; Yu, Yueming; Wang, Bingjie; Fang, Lei; Liu, Mengna; Wang, Zhen; Fan, Xinxin; Chen, Daquan

    2018-02-01

    In this work, novel mitochondrial and CD44 receptor dual-targeting redox-sensitive multifunctional nanoparticles (micelles) based on oligomeric hyaluronic acid (oHA) were proposed. The amphiphilic nanocarrier was prepared by (5-carboxypentyl)triphenylphosphonium bromide (TPP), oligomeric hyaluronic acid (oHA), disulfide bond, and curcumin (Cur), named as TPP-oHA-S-S-Cur. The TPP targeted the mitochondria, the antitumor drug Cur served as a hydrophobic core, the CD44 receptor targeting oHA worked as a hydrophilic shell, and the disulfide bond acted as a connecting arm. The chemical structure of TPP-oHA-S-S-Cur was characterized by 1HNMR technology. Cur was loaded into the TPP-oHA-S-S-Cur micelles by self-assembly. Some properties, including the preparation of micelles, morphology, redox sensitivity, and mitochondrial targeting, were studied. The results showed that TPP-oHA-S-S-Cur micelles had a mean diameter of 122.4 ± 23.4 nm, zeta potential - 26.55 ± 4.99 mV. In vitro release study and cellular uptake test showed that TPP-oHA-S-S-Cur micelles had redox sensibility, dual targeting to mitochondrial and CD44 receptor. This work provided a promising smart multifunctional nanocarrier platform to enhance the solubility, decrease the side effects, and improve the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs.

  9. M-type phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibodies and renal function in patients with primary membranous nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Hoxha, Elion; Harendza, Sigrid; Pinnschmidt, Hans; Panzer, Ulf; Stahl, Rolf A K

    2014-11-07

    Loss of renal function in patients with primary membranous nephropathy cannot be reliably predicted by laboratory or clinical markers at the time of diagnosis. M-type phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibodies have been shown to be associated with changes in proteinuria. Their eventual effect on renal function, however, is unclear. In this prospective, open, multicenter study, the potential role of M-type phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibodies levels on the increase of serum creatinine in 118 consecutive patients with membranous nephropathy and positivity for serum M-type phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibodies was analyzed. Patients were included in the study between April of 2010 and December of 2012 and observed until December of 2013. The clinical end point was defined as an increase of serum creatinine by ≥ 25% and serum creatinine reaching ≥ 1.3 mg/dl. Patients were divided into tertiles according to their M-type phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibody levels at the time of inclusion in the study: tertile 1 levels=20-86 units/ml (low), tertile 2 levels=87-201 units/ml (medium), and tertile 3 levels ≥ 202 units/ml (high). The median follow-up time of all patients in the study was 27 months (interquartile range=18-33 months). The clinical end point was reached in 69% of patients with high M-type phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibodies levels (tertile 3) but only 25% of patients with low M-type phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibodies levels. The average time to reach the study end point was 17.7 months in patients with high M-type phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibodies levels and 30.9 months in patients with low M-type phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibodies levels. A multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that high M-type phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibodies levels-in addition to men and older age-are an independent predictor for progressive loss of renal function. High M-type phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibodies levels were associated

  10. In search of novel ligands using a structure-based approach: a case study on the adenosine A2A receptor.

    PubMed

    Lenselink, Eelke B; Beuming, Thijs; van Veen, Corine; Massink, Arnault; Sherman, Woody; van Vlijmen, Herman W T; IJzerman, Adriaan P

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we present a case study to explore the challenges associated with finding novel molecules for a receptor that has been studied in depth and has a wealth of chemical information available. Specifically, we apply a previously described protocol that incorporates explicit water molecules in the ligand binding site to prospectively screen over 2.5 million drug-like and lead-like compounds from the commercially available eMolecules database in search of novel binders to the adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2A AR). A total of seventy-one compounds were selected for purchase and biochemical assaying based on high ligand efficiency and high novelty (Tanimoto coefficient ≤0.25 to any A 2A AR tested compound). These molecules were then tested for their affinity to the adenosine A 2A receptor in a radioligand binding assay. We identified two hits that fulfilled the criterion of ~50 % radioligand displacement at a concentration of 10 μM. Next we selected an additional eight novel molecules that were predicted to make a bidentate interaction with Asn253 6.55 , a key interacting residue in the binding pocket of the A 2A AR. None of these eight molecules were found to be active. Based on these results we discuss the advantages of structure-based methods and the challenges associated with finding chemically novel molecules for well-explored targets.

  11. A Plant Immune Receptor Detects Pathogen Effectors that Target WRKY Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Panagiotis F; Duxbury, Zane; Huh, Sung Un; Ma, Yan; Segonzac, Cécile; Sklenar, Jan; Derbyshire, Paul; Cevik, Volkan; Rallapalli, Ghanasyam; Saucet, Simon B; Wirthmueller, Lennart; Menke, Frank L H; Sohn, Kee Hoon; Jones, Jonathan D G

    2015-05-21

    Defense against pathogens in multicellular eukaryotes depends on intracellular immune receptors, yet surveillance by these receptors is poorly understood. Several plant nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) immune receptors carry fusions with other protein domains. The Arabidopsis RRS1-R NB-LRR protein carries a C-terminal WRKY DNA binding domain and forms a receptor complex with RPS4, another NB-LRR protein. This complex detects the bacterial effectors AvrRps4 or PopP2 and then activates defense. Both bacterial proteins interact with the RRS1 WRKY domain, and PopP2 acetylates lysines to block DNA binding. PopP2 and AvrRps4 interact with other WRKY domain-containing proteins, suggesting these effectors interfere with WRKY transcription factor-dependent defense, and RPS4/RRS1 has integrated a "decoy" domain that enables detection of effectors that target WRKY proteins. We propose that NB-LRR receptor pairs, one member of which carries an additional protein domain, enable perception of pathogen effectors whose function is to target that domain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Potential therapeutic targets for ATP-gated P2X receptor ion channels.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiyuan; Liang, Dong; Chen, Ling

    2008-04-01

    P2X receptors make up a novel family of ligand-gated ion channels that are activated by binding of extracellular ATP. These receptors can form a number of homomeric and heteromeric ion channels, which are widely distributed throughout the human body. They are thought to play an important role in many cellular processes, including synaptic transmission and thrombocyte aggregation. These ion channels are also involved in the pathology of several disease states, including chronic inflammation and neuropathic pain, and thus are the potential targets for drug development. The recent discovery of potent and highly selective antagonists for P2X(7) receptors, through the use of high-throughput screening, has helped to further understand the P2X receptor pharmacology and provided new evidence that P2X(7) receptors play a specific role in chronic pain states. In this review, we discuss how the P2X family of ion channels has distinguished itself as a potential new drug target. We are optimistic that safe and effective candidate drugs will be suitable for progression into clinical development.

  13. A Rationally Designed Agonist Defines Subfamily IIIA Abscisic Acid Receptors As Critical Targets for Manipulating Transpiration.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Aditya S; Peterson, Francis C; Yarmolinsky, Dmitry; Merilo, Ebe; Verstraeten, Inge; Park, Sang-Youl; Elzinga, Dezi; Kaundal, Amita; Helander, Jonathan; Lozano-Juste, Jorge; Otani, Masato; Wu, Kevin; Jensen, Davin R; Kollist, Hannes; Volkman, Brian F; Cutler, Sean R

    2017-11-17

    Increasing drought and diminishing freshwater supplies have stimulated interest in developing small molecules that can be used to control transpiration. Receptors for the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) have emerged as key targets for this application, because ABA controls the apertures of stomata, which in turn regulate transpiration. Here, we describe the rational design of cyanabactin, an ABA receptor agonist that preferentially activates Pyrabactin Resistance 1 (PYR1) with low nanomolar potency. A 1.63 Å X-ray crystallographic structure of cyanabactin in complex with PYR1 illustrates that cyanabactin's arylnitrile mimics ABA's cyclohexenone oxygen and engages the tryptophan lock, a key component required to stabilize activated receptors. Further, its sulfonamide and 4-methylbenzyl substructures mimic ABA's carboxylate and C6 methyl groups, respectively. Isothermal titration calorimetry measurements show that cyanabactin's compact structure provides ready access to high ligand efficiency on a relatively simple scaffold. Cyanabactin treatments reduce Arabidopsis whole-plant stomatal conductance and activate multiple ABA responses, demonstrating that its in vitro potency translates to ABA-like activity in vivo. Genetic analyses show that the effects of cyanabactin, and the previously identified agonist quinabactin, can be abolished by the genetic removal of PYR1 and PYL1, which form subclade A within the dimeric subfamily III receptors. Thus, cyanabactin is a potent and selective agonist with a wide spectrum of ABA-like activities that defines subfamily IIIA receptors as key target sites for manipulating transpiration.

  14. Mechanism and Site of Inhibition of AMPA Receptors: Pairing a Thiadiazole with a 2,3-Benzodiazepine Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    2,3-Benzodiazepine compounds are synthesized as drug candidates for treatment of various neurological disorders involving excessive activity of AMPA receptors. Here we report that pairing a thiadiazole moiety with a 2,3-benzodiazepine scaffold via the N-3 position yields an inhibitor type with >28-fold better potency and selectivity on AMPA receptors than the 2,3-benzodiazepine scaffold alone. Using whole-cell recording, we characterized two thiadiazolyl compounds, that is, one contains a 1,3,4-thiadiazole moiety and the other contains a 1,2,4-thiadiazole-3-one moiety. These compounds exhibit potent, equal inhibition of both the closed-channel and the open-channel conformations of all four homomeric AMPA receptor channels and two GluA2R-containing complex AMPA receptor channels. Furthermore, these compounds bind to the same receptor site as GYKI 52466 does, a site we previously termed as the “M” site. A thiadiazole moiety is thought to occupy more fully the side pocket of the receptor site or the “M” site, thereby generating a stronger, multivalent interaction between the inhibitor and the receptor binding site. We suggest that, as a heterocycle, a thiadiazole can be further modified chemically to produce a new class of even more potent, noncompetitive inhibitors of AMPA receptors. PMID:24313227

  15. Targeting the interleukin-11 receptor α in metastatic prostate cancer: A first-in-man study.

    PubMed

    Pasqualini, Renata; Millikan, Randall E; Christianson, Dawn R; Cardó-Vila, Marina; Driessen, Wouter H P; Giordano, Ricardo J; Hajitou, Amin; Hoang, Anh G; Wen, Sijin; Barnhart, Kirstin F; Baze, Wallace B; Marcott, Valerie D; Hawke, David H; Do, Kim-Anh; Navone, Nora M; Efstathiou, Eleni; Troncoso, Patricia; Lobb, Roy R; Logothetis, Christopher J; Arap, Wadih

    2015-07-15

    Receptors in tumor blood vessels are attractive targets for ligand-directed drug discovery and development. The authors have worked systematically to map human endothelial receptors ("vascular zip codes") within tumors through direct peptide library selection in cancer patients. Previously, they selected a ligand-binding motif to the interleukin-11 receptor alpha (IL-11Rα) in the human vasculature. The authors generated a ligand-directed, peptidomimetic drug (bone metastasis-targeting peptidomimetic-11 [BMTP-11]) for IL-11Rα-based human tumor vascular targeting. Preclinical studies (efficacy/toxicity) included evaluating BMTP-11 in prostate cancer xenograft models, drug localization, targeted apoptotic effects, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses, and dose-range determination, including formal (good laboratory practice) toxicity across rodent and nonhuman primate species. The initial BMTP-11 clinical development also is reported based on a single-institution, open-label, first-in-class, first-in-man trial (National Clinical Trials number NCT00872157) in patients with metastatic, castrate-resistant prostate cancer. BMTP-11 was preclinically promising and, thus, was chosen for clinical development in patients. Limited numbers of patients who had castrate-resistant prostate cancer with osteoblastic bone metastases were enrolled into a phase 0 trial with biology-driven endpoints. The authors demonstrated biopsy-verified localization of BMTP-11 to tumors in the bone marrow and drug-induced apoptosis in all patients. Moreover, the maximum tolerated dose was identified on a weekly schedule (20-30 mg/m(2) ). Finally, a renal dose-limiting toxicity was determined, namely, dose-dependent, reversible nephrotoxicity with proteinuria and casts involving increased serum creatinine. These biologic endpoints establish BMTP-11 as a targeted drug candidate in metastatic, castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Within a larger discovery context, the current findings indicate that

  16. The neuronal Ca(2+) -binding protein 2 (NECAB2) interacts with the adenosine A(2A) receptor and modulates the cell surface expression and function of the receptor.

    PubMed

    Canela, Laia; Luján, Rafael; Lluís, Carme; Burgueño, Javier; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Franco, Rafael; Ciruela, Francisco

    2007-09-01

    Heptaspanning membrane also known as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) do interact with a variety of intracellular proteins whose function is regulate receptor traffic and/or signaling. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, NECAB2, a neuronal calcium binding protein, was identified as a binding partner for the adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R) interacting with its C-terminal domain. Co-localization, co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down experiments showed a close and specific interaction between A(2A)R and NECAB2 in both transfected HEK-293 cells and also in rat striatum. Immunoelectron microscopy detection of NECAB2 and A(2A)R in the rat striatopallidal structures indicated that both proteins are co-distributed in the same glutamatergic nerve terminals. The interaction of NECAB2 with A(2A)R modulated the cell surface expression, the ligand-dependent internalization and the receptor-mediated activation of the MAPK pathway. Overall, these results show that A(2A)R interacts with NECAB2 in striatal neurones co-expressing the two proteins and that the interaction is relevant for A(2A)R function.

  17. Molecular Evidence of Adenosine Deaminase Linking Adenosine A2A Receptor and CD26 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Estefanía; Canet, Júlia; Gracia, Eduard; Lluís, Carme; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I.; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent

    2018-01-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that acts in all living systems as a homeostatic network regulator through many pathways, which are adenosine receptor (AR)-dependent and -independent. From a metabolic point of view, adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an essential protein in the regulation of the total intracellular and extracellular adenosine in a tissue. In addition to its cytosolic localization, ADA is also expressed as an ecto-enzyme on the surface of different cells. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (CD26) and some ARs act as binding proteins for extracellular ADA in humans. Since CD26 and ARs interact with ADA at opposite sites, we have investigated if ADA can function as a cell-to-cell communication molecule by bridging the anchoring molecules CD26 and A2AR present on the surfaces of the interacting cells. By combining site-directed mutagenesis of ADA amino acids involved in binding to A2AR and a modification of the bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) technique that allows detection of interactions between two proteins expressed in different cell populations with low steric hindrance (NanoBRET), we show direct evidence of the specific formation of trimeric complexes CD26-ADA-A2AR involving two cells. By dynamic mass redistribution assays and ligand binding experiments, we also demonstrate that A2AR-NanoLuc fusion proteins are functional. The existence of this ternary complex is in good agreement with the hypothesis that ADA could bridge T-cells (expressing CD26) and dendritic cells (expressing A2AR). This is a new metabolic function for ecto-ADA that, being a single chain protein, it has been considered as an example of moonlighting protein, because it performs more than one functional role (as a catalyst, a costimulator, an allosteric modulator and a cell-to-cell connector) without partitioning these functions in different subunits. PMID:29497379

  18. Molecular Evidence of Adenosine Deaminase Linking Adenosine A2A Receptor and CD26 Proteins.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Estefanía; Canet, Júlia; Gracia, Eduard; Lluís, Carme; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent

    2018-01-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that acts in all living systems as a homeostatic network regulator through many pathways, which are adenosine receptor (AR)-dependent and -independent. From a metabolic point of view, adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an essential protein in the regulation of the total intracellular and extracellular adenosine in a tissue. In addition to its cytosolic localization, ADA is also expressed as an ecto-enzyme on the surface of different cells. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (CD26) and some ARs act as binding proteins for extracellular ADA in humans. Since CD26 and ARs interact with ADA at opposite sites, we have investigated if ADA can function as a cell-to-cell communication molecule by bridging the anchoring molecules CD26 and A 2A R present on the surfaces of the interacting cells. By combining site-directed mutagenesis of ADA amino acids involved in binding to A 2A R and a modification of the bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) technique that allows detection of interactions between two proteins expressed in different cell populations with low steric hindrance (NanoBRET), we show direct evidence of the specific formation of trimeric complexes CD26-ADA-A 2A R involving two cells. By dynamic mass redistribution assays and ligand binding experiments, we also demonstrate that A 2A R-NanoLuc fusion proteins are functional. The existence of this ternary complex is in good agreement with the hypothesis that ADA could bridge T-cells (expressing CD26) and dendritic cells (expressing A 2A R). This is a new metabolic function for ecto-ADA that, being a single chain protein, it has been considered as an example of moonlighting protein, because it performs more than one functional role (as a catalyst, a costimulator, an allosteric modulator and a cell-to-cell connector) without partitioning these functions in different subunits.

  19. Receptor-Targeted Nanoparticles for In Vivo Imaging of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lily; Peng, Xiang-Hong; Wang, Y. Andrew; Wang, Xiaoxia; Cao, Zehong; Ni, Chunchun; Karna, Prasanthi; Zhang, Xinjian; Wood, William C.; Gao, Xiaohu; Nie, Shuming; Mao, Hui

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Cell surface receptor-targeted magnetic iron oxide (IO) nanoparticles provide molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents for improving specificity of the detection of human cancer. Experimental design The present study reports the development of a novel targeted IO nanoparticle using a recombinant peptide containing the amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of urokinase plasminogen activator conjugated to IO nanoparticles (ATF-IO). This nanoparticle targets urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), which is overexpressed in breast cancer tissues. Results ATF-IO nanoparticles are able to specifically bind to and be internalized by uPAR-expressing tumor cells. Systemic delivery of ATF-IO nanoparticles into mice bearing subcutaneous and intraperitoneal mammary tumors leads to the accumulation of the particles in tumors, generating a strong MRI contrast detectable by a clinical MRI scanner at a field strength of 3 Tesla. Target specificity of ATF-IO nanoparticles demonstrated by in vivo MRI is further confirmed by near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging of the mammary tumors using NIR dye-labeled ATF peptides conjugated to IO nanoparticles. Furthermore, mice administered ATF-IO nanoparticles exhibit lower uptake of the particles in the liver and spleen compared to those receiving non-targeted IO nanoparticles. Conclusions Our results suggest that uPAR-targeted ATF-IO nanoparticles have potential as molecularly-targeted, dual modality imaging agents for in vivo imaging of breast cancer. PMID:19584158

  20. Therapeutic potential of targeting group III metabotropic glutamate receptors in the treatment of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Duty, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Current drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), for example, L-DOPA and dopamine agonists, are very effective at reversing the motor symptoms of the disease. However, they do little to combat the underlying degeneration of dopaminergic neurones in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and their long-term use is associated with the appearance of adverse effects such as L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. Much emphasis has therefore been placed on finding alternative non-dopaminergic drugs that may circumvent some or all of these problems. Group III metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors were first identified in the basal ganglia a decade ago. One or more of these receptors (mGlu4, mGlu7 or mGlu8) is found on pre-synaptic terminals of basal ganglia pathways whose overactivity is implicated not only in the generation of motor symptoms in PD, but also in driving the progressive SNc degeneration. The finding that drugs which activate group III mGlu receptors can inhibit transmission across these overactive synapses has lead to the proposal that group III mGlu receptors are promising targets for drug discovery in PD. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the role and target potential of group III mGlu receptors in the basal ganglia. Overwhelming evidence obtained from in vitro studies and animal models of PD supports group III mGlu receptors as potentially important drug targets for providing both symptom relief and neuroprotection in PD. PMID:20735415

  1. Antitumor activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes engineered to target vascular endothelial growth factor receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederman, Thomas M. J.; Ghogawala, Zoher; Carter, Bob S.; Tompkins, Hillary S.; Russell, Margaret M.; Mulligan, Richard C.

    2002-05-01

    The demonstration that angiogenesis is required for the growth of solid tumors has fueled an intense interest in the development of new therapeutic strategies that target the tumor vasculature. Here we report the development of an immune-based antiangiogenic strategy that is based on the generation of T lymphocytes that possess a killing specificity for cells expressing vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs). To target VEGFR-expressing cells, recombinant retroviral vectors were generated that encoded a chimeric T cell receptor comprised of VEGF sequences linked to intracellular signaling sequences derived from the chain of the T cell receptor. After transduction of primary murine CD8 lymphocytes by such vectors, the transduced cells were shown to possess an efficient killing specificity for cells expressing the VEGF receptor, Flk-1, as measured by in vitro cytotoxicity assays. After adoptive transfer into tumor-bearing mice, the genetically modified cytotoxic T lymphocytes strongly inhibited the growth of a variety of syngeneic murine tumors and human tumor xenografts. An increased effect on in vivo tumor growth inhibition was seen when this therapy was combined with the systemic administration of TNP-470, a conventional angiogenesis inhibitor. The utilization of the immune system to target angiogenic markers expressed on tumor vasculature may prove to be a powerful means for controlling tumor growth.

  2. Crystal structure of the adenosine A 2A receptor bound to an antagonist reveals a potential allosteric pocket

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Bingfa; Bachhawat, Priti; Chu, Matthew Ling-Hon

    The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) has long been implicated in cardiovascular disorders. As more selective A2AR ligands are being identified, its roles in other disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, are starting to emerge, and A2AR antagonists are important drug candidates for nondopaminergic anti-Parkinson treatment. Here we report the crystal structure of A2A receptor bound to compound 1 (Cmpd-1), a novel A2AR/N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subtype 2B (NR2B) dual antagonist and potential anti-Parkinson candidate compound, at 3.5 Å resolution. The A2A receptor with a cytochrome b562-RIL (BRIL) fusion (A2AR–BRIL) in the intracellular loop 3 (ICL3) was crystallized in detergent micelles using vapor-phasemore » diffusion. Whereas A2AR–BRIL bound to the antagonist ZM241385 has previously been crystallized in lipidic cubic phase (LCP), structural differences in the Cmpd-1–bound A2AR–BRIL prevented formation of the lattice observed with the ZM241385–bound receptor. The crystals grew with a type II crystal lattice in contrast to the typical type I packing seen from membrane protein structures crystallized in LCP. Cmpd-1 binds in a position that overlaps with the native ligand adenosine, but its methoxyphenyl group extends to an exosite not previously observed in other A2AR structures. Structural analysis revealed that Cmpd-1 binding results in the unique conformations of two tyrosine residues, Tyr91.35 and Tyr2717.36, which are critical for the formation of the exosite. The structure reveals insights into antagonist binding that are not observed in other A2AR structures, highlighting flexibility in the binding pocket that may facilitate the development of A2AR-selective compounds for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.« less

  3. The Metabotropic Purinergic P2Y Receptor Family as Novel Drug Target in Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Alves, Mariana; Beamer, Edward; Engel, Tobias

    2018-01-01

    Epilepsy encompasses a heterogeneous group of neurological syndromes which are characterized by recurrent seizures affecting over 60 million people worldwide. Current anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are mainly designed to target ion channels and/or GABA or glutamate receptors. Despite recent advances in drug development, however, pharmacoresistance in epilepsy remains as high as 30%, suggesting the need for the development of new AEDs with a non-classical mechanism of action. Neuroinflammation is increasingly recognized as one of the key players in seizure generation and in the maintenance of the epileptic phenotype. Consequently, targeting signaling molecules involved in inflammatory processes may represent new avenues to improve treatment in epilepsy. Nucleotides such as adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) and uridine-5'-triphosphate (UTP) are released in the brain into the extracellular space during pathological conditions such as increased neuronal firing or cell death. Once released, these nucleotides bind to and activate specific purinergic receptors termed P2 receptors where they mediate the release of gliotransmitters and drive neuronal hyperexcitation and neuroinflammatory processes. This includes the fast acting ionotropic P2X channels and slower-acting G-protein-coupled P2Y receptors. While the expression and function of P2X receptors has been well-established in experimental models of epilepsy, emerging evidence is now also suggesting a prominent role for the P2Y receptor subfamily in seizure generation and the maintenance of epilepsy. In this review we discuss data supporting a role for the P2Y receptor family in epilepsy and the most recent finding demonstrating their involvement during seizure-induced pathology and in epilepsy.

  4. Targeting CB2-GPR55 Receptor Heteromers Modulates Cancer Cell Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Estefanía; Andradas, Clara; Medrano, Mireia; Caffarel, María M.; Pérez-Gómez, Eduardo; Blasco-Benito, Sandra; Gómez-Cañas, María; Pazos, M. Ruth; Irving, Andrew J.; Lluís, Carme; Canela, Enric I.; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Guzmán, Manuel; McCormick, Peter J.; Sánchez, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The G protein-coupled receptors CB2 (CB2R) and GPR55 are overexpressed in cancer cells and human tumors. Because a modulation of GPR55 activity by cannabinoids has been suggested, we analyzed whether this receptor participates in cannabinoid effects on cancer cells. Here we show that CB2R and GPR55 form heteromers in cancer cells, that these structures possess unique signaling properties, and that modulation of these heteromers can modify the antitumoral activity of cannabinoids in vivo. These findings unveil the existence of previously unknown signaling platforms that help explain the complex behavior of cannabinoids and may constitute new targets for therapeutic intervention in oncology. PMID:24942731

  5. Transferrin receptor-targeted theranostic gold nanoparticles for photosensitizer delivery in brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Suraj; Novak, Thomas; Miller, Kayla; Zhu, Yun; Kenney, Malcolm E.

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is not only inefficient, but also nonspecific to brain stroma. These are major limitations in the effective treatment of brain cancer. Transferrin peptide (Tfpep) targeted gold nanoparticles (Tfpep-Au NPs) loaded with the photodynamic pro-drug, Pc 4, have been designed and compared with untargeted Au NPs for delivery of the photosensitizer to brain cancer cell lines. In vitro studies of human glioma cancer lines (LN229 and U87) overexpressing the transferrin receptor (TfR) show a significant increase in cellular uptake for targeted conjugates as compared to un-targeted particles. Pc 4 delivered from Tfpep-Au NPs clusters within vesicles after targeting with the Tfpep. Pc 4 continues to accumulate over a 4 hour period. Our work suggests that TfR-targeted Au NPs may have important therapeutic implications for delivering brain tumor therapies and/or providing a platform for noninvasive imaging. PMID:25519743

  6. Targeting the interleukin-11 receptor α in metastatic prostate cancer: A first-in-man study

    PubMed Central

    Pasqualini, Renata; Millikan, Randall E; Christianson, Dawn R; Cardó-Vila, Marina; Driessen, Wouter H P; Giordano, Ricardo J; Hajitou, Amin; Hoang, Anh G; Wen, Sijin; Barnhart, Kirstin F; Baze, Wallace B; Marcott, Valerie D; Hawke, David H; Do, Kim-Anh; Navone, Nora M; Efstathiou, Eleni; Troncoso, Patricia; Lobb, Roy R; Logothetis, Christopher J; Arap, Wadih

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Receptors in tumor blood vessels are attractive targets for ligand-directed drug discovery and development. The authors have worked systematically to map human endothelial receptors (“vascular zip codes”) within tumors through direct peptide library selection in cancer patients. Previously, they selected a ligand-binding motif to the interleukin-11 receptor alpha (IL-11Rα) in the human vasculature. METHODS The authors generated a ligand-directed, peptidomimetic drug (bone metastasis-targeting peptidomimetic-11 [BMTP-11]) for IL-11Rα–based human tumor vascular targeting. Preclinical studies (efficacy/toxicity) included evaluating BMTP-11 in prostate cancer xenograft models, drug localization, targeted apoptotic effects, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses, and dose-range determination, including formal (good laboratory practice) toxicity across rodent and nonhuman primate species. The initial BMTP-11 clinical development also is reported based on a single-institution, open-label, first-in-class, first-in-man trial (National Clinical Trials number NCT00872157) in patients with metastatic, castrate-resistant prostate cancer. RESULTS BMTP-11 was preclinically promising and, thus, was chosen for clinical development in patients. Limited numbers of patients who had castrate-resistant prostate cancer with osteoblastic bone metastases were enrolled into a phase 0 trial with biology-driven endpoints. The authors demonstrated biopsy-verified localization of BMTP-11 to tumors in the bone marrow and drug-induced apoptosis in all patients. Moreover, the maximum tolerated dose was identified on a weekly schedule (20-30 mg/m2). Finally, a renal dose-limiting toxicity was determined, namely, dose-dependent, reversible nephrotoxicity with proteinuria and casts involving increased serum creatinine. CONCLUSIONS These biologic endpoints establish BMTP-11 as a targeted drug candidate in metastatic, castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Within a larger discovery

  7. Antagonistic targeting of the histamine H3 receptor decreases caloric intake in higher mammalian species.

    PubMed

    Malmlöf, Kjell; Hastrup, Sven; Wulff, Birgitte Schellerup; Hansen, Barbara C; Peschke, Bernd; Jeppesen, Claus Bekker; Hohlweg, Rolf; Rimvall, Karin

    2007-04-15

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a selective histamine H(3) receptor antagonist, NNC 38-1202, on caloric intake in pigs and in rhesus monkeys. The compound was given intragastrically (5 or 15 mg/kg), to normal pigs (n=7) and subcutaneously (1 or 0.1mg/kg) to obese rhesus monkeys (n=9). The energy intake recorded following administration of vehicle to the same animals served as control for the effect of the compound. In addition, rhesus monkey and pig histamine H(3) receptors were cloned from hypothalamic tissues and expressed in mammalian cell lines. The in vitro antagonist potencies of NNC 38-1202 at the H(3) receptors were determined using a functional GTPgammaS binding assay. Porcine and human H(3) receptors were found to have 93.3% identity at the amino acid level and the close homology between the monkey and human H(3) receptors (98.4% identity) was confirmed. The antagonist potencies of NNC 38-1202 at the porcine, monkey and human histamine H(3) receptors were high as evidenced by K(i)-values being clearly below 20 nM, whereas the K(i)-value on the rat H(3) receptor was significantly higher (56+/-6.0 nM). NNC 38-1202, given to pigs in a dose of 15 mg/kg, produced a significant (p<0.05) reduction (55%) of calorie intake compared with vehicle alone, (132.6+/-10.0 kcal/kgday versus 59.7+/-10.2 kcal/kgday). In rhesus monkeys administration of 0.1 and 1mg/kg decreased (p<0.05) average calorie intakes by 40 and 75%, respectively. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that antagonistic targeting of the histamine H(3) receptor decreases caloric intake in higher mammalian species.

  8. Co-targeting the HER and IGF/insulin receptor axis in breast cancer, with triple targeting with endocrine therapy for hormone-sensitive disease.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Ashok; Hatzis, Christos; DiGiovanna, Michael P

    2017-05-01

    Interactions between HER2, estrogen receptor (ER), and insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF1R) are implicated in resistance to monotherapies targeting these receptors. We have previously shown in pre-clinical studies synergistic anti-tumor effects for co-targeting each pairwise combination of HER2, IGF1R, and ER. Strikingly, synergy for HER2/IGF1R targeting occurred not only in a HER2+ model, but also in a HER2-normal model. The purpose of the current study was therefore to determine the generalizability of synergistic anti-tumor effects of co-targeting HER2/IGF1R, the anti-tumor activity of triple-targeting HER2/IGF1R/ER in hormone-dependent cell lines, and the effect of using the multi-targeting drugs neratinib (pan-HER) and BMS-754807 (dual IGF1R/insulin receptor). Proliferation and apoptosis assays were performed in a large panel of cell lines representing varying receptor expression levels. Mechanistic effects were studied using phospho-protein immunoblotting. Analyses of drug interaction effects were performed using linear mixed-effects regression models. Enhanced anti-proliferative effects of HER/IGF-insulin co-targeting were seen in most, though not all, cell lines, including HER2-normal lines. For ER+ lines, triple targeting with inclusion of anti-estrogen generally resulted in the greatest anti-tumor effects. Double or triple targeting generally resulted in marked increases in apoptosis in the sensitive lines. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that the synergy between drugs was correlated with maximal inhibition of Akt and ERK pathway signaling. Dual HER/IGF-insulin targeting, and triple targeting with inclusion of anti-estrogen drugs, shows striking anti-tumor activity across breast cancer types, and drugs with broader receptor specificity may be more effective than single receptor selective drugs, particularly for ER- cells.

  9. Estrogen receptor coregulator binding modulators (ERXs) effectively target estrogen receptor positive human breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Ganesh V; Sareddy, Gangadhara Reddy; Ma, Shihong; Lee, Tae-Kyung; Viswanadhapalli, Suryavathi; Li, Rui; Liu, Xihui; Murakami, Shino; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Lee, Wan-Ru; Mann, Monica; Krishnan, Samaya Rajeshwari; Manandhar, Bikash; Gonugunta, Vijay K; Strand, Douglas; Tekmal, Rajeshwar Rao; Ahn, Jung-Mo; Vadlamudi, Ratna K

    2017-01-01

    The majority of human breast cancer is estrogen receptor alpha (ER) positive. While anti-estrogens/aromatase inhibitors are initially effective, resistance to these drugs commonly develops. Therapy-resistant tumors often retain ER signaling, via interaction with critical oncogenic coregulator proteins. To address these mechanisms of resistance, we have developed a novel ER coregulator binding modulator, ERX-11. ERX-11 interacts directly with ER and blocks the interaction between a subset of coregulators with both native and mutant forms of ER. ERX-11 effectively blocks ER-mediated oncogenic signaling and has potent anti-proliferative activity against therapy-sensitive and therapy-resistant human breast cancer cells. ERX-11 is orally bioavailable, with no overt signs of toxicity and potent activity in both murine xenograft and patient-derived breast tumor explant models. This first-in-class agent, with its novel mechanism of action of disrupting critical protein-protein interactions, overcomes the limitations of current therapies and may be clinically translatable for patients with therapy-sensitive and therapy-resistant breast cancers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.26857.001 PMID:28786813

  10. Research Resource: Global Identification of Estrogen Receptor β Target Genes in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shanle, Erin K.; Zhao, Zibo; Hawse, John; Wisinski, Kari; Keles, Sunduz; Yuan, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancers that are negative for estrogen receptor α (ERα), progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 are known as triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC). TNBCs are associated with an overall poor prognosis because they lack expression of therapeutic targets like ERα and are biologically more aggressive. A second estrogen receptor, ERβ, has been found to be expressed in 50% to 90% of ERα-negative breast cancers, and ERβ expression in TNBCs has been shown to correlate with improved disease-free survival and good prognosis. To elucidate the role of ERβ in regulating gene expression and cell proliferation in TNBC cells, the TNBC cell line MDA-MB-468 was engineered with inducible expression of full-length ERβ. In culture, ERβ expression inhibited cell growth by inducing a G1 cell cycle arrest, which was further enhanced by 17β-estradiol treatment. In xenografts, ERβ expression also inhibited tumor formation and growth, and 17β-estradiol treatment resulted in rapid tumor regression. Furthermore, genomic RNA sequencing identified both ligand-dependent and -independent ERβ target genes, some of which were also regulated by ERβ in other TNBC cell lines and correlated with ERβ expression in a cohort of TNBCs from the Cancer Genome Atlas Network. ERβ target genes were enriched in genes that regulate cell death and survival, cell movement, cell development, and growth and proliferation, as well as genes involved in the Wnt/β-catenin and the G1/S cell cycle phase checkpoint pathways. In addition to confirming the anti-proliferative effects of ERβ in TNBC cells, these data provide a comprehensive resource of ERβ target genes and suggest that ERβ may be targeted with ligands that can stimulate its growth inhibitory effects. PMID:23979844

  11. Targeting of TAM Receptors Ameliorates Fibrotic Mechanisms in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Espindola, Milena S; Habiel, David M; Narayanan, Rohan; Jones, Isabelle; Coelho, Ana L; Murray, Lynne A; Jiang, Dianhua; Noble, Paul W; Hogaboam, Cory M

    2018-06-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by aberrant lung remodeling, which progressively abolishes lung function in an RTK (receptor tyrosine kinase)-dependent manner. Gas6 (growth arrest-specific 6) ligand, Tyro3 (TYRO3 protein tyrosine kinase 3), and Axl (anexelekto) RTK expression and activity are increased in IPF. To determine if targeting these RTK pathways would inhibit fibroblast activation and the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Quantitative genomic, proteomic, and functional analyses were used to determine Gas6/TAM (Tyro3, Axl, and Mertk [MER proto-oncogene, tyrosine kinase]) RTK expression and activation in tissues and fibroblasts from normal and IPF lungs. The profibrotic impact of these RTK pathways were also examined in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis and in SCID/Bg mice that developed pulmonary fibrosis after the intravenous administration of primary IPF fibroblasts. Gas6, Axl, and Tyro3 were increased in both rapidly and slowly progressive IPF compared with normal lung samples and fibroblasts. Targeting these pathways with either specific antibodies directed at Gas6 or Axl, or with small-molecule TAM inhibitors indicated that the small molecule-mediated targeting approach was more efficacious in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Specifically, the TAM receptor inhibitor R428 (also known as BGB324) significantly inhibited the synthetic, migratory, and proliferative properties of IPF fibroblasts compared with the other Gas6/TAM receptor targeting agents. Finally, loss of Gas6 expression decreased lung fibrotic responses to bleomycin and treatment with R428 inhibited pulmonary fibrosis in humanized SCID/Bg mice. Gas6/TAM receptor activity contributes to the activation of pulmonary fibroblasts in IPF, suggesting that targeting this RTK pathway might be an effective antifibrotic strategy in this disease.

  12. Novel 5-HT6 receptor antagonists/D2 receptor partial agonists targeting behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.

    PubMed

    Kołaczkowski, Marcin; Marcinkowska, Monika; Bucki, Adam; Śniecikowska, Joanna; Pawłowski, Maciej; Kazek, Grzegorz; Siwek, Agata; Jastrzębska-Więsek, Magdalena; Partyka, Anna; Wasik, Anna; Wesołowska, Anna; Mierzejewski, Paweł; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw

    2015-03-06

    We describe a novel class of designed multiple ligands (DMLs) combining serotonin 5-HT6 receptor (5-HT6R) antagonism with dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) partial agonism. Prototype hybrid molecules were designed using docking to receptor homology models. Diverse pharmacophore moieties yielded 3 series of hybrids with varying in vitro properties at 5-HT6R and D2R, and at M1 receptor and hERG channel antitargets. 4-(piperazin-1-yl)-1H-indole derivatives showed highest antagonist potency at 5-HT6R, with 7-butoxy-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one and 2-propoxybenzamide derivatives having promising D2R partial agonism. 2-(3-(4-(1-(phenylsulfonyl)-1H-indol-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl)propoxy)benzamide (47) exhibited nanomolar affinity at both 5-HT6R and D2R and was evaluated in rat models. It displayed potent antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like activity in the Porsolt and Vogel tests, respectively, more pronounced than that of a reference selective 5-HT6R antagonist or D2R partial agonist. In addition, 47 also showed antidepressant-like activity (Porsolt's test) and anxiolytic-like activity (open field test) in aged (>18-month old) rats. In operant conditioning tests, 47 enhanced responding for sweet reward in the saccharin self-administration test, consistent with anti-anhedonic properties. Further, 47 facilitated extinction of non-reinforced responding for sweet reward, suggesting potential procognitive activity. Taken together, these studies suggest that DMLs combining 5-HT6R antagonism and D2R partial agonism may successfully target affective disorders in patients from different age groups without a risk of cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. The Adenosine A2A Receptor Agonist, CGS-21680, Blocks Excessive Rearing, Acquisition of Wheel Running, and Increases Nucleus Accumbens CREB Phosphorylation in Chronically Food-Restricted Rats

    PubMed Central

    de Vaca, Soledad Cabeza; Kannan, Pavitra; Pan, Yan; Jiang, Nancy; Sun, Yanjie; Carr, Kenneth D.

    2007-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors are preferentially expressed in rat striatum, where they are concentrated in dendritic spines of striatopallidal medium spiny neurons and exist in a heteromeric complex with D2 dopamine (DA) receptors. Behavioral and biochemical studies indicate an antagonistic relationship between A2A and D2 receptors. Previous studies have demonstrated that food-restricted (FR) rats display behavioral and striatal cellular hypersensitivity to D1 and D2 DA receptor stimulation. These alterations may underlie adaptive, as well as maladaptive, behaviors characteristic of the FR rat. The present study examined whether FR rats are hypersensitive to the A2A receptor agonist, CGS-21680. In Experiment 1, spontaneous horizontal motor activity did not differ between FR and ad libitum fed (AL) rats, while vertical activity was greater in the former. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of CGS-21680 (0.25 and 1.0 nmol) decreased both types of motor activity in FR rats, and returned vertical activity levels to those observed in AL rats. In Experiment 2, FR rats given access to a running wheel for a brief period outside of the home cage rapidly acquired wheel running while AL rats did not. Pretreatment with CGS-21680 (1.0 nmol) blocked the acquisition of wheel running. When administered to FR subjects that had previously acquired wheel running, CGS-21680 suppressed the behavior. In Experiment 3, CGS-21680 (1.0 nmol) activated both ERK 1/2 and CREB in caudate-putamen with no difference between feeding groups. However, in nucleus accumbens (NAc), CGS-21680 failed to activate ERK 1/2 and selectively activated CREB in FR rats. These results indicate that FR subjects are hypersensitive to several effects of an adenosine A2A agonist, and suggest the involvement of an upregulated A2A receptor-linked signaling pathway in NAc. Medications targeting the A2A receptor may have utility in the treatment of maladaptive behaviors associated with FR, including substance abuse

  14. Lipid-Polymer Nanoparticles for Folate-Receptor Targeting Delivery of Doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Mingbin; Gong, Ping; Zheng, Cuifang; Zhao, Pengfei; Luo, Zhenyu; Ma, Yifan; Cai, Lintao

    2015-07-01

    A biocompatible PLGA-lipid hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) was developed for targeted delivery of anticancer drugs with doxorubicin (DOX). The hydrodynamic diameter and zeta potential of DOX-loaded PLGA-lipid NPs (DNPs) were affected by the mass ratio of Lipid/PLGA or DSPE-PEG-COOH/Lecithin. At the 1:20 drug/polymer mass ratio, the mean hydrodynamic diameter of DNPs was the lowest (99.2 1.83 nm) and the NPs presented the encapsulation efficiency of DOX with 42.69 1.30%. Due to the folate-receptor mediated endocytosis, the PLGA-lipid NPs with folic acid (FA) targeting ligand showed significant higher uptake by folate-receptor-positive MCF-7 cells as compared to PLGA-lipid NPs without folate. Confocal microscopic observation and flow cytometry analysis also supported the enhanced cellular uptake of the FA-targeted NPs. The results indicated that the FA-targeted DNPs exhibited higher cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells compared with non-targeted NPs. The lipid-polymer nanoparticles provide a solution of biocompatible nanocarrier for cancer targeting therapy.

  15. Evaluation of antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like activity of purinedione-derivatives with affinity for adenosine A2A receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Dziubina, Anna; Szmyd, Karina; Zygmunt, Małgorzata; Sapa, Jacek; Dudek, Magdalena; Filipek, Barbara; Drabczyńska, Anna; Załuski, Michał; Pytka, Karolina; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-12-01

    It has recently been suggested that the adenosine A 2A receptor plays a role in several animal models of depression. Additionally, A 2A antagonists have reversed behavioral deficits and exhibited a profile similar to classical antidepressants. In the present study, imidazo- and pyrimido[2,1-f]purinedione derivatives (KD 66, KD 167, KD 206) with affinity to A 2A receptors but poor A 1 affinity were evaluated for their antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activity. The activity of these derivatives was tested using a tail suspension and forced swim test, two widely-used behavioral paradigms for the evaluation of antidepressant-like activity. In turn, the anxiolytic activity was evaluated using the four-plate test. The results showed the antidepressant-like activity of pyrimido- and imidazopurinedione derivatives (i.e. KD 66, KD 167 and KD 206) in acute and chronic behavioral tests in mice. KD 66 revealed an anxiolytic-like effect, while KD 167 increased anxiety behaviors. KD 206 had no effect on anxiety. Furthermore, none of the tested compounds increased locomotor activity. Available data support the proposition that the examined compounds with adenosine A 2A receptor affinity may be an interesting target for the development of antidepressant and/or anxiolytic agents. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  16. Is androgen receptor targeting an emerging treatment strategy for triple negative breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Anestis, Aristomenis; Karamouzis, Michalis V; Dalagiorgou, Georgia; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G

    2015-06-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive breast cancer subtype. The absence of expression and/or amplification of estrogen and progesterone receptor as well as ERBB-2 prevent the use of currently available endocrine options and/or ERBB-2-directed drugs and indicates chemotherapy as the main current therapy. TNBC represents approximately 15% of breast cancer cases with high index of heterogeneity. Here, we review the role of androgen receptor in breast carcinogenesis and its association with alterations in the expression pattern and functional roles of regulatory molecules and signal transduction pathways in TNBC. Additionally, based on the so far preclinical and clinical published data, we evaluate the perspectives for using and/or developing androgen receptor targeting strategies for specific TNBC subtypes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pharmacologic antagonism of thromboxane A2 receptors by trimetoquinol analogs in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Y.; Romstedt, K.J.; Doyle, K.

    1991-01-01

    Although (-)-(S)-trimetoquinol (1-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-benzyl)- 6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline; TMQ) is recognized as a potent bronchodilator, (+)-(R)-TMQ is a selective antagonist of human platelet aggregation and serotonin secretion induced by thromboxane A2 (TXA2) agonists. To confirm the pharmacological actions of TMQ analogs, the interaction of the drugs with TXA2 receptors was examined in human platelets and in a mouse sudden death model. The inhibitory potencies of TMQ analogs (pIC50 values) for displacement of (3H)SQ 29,548 binding to platelets showed excellent correlation with the respective pIC50 (-log IC50) values for U46619-induced aggregation (r = 0.99, P less than 0.01) and serotonin secretion (r = 0.99, Pmore » less than 0.01) in human platelet-rich plasma and for whole blood aggregation (r = 0.99, P less than 0.01). In each system, the rank order of inhibitory potencies was rac-iodoTMQ greater than or equal to (+)-(R)-TMQ greater than rac-TMQ much greater than (-)-(S)-TMQ. Antithrombotic effects of TMQ analogs were evaluated in a mouse sudden death model. In vivo antithrombotic potencies of these compounds were consistent with the in vitro potencies as TXA2 receptor antagonists in platelet systems. Administration of rac-iodoTMQ, (+)-(R)-TMQ and rac-TMQ 15 min before the injection of U46619 (800 micrograms/kg, iv) protected mice against U46619-induced sudden death. On the other hand, (-)-(S)-TMQ did not protect animals against death. Protection of U46619-induced cardiopulmonary thrombosis by TMQ analogs was seen at doses of 3-100 mg/kg.« less

  18. Macrophage A2A Adenosinergic Receptor Modulates Oxygen-Induced Augmentation of Murine Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    D’Alessio, Franco R.; Eto, Yoshiki; Chau, Eric; Avalos, Claudia; Waickman, Adam T.; Garibaldi, Brian T.; Mock, Jason R.; Files, Daniel C.; Sidhaye, Venkataramana; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.; Powell, Jonathan; Horton, Maureen; King, Landon S.

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) causes significant morbidity and mortality. Exacerbating factors increasing the risk of ARDS remain unknown. Supplemental oxygen is often necessary in both mild and severe lung disease. The potential effects of supplemental oxygen may include augmentation of lung inflammation by inhibiting anti-inflammatory pathways in alveolar macrophages. We sought to determine oxygen-derived effects on the anti-inflammatory A2A adenosinergic (ADORA2A) receptor in macrophages, and the role of the ADORA2A receptor in lung injury. Wild-type (WT) and ADORA2A−/− mice received intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (IT LPS), followed 12 hours later by continuous exposure to 21% oxygen (control mice) or 60% oxygen for 1 to 3 days. We measured the phenotypic endpoints of lung injury and the alveolar macrophage inflammatory state. We tested an ADORA2A-specific agonist, CGS-21680 hydrochloride, in LPS plus oxygen-exposed WT and ADORA2A−/− mice. We determined the specific effects of myeloid ADORA2A, using chimera experiments. Compared with WT mice, ADORA2A−/− mice exposed to IT LPS and 60% oxygen demonstrated significantly more histologic lung injury, alveolar neutrophils, and protein. Macrophages from ADORA2A−/− mice exposed to LPS plus oxygen expressed higher concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and cosignaling molecules. CGS-21680 prevented the oxygen-induced augmentation of lung injury after LPS only in WT mice. Chimera experiments demonstrated that the transfer of WT but not ADORA2A−/− bone marrow cells into irradiated ADORA2A−/− mice reduced lung injury after LPS plus oxygen, demonstrating myeloid ADORA2A protection. ADORA2A is protective against lung injury after LPS and oxygen. Oxygen after LPS increases macrophage activation to augment lung injury by inhibiting the ADORA2A pathway. PMID:23349051

  19. Synthesis and exploration of novel radiolabeled bombesin peptides for targeting receptor positive tumor.

    PubMed

    De, Kakali; Banerjee, Indranil; Sinha, Samarendu; Ganguly, Shantanu

    2017-03-01

    Increasing evidence of peptide receptor overexpression in various cancer cells, warrant the development of receptor specific radiolabeled peptides for molecular imaging and therapy in nuclear medicine. Gastrin-releasing-peptide (GRP) receptor, are overexpressed in a variety of human cancer cells. The present study report the synthesis and biological evaluation of new bombesin (BBN) analogs, HYNIC-Asp-[Phe 13 ]BBN(7-13)-NH-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH3:BA1, HYNIC-Pro-[Tyr 13 Met 14 ]BBN(7-14)NH 2 :BA2 as prospective tumor imaging agent with compare to BBN(7-14)NH 2 :BS as standard. The pharmacophores were radiolabeled in high yields with 99m Tc, characterized for their stability in serum and saline, cysteine/histidine and were found to be substantially stable. Internalization/externalization and receptor binding studies were assessed using MDA-MB-231 cells and showed high receptor binding-affinity and favourable internalization. Fluorescence studies revealed that BA1 changed the morphology of the cells and could localize in the nucleus more effectively than BA2/BS. Cell-viability studies displayed substantial antagonistic and nuclear-internalization effect of BA1. BA1 also exhibited antiproliferative effect on MDA-MB-231 cell by inducing apoptosis. In vivo behaviour of the radiopeptides was evaluated in GRP receptor positive tumor bearing mice. The 99m Tc-BA1/ 99m Tc-BA2 demonstrated rapid blood/urinary clearance through the renal pathway and comparatively more significant tumor uptake image and favourable tumor-to-non-target ratios provided by 99m Tc-BA1. The specificity of the in vivo uptake was confirmed by co-injection with BS. Moreover, 99m Tc-BA1 provided a much clearer tumor image in scintigraphic studies than others. Thus the combination of favourable in vitro and in vivo properties renders BA1 as more potential antagonist bombesin-peptide for targeting GRP-receptor positive tumor. These properties are encouraging to carry out further experiments for non-invasive receptor

  20. Membrane omega-3 fatty acids modulate the oligomerisation kinetics of adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guixà-González, Ramon; Javanainen, Matti; Gómez-Soler, Maricel; Cordobilla, Begoña; Domingo, Joan Carles; Sanz, Ferran; Pastor, Manuel; Ciruela, Francisco; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Selent, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Membrane levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA), are decreased in common neuropsychiatric disorders. DHA modulates key cell membrane properties like fluidity, thereby affecting the behaviour of transmembrane proteins like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). These receptors, which have special relevance for major neuropsychiatric disorders have recently been shown to form dimers or higher order oligomers, and evidence suggests that DHA levels affect GPCR function by modulating oligomerisation. In this study, we assessed the effect of membrane DHA content on the formation of a class of protein complexes with particular relevance for brain disease: adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptor oligomers. Using extensive multiscale computer modelling, we find a marked propensity of DHA for interaction with both A2A and D2 receptors, which leads to an increased rate of receptor oligomerisation. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) experiments performed on living cells suggest that this DHA effect on the oligomerisation of A2A and D2 receptors is purely kinetic. This work reveals for the first time that membrane ω-3 PUFAs play a key role in GPCR oligomerisation kinetics, which may have important implications for neuropsychiatric conditions like schizophrenia or Parkinson’s disease.

  1. A2B Adenosine Receptor Agonist Improves Erectile Function in Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jiaming; Wang, Bohan; Du, Chuanjun; Xu, Gang; Zhang, Zhewei; Li, Yi; Zhang, Nan

    2015-10-01

    Diabetes is an important risk factor for erectile dysfunction (ED). Recent studies have indicated that A2B adenosine receptor (ADORA2B) signaling is essential for penile erection. Thus, we hypothesize that diabetic ED may be attributed to impaired A2B adenosine signaling. To test this hypothesis, we generated diabetic rats by injecting streptozocin as animal model. After 12 weeks, immunohistochemistry staining was used to localize the expression of ADORA2B. Western Blot and quantitative PCR were employed to determine ADORA2B expression level. Intracavernosal pressure (ICP) measurement was used to evaluate erectile function. Diabetic rats received a single intravenous injection of BAY 60-6583, an ADORA2B agonist, or vehicle solution, at 60 min before the ICP measurement. The results showed that ADORA2B expressed in the nerve bundle, smooth muscle, and endothelium in penile tissue of control mice. Western Blot and quantitative PCR results indicated that the expression levels of ADORA2B protein and mRNA were significantly reduced in penile tissues of diabetic rats. Functional studies showed that the erectile response induced by electrical stimulation was remarkably decreased in diabetic rats, compared with age-matched control rats. However, at 60 min after BAY 60-6583 treatment, the erectile function was improved in diabetic rats, suggesting that enhancement of ADORA2B signaling may improve erectile function in diabetic ED. This preclinical study has revealed a previously unrecognized therapeutic possibility of BAY 60-6583 as an effective and mechanism-based drug to treat diabetic ED. In conclusion, we propose that impaired A2B adenosine signaling is one of the pathological mechanisms of diabetic ED.

  2. Role of the liver X receptors in skin physiology: Putative pharmacological targets in human diseases.

    PubMed

    Ouedraogo, Zangbéwendé Guy; Fouache, Allan; Trousson, Amalia; Baron, Silvère; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A

    2017-10-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily that have been shown to regulate various physiological functions such as lipid metabolism and cholesterol homeostasis. Concordant reports have elicited the possibility to target them to cure many human diseases including arteriosclerosis, cancer, arthritis, and diabetes. The high relevance of modulating LXR activities to treat numerous skin diseases, mainly those with exacerbated inflammation processes, contrasts with the lack of approved therapeutic use. This review makes an assessment to sum up the findings regarding the physiological roles of LXRs in skin and help progress towards the therapeutic and safe management of their activities. It focuses on the possible pharmacological targeting of LXRs to cure or prevent selected skin diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fibroblast growth factor receptors in breast cancer: expression, downstream effects, and possible drug targets.

    PubMed

    Tenhagen, M; van Diest, P J; Ivanova, I A; van der Wall, E; van der Groep, P

    2012-08-01

    Cancer treatments are increasingly focusing on the molecular mechanisms underlying the oncogenic processes present in tumors of individual patients. Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) are among the many molecules that are involved in oncogenesis and are currently under investigation for their potential as drug targets in breast cancer patients. These receptor tyrosine kinases play a role in several processes including proliferation, angiogenesis, and migration. Alterations in these basal processes can contribute to the development and progression of tumors. Among breast cancer patients, several subgroups have been shown to harbor genetic aberrations in FGFRs, including amplifications of FGFR1, FGFR2, and FGFR4 and mutations in FGFR2 and FGFR4. Here, we review in vitro and in vivo models that have partly elucidated the molecular implications of these different genetic aberrations, the resulting tumor characteristics, and the potential of FGFRs as therapeutic targets for breast cancer treatment.

  4. Targeting receptor-activator of nuclear kappaB ligand in aneurysmal bone cysts: verification of target and therapeutic response.

    PubMed

    Pelle, Dominic W; Ringler, Jonathan W; Peacock, Jacqueline D; Kampfschulte, Kevin; Scholten, Donald J; Davis, Mary M; Mitchell, Deanna S; Steensma, Matthew R

    2014-08-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a benign tumor of bone presenting as a cystic, expansile lesion in both the axial and appendicular skeleton. Axial lesions demand special consideration, because treatment-related morbidity can be devastating. In similar lesions, such as giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB), the receptor-activator of nuclear kappaB ligand (RANKL)-receptor-activator of nuclear kappaB (RANK) signaling axis is essential to tumor progression. Although ABC and GCTB are distinct entities, they both contain abundant multinucleated giant cells and are osteolytic characteristically. We hypothesize that ABCs express both RANKL and RANK similarly in a cell-type specific manner, and that targeted RANKL therapy will mitigate ABC tumor progression. Cellular expression of RANKL and RANK was determined in freshly harvested ABC samples using laser confocal microscopy. A consistent cell-type-specific pattern was observed: fibroblastlike stromal cells expressed RANKL strongly whereas monocyte/macrophage precursor and multinucleated giant cells expressed RANK. Relative RANKL expression was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in ABC and GCTB tissue samples; no difference in relative expression was observed (P > 0.05). In addition, we review the case of a 5-year-old boy with a large, aggressive sacral ABC. After 3 months of targeted RANKL inhibition with denosumab, magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated tumor shrinkage, bone reconstitution, and healing of a pathologic fracture. Ambulation, and bowel and bladder function were restored at 6 months. Denosumab treatment was well tolerated. Post hoc analysis demonstrated strong RANKL expression in the pretreatment tumor sample. These findings demonstrate that RANKL-RANK signal activation is essential to ABC tumor progression. RANKL-targeted therapy may be an effective alternative to surgery in select ABC presentations. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The prelude on novel receptor and ligand targets involved in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Jonnalagadda, Venu Gopal; Ram Raju, Allam Venkata Sita; Pittala, Srinivas; Shaik, Afsar; Selkar, Nilakash Annaji

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic disorders are a group of disorders, due to the disruption of the normal metabolic process at a cellular level. Diabetes Mellitus and Tyrosinaemia are the majorly reported metabolic disorders. Among them, Diabetes Mellitus is a one of the leading metabolic syndrome, affecting 5 to 7 % of the population worldwide and mainly characterised by elevated levels of glucose and is associated with two types of physiological event disturbances such as impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance. Up to now, various treatment strategies are like insulin, alphaglucosidase inhibitors, biguanides, incretins were being followed. Concurrently, various novel therapeutic strategies are required to advance the therapy of Diabetes mellitus. For the last few decades, there has been an extensive research in understanding the metabolic pathways involved in Diabetes Mellitus at the cellular level and having the profound knowledge on cell-growth, cell-cycle, and apoptosis at a molecular level provides new targets for the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus. Receptor signalling has been involved in these mechanisms, to translate the information coming from outside. To understand the various receptors involved in these pathways, we must have a sound knowledge on receptors and ligands involved in it. This review mainly summarises the receptors and ligands which are involved the Diabetes Mellitus. Finally, researchers have to develop the alternative chemical moieties that retain their affinity to receptors and efficacy. Diabetes Mellitus being a metabolic disorder due to the glucose surfeit, demands the need for regular exercise along with dietary changes.

  6. Detection of Sendai virus receptor, the ganglioside GDla, in target tissue (mouse lung)

    SciTech Connect

    Markwell, M.A.K.; Sato, E.

    1986-05-01

    Previously the authors had shown that the gangliosides GDla, GTlb, and GQlb derived from brain function as receptors for the paramyxovirus Sendai virus by their ability to induce infection when incubated with receptor-deficient cells. Analyses of MDBK, HeLa, and MDCK cells in culture demonstrated that these putative receptors were present in host cells in the quantities required for infection. The primary site of infection for Sendai virus in the whole animal is the respiratory tract, culminating in the lung. Therefore, the ganglioside content of this target organ was analyzed to determine the endogenous receptor population available to Sendai virus. Themore » total ganglioside fraction of lung was resolved into individual species by HPTLC. Gangliosides of the gangliotetraose series were identified by the specific binding of /sup 125/I-labeled tetanus and cholera toxins before and after exposure with sialidase. In this manner one of the major resorcinol-positive bands was identified as GDla. Evidence of the more complex ganglioside receptors for Sendai virus was also seen.« less

  7. Targeting death receptors to fight cancer: from biological rational to clinical implementation.

    PubMed

    Mocellin, S

    2010-01-01

    Considering that most currently available chemotherapeutic drugs work by inducing cell apoptosis, it is not surprising that many expectations in cancer research come from the therapeutic exploitation of the naturally occurring death pathways. Receptor mediated apoptosis depends upon the engagement of specific ligands with their respective membrane receptors and - within the frame of complex regulatory networks - modulates some key physiological and pathological processes such as lymphocyte survival, inflammation and infectious diseases. A pivotal observation was that some of these pathways may be over activated in cancer under particular circumstances, which opened the avenue for tumor-specific therapeutic interventions. Although one death-related ligand (e.g., tumor necrosis factor, TNF) is currently the basis of effective anticancer regimens in the clinical setting, the systemic toxicity is hampering its wide therapeutic exploitation. However, strategies to split the therapeutic from the toxic TNF activity are being devised. Furthermore, other death receptor pathways (e.g., Fas/FasL, TRAIL/TRAIL receptor) are being intensively investigated in order to therapeutically exploit their activity against cancer. This article summarizes the current knowledge on the molecular features of death receptor pathways that make them an attractive target for anticancer therapeutics. In addition, the results so far obtained in the clinical oncology setting as well as the issues to be faced while interfering with these pathways for therapeutic purposes will be overviewed.

  8. Chemokines and chemokine receptors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL): from understanding the basics towards therapeutic targeting.

    PubMed

    Burger, Jan A

    2010-12-01

    Chemokines and their receptors organize the recruitment and positioning of cells at each stage of the immune response, a system critically dependent upon coordination to get the right cells to the right place at the right time. Chemokine receptors expressed on CLL B cells are thought to function in a similar fashion, regulating the trafficking of the leukemia cells between blood, lymphoid organs, and the bone marrow, and within sub compartments within these tissues, in concert with adhesion molecules and other guidance cues. CLL cells not only respond to chemokines secreted in the microenvironment, the leukemia cells also secrete chemokines in response to external signals, such as B cell receptor engagement. These CLL cell-derived chemokines facilitate interactions between CLL cells, T cells, and other immune cells that shape the CLL microenvironment. CXCR4, the most prominent chemokine receptor in CLL, is now targeted in a first clinical trial, emphasizing that chemokines and their receptors have become a highly dynamic translational research field. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Targeting the fibroblast growth factor receptors for the treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Steven M; Hadden, M Kyle

    2013-06-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are transmembrane proteins that play a critical role in stimulating signal transduction cascades to influence cell proliferation, growth, and differentiation and they have also been shown to promote angiogenesis when they are up-regulated or mutated. For this reason, their dysfunction has been implicated in the development of human cancer. Over the past decade, much attention has been devoted to developing inhibitors and antibodies against several classes of RTKs, including vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs), epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs), and platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs). More recently, interest in the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) class of RTKs as a drug target for the treatment of cancer has emerged. Signaling through FGFRs is critical for normal cellular function and their dysregulation has been linked to various malignancies such as breast and prostate cancer. This review will focus on the current state of both small molecules and antibodies as FGFR inhibitors to provide insight into their development and future potential as anti-cancer agents.

  10. Targeting Androgen Receptor in Breast Cancer: Enzalutamide as a Novel Breast Cancer Therapeutic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    preclinical work. Clinical Aim 3: To determine if changes in molecular determinants between pre-treatment biopsies and tissue at time of disease ...D’Amato NC, Elias A, Richer JK. Androgen receptor biology in triple negative breast cancer: a case for AR+ and quadruple negative disease subtypes...cancer and can we target it? 14th Annual International Congress on the Future of Breast Cancer. PER. Huntington Beach, CA 7/17/15. Inventions

  11. Targeting the Dopamine 1 Receptor or its Downstream Signalling by Inhibiting Phosphodiesterase-1 Improves Cognitive Performance.

    PubMed

    Pekcec, Anton; Schülert, Niklas; Stierstorfer, Birgit; Deiana, Serena; Dorner-Ciossek, Cornelia; Rosenbrock, Holger

    2018-05-03

    Insufficient prefrontal dopamine 1 (D1) receptor signalling has been linked to cognitive dysfunction in several psychiatric conditions. Because the phosphodiesterase-1 (PDE1) isoform B (PDE1B) is postulated to regulate D1 receptor-dependent signal transduction, this study intended to elucidate the role of PDE1 for cognitive processes reliant on D1 receptor function. Cognitive performance of the D1 receptor agonist, SKF38393, was studied in the T-maze continuous alternation task and the 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task. D1 receptor/ PDE1B double-immunohistochemistry was performed using human and rat prefrontal brain sections. Pharmacological activity of the PDE1 inhibitor, ITI-214, was assessed by measuring the increase of cAMP/ cGMP in prefrontal brain tissue and its effect on working memory performance. Mechanistic studies on modulation of prefrontal neuronal transmission by SKF38393 and ITI-214 were performed using extracellular recordings in brain slices. SKF38393 improved working memory and attentional performance in rodents. D1 receptor/ PDE1B co-expression was verified in both, human and rat prefrontal brain sections. The pharmacological activity of ITI-214 on its target was demonstrated by increased prefrontal cAMP/ cGMP upon administration. In addition, ITI-214 improved working memory performance. SKF38393 and ITI-214 facilitated neuronal transmission in prefrontal brain slices. We hypothesise that PDE1 inhibition may improve working memory performance by increasing prefrontal synaptic transmission and/or postsynaptic D1 receptor signalling, by modulating prefrontal downstream second messenger levels. These data may therefore support the use of PDE1 inhibitors as a potential approach for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Label-free integrative pharmacology on-target of drugs at the β2-adrenergic receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrie, Ann M.; Sun, Haiyan; Fang, Ye

    2011-07-01

    We describe a label-free integrative pharmacology on-target (iPOT) method to assess the pharmacology of drugs at the β2-adrenergic receptor. This method combines dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) assays using an array of probe molecule-hijacked cells with similarity analysis. The whole cell DMR assays track cell system-based, ligand-directed, and kinetics-dependent biased activities of the drugs, and translates their on-target pharmacology into numerical descriptors which are subject to similarity analysis. We demonstrate that the approach establishes an effective link between the label-free pharmacology and in vivo therapeutic indications of drugs.

  13. Transferrin receptor-targeted theranostic gold nanoparticles for photosensitizer delivery in brain tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Suraj; Novak, Thomas; Miller, Kayla; Zhu, Yun; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Broome, Ann-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is not only inefficient, but also nonspecific to brain stroma. These are major limitations in the effective treatment of brain cancer. Transferrin peptide (Tfpep) targeted gold nanoparticles (Tfpep-Au NPs) loaded with the photodynamic pro-drug, Pc 4, have been designed and compared with untargeted Au NPs for delivery of the photosensitizer to brain cancer cell lines. In vitro studies of human glioma cancer lines (LN229 and U87) overexpressing the transferrin receptor (TfR) show a significant increase in cellular uptake for targeted conjugates as compared to untargeted particles. Pc 4 delivered from Tfpep-Au NPs clusters within vesicles after targeting with the Tfpep. Pc 4 continues to accumulate over a 4 hour period. Our work suggests that TfR-targeted Au NPs may have important therapeutic implications for delivering brain tumor therapies and/or providing a platform for noninvasive imaging.

  14. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2): a potential therapeutic target for Alzheimer disease?

    PubMed

    Deming, Yuetiva; Li, Zeran; Benitez, Bruno A; Cruchaga, Carlos

    2018-06-20

    There are currently no effective therapeutics for Alzheimer disease (AD). Clinical trials targeting amyloid beta thus far have shown very little benefit and only in the earliest stages of disease. These limitations have driven research to identify alternative therapeutic targets, one of the most promising is the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2). Areas covered: Here, we review the literature to-date and discuss the potentials and pitfalls for targeting TREM2 as a potential therapeutic for AD. We focus on research in animal and cell models for AD and central nervous system injury models which may help in understanding the role of TREM2 in disease. Expert opinion: Studies suggest TREM2 plays a key role in AD pathology; however, results have been conflicting about whether TREM2 is beneficial or harmful. More research is necessary before designing TREM2-targeting therapies. Successful therapeutics will most likely be administered early in disease.

  15. Therapeutic Innovations for Targeting Childhood Neuroblastoma: Implications of the Neurokinin-1 Receptor System.

    PubMed

    Berger, Michael; VON Schweinitz, Dietrich

    2017-11-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common solid extracranial malignant tumor in children. Despite recent advances in the treatment of this heterogenous tumor with surgery and chemotherapy, the prognosis in advanced stages remains poor. Interestingly, neuroblastoma is one of the few solid tumors, to date, in which an effect for targeted immunotherapy has been proven in controlled clinical trials, giving hope for further advances in the treatment of this and other tumors by targeted therapy. A large array of novel therapeutic options for targeted therapy of neuroblastoma is on the horizon. To this repεrtoirε, the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) system was recently added. The present article explores the most recent developments in targeting neuroblastoma cells via the NK1R and how this new knowledge could be helpful to create new anticancer therapies agains neuroblastoma and other cancers. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  16. Targeting receptor-mediated transport for delivery of biologics across the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Lajoie, Jason M; Shusta, Eric V

    2015-01-01

    Biologics are an emerging class of medicines with substantial promise to treat neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, stroke, and multiple sclerosis. However, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) presents a formidable obstacle that appreciably limits brain uptake and hence the therapeutic potential of biologics following intravenous administration. One promising strategy for overcoming the BBB to deliver biologics is the targeting of endogenous receptor-mediated transport (RMT) systems that employ vesicular trafficking to transport ligands across the BBB endothelium. If a biologic is modified with an appropriate targeting ligand, it can gain improved access to the brain via RMT. Various RMT-targeting strategies have been developed over the past 20 years, and this review explores exciting recent advances, emphasizing studies that show brain targeting in vivo.

  17. Equol is more active than soy isoflavone itself to compete for binding to thromboxane A(2) receptor in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Yenny; Garrido, Argelia; Valladares, Luis

    2009-03-01

    Several dietary intervention studies examining the health effect of soy isoflavones allude to the importance of equol in establishing the cardiovascular response to soy protein. Although, the specific mechanism by which this action occurs has not been established. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of soy-isoflavones and the metabolite of daidzein, equol, on agonist-induced platelet responses dependent on thromboxane A(2) (TxA(2)) receptor. Competitive radioligand binding assay was used to screen for affinity of these compounds to the TxA(2) receptor. The effect of equol on platelet activation, evaluate through of release of the ATP, by analogs of TxA(2) was analyzed. The effect of equol on platelet aggregation was investigated with ADP, U46619 (a TxA(2) mimic) and the calcium ionophore A23187. The data showed that aglycone isoflavones and equol bind to TxA(2) receptor in the micromol/L range, whereas their glucoside derivates had very low binding activity for this receptor. Under equilibrium conditions, the following order of the relative affinity in inhibiting [(3)H]-SQ29585 binding was: equol>genistein>daidzein>glycitein>genistin, daidzin, glycitin. Equol interaction was reversible and competitive for labeled-SQ29548 with not apparent decrease in the number of TxA(2) binding sites. In addition, from platelet activation studies, equol effectively inhibited ATP secretion elicited by the TxA(2) analog U46619. On the other hand, equol inhibited the platelet aggregation induced by U46619 and A23187, while it failed to inhibit that induced by ADP. The aglycone isoflavones from soy, and particularly equol, have been found to have biological effects attributable to thromboxane A(2) receptor antagonism. These findings may help elucidate how dietary isoflavone modulate platelet function and explain why soy-rich foods are claimed to have beneficial effects in the prevention of thrombotic events.

  18. Targeting Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Related Signaling Pathways in Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Philip, Philip A; Lutz, Manfred P

    2015-10-01

    Pancreatic cancer is aggressive, chemoresistant, and characterized by complex and poorly understood molecular biology. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway is frequently activated in pancreatic cancer; therefore, it is a rational target for new treatments. However, the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib is currently the only targeted therapy to demonstrate a very modest survival benefit when added to gemcitabine in the treatment of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. There is no molecular biomarker to predict the outcome of erlotinib treatment, although rash may be predictive of improved survival; EGFR expression does not predict the biologic activity of anti-EGFR drugs in pancreatic cancer, and no EGFR mutations are identified as enabling the selection of patients likely to benefit from treatment. Here, we review clinical studies of EGFR-targeted therapies in combination with conventional cytotoxic regimens or multitargeted strategies in advanced pancreatic cancer, as well as research directed at molecules downstream of EGFR as alternatives or adjuncts to receptor targeting. Limitations of preclinical models, patient selection, and trial design, as well as the complex mechanisms underlying resistance to EGFR-targeted agents, are discussed. Future clinical trials must incorporate translational research end points to aid patient selection and circumvent resistance to EGFR inhibitors.

  19. Early clinical development of epidermal growth factor receptor targeted therapy in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Naoko; Lim, Bora; Wang, Xiaoping; Ueno, Naoto T

    2017-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted treatment has been evaluated but has not shown a clear clinical benefit for breast cancer. This review article aims to consider the knowledge of the biological background of EGFR pathways in dissecting clinical studies of EGFR targeted treatment in breast cancer. Areas covered: This review focuses on the role of the EGFR pathway and the investigational drugs that target EGFR for breast cancer. Expert opinion: Recent studies have indicated that EGFR targeted therapy for breast cancer has some promising effects for patients with triple-negative breast cancer, basal-like breast cancer, and inflammatory breast cancer. However, predictive and prognostic biomarkers for EGFR targeted therapy have not been identified. The overexpression or amplification of EGFR itself may not be the true factor of induction of the canonical pathway as an oncogenic driver of breast cancer. Instead, downstream, non-canonical pathways related to EGFR may contribute to some aspects of the biological behavior of breast cancer; therefore, the blockade of the receptor could result in sufficient suppression of downstream pathways to inhibit the aggressive behavior of breast cancer. Mechanistic studies to investigate the dynamic interaction between the EGFR pathway and non-canonical pathways are warranted.

  20. In vitro photodynamic effects of scavenger receptor targeted-photoactivatable nanoagents on activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Yi, Bong Gu; Park, Ok Kyu; Jeong, Myeong Seon; Kwon, Seung Hae; Jung, Jae In; Lee, Seongsoo; Ryoo, Sungwoo; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Jin Won; Moon, Won-Jin; Park, Kyeongsoon

    2017-04-01

    Scavenger receptors (SRs) expressed on the activated macrophages in inflammation sites have been considered as the most interesting and important target biomarker for targeted drug delivery, imaging and therapy. In the present study, we fabricated the scavenger receptor-A (SR-A) targeted-photoactivatable nanoagents (termed as Ce6/DS-DOCA) by entrapping chlorin e6 (Ce6) into the amphiphilic dextran sulfate-deoxycholic acid (DS-DOCA) conjugates via physically hydrophobic interactions. Insoluble Ce6 was easily encapsulated into DS-DOCA nanoparticles by a dialysis method and the loading efficiency was approximately 51.7%. The Ce6/DS-DOCA formed nano-sized self-assembled aggregates (28.8±5.6nm in diameter), confirmed by transmission electron microscope, UV/Vis and fluorescence spectrophotometer. The Ce6/DS-DOCA nanoagents could generate highly reactive singlet oxygen under laser irradiation. Also, in vitro studies showed that they were more specifically taken up by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activated macrophages (RAW 264.7) via a SR-A-mediated endocytosis, relative to by non-activated macrophages, and notably induced cell death of activated macrophages under laser irradiation. Therefore, SR-A targetable and photoactivatable Ce6/DS-DOCA nanoagents with more selective targeting to the activated macrophages will have great potential for treatment of inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Targeted Delivery of Proteasome Inhibitors to Somatostatin-Receptor-Expressing Cancer Cells by Octreotide Conjugation.

    PubMed

    Beck, Philipp; Cui, Haissi; Hegemann, Julian D; Marahiel, Mohammed A; Krüger, Achim; Groll, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Clinical application of proteasome inhibitors (PIs) is so far limited to peripheral blood cancers due to the pronounced cytotoxicity towards all cell types. Targeted delivery of PIs could permit the treatment of other cancers along with decreasing side effects. Herein we describe the first small-molecule proteasome inhibitor conjugate for targeted delivery, created by fusing PIs to a synthetic ligand of somatostatin receptors, which are highly expressed in a variety of tumors. X-ray crystallographic studies and in vitro IC50 measurements demonstrated that addition of the cyclopeptide octreotide as a targeting vehicle does not affect the PI's binding mode. The cytotoxicity of the conjugate against somatostatin-receptor-expressing cells was up to 11-fold higher than that of a non-targeting surrogate. We have therefore established PIs as a new payload for drug conjugates and have shown that targeted delivery thereof could be a promising approach for the broader application of this FDA-approved class of compounds. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Computational design of trimeric influenza-neutralizing proteins targeting the hemagglutinin receptor binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Strauch, Eva-Maria; Bernard, Steffen M.; La, David

    Many viral surface glycoproteins and cell surface receptors are homo-oligomers1, 2, 3, 4, and thus can potentially be targeted by geometrically matched homo-oligomers that engage all subunits simultaneously to attain high avidity and/or lock subunits together. The adaptive immune system cannot generally employ this strategy since the individual antibody binding sites are not arranged with appropriate geometry to simultaneously engage multiple sites in a single target homo-oligomer. We describe a general strategy for the computational design of homo-oligomeric protein assemblies with binding functionality precisely matched to homo-oligomeric target sites5, 6, 7, 8. In the first step, a small protein ismore » designed that binds a single site on the target. In the second step, the designed protein is assembled into a homo-oligomer such that the designed binding sites are aligned with the target sites. We use this approach to design high-avidity trimeric proteins that bind influenza A hemagglutinin (HA) at its conserved receptor binding site. The designed trimers can both capture and detect HA in a paper-based diagnostic format, neutralizes influenza in cell culture, and completely protects mice when given as a single dose 24 h before or after challenge with influenza.« less

  3. Early clinical development of epidermal growth factor receptor targeted therapy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Naoko; Lim, Bora; Wang, Xiaoping; Ueno, Naoto T.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted treatment has been evaluated but has not shown a clear clinical benefit for breast cancer. This review article aims to consider the knowledge of the biological background of EGFR pathways in dissecting clinical studies of EGFR targeted treatment in breast cancer. Areas covered This review focuses on the role of the EGFR pathway and the investigational drugs that target EGFR for breast cancer. Expert opinion Recent studies have indicated that EGFR targeted therapy for breast cancer has some promising effects for patients with triple-negative breast cancer, basal-like breast cancer, and inflammatory breast cancer. However, predictive and prognostic biomarkers for EGFR targeted therapy have not been identified. The overexpression or amplification of EGFR itself may not be the true factor of induction of the canonical pathway as an oncogenic driver of breast cancer. Instead, downstream, non-canonical pathways related to EGFR may contribute to some aspects of the biological behavior of breast cancer; therefore, the blockade of the receptor could result in sufficient suppression of downstream pathways to inhibit the aggressive behavior of breast cancer. Mechanistic studies to investigate the dynamic interaction between the EGFR pathway and non-canonical pathways are warranted. PMID:28271910

  4. Non-synaptic receptors and transporters involved in brain functions and targets of drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Vizi, E S; Fekete, A; Karoly, R; Mike, A

    2010-06-01

    Beyond direct synaptic communication, neurons are able to talk to each other without making synapses. They are able to send chemical messages by means of diffusion to target cells via the extracellular space, provided that the target neurons are equipped with high-affinity receptors. While synaptic transmission is responsible for the 'what' of brain function, the 'how' of brain function (mood, attention, level of arousal, general excitability, etc.) is mainly controlled non-synaptically using the extracellular space as communication channel. It is principally the 'how' that can be modulated by medicine. In this paper, we discuss different forms of non-synaptic transmission, localized spillover of synaptic transmitters, local presynaptic modulation and tonic influence of ambient transmitter levels on the activity of vast neuronal populations. We consider different aspects of non-synaptic transmission, such as synaptic-extrasynaptic receptor trafficking, neuron-glia communication and retrograde signalling. We review structural and functional aspects of non-synaptic transmission, including (i) anatomical arrangement of non-synaptic release sites, receptors and transporters, (ii) intravesicular, intra- and extracellular concentrations of neurotransmitters, as well as the spatiotemporal pattern of transmitter diffusion. We propose that an effective general strategy for efficient pharmacological intervention could include the identification of specific non-synaptic targets and the subsequent development of selective pharmacological tools to influence them.

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) as therapeutic target in neurodegenerative disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Swati; Yadav, Anuradha; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors and they serve to be a promising therapeutic target for several neurodegenerative disorders, which includes Parkinson disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. PPARs play an important role in the downregulation of mitochondrial dysfunction, proteasomal dysfunction, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation, which are the major causes of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. In this review, we discuss about the role of PPARs as therapeutic targets in neurodegenerative disorders. Several experimental approaches suggest potential application of PPAR agonist as well as antagonist in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Several epidemiological studies found thatmore » the regular usage of PPAR activating non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is effective in decreasing the progression of neurodegenerative diseases including PD and AD. We also reviewed the neuroprotective effects of PPAR agonists and associated mechanism of action in several neurodegenerative disorders both in vitro as well as in vivo animal models. - Highlights: • Peroxisome -activated receptors (PPARs) serve to be a promising therapeutic target for several neurodegenerative disorders. • PPAR agonist as well as provides neuroprotection in vitro as well as in vivo animal models of neurodegenerative disorders. • PPAR activating anti-inflammatory drugs use is effective in decreasing progression of neurodegenerative diseases.« less

  6. Non-synaptic receptors and transporters involved in brain functions and targets of drug treatment

    PubMed Central

    Vizi, ES; Fekete, A; Karoly, R; Mike, A

    2010-01-01

    Beyond direct synaptic communication, neurons are able to talk to each other without making synapses. They are able to send chemical messages by means of diffusion to target cells via the extracellular space, provided that the target neurons are equipped with high-affinity receptors. While synaptic transmission is responsible for the ‘what’ of brain function, the ‘how’ of brain function (mood, attention, level of arousal, general excitability, etc.) is mainly controlled non-synaptically using the extracellular space as communication channel. It is principally the ‘how’ that can be modulated by medicine. In this paper, we discuss different forms of non-synaptic transmission, localized spillover of synaptic transmitters, local presynaptic modulation and tonic influence of ambient transmitter levels on the activity of vast neuronal populations. We consider different aspects of non-synaptic transmission, such as synaptic–extrasynaptic receptor trafficking, neuron–glia communication and retrograde signalling. We review structural and functional aspects of non-synaptic transmission, including (i) anatomical arrangement of non-synaptic release sites, receptors and transporters, (ii) intravesicular, intra- and extracellular concentrations of neurotransmitters, as well as the spatiotemporal pattern of transmitter diffusion. We propose that an effective general strategy for efficient pharmacological intervention could include the identification of specific non-synaptic targets and the subsequent development of selective pharmacological tools to influence them. PMID:20136842

  7. Neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of parkinson's disease and its dependence on adenosine A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Xu, K; Di Luca, D G; Orrú, M; Xu, Y; Chen, J-F; Schwarzschild, M A

    2016-05-13

    Considerable epidemiological and laboratory data have suggested that caffeine, a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, may protect against the underlying neurodegeneration of parkinson's disease (PD). Although both caffeine and more specific antagonists of the A2A subtype of adenosine receptor (A2AR) have been found to confer protection in animal models of PD, the dependence of caffeine's neuroprotective effects on the A2AR is not known. To definitively determine its A2AR dependence, the effect of caffeine on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetra-hydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxicity was compared in wild-type (WT) and A2AR gene global knockout (A2A KO) mice, as well as in central nervous system (CNS) cell type-specific (conditional) A2AR knockout (cKO) mice that lack the receptor either in postnatal forebrain neurons or in astrocytes. In WT and in heterozygous A2AR KO mice caffeine pretreatment (25mg/kgip) significantly attenuated MPTP-induced depletion of striatal dopamine. By contrast in homozygous A2AR global KO mice caffeine had no effect on MPTP toxicity. In forebrain neuron A2AR cKO mice, caffeine lost its locomotor stimulant effect, whereas its neuroprotective effect was mostly preserved. In astrocytic A2AR cKO mice, both caffeine's locomotor stimulant and protective properties were undiminished. Taken together, these results indicate that neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of PD relies on the A2AR, although the specific cellular localization of these receptors remains to be determined. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. All rights reserved.

  8. Intracellular targeting of annexin A2 inhibits tumor cell adhesion, migration, and in vivo grafting.

    PubMed

    Staquicini, Daniela I; Rangel, Roberto; Guzman-Rojas, Liliana; Staquicini, Fernanda I; Dobroff, Andrey S; Tarleton, Christy A; Ozbun, Michelle A; Kolonin, Mikhail G; Gelovani, Juri G; Marchiò, Serena; Sidman, Richard L; Hajjar, Katherine A; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2017-06-26

    Cytoskeletal-associated proteins play an active role in coordinating the adhesion and migration machinery in cancer progression. To identify functional protein networks and potential inhibitors, we screened an internalizing phage (iPhage) display library in tumor cells, and selected LGRFYAASG as a cytosol-targeting peptide. By affinity purification and mass spectrometry, intracellular annexin A2 was identified as the corresponding binding protein. Consistently, annexin A2 and a cell-internalizing, penetratin-fused version of the selected peptide (LGRFYAASG-pen) co-localized and specifically accumulated in the cytoplasm at the cell edges and cell-cell contacts. Functionally, tumor cells incubated with LGRFYAASG-pen showed disruption of filamentous actin, focal adhesions and caveolae-mediated membrane trafficking, resulting in impaired cell adhesion and migration in vitro. These effects were paralleled by a decrease in the phosphorylation of both focal adhesion kinase (Fak) and protein kinase B (Akt). Likewise, tumor cells pretreated with LGRFYAASG-pen exhibited an impaired capacity to colonize the lungs in vivo in several mouse models. Together, our findings demonstrate an unrecognized functional link between intracellular annexin A2 and tumor cell adhesion, migration and in vivo grafting. Moreover, this work uncovers a new peptide motif that binds to and inhibits intracellular annexin A2 as a candidate therapeutic lead for potential translation into clinical applications.

  9. EphA2 Targeting Pegylated Nanocarrier Drug Delivery System for Treatment of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Apurva R.; Chougule, Mahavir

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Evaluation of tumor targeting pegylated EphA2 peptide coated nanoparticles (ENDDs) of a novel anticancer agent DIM-C-pPhC6H5 (DIM-P) and Docetaxel (DOC) and investigate its antitumor activity and potential for treatment of lung cancer. Methods Nanoparticles were prepared with DIM-P and DOC (NDDs) using Nano-DeBEE. ENDDs were prepared by conjugating NDDs with 6His-PEG2K–EphA2 peptide and characterized for physicochemical properties, binding assay, cytotoxicity, cellular uptake studies, drug release and pharmacokinetic parameters. Anti-tumor activity of ENDDs was evaluated using a metastatic H1650 and orthotopic A549 tumor models in nude mice and tumor tissue were analyzed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results Particle size and entrapment efficiency of ENDDs were 197±21 nm and 95±2%. ENDDs showed 32.5±3.5% more cellular uptake than NDDs in tumor cells. ENDDs showed 23 ± 3% and 26±4% more tumor reduction compared to NDDs in metastatic and orthotopic tumor models, respectively. In-vivo imaging studies using the Care stream MX FX Pro system showed (p<0.001) 40–60 fold higher flux for ENDDs compared to NDDs at tumor site. Conclusions The results emanating from these studies demonstrate anti-cancer potential of DIM-P and the role of ENDDs as effective tumor targeting drug delivery systems for lung cancer treatment. PMID:24867421

  10. Discovery of functional monoclonal antibodies targeting G-protein-coupled receptors and ion channels.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Trevor C I

    2016-06-15

    The development of recombinant antibody therapeutics is a significant area of growth in the pharmaceutical industry with almost 50 approved monoclonal antibodies on the market in the US and Europe. Despite this growth, however, certain classes of important molecular targets have remained intractable to therapeutic antibodies due to complexity of the target molecules. These complex target molecules include G-protein-coupled receptors and ion channels which represent a large potential target class for therapeutic intervention with monoclonal antibodies. Although these targets have typically been addressed by small molecule approaches, the exquisite specificity of antibodies provides a significant opportunity to provide selective modulation of these target proteins. Given this opportunity, substantial effort has been applied to address the technical challenges of targeting these complex membrane proteins with monoclonal antibodies. In this review recent progress made in the strategies for discovery of functional monoclonal antibodies for these challenging membrane protein targets is addressed. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  11. Nucleus Accumbens Adenosine A2A Receptors Regulate Exertion of Effort by Acting on the Ventral Striatopallidal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mingote, Susana; Font, Laura; Farrar, Andrew M.; Vontell, Regina; Worden, Lila T.; Stopper, Colin M.; Port, Russell G.; Sink, Kelly S.; Bunce, Jamie G.; Chrobak, James J.; Salamone, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Goal-directed actions are sensitive to work-related response costs, and dopamine in nucleus accumbens is thought to modulate the exertion of effort in motivated behavior. Dopamine-rich striatal areas such as nucleus accumbens also contain high numbers of adenosine A2A receptors, and, for that reason, the behavioral and neurochemical effects of the adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 [2-p-(2-carboxyethyl) phenethylamino-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine] were investigated. Stimulation of accumbens adenosine A2A receptors disrupted performance of an instrumental task with high work demands (i.e., an interval lever-pressing schedule with a ratio requirement attached) but had little effect on a task with a lower work requirement. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that accumbens neurons that project to the ventral pallidum showed adenosine A2A receptors immunoreactivity. Moreover, activation of accumbens A2A receptors by local injections of CGS 21680 increased extracellular GABA levels in the ventral pallidum. Combined contralateral injections of CGS 21680 into the accumbens and the GABAA agonist muscimol into ventral pallidum (i.e., “disconnection” methods) also impaired response output, indicating that these structures are part of a common neural circuitry regulating the exertion of effort. Thus, accumbens adenosine A2A receptors appear to regulate behavioral activation and effort-related processes by modulating the activity of the ventral striatopallidal pathway. Research on the effort-related functions of these forebrain systems may lead to a greater understanding of pathological features of motivation, such as psychomotor slowing, anergia, and fatigue in depression. PMID:18768698

  12. Drug Discovery Targeting Serotonin G Protein-Coupled Receptors in the Treatment of Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felsing, Daniel E.

    Clinical data show that activation of 5-HT2C G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can treat obesity (lorcaserin/BelviqRTM) and psychotic disorders (aripiprazole/Abilify.), including schizophrenia. 5-HT2C GPCRs are members of the 5-HT2 sub-family of 5-HT GPCRs, which include 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT 2C GPCRs. 5-HT2C is structurally similar to 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B GPCRs, but activation of 5-HT2A and/or 5-HT 2B causes deleterious effects, including hallucinations and cardiac valvulopathy. Thus, there is a challenge to develop drugs that selectively activate only 5-HT2C. Prolonged activation of GPCRs by agonists reduces their function via a regulatory process called desensitization. This has clinical relevance, as 45% of drugs approved by the FDA target GPCRs, and agonist drugs (e.g., morphine) typically lose efficacy over time due to desensitization, which invites tolerance. Agonists that cause less desensitization may show extended clinical efficacy as well as a more acceptable clinical dose range. We hypothesized that structurally distinct agonists of the 5-HT2C receptor may cause varying degrees of desensitization by stabilizing unique 5-HT2C receptor conformations. Discovery of 5-HT2C agonists that exhibit minimal desensitization is therapeutically relevant for the pharmacotherapeutic treatment of chronic diseases such as obesity and psychotic disorders. The 5-HT7 receptor has recently been discovered as a druggable target, and selective activation of the 5-HT7 receptor has been shown to alleviate locomotor deficits in mouse models of Rett Syndrome. Additionally, buspirone has been shown to display therapeutically relevant affinity at 5-HT 1A and is currently in phase II clinical trials to treat stereotypy in children with autism. The 5-PAT chemical scaffold shows high affinity towards the 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A receptors. Modulations around the 5-phenyl moiety were able to improve selectivity in binding towards the 5-HT 7 receptor, whereas modulations of the alkyl chains

  13. The Role of Adenosine A2A Receptor, CYP450s, and PPARs in the Regulation of Vascular Tone

    PubMed Central

    Khayat, Maan T.

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous mediator involved in a myriad of physiologic functions, including vascular tone regulation. It is also implicated in some pathologic conditions. Four distinct receptor subtypes mediate the effects of adenosine, such as its role in the regulation of the vascular tone. Vascular tone regulation is a complex and continuous process which involves many mechanisms and mediators that are not fully disclosed. The vascular endothelium plays a pivotal role in regulating blood flow to and from all body organs. Also, the vascular endothelium is not merely a physical barrier; it is a complex tissue with numerous functions. Among adenosine receptors, A2A receptor subtype (A2AAR) stands out as the primary receptor responsible for the vasodilatory effects of adenosine. This review focuses on important effectors of the vascular endothelium, including adenosine, adenosine receptors, EETs (epoxyeicosatrienoic acids), HETEs (hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids), PPARs (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors), and KATP channels. Given the impact of vascular tone regulation in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology, better understanding of the mechanisms affecting it could have a significant potential for developing therapeutic agents for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:28884118

  14. The Sam-Sam interaction between Ship2 and the EphA2 receptor: design and analysis of peptide inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Flavia Anna; Di Natale, Concetta; Pirone, Luciano; Iannitti, Roberta; Marasco, Daniela; Pedone, Emilia Maria; Palumbo, Rosanna; Leone, Marilisa

    2017-12-12

    The lipid phosphatase Ship2 represents a drug discovery target for the treatment of different diseases, including cancer. Its C-terminal sterile alpha motif domain (Ship2-Sam) associates with the Sam domain from the EphA2 receptor (EphA2-Sam). This interaction is expected to mainly induce pro-oncogenic effects in cells therefore, inhibition of the Ship2-Sam/EphA2-Sam complex may represent an innovative route to discover anti-cancer therapeutics. In the present work, we designed and analyzed several peptide sequences encompassing the interaction interface of EphA2-Sam for Ship2-Sam. Peptide conformational analyses and interaction assays with Ship2-Sam conducted through diverse techniques (CD, NMR, SPR and MST), identified a positively charged penta-amino acid native motif in EphA2-Sam, that once repeated three times in tandem, binds Ship2-Sam. NMR experiments show that the peptide targets the negatively charged binding site of Ship2-Sam for EphA2-Sam. Preliminary in vitro cell-based assays indicate that -at 50 µM concentration- it induces necrosis of PC-3 prostate cancer cells with more cytotoxic effect on cancer cells than on normal dermal fibroblasts. This work represents a pioneering study that opens further opportunities for the development of inhibitors of the Ship2-Sam/EphA2-Sam complex for therapeutic applications.

  15. Protein kinase A can block EphA2 receptor-mediated cell repulsion by increasing EphA2 S897 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Barquilla, Antonio; Lamberto, Ilaria; Noberini, Roberta; Heynen-Genel, Susanne; Brill, Laurence M; Pasquale, Elena B

    2016-09-01

    The EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase plays key roles in tissue homeostasis and disease processes such as cancer, pathological angiogenesis, and inflammation through two distinct signaling mechanisms. EphA2 "canonical" signaling involves ephrin-A ligand binding, tyrosine autophosphorylation, and kinase activity; EphA2 "noncanonical" signaling involves phosphorylation of serine 897 (S897) by AKT and RSK kinases. To identify small molecules counteracting EphA2 canonical signaling, we developed a high-content screening platform measuring inhibition of ephrin-A1-induced PC3 prostate cancer cell retraction. Surprisingly, most hits from a screened collection of pharmacologically active compounds are agents that elevate intracellular cAMP by activating G protein-coupled receptors such as the β2-adrenoceptor. We found that cAMP promotes phosphorylation of S897 by protein kinase A (PKA) as well as increases the phosphorylation of several nearby serine/threonine residues, which constitute a phosphorylation hotspot. Whereas EphA2 canonical and noncanonical signaling have been viewed as mutually exclusive, we show that S897 phosphorylation by PKA can coexist with EphA2 tyrosine phosphorylation and block cell retraction induced by EphA2 kinase activity. Our findings reveal a novel paradigm in EphA2 function involving the interplay of canonical and noncanonical signaling and highlight the ability of the β2-adrenoceptor/cAMP/PKA axis to rewire EphA2 signaling in a subset of cancer cells. © 2016 Barquilla et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  16. Exploring an interaction of adenosine A2A receptor variability with coffee and tea intake in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tan, E K; Lu, Z Y; Fook-Chong, S M C; Tan, E; Shen, H; Chua, E; Yih, Y; Teo, Y Y; Zhao, Y

    2006-09-05

    Caffeine is an adenosine receptor A1 and A2A receptor antagonist and a putative functional genetic variant of the A2A receptor (2592C > Tins) mediates caffeine-induced anxiety. Here we investigated the potential interaction of this A2A genetic variant with the quantity of coffee and tea intake and their relationship with the risk of PD. A total of 441 subjects consisting of 222 PD and 219 race, gender and age matched controls were included. A multivariate analysis of the variables including the 2592C > Tins A2A genotypes, age of onset, gender, and the quantity of tea and coffee intake, interaction of the A2A genotypes with coffee intake, interaction of A2A genotypes with tea intake demonstrated the quantity of coffee intake to be significantly associated with PD (P < 0.0005, OR = 0.922, 95% CI: 0.881, 0.964). However, there was no significant interaction of the A2A genotypes with the quantity of coffee and tea intake in modulating the risk of PD. The dose dependent protective effect of coffee intake in PD was independent of the 2592C > Tins A2A genotype suggesting that the pharmacogenetic action of caffeine in PD may be mediated differently from other caffeine-induced neurologic syndromes.

  17. SKCa Channels Blockage Increases the Expression of Adenosine A2A Receptor in Jurkat Human T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Regaya, Imed; Aidi-Knani, Sabrine; By, Youlet; Condo, Jocelyne; Gerolami, Victoria; Berge-Lefranc, Jean-Louis; Ben Hamida, Jeannette; Sabatier, Jean-Marc; Fenouillet, Emmanuel; Guieu, Régis

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Adenosine is a nucleoside displaying various biological effects via stimulation of four G-protein–coupled receptors, A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Adenosine also modulates voltage-gated (Kv) and small conductance calcium-activated (SKCa) potassium channels. The effect of these potassium channels on the expression of adenosine receptors is poorly understood. We evaluated the action of BgK (a natural Kv channel blocker) and Lei-Dab7 (a synthetic SKCa channel blocker) on the expression of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) in Jurkat human T cells. We found that Lei-Dab7, but not BgK, increased the maximal binding value of the tritiated ligand ZM241385 to A2AR in a dose-dependent manner (+45% at 5 nM; +70% at 50 nM as compared to control). These results were further confirmed by Western blotting using a specific monoclonal antibody to human A2AR. The ligand affinity-related dissociation constant and A2AR mRNA amount were not significantly modified by either drug. We suggest that modulation of SKCa channels can influence membrane expression of A2AR and thus has a therapeutic potential. PMID:23593569

  18. Bombesin related peptides/receptors and their promising therapeutic roles in cancer imaging, targeting and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Paola; Ramos-Álvarez, Irene; Moody, Terry W.; Jensen, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite remarkable advances in tumor treatment, many patients still die from common tumors (breast, prostate, lung, CNS, colon, and pancreas), and thus, new approaches are needed. Many of these tumors synthesize bombesin (Bn)-related peptides and over-express their receptors (BnRs), hence functioning as autocrine-growth-factors. Recent studies support the conclusion that Bn-peptides/BnRs are well-positioned for numerous novel antitumor treatments, including interrupting autocrine-growth via the use of over-expressed receptors for imaging and targeting cytotoxic-compounds, either by direct-coupling or combined with nanoparticle-technology. Areas covered The unique ability of common neoplasms to synthesize, secrete, and show a growth/proliferative/differentiating response due to BnR over-expression, is reviewed, both in general and with regard to the most frequently investigated neoplasms (breast, prostate, lung, and CNS). Particular attention is paid to advances in the recent years. Also considered are the possible therapeutic approaches to the growth/differentiation effect of Bn-peptides, as well as the therapeutic implication of the frequent BnR over-expression for tumor-imaging and/or targeted-delivery. Expert opinion Given that Bn-related-peptides/BnRs are so frequently ectopically-expressed by common tumors, which are often malignant and become refractory to conventional treatments, therapeutic interventions using novel approaches to Bn-peptides and receptors are being explored. Of particular interest is the potential of reproducing BnRs in common tumors, such as the recent success of utilizing overexpression of somatostatin-receptors by neuroendocrine-tumors to provide the most sensitive imaging methods and targeted delivery of cytotoxic-compounds. PMID:26981612

  19. Modes of Action, Resistance and Toxicity of Insecticides Targeting Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Makoto; Buckingham, Steven D; Matsuda, Kazuhiko; Sattelle, David B

    2017-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of insects play a key role in fast excitatory neurotransmission. Several classes of insecticides target insect nAChRs, which are composed of subunit members of a family of multiple subunit encoding genes. Alternative splicing and RNA A-to-I editing can add further to receptor diversity. Native and recombinant receptors have been explored as sites of insecticide action using radioligands, electrophysiology and site-directed mutagenesis. We have reviewed the properties of native and recombinant insect nAChRs, the challenges of functional recombinant insect nAChR expression, nAChR interactions with ligands acting at orthosteric and allosteric sites and in particular their interactions with insecticides. Actions on insect nAChRs of cartap, neonicotinoids, spinosyns, sulfoxamines, butenolides and mesoionic insecticides are reviewed and current knowledge of their modes of action are addressed. Mutations that add to our understanding of insecticide action and those leading to resistance are discussed. Co-crystallisation of neonicotinoids with the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP), a surrogate for the nAChR ligand binding domain, has proved instructive. Toxicity issues relating to insecticides targeting nAChRs are also considered. An overview of insecticide classes targeting insect nAChRs has enhanced our understanding of these important receptors and their insecticide binding sites. However, the subunit composition of native nAChRs remains poorly understood and functional expression still presents difficulties. These topics together with improved understanding of the precise sites of insecticide actions on insect nAChRs will be the subject of future research. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Release inhibitory receptors activation favours the A2A-adenosine receptor-mediated facilitation of noradrenaline release in isolated rat tail artery

    PubMed Central

    Fresco, Paula; Diniz, Carmen; Queiroz, Glória; Gonçalves, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    Interactions between A2A-adenosine receptors and α2-, A1- and P2- release-inhibitory receptors, on the modulation of noradrenaline release were studied in isolated rat tail artery. Preparations were labelled with [3H]-noradrenaline, superfused with desipramine-containing medium, and stimulated electrically (100 pulses at 5 Hz or 20 pulses at 50 Hz).Blockade of α2-autoreceptors with yohimbine (1 μM) increased tritium overflow elicited by 100 pulses at 5 Hz but not by 20 pulses at 50 Hz.The selective A2A-receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680; 1 – 100 nM) enhanced tritium overflow elicited by 100 pulses at 5 Hz. Yohimbine prevented the effect of CGS 21680, which was restored by the A1-receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA; 100 nM) or by the P2-receptor agonist 2-methylthioadenosine triphosphate (2-MeSATP; 80 μM).CGS 21680 (100 nM) failed to increase tritium overflow elicited by 20 pulses at 50 Hz. The α2-adrenoceptor agonist 5-bromo-6-(2-imidazolin-2-ylamino)-quinoxaline (UK 14304; 30 nM), the A1-receptor agonist CPA (100 nM) or the P2-receptor agonist 2-MeSATP (80 μM) reduced tritium overflow. In the presence of these agonists CGS 21680 elicited a facilitation of tritium overflow.Blockade of potassium channels with tetraethylammonium (TEA; 5 mM) increased tritium overflow elicited by 100 pulses at 5 Hz to values similar to those obtained in the presence of yohimbine but did not prevent the effect of CGS 21680 (100 nM) on tritium overflow.It is concluded that, in isolated rat tail artery, the facilitation of noradrenaline release mediated by A2A-adenosine receptors is favoured by activation of release inhibitory receptors. PMID:12010771

  1. Pharmacologic suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Vallina, L; Yañez, R; Blanco, B; Gil, M; Russell, S J

    2000-04-01

    Adoptive therapy with autologous T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors (chTCRs) is of potential interest for the treatment of malignancy. To limit possible T-cell-mediated damage to normal tissues that weakly express the targeted tumor antigen (Ag), we have tested a strategy for the suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells. Jurkat T cells were transduced with an anti-hapten chTCR tinder the control of a tetracycline-suppressible promoter and were shown to respond to Ag-positive (hapten-coated) but not to Ag-negative target cells. The engineered T cells were then reacted with hapten-coated target cells at different effector to target cell ratios before and after exposure to tetracycline. When the engineered T cells were treated with tetracycline, expression of the chTCR was greatly decreased and recognition of the hapten-coated target cells was completely suppressed. Tetracycline-mediated suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells may be a useful strategy to limit the toxicity of the approach to cancer gene therapy.

  2. Cannabinoid CB2 receptor as a new phototherapy target for the inhibition of tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ningyang; Zhang, Shaojuan; Shao, Pin; Bagia, Christina; Janjic, Jelena M; Ding, Ying; Bai, Mingfeng

    2014-06-02

    The success of targeted cancer therapy largely relies upon the selection of target and the development of efficient therapeutic agents that specifically bind to the target. In the current study, we chose a cannabinoid CB2 receptor (CB2R) as a new target and used a CB2R-targeted photosensitizer, IR700DX-mbc94, for phototherapy treatment. IR700DX-mbc94 was prepared by conjugating a photosensitizer, IR700DX, to mbc94, whose binding specificity to CB2R has been previously demonstrated. We found that phototherapy treatment using IR700DX-mbc94 greatly inhibited the growth of CB2R positive tumors but not CB2R negative tumors. In addition, phototherapy treatment with nontargeted IR700DX did not show significant therapeutic effect. Similarly, treatment with IR700DX-mbc94 without light irradiation or light irradiation without the photosensitizer showed no tumor-inhibitory effect. Taken together, IR700DX-mbc94 is a promising phototherapy agent with high target-specificity. Moreover, CB2R appears to have great potential as a phototherapeutic target for cancer treatment.

  3. TAM receptors Tyro3 and Mer as novel targets in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Robin; Valls, Aida Freire; Yerbes, Rosario; von Richter, Sophie; Kahlert, Christoph; Loges, Sonja; Weitz, Jürgen; Schneider, Martin; Ruiz de Almodovar, Carmen; Ulrich, Alexis; Schmidt, Thomas

    2016-08-30

    CRC remains the third most common cancer worldwide with a high 5-year mortality rate in advanced cases. Combined with chemotherapy, targeted therapy is an additional treatment option. However as CRC still escapes targeted therapy the vigorous search for new targets is warranted to increase patients´ overall survival. In this study we describe a new role for Gas6/protein S-TAM receptor interaction in CRC. Gas6, expressed by tumor-infiltrating M2-like macrophages, enhances malignant properties of tumor cells including proliferation, invasion and colony formation. Upon chemotherapy macrophages increase Gas6 synthesis, which significantly attenuates the cytotoxic effect of 5-FU chemotherapy on tumor cells. The anti-coagulant protein S has similar effects as Gas6.In CRC patient samples Tyro3 was overexpressed within the tumor. In-vitro inhibition of Tyro3 and Mer reduces tumor cell proliferation and sensitizes tumor cells to chemotherapy. Moreover high expression of Tyro3 and Mer in tumor tissue significantly shortens CRC patients´ survival. Various in vitro models were used to investigate the role of Gas6 and its TAM receptors in human CRC cells, by stimulation (rhGas6) and knockdown (siRNA) of Axl, Tyro3 and Mer. In terms of a translational research, we additionally performed an expression analysis in human CRC tissue and analyzed the medical record of these patients. Tyro3 and Mer represent novel therapeutic targets in CRC and warrant further preclinical and clinical investigation in the future.

  4. Glycoprotein CD98 as a receptor for colitis-targeted delivery of nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bo; Yang, Yang; Viennois, Emilie; Zhang, Yuchen; Ayyadurai, Saravanan; Baker, Mark; Laroui, Hamed; Merlin, Didier

    2014-03-21

    Treatment strategies for inflammatory bowel disease have been constrained by limited therapeutic efficacy and serious adverse effects owing to a lack of receptor for targeted drug delivery to the inflamed colon. Upon inflammation, CD98 expression is highly elevated in colonic epithelial cells and infiltrating immune cells. To investigate whether CD98 can be used as a colitis-targeted delivery receptor, we constructed CD98 Fab'-bearing quantum dots (QDs)-loaded nanoparticles (Fab'-NPs). The resultant Fab'-NPs had desired particle size (~458 nm) with a narrow size distribution and zeta-potential (approximately +19 mV), low cytotoxicity, and excellent fluorescence properties. Electron microscopy images provided direct evidence for the well-dispersed distribution of QDs within spherical Fab'-NPs. Cellular uptake experiments demonstrated that Fab'-NPs were efficiently internalized into Colon-26 and RAW 264.7 cells through the CD98-mediated endocytosis pathway, and showed that the targeting effect of CD98 Fab' markedly increased their cellular uptake efficiency compared with control pegylated QDs-loaded NPs (PEG-NPs). Furthermore, ex vivo studies showed much more effective accumulation of Fab'-NPs in colitis tissue than that of PEG-NPs. These findings suggest that because of inflammation-dependent over-expression of CD98, active colitis-targeted delivery can be accomplished using NPs decorated with CD98 antibody.

  5. Charomers—Interleukin-6 Receptor Specific Aptamers for Cellular Internalization and Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a key player in inflammation and the main factor for the induction of acute phase protein biosynthesis. Further to its central role in many aspects of the immune system, IL-6 regulates a variety of homeostatic processes. To interfere with IL-6 dependent diseases, such as various autoimmune diseases or certain cancers like multiple myeloma or hepatocellular carcinoma associated with chronic inflammation, it might be a sensible strategy to target human IL-6 receptor (hIL-6R) presenting cells with aptamers. We therefore have selected and characterized different DNA and RNA aptamers specifically binding IL-6R. These IL-6R aptamers, however, do not interfere with the IL-6 signaling pathway but are internalized with the receptor and thus can serve as vehicles for the delivery of different cargo molecules like therapeutics. We succeeded in the construction of a chlorin e6 derivatized aptamer to be delivered for targeted photodynamic therapy (PDT). Furthermore, we were able to synthesize an aptamer intrinsically comprising the cytostatic 5-Fluoro-2′-deoxy-uridine for targeted chemotherapy. The α6β4 integrin specific DNA aptamer IDA, also selected in our laboratory is internalized, too. All these aptamers can serve as vehicles for targeted drug delivery into cells. We call them charomers—in memory of Charon, the ferryman in Greek mythology, who ferried the deceased into the underworld. PMID:29211023

  6. Charomers-Interleukin-6 Receptor Specific Aptamers for Cellular Internalization and Targeted Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Ulrich

    2017-12-06

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a key player in inflammation and the main factor for the induction of acute phase protein biosynthesis. Further to its central role in many aspects of the immune system, IL-6 regulates a variety of homeostatic processes. To interfere with IL-6 dependent diseases, such as various autoimmune diseases or certain cancers like multiple myeloma or hepatocellular carcinoma associated with chronic inflammation, it might be a sensible strategy to target human IL-6 receptor (hIL-6R) presenting cells with aptamers. We therefore have selected and characterized different DNA and RNA aptamers specifically binding IL-6R. These IL-6R aptamers, however, do not interfere with the IL-6 signaling pathway but are internalized with the receptor and thus can serve as vehicles for the delivery of different cargo molecules like therapeutics. We succeeded in the construction of a chlorin e6 derivatized aptamer to be delivered for targeted photodynamic therapy (PDT). Furthermore, we were able to synthesize an aptamer intrinsically comprising the cytostatic 5-Fluoro-2'-deoxy-uridine for targeted chemotherapy. The α6β4 integrin specific DNA aptamer IDA, also selected in our laboratory is internalized, too. All these aptamers can serve as vehicles for targeted drug delivery into cells. We call them charomers-in memory of Charon, the ferryman in Greek mythology, who ferried the deceased into the underworld.

  7. Effects of a Proprietary Standardized Orthosiphon stamineus Ethanolic Leaf Extract on Enhancing Memory in Sprague Dawley Rats Possibly via Blockade of Adenosine A2A Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Yogendra; Choudhary, Vandana Kotak; Bommu, Praveen; Wong, Hoi Jin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore a propriety standardized ethanolic extract from leaves of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth in improving impairments in short-term social memory in vivo, possibly via blockade of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR). The ethanolic extract of O. stamineus leaves showed significant in vitro binding activity of A2AR with 74% inhibition at 150 μg/ml and significant A2AR antagonist activity with 98% inhibition at 300 μg/mL. A significant adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) antagonist activity with 100% inhibition was observed at 300 μg/mL. Its effect on learning and memory was assessed via social recognition task using Sprague Dawley rats whereby the ethanolic extract of O. stamineus showed significant (p < 0.001) change in recognition index (RI) at 300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg p.o and 120 mg/kg i.p., respectively, compared to the vehicle control. In comparison, the ethanolic extract of Polygonum minus aerial parts showed small change in inflexion; however, it remained insignificant in RI at 200 mg/kg p.o. Our findings suggest that the ethanolic extract of O. stamineus leaves improves memory by reversing age-related deficits in short-term social memory and the possible involvement of adenosine A1 and adenosine A2A as a target bioactivity site in the restoration of memory. PMID:26649059

  8. The neural androgen receptor: a therapeutic target for myelin repair in chronic demyelination

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Rashad; Ghoumari, Abdel M.; Bielecki, Bartosz; Steibel, Jérôme; Boehm, Nelly; Liere, Philippe; Macklin, Wendy B.; Kumar, Narender; Habert, René; Mhaouty-Kodja, Sakina; Tronche, François; Sitruk-Ware, Regine

    2013-01-01

    Myelin regeneration is a major therapeutic goal in demyelinating diseases, and the failure to remyelinate rapidly has profound consequences for the health of axons and for brain function. However, there is no efficient treatment for stimulating myelin repair, and current therapies are limited to anti-inflammatory agents. Males are less likely to develop multiple sclerosis than females, but often have a more severe disease course and reach disability milestones at an earlier age than females, and these observations have spurred interest in the potential protective effects of androgens. Here, we demonstrate that testosterone treatment efficiently stimulates the formation of new myelin and reverses myelin damage in chronic demyelinated brain lesions, resulting from the long-term administration of cuprizone, which is toxic for oligodendrocytes. In addition to the strong effect of testosterone on myelin repair, the number of activated astrocytes and microglial cells returned to low control levels, indicating a reduction of neuroinflammatory responses. We also identify the neural androgen receptor as a novel therapeutic target for myelin recovery. After the acute demyelination of cerebellar slices in organotypic culture, the remyelinating actions of testosterone could be mimicked by 5α-dihydrotestosterone, a metabolite that is not converted to oestrogens, and blocked by the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide. Testosterone treatment also failed to promote remyelination after chronic cuprizone-induced demyelination in mice with a non-functional androgen receptor. Importantly, testosterone did not stimulate the formation of new myelin sheaths after specific knockout of the androgen receptor in neurons and macroglial cells. Thus, the neural brain androgen receptor is required for the remyelination effect of testosterone, whereas the presence of the receptor in microglia and in peripheral tissues is not sufficient to enhance remyelination. The potent synthetic

  9. Human adenosine A2A receptor binds calmodulin with high affinity in a calcium-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Piirainen, Henni; Hellman, Maarit; Tossavainen, Helena; Permi, Perttu; Kursula, Petri; Jaakola, Veli-Pekka

    2015-02-17

    Understanding how ligands bind to G-protein-coupled receptors and how binding changes receptor structure to affect signaling is critical for developing a complete picture of the signal transduction process. The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) is a particularly interesting example, as it has an exceptionally long intracellular carboxyl terminus, which is predicted to be mainly disordered. Experimental data on the structure of the A2AR C-terminus is lacking, because published structures of A2AR do not include the C-terminus. Calmodulin has been reported to bind to the A2AR C-terminus, with a possible binding site on helix 8, next to the membrane. The biological meaning of the interaction as well as its calcium dependence, thermodynamic parameters, and organization of the proteins in the complex are unclear. Here, we characterized the structure of the A2AR C-terminus and the A2AR C-terminus-calmodulin complex using different biophysical methods, including native gel and analytical gel filtration, isothermal titration calorimetry, NMR spectroscopy, and small-angle X-ray scattering. We found that the C-terminus is disordered and flexible, and it binds with high affinity (Kd = 98 nM) to calmodulin without major conformational changes in the domain. Calmodulin binds to helix 8 of the A2AR in a calcium-dependent manner that can displace binding of A2AR to lipid vesicles. We also predicted and classified putative calmodulin-binding sites in a larger group of G-protein-coupled receptors. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Viral Receptor Complementation Strategy to Overcome CAV-2 Tropism for Efficient Retrograde Targeting of Neurons.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Jing; Vaughan, Alexander; Sturgill, James Fitzhugh; Kepecs, Adam

    2018-06-06

    Retrogradely transported neurotropic viruses enable genetic access to neurons based on their long-range projections and have become indispensable tools for linking neural connectivity with function. A major limitation of viral techniques is that they rely on cell-type-specific molecules for uptake and transport. Consequently, viruses fail to infect variable subsets of neurons depending on the complement of surface receptors expressed (viral tropism). We report a receptor complementation strategy to overcome this by potentiating neurons for the infection of the virus of interest-in this case, canine adenovirus type-2 (CAV-2). We designed AAV vectors for expressing the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) throughout candidate projection neurons. CAR expression greatly increased retrograde-labeling rates, which we demonstrate for several long-range projections, including some resistant to other retrograde-labeling techniques. Our results demonstrate a receptor complementation strategy to abrogate endogenous viral tropism and thereby facilitate efficient retrograde targeting for functional analysis of neural circuits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hyaluronan functionalizing QDs as turn-on fluorescent probe for targeted recognition CD44 receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shang; Huo, Danqun; Hou, Changjun; Yang, Mei; Fa, Huanbao

    2017-09-01

    The recognition of tumor markers in living cancer cells has attracted increasing interest. In the present study, the turn-on fluorescence probe was designed based on the fluorescence of thiolated chitosan-coated CdTe QDs (CdTe/TCS QDs) quenched by hyaluronan, which could provide the low background signal for sensitive cellular imaging. This system is expected to offer specific recognition of CD44 receptor over other substances owing to the specific affinity of hyaluronan and CD44 receptor ( 8-9 kcal/mol). The probe is stable in aqueous and has little toxicity to living cells; thus, it can be utilized for targeted cancer cell imaging. The living lung cancer cell imaging experiments further demonstrate its value in recognizing cell-surface CD44 receptor with turn-on mode. In addition, the probe can be used to recognize and differentiate the subtypes of lung cancer cells based on the difference of CD44 expression on the surface of lung cancer cells. And, the western blot test further confirmed that the expression level of the CD44 receptor in lung cancer cells is different. Therefore, this probe may be potentially applied in recognizing lung cancer cells with higher contrast and sensitivity and provide new tools for cancer prognosis and therapy. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. TAM Receptor Tyrosine Kinases: Biologic Functions, Signaling, and Potential Therapeutic Targeting in Human Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Linger, Rachel M. A.; Keating, Amy K.; Earp, H. Shelton; Graham, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    Tyro-3, Axl, and Mer constitute the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) characterized by a conserved sequence within the kinase domain and adhesion molecule-like extracellular domains. This small family of RTKs regulates an intriguing mix of processes, including cell proliferation/survival, cell adhesion and migration, blood clot stabilization, and regulation of inflammatory cytokine release. Genetic or experimental alteration of TAM receptor function can contribute to a number of disease states, including coagulopathy, autoimmune disease, retinitis pigmentosa, and cancer. In this chapter, we first provide a comprehensive review of the structure, regulation, biologic functions, and down-stream signaling pathways of these receptors. In addition, we discuss recent evidence which suggests a role for TAM receptors in oncogenic mechanisms as family members are over-expressed in a spectrum of human cancers and have prognostic significance in some. Possible strategies for targeted inhibition of the TAM family in the treatment of human cancer are described. Further research will be necessary to evaluate the full clinical implications of TAM family expression and activation in cancer. PMID:18620092

  13. Dephosphorylation of receptor tyrosine kinases as target of regulation by radiation, oxidants or alkylating agents.

    PubMed Central

    Knebel, A; Rahmsdorf, H J; Ullrich, A; Herrlich, P

    1996-01-01

    Several non-physiologic agents such as radiation, oxidants and alkylating agents induce ligand-independent activation of numerous receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and of protein tyrosine kinases at the inner side of the plasma membrane (e.g. Dévary et al., 1992; Sachsenmaier et al., 1994; Schieven et al., 1994; Coffer et al., 1995). Here we show additional evidence for the activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and we show activation of v-ErbB, ErbB2 and platelet-derived growth factor receptor. As a common principle of action the inducing agents such as UVC, UVB, UVA, hydrogen peroxide and iodoacetamide inhibit receptor tyrosine dephosphorylation in a thiol-sensitive and, with the exception of the SH-alkylating agent, reversible manner. EGFR dephosphorylation can also be modulated by these non-physiologic agents in isolated plasma membranes in the presence of Triton X-100. Further, substrate (EGFR) and phosphatase have been separated: a membrane preparation of cells that have been treated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and whose dephosphorylating enzymes have been permanently destroyed by iodoacetamide can be mixed with a membrane preparation from untreated cells which re-establishes EGFR dephosphorylation. This dephosphorylation can be modulated in vitro by UV and thiol agents. We conclude that RTKs exhibit significant spontaneous protein kinase activity; several adverse agents target (an) essential SH-group(s) carried by (a) membrane-bound protein tyrosine phosphatase(s). Images PMID:8895576

  14. Anti-tumor effects of peptide analogs targeting neuropeptide hormone receptors on mouse pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, C G; Ullrich, M; Schally, A V; Bergmann, R; Pietzsch, J; Gebauer, L; Gondek, K; Qin, N; Pacak, K; Ehrhart-Bornstein, M; Eisenhofer, G; Bornstein, S R

    2013-05-22

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare but potentially lethal chromaffin cell tumor with currently no effective treatment. Peptide hormone receptors are frequently overexpressed on endocrine tumor cells and can be specifically targeted by various anti-tumor peptide analogs. The present study carried out on mouse pheochromocytoma cells (MPCs) and a more aggressive mouse tumor tissue-derived (MTT) cell line revealed that these cells are characterized by pronounced expression of the somatostatin receptor 2 (sst2), growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor and the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor. We further demonstrated significant anti-tumor effects mediated by cytotoxic somatostatin analogs, AN-162 and AN-238, by LHRH antagonist, Cetrorelix, by the cytotoxic LHRH analog, AN-152, and by recently developed GHRH antagonist, MIA-602, on MPC and for AN-152 and MIA-602 on MTT cells. Studies of novel anti-tumor compounds on these mouse cell lines serve as an important basis for mouse models of metastatic pheochromocytoma, which we are currently establishing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Virtual Screening Approaches in the Search for Novel EphA2 Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Callegari, Donatella; Pala, Daniele; Scalvini, Laura; Tognolini, Massimiliano; Incerti, Matteo; Rivara, Silvia; Mor, Marco; Lodola, Alessio

    2015-09-17

    The EphA2 receptor and its ephrin-A1 ligand form a key cell communication system, which has been found overexpressed in many cancer types and involved in tumor growth. Recent medicinal chemistry efforts have identified bile acid derivatives as low micromolar binders of the EphA2 receptor. However, these compounds suffer from poor physicochemical properties, hampering their use in vivo. The identification of compounds able to disrupt the EphA2-ephrin-A1 complex lacking the bile acid scaffold may lead to new pharmacological tools suitable for in vivo studies. To identify the most promising virtual screening (VS) protocol aimed at finding novel EphA2 antagonists, we investigated the ability of both ligand-based and structure-based approaches to retrieve known EphA2 antagonists from libraries of decoys with similar molecular properties. While ligand-based VSs were conducted using UniPR129 and ephrin-A1 ligand as reference structures, structure-based VSs were performed with Glide, using the X-ray structure of the EphA2 receptor/ephrin-A1 complex. A comparison of enrichment factors showed that ligand-based approaches outperformed the structure-based ones, suggesting ligand-based methods using the G-H loop of ephrin-A1 ligand as template as the most promising protocols to search for novel EphA2 antagonists.

  16. Receptor for advanced glycation end products is targeted by FBXO10 for ubiquitination and degradation.

    PubMed

    Evankovich, John; Lear, Travis; Mckelvey, Alison; Dunn, Sarah; Londino, James; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Bill B; Mallampalli, Rama K

    2017-09-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a highly expressed cell membrane receptor serving to anchor lung epithelia to matrix components, and it also amplifies inflammatory signaling during acute lung injury. However, mechanisms that regulate its protein concentrations in cells remain largely unknown. Here we show that RAGE exhibits an extended life span in lung epithelia ( t ½ 6 h), is monoubiquitinated at K374, and is degraded in lysosomes. The RAGE ligand ODN2006, a synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide resembling pathogenic hypomethylated CpG DNA, promotes rapid lysosomal RAGE degradation through activation of protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ), which phosphorylates RAGE. PKCζ overexpression enhances RAGE degradation, while PKCζ knockdown stabilizes RAGE protein levels and prevents ODN2006-mediated degradation. We identify that RAGE is targeted by the ubiquitin E3 ligase subunit F-box protein O10 (FBXO10), which associates with RAGE to mediate its ubiquitination and degradation. FBXO10 depletion in cells stabilizes RAGE and is required for ODN2006-mediated degradation. These data suggest that modulation of regulators involved in ubiquitin-mediated disposal of RAGE might serve as unique molecular inputs directing RAGE cellular concentrations and downstream responses, which are critical in an array of inflammatory disorders, including acute lung injury.-Evankovich, J., Lear, T., Mckelvey, A., Dunn, S., Londino, J., Liu, Y., Chen, B. B., Mallampalli, R. K. Receptor for advanced glycation end products is targeted by FBXO10 for ubiquitination and degradation. © FASEB.

  17. Extrasynaptic Glycine Receptors of Rodent Dorsal Raphe Serotonergic Neurons: A Sensitive Target for Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Edward P; Mitchell, Elizabeth A; Greig, Scott J; Corteen, Nicole; Balfour, David J K; Swinny, Jerome D; Lambert, Jeremy J; Belelli, Delia

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant medical and social problem. Several neurotransmitter systems are implicated in ethanol's actions, with certain receptors and ion channels emerging as putative targets. The dorsal raphe (DR) nucleus is associated with the behavioral actions of alcohol, but ethanol actions on these neurons are not well understood. Here, using immunohistochemistry and electrophysiology we characterize DR inhibitory transmission and its sensitivity to ethanol. DR neurons exhibit inhibitory ‘phasic' post-synaptic currents mediated primarily by synaptic GABAA receptors (GABAAR) and, to a lesser extent, by synaptic glycine receptors (GlyR). In addition to such phasic transmission mediated by the vesicular release of neurotransmitter, the activity of certain neurons may be governed by a ‘tonic' conductance resulting from ambient GABA activating extrasynaptic GABAARs. However, for DR neurons extrasynaptic GABAARs exert only a limited influence. By contrast, we report that unusually the GlyR antagonist strychnine reveals a large tonic conductance mediated by extrasynaptic GlyRs, which dominates DR inhibition. In agreement, for DR neurons strychnine increases their input resistance, induces membrane depolarization, and consequently augments their excitability. Importantly, this glycinergic conductance is greatly enhanced in a strychnine-sensitive fashion, by behaviorally relevant ethanol concentrations, by drugs used for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, and by taurine, an ingredient of certain ‘energy drinks' often imbibed with ethanol. These findings identify extrasynaptic GlyRs as critical regulators of DR excitability and a novel molecular target for ethanol. PMID:24264816

  18. Intravenous siRNA of brain cancer with receptor targeting and avidin-biotin technology.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chun-Fang; Zhang, Yufeng; Zhang, Yun; Boado, Ruben J; Pardridge, William M

    2007-12-01

    The effective delivery of short interfering RNA (siRNA) to brain following intravenous administration requires the development of a delivery system for transport of the siRNA across the brain capillary endothelial wall, which forms the blood-brain barrier in vivo. siRNA was delivered to brain in vivo with the combined use of a receptor-specific monoclonal antibody delivery system, and avidin-biotin technology. The siRNA was mono-biotinylated on either terminus of the sense strand, in parallel with the production of a conjugate of the targeting MAb and streptavidin. Rat glial cells (C6 or RG-2) were permanently transfected with the luciferase gene, and implanted in the brain of adult rats. Following the formation of intra-cranial tumors, the rats were treated with a single intravenous injection of 270 microg/kg of biotinylated siRNA attached to a transferrin receptor antibody via a biotin-streptavidin linker. The intravenous administration of the siRNA caused a 69-81% decrease in luciferase gene expression in the intracranial brain cancer in vivo. Brain delivery of siRNA following intravenous administration is possible with siRNAs that are targeted to brain with the combined use of receptor specific antibody delivery systems and avidin-biotin technology.

  19. Impact of purification conditions and history on A 2A adenosine receptor activity: The role of CHAPS and lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Naranjo, Andrea N.; McNeely, Patrick M.; Katsaras, John

    The adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2AR) is a much-studied class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). For biophysical studies, A 2AR is commonly purified in a detergent mixture of dodecylmaltoside (DDM), 3-(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammoniopropane sulfonate (CHAPS), and cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHS). Here we studied the effects of CHAPS on the ligand binding activity and stability of wild type, full-length human A 2AR. We also tested the cholesterol requirement for maintaining the active conformation of the receptor when solubilized in detergent micelles. To this end, the receptor was purified using DDM, DDM/CHAPS, or the short hydrocarbon chain lipid 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC, di-6:0PC). After solubilizationmore » in DDM, DDM/CHAPS, or DHPC micelles, although A 2AR was found to retain its native-like fold, its binding ability was significantly compromised compared to DDM or DDM/CHAPS with CHS. It therefore appears that although cholesterol is not needed for A 2AR to retain a native-like, α-helical conformation, it may be a critical component for high affinity ligand binding. Further, this result suggests that the conformational differences between the active and inactive protein may be so subtle that commonly used spectroscopic methods are unable to differentiate between the two forms, highlighting the need for activity measurements. Furthermore, the studies presented in this paper also underline the importance of the protein’s purification history; i.e., detergents that interact with the protein during purification affect the ligand binding properties of the receptor in an irreversible manner.« less

  20. Singular Location and Signaling Profile of Adenosine A2A-Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Heteromers in the Dorsal Striatum.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Estefanía; Chiarlone, Anna; Medrano, Mireia; Puigdellívol, Mar; Bibic, Lucka; Howell, Lesley A; Resel, Eva; Puente, Nagore; Casarejos, María J; Perucho, Juan; Botta, Joaquín; Suelves, Nuria; Ciruela, Francisco; Ginés, Silvia; Galve-Roperh, Ismael; Casadó, Vicent; Grandes, Pedro; Lutz, Beat; Monory, Krisztina; Canela, Enric I; Lluís, Carmen; McCormick, Peter J; Guzmán, Manuel

    2018-04-01

    The dorsal striatum is a key node for many neurobiological processes such as motor activity, cognitive functions, and affective processes. The proper functioning of striatal neurons relies critically on metabotropic receptors. Specifically, the main adenosine and endocannabinoid receptors present in the striatum, ie, adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2A R) and cannabinoid CB 1 receptor (CB 1 R), are of pivotal importance in the control of neuronal excitability. Facilitatory and inhibitory functional interactions between striatal A 2A R and CB 1 R have been reported, and evidence supports that this cross-talk may rely, at least in part, on the formation of A 2A R-CB 1 R heteromeric complexes. However, the specific location and properties of these heteromers have remained largely unknown. Here, by using techniques that allowed a precise visualization of the heteromers in situ in combination with sophisticated genetically modified animal models, together with biochemical and pharmacological approaches, we provide a high-resolution expression map and a detailed functional characterization of A 2A R-CB 1 R heteromers in the dorsal striatum. Specifically, our data unveil that the A 2A R-CB 1 R heteromer (i) is essentially absent from corticostriatal projections and striatonigral neurons, and, instead, is largely present in striatopallidal neurons, (ii) displays a striking G protein-coupled signaling profile, where co-stimulation of both receptors leads to strongly reduced downstream signaling, and (iii) undergoes an unprecedented dysfunction in Huntington's disease, an archetypal disease that affects striatal neurons. Altogether, our findings may open a new conceptual framework to understand the role of coordinated adenosine-endocannabinoid signaling in the indirect striatal pathway, which may be relevant in motor function and neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Singular Location and Signaling Profile of Adenosine A2A-Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Heteromers in the Dorsal Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Estefanía; Chiarlone, Anna; Medrano, Mireia; Puigdellívol, Mar; Bibic, Lucka; Howell, Lesley A; Resel, Eva; Puente, Nagore; Casarejos, María J; Perucho, Juan; Botta, Joaquín; Suelves, Nuria; Ciruela, Francisco; Ginés, Silvia; Galve-Roperh, Ismael; Casadó, Vicent; Grandes, Pedro; Lutz, Beat; Monory, Krisztina; Canela, Enric I; Lluís, Carmen; McCormick, Peter J; Guzmán, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    The dorsal striatum is a key node for many neurobiological processes such as motor activity, cognitive functions, and affective processes. The proper functioning of striatal neurons relies critically on metabotropic receptors. Specifically, the main adenosine and endocannabinoid receptors present in the striatum, ie, adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) and cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R), are of pivotal importance in the control of neuronal excitability. Facilitatory and inhibitory functional interactions between striatal A2AR and CB1R have been reported, and evidence supports that this cross-talk may rely, at least in part, on the formation of A2AR-CB1R heteromeric complexes. However, the specific location and properties of these heteromers have remained largely unknown. Here, by using techniques that allowed a precise visualization of the heteromers in situ in combination with sophisticated genetically modified animal models, together with biochemical and pharmacological approaches, we provide a high-resolution expression map and a detailed functional characterization of A2AR-CB1R heteromers in the dorsal striatum. Specifically, our data unveil that the A2AR-CB1R heteromer (i) is essentially absent from corticostriatal projections and striatonigral neurons, and, instead, is largely present in striatopallidal neurons, (ii) displays a striking G protein-coupled signaling profile, where co-stimulation of both receptors leads to strongly reduced downstream signaling, and (iii) undergoes an unprecedented dysfunction in Huntington’s disease, an archetypal disease that affects striatal neurons. Altogether, our findings may open a new conceptual framework to understand the role of coordinated adenosine-endocannabinoid signaling in the indirect striatal pathway, which may be relevant in motor function and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:28102227

  2. Impact of purification conditions and history on A 2A adenosine receptor activity: The role of CHAPS and lipids

    DOE PAGES

    Naranjo, Andrea N.; McNeely, Patrick M.; Katsaras, John; ...

    2016-05-27

    The adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2AR) is a much-studied class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). For biophysical studies, A 2AR is commonly purified in a detergent mixture of dodecylmaltoside (DDM), 3-(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammoniopropane sulfonate (CHAPS), and cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHS). Here we studied the effects of CHAPS on the ligand binding activity and stability of wild type, full-length human A 2AR. We also tested the cholesterol requirement for maintaining the active conformation of the receptor when solubilized in detergent micelles. To this end, the receptor was purified using DDM, DDM/CHAPS, or the short hydrocarbon chain lipid 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC, di-6:0PC). After solubilizationmore » in DDM, DDM/CHAPS, or DHPC micelles, although A 2AR was found to retain its native-like fold, its binding ability was significantly compromised compared to DDM or DDM/CHAPS with CHS. It therefore appears that although cholesterol is not needed for A 2AR to retain a native-like, α-helical conformation, it may be a critical component for high affinity ligand binding. Further, this result suggests that the conformational differences between the active and inactive protein may be so subtle that commonly used spectroscopic methods are unable to differentiate between the two forms, highlighting the need for activity measurements. Furthermore, the studies presented in this paper also underline the importance of the protein’s purification history; i.e., detergents that interact with the protein during purification affect the ligand binding properties of the receptor in an irreversible manner.« less

  3. Binding and Function of Phosphotyrosines of the Ephrin A2 (EphA2) Receptor Using Synthetic Sterile α Motif (SAM) Domains*

    PubMed Central

    Borthakur, Susmita; Lee, HyeongJu; Kim, SoonJeung; Wang, Bing-Cheng; Buck, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The sterile α motif (SAM) domain of the ephrin receptor tyrosine kinase, EphA2, undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation, but the effect of phosphorylation on the structure and interactions of the receptor is unknown. Studies to address these questions have been hindered by the difficulty of obtaining site-specifically phosphorylated proteins in adequate amounts. Here, we describe the use of chemically synthesized and specifically modified domain-length peptides to study the behavior of phosphorylated EphA2 SAM domains. We show that tyrosine phosphorylation of any of the three tyrosines, Tyr921, Tyr930, and Tyr960, has a surprisingly small effect on the EphA2 SAM structure and stability. However, phosphorylation at Tyr921 and Tyr930 enables differential binding to the Src homology 2 domain of the adaptor protein Grb7, which we propose will lead to distinct functional outcomes. Setting up different signaling platforms defined by selective interactions with adaptor proteins thus adds another level of regulation to EphA2 signaling. PMID:24825902

  4. Synthesis and properties of a new water-soluble prodrug of the adenosine A 2A receptor antagonist MSX-2.

    PubMed

    Vollmann, Karl; Qurishi, Ramatullah; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E

    2008-02-12

    The compound L-valine-3-{8-[(E)-2-[3-methoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-7-methyl-1-propargylxanthine-3-yl}propyl ester hydrochloride (MSX-4) was synthesized as an amino acid ester prodrug of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-2. It was found to be stable in artificial gastric acid, but readily cleaved by pig liver esterase.

  5. Synthesis and pharmacological characterization of novel xanthine carboxylate amides as A2A adenosine receptor ligands exhibiting bronchospasmolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rakesh; Bansal, Ranju; Rohilla, Suman; Kachler, Sonja; Klotz, Karl-Norbert

    2016-04-01

    The carboxylate amides of 8-phenyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine described herein represent a new series of selective ligands of the adenosine A2A receptors exhibiting bronchospasmolytic activity. The effects of location of 8-phenyl substitutions on the adenosine receptor (AR) binding affinities of the newly synthesized xanthines have also been studied. The compounds displayed moderate to potent binding affinities toward various adenosine receptor subtypes when evaluated through radioligand binding studies. However, most of the compounds showed the maximum affinity for the A2A subtype, some with high selectivity versus all other subtypes. Xanthine carboxylate amide 13b with a diethylaminoethylamino moiety at the para-position of the 8-phenylxanthine scaffold was identified as the most potent A2A adenosine receptor ligand with Ki=0.06μM. Similarly potent and highly A2A-selective are the isovanillin derivatives 16a and 16d. In addition, the newly synthesized xanthine derivatives showed good in vivo bronchospasmolytic activity when tested in guinea pigs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Extrinsic Tryptophans as NMR Probes of Allosteric Coupling in Membrane Proteins: Application to the A2A Adenosine Receptor.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Matthew T; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Mannes, Philip; Patel, Nilkanth; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Katritch, Vsevolod; Stevens, Raymond C; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2018-06-20

    Tryptophan indole 15 N- 1 H signals are well separated in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of proteins. Assignment of the indole 15 N- 1 H signals therefore enables one to obtain site-specific information on complex proteins in supramacromolecular systems, even when extensive assignment of backbone 15 N- 1 H resonances is challenging. Here we exploit the unique indole 15 N- 1 H chemical shift by introducing extrinsic tryptophan reporter residues at judiciously chosen locations in a membrane protein for increased coverage of structure and function by NMR. We demonstrate this approach with three variants of the human A 2A adenosine receptor (A 2A AR), a class A G protein-coupled receptor, each containing a single extrinsic tryptophan near the receptor intracellular surface, in helix V, VI, or VII, respectively. We show that the native A 2A AR global protein fold and ligand binding activity are preserved in these A 2A AR variants. The indole 15 N- 1 H signals from the extrinsic tryptophan reporter residues show different responses to variable efficacy of drugs bound to the receptor orthosteric cavity, and the indole 15 N- 1 H chemical shift of the tryptophan introduced at the intracellular end of helix VI is sensitive to conformational changes resulting from interactions with a polypeptide from the carboxy terminus of the Gα S intracellular partner protein. Introducing extrinsic tryptophans into proteins in complex supramolecular systems thus opens new avenues for NMR investigations in solution.

  7. Drug-target residence time--a case for G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dong; Hillger, Julia M; IJzerman, Adriaan P; Heitman, Laura H

    2014-07-01

    A vast number of marketed drugs act on G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the most successful category of drug targets to date. These drugs usually possess high target affinity and selectivity, and such combined features have been the driving force in the early phases of drug discovery. However, attrition has also been high. Many investigational new drugs eventually fail in clinical trials due to a demonstrated lack of efficacy. A retrospective assessment of successfully launched drugs revealed that their beneficial effects in patients may be attributed to their long drug-target residence times (RTs). Likewise, for some other GPCR drugs short RT could be beneficial to reduce the potential for on-target side effects. Hence, the compounds' kinetics behavior might in fact be the guiding principle to obtain a desired and durable effect in vivo. We therefore propose that drug-target RT should be taken into account as an additional parameter in the lead selection and optimization process. This should ultimately lead to an increased number of candidate drugs moving to the preclinical development phase and on to the market. This review contains examples of the kinetics behavior of GPCR ligands with improved in vivo efficacy and summarizes methods for assessing drug-target RT. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. P2X and P2Y nucleotide receptors as targets in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Charles; Chootip, Krongkarn; Mitchell, Callum; Syed, Nawazish-i-Husain; Tengah, Asrin

    2013-03-01

    Endogenous nucleotides have widespread actions in the cardiovascular system, but it is only recently that the P2X and P2Y receptor subtypes, at which they act, have been identified and subtype-selective agonists and antagonists developed. These advances have greatly increased our understanding of the physiological and pathophysiological functions of P2X and P2Y receptors, but investigation of the clinical usefulness of selective ligands is at an early stage. Nonetheless, the evidence considered in this review demonstrates clearly that various cardiovascular disorders, including vasospasm, hypertension, congestive heart failure and cardiac damage during ischemic episodes, may be viable targets. With further development of novel, selective agonists and antagonists, our understanding will continue to improve and further therapeutic applications are likely to be discovered.

  9. The type 1 lysophosphatidic acid receptor is a target for therapy in bone metastases

    PubMed Central

    Boucharaba, Ahmed; Serre, Claire-Marie; Guglielmi, Julien; Bordet, Jean-Claude; Clézardin, Philippe; Peyruchaud, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    Platelet-derived lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) supports the progression of breast and ovarian cancer metastasis to bone. The mechanisms through which LPA promotes bone metastasis formation are, however, unknown. Here we report that silencing of the type 1 LPA receptor (LPA1) in cancer cells blocks the production of tumor-derived cytokines that are potent activators of osteoclast-mediated bone destruction and significantly reduces the progression of osteolytic bone metastases. Moreover, functional blockade of LPA action on its cognate receptor LPA1 using a pharmacological antagonist mimics the effects of silencing LPA1 in tumor cells in vitro and substantially reduces bone metastasis progression in animals. Overall, these results suggest that inhibition of platelet-derived LPA action on LPA1 expressed by tumor cells may be a promising therapeutic target for patients with bone metastases. PMID:16769891

  10. Advances in refractory ulcerative colitis treatment: A new therapeutic target, Annexin A2

    PubMed Central

    Tanida, Satoshi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Ozeki, Keiji; Katano, Takahito; Kataoka, Hiromi; Kamiya, Takeshi; Joh, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Medical treatment has progressed significantly over the past decade towards achieving and maintaining clinical remission in patients with refractory ulcerative colitis (UC). Proposed mediators of inflammation in UC include pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-2, and the cell-surface adhesive molecule integrin α4β7. Conventional therapeutics for active UC include 5-aminosalicylic acid, corticosteroids and purine analogues (azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine). Patients who fail to respond to conventional therapy are treated with agents such as the calicineurin inhibitors cyclosporine and tacrolimus, the TNF-α inhibitors infliximab or adalimumab, or a neutralizing antibody (vedolizumab) directed against integrin α4β7. These therapeutic agents are of benefit for patients with refractory UC, but are not universally effective. Our recent research on TNF-α shedding demonstrated that inhibition of annexin (ANX) A2 may be a new therapeutic strategy for the prevention of TNF-α shedding during inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) inflammation. In this review, we provide an overview of therapeutic treatments that are effective and currently available for UC patients, as well as some that are likely to be available in the near future. We also propose the potential of ANX A2 as a new molecular target for IBD treatment. PMID:26269667

  11. Free fatty acids-sensing G protein-coupled receptors in drug targeting and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Tomo; Kurata, Riho; Yoshida, Kaori; Murayama, Masanori A; Cui, Xiaofeng; Hasegawa, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) (also known as seven-transmembrane domain receptor) superfamily represents the largest protein family in the human genome. These receptors respond to various physiological ligands such as photons, odors, pheromones, hormones, ions, and small molecules including amines, amino acids to large peptides and steroids. Thus, GPCRs are involved in many diseases and the target of around half of all conventional drugs. The physiological roles of free fatty acids (FFAs), in particular, long-chain FFAs, are important for the development of many metabolic disease including obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. In the past half decade, deorphanization of several GPCRs has revealed that GPR40, GPR41, GPR43, GPR84 and GPR120 sense concentration of extracellular FFAs with various carbon chain lengths. GPR40 and GPR120 are activated by medium- and long-chain FFAs. GPR84 is activated by medium- chain, but not long-chain, FFAs. GPR41 and GPR43 are activated by short-chain FFAs. GPR40 is highly expressed in pancreatic beta cells and plays a crucial role in FFAs-induced insulin secretion. GPR120 is mainly expressed in enteroendocrine cells and plays an important role for FFAs-induced glucagon-like peptide-1. GPR43 is abundant in leukocytes and adipose tissue, whilst GPR41 is highly expressed in adipose tissue, the pancreas and leukocytes. GPR84 is expressed in leukocytes and monocyte/macrophage. This review aims to shed light on the physiological roles and development of drugs targeting these receptors.

  12. Initial Evaluation of an Adenosine A2A Receptor Ligand, 11C-Preladenant, in Healthy Human Subjects.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Muneyuki; Ishibashi, Kenji; Imai, Masamichi; Wagatsuma, Kei; Ishii, Kenji; Zhou, Xiaoyun; de Vries, Erik F J; Elsinga, Philip H; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Toyohara, Jun

    2017-09-01

    11 C-preladenant is a selective antagonist for mapping of cerebral adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A Rs) by PET. This is a first-in-human study to examine the safety, radiation dosimetry, and brain imaging of 11 C-preladenant in healthy human subjects. Methods: Dynamic 11 C-preladenant PET scans (90 min) were obtained in 5 healthy male subjects. During the scan, arterial blood was sampled at various time intervals, and the fraction of the parent compound in plasma was determined. For anatomic coregistration, T1-weighted MRI was performed. The total distribution volume ( V T ) was estimated using 1- and 2-tissue-compartment models (1T and 2T, respectively). The distribution volume ratio (DVR) was calculated from V T of target and reference region and obtained with a noninvasive Logan graphical reference tissue method ( t * = 30 min). The applicability of a shortened protocol as an alternative to the 90-min PET scan was investigated. Tracer biodistribution and dosimetry were determined in 3 healthy male subjects, using serial whole-body PET scans acquired over 2 h after 11 C-preladenant injection. Results: There were no serious adverse events in any of the subjects throughout the study period. 11 C-preladenat readily entered the brain, with a peak uptake in the putamen and head of the caudate nucleus 30-40 min after tracer injection. Other brain regions showed rapid clearance of radioactivity. The regional distribution of 11 C-preladenant was consistent with known A 2A R densities in the brain. At pseudoequilibrium (reached at 40 min after injection), stable target-to-cerebellar cortex ratios of around 3.8-10.0 were obtained. The 2T fit better than the 1T in the low-density A 2A R regions. In contrast, there were no significant differences between 1T and 2T in the high-A 2A R-density regions. DVRs in the putamen and head of the caudate nucleus were around 3.8-10.3 when estimated using a Logan graphical reference tissue method with cerebellum as the reference region. PET

  13. From Belly to Brain: Targeting the Ghrelin Receptor in Appetite and Food Intake Regulation.

    PubMed

    Howick, Ken; Griffin, Brendan T; Cryan, John F; Schellekens, Harriët

    2017-01-27

    Ghrelin is the only known peripherally-derived orexigenic hormone, increasing appetite and subsequent food intake. The ghrelinergic system has therefore received considerable attention as a therapeutic target to reduce appetite in obesity as well as to stimulate food intake in conditions of anorexia, malnutrition and cachexia. As the therapeutic potential of targeting this hormone becomes clearer, it is apparent that its pleiotropic actions span both the central nervous system and peripheral organs. Despite a wealth of research, a therapeutic compound specifically targeting the ghrelin system for appetite modulation remains elusive although some promising effects on metabolic function are emerging. This is due to many factors, ranging from the complexity of the ghrelin receptor (Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor, GHSR-1a) internalisation and heterodimerization, to biased ligand interactions and compensatory neuroendocrine outputs. Not least is the ubiquitous expression of the GHSR-1a, which makes it impossible to modulate centrallymediated appetite regulation without encroaching on the various peripheral functions attributable to ghrelin. It is becoming clear that ghrelin's central signalling is critical for its effects on appetite, body weight regulation and incentive salience of food. Improving the ability of ghrelin ligands to penetrate the blood brain barrier would enhance central delivery to GHSR-1a expressing brain regions, particularly within the mesolimbic reward circuitry.

  14. Development of contrast agents targeted to macrophage scavenger receptors for MRI of vascular inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Björn; Youens, Susan; Louie, Angelique Y.

    2008-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of death in the U.S. Because there is a potential to prevent coronary and arterial diseases through early diagnosis, there is a need for methods to image arteries in the sub-clinical stage as well as clinical stage using various non-invasive techniques, including Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). We describe a development of a novel MRI contrast agent targeted to plaques that will allow imaging of lesion formation. The contrast agent is directed to macrophages, one of the earliest components of developing plaques. Macrophages are labeled through the macrophage scavenger receptor A, a macrophage specific cell surface protein, using an MRI contrast agent derived from scavenger receptor ligands. We have synthesized and characterized these contrast agents with a range of relaxivities. In vitro studies show that the targeted contrast agent accumulates in macrophages and solution studies indicate that micromolar concentrations are sufficient to produce contrast in an MR image. Cell toxicity and initial biodistribution studies indicate low toxicity, no detectable retention in normal blood vessels, and rapid clearance from blood. The promising performance of this contrast agent targeted towards vascular inflammation opens doors to tracking of other inflammatory diseases such as tumor immunotherapy and transplant acceptance using MRI. PMID:16536488

  15. From Belly to Brain: Targeting the Ghrelin Receptor in Appetite and Food Intake Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Howick, Ken; Griffin, Brendan T.; Cryan, John F.; Schellekens, Harriët

    2017-01-01

    Ghrelin is the only known peripherally-derived orexigenic hormone, increasing appetite and subsequent food intake. The ghrelinergic system has therefore received considerable attention as a therapeutic target to reduce appetite in obesity as well as to stimulate food intake in conditions of anorexia, malnutrition and cachexia. As the therapeutic potential of targeting this hormone becomes clearer, it is apparent that its pleiotropic actions span both the central nervous system and peripheral organs. Despite a wealth of research, a therapeutic compound specifically targeting the ghrelin system for appetite modulation remains elusive although some promising effects on metabolic function are emerging. This is due to many factors, ranging from the complexity of the ghrelin receptor (Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor, GHSR-1a) internalisation and heterodimerization, to biased ligand interactions and compensatory neuroendocrine outputs. Not least is the ubiquitous expression of the GHSR-1a, which makes it impossible to modulate centrally-mediated appetite regulation without encroaching on the various peripheral functions attributable to ghrelin. It is becoming clear that ghrelin’s central signalling is critical for its effects on appetite, body weight regulation and incentive salience of food. Improving the ability of ghrelin ligands to penetrate the blood brain barrier would enhance central delivery to GHSR-1a expressing brain regions, particularly within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. PMID:28134808

  16. Synthesis and characterization of iodinated tetrahydroquinolines targeting the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPR30.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Chinnasamy; Nayak, Tapan K; Burai, Ritwik; Dennis, Megan K; Hathaway, Helen J; Sklar, Larry A; Prossnitz, Eric R; Arterburn, Jeffrey B

    2010-02-11

    A series of iodo-substituted tetrahydro-3H-cyclopenta[c]quinolines was synthesized as potential targeted imaging agents for the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPR30. The affinity and specificity of binding to GPR30 versus the classical estrogen receptors ER alpha/beta and functional responses associated with ligand-binding were determined. Selected iodo-substituted tetrahydro-3H-cyclopenta[c]quinolines exhibited IC(50) values lower than 20 nM in competitive binding studies with GPR30-expressing human endometrial cancer cells. These compounds functioned as antagonists of GPR30 and blocked estrogen-induced PI3K activation and calcium mobilization. The tributylstannyl precursors of selected compounds were radiolabeled with (125)I using the iodogen method. In vivo biodistribution studies in female ovariectomized athymic (NCr) nu/nu mice bearing GPR30-expressing human endometrial tumors revealed GPR30-mediated uptake of the radiotracer ligands in tumor, adrenal, and reproductive organs. Biodistribution and quantitative SPECT/CT studies revealed structurally related differences in the pharmacokinetic profiles, target tissue uptake, and metabolism of the radiolabeled compounds as well as differences in susceptibility to deiodination. The high lipophilicity of the compounds adversely affects the in vivo biodistribution and clearance of these radioligands and suggests that further optimization of this parameter may lead to improved targeting characteristics.

  17. Targeting nociceptive transient receptor potential channels to treat chronic pain: current state of the field.

    PubMed

    Moran, Magdalene M; Szallasi, Arpad

    2018-06-01

    Control of chronic pain is frequently inadequate and/or associated with intolerable adverse effects, prompting a frantic search for new therapeutics and new therapeutic targets. Nearly two decades of preclinical and clinical research supports the involvement of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in temperature perception, nociception and sensitization. Although there has been considerable excitement around the therapeutic potential of this channel family since the cloning and identification of TRPV1 cation channels as the capsaicin receptor more than 20 years ago, only modulators of a few channels have been tested clinically. TRPV1 channel antagonists have suffered from side effects related to the channel's role in temperature sensation; however, high dose formulations of capsaicin have reached the market and shown therapeutic utility. A number of potent, small molecule antagonists of TRPA1 channels have recently advanced into clinical trials for the treatment of inflammatory and neuropathic pain, and TRPM8 antagonists are following closely behind for cold allodynia. TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPM2 and TRPM3 channels have also been of significant interest. This review discusses the preclinical promise and status of novel analgesic agents that target TRP channels and the challenges that these compounds may face in development and clinical practice. This article is part of a themed section on Recent Advances in Targeting Ion Channels to Treat Chronic Pain. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v175.12/issuetoc. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Presynaptic facilitatory adenosine A2A receptors mediate fade induced by neuromuscular relaxants that exhibit anticholinesterase activity.

    PubMed

    Bornia, Elaine Cs; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo; Alves-Do-Prado, Wilson

    2011-03-01

    1. Pancuronium, cisatracurium and vecuronium are antinicotinic agents that, in contrast with d-tubocurarine and hexamethonium, exhibit anticholinesterase activity. Pancuronium-, cisatracurium- and vecuronium-induced fade results from blockade of facilitatory nicotinic receptors on motor nerves, but fade produced by such agents also depends on the presynaptic activation of inhibitory muscarinic M2 receptors by acetylcholine released from motor nerve terminals and activation of inhibitory adenosine A1 receptors by adenosine released from motor nerves and muscles. The participation of presynaptic facilitatory A2A receptors in fade caused by pancuronium, cisatracurium and vecuronium has not yet been investigated. In the present study, we determined the effects of ZM241385, an antagonist of presynaptic facilitatory A2A receptors, on fade produced by these neuromuscular relaxants in the rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND) preparation. 2. The muscles were stimulated indirectly at 75±3Hz to induce a sustained tetanizing muscular contraction. The lowest concentration at which each antinicotinic agent produced fade without modifying initial tetanic tension (presynaptic action) was determined. 3. d-Tubocurarine-induced fade occurred only at 55 nmol/L, a concentration that also reduced maximal tetanic tension (post-synaptic action). At 10 nmol/L, ZM 241385 alone did not produce fade, but it did attenuate pancuronium (0.32 μmol/L)-, cisatracurium (0.32 μmol/L)- and vecuronium (0.36 μmol/L)-induced fade. 4. The fade induced by the 'pure' antinicotinic agents d-tubocurarine (55 nmol/L) and hexamethonium (413 μmol/L) was not altered by 10 nmol/L ZM 241385, indicating that presynaptic adenosine A2A receptors play a significant role in the fade produced by antinicotinic agents when such agents have anticholinesterase activity. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Retinoid receptors, transporters, and metabolizers as therapeutic targets in late onset Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Ann B

    2006-12-01

    Vitamin A (retinoid) is required in the adult brain to enable cognition, learning, and memory. While brain levels of retinoid diminish over the course of normal ageing, retinoid deficit is greater in late onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) brains than in normal-aged controls. This paper reviews recent evidence supporting these statements and further suggests that genes necessary for the synthesis, transport and function of retinoid to and within the ageing brain are appropriate targets for treatment of LOAD. These genes tend to be clustered with genes that have been proposed as candidates in LOAD, are found at chromosomal regions linked to LOAD, and suggest the possibility of an overall coordinated regulation. This phenomenon is termed Chromeron and is analogous to the operon mechanism observed in prokaryotes. Suggested treatment targets are the retinoic-acid inactivating enzymes (CYP26)s, the retinol binding and transport proteins, retinol-binding protein (RBP)4 and transthyretin (TTR), and the retinoid receptors. TTR as a LOAD target is the subject of active investigation. The retinoid receptors and the retinoid-inactivating enzymes have previously been proposed as targets. This is the first report to suggest that RBP4 is an amenable treatment target in LOAD. RBP4 is elevated in type-2 diabetes and obesity, conditions associated with increased risk for LOAD. Fenretinide, a novel synthetic retinoic acid (RA) analog lowers RBP4 in glucose intolerant obese mice. The feasibility of using fenretinide either as an adjunct to present LOAD therapies, or on its own as an early prevention strategy should be determined. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Bitter taste receptors as targets for tocolytics in preterm labor therapy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kaizhi; Lu, Ping; Delpapa, Ellen; Bellve, Karl; Deng, Ruitang; Condon, Jennifer C; Fogarty, Kevin; Lifshitz, Lawrence M; Simas, Tiffany A Moore; Shi, Fangxiong; ZhuGe, Ronghua

    2017-09-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity, with few prevention and treatment options. Uterine contraction is a central feature of PTB, so gaining new insights into the mechanisms of this contraction and consequently identifying novel targets for tocolytics are essential for more successful management of PTB. Here we report that myometrial cells from human and mouse express bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) and their canonical signaling components ( i.e., G-protein gustducin and phospholipase C β2). Bitter tastants can completely relax myometrium precontracted by different uterotonics. In isolated single mouse myometrial cells, a phenotypical bitter tastant (chloroquine, ChQ) reverses the rise in intracellular Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) and cell shortening induced by uterotonics, and this reversal effect is inhibited by pertussis toxin and by genetic deletion of α-gustducin. In human myometrial cells, knockdown of TAS2R14 but not TAS2R10 inhibits ChQ's reversal effect on an oxytocin-induced rise in [Ca 2+ ] i Finally, ChQ prevents mouse PTBs induced by bacterial endotoxin LPS or progesterone receptor antagonist mifepristone more often than current commonly used tocolytics, and this prevention is largely lost in α-gustducin-knockout mice. Collectively, our results reveal that activation of the canonical TAS2R signaling system in myometrial cells produces profound relaxation of myometrium precontracted by a broad spectrum of contractile agonists, and that targeting TAS2Rs is an attractive approach to developing effective tocolytics for PTB management.-Zheng, K., Lu, P., Delpapa, E., Bellve, K., Deng, R., Condon, J. C., Fogarty, K., Lifshitz, L. M., Simas, T. A. M., Shi, F., ZhuGe, R. Bitter taste receptors as targets for tocolytics in preterm labor therapy. © FASEB.

  1. Positive allosteric modulators as an approach to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor- targeted therapeutics: advantages and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Dustin K.; Wang, Jingyi; Papke, Roger L.

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), recognized targets for drug development in cognitive and neuro-degenerative disorders, are allosteric proteins with dynamic interconversions between multiple functional states. Activation of the nAChR ion channel is primarily controlled by the binding of ligands (agonists, partial agonists, competitive antagonists) at conventional agonist binding sites, but is also regulated in either negative or positive ways by the binding of ligands to other modulatory sites. In this review, we discuss models for the activation and desensitization of nAChR, and the discovery of multiple types of ligands that influence those processes in both heteromeric nAChR, such as the high affinity nicotine receptors of the brain, and homomeric α7-type receptors. In recent years, α7 nAChRs have been identified as a potential target for therapeutic indications leading to the development of α7-selective agonists and partial agonists. However, unique properties of α7 nAChR, including low probability of channel opening and rapid desensitization, may limit the therapeutic usefulness of ligands binding exclusively to conventional agonist binding sites. New enthusiasm for the therapeutic targeting of α7 has come from the identification of α7-selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) that work effectively on the intrinsic factors that limit α7 ion channel activation. While these new drugs appear promising for therapeutic development, we also consider potential caveats and possible limitations for their use, including PAM-insensitive forms of desensitization and cytotoxicity issues. PMID:21575610

  2. Positive allosteric modulators as an approach to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-targeted therapeutics: advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Williams, Dustin K; Wang, Jingyi; Papke, Roger L

    2011-10-15

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), recognized targets for drug development in cognitive and neuro-degenerative disorders, are allosteric proteins with dynamic interconversions between multiple functional states. Activation of the nAChR ion channel is primarily controlled by the binding of ligands (agonists, partial agonists, competitive antagonists) at conventional agonist binding sites, but is also regulated in either negative or positive ways by the binding of ligands to other modulatory sites. In this review, we discuss models for the activation and desensitization of nAChR, and the discovery of multiple types of ligands that influence those processes in both heteromeric nAChR, such as the high-affinity nicotine receptors of the brain, and homomeric α7-type receptors. In recent years, α7 nAChRs have been identified as a potential target for therapeutic indications leading to the development of α7-selective agonists and partial agonists. However, unique properties of α7 nAChR, including low probability of channel opening and rapid desensitization, may limit the therapeutic usefulness of ligands binding exclusively to conventional agonist binding sites. New enthusiasm for the therapeutic targeting of α7 has come from the identification of α7-selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) that work effectively on the intrinsic factors that limit α7 ion channel activation. While these new drugs appear promising for therapeutic development, we also consider potential caveats and possible limitations for their use, including PAM-insensitive forms of desensitization and cytotoxicity issues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Adenosine A2A receptors modulate the dopamine D2 receptor-mediated inhibition of synaptic transmission in the mouse prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Real, Joana I; Simões, Ana Patrícia; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Ferreira, Samira G; Rial, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    Prefrontal cortex (PFC) circuits are modulated by dopamine acting on D 1 - and D 2 -like receptors, which are pharmacologically exploited to manage neuropsychiatric conditions. Adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2 A R) also control PFC-related responses and A 2 A R antagonists are potential anti-psychotic drugs. As tight antagonistic A 2 A R-D 2 R and synergistic A 2 A R-D 1 R interactions occur in other brain regions, we now investigated the crosstalk between A 2 A R and D 1 /D 2 R controlling synaptic transmission between layers II/III and V in mouse PFC coronal slices. Dopamine decreased synaptic transmission, a presynaptic effect based on the parallel increase in paired-pulse responses. Dopamine inhibition was prevented by the D 2 R-like antagonist sulpiride but not by the D 1 R antagonist SCH23390 and was mimicked by the D 2 R agonist sumanirole, but not by the agonists of either D 4 R (A-412997) or D 3 R (PD128907). Dopamine inhibition was prevented by the A 2 A R antagonist, SCH58261, and attenuated in A 2 A R knockout mice. Accordingly, triple-labelling immunocytochemistry experiments revealed the co-localization of A 2 A R and D 2 R immunoreactivity in glutamatergic (vGluT1-positive) nerve terminals of the PFC. This reported positive A 2 A R-D 2 R interaction controlling PFC synaptic transmission provides a mechanistic justification for the anti-psychotic potential of A 2 A R antagonists. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Targeting of the Nuclear Receptor Coactivator Isoform DELTA3AIB1 in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    lab showed that the downregulation of overall levels of AIB1 plus ∆3AIB1, using a regulatable AIB1 directed ribozyme , resulted in reduced tumor...overall levels of AIB1 plus ∆3AIB1, using a regulatable AIB1 directed ribozyme , resulted in reduced tumor growth in vivo. Overall, these data indicate a...Reiter R, Powers C, Wellstein A, Riegel AT. Ribozyme targeting shows that the nuclear receptor coactivator AIB1 is a rate-limiting factor for estrogen

  5. Linifanib--a multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a low molecular weight gelator.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Maria; Al-Ameedee, Mohammed; Smith, Thomas; Wheeler, Simon; Stocks, Michael J

    2015-04-14

    In this study we demonstrate that linifanib, a multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, with a key urea containing pharmacophore, self-assembles into a hydrogel in the presence of low amounts of solvent. We demonstrate the role of the urea functional group and that of fluorine substitution on the adjacent aromatic ring in promoting self-assembly. We have also shown that linifanib has superior mechanical strength to two structurally related analogues and hence increased potential for localisation at an injection site for drug delivery applications.

  6. A Receptor-targeted Fluorescent Radiopharmaceutical for Multireporter Sentinel Lymph Node Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Derek K.; Limmer, Karl K.; Hall, David J.; Han, Sung-Ho; Eckelman, William C.; Kane, Christopher J.; Wallace, Anne M.

    2012-01-01

    receptor-mediated image formation. Conclusion: The multireporter probe 99mTc-labeled Cy7 tilmanocept exhibits in vitro and in vivo receptor-binding properties for successful receptor-targeted SLN mapping with nuclear and optical imaging. © RSNA, 2012 Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.12120638/-/DC1 PMID:22753678

  7. Targeting Thromboxane A2 Receptor for Antimetastasis Therapy of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Figure 1B, right). The predominant localization of TP in the cytosol of MDA-MB-231 cells led us to examine whether a subset of TP is expressed at cell...in the Figure 1C, MDA-MB-231 cells had positive staining at cell surface, suggesting that a subset of TP was localized at plasma membrane. We...34, ISBN 979- 953-307-183-0. 2011. Robbins GT, Nie D. PPAR gamma, bioactive lipids, and cancer progression. Front Biosci. 17:1816-34, 2012. Grants

  8. Targeting Adenosine A2A Receptors in Parkinson’s Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    events, which are important for information processing within the nucleus accumbens and more largely in the striatum, should have a high impact on basal...half that of men who do not consume caffeine, whereas consumption of decaffeinated coffee is unrelated to PD risk. Results among women, however, are...immunopositive cells showed swollen and hyper-trophic cell bodies as well as processes and exhibited morphological features of activated microglia. In the

  9. Targeting the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) oncogene in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Siena, S; Sartore-Bianchi, A; Marsoni, S; Hurwitz, H I; McCall, S J; Penault-Llorca, F; Srock, S; Bardelli, A; Trusolino, L

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is an oncogenic driver, and a well-established therapeutic target in breast and gastric cancers. Using functional and genomic analyses of patient-derived xenografts, we previously showed that a subset (approximately 5%) of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) tumors is driven by amplification or mutation of HER2. This paper reviews the role of HER2 amplification as an oncogenic driver, a prognostic and predictive biomarker, and a clinically actionable target in CRC, considering the specifics of HER2 testing in this tumor type. While the role of HER2 as a biomarker for prognosis in CRC remains uncertain, its relevance as a therapeutic target has been established. Indeed, independent studies documented substantial clinical benefit in patients treated with biomarker-driven HER2-targeted therapies, with an impact on response rates and duration of response that compared favorably with immunotherapy and other examples of precision oncology. HER2-targeted therapeutic strategies have the potential to change the treatment paradigm for a clinically relevant subgroup of metastatic CRC patients. PMID:29659677

  10. Small-molecule inhibitors of the receptor tyrosine kinases: promising tools for targeted cancer therapies.

    PubMed

    Hojjat-Farsangi, Mohammad

    2014-08-08

    Chemotherapeutic and cytotoxic drugs are widely used in the treatment of cancer. In spite of the improvements in the life quality of patients, their effectiveness is compromised by several disadvantages. This represents a demand for developing new effective strategies with focusing on tumor cells and minimum side effects. Targeted cancer therapies and personalized medicine have been defined as a new type of emerging treatments. Small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) are among the most effective drugs for targeted cancer therapy. The growing number of approved SMIs of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) i.e., tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the clinical oncology imply the increasing attention and application of these therapeutic tools. Most of the current approved RTK-TKIs in preclinical and clinical settings are multi-targeted inhibitors with several side effects. Only a few specific/selective RTK-TKIs have been developed for the treatment of cancer patients. Specific/selective RTK-TKIs have shown less deleterious effects compared to multi-targeted inhibitors. This review intends to highlight the importance of specific/selective TKIs for future development with less side effects and more manageable agents. This article provides an overview of: (1) the characteristics and function of RTKs and TKIs; (2) the recent advances in the improvement of specific/selective RTK-TKIs in preclinical or clinical settings; and (3) emerging RTKs for targeted cancer therapies by TKIs.

  11. Targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor in breast cancer: a promise or a pitfall?

    PubMed

    Bedussi, Francesca; Bottini, Alberto; Memo, Maurizio; Fox, Stephen B; Sigala, Sandra; Generali, Daniele

    2014-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) along with their receptors (FGFRs) are involved in several cellular functions, from embryogenesis to metabolism. Because of the ability of FGFR signalling to induce cell proliferation, migration and survival in cancer, these have been found to become overactivated by several mechanisms, including gene amplification, chromosomal translocation and mutations. New evidences indicate that FGFs and FGFRs may act in an oncogenic fashion to promote multiple steps of cancer progression by inducing mitogenic and survival signals, as well as promoting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, invasion and tumour angiogenesis. This review focuses on the predictive and prognostic role of FGFRs, the role of FGFR signalling and how it may be most appropriately therapeutically targeted in breast cancer. Activation of the FGFR pathway is a common event in many cancer types and for this reason FGFR is an important potential target in cancer treatment. Relevant literature was reviewed to identify current and future role of FGFR family as a possible guide for selecting those patients who would be poor or good responders to the available or the upcoming target therapies for breast cancer treatment. The success of a personalised medicine approach using targeted therapies ultimately depends on being capable of identifying the patients who will benefit the most from any given drug. Outlining the molecular mechanisms of FGFR signalling and discussing the role of this pathway in breast cancer, we would like to endorse the incorporation of specific patient selection biomakers with the rationale for therapeutic intervention with FGFR-targeted therapy in breast cancer.

  12. Diagnostic nanoparticle targeting of the EGF-receptor in complex biological conditions using single-domain antibodies.

    PubMed

    Zarschler, K; Prapainop, K; Mahon, E; Rocks, L; Bramini, M; Kelly, P M; Stephan, H; Dawson, K A

    2014-06-07

    For effective localization of functionalized nanoparticles at diseased tissues such as solid tumours or metastases through biorecognition, appropriate targeting vectors directed against selected tumour biomarkers are a key prerequisite. The diversity of such vector molecules ranges from proteins, including antibodies and fragments thereof, through aptamers and glycans to short peptides and small molecules. Here, we analyse the specific nanoparticle targeting capabilities of two previously suggested peptides (D4 and GE11) and a small camelid single-domain antibody (sdAb), representing potential recognition agents for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We investigate specificity by way of receptor RNA silencing techniques and look at increasing complexity in vitro by introducing increasing concentrations of human or bovine serum. Peptides D4 and GE11 proved problematic to employ and conjugation resulted in non-receptor specific uptake into cells. Our results show that sdAb-functionalized particles can effectively target the EGFR, even in more complex bovine and human serum conditions where targeting specificity is largely conserved for increasing serum concentration. In human serum however, an inhibition of overall nanoparticle uptake is observed with increasing protein concentration. For highly affine targeting ligands such as sdAbs, targeting a receptor such as EGFR with low serum competitor abundance, receptor recognition function can still be partially realised in complex conditions. Here, we stress the value of evaluating the targeting efficiency of nanoparticle constructs in realistic biological milieu, prior to more extensive in vivo studies.

  13. Optimization of cell receptor-specific targeting through multivalent surface decoration of polymeric nanocarriers

    PubMed Central

    D’Addio, Suzanne M.; Baldassano, Steven; Shi, Lei; Cheung, Lila; Adamson, Douglas H.; Bruzek, Matthew; Anthony, John E.; Laskin, Debra L.; Sinko, Patrick J.; Prud’homme, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of tuberculosis is impaired by poor drug bioavailability, systemic side effects, patient non-compliance, and pathogen resistance to existing therapies. The mannose receptor (MR) is known to be involved in the recognition and internalization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We present a new assembly process to produce nanocarriers with variable surface densities of mannose targeting ligands in a single step, using kinetically-controlled, block copolymer-directed assembly. Nanocarrier association with murine macrophage J774 cells expressing the MR is examined as a function of incubation time and temperature, nanocarrier size, dose, and PEG corona properties. Amphiphilic diblock copolymers are prepared with terminal hydroxyl, methoxy, or mannoside functionality and incorporated into nanocarrier formulations at specific ratios by Flash NanoPrecipitation. Association of nanocarriers protected by a hydroxyl-terminated PEG corona with J774 cells is size dependent, while nanocarriers with methoxy-terminated PEG coronas do not associate with cells, regardless of size. Specific targeting of the MR is investigated using nanocarriers having 0-75% mannoside-terminated PEG chains in the PEG corona. This is a wider range of mannose densities than has been previously studied. Maximum nanocarrier association is attained with 9% mannoside-terminated PEG chains, increasing uptake more than 3-fold compared to non-targeted nanocarriers with a 5 kg mol−1 methoxy-terminated PEG corona. While a 5 kg mol−1 methoxy-terminated PEG corona prevents non-specific uptake, a 1.8 kg mol−1 methoxy-terminated PEG corona does not sufficiently protect the nanocarriers from nonspecific association. There is continuous uptake of MR-targeted nanocarriers at 37°C, but a saturation of association at 4°C. The majority of targeted nanocarriers associate with J774E cells are internalized at 37°C and uptake is receptor-dependent, diminishing with competitive inhibition by dextran. This

  14. Antidepressant activity of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, istradefylline (KW-6002) on learned helplessness in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Koji; Kobayashi, Minoru; Shiozaki, Shizuo; Ohta, Teruko; Mori, Akihisa; Jenner, Peter; Kanda, Tomoyuki

    2014-07-01

    Istradefylline, an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, improves motor function in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) and in patients with PD. In addition, some A2A antagonists exert antidepressant-like activity in rodent models of depression, such as the forced swim and the tail suspension tests. We have investigated the effect of istradefylline on depression-like behaviors using the rat learned helplessness (LH) model. Acute, as well as chronic, oral administration of istradefylline significantly improved the inescapable shock (IES)-induced escape deficit with a degree of efficacy comparable to chronic treatment with the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine and the selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. Both the A1/A2A receptor nonspecific antagonist theophylline and the moderately selective antagonist CGS15943, but not the A1 selective antagonist DPCPX, ameliorated the IES-induced escape deficit. The enhancement of escape response by istradefylline was reversed by a local injection of the A2A specific agonist CGS21680 either into the nucleus accumbens, the caudate-putamen, or the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, but not by the A1 specific agonist R-PIA into the nucleus accumbens. Moreover, neither the 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist methysergide or the adrenergic α 2 antagonist yohimbine, nor the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol, affected the improvement of escape response induced by istradefylline. Istradefylline exerts antidepressant-like effects via modulation of A2A receptor activity which is independent of monoaminergic transmission in the brain. Istradefylline may represent a novel treatment option for depression in PD as well as for the motor symptoms.

  15. Multicolor fluorescence "click"-chemistry as a means to select membrane targets for pre-targeting approaches by function of their receptor kinetics.

    PubMed

    van der Wal, Steffen; de Korne, Clarize M; Sand, Laurens L G; van Willigen, Danny M; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Szuhai, Karoly; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B; Buckle, Tessa

    2018-06-04

    Availability of a receptor for theranostic pre-targeting approaches was assessed using a novel "click" chemistry-based de-activatable fluorescence-quenching concept. Efficacy was evaluated in a cell-based model system that exhibits both membranous (available) and internalized (unavailable) receptor-fractions of the clinically relevant receptor chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). Proof of concept was based on a de-activatable tracer consisting out of a CXCR4 specific peptide functionalized with a Cy5 dye comprising a chemo-selective azide handle (N3-Cy5-AcTZ14011). Reaction with a Cy7 quencher dye (Cy7-DBCO) resulted in optically silent Cy7-["click"]-Cy5-AcTZ14011. In situ a >90% FRET-based reduction of signal intensity of N3-Cy5-AcTZ14011 (KD 222.4 ± 25.2 nM) was seen within minutes after quencher addition. In cells, discrimination between the membranous and internalized receptor-fraction could be made through quantitative assessment of quenching/internalization kinetics. As such, using this approach screening of membrane receptors and their applicability in receptor-(pre-)targeted theranostics can become straightforward. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Internalization and vacuolar targeting of the brassinosteroid hormone receptor BRI1 are regulated by ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Martins, Sara; Dohmann, Esther M N; Cayrel, Anne; Johnson, Alexander; Fischer, Wolfgang; Pojer, Florence; Satiat-Jeunemaître, Béatrice; Jaillais, Yvon; Chory, Joanne; Geldner, Niko; Vert, Grégory

    2015-01-21

    Brassinosteroids are plant steroid hormones that control many aspects of plant growth and development, and are perceived at the cell surface by the plasma membrane-localized receptor kinase BRI1. Here we show that BRI1 is post-translationally modified by K63 polyubiquitin chains in vivo. Using both artificial ubiquitination of BRI1 and generation of an ubiquitination-defective BRI1 mutant form, we demonstrate that ubiquitination promotes BRI1 internalization from the cell surface and is essential for its recognition at the trans-Golgi network/early endosomes (TGN/EE) for vacuolar targeting. Finally, we demonstrate that the control of BRI1 protein dynamics by ubiquitination is an important control mechanism for brassinosteroid responses in plants. Altogether, our results identify ubiquitination and K63-linked polyubiquitin chain formation as a dual targeting signal for BRI1 internalization and sorting along the endocytic pathway, and highlight its role in hormonally controlled plant development.

  17. microRNA-150 inhibits the formation of macrophage foam cells through targeting adiponectin receptor 2

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Suhua, E-mail: drsuhuangzhang@qq.com

    Transformation of macrophages into foam cells plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine the expression and biological roles of microRNA (miR)-150 in the formation of macrophage foam cells and to identify its functional target(s). Exposure to 50 μg/ml oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) led to a significant upregulation of miR-150 in THP-1 macrophages. Overexpression of miR-150 inhibited oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation in THP-1 macrophages, while knockdown of miR-150 enhanced lipid accumulation. apoA-I- and HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux was increased by 66% and 43%, respectively, in miR-150-overexpressing macrophages relative to control cells. In contrast, downregulationmore » of miR-150 significantly reduced cholesterol efflux from oxLDL-laden macrophages. Bioinformatic analysis and luciferase reporter assay revealed adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2) as a direct target of miR-150. Small interfering RNA-mediated downregulation of AdipoR2 phenocopied the effects of miR-150 overexpression, reducing lipid accumulation and facilitating cholesterol efflux in oxLDL-treated THP-1 macrophages. Knockdown of AdipoR2 induced the expression of proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), liver X receptor alpha (LXRα), ABCA1, and ABCG1. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of PPARγ or LXRα impaired AdipoR2 silencing-induced upregulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1. Taken together, our results indicate that miR-150 can attenuate oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation in macrophages via promotion of cholesterol efflux. The suppressive effects of miR-150 on macrophage foam cell formation are mediated through targeting of AdipoR2. Delivery of miR-150 may represent a potential approach to prevent macrophage foam cell formation in atherosclerosis. -- Highlights: •miR-150 inhibits macrophage foam cell formation. •miR-150 accelerates cholesterol efflux from oxLDL-laden macrophages. •miR-150 suppresses macrophage foam

  18. Orexin–Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptor Heteromers in the Ventral Tegmental Area as Targets for Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Gemma; Quiroz, César; Moreno-Delgado, David; Sierakowiak, Adam; McDowell, Kimberly; Moreno, Estefanía; Rea, William; Cai, Ning-Sheng; Aguinaga, David; Howell, Lesley A.; Hausch, Felix; Cortés, Antonio; Mallol, Josefa; Casadó, Vicent; Lluís, Carme; Canela, Enric I.

    2015-01-01

    Release of the neuropeptides corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and orexin-A in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) play an important role in stress-induced cocaine-seeking behavior. We provide evidence for pharmacologically significant interactions between CRF and orexin-A that depend on oligomerization of CRF1 receptor (CRF1R) and orexin OX1 receptors (OX1R). CRF1R–OX1R heteromers are the conduits of a negative crosstalk between orexin-A and CRF as demonstrated in transfected cells and rat VTA, in which they significantly modulate dendritic dopamine release. The cocaine target σ1 receptor (σ1R) also associates with the CRF1R–OX1R heteromer. Cocaine binding to the σ1R–CRF1R–OX1R complex promotes a long-term disruption of the orexin-A–CRF negative crosstalk. Through this mechanism, cocaine sensitizes VTA cells to the excitatory effects of both CRF and orexin-A, thus providing a mechanism by which stress induces cocaine seeking. PMID:25926444

  19. Orexin-corticotropin-releasing factor receptor heteromers in the ventral tegmental area as targets for cocaine.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Gemma; Quiroz, César; Moreno-Delgado, David; Sierakowiak, Adam; McDowell, Kimberly; Moreno, Estefanía; Rea, William; Cai, Ning-Sheng; Aguinaga, David; Howell, Lesley A; Hausch, Felix; Cortés, Antonio; Mallol, Josefa; Casadó, Vicent; Lluís, Carme; Canela, Enric I; Ferré, Sergi; McCormick, Peter J

    2015-04-29

    Release of the neuropeptides corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and orexin-A in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) play an important role in stress-induced cocaine-seeking behavior. We provide evidence for pharmacologically significant interactions between CRF and orexin-A that depend on oligomerization of CRF1 receptor (CRF1R) and orexin OX1 receptors (OX1R). CRF1R-OX1R heteromers are the conduits of a negative crosstalk between orexin-A and CRF as demonstrated in transfected cells and rat VTA, in which they significantly modulate dendritic dopamine release. The cocaine target σ1 receptor (σ1R) also associates with the CRF1R-OX1R heteromer. Cocaine binding to the σ1R-CRF1R-OX1R complex promotes a long-term disruption of the orexin-A-CRF negative crosstalk. Through this mechanism, cocaine sensitizes VTA cells to the excitatory effects of both CRF and orexin-A, thus providing a mechanism by which stress induces cocaine seeking. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/356639-15$15.00/0.

  20. Transient receptor potential channels in sensory neurons are targets of the antimycotic agent clotrimazole.

    PubMed

    Meseguer, Victor; Karashima, Yuji; Talavera, Karel; D'Hoedt, Dieter; Donovan-Rodríguez, Tansy; Viana, Felix; Nilius, Bernd; Voets, Thomas

    2008-01-16

    Clotrimazole (CLT) is a widely used drug for the topical treatment of yeast infections of skin, vagina, and mouth. Common side effects of topical CLT application include irritation and burning pain of the skin and mucous membranes. Here, we provide evidence that transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in primary sensory neurons underlie these unwanted effects of CLT. We found that clinically relevant CLT concentrations activate heterologously expressed TRPV1 and TRPA1, two TRP channels that act as receptors of irritant chemical and/or thermal stimuli in nociceptive neurons. In line herewith, CLT stimulated a subset of capsaicin-sensitive and mustard oil-sensitive trigeminal neurons, and evoked nocifensive behavior and thermal hypersensitivity with intraplantar injection in mice. Notably, CLT-induced pain behavior was suppressed by the TRPV1-antagonist BCTC [(N-(-4-tertiarybutylphenyl)-4-(3-cholorpyridin-2-yl)tetrahydropyrazine-1(2H)-carboxamide)] and absent in TRPV1-deficient mice. In addition, CLT inhibited the cold and menthol receptor TRPM8, and blocked menthol-induced responses in capsaicin- and mustard oil-insensitive trigeminal neurons. The concentration for 50% inhibition (IC50) of inward TRPM8 current was approximately 200 nM, making CLT the most potent known TRPM8 antagonist and a useful tool to discriminate between TRPM8- and TRPA1-mediated responses. Together, our results identify TRP channels in sensory neurons as molecular targets of CLT, and offer means to develop novel CLT preparations with fewer unwanted sensory side effects.

  1. Adenosine enhances sweet taste through A2B receptors in the taste bud

    PubMed Central

    Dando, Robin; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Pereira, Elizabeth; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian taste buds use ATP as a neurotransmitter. Taste Receptor (Type II) cells secrete ATP via gap junction hemichannels into the narrow extracellular spaces within a taste bud. This ATP excites primary sensory afferent fibers and also stimulates neighboring taste bud cells. Here we show that extracellular ATP is enzymatically degraded to adenosine within mouse vallate taste buds and that this nucleoside acts as an autocrine neuromodulator to selectively enhance sweet taste. In Receptor cells in a lingual slice preparation, Ca2+ mobilization evoked by focally applied artificial sweeteners was significantly enhanced by adenosine (50 µM). Adenosine had no effect on bitter or umami taste responses, and the nucleoside did not affect Presynaptic (Type III) taste cells. We also used biosensor cells to measure transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Adenosine (5 µM) enhanced ATP release evoked by sweet but not bitter taste stimuli. Using single-cell RT-PCR on isolated vallate taste cells, we show that many Receptor cells express adenosine receptors, Adora2b, while Presynaptic (Type III) and Glial-like (Type I) cells seldom do. Furthermore, Adora2b receptors are significantly associated with expression of the sweet taste receptor subunit, Tas1r2. Adenosine is generated during taste stimulation mainly by the action of the ecto-5′-nucleotidase, NT5E, and to a lesser extent, prostatic acid phosphatase (ACPP). Both these ecto-nucleotidases are expressed by Presynaptic cells, as shown by single-cell RT-PCR, enzyme histochemistry and immunofluorescence. Our findings suggest that ATP released during taste reception is degraded to adenosine to exert positive modulation particularly on sweet taste. PMID:22219293

  2. Adenosine enhances sweet taste through A2B receptors in the taste bud.

    PubMed

    Dando, Robin; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Pereira, Elizabeth; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2012-01-04

    Mammalian taste buds use ATP as a neurotransmitter. Taste Receptor (type II) cells secrete ATP via gap junction hemichannels into the narrow extracellular spaces within a taste bud. This ATP excites primary sensory afferent fibers and also stimulates neighboring taste bud cells. Here we show that extracellular ATP is enzymatically degraded to adenosine within mouse vallate taste buds and that this nucleoside acts as an autocrine neuromodulator to selectively enhance sweet taste. In Receptor cells in a lingual slice preparation, Ca(2+) mobilization evoked by focally applied artificial sweeteners was significantly enhanced by adenosine (50 μM). Adenosine had no effect on bitter or umami taste responses, and the nucleoside did not affect Presynaptic (type III) taste cells. We also used biosensor cells to measure transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Adenosine (5 μM) enhanced ATP release evoked by sweet but not bitter taste stimuli. Using single-cell reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR on isolated vallate taste cells, we show that many Receptor cells express the adenosine receptor, Adora2b, while Presynaptic (type III) and Glial-like (type I) cells seldom do. Furthermore, Adora2b receptors are significantly associated with expression of the sweet taste receptor subunit, Tas1r2. Adenosine is generated during taste stimulation mainly by the action of the ecto-5'-nucleotidase, NT5E, and to a lesser extent, prostatic acid phosphatase. Both these ecto-nucleotidases are expressed by Presynaptic cells, as shown by single-cell RT-PCR, enzyme histochemistry, and immunofluorescence. Our findings suggest that ATP released during taste reception is degraded to adenosine to exert positive modulation particularly on sweet taste.

  3. Role of A1 and A2A adenosine receptor agonists in adipose tissue inflammation induced by obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    DeOliveira, Caroline Candida; Paiva Caria, Cintia Rabelo E; Ferreira Gotardo, Erica Martins; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; Gambero, Alessandra

    2017-03-15

    Adenosine receptors are expressed in adipose tissue and control physiological and pathological events such as lipolysis and inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of N 6 -cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), a potent and selective A 1 adenosine receptor agonist; 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxyamidoadenosine hydrochloride (CGS-21680), an A 2A adenosine receptor agonist; and 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), a potent non-selective adenosine receptor agonist on adipose tissue inflammatory alterations induced by obesity in mice. Swiss mice were fed with a high-fat diet for 12 weeks and agonists were administered in the last two weeks. Body weight, adiposity and glucose homeostasis were evaluated. Inflammation in adipose tissue was assessed by evaluation of adipokine production and macrophage infiltration. Adenosine receptor signaling in adipose tissue was also evaluated. Mice that received CGS21680 presented an improvement in glucose homeostasis in association with systemically reduced inflammatory markers (TNF-α, PAI-1) and in the visceral adipose tissue (TNF-α, MCP-1, macrophage infiltration). Activation of p38 signaling was found in adipose tissue of this group of mice. NECA-treated mice presented some improvements in glucose homeostasis associated with an observed weight loss. Mice that received CPA presented only a reduction in the ex vivo basal lipolysis rate measured within visceral adipose tissue. In conclusion, administration of the A 2A receptor agonist to obese mice resulted in improvements in glucose homeostasis and adipose tissue inflammation, corroborating the idea that new therapeutics to treat obesity could emerge from these compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The synthesis and biological evaluation of integrin receptor targeting molecules as potential radiopharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, Paul

    This thesis reports on the synthesis, characterisation and biological evaluation of a number of metal complexes designed to interact with the alphavbeta3 integrin receptor, an important biological target that is heavily involved in angiogenesis, and thus cancer related processes. Two approaches were used to synthesise the integrin-avid targets. The first was to attach a variety of bifunctional chelators (BFC's) for the incorporation of different metal centres to a known integrin antagonist, L-748,415, developed by Merck. The BFC's used were the hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC) and monoamine monoamide dithiol (MAMA) systems for coordination to Tc-99m and rhenium of which was used as a characterization surrogate for the unstable Tc core. The 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclotridecanetetraacetic acid (TRITA) BFC was attached for the inclusion of copper and lutetium. This 'conjugate' approach was designed to yield information on how the BFC and the linker length would affect the affinity for the integrin receptor. The second approach was an 'integrated' method where the chelation moiety was integral to the biologically relevant part of the molecule, which in the case of the alphavbeta3 integrin receptor, is the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) mimicking sequence. Two complexes were created with a modified MAMA derivative placed between a benzimidazole moiety (arginine mimick) and the aspartic acid mimicking terminal carboxylic acid to see how it would affect binding while keeping the molecular weight relatively low. The molecules were tested in vitro against purified human alphavbeta3 integrin receptor protein in a solid phase receptor binding assay to evaluate their inhibition constants against a molecule of known high affinity and selectivity in [I125]L-775,219, the I125 labelled alphavbeta3 integrin antagonist. The radiolabelled analogues were also tested in vivo against the A375 human melanoma cell line transplanted into balb/c nude mice as well as Fischer rats implanted

  5. Prostanoid receptors as possible targets for anti-allergic drugs: recent advances in prostanoids on allergy and immunology.

    PubMed

    Honda, Tetsuya; Tokura, Yoshiki; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Kabashima, Kenji

    2010-12-01

    Prostanoids, consisting of prostaglandins and thromboxane, are cyclooxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid released in various pathophysiological conditions which exert a range of actions mediated through their respective receptors expressed on target cells. Although it has been difficult to analyze the physiological role of prostanoids, recent developments in both the disruption of the respective gene and receptor selective compounds have enabled us to investigate the physiological roles for each receptor. It has been demonstrated that each prostanoid receptor has multiple functions, and that their expression is regulated in a context-dependent manner that sometimes results in opposite, excitatory and inhibitory, outcomes. The balance of prostanoid production and receptor expression has been revealed to be important for homeostasis of the human body. Here, we review new findings on the roles of prostanoids in allergic and immune diseases, focusing on contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and encephalomyelitis, and also discuss the clinical potentials of receptor-selective drugs.

  6. Structure and dynamics of AMPA receptor GluA2 in resting, pre-open and desensitized states

    PubMed Central

    Dürr, Katharina L.; Chen, Lei; Stein, Richard A.; De Zorzi, Rita; MihaelaFolea, I.; Walz, Thomas; Mchaourab, Hassane S.; Gouaux, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Summary Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) mediate the majority of fast excitatory signaling in the nervous system. Despite the profound importance of iGluRs in the nervous system, little is known about the structures and dynamics of intact receptors in distinct functional states. Here we elucidate the structures of the intact GluA2 AMPA receptor in an apo resting/closed state, in an activated/pre-open state bound with the partial agonists and a positive allosteric modulator and in a desensitized/closed state in complex with FW alone. To probe the conformational properties of these states, we carried out double electron-electron resonance experiments on cysteine mutants and cryo-electron microscopy studies. We show how agonist binding modulates the conformation of the ligand binding domain 'layer' of the intact receptors and how, upon desensitization, the receptor undergoes large conformational rearrangements of amino-terminal and ligand-binding domains. We define mechanistic principles by which to understand antagonism, activation and desensitization in AMPA iGluRs. PMID:25109876

  7. Renal protection from ischemia mediated by A2A adenosine receptors on bone marrow–derived cells

    PubMed Central

    Day, Yuan-Ji; Huang, Liping; McDuffie, Marcia J.; Rosin, Diane L.; Ye, Hong; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Fink, J. Stephen; Linden, Joel; Okusa, Mark D.

    2003-01-01

    Activation of A2A adenosine receptors (A2ARs) protects kidneys from ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). A2ARs are expressed on bone marrow–derived (BM-derived) cells and renal smooth muscle, epithelial, and endothelial cells. To measure the contribution of A2ARs on BM-derived cells in suppressing renal IRI, we examined the effects of a selective agonist of A2ARs, ATL146e, in chimeric mice in which BM was ablated by lethal radiation and reconstituted with donor BM cells derived from GFP, A2AR-KO, or WT mice to produce GFP→WT, A2A-KO→WT, or WT→WT mouse chimera. We found little or no repopulation of renal vascular endothelial cells by donor BM with or without renal IRI. ATL146e had no effect on IRI in A2A-KO mice or A2A-KO→WT chimera, but reduced the rise in plasma creatinine from IRI by 75% in WT mice and by 60% in WT→WT chimera. ATL146e reduced the induction of IL-6, IL-1β, IL-1ra, and TGF-α mRNA in WT→WT mice but not in A2A-KO→WT mice. Plasma creatinine was significantly greater in A2A-KO than in WT mice after IRI, suggesting some renal protection by endogenous adenosine. We conclude that protection from renal IRI by A2AR agonists or endogenous adenosine requires activation of receptors expressed on BM-derived cells. PMID:12975473

  8. Impact and benefit of A(2B)-adenosine receptor agonists for the respiratory tract: mucociliary clearance, ciliary beat frequency, trachea muscle tonus and cytokine release.

    PubMed

    Walaschewski, Robin; Begrow, Frank; Verspohl, Eugen J

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine is known to induce a bronchospasm in asthma- and COPD patients. The role of A(2B) receptors was investigated with respect to several parameters of the respiratory tract: tonus of smooth muscle, ciliary beat frequency as measured by high-speed video camera connected to a microscope (both in rats) and mucociliary clearance (MCC; transport of a fluorescent dye using a microdialysis procedure) in mice.  NECA (5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine) (a non-selective adenosine receptor agonist) was able to acutely induce a contraction, which was reversed to a relaxation after repeated dosing. This relaxation was completely abolished by PSB-1115, an A(2B) receptor antagonist. IL-13 (cytokine) was not involved mediating acute contractility effects. MCC was increased by BAY 60-6583 (A(2B) receptor agonist) and NECA (counteracted by the A(2B) receptor antagonist PSB-1115). Activation of A(2B) adenosine receptors by BAY 60-6583 induced an increase of the ciliary beat frequency, which could be reduced by administration of PSB-1115. Several cytokines were increased by NECA although only some are relevant because they are not blocked by A(2B) receptor antagonism. The A(2B) receptors are involved in airway relaxation, MCC improvement and ciliary beat frequency. A(2B) receptor agonists may be of therapeutic value and should be developed. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. Targeting G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Brinks, Henriette; Koch, Walter J

    2010-01-01

    In the human body, over 1000 different G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate a broad spectrum of extracellular signals at the plasma membrane, transmitting vital physiological features such as pain, sight, smell, inflammation, heart rate and contractility of muscle cells. Signaling through these receptors is primarily controlled and regulated by a group of kinases, the GPCR kinases (GRKs), of which only seven are known and thus, interference with these common downstream GPCR regulators suggests a powerful therapeutic strategy. Molecular modulation of the kinases that are ubiquitously expressed in the heart has proven GRK2, and also GRK5, to be promising targets for prevention and reversal of one of the most severe pathologies in man, chronic heart failure (HF). In this article we will focus on the structural aspects of these GRKs important for their physiological and pathological regulation as well as well known and novel therapeutic approaches that target these GRKs in order to overcome the development of cardiac injury and progression of HF. PMID:21218155

  10. Targeting the androgen receptor in triple-negative breast cancer: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mina, Alain; Yoder, Rachel; Sharma, Priyanka

    2017-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype associated with frequent recurrence and metastasis. Unlike hormone receptor-positive subtypes, treatment of TNBC is currently limited by the lack of clinically available targeted therapies. Androgen signaling is necessary for normal breast development, and its dysregulation has been implicated in breast tumorigenesis. In recent years, gene expression studies have identified a subset of TNBC that is enriched for androgen receptor (AR) signaling. Interference with androgen signaling in TNBC is promising, and AR-inhibiting drugs have shown antitumorigenic activity in preclinical and proof of concept clinical studies. Recent advances in our understanding of androgenic signaling in TNBC, along with the identification of interacting pathways, are allowing development of the next generation of clinical trials with AR inhibitors. As novel AR-targeting agents are developed and evaluated in clinical trials, it is equally important to establish a robust set of biomarkers for identification of TNBC tumors that are most likely to respond to AR inhibition.

  11. Intravascular optical imaging of high-risk plaques in vivo by targeting macrophage mannose receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji Bak; Park, Kyeongsoon; Ryu, Jiheun; Lee, Jae Joong; Lee, Min Woo; Cho, Han Saem; Nam, Hyeong Soo; Park, Ok Kyu; Song, Joon Woo; Kim, Tae Shik; Oh, Dong Joo; Gweon, Daegab; Oh, Wang-Yuhl; Yoo, Hongki; Kim, Jin Won

    2016-03-01

    Macrophages mediate atheroma expansion and disruption, and denote high-risk arterial plaques. Therefore, they are substantially gaining importance as a diagnostic imaging target for the detection of rupture-prone plaques. Here, we developed an injectable near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) probe by chemically conjugating thiolated glycol chitosan with cholesteryl chloroformate, NIRF dye (cyanine 5.5 or 7), and maleimide-polyethylene glycol-mannose as mannose receptor binding ligands to specifically target a subset of macrophages abundant in high-risk plaques. This probe showed high affinity to mannose receptors, low toxicity, and allowed the direct visualization of plaque macrophages in murine carotid atheroma. After the scale-up of the MMR-NIRF probe, the administration of the probe facilitated in vivo intravascular imaging of plaque inflammation in coronary-sized vessels of atheromatous rabbits using a custom-built dual-modal optical coherence tomography (OCT)-NIRF catheter-based imaging system. This novel imaging approach represents a potential imaging strategy enabling the identification of high-risk plaques in vivo and holds promise for future clinical implications.

  12. Dual Targeting of the Chemokine Receptors CXCR4 and ACKR3 with Novel Engineered Chemokines*

    PubMed Central

    Hanes, Melinda S.; Salanga, Catherina L.; Chowdry, Arnab B.; Comerford, Iain; McColl, Shaun R.; Kufareva, Irina; Handel, Tracy M.

    2015-01-01

    The chemokine CXCL12 and its G protein-coupled receptors CXCR4 and ACKR3 are implicated in cancer and inflammatory and autoimmune disorders and are targets of numerous antagonist discovery efforts. Here, we describe a series of novel, high affinity CXCL12-based modulators of CXCR4 and ACKR3 generated by selection of N-terminal CXCL12 phage libraries on live cells expressing the receptors. Twelve of 13 characterized CXCL12 variants are full CXCR4 antagonists, and four have Kd values <5 nm. The new variants also showed high affinity for ACKR3. The variant with the highest affinity for CXCR4, LGGG-CXCL12, showed efficacy in a murine model for multiple sclerosis, demonstrating translational potential. Molecular modeling was used to elucidate the structural basis of binding and antagonism of selected variants and to guide future designs. Together, this work represents an important step toward the development of therapeutics targeting CXCR4 and ACKR3. PMID:26216880

  13. Intravascular optical imaging of high-risk plaques in vivo by targeting macrophage mannose receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Bak; Park, Kyeongsoon; Ryu, Jiheun; Lee, Jae Joong; Lee, Min Woo; Cho, Han Saem; Nam, Hyeong Soo; Park, Ok Kyu; Song, Joon Woo; Kim, Tae Shik; Oh, Dong Joo; Gweon, DaeGab; Oh, Wang-Yuhl; Yoo, Hongki; Kim, Jin Won

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages mediate atheroma expansion and disruption, and denote high-risk arterial plaques. Therefore, they are substantially gaining importance as a diagnostic imaging target for the detection of rupture-prone plaques. Here, we developed an injectable near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) probe by chemically conjugating thiolated glycol chitosan with cholesteryl chloroformate, NIRF dye (cyanine 5.5 or 7), and maleimide-polyethylene glycol-mannose as mannose receptor binding ligands to specifically target a subset of macrophages abundant in high-risk plaques. This probe showed high affinity to mannose receptors, low toxicity, and allowed the direct visualization of plaque macrophages in murine carotid atheroma. After the scale-up of the MMR-NIRF probe, the administration of the probe facilitated in vivo intravascular imaging of plaque inflammation in coronary-sized vessels of atheromatous rabbits using a custom-built dual-modal optical coherence tomography (OCT)-NIRF catheter-based imaging system. This novel imaging approach represents a potential imaging strategy enabling the identification of high-risk plaques in vivo and holds promise for future clinical implications. PMID:26948523