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Sample records for a2 receptor-deficient mice

  1. Adenosine A2A receptor deficiency attenuates the somnogenic effect of prostaglandin D2 in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin-jia; Huang, Zhi-li; Chen, Jiang-fan; Urade, Yoshihiro; Qu, Wei-min

    2017-01-01

    Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) is one of the most potent endogenous sleep promoting substances. PGD2 activates the PGD2 receptor (DPR) and increases the extracellular level of adenosine in wild-type (WT) mice but not DPR knockout (KO) mice, suggesting that PGD2-induced sleep is DPR-dependent, and adenosine may be the signaling molecule that mediates the somnogenic effect of PGD2. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) in PGD2-induced sleep. We infused PGD2 into the lateral ventricle of WT and A2AR KO mice between 20:00 and 2:00 for 6 h, and electroencephalograms and electromyograms were simultaneously recorded. In WT mice, PGD2 infusion dose-dependently increased non-rapid eye movement (non-REM, NREM) sleep, which was 139.1%, 145.0% and 202.7% as large as that of vehicle-treated mice at doses of 10, 20 and 50 pmol/min, respectively. PGD2 infusion at doses of 20 and 50 pmol/min also increased REM sleep during the 6-h PGD2 infusion and 4-h post-dosing periods in WT mice to 148.9% and 166.7%, respectively. In A2AR KO mice, however, PGD2 infusion at 10 pmol/min did not change the sleep profile, whereas higher doses at 20 and 50 pmol/min increased the NREM sleep during the 6-h PGD2 infusion to 117.5% and 155.6%, respectively, but did not change the sleep in the post-dosing period. Moreover, PGD2 infusion at 50 pmol/min significantly increased the episode number in both genotypes but only enhanced the episode duration in WT mice. The results demonstrate that PGD2-induced sleep in mice is mediated by both adenosine A2AR-dependent and -independent systems. PMID:28112177

  2. Dihydromyricetin ameliorates atherosclerosis in LDL receptor deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting Ting; Zeng, Yi; Tang, Kun; Chen, XueMeng; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Xiao Le

    2017-07-01

    Dihydromyricetin, the most abundant flavonoid in Ampelopsis grossedentata, exerts numerous pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and lipid regulatory activities; however, its protective effect against atherosclerosis remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of dihydromyricetin on high fat diet (HFD)-induced atherosclerosis using LDL receptor deficient (LDLr -/- ) mice. Blood samples were collected for determination of serum lipid profiles, oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Histology, hepatic lipid content, quantification of atherosclerosis, assessment of oxidative stress and inflammation were performed on liver and aorta samples by molecular biology methods. The effects of dihydromyricetin on ox-LDL-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) dysfunction and foam cell formation were further studied. (1) Dihydromyricetin ameliorated hyperlipidemia, reduced serum ox-LDL, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in HFD-fed LDLr -/- mice. Moreover, (2) dihydromyricetin suppressed hepatic lipid accumulation and increased protein expressions of PPARα, LXRα and ABCA1. (3) It inhibited atherosclerotic lesion formation and favoured features of plaque stability. (4) Dihydromyricetin prevented hepatic and aortic inflammation as evidenced by the reduced IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression; (5) it prevented hepatic and aortic oxidative stress by normalizing activities of antioxidant enzymes in the liver and suppressing reactive oxygen species generation and NOX2 protein expression in both liver and aorta; (6) it inhibited oxLDL-induced injury, monocytes adhesion and oxidative stress in HUVECs and (7) inhibited macrophage foam cell formation and enhanced cholesterol efflux. These findings suggest that dihydromyricetin could reduce atherosclerosis via its pleiotropic effects, including improvement of endothelial dysfunction, inhibition of macrophage foam cell formation

  3. Melanocortin 1 Receptor Deficiency Promotes Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E-/- Mice.

    PubMed

    Rinne, Petteri; Kadiri, James J; Velasco-Delgado, Mauricio; Nuutinen, Salla; Viitala, Miro; Hollmén, Maija; Rami, Martina; Savontaus, Eriika; Steffens, Sabine

    2018-02-01

    The MC1-R (melanocortin 1 receptor) is expressed by monocytes and macrophages where it mediates anti-inflammatory actions. MC1-R also protects against macrophage foam cell formation primarily by promoting cholesterol efflux through the ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily A member 1) and ABCG1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily G member 1). In this study, we aimed to investigate whether global deficiency in MC1-R signaling affects the development of atherosclerosis. Apoe -/- (apolipoprotein E deficient) mice were crossed with recessive yellow (Mc1r e/e ) mice carrying dysfunctional MC1-R and fed a high-fat diet to induce atherosclerosis. Apoe -/- Mc1r e/e mice developed significantly larger atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic sinus and in the whole aorta compared with Apoe -/- controls. In terms of plaque composition, MC1-R deficiency was associated with less collagen and smooth muscle cells and increased necrotic core, indicative of more vulnerable lesions. These changes were accompanied by reduced Abca1 and Abcg1 expression in the aorta. Furthermore, Apoe -/- Mc1r e/e mice showed a defect in bile acid metabolism that aggravated high-fat diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and hepatic lipid accumulation. Flow cytometric analysis of leukocyte profile revealed that dysfunctional MC1-R enhanced arterial accumulation of classical Ly6C high monocytes and macrophages, effects that were evident in mice fed a normal chow diet but not under high-fat diet conditions. In support of enhanced arterial recruitment of Ly6C high monocytes, these cells had increased expression of L-selectin and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1. The present study highlights the importance of MC1-R in the development of atherosclerosis. Deficiency in MC1-R signaling exacerbates atherosclerosis by disturbing cholesterol handling and by increasing arterial monocyte accumulation. © 2017 The Authors.

  4. Increased anxiety and synaptic plasticity in estrogen receptor -deficient mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krel, Wojciech; Dupont, Sonia; Krust, Andrée; Chambon, Pierre; Chapman, Paul F.

    2001-10-01

    Estrogens are powerful modulators of neuronal physiology and in humans may affect a broad range of functions, including reproductive, emotional, and cognitive behaviors. We studied the contribution of estrogen receptors (ERs) in modulation of emotional processes and analyzed the effects of deleting ER or ER in mice. Behavior consistent with increased anxiety was observed principally in ER mutant females and was associated with a reduced threshold for the induction of synaptic plasticity in the basolateral amygdala. Local increase of 5-hydroxytryptamine 1a receptor expression inmedial amygdala may contribute to these changes. Our data show that, particularly in females, there is an important role for ERβ-mediated estrogen signaling in the processing of emotional behavior.

  5. Group 1B phospholipase A₂ inactivation suppresses atherosclerosis and metabolic diseases in LDL receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Hollie, Norris I; Konaniah, Eddy S; Goodin, Colleen; Hui, David Y

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that inactivation of the group 1B phospholipase A2 (Pla2g1b) suppresses diet-induced obesity, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia in C57BL/6 mice. A possible influence of Pla2g1b inactivation on atherosclerosis has not been addressed previously. The current study utilized LDL receptor-deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) mice with plasma lipid levels and distribution similar to hyperlipidemic human subjects as a preclinical animal model to test the effectiveness of Pla2g1b inactivation on atherosclerosis. The Pla2g1b(+/+)Ldlr(-/-) and Pla2g1b(-/-)Ldlr(-/-) mice were fed a low fat chow diet or a hypercaloric diet with 58.5 kcal% fat and 25 kcal% sucrose for 10 weeks. Minimal differences were observed between Pla2g1b(+/+)Ldlr(-/-) and Pla2g1b(-/-)Ldlr(-/-) mice when the animals were maintained on the low fat chow diet. However, when the animals were maintained on the hypercaloric diet, the Pla2g1(+/+)Ldlr(-/-) mice showed the expected body weight gain but the Pla2g1b(-/-)Ldlr(-/-) mice were resistant to diet-induced body weight gain. The Pla2g1b(-/-)Ldlr(-/-) mice also displayed lower fasting glucose, insulin, and plasma lipid levels compared to the Pla2g1b(+/+)Ldlr(-/-) mice, which displayed robust hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperlipidemia in response to the hypercaloric diet. Importantly, atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic roots were also reduced 7-fold in the Pla2g1b(-/-)Ldlr(-/-) mice. The effectiveness of Pla2g1b inactivation to suppress diet-induced body weight gain and reduce diabetes and atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice suggests that pharmacological inhibition of Pla2g1b may be a viable strategy to decrease diet-induced obesity and the risk of diabetes and atherosclerosis in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Citrullus lanatus `Sentinel' (Watermelon) Extract Reduces Atherosclerosis in LDL Receptor Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Poduri, Aruna; Rateri, Debra L.; Saha, Shubin K.; Saha, Sibu; Daugherty, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus or C. lanatus) has many potentially bioactive compounds including citrulline, which may influence atherosclerosis. In this study, we determined the effects of C. lanatus, provided as an extract of the cultivar `sentinel', on hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in mice. Male LDL receptor deficient mice at 8 weeks old were given either C. lanatus `sentinel' extract (2% vol/vol; n=10) or a mixture of matching carbohydrates (2% vol/vol; n=8) as the control in drinking water, while fed a saturated fat-enriched diet for 12 weeks ad libitum. Mice consuming C. lanatus `sentinel' extract had significantly increased plasma citrulline concentrations. Systolic blood pressure was comparable between the two groups. Consumption of C. lanatus `sentinel' extract led to lower body weight and fat mass without influencing lean mass. There were no differences in food and water intake, and urine output between the two groups. C. lanatus `sentinel' extract administration decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations that were attributed to reductions of intermediate/low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma concentrations of MCP-1 and IFN-γ were decreased and IL-10 increased in mice consuming C. lanatus `sentinel' extract. Intake of C. lanatus `sentinel' extract resulted in reductions of atherosclerosis in both aortic arch and thoracic regions. In conclusion, consumption of C. lanatus `sentinel' extract led to reduced body weight gain, decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations, improved homeostasis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and attenuated development of atherosclerosis without affecting systolic blood pressure in hypercholesterolemic mice. PMID:22902326

  7. Interferon-gamma receptor-deficiency renders mice highly susceptible to toxoplasmosis by decreased macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Deckert-Schlüter, M; Rang, A; Weiner, D; Huang, S; Wiestler, O D; Hof, H; Schlüter, D

    1996-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii may cause severe infections in immunocompromised patients including fetuses and those with AIDS. Among the factors mediating protection against T. gondii, IFN-gamma has gained special attention. To analyze the role of IFN-gamma in the early phase of toxoplasmosis, IFN-gamma receptor-deficient (IFN-gamma R0/0) mice were orally infected with low-virulent toxoplasms. IFN-gamma R0/0 mice died of the disease up to day 10 postinfection, whereas immunocompetent wild-type (WT) mice developed a chronic toxoplasmosis. Histopathology revealed that in IFN-gamma R0/0 mice, the parasite multiplied unrestrictedly in the small intestine, the intestinal lymphatic tissue, the liver, and the spleen. Ultimately, animals died of a necrotizing hepatitis. In WT mice, the same organs were effected, but multiplication of the parasite was effectively limited. Compared with WT mice, immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry demonstrated that in IFN-gamma R0/0 mice, macrophages were only marginally activated in response to the infection, as evidenced by a reduced expression of major histocompatability complex class II antigens. In addition, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR showed a reduced production of the macrophage-derived cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and IL-1 beta in the liver of IFN-gamma R0/0 mice. In contrast, activation of T cells, recruitment of immune cells to inflammatory foci, and anti-T. gondii IgM antibody production were unaffected by the mutation of the IFN-gamma R. Moreover, induction of IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 mRNA transcripts in the liver was normal in IFN-gamma R0/0 mice. Adoptive transfer experiments revealed that the immune T cells of WT animals did not protect IFN-gamma R0/0 mice from lethal infection with highly virulent toxoplasms, whereas WT mice were significantly protected by the adoptive transfer. Based on these studies, we conclude that IFN-gamma is absolutely required for an efficient activation of

  8. Citrullus lanatus 'sentinel' (watermelon) extract reduces atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Poduri, Aruna; Rateri, Debra L; Saha, Shubin K; Saha, Sibu; Daugherty, Alan

    2013-05-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus or C. lanatus) has many potentially bioactive compounds including citrulline, which may influence atherosclerosis. In this study, we determined the effects of C. lanatus, provided as an extract of the cultivar 'sentinel,' on hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in mice. Male low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice at 8 weeks old were given either C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract (2% vol/vol; n=10) or a mixture of matching carbohydrates (2% vol/vol; n=8) as the control in drinking water while being fed a saturated fat-enriched diet for 12 weeks ad libitum. Mice consuming C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract had significantly increased plasma citrulline concentrations. Systolic blood pressure was comparable between the two groups. Consumption of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract led to lower body weight and fat mass without influencing lean mass. There were no differences in food and water intake and in urine output between the two groups. C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract administration decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations that were attributed to reductions of intermediate-/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interferon-gamma were decreased and those of interleukin-10 were increased in mice consuming C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract. Intake of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract resulted in reductions of atherosclerosis in both aortic arch and thoracic regions. In conclusion, consumption of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract led to reduced body weight gain, decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations, improved homeostasis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and attenuated development of atherosclerosis without affecting systolic blood pressure in hypercholesterolemic mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Antiatherosclerotic effects of Artemisia princeps Pampanini cv. Sajabal in LDL receptor deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Jong-Min; Kim, Min-Jung; Baek, Seung-Hwa; An, Sojin; Jin, Yue-Yan; Chung, Hae-Gon; Baek, Nam-In; Choi, Myung-Sook; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Jeong, Tae-Sook

    2009-02-25

    Antiatherosclerotic effects of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia princeps Pampanini cv. Sajabal (ESJ) were investigated in low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice. The Western diet-induced high levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride were similar in the ESJ and control groups. However, circulating oxidized LDL was significantly decreased in the ESJ group (p < 0.05). ESJ also markedly decreased aortic expression levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), and reduced the aortic lesion formation and macrophage accumulation by 36.7% (p < 0.05) and 43% (p < 0.01) in the control group, respectively. Additionally, ESJ inhibited atherogenic properties with cytokine-induced surface expression of cell adhesion molecules, chemokines, and monocyte adhesion to the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and simultaneously suppressed nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. These results suggest that ethanolic extracts of Artemisia princeps Pampanini cv. Sajabal contributes to the antiatherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory activities in LDLR(-/-) mice.

  10. Dietary cholesterol worsens adipose tissue macrophage accumulation and atherosclerosis in obese LDL receptor-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Savitha; Han, Chang Yeop; Chiba, Tsuyoshi; McMillen, Timothy S.; Wang, Shari A.; Haw, Antonio; Kirk, Elizabeth A.; O’Brien, Kevin D.; Chait, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Objective Chronic systemic inflammation accompanies obesity and predicts development of cardiovascular disease. Dietary cholesterol has been shown to increase inflammation and atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient (LDLR-/-) mice. This study was undertaken to determine whether dietary cholesterol and obesity have additive effects on inflammation and atherosclerosis. Methods and Results LDLR-/- mice were fed chow, high fat, high carbohydrate (diabetogenic) diet without (DD) or with added cholesterol (DDC) for 24 weeks. Effects on adipose tissue, inflammatory markers and atherosclerosis were studied. Despite similar weight gain between DD and DDC groups, addition of dietary cholesterol increased insulin resistance relative to DD. Adipocyte hypertrophy, macrophage accumulation and local inflammation were observed in intra-abdominal adipose tissue in DD and DDC, but were significantly higher in the DDC group. Circulating levels of the inflammatory protein serum amyloid A (SAA) were 4.4-fold higher in DD animals and 15-fold higher in DDC animals than controls, suggesting chronic systemic inflammation. Hepatic SAA mRNA levels were similarly elevated. Atherosclerosis was increased in the DD-fed animals and further increased in the DDC group. Conclusions Obesity-induced macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue is exacerbated by dietary cholesterol. These local inflammatory changes in adipose tissue are associated with insulin resistance, systemic inflammation and increased atherosclerosis in this mouse model. PMID:18239153

  11. Susceptibility to T cell-mediated liver injury is enhanced in asialoglycoprotein receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    McVicker, Benita L; Thiele, Geoffrey M; Casey, Carol A; Osna, Natalia A; Tuma, Dean J

    2013-05-01

    T cell activation and associated pro-inflammatory cytokine production is a pathological feature of inflammatory liver disease. It is also known that liver injury is associated with marked impairments in the function of many hepatic proteins including a hepatocyte-specific binding protein, the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR). Recently, it has been suggested that hepatic ASGPRs may play an important role in the physiological regulation of T lymphocytes, leading to our hypothesis that ASGPR defects correlate with inflammatory-mediated events in liver diseases. Therefore, in this study we investigated whether changes in hepatocellular ASGPR expression were related to the dysregulation of intrahepatic T lymphocytes and correlate with the development of T-cell mediated hepatitis. Mice lacking functional ASGPRs (receptor-deficient, RD), and wild-type (WT) controls were intravenously injected with T-cell mitogens, Concanavalin A (Con A) or anti-CD3 antibody. As a result of T cell mitogen treatment, RD mice lacking hepatic ASGPRs displayed enhancements in liver pathology, transaminase activities, proinflammatory cytokine expression, and caspase activation compared to that observed in normal WT mice. Furthermore, FACS analysis demonstrated that T-cell mitogen administration resulted in a significant rise in the percentage of CD8+ lymphocytes present in the livers of RD animals versus WT mice. Since these two mouse strains differ only in whether they express the hepatic ASGPR, it can be concluded that proper ASGPR function exerts a protective effect against T cell mediated hepatitis and that impairments to this hepatic receptor could be related to the accumulation of cytotoxic T cells that are observed in inflammatory liver diseases. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Hematopoietic Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Lyase Deficiency Decreases Atherosclerotic Lesion Development in LDL-Receptor Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bot, Martine; Van Veldhoven, Paul P.; de Jager, Saskia C. A.; Johnson, Jason; Nijstad, Niels; Van Santbrink, Peter J.; Westra, Marijke M.; Van Der Hoeven, Gerd; Gijbels, Marion J.; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Varga, Georg; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Kuiper, Johan; Van Berkel, Theo J. C.; Nofer, Jerzy-Roch

    2013-01-01

    Aims Altered sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) homeostasis and signaling is implicated in various inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis. As S1P levels are tightly controlled by S1P lyase, we investigated the impact of hematopoietic S1P lyase (Sgpl1−/−) deficiency on leukocyte subsets relevant to atherosclerosis. Methods and Results LDL receptor deficient mice that were transplanted with Sgpl1−/− bone marrow showed disrupted S1P gradients translating into lymphopenia and abrogated lymphocyte mitogenic and cytokine response as compared to controls. Remarkably however, Sgpl1−/− chimeras displayed mild monocytosis, due to impeded stromal retention and myelopoiesis, and plasma cytokine and macrophage expression patterns, that were largely compatible with classical macrophage activation. Collectively these two phenotypic features of Sgpl1 deficiency culminated in diminished atherogenic response. Conclusions Here we not only firmly establish the critical role of hematopoietic S1P lyase in controlling S1P levels and T cell trafficking in blood and lymphoid tissue, but also identify leukocyte Sgpl1 as critical factor in monocyte macrophage differentiation and function. Its, partly counterbalancing, pro- and anti-inflammatory activity spectrum imply that intervention in S1P lyase function in inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis should be considered with caution. PMID:23700419

  13. Adenosine A2B Receptor Deficiency Promotes Host Defenses against Gram-Negative Bacterial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Barletta, Kathryn E.; Cagnina, R. Elaine; Burdick, Marie D.; Linden, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Activation of the adenosine A2B receptor (A2BR) promotes antiinflammatory effects in diverse biological settings, but the role of this receptor in antimicrobial host defense in the lung has not been established. Gram-negative bacillary pneumonia is a common and serious illness associated with high morbidity and mortality, the treatment of which is complicated by increasing rates of antibiotic resistance. Objectives: To test the hypothesis that absence of adenosine A2B receptor signaling promotes host defense against bacterial pneumonia. Methods: We used a model of Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia in wild-type mice and mice with targeted deletion of the A2BR. Host responses were compared in vivo and leukocyte responses to the bacteria were examined in vitro. Measurements and Main Results: A2BR–/– mice demonstrated enhanced bacterial clearance from the lung and improved survival after infection with K. pneumoniae compared with wild-type controls, an effect that was mediated by bone marrow–derived cells. Leukocyte recruitment to the lungs and expression of inflammatory cytokines did not differ between A2BR–/– and wild-type mice, but A2BR–/– neutrophils exhibited sixfold greater bactericidal activity and enhanced production of neutrophil extracellular traps compared with wild-type neutrophils when incubated with K. pneumoniae. Consistent with this finding, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from A2BR–/– mice with Klebsiella pneumonia contained more extracellular DNA compared with wild-type mice with pneumonia. Conclusions: These data suggest that the absence of A2BR signaling enhances antimicrobial activity in gram-negative bacterial pneumonia. PMID:22997203

  14. Postprandial fatty acid uptake and adipocyte remodeling in angiotensin type 2 receptor-deficient mice fed a high-fat/high-fructose diet

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Christophe; Labbé, Sébastien M.; Pinard, Sandra; Shum, Michael; Bilodeau, Lyne; Chouinard, Lucie; Phoenix, Serge; Lecomte, Roger; Carpentier, André C.; Gallo-Payet, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The role of the angiotensin type-2 receptor in adipose physiology remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate whether genetic angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficiency prevents or worsens metabolic and adipose tissue morphometric changes observed following a 6-week high-fat/high-fructose diet with injection of a small dose of streptozotocin. We compared tissue uptake of nonesterified fatty acid and dietary fatty acid in wild-type and angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficient mice by using the radiotracer 14(R,S)-[18F]-fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid in mice fed a standard or high-fat diet. Postprandial fatty acid uptake in the heart, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney and adipose tissue was increased in wild-type mice after a high-fat diet and in angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficient mice on both standard and high-fat diets. Compared to the wild-type mice, angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficient mice had a lower body weight, an increase in fasting blood glucose and a decrease in plasma insulin and leptin levels. Mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited increased adipocyte size that was prevented by angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficiency. Angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficiency abolished the early hypertrophic adipocyte remodeling induced by a high-fat diet. The small size of adipocytes in the angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficient mice reflects their inability to store lipids and explains the increase in fatty acid uptake in non-adipose tissues. In conclusion, a genetic deletion of the angiotensin type-2 receptor is associated with metabolic dysfunction of white adipose depots, and indicates that adipocyte remodeling occurs before the onset of insulin resistance in the high-fat fed mouse model. PMID:27144096

  15. Overexpression of 15-lipoxygenase in the vascular endothelium is associated with increased thymic apoptosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Afek, A; Zurgil, N; Bar-Dayan, Y; Polak-Charcon, S; Goldberg, I; Deutsch, M; Kopolovich, J; Keren, G; Harats, D; George, J

    2004-01-01

    15-Lipoxygenase (15-LO) is a nonheme iron-containing enzyme that catalyzes the peroxidation of fatty acids. Herein, we studied the effect of 15-LO overexpression in the vascular endothelium on thymocyte apoptosis by evaluating thymuses from low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDL-RD) mice and LDL-RD/15-LO mice. Thymuses were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and by TUNEL whereas in vitro studies were carried out by employing freshly isolated thymocytes from the respective mice and evaluation of apoptosis by propidium iodide and annexin V cytometry. The apoptotic index in LDL-RD/15-LO mice was significantly higher than in the LDL-RD mice. In the thymic medulla the difference was smaller, although still significant. Freshly isolated thymus cells from LDL-RD/15-LO mice exhibited a higher rate of spontaneous cell death than controls. Incubation of thymus cells in the presence of the cell-permeable caspase-3 inhibitor DEVD-CMK resulted in a decrease in the frequency of apoptotic cells in LDL-RD/15-LO thymocytes, whereas no effect was evident in control thymocytes. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine causes the increase in apoptosis in both groups. LDL-RD/15-LO mice exhibit increased thymocyte apoptosis both in vivo and in vitro. These findings may suggest a role for 15-LO in the natural selection of thymocytes.

  16. Validity of leptin receptor-deficiency (db/db) type 2 diabetes mellitus mice as a model of secondary osteoporosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Le; You, Yong-Ke; Zhu, Tracy Y.; Zheng, Li-Zhen; Huang, Xiao-Ru; Chen, Hai-Yong; Yao, Dong; Lan, Hui-Yao; Qin, Ling

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the validation of the leptin receptor-deficient mice model for secondary osteoporosis associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at bone micro-architectural level. Thirty three 36-week old male mice were divided into four groups: normal control (db/m) (n = 7), leptin receptor-deficient T2DM (db/db) (n = 8), human C-reactive protein (CRP) transgenic normal control (crp/db/m) (n = 7), and human CRP transgenic T2DM (crp/db/db) (n = 11). Lumber vertebrae (L5) and bilateral lower limbs were scanned by micro-CT to analyze trabecular and cortical bone quality. Right femora were used for three-point bending to analyze the mechanical properties. Trabecular bone quality at L5 was better in db/db or crp/db/db group in terms of bone mineral density (BMD), bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabecular number and separation (all p < 0.05). However the indices measured at proximal tibia showed comparable trabecular BMD and microarchitecture among the four groups. Femur length in crp/db/db group was significantly shorter than db/m group (p < 0.05) and cortices were thinner in db/db and crp/db/db groups (p > 0.05). Maximum loading and energy yield in mechanical test were similar among groups while the elastic modulus in db/db and crp/db/db significantly lower than db/m. The leptin-receptor mice is not a proper model for secondary osteoporosis associated with T2DM.

  17. Validity of leptin receptor-deficiency (db/db) type 2 diabetes mellitus mice as a model of secondary osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Le; You, Yong-Ke; Zhu, Tracy Y; Zheng, Li-Zhen; Huang, Xiao-Ru; Chen, Hai-Yong; Yao, Dong; Lan, Hui-Yao; Qin, Ling

    2016-06-10

    This study aimed to evaluate the validation of the leptin receptor-deficient mice model for secondary osteoporosis associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at bone micro-architectural level. Thirty three 36-week old male mice were divided into four groups: normal control (db/m) (n = 7), leptin receptor-deficient T2DM (db/db) (n = 8), human C-reactive protein (CRP) transgenic normal control (crp/db/m) (n = 7), and human CRP transgenic T2DM (crp/db/db) (n = 11). Lumber vertebrae (L5) and bilateral lower limbs were scanned by micro-CT to analyze trabecular and cortical bone quality. Right femora were used for three-point bending to analyze the mechanical properties. Trabecular bone quality at L5 was better in db/db or crp/db/db group in terms of bone mineral density (BMD), bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabecular number and separation (all p < 0.05). However the indices measured at proximal tibia showed comparable trabecular BMD and microarchitecture among the four groups. Femur length in crp/db/db group was significantly shorter than db/m group (p < 0.05) and cortices were thinner in db/db and crp/db/db groups (p > 0.05). Maximum loading and energy yield in mechanical test were similar among groups while the elastic modulus in db/db and crp/db/db significantly lower than db/m. The leptin-receptor mice is not a proper model for secondary osteoporosis associated with T2DM.

  18. Blood-brain barrier breakdown promotes macrophage infiltration and cognitive impairment in leptin receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Stranahan, Alexis M; Hao, Shuai; Dey, Aditi; Yu, Xiaolin; Baban, Babak

    2016-12-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that obesity accelerates the onset of cognitive decline. While mechanisms are still being identified, obesity promotes peripheral inflammation and increases blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. However, no studies have manipulated vascular permeability in obesity to determine whether BBB breakdown underlies memory deficits. Protein kinase Cβ (PKCβ) activation destabilizes the BBB, and we used a PKCβ inhibitor (Enzastaurin) to block BBB leakiness in leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mice. Enzastaurin reversed BBB breakdown in db/db mice and normalized hippocampal function without affecting obesity or metabolism. Flow cytometric analysis of forebrain mononuclear cells (FMCs) from db/db mice revealed macrophage infiltration and induction of the activation marker MHCII in microglia and macrophages. Enzastaurin eliminated macrophage infiltration and MHCII induction, and protein array profiling revealed parallel reductions in IL1β, IL6, MCP1, and TNFα. To investigate whether these signals attract peripheral monocytes, FMCs from Wt and db/db mice were plated below migration inserts containing peritoneal macrophages. Peritoneal macrophages from db/db mice exhibit increases in transmigration that were blocked by recombinant IL1RA. These studies indicate that BBB breakdown impairs cognition in obesity and diabetes by allowing macrophage infiltration, with a potential role for IL1β in trafficking of peripheral monocytes into the brain. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. IFN-gamma receptor-deficient mice generate antiviral Th1-characteristic cytokine profiles but altered antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Schijns, V E; Haagmans, B L; Rijke, E O; Huang, S; Aguet, M; Horzinek, M C

    1994-09-01

    The lymphokine IFN-gamma is a pleiotropic immunomodulator and possesses intrinsic antiviral activity. We studied its significance in the development of antiviral immune responses by using IFN-gamma receptor-deficient (IFN-gamma R-/-) mice. After inoculation with live attenuated pseudorabies virus (PRV), the mutant mice showed no infectivity titers in various tissues, and transient viral Ag expression only in the spleen, similar as in wild-type mice. However, the absence of the IFN-gamma R resulted in increased proliferative splenocyte responses. The PRV-immune animals showed a normal IFN-gamma and IL-2 production, without detectable IL-4, and with decreased IL-10 secretion in response to viral Ag or Con A. Immunohistochemically, an increased ratio of IFN-gamma:IL-4-producing spleen cells was found. After immunization with either live attenuated or inactivated PRV, IFN-gamma R-/- mice produced significantly less antiviral Ab, and more succumbed to challenge infection than the intact control animals. The reduction in Ab titers in the mutant mice correlated with lower protection by their sera in transfer experiments. Our data demonstrate that ablation of the IFN-gamma receptor surprisingly does not inhibit the generation of antiviral Th1-type and increase Th2-type cytokine responses. However, it profoundly impairs the generation of protective antiviral Ab.

  20. The Effect of Low-Dose Proteasome Inhibition on Pre-Existing Atherosclerosis in LDL Receptor-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wilck, Nicola; Fechner, Mandy; Dan, Cristian; Stangl, Verena; Stangl, Karl; Ludwig, Antje

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) has been implicated in atherosclerosis development. However, the nature of UPS dysfunction has been proposed to be specific to certain stages of atherosclerosis development, which has implications for proteasome inhibition as a potential treatment option. Recently, low-dose proteasome inhibition with bortezomib has been shown to attenuate early atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLR−/−) mice. The present study investigates the effect of low-dose proteasome inhibition with bortezomib on pre-existing advanced atherosclerosis in LDLR−/− mice. We found that bortezomib treatment of LDLR−/− mice with pre-existing atherosclerosis does not alter lesion burden. Additionally, macrophage infiltration of aortic root plaques, total plasma cholesterol levels, and pro-inflammatory serum markers were not influenced by bortezomib. However, plaques of bortezomib-treated mice exhibited larger necrotic core areas and a significant thinning of the fibrous cap, indicating a more unstable plaque phenotype. Taking recent studies on favorable effects of proteasome inhibition in early atherogenesis into consideration, our data support the hypothesis of stage-dependent effects of proteasome inhibition in atherosclerosis. PMID:28387708

  1. Atherosclerosis and cardiac function assessment in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice undergoing body weight cycling.

    PubMed

    McMillen, T S; Minami, E; Leboeuf, R C

    2013-06-24

    Obesity has become an epidemic in many countries and is supporting a billion dollar industry involved in promoting weight loss through diet, exercise and surgical procedures. Because of difficulties in maintaining body weight reduction, a pattern of weight cycling often occurs (so called 'yo-yo' dieting) that may result in deleterious outcomes to health. There is controversy about cardiovascular benefits of yo-yo dieting, and an animal model is needed to better understand the contributions of major diet and body weight changes on heart and vascular functions. Our purpose is to determine the effects of weight cycling on cardiac function and atherosclerosis development in a mouse model. We used low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice due to their sensitivity to metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases when fed high-fat diets. Alternating ad libitum feeding of high-fat and low-fat (rodent chow) diets was used to instigate weight cycling during a 29-week period. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests were done at 22 and 24 weeks, echocardiograms at 25 weeks and atherosclerosis and plasma lipoproteins assessed at 29 weeks. Mice subjected to weight cycling showed improvements in glucose homeostasis during the weight loss cycle. Weight-cycled mice showed a reduction in the severity of atherosclerosis as compared with high-fat diet-fed mice. However, atherosclerosis still persisted in weight-cycled mice as compared with mice fed rodent chow. Cardiac function was impaired in weight-cycled mice and matched with that of mice fed only the high-fat diet. This model provides an initial structure in which to begin detailed studies of diet, calorie restriction and surgical modifications on energy balance and metabolic diseases. This model also shows differential effects of yo-yo dieting on metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Simvastatin reduces neointimal thickening in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice after experimental angioplasty without changing plasma lipids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiping; Fukutomi, Tatsuya; Zago, Alexandre C; Ehlers, Raila; Detmers, Patricia A; Wright, Samuel D; Rogers, Campbell; Simon, Daniel I

    2002-07-02

    Statins exert antiinflammatory and antiproliferative actions independent of cholesterol lowering. To determine whether these actions might affect neointimal formation, we investigated the effect of simvastatin on the response to experimental angioplasty in LDL receptor-deficient (LDLR-/-) mice, a model of hypercholesterolemia in which changes in plasma lipids are not observed in response to simvastatin. Carotid artery dilation (2.5 atm) and complete endothelial denudation were performed in male C57BL/6J LDLR-/- mice treated with low-dose (2 mg/kg) or high-dose (20 mg/kg) simvastatin or vehicle subcutaneously 72 hours before and then daily after injury. After 7 and 28 days, intimal and medial sizes were measured and the intima to media area ratio (I:M) was calculated. Total plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels were similar in simvastatin- and vehicle-treated mice. Intimal thickening and I:M were reduced significantly by low- and high-dose simvastatin compared with vehicle alone. Simvastatin treatment was associated with reduced cellular proliferation (BrdU), leukocyte accumulation (CD45), and platelet-derived growth factor-induced phosphorylation of the survival factor Akt and increased apoptosis after injury. Simvastatin modulates vascular repair after injury in the absence of lipid-lowering effects. Although the mechanisms are not yet established, additional research may lead to new understanding of the actions of statins and novel therapeutic interventions for preventing restenosis.

  3. Diminished pheromone-induced sexual behavior in neurokinin-1 receptor deficient (TACR1(-/-)) mice.

    PubMed

    Berger, A; Tran, A H; Dida, J; Minkin, S; Gerard, N P; Yeomans, J; Paige, C J

    2012-07-01

    Studies in mice with targeted deletions of tachykinin genes suggest that tachykinins and their receptors influence emotional behaviors such as aggression, depression and anxiety. Here, we investigated whether TAC1- and TAC4-encoded peptides (substance P and hemokinin-1, respectively) and the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) are involved in the modulation of sexual behaviors. Male mice deficient for the NK-1R (TACR1 (-/-)) exhibited decreased exploration of female urine in contrast to C57BL/6 control mice and mice deficient for NK-1R ligands such as TAC1 (-/-), TAC4 (-/-) and the newly generated TAC1 (-/-) /TAC4 (-/-) mice. In comparison to C57BL/6 mice, mounting frequency and duration were decreased in male TACR1 (-/-) mice, while mounting latency was increased. Decreased preference for sexual pheromones was also seen in female TACR1 (-/-) mice. Furthermore, administration of the NK-1R-antagonist L-703,606 decreased investigation of female urine by male C57BL/6 mice, suggesting an involvement of NK-1R in urine sniffing behavior. Our results provide evidence for the NK-1R in facilitating sexual approach behavior, as male TACR1 (-/-) mice exhibited blunted approach behavior toward females following the initial interaction compared with C57BL/6 mice. NK-1R signaling may therefore play an important role in pheromone-induced sexual behavior. © 2012 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  4. Intact attentional processing but abnormal responding in M1 muscarinic receptor-deficient mice using an automated touchscreen method

    PubMed Central

    Bartko, Susan J.; Romberg, Carola; White, Benjamin; Wess, Jürgen; Bussey, Timothy J.; Saksida, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Cholinergic receptors have been implicated in schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease. However, to better target therapeutically the appropriate receptor subsystems, we need to understand more about the functions of those subsystems. In the current series of experiments, we assessed the functional role of M1 receptors in cognition by testing M1 receptor-deficient mice (M1R−/−) on the five-choice serial reaction time test of attentional and response functions, carried out using a computer-automated touchscreen test system. In addition, we tested these mice on several tasks featuring learning, memory and perceptual challenges. An advantage of the touchscreen method is that each test in the battery is carried out in the same task setting, using the same types of stimuli, responses and feedback, thus providing a high level of control and task comparability. The surprising finding, given the predominance of the M1 receptor in cortex, was the complete lack of effect of M1 deletion on measures of attentional function per se. Moreover, M1R−/− mice performed relatively normally on tests of learning, memory and perception, although they were impaired in object recognition memory with, but not without an interposed delay interval. They did, however, show clear abnormalities on a variety of response measures: M1R−/− mice displayed fewer omissions, more premature responses, and increased perseverative responding compared to wild-types. These data suggest that M1R−/− mice display abnormal responding in the face of relatively preserved attention, learning and perception. PMID:21903112

  5. Myeloid mineralocorticoid receptor deficiency inhibits aortic constriction-induced cardiac hypertrophy in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Yu Yao; Frieler, Ryan A; Zheng, Xiao Jun; Zhang, Wu Chang; Sun, Xue Nan; Yang, Qing Zhen; Ma, Shu Min; Huang, Baozhuan; Berger, Stefan; Wang, Wang; Wu, Yong; Yu, Ying; Duan, Sheng Zhong; Mortensen, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) blockade has been shown to suppress cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling in animal models of pressure overload (POL). This study aims to determine whether MR deficiency in myeloid cells modulates aortic constriction-induced cardiovascular injuries. Myeloid MR knockout (MMRKO) mice and littermate control mice were subjected to abdominal aortic constriction (AAC) or sham operation. We found that AAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis were significantly attenuated in MMRKO mice. Expression of genes important in generating reactive oxygen species was decreased in MMRKO mice, while that of manganese superoxide dismutase increased. Furthermore, expression of genes important in cardiac metabolism was increased in MMRKO hearts. Macrophage infiltration in the heart was inhibited and expression of inflammatory genes was decreased in MMRKO mice. In addition, aortic fibrosis and inflammation were attenuated in MMRKO mice. Taken together, our data indicated that MR deficiency in myeloid cells effectively attenuated aortic constriction-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, as well as aortic fibrosis and inflammation.

  6. Antihypertensive effect of etamicastat in dopamine D2 receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Armando, Ines; Asico, Laureano D; Wang, Xiaoyan; Jones, John E; Serrão, Maria Paula; Cuevas, Santiago; Grandy, David K; Soares-da-Silva, Patricio; Jose, Pedro A

    2018-04-13

    Abnormalities of the D 2 R gene (DRD2) play a role in the pathogenesis of human essential hypertension; variants of the DRD2 have been reported to be associated with hypertension. Disruption of Drd2 (D 2 -/- ) in mice increases blood pressure. The hypertension of D 2 -/- mice has been related, in part, to increased sympathetic activity, renal oxidative stress, and renal endothelin B receptor (ETBR) expression. We tested in D 2 -/- mice the effect of etamicastat, a reversible peripheral inhibitor of dopamine-β-hydroxylase that reduces the biosynthesis of norepinephrine from dopamine and decreases sympathetic nerve activity. Blood pressure was measured in anesthetized D 2 -/- mice treated with etamicastat by gavage, (10 mg/kg), conscious D 2 -/- mice, and D 2 +/+ littermates, and mice with the D 2 R selectively silenced in the kidney, treated with etamicastat in the drinking water (10 mg/kg per day). Tissue and urinary catecholamines and renal expression of selected G protein-coupled receptors, enzymes related to the production of reactive oxygen species, and sodium transporters were also measured. Etamicastat decreased blood pressure both in anesthetized and conscious D 2 -/- mice and mice with renal-selective silencing of D 2 R to levels similar or close to those measured in D 2 +/+ littermates. Etamicastat decreased cardiac and renal norepinephrine and increased cardiac and urinary dopamine levels in D 2 -/- mice. It also normalized the increased renal protein expressions of ETBR, NADPH oxidase isoenzymes, and urinary 8-isoprostane, as well as renal NHE3 and NCC, and increased the renal expression of D 1 R but not D 5 R in D 2 -/- mice. In conclusion, etamicastat is effective in normalizing the increased blood pressure and some of the abnormal renal biochemical alterations of D 2 -/- mice.

  7. D4 receptor deficiency in mice has limited effects on impulsivity and novelty seeking.

    PubMed

    Helms, C M; Gubner, N R; Wilhelm, C J; Mitchell, S H; Grandy, D K

    2008-09-01

    Alleles of the human dopamine D(4) receptor (D(4)R) gene (DRD4.7) have repeatedly been found to correlate with novelty seeking, substance abuse, pathological gambling, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). If these various psychopathologies are a result of attenuated D(4)R-mediated signaling, mice lacking D(4)Rs (D(4)KO) should be more impulsive than wild-type (WT) mice and exhibit more novelty seeking. However, in our study, D(4)KO and WT mice showed similar levels of impulsivity as measured by delay discounting performance and response inhibition on a Go/No-go test, suggesting that D(4)R-mediated signaling may not affect impulsivity. D(4)KO mice were more active than WT mice in the first 5 min of a novel open field test, suggesting greater novelty seeking. For both genotypes, more impulsive mice habituated less in the novel open field. These data suggest that the absence of D(4)Rs is not sufficient to cause psychopathologies associated with heightened impulsivity and novelty seeking.

  8. Hyperphagia in male melanocortin 4 receptor deficient mice promotes growth independently of growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Tan, H Y; Steyn, F J; Huang, L; Cowley, M; Veldhuis, J D; Chen, C

    2016-12-15

    Loss of function of the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) results in hyperphagia, obesity and increased growth. Despite knowing that MC4Rs control food intake, we are yet to understand why defects in the function of the MC4R receptor contribute to rapid linear growth. We show that hyperphagia following germline loss of MC4R in male mice promotes growth while suppressing the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH-IGF-1) axis. We propose that hyperinsulinaemia promotes growth while suppressing the GH-IGF-1 axis. It is argued that physiological responses essential to maintain energy flux override conventional mechanisms of pubertal growth to promote the storage of excess energy while ensuring growth. Defects in melanocortin-4-receptor (MC4R) signalling result in hyperphagia, obesity and increased growth. Clinical observations suggest that loss of MC4R function may enhance growth hormone (GH)-mediated growth, although this remains untested. Using male mice with germline loss of the MC4R, we assessed pulsatile GH release and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) production and/or release relative to pubertal growth. We demonstrate early-onset suppression of GH release in rapidly growing MC4R deficient (MC4RKO) mice, confirming that increased linear growth in MC4RKO mice does not occur in response to enhanced activation of the GH-IGF-1 axis. The progressive suppression of GH release in MC4RKO mice occurred alongside increased adiposity and the progressive worsening of hyperphagia-associated hyperinsulinaemia. We next prevented hyperphagia in MC4RKO mice through restricting calorie intake in these mice to match that of wild-type (WT) littermates. Pair feeding of MC4RKO mice did not prevent increased adiposity, but attenuated hyperinsulinaemia, recovered GH release, and normalized linear growth rate to that seen in pair-fed WT littermate controls. We conclude that the suppression of GH release in MC4RKO mice occurs independently of increased adipose mass, and is a

  9. Hyperphagia in male melanocortin 4 receptor deficient mice promotes growth independently of growth hormone

    PubMed Central

    Tan, H. Y.; Huang, L.; Cowley, M.; Veldhuis, J. D.; Chen, C.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Loss of function of the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) results in hyperphagia, obesity and increased growth.Despite knowing that MC4Rs control food intake, we are yet to understand why defects in the function of the MC4R receptor contribute to rapid linear growth.We show that hyperphagia following germline loss of MC4R in male mice promotes growth while suppressing the growth hormone–insulin‐like growth factor‐1 (GH–IGF‐1) axis.We propose that hyperinsulinaemia promotes growth while suppressing the GH–IGF‐1 axis.It is argued that physiological responses essential to maintain energy flux override conventional mechanisms of pubertal growth to promote the storage of excess energy while ensuring growth. Abstract Defects in melanocortin‐4‐receptor (MC4R) signalling result in hyperphagia, obesity and increased growth. Clinical observations suggest that loss of MC4R function may enhance growth hormone (GH)‐mediated growth, although this remains untested. Using male mice with germline loss of the MC4R, we assessed pulsatile GH release and insulin‐like growth factor‐1 (IGF‐1) production and/or release relative to pubertal growth. We demonstrate early‐onset suppression of GH release in rapidly growing MC4R deficient (MC4RKO) mice, confirming that increased linear growth in MC4RKO mice does not occur in response to enhanced activation of the GH–IGF‐1 axis. The progressive suppression of GH release in MC4RKO mice occurred alongside increased adiposity and the progressive worsening of hyperphagia‐associated hyperinsulinaemia. We next prevented hyperphagia in MC4RKO mice through restricting calorie intake in these mice to match that of wild‐type (WT) littermates. Pair feeding of MC4RKO mice did not prevent increased adiposity, but attenuated hyperinsulinaemia, recovered GH release, and normalized linear growth rate to that seen in pair‐fed WT littermate controls. We conclude that the suppression of GH release in MC4RKO mice occurs

  10. Infusion of oxytocin induces successful delivery in prostanoid FP-receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Kawamata, Masaki; Yoshida, Masahide; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Kimura, Tadashi; Tonomura, Yutaka; Takayanagi, Yuki; Yanagisawa, Teruyuki; Nishimori, Katsuhiko

    2008-02-13

    The dramatic increase of oxytocin (OT) receptor (OTR) in the myometrium as well as circulating progesterone withdrawal has been thought to be the most important factor in the induction and accomplishment of parturition since delivery fails in prostaglandin F2alpha receptor (FP) knockout (FP KO) mice. The expression levels of OTR mRNA/protein were not dramatically increased in the near-term uteri of FP KO mice. However, OT-induced myometrial contractions and the concentration-response curves in FP KO in vitro were almost similar to those in wild-type (WT) mice. OT-infusion (0.3 U/day) enabled FP KO mice to experience successful delivery, and furthermore the duration until the onset was hastened by a higher dose of OT (3 U/day). The plasma progesterone levels of FP KO females were maintained at high levels, but decreased during labor by OT-infusion (3 U/day). These results suggest that OT has potentials to induce strong myometrial contractions in uterus with low expression levels of OTR and luteolysis in ovary, which enabled FP KO females to undergo successful delivery.

  11. Emotional response in dopamine D2L receptor-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Hranilovic, Dubravka; Bucan, Maja; Wang, Yanyan

    2008-01-01

    The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) system has been implicated in emotional processing which is often impaired in neuropsychiatric disorders. The long (D2L) and the short (D2S) isoforms of D2R are generated by alternative splicing of the same gene. To study differential roles of the two D2R isoforms, D2L-deficient mice (D2L−/−) expressing functional D2S were previously generated. In this study the contribution of D2L isoform to emotional response was investigated by examining behaviors that reflect emotionality (exploratory behavior, anxiety-like behavior and learned helplessness) in D2L−/− and (wild-type) WT mice. While the thigmotactic, locomotor and general components of anxiety in zero maze did not differ among the genotypes, D2L−/− mice displayed significantly lower level of exploration in a hole board and zero maze, and significantly higher increase in latency to escape from a foot shock after the learned helplessness training, compared with WT mice. These results suggest that D2L may play a more prominent role than D2S in mediating emotional response, such as behavioral reactions to novelty and inescapable stress. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying emotional responses. PMID:18835570

  12. Myeloid interferon-γ receptor deficiency does not affect atherosclerosis in LDLR(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Boshuizen, Marieke C S; Neele, Annette E; Gijbels, Marion J J; van der Velden, Saskia; Hoeksema, Marten A; Forman, Ruth A; Muller, Werner; Van den Bossche, Jan; de Winther, Menno P J

    2016-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic lipid-driven inflammatory disease of the arterial wall. Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is an important immunomodulatory cytokine and a known pro-atherosclerotic mediator. However, cell-specific targeting of IFNγ or its signaling in atherosclerosis development has not been studied yet. As macrophages are important IFNγ targets, we here addressed the involvement of myeloid IFNγ signaling in murine atherosclerosis. Bone marrow was isolated from interferon gamma receptor 2 chain (IFNγR2) wildtype and myeloid IFNγR2 deficient mice and injected into lethally irradiated LDLR(-/-) mice. After recovery mice were put on a high fat diet for 10 weeks after which atherosclerotic lesion analysis was performed. In addition, the accompanying liver inflammation was assessed. Even though absence of myeloid IFNγ signaling attenuated the myeloid IFNγ response, no significant differences in atherosclerotic lesion size or phenotype were found. Also, when examining the liver inflammatory state no effects of IFNγR2 deficiency could be observed. Overall, our data argue against a role for myeloid IFNγR2 in atherosclerosis development. Since myeloid IFNγ signaling seems to be nonessential throughout atherogenesis, it is important to understand the mechanisms by which IFNγ acts in atherogenesis. In the future new studies should be performed considering other cell-specific targets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Vaccination against CD99 inhibits atherogenesis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    van Wanrooij, Eva J A; de Vos, Paula; Bixel, M Gabriele; Vestweber, Dietmar; van Berkel, Theo J C; Kuiper, Johan

    2008-06-01

    Murine CD99 was recently found to be expressed on leukocytes and endothelial cells, where it is concentrated at inter-endothelial contacts. Blockade of CD99 by specific antibodies inhibits leukocyte extravasation to inflamed sites in vivo. The aim of the present study is to show the role of CD99 in atherosclerosis using a CD99 vaccination protocol to block the function of CD99 during atherosclerosis. We constructed a DNA vaccine against CD99 by cloning the extracellular domain of murine CD99 into pcDNA3. Vaccination was performed by oral administration of attenuated Salmonella typhimurium transformed with pcDNA3-CD99. This vaccination results in a CD99-specific, CD8-mediated cytotoxic response and subsequent reduction of CD99-expressing cells. We showed that CD99 is expressed on vascular endothelium overlying atherosclerotic plaques and found that CD99 expression is upregulated during western-type diet feeding. CD99 vaccination induced the formation of CD8-positive T cells that were cytotoxic against cells transfected with pcDNA3-CD99. Activation of CD8(+) T cells was demonstrated by a 30% increase in CD8(+)CD69(+) double-positive T cells in spleen and mediastinal lymph nodes. Furthermore, lymphocytes isolated from CD99-vaccinated mice specifically lysed CD99-expressing cells. More importantly, vaccination against CD99 attenuated atherosclerotic lesion formation in the aortic valve leaflets by 38% and in the carotid artery by 69% compared with mice that were vaccinated with a control vector. Furthermore, a lower number of cells were found in atherosclerotic lesions, implying that fewer leukocytes were recruited to these sites. These observations were accompanied by a decrease in CD99 expression on leukocytes. We conclude that vaccination against CD99 decreases atherogenesis by the selective removal of CD99-expressing cells, which could reduce leukocyte recruitment into atherosclerotic lesions and attenuate atherogenesis.

  14. Salusin-α attenuates hepatic steatosis and atherosclerosis in high fat diet-fed low density lipoprotein receptor deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kun; Wang, Fei; Zeng, Yi; Chen, XueMeng; Xu, XiaoLe

    2018-07-05

    Salusin-α is an endogenous bioactive peptide and likely to prevent atherosclerosis. But its protective effect against atherosclerosis in vivo remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the potential effects of salusin-α on atherosclerosis and its associated metabolic disorders in high fat diet (HFD)-fed low density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLr -/- ) mice, and also explore the possible underlying mechanisms involved. Our data showed that after 12 weeks treatment, salusin-α ameliorated HFD-induced weight gain, hyperlipidemia, and serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Salusin-α suppressed HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and regulated gene expression of fatty acid synthase, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, camitine palmitoyltransferase-1α and CYP7A1 in liver. Salusin-α reduced atherosclerotic plaque area and macrophage foam cell formation. Salusin-α prevented hepatic and aortic inflammation as evidenced by the reduced macrophage recruitment and mRNA expression of IL-6 and TNF-α in both liver and aorta. Salusin-α also reduced hepatic and aortic oxidative stress by normalizing activities of antioxidant enzymes in liver and suppressing reactive oxygen species generation and protein expressions of NADPH-oxidase (NOX) 2 and NOX4 in both liver and aorta. Our present data suggest that salusin-α could reduce hepatic steatosis and atherosclerosis via its pleiotropic effects, including amelioration of lipid profiles, regulation of some key molecules involved in lipid metabolism in liver, anti-oxidative effect and anti-inflammatory action. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanical Vibration Mitigates the Decrease of Bone Quantity and Bone Quality of Leptin Receptor-Deficient Db/Db Mice by Promoting Bone Formation and Inhibiting Bone Resorption.

    PubMed

    Jing, Da; Luo, Erping; Cai, Jing; Tong, Shichao; Zhai, Mingming; Shen, Guanghao; Wang, Xin; Luo, Zhuojing

    2016-09-01

    Leptin, a major hormonal product of adipocytes, is involved in regulating appetite and energy metabolism. Substantial studies have revealed the anabolic actions of leptin on skeletons and bone cells both in vivo and in vitro. Growing evidence has substantiated that leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice exhibit decreased bone mass and impaired bone microstructure despite several conflicting results previously reported. We herein systematically investigated bone microarchitecture, mechanical strength, bone turnover and its potential molecular mechanisms in db/db mice. More importantly, we also explored an effective approach for increasing bone mass in leptin receptor-deficient animals in an easy and noninvasive manner. Our results show that deterioration of trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture and decreases of skeletal mechanical strength-including maximum load, yield load, stiffness, energy, tissue-level modulus and hardness-in db/db mice were significantly ameliorated by 12-week, whole-body vibration (WBV) with 0.5 g, 45 Hz via micro-computed tomography (μCT), three-point bending, and nanoindentation examinations. Serum biochemical analysis shows that WBV significantly decreased serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP5b) and CTx-1 levels and also mitigated the reduction of serum osteocalcin (OCN) in db/db mice. Bone histomorphometric analysis confirmed that decreased bone formation-lower mineral apposition rate, bone formation rate, and osteoblast numbers in cancellous bone-in db/db mice were suppressed by WBV. Real-time PCR assays show that WBV mitigated the reductions of tibial alkaline phosphatase (ALP), OCN, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), type I collagen (COL1), BMP2, Wnt3a, Lrp6, and β-catenin mRNA expression, and prevented the increases of tibial sclerostin (SOST), RANK, RANKL, RANL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) gene levels in db/db mice. Our results show that WBV promoted bone quantity and quality in db/db mice with obvious

  16. Antisense oligonucleotide reduction of apoB-ameliorated atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice[S

    PubMed Central

    Mullick, Adam E.; Fu, Wuxia; Graham, Mark J.; Lee, Richard G.; Witchell, Donna; Bell, Thomas A.; Whipple, Charles P.; Crooke, Rosanne M.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic elevations of plasma apolipoprotein B (apoB) are strongly associated with cardiovascular disease. We have previously demonstrated that inhibition of hepatic apoB mRNA using antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) results in reductions of apoB, VLDL, and LDL in several preclinical animal models and humans. In this study, we evaluated the anti-atherogenic effects of a murine-specific apoB ASO (ISIS 147764) in hypercholesterolemic LDLr deficient (LDLr−/−) mice. ISIS 147764 was administered weekly at 25-100 mg/kg for 10-12 weeks and produced dose-dependent reductions of hepatic apoB mRNA and plasma LDL by 60-90%. No effects on these parameters were seen in mice receiving control ASOs. ApoB ASO treatment also produced dose-dependent reductions of aortic en face and sinus atherosclerosis from 50-90%, with high-dose treatment displaying less disease than the saline-treated, chow-fed LDLr−/− mice. No changes in intestinal cholesterol absorption were seen with apoB ASO treatment, suggesting that the cholesterol-lowering pharmacology of 147764 was primarily due to inhibition of hepatic apoB synthesis and secretion. In summary, ASO-mediated suppression of apoB mRNA expression profoundly reduced plasma lipids and atherogenesis in LDLr−/− mice, leading to the hypothesis that apoB inhibition in humans with impaired LDLr activity may produce similar effects. PMID:21343632

  17. SKI-II--a sphingosine kinase 1 inhibitor--exacerbates atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDL-R-/-) mice on high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Potì, Francesco; Ceglarek, Uta; Burkhardt, Ralph; Simoni, Manuela; Nofer, Jerzy-Roch

    2015-05-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a lysosphingolipid associated with high-density lipoproteins (HDL) that contributes to their anti-atherogenic potential. We investigated whether a reduction in S1P plasma levels affects atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDL-R-/-) mice. LDL-R-/- mice on Western diet containing low (0.25% w/w) or high (1.25% w/w) cholesterol were treated for 16 weeks with SKI-II, a sphingosine kinase 1 inhibitor that significantly reduced plasma S1P levels. SKI-II treatment increased atherosclerotic lesions in the thoracic aorta in mice on high but not low cholesterol diet. This compound did not affect body weight, blood cell counts and plasma total and HDL cholesterol, but decreased triglycerides. In addition, mice on high cholesterol diet receiving SKI-II showed elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and endothelial adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1). Prolonged lowering of plasma S1P produces pro-atherogenic effects in LDL-R-/- mice that are evident under condition of pronounced hypercholesterolemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impaired clearance of influenza A virus in obese, leptin receptor deficient mice is independent of leptin signaling in the lung epithelium and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Radigan, Kathryn A; Morales-Nebreda, Luisa; Soberanes, Saul; Nicholson, Trevor; Nigdelioglu, Recep; Cho, Takugo; Chi, Monica; Hamanaka, Robert B; Misharin, Alexander V; Perlman, Harris; Budinger, G R Scott; Mutlu, Gökhan M

    2014-01-01

    During the recent H1N1 outbreak, obese patients had worsened lung injury and increased mortality. We used a murine model of influenza A pneumonia to test the hypothesis that leptin receptor deficiency might explain the enhanced mortality in obese patients. We infected wild-type, obese mice globally deficient in the leptin receptor (db/db) and non-obese mice with tissue specific deletion of the leptin receptor in the lung epithelium (SPC-Cre/LepR fl/fl) or macrophages and alveolar type II cells (LysM-Cre/Lepr fl/fl) with influenza A virus (A/WSN/33 [H1N1]) (500 and 1500 pfu/mouse) and measured mortality, viral clearance and several markers of lung injury severity. The clearance of influenza A virus from the lungs of mice was impaired in obese mice globally deficient in the leptin receptor (db/db) compared to normal weight wild-type mice. In contrast, non-obese, SP-C-Cre+/+/LepR fl/fl and LysM-Cre+/+/LepR fl/fl had improved viral clearance after influenza A infection. In obese mice, mortality was increased compared with wild-type mice, while the SP-C-Cre+/+/LepR fl/fl and LysM-Cre+/+/LepR fl/fl mice exhibited improved survival. Global loss of the leptin receptor results in reduced viral clearance and worse outcomes following influenza A infection. These findings are not the result of the loss of leptin signaling in lung epithelial cells or macrophages. Our results suggest that factors associated with obesity or with leptin signaling in non-myeloid populations such as natural killer and T cells may be associated with worsened outcomes following influenza A infection.

  19. Bilirubin Increases Insulin Sensitivity in Leptin-Receptor Deficient and Diet-Induced Obese Mice Through Suppression of ER Stress and Chronic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Huansheng; Huang, Hu; Yun, Xinxu; Kim, Do-sung; Yue, Yinan; Wu, Hongju; Sutter, Alton; Chavin, Kenneth D.; Otterbein, Leo E.; Adams, David B.; Kim, Young-Bum

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress causes chronic inflammation in adipose tissue and steatosis in the liver, and eventually leads to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The goal of this study was to understand the mechanisms by which administration of bilirubin, a powerful antioxidant, reduces hyperglycemia and ameliorates obesity in leptin-receptor-deficient (db/db) and diet-induced obese (DIO) mouse models. db/db or DIO mice were injected with bilirubin or vehicle ip. Blood glucose and body weight were measured. Activation of insulin-signaling pathways, expression of inflammatory cytokines, and ER stress markers were measured in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and liver of mice. Bilirubin administration significantly reduced hyperglycemia and increased insulin sensitivity in db/db mice. Bilirubin treatment increased protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) phosphorylation in skeletal muscle and suppressed expression of ER stress markers, including the 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein, X box binding protein (XBP-1), and activating transcription factor 4 in db/db mice. In DIO mice, bilirubin treatment significantly reduced body weight and increased insulin sensitivity. Moreover, bilirubin suppressed macrophage infiltration and proinflammatory cytokine expression, including TNF-α, IL-1β, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, in adipose tissue. In liver and adipose tissue of DIO mice, bilirubin ameliorated hepatic steatosis and reduced expression of GRP78 and C/EBP homologous protein. These results demonstrate that bilirubin administration improves hyperglycemia and obesity by increasing insulin sensitivity in both genetically engineered and DIO mice models. Bilirubin or bilirubin-increasing drugs might be useful as an insulin sensitizer for the treatment of obesity-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes based on its profound anti-ER stress and antiinflammatory properties. PMID

  20. The High Calcium, High Phosphorus Rescue Diet Is Not Suitable to Prevent Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Vitamin D Receptor Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Grundmann, Sarah M; Brandsch, Corinna; Rottstädt, Daniela; Kühne, Hagen; Stangl, Gabriele I

    2017-01-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) knockout (KO) mouse is a common model to unravel novel metabolic functions of vitamin D. It is recommended to feed these mice a high calcium (2%), high phosphorus (1.25%) diet, termed rescue diet (RD) to prevent hypocalcaemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism. First, we characterized the individual response of VDR KO mice to feeding a RD and found that the RD was not capable of normalizing the parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations in each VDR KO mouse. In a second study, we aimed to study whether RD with additional 1 and 2% calcium (in total 3 and 4% of the diet) is able to prevent secondary hyperparathyroidism in the VDR KO mice. Wild type (WT) mice and VDR KO mice that received a normal calcium and phosphorus diet (ND) served as controls. Data demonstrated that the RD was no more efficient than the ND in normalizing PTH levels. An excessive dietary calcium concentration of 4% was required to reduce serum PTH concentrations in the VDR KO mice to PTH levels measured in WT mice. This diet, however, resulted in higher concentrations of circulating intact fibroblast growth factor 23 (iFGF23). To conclude, the commonly used RD is not suitable to normalize the serum PTH in VDR KO mice. Extremely high dietary calcium concentrations are necessary to prevent secondary hyperthyroidism in these mice, with the consequence that iFGF23 concentrations are being raised. Considering that PTH and iFGF23 exert numerous VDR independent effects, data obtained from VDR KO mice cannot be attributed solely to vitamin D.

  1. Androgen receptor deficiency in monocytes/macrophages does not alter adiposity or glucose homeostasis in male mice.

    PubMed

    Rubinow, Katya B; Houston, Barbara; Wang, Shari; Goodspeed, Leela; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Morton, Gregory J; McCarty, Christopher; Braun, Robert E; Page, Stephanie T

    2018-01-01

    Androgen deprivation in men leads to increased adiposity, but the mechanisms underlying androgen regulation of fat mass have not been fully defined. Androgen receptor (AR) is expressed in monocytes/macrophages, which are resident in key metabolic tissues and influence energy metabolism in surrounding cells. Male mice bearing a cell-specific knockout of the AR in monocytes/macrophages (M-ARKO) were generated to determine whether selective loss of androgen signaling in these cells would lead to altered body composition. Wild-type (WT) and M-ARKO mice (12-22 weeks of age, n = 12 per group) were maintained on a regular chow diet for 8 weeks and then switched to a high-fat diet for 8 additional weeks. At baseline and on both the regular chow and high-fat diets, no differences in lean mass or fat mass were observed between groups. Consistent with the absence of differential body weight or adiposity, no differences in food intake (3.0 ± 0.5 g per day for WT mice vs 2.8 ± 0.4 g per day for M-ARKO mice) or total energy expenditure (0.6 ± 0.1 Kcal h -1 for WT mice vs 0.5 ± 0.1 Kcal h -1 for M-ARKO mice) were evident between groups during high-fat feeding. Liver weight was greater in M-ARKO than that in WT mice (1.5 ± 0.1 g vs 1.3 ± 0.0 g, respectively, P = 0.02). Finally, M-ARKO mice did not exhibit impairments in glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity relative to WT mice at any study time point. In aggregate, these findings suggest that AR signaling specifically in monocytes/macrophages does not contribute to the regulation of systemic energy balance, adiposity, or insulin sensitivity in male mice.

  2. CER-001, a HDL-mimetic, stimulates the reverse lipid transport and atherosclerosis regression in high cholesterol diet-fed LDL-receptor deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Tardy, Claudine; Goffinet, Marine; Boubekeur, Nadia; Ackermann, Rose; Sy, Gavin; Bluteau, Alice; Cholez, Guy; Keyserling, Constance; Lalwani, Narendra; Paolini, John F; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Barbaras, Ronald; Baron, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    CER-001 is a novel engineered HDL-mimetic comprised of recombinant human apoA-I and phospholipids that was designed to mimic the beneficial properties of nascent pre-β HDL. In this study, we have evaluated the capacity of CER-001 to perform reverse lipid transport in single dose studies as well as to regress atherosclerosis in LDLr(-/-) mice after short-term multiple-dose infusions. CER-001 induced cholesterol efflux from macrophages and exhibited anti-inflammatory response similar to natural HDL. Studies with HUVEC demonstrated CER-001 at a concentration of 500 μg/mL completely suppressed the secretion of cytokines IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF and MCP-1. Following infusion of CER-001 (10mg/kg) in C57Bl/6J mice, we observed a transient increase in the mobilization of unesterified cholesterol in HDL particles containing recombinant human apoA-I. Finally we show that cholesterol elimination was stimulated in CER-001 treated animals as demonstrated by the increased cholesterol concentration in liver and feces. In a familial hypercholesterolemia mouse model (LDL-receptor deficient mice), the infusion of CER-001 caused 17% and 32% reductions in plaque size, 17% and 23% reductions in lipid content after 5 and 10 doses given every 2 days, respectively. Also, there was an 80% reduction in macrophage content in the plaque following 5 doses, and decreased VCAM-1 expression by 16% and 22% in the plaque following 5 and 10 intravenous doses of CER-001, respectively. These data demonstrate that CER-001 rapidly enhances reverse lipid transport in the mouse, reducing vascular inflammation and promoting regression of diet-induced atherosclerosis in LDLr(-/-) mice upon a short-term multiple dose treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Augmentation of the noradrenergic system in alpha-2 adrenergic receptor deficient mice: anatomical changes associated with enhanced fear memory.

    PubMed

    Davies, M Frances; Tsui, Janet Y; Flannery, Judy A; Li, Xiangqi; DeLorey, Timothy M; Hoffman, Brian B

    2003-10-03

    We have investigated sensitivity to the conditioned fear procedure of mice is influenced by the genetic deletion of alpha2A adrenoceptors (ARs). We observed a heightened freezing response in the discrete cue memory test in alpha2A AR knockout (alpha2A AR KO) mice and in D79N mice, a transgenic mouse strain with functionally impaired alpha2A ARs. No significant differences in contextual memory were observed between control and alpha2A AR KO or D79N mice suggesting a minimal role for the noradrenergic system in contextual memory. We speculated that the increased freezing response of the alpha2A AR KO and D79N mice in the discrete cue setting was due to increased release of norepinephrine evoked by the unconditioned footshock stimulus. In alpha2A AR KO mice we measured a doubling in the number of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) and a large increase in the cell volume of tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons, likely due to selective preservation of large, multipolar neurons in the subcoeruleus. Hyperplasia of the noradrenergic neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius, A5 and A7, was also observed. Alpha2A AR KO mice exhibit greater c-Fos expression in the LC compared to wild type mice suggesting that the LC neurons in the alpha2A AR KO mice were spontaneously more active. This study suggests that alpha2A ARs are involved in the development of the central noradrenergic system and raises the possibility that alterations in alpha2A AR expression may contribute to variations in fear and stress responses.

  4. Bile acids override steatosis in farnesoid X receptor deficient mice in a model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Weibin; Liu, Xijun; Peng, Xiaomin

    Highlights: • FXR deficiency enhanced MCD diet-induced hepatic fibrosis. • FXR deficiency attenuated MCD diet-induced hepatic steatosis. • FXR deficiency repressed genes involved in fatty acid uptake and triglyceride accumulation. - Abstract: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases, and the pathogenesis is still not well known. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily and plays an essential role in maintaining bile acid and lipid homeostasis. In this study, we study the role of FXR in the pathogenesis of NFALD. We found that FXR deficient (FXR{sup −/−})more » mice fed methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet had higher serum ALT and AST activities and lower hepatic triglyceride levels than wild-type (WT) mice fed MCD diet. Expression of genes involved in inflammation (VCAM-1) and fibrosis (α-SMA) was increased in FXR{sup −/−} mice fed MCD diet (FXR{sup −/−}/MCD) compared to WT mice fed MCD diet (WT/MCD). Although MCD diet significantly induced hepatic fibrosis in terms of liver histology, FXR{sup −/−}/MCD mice showed less degree of hepatic steatosis than WT/MCD mice. Moreover, FXR deficiency synergistically potentiated the elevation effects of MCD diet on serum and hepatic bile acids levels. The super-physiological concentrations of hepatic bile acids in FXR{sup −/−}/MCD mice inhibited the expression of genes involved in fatty acid uptake and triglyceride accumulation, which may be an explanation for less steatosis in FXR{sup −/−}/MCD mice in contrast to WT/MCD mice. These results suggest that hepatic bile acids accumulation could override simple steatosis in hepatic injury during the progression of NAFLD and further emphasize the role of FXR in maintaining hepatic bile acid homeostasis in liver disorders and in hepatic protection.« less

  5. Evidence for an interaction between leptin, T cell costimulatory antigens CD28, CTLA-4 and CD26 (dipeptidyl peptidase IV) in BCG-induced immune responses of leptin- and leptin receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Rüter, Jens; Hoffmann, Torsten; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich; Moschansky, Petra; Klapp, Burghard F; Hildebrandt, Martin

    2004-06-01

    We assessed changes of the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV, CD26) in the context of leptin or leptin receptor deficiency. C57BL/6 mice, Leptin-deficient mice (ob/ob mice, B6.V-Lep) and Leptin-receptor-deficient mice (db/db mice, B6.Cg-m+/+Lepr) were infected with B. Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and sacrificed three days later. DPP IV activity in serum was higher in ob/ob mice and in db/db mice than in wild-type mice. The expression of DPP IV/CD26 on splenocytes was higher in ob/ob mice than in wild-type animals, and lower in db/db mice, and decreased upon stimulation with BCG in ob/ob mice only. Several T cell antigens including CTLA-4 were expressed aberrantly in ob/ob and in db/db mice. Our observations provide evidence for a relationship between DPP IV and leptin.

  6. Calpain Inhibition Attenuates Angiotensin II-induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms and Atherosclerosis in LDL Receptor Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Venkateswaran; Uchida, Haruhito Adam; Ijaz, Talha; Moorleghen, Jessica J.; Howatt, Deborah A.; Balakrishnan, Anju

    2011-01-01

    Chronic infusion of angiotensin II (AngII) augments atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAAs) formation in hypercholesterolemic mice. AngII-induced AAAs are associated with medial macrophage accumulation and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation. Inhibition of calpain, a calcium-activated neutral cysteine protease, by overexpression of its endogenous inhibitor, calpastatin, attenuates AngII-induced leukocyte infiltration, perivascular inflammation, and MMP activation in mice. The purpose of this study was to define whether pharmacological inhibition of calpain influences AngII-induced AAAs in hypercholesterolemic mice. Male LDL receptor −/− mice were fed a fat-enriched diet and administered with either vehicle or a calpain-specific inhibitor, BDA-410 (30 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks. After 1 week of feeding, mice were infused with AngII (1,000 ng/kg/min) for 4 weeks. AngII-infusion profoundly increased aortic calpain protein and activity. BDA-410 administration had no effect on plasma cholesterol concentrations or AngII-increased systolic blood pressure. Calpain inhibition significantly attenuated AngII-induced AAA formation and atherosclerosis development. BDA-410 administration attenuated activation of MMP12, pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, MCP-1) and macrophage infiltration into the aorta. BDA-410 administration significantly attenuated thioglycollate-elicited macrophage accumulation in the peritoneal cavity. We conclude that calpain inhibition using BDA-410 attenuated AngII-induced AAA formation and atherosclerosis development in LDL receptor −/− mice. PMID:21964156

  7. Bilirubin Prevents Atherosclerotic Lesion Formation in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Deficient Mice by Inhibiting Endothelial VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Megan E; Idelman, Gila; Konaniah, Eddy S; Zucker, Stephen D

    2017-04-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies support an inverse association between serum bilirubin levels and the incidence of cardiovascular disease; however, the mechanism(s) by which bilirubin may protect against atherosclerosis is undefined. The goals of the present investigations were to assess the ability of bilirubin to prevent atherosclerotic plaque formation in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient ( Ldlr -/- ) mice and elucidate the molecular processes underlying this effect. Bilirubin, at physiological concentrations (≤20 μmol/L), dose-dependently inhibits THP-1 monocyte migration across tumor necrosis factor α-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers without altering leukocyte binding or cytokine production. A potent antioxidant, bilirubin effectively blocks the generation of cellular reactive oxygen species induced by the cross-linking of endothelial vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) or intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). These findings were validated by treating cells with blocking antibodies or with specific inhibitors of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 signaling. When administered to Ldlr -/- mice on a Western diet, bilirubin (30 mg/kg intraperitoneally) prevents atherosclerotic plaque formation, but does not alter circulating cholesterol or chemokine levels. Aortic roots from bilirubin-treated animals exhibit reduced lipid and collagen deposition, decreased infiltration of monocytes and lymphocytes, fewer smooth muscle cells, and diminished levels of chlorotyrosine and nitrotyrosine, without changes in VCAM-1 or ICAM-1 expression. Bilirubin suppresses atherosclerotic plaque formation in Ldlr -/- mice by disrupting endothelial VCAM-1- and ICAM-1-mediated leukocyte migration through the scavenging of reactive oxygen species signaling intermediaries. These findings suggest a potential mechanism for the apparent cardioprotective effects of bilirubin. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc

  8. Antiobesity effect of polyphenolic compounds from molokheiya (Corchorus olitorius L.) leaves in LDL receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Yamasaki, Masayuki; Katsube, Takuya; Sun, Xufeng; Yamasaki, Yukikazu; Shiwaku, Kuninori

    2011-03-01

    Dietary supplementation with polyphenolic compounds is associated with reduced diet-induced obesity and metabolic disorders in humans. The antioxidative properties of polyphenolic compounds contribute to their antiobesity effect in animal experiments and human studies. The aim of the study was to investigate the antiobesity effect of polyphenolic compounds from molokheiya leaves in LDLR-/- mice fed high-fat diet and to elucidate the mechanism of this effect. Three groups of LDLR-/- mice were fed with a high-fat diet, supplemented with 0% (control), 1 or 3% molokheiya leaf powder (MLP). Gene expression in the liver associated with lipid and glucose metabolism was analyzed, and physical parameters and blood biochemistry were determined. Compared to controls, mice body weight gain (P = 0.003), liver weight (P = 0.001) and liver triglyceride levels (P = 0.005) were significantly lower in the two MLP groups. Epididymal adipose tissue weight (P = 0.003) was reduced in the 3% MLP group. Liver tissue gene expression of gp91phox (NOX2), involved in oxidative stress, was significantly down-regulated (P = 0.005), and PPARα and CPT1A, related to the activation of β-oxidation, were significantly up-regulated (P = 0.025 and 0.006, respectively) in the 3% MLP group compared to the control group. Our results demonstrate an antiobesity effect of polyphenolic compounds from molokheiya leaves and that this effect is associated with reduction in oxidative stress and enhancement of β-oxidation in the liver. Consumption of molokheiya leaves may be beneficial for preventing diet-induced obesity.

  9. Detection of early stage atherosclerotic plaques using PET and CT fusion imaging targeting P-selectin in low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Ikuko, E-mail: nakamuri@riken.jp; Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Saga University, Saga; Hasegawa, Koki

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► P-selectin regulates leukocyte recruitment as an early stage event of atherogenesis. ► We developed an antibody-based molecular imaging probe targeting P-selectin for PET. ► This is the first report on successful PET imaging for delineation of P-selectin. ► P-selectin is a candidate target for atherosclerotic plaque imaging by clinical PET. -- Abstract: Background: Sensitive detection and qualitative analysis of atherosclerotic plaques are in high demand in cardiovascular clinical settings. The leukocyte–endothelial interaction mediated by an adhesion molecule P-selectin participates in arterial wall inflammation and atherosclerosis. Methods and results: A {sup 64}Cu-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid conjugated anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody ({sup 64}Cu-DOTA-anti-P-selectinmore » mAb) probe was prepared by conjugating an anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody with DOTA followed by {sup 64}Cu labeling. Thirty-six hours prior to PET and CT fusion imaging, 3 MBq of {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-anti-P-selectin mAb was intravenously injected into low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient Ldlr-/- mice. After a 180 min PET scan, autoradiography and biodistribution of {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody was examined using excised aortas. In Ldlr-/- mice fed with a high cholesterol diet for promotion of atherosclerotic plaque development, PET and CT fusion imaging revealed selective and prominent accumulation of the probe in the aortic root. Autoradiography of aortas that demonstrated probe uptake into atherosclerotic plaques was confirmed by Oil red O staining for lipid droplets. In Ldlr-/- mice fed with a chow diet to develop mild atherosclerotic plaques, probe accumulation was barely detectable in the aortic root on PET and CT fusion imaging. Probe biodistribution in aortas was 6.6-fold higher in Ldlr-/- mice fed with a high cholesterol diet than in those fed with a normal chow diet. {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-anti-P-selectin m

  10. Attenuation of Folic Acid-Induced Renal Inflammatory Injury in Platelet-Activating Factor Receptor-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Kent; Okamoto, Koji; Negishi, Kousuke; Suzuki, Yoshifumi; Nakao, Akihide; Fujita, Toshiro; Toda, Akiko; Yokomizo, Takehiko; Kita, Yoshihiro; Kihara, Yasuyuki; Ishii, Satoshi; Shimizu, Takao; Noiri, Eisei

    2006-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF), a potent lipid mediator with various biological activities, plays an important role in inflammation by recruiting leukocytes. In this study we used platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR)-deficient mice to elucidate the role of PAF in inflammatory renal injury induced by folic acid administration. PAFR-deficient mice showed significant amelioration of renal dysfunction and pathological findings such as acute tubular damage with neutrophil infiltration, lipid peroxidation observed with antibody to 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (day 2), and interstitial fibrosis with macrophage infiltration associated with expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α in the kidney (day 14). Acute tubular damage was attenuated by neutrophil depletion using a monoclonal antibody (RB6-8C5), demonstrating the contribution of neutrophils to acute phase injury. Macrophage infiltration was also decreased when treatment with a PAF antagonist (WEB2086) was started after acute phase. In vitro chemotaxis assay using a Boyden chamber demonstrated that PAF exhibits a strong chemotactic activity for macrophages. These results indicate that PAF is involved in pathogenesis of folic acid-induced renal injury by activating neutrophils in acute phase and macrophages in chronic interstitial fibrosis. Inhibiting the PAF pathway might be therapeutic to kidney injury from inflammatory cells. PMID:16651609

  11. Proximal tubule-dominant transfer of AT(1a) receptors induces blood pressure responses to intracellular angiotensin II in AT(1a) receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao C; Zhuo, Jia L

    2013-04-15

    The role of intracellular ANG II in proximal tubules of the kidney remains poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that proximal tubule-dominant transfer of AT(1a) receptors in the cortex mediates intracellular ANG II-induced blood pressure responses in AT(1a) receptor-deficient (Agtr1a-/-) mice. A GFP-tagged AT(1a) receptor, AT(1a)R/GFP, and an enhanced cyan fluorescent intracellular ANG II fusion protein, ECFP/ANG II, were expressed in proximal tubules of Agtr1a-/- mouse kidneys via the adenoviral transfer using a sodium and glucose cotransporter 2 promoter. Transfer of AT(1a)R/GFP alone or with ECFP/ANG II induced proximal tubule-dominant expression of AT(1a)R/GFP and/or ECFP/ANG II with a peak response at 2 wk. No significant AT(1a)R/GFP and/or ECFP/ANG II expression was observed in the glomeruli, medulla, or extrarenal tissues. Transfer of AT(1a)R/GFP alone, but not ECFP/ANG II, increased systolic blood pressure by 12 ± 2 mmHg by day 14 (n = 9, P < 0.01). However, cotransfer of AT(1a)R/GFP with ECFP/ANG II increased blood pressure by 18 ± 2 mmHg (n = 12, P < 0.01). Twenty-four hour urinary sodium excretion was decreased by day 7 with proximal tubule-dominant transfer of AT(1a)R/GFP alone (P < 0.01) or with AT(1a)R/GFP and ECFP/ANG II cotransfer (P < 0.01). These responses were associated with twofold increases in phosphorylated ERK1/2, lysate, and membrane NHE-3 proteins in freshly isolated proximal tubules (P < 0.01). By contrast, transfer of control CMV-GFP (a recombinant human adenovirus type 5 expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein under the control of a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter), ECFP/ANG II, or a scrambled control ECFP/ANG IIc alone in proximal tubules had no effect on all indices. These results suggest that AT(1a) receptors and intracellular ANG II in proximal tubules of the kidney play an important physiological role in blood pressure regulation.

  12. Bioluminescent Imaging Reveals Divergent Viral Pathogenesis in Two Strains of Stat1-Deficient Mice, and in αßγ Interferon Receptor-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pasieka, Tracy Jo; Collins, Lynne; O'Connor, Megan A.; Chen, Yufei; Parker, Zachary M.; Berwin, Brent L.; Piwnica-Worms, David R.; Leib, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Pivotal components of the IFN response to virus infection include the IFN receptors (IFNR), and the downstream factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (Stat1). Mice deficient for Stat1 and IFNR (Stat1−/− and IFNαßγR−/− mice) lack responsiveness to IFN and exhibit high sensitivity to various pathogens. Here we examined herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) pathogenesis in Stat1−/− mice and in IFNαßγR−/− mice following corneal infection and bioluminescent imaging. Two divergent and paradoxical patterns of infection were observed. Mice with an N-terminal deletion in Stat1 (129Stat1−/− (N-term)) had transient infection of the liver and spleen, but succumbed to encephalitis by day 10 post-infection. In stark contrast, infection of IFNαßγR−/− mice was rapidly fatal, with associated viremia and fulminant infection of the liver and spleen, with infected infiltrating cells being primarily of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. To resolve the surprising difference between Stat1−/− and IFNαßγR−/− mice, we infected an additional Stat1−/− strain deleted in the DNA-binding domain (129Stat1−/− (DBD)). These 129Stat1−/− (DBD) mice recapitulated the lethal pattern of liver and spleen infection seen following infection of IFNαßγR−/− mice. This lethal pattern was also observed when 129Stat1−/− (N-term) mice were infected and treated with a Type I IFN-blocking antibody, and immune cells derived from 129Stat1−/− (N-term) mice were shown to be responsive to Type I IFN. These data therefore show significant differences in viral pathogenesis between two commonly-used Stat1−/− mouse strains. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that Stat1−/− (N-term) mice have residual Type I IFN receptor-dependent IFN responses. Complete loss of IFN signaling pathways allows viremia and rapid viral spread with a fatal infection of the liver. This study underscores the importance of careful comparisons

  13. Compared with saturated fatty acids, dietary monounsaturated fatty acids and carbohydrates increase atherosclerosis and VLDL cholesterol levels in LDL receptor-deficient, but not apolipoprotein E-deficient, mice

    PubMed Central

    Merkel, Martin; Velez-Carrasco, Wanda; Hudgins, Lisa C.; Breslow, Jan L.

    2001-01-01

    Heart-healthy dietary recommendations include decreasing the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). However, the relative benefit of replacing SFA with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or carbohydrates (CARB) is still being debated. We have used two mouse models of atherosclerosis, low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLRKO) and apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoEKO) mice to measure the effects of four isocaloric diets enriched with either SFA, MUFA, PUFA, or CARB on atherosclerotic lesion area and lipoprotein levels. In LDLRKO mice, compared with the SFA diet, the MUFA and CARB diets significantly increased atherosclerosis in both sexes, but the PUFA diet had no effect. The MUFA and CARB diets also increased very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) in males and VLDL-C levels in females. Analysis of data from LDLRKO mice on all diets showed that atherosclerotic lesion area correlated positively with VLDL-C levels (males: r = 0.47, P < 0.005; females: r = 0.52, P < 0.001). In contrast, in apoEKO mice there were no significant dietary effects on atherosclerosis in either sex. Compared with the SFA diet, the CARB diet significantly decreased VLDL-C in males and the MUFA, PUFA, and CARB diets decreased VLDL-C and the CARB diet decreased LDL-C in females. In summary, in LDLRKO mice the replacement of dietary SFA by either MUFA or CARB causes a proportionate increase in both atherosclerotic lesion area and VLDL-C. There were no significant dietary effects on atherosclerotic lesion area in apoEKO mice. These results are surprising and suggest that, depending on the underlying genotype, dietary MUFA and CARB can actually increase atherosclerosis susceptibility, probably by raising VLDL-C levels through a non-LDL receptor, apoE-dependent pathway. PMID:11606787

  14. Compared with saturated fatty acids, dietary monounsaturated fatty acids and carbohydrates increase atherosclerosis and VLDL cholesterol levels in LDL receptor-deficient, but not apolipoprotein E-deficient, mice.

    PubMed

    Merkel, M; Velez-Carrasco, W; Hudgins, L C; Breslow, J L

    2001-11-06

    Heart-healthy dietary recommendations include decreasing the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). However, the relative benefit of replacing SFA with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or carbohydrates (CARB) is still being debated. We have used two mouse models of atherosclerosis, low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLRKO) and apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoEKO) mice to measure the effects of four isocaloric diets enriched with either SFA, MUFA, PUFA, or CARB on atherosclerotic lesion area and lipoprotein levels. In LDLRKO mice, compared with the SFA diet, the MUFA and CARB diets significantly increased atherosclerosis in both sexes, but the PUFA diet had no effect. The MUFA and CARB diets also increased very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) in males and VLDL-C levels in females. Analysis of data from LDLRKO mice on all diets showed that atherosclerotic lesion area correlated positively with VLDL-C levels (males: r = 0.47, P < 0.005; females: r = 0.52, P < 0.001). In contrast, in apoEKO mice there were no significant dietary effects on atherosclerosis in either sex. Compared with the SFA diet, the CARB diet significantly decreased VLDL-C in males and the MUFA, PUFA, and CARB diets decreased VLDL-C and the CARB diet decreased LDL-C in females. In summary, in LDLRKO mice the replacement of dietary SFA by either MUFA or CARB causes a proportionate increase in both atherosclerotic lesion area and VLDL-C. There were no significant dietary effects on atherosclerotic lesion area in apoEKO mice. These results are surprising and suggest that, depending on the underlying genotype, dietary MUFA and CARB can actually increase atherosclerosis susceptibility, probably by raising VLDL-C levels through a non-LDL receptor, apoE-dependent pathway.

  15. Gender-specific effects of endogenous testosterone: female alpha-estrogen receptor-deficient C57Bl/6J mice develop glomerulosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Elliot, S J; Berho, M; Korach, K; Doublier, S; Lupia, E; Striker, G E; Karl, M

    2007-08-01

    Young female mice on a C57Bl/6J (B6) background are considered glomerulosclerosis (GS)-resistant but aging B6 mice develop mild GS. Estrogen deficiency accelerates while estrogen replacement retards GS in young sclerosis-prone oligosyndactyly mutant mice on an ROP background. To explore the effects of sex hormones on glomerular structure and function in the context of gender and genetic background, we studied mice in which the estrogen-receptor (ER) genes alpha- or -beta were deleted (alpha- or betaER knockout (KO)) and crossed into the B6 background. We also studied ovariectomized (Ovx) B6 mice given testosterone. Male and female betaERKO and male alphaERKO mice had no glomerular dysfunction at 9 months of age; however, alphaERKO female mice displayed albuminuria and GS. Ovx prevented glomerular dysfunction in alphaERKO female mice by eliminating endogenous testosterone production while exogenous testosterone induced GS in Ovx B6 mice. Androgen receptor (AR) expression and function was found in microdissected glomeruli and cultured mesangial cells. Testosterone compared to placebo increased both AR expression and TGF-beta1 mRNA levels in glomeruli isolated from female B6 mice. Estrogen deficiency had no deleterious effects on the glomeruli in B6 mice. Our study shows that genetic traits strongly influence the GS-promoting effects of estrogen deficiency while testosterone induces GS in a gender-specific manner.

  16. Averrhoa carambola free phenolic extract ameliorates nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis by modulating mircoRNA-34a, mircoRNA-33 and AMPK pathways in leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Pang, Daorui; You, Lijun; Zhou, Lin; Li, Tong; Zheng, Bisheng; Liu, Rui Hai

    2017-12-13

    The objective of the present study is to investigate the hepatic steatosis relieving effect of Averrhoa carambola free phenolic extract (ACF) on leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mice and elucidate the modulation hepatic lipogenesis mechanisms. The serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) assays, accompanying hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, were applied to identify the alleviation of liver histopathological changes. Serum and hepatic lipid assays, combined with oil red O staining, were used to investigate the amelioration of lipid accumulation. Further assessments by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot assays were used to elucidate the suppression of the fatty acid and triglyceride (TG) synthesis mechanisms underlying ACF protection. These results indicated that ACF treatment significantly reduced the liver TG of db/db mice (p < 0.05). The mechanisms are partly through phosphorylation of AMPK α and down-regulation of SREBP-1c expression, and further down-regulation of FAS and SCD1 (p < 0.05). In addition, the expression levels of mircoRNA-34a and mircoRNA-33, which modulate this signaling pathway, were significantly down-regulated by ACF treatment (p < 0.05). Collectively, these results revealed that ACF exhibited a potent hepatic steatosis relieving effect partly by inhibiting the signal transduction of hepatic lipogenesis.

  17. Impact of PACAP and PAC1 receptor deficiency on the neurochemical and behavioral effects of acute and chronic restraint stress in male C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Tomris; Jiang, Sunny Zhihong; Eiden, Adrian M; Weihe, Eberhard; Thistlethwaite, Ian; Eiden, Lee E

    2015-01-01

    Acute restraint stress (ARS) for 3 h causes corticosterone (CORT) elevation in venous blood, which is accompanied by Fos up-regulation in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of male C57BL/6 mice. CORT elevation by ARS is attenuated in PACAP-deficient mice, but unaffected in PAC1-deficient mice. Correspondingly, Fos up-regulation by ARS is greatly attenuated in PACAP-deficient mice, but much less so in PAC1-deficient animals. We noted that both PACAP- and PAC1-deficiency greatly attenuate CORT elevation after ARS when CORT measurements are performed on trunk blood following euthanasia by abrupt cervical separation: this latter observation is of critical importance in assessing the role of PACAP neurotransmission in ARS, based on previous reports in which serum CORT was sampled from trunk blood. Seven days of chronic restraint stress (CRS) induces non-habituating CORT elevation, and weight loss consequent to hypophagia, in wild-type male C57BL/6 mice. Both CORT elevation and weight loss following 7-day CRS are severely blunted in PACAP-deficient mice, but only slightly in PAC1-deficient mice. However, longer periods of daily restraint (14-21 days) resulted in sustained weight loss and elevated CORT in wild-type mice, and these effects of long-term chronic stress were attenuated or abolished in both PACAP- and PAC1-deficient mice. We conclude that while a PACAP receptor in addition to PAC1 may mediate some of the PACAP-dependent central effects of ARS and short-term (<7 days) CRS on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the PAC1 receptor plays a prominent role in mediating PACAP-dependent HPA axis activation, and hypophagia, during long-term (>7 days) CRS.

  18. Impact of PACAP and PAC1 Receptor Deficiency on the Neurochemical and Behavioral Effects of Acute and Chronic Restraint Stress in Male C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Tomris; Jiang, Sunny Zhihong; Eiden, Adrian M.; Weihe, Eberhard; Thistlethwaite, Ian; Eiden, Lee E.

    2016-01-01

    Acute restraint stress (ARS) for 3 hours causes CORT elevation in venous blood, which is accompanied by Fos up-regulation in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of male C57BL/6 mice. CORT elevation by ARS is attenuated in PACAP-deficient mice, but unaffected in PAC1-deficient mice. Correspondingly, Fos up-regulation by ARS is greatly attenuated in PACAP-deficient mice, but much less so in PAC1-deficient animals. We noted that both PACAP- and PAC1-deficiency greatly attenuate CORT elevation after ARS when CORT measurements are performed on trunk blood following euthanasia by abrupt cervical separation: this latter observation is of critical importance in assessing the role of PACAP neurotransmission in ARS, based on previous reports in which serum CORT was sampled from trunk blood. Seven days of chronic restraint stress (CRS) induces non-habituating CORT elevation, and weight loss consequent to hypophagia, in wild-type male C57BL/6 mice. Both CORT elevation and weight loss following seven day CRS are severely blunted in PACAP-deficient mice, but only slightly in PAC1 deficient mice. However, longer periods of daily restraint (14–21 days) resulted in sustained weight loss and elevated CORT in wild-type mice, and these effects of long-term chronic stress were attenuated or abolished in both PACAP- and PAC1-deficient mice. We conclude that while a PACAP receptor in addition to PAC1 may mediate some of the PACAP-dependent central effects of acute restraint stress and short-term (<7 days) chronic restraint stress on the HPA axis, the PAC1 receptor plays a prominent role in mediating PACAP-dependent HPA axis activation, and hypophagia, during long-term (>7 days) chronic restraint stress. PMID:25853791

  19. Defects in dendrite and spine maturation and synaptogenesis associated with an anxious-depressive-like phenotype of GABAA receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhen; Sahir, Nadia; Murakami, Shoko; Luellen, Beth A; Earnheart, John C; Lal, Rachnanjali; Kim, Ju Young; Song, Hongjun; Luscher, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Mice that were rendered heterozygous for the γ2 subunit of GABAA receptors (γ2(+/-) mice) have been characterized extensively as a model for major depressive disorder. The phenotype of these mice includes behavior indicative of heightened anxiety, despair, and anhedonia, as well as defects in hippocampus-dependent pattern separation, HPA axis hyperactivity and increased responsiveness to antidepressant drugs. The γ2(+/-) model thereby provides strong support for the GABAergic deficit hypothesis of major depressive disorder. Here we show that γ2(+/-) mice additionally exhibit specific defects in late stage survival of adult-born hippocampal granule cells, including reduced complexity of dendritic arbors and impaired maturation of synaptic spines. Moreover, cortical γ2(+/-) neurons cultured in vitro show marked deficits in GABAergic innervation selectively when grown under competitive conditions that may mimic the environment of adult-born hippocampal granule cells. Finally, brain extracts of γ2(+/-) mice show a numerical but insignificant trend (p = 0.06) for transiently reduced expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) at three weeks of age, which might contribute to the previously reported developmental origin of the behavioral phenotype of γ2(+/-) mice. The data indicate increasing congruence of the GABAergic, glutamatergic, stress-based and neurotrophic deficit hypotheses of major depressive disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Farnesoid X receptor deficiency induces nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-knockout mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kong, Bo; Luyendyk, James P; Tawfik, Ossama; Guo, Grace L

    2009-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) comprises dysregulation of lipid metabolism and inflammation. Identification of the various genetic and environmental susceptibility factors for NASH may provide novel treatments to limit inflammation and fibrosis in patients. This study utilized a mouse model of hypercholesterolemia, low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr(-/-)) mice fed a high-fat diet for 5 months, to test the hypothesis that farnesoid X receptor (FXR) deficiency contributed to NASH development. Either the high-fat diet or FXR deficiency increased serum alanine aminotransferase activity, whereas only FXR deficiency increased bile acid and alkaline phosphatase levels. FXR deficiency and high-fat feeding increased serum cholesterol and triglycerides. Although high fat led to macrosteatosis and hepatocyte ballooning in livers of mice regardless of genotype, no inflammatory infiltrate was observed in the livers of LDLr(-/-) mice. In contrast, in the livers of LDLr(-/-)/FXR(-/-) mice, foci of inflammatory cells were observed occasionally when fed the control diet and were greatly increased when fed the high-fat diet. Consistent with enhanced inflammatory cells, hepatic levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 mRNA were increased by the high-fat diet in LDLr(-/-)/FXR(-/-) mice. In agreement with elevated levels of procollagen 1 alpha 1 and TGF-beta mRNA, type 1 collagen protein levels were increased in livers of LDLr(-/-)/FXR(-/-) mice fed a high-fat diet. In conclusion, FXR deficiency induces pathologic manifestations required for NASH diagnosis in a mouse model of hypercholesterolemia, including macrosteatosis, hepatocyte ballooning, and inflammation, which suggest a combination of FXR deficiency and high-fat diet is a risk factor for NASH development, and activation of FXR may be a therapeutic intervention in the treatment of NASH.

  1. Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang®) reduces plasma and liver cholesterol and leucocyte oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic LDL receptor deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Dorighello, Gabriel G; Inada, Natália M; Paim, Bruno A; Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L; Vercesi, Anibal E; Oliveira, Helena C F

    2018-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are major causes of death worldwide. Beyond the classical cholesterol risk factor, other conditions such as oxidative stress are well documented to promote atherosclerosis. The Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang®) was reported to present antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic properties. Thus, here we evaluate the effects of Vimang treatment on risk factors of the atherosclerosis prone model of familial hypercholesterolemia, the LDL receptor knockout mice. Mice were treated with Vimang during 2 weeks and were fed a cholesterol-enriched diet during the second week. The Vimang treated mice presented significantly reduced levels of plasma (15%) and liver (20%) cholesterol, increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (10%) and decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by spleen mononuclear cells (50%), P < 0.05 for all. In spite of these benefits, the average size of aortic atherosclerotic lesions stablished in this short experimental period did not change significantly in Vimang treated mice. Therefore, in this study we demonstrated that Vimang has protective effects on systemic and tissue-specific risk factors, but it is not sufficient to promote a reduction in the initial steps of atherosclerosis development. In addition, we disclosed a new antioxidant target of Vimang, the spleen mononuclear cells that might be relevant for more advanced stages of atherosclerosis. © 2018 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  2. Anti-miR-33 therapy does not alter the progression of atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Marquart, Tyler J; Wu, Judy; Lusis, Aldons J; Baldán, Ángel

    2013-03-01

    To determine the efficacy of long-term anti-miR-33 therapy on the progression of atherosclerosis in high-fat, high-cholesterol-fed Ldlr(-/-) mice. Ldlr(-/-) mice received saline, or control or anti-miR-33 oligonucleotides once a week for 14 weeks. The treatment was effective, as measured by reduced levels of hepatic miR-33 and increased hepatic expression of miR-33 targets. Analysis of plasma samples revealed an initial elevation in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol after 2 weeks of treatment that was not sustained by the end of the experiment. Additionally, we found a significant increase in circulating triglycerides in anti-miR-33-treated mice, compared with controls. Finally, examination of atheromata revealed no significant changes in the size or composition of lesions between the 3 groups. Prolonged silencing of miR-33 fails to maintain elevated plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and does not prevent the progression of atherosclerosis in Ldlr(-/-) mice.

  3. piRNA-associated proteins and retrotransposons are differentially expressed in murine testis and ovary of aryl hydrocarbon receptor deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Rico-Leo, Eva M.; Moreno-Marín, Nuria; González-Rico, Francisco J.; Barrasa, Eva; Ortega-Ferrusola, Cristina; Martín-Muñoz, Patricia; Sánchez-Guardado, Luis O.; Llano, Elena; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Infante-Campos, Ascensión; Catalina-Fernández, Inmaculada; Hidalgo-Sánchez, Matías; de Rooij, Dirk G.; Pendás, Alberto M.; Peña, Fernando J.; Merino, Jaime M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) contributes to mice reproduction and fertility. However, the mechanisms involved remain mostly unknown. Retrotransposon silencing by Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) is essential for germ cell maturation and, remarkably, AhR has been identified as a regulator of murine B1-SINE retrotransposons. Here, using littermate AhR+/+ and AhR−/− mice, we report that AhR regulates the general course of spermatogenesis and oogenesis by a mechanism likely to be associated with piRNA-associated proteins, piRNAs and retrotransposons. piRNA-associated proteins MVH and Miwi are upregulated in leptotene to pachytene spermatocytes with a more precocious timing in AhR−/− than in AhR+/+ testes. piRNAs and transcripts from B1-SINE, LINE-1 and IAP retrotransposons increased at these meiotic stages in AhR-null testes. Moreover, B1-SINE transcripts colocalize with MVH and Miwi in leptonema and pachynema spermatocytes. Unexpectedly, AhR−/− males have increased sperm counts, higher sperm functionality and enhanced fertility than AhR+/+ mice. In contrast, piRNA-associated proteins and B1-SINE and IAP-derived transcripts are reduced in adult AhR−/− ovaries. Accordingly, AhR-null female mice have lower numbers of follicles when compared with AhR+/+ mice. Thus, AhR deficiency differentially affects testis and ovary development possibly by a process involving piRNA-associated proteins, piRNAs and transposable elements. PMID:28003471

  4. A small animal peripheral challenge model of yellow fever using interferon-receptor deficient mice and the 17D-204 vaccine strain.

    PubMed

    Thibodeaux, Brett A; Garbino, Nina C; Liss, Nathan M; Piper, Joseph; Blair, Carol D; Roehrig, John T

    2012-05-02

    Yellow fever virus (YFV), a member of the genus Flavivirus, is a mosquito-borne pathogen that requires wild-type (wt), virulent strains to be handled at biosafety level (BSL) 3, with HEPA-filtration of room air exhaust (BSL3+). YFV is found in tropical regions of Africa and South America and causes severe hepatic disease and death in humans. Despite the availability of effective vaccines (17D-204 or 17DD), YFV is still responsible for an estimated 200,000 cases of illness and 30,000 deaths annually. Besides vaccination, there are no other prophylactic or therapeutic strategies approved for use in human YF. Current small animal models of YF require either intra-cranial inoculation of YF vaccine to establish infection, or use of wt strains (e.g., Asibi) in order to achieve pathology. We have developed and characterized a BSL2, adult mouse peripheral challenge model for YFV infection in mice lacking receptors for interferons α, β, and γ (strain AG129). Intraperitoneal challenge of AG129 mice with 17D-204 is a uniformly lethal in a dose-dependent manner, and 17D-204-infected AG129 mice exhibit high viral titers in both brain and liver suggesting this infection is both neurotropic and viscerotropic. Furthermore the use of a mouse model permitted the construction of a 59-biomarker multi-analyte profile (MAP) using samples of brain, liver, and serum taken at multiple time points over the course of infection. This MAP serves as a baseline for evaluating novel therapeutics and their effect on disease progression. Changes (4-fold or greater) in serum and tissue levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators as well as other factors associated with tissue damage were noted in AG129 mice infected with 17D-204 as compared to mock-infected control animals. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Antiatherosclerotic Effects of 1-Methylnicotinamide in Apolipoprotein E/Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Deficient Mice: A Comparison with Nicotinic Acid.

    PubMed

    Mateuszuk, Lukasz; Jasztal, Agnieszka; Maslak, Edyta; Gasior-Glogowska, Marlena; Baranska, Malgorzata; Sitek, Barbara; Kostogrys, Renata; Zakrzewska, Agnieszka; Kij, Agnieszka; Walczak, Maria; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    1-Methylnicotinamide (MNA), the major endogenous metabolite of nicotinic acid (NicA), may partially contribute to the vasoprotective properties of NicA. Here we compared the antiatherosclerotic effects of MNA and NicA in apolipoprotein E (ApoE)/low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-deficient mice. ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice were treated with MNA or NicA (100 mg/kg). Plaque size, macrophages, and cholesterol content in the brachiocephalic artery, endothelial function in the aorta, systemic inflammation, platelet activation, as well as the concentration of MNA and its metabolites in plasma and urine were measured. MNA and NicA reduced atherosclerotic plaque area, plaque inflammation, and cholesterol content in the brachiocephalic artery. The antiatherosclerotic actions of MNA and NicA were associated with improved endothelial function, as evidenced by a higher concentration of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 α and nitrite/nitrate in the aortic ring effluent, inhibition of platelets (blunted thromboxane B2 generation), and inhibition of systemic inflammation (lower plasma concentration of serum amyloid P, haptoglobin). NicA treatment resulted in an approximately 2-fold higher concentration of MNA and its metabolites in urine and a 4-fold higher nicotinamide/MNA ratio in plasma, compared with MNA treatment. In summary; MNA displays pronounced antiatherosclerotic action in ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice, an effect associated with an improvement in prostacyclin- and nitric oxide-dependent endothelial function, inhibition of platelet activation, inhibition of inflammatory burden in plaques, and diminished systemic inflammation. Despite substantially higher MNA availability after NicA treatment, compared with an equivalent dose of MNA, the antiatherosclerotic effect of NicA was not stronger. We suggest that detrimental effects of NicA or its metabolites other than MNA may limit beneficial effects of NicA-derived MNA. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental

  6. CRF1 receptor-deficiency increases cocaine reward.

    PubMed

    Contarino, Angelo; Kitchener, Pierre; Vallée, Monique; Papaleo, Francesco; Piazza, Pier-Vincenzo

    2017-05-01

    Stimulant drugs produce reward but also activate stress-responsive systems. The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and the related hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress-responsive systems are activated by stimulant drugs. However, their role in stimulant drug-induced reward remains poorly understood. Herein, we report that CRF 1 receptor-deficient (CRF 1 -/-), but not wild-type, mice show conditioned place preference (CPP) responses to a relatively low cocaine dose (5 mg/kg, i.p.). Conversely, wild-type, but not CRF 1 -/-, mice display CPP responses to a relatively high cocaine dose (20 mg/kg, i.p.), indicating that CRF 1 receptor-deficiency alters the rewarding effects of cocaine. Acute pharmacological antagonism of the CRF 1 receptor by antalarmin also eliminates cocaine reward. Nevertheless, CRF 1 -/- mice display higher stereotypy responses to cocaine than wild-type mice. Despite the very low plasma corticosterone concentration, CRF 1 -/- mice show higher nuclear glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels in the brain region of the hippocampus than wild-type mice. Full rescue of wild-type-like corticosterone and GR circadian rhythm and level in CRF 1 -/- mice by exogenous corticosterone does not affect CRF 1 receptor-dependent cocaine reward but induces stereotypy responses to cocaine. These results indicate a critical role for the CRF 1 receptor in cocaine reward, independently of the closely related HPA axis activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Relative Contribution of Dengue IgG Antibodies Acquired during Gestation or Breastfeeding in Mediating Dengue Disease Enhancement and Protection in Type I Interferon Receptor-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pei Xuan; Ong, Li Ching; Libau, Eshele Anak; Alonso, Sylvie

    2016-06-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) causes a spectrum of diseases ranging from self-limiting dengue fever to severe conditions such as haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is thought to explain the occurrence of severe dengue whereby pre-existing binding but non-neutralising antibodies enhance DENV infection. The ADE phenomenon is supported by epidemiological findings that infants that born to dengue immune mothers are at greater risk to develop severe dengue upon primary infection. The role of maternally acquired dengue-specific antibodies in disease enhancement was recently recapitulated in a mouse model where mice born to DENV1-immune mothers experienced enhanced disease severity upon DENV2 infection. Here, this study investigates the relative contribution of maternal dengue-specific antibodies acquired during gestation and breastfeeding in dengue disease. Using a surrogate breastfeeding mother experimental approach, we showed that majority of the maternal dengue-specific antibodies were acquired during breastfeeding and conferred an extended enhancement window. On the other hand, in the context of homologous infection, breastfeeding conferred protection. Furthermore, measurement of dengue-specific antibody titres over time in mice born to dengue immune mothers revealed a biphasic pattern of antibody decay as reported in humans. Our work provides evidence of the potential contribution of breast milk-acquired dengue-specific IgG antibodies in enhancement and protection against dengue. Should such contribution be established in humans as well, it may have important implications for the development of guidelines to dengue-immune breastfeeding mothers.

  8. Relative Contribution of Dengue IgG Antibodies Acquired during Gestation or Breastfeeding in Mediating Dengue Disease Enhancement and Protection in Type I Interferon Receptor-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Pei Xuan; Ong, Li Ching; Libau, Eshele Anak; Alonso, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) causes a spectrum of diseases ranging from self-limiting dengue fever to severe conditions such as haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is thought to explain the occurrence of severe dengue whereby pre-existing binding but non-neutralising antibodies enhance DENV infection. The ADE phenomenon is supported by epidemiological findings that infants that born to dengue immune mothers are at greater risk to develop severe dengue upon primary infection. The role of maternally acquired dengue-specific antibodies in disease enhancement was recently recapitulated in a mouse model where mice born to DENV1-immune mothers experienced enhanced disease severity upon DENV2 infection. Here, this study investigates the relative contribution of maternal dengue-specific antibodies acquired during gestation and breastfeeding in dengue disease. Using a surrogate breastfeeding mother experimental approach, we showed that majority of the maternal dengue-specific antibodies were acquired during breastfeeding and conferred an extended enhancement window. On the other hand, in the context of homologous infection, breastfeeding conferred protection. Furthermore, measurement of dengue-specific antibody titres over time in mice born to dengue immune mothers revealed a biphasic pattern of antibody decay as reported in humans. Our work provides evidence of the potential contribution of breast milk-acquired dengue-specific IgG antibodies in enhancement and protection against dengue. Should such contribution be established in humans as well, it may have important implications for the development of guidelines to dengue-immune breastfeeding mothers. PMID:27341339

  9. Kinin B1 receptor deficiency leads to leptin hypersensitivity and resistance to obesity.

    PubMed

    Mori, Marcelo A; Araújo, Ronaldo C; Reis, Felipe C G; Sgai, Daniela G; Fonseca, Raphael G; Barros, Carlos C; Merino, Vanessa F; Passadore, Mariana; Barbosa, Ana M; Ferrari, Bernard; Carayon, Pierre; Castro, Charlles H M; Shimuta, Suma I; Luz, Jacqueline; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Schanstra, Joost P; Even, Patrick C; Oliveira, Suzana M; Bader, Michael; Pesquero, João B

    2008-06-01

    Kinins mediate pathophysiological processes related to hypertension, pain, and inflammation through the activation of two G-protein-coupled receptors, named B(1) and B(2). Although these peptides have been related to glucose homeostasis, their effects on energy balance are still unknown. Using genetic and pharmacological strategies to abrogate the kinin B(1) receptor in different animal models of obesity, here we present evidence of a novel role for kinins in the regulation of satiety and adiposity. Kinin B(1) receptor deficiency in mice (B(1)(-/-)) resulted in less fat content, hypoleptinemia, increased leptin sensitivity, and robust protection against high-fat diet-induced weight gain. Under high-fat diet, B(1)(-/-) also exhibited reduced food intake, improved lipid oxidation, and increased energy expenditure. Surprisingly, B(1) receptor deficiency was not able to decrease food intake and adiposity in obese mice lacking leptin (ob/ob-B(1)(-/-)). However, ob/ob-B(1)(-/-) mice were more responsive to the effects of exogenous leptin on body weight and food intake, suggesting that B(1) receptors may be dependent on leptin to display their metabolic roles. Finally, inhibition of weight gain and food intake by B(1) receptor ablation was pharmacologically confirmed by long-term administration of the kinin B(1) receptor antagonist SSR240612 to mice under high-fat diet. Our data suggest that kinin B(1) receptors participate in the regulation of the energy balance via a mechanism that could involve the modulation of leptin sensitivity.

  10. Leptin- and Leptin Receptor-Deficient Rodent Models: Relevance for Human Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bingxuan; P., Charukeshi Chandrasekera; Pippin, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Among the most widely used animal models in obesity-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) research are the congenital leptin- and leptin receptor-deficient rodent models. These include the leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and the leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice, Zucker fatty rats, Zucker diabetic fatty rats, SHR/N-cp rats, and JCR:LA-cp rats. After decades of mechanistic and therapeutic research schemes with these animal models, many species differences have been uncovered, but researchers continue to overlook these differences, leading to untranslatable research. The purpose of this review is to analyze and comprehensively recapitulate the most common leptin/leptin receptor-based animal models with respect to their relevance and translatability to human T2DM. Our analysis revealed that, although these rodents develop obesity due to hyperphagia caused by abnormal leptin/leptin receptor signaling with the subsequent appearance of T2DM-like manifestations, these are in fact secondary to genetic mutations that do not reflect disease etiology in humans, for whom leptin or leptin receptor deficiency is not an important contributor to T2DM. A detailed comparison of the roles of genetic susceptibility, obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and diabetic complications as well as leptin expression, signaling, and other factors that confound translation are presented here. There are substantial differences between these animal models and human T2DM that limit reliable, reproducible, and translatable insight into human T2DM. Therefore, it is imperative that researchers recognize and acknowledge the limitations of the leptin/leptin receptor-based rodent models and invest in research methods that would be directly and reliably applicable to humans in order to advance T2DM management. PMID:24809394

  11. Leptin- and leptin receptor-deficient rodent models: relevance for human type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bingxuan; Chandrasekera, P Charukeshi; Pippin, John J

    2014-03-01

    Among the most widely used animal models in obesity-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) research are the congenital leptin- and leptin receptor-deficient rodent models. These include the leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and the leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice, Zucker fatty rats, Zucker diabetic fatty rats, SHR/N-cp rats, and JCR:LA-cp rats. After decades of mechanistic and therapeutic research schemes with these animal models, many species differences have been uncovered, but researchers continue to overlook these differences, leading to untranslatable research. The purpose of this review is to analyze and comprehensively recapitulate the most common leptin/leptin receptor-based animal models with respect to their relevance and translatability to human T2DM. Our analysis revealed that, although these rodents develop obesity due to hyperphagia caused by abnormal leptin/leptin receptor signaling with the subsequent appearance of T2DM-like manifestations, these are in fact secondary to genetic mutations that do not reflect disease etiology in humans, for whom leptin or leptin receptor deficiency is not an important contributor to T2DM. A detailed comparison of the roles of genetic susceptibility, obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and diabetic complications as well as leptin expression, signaling, and other factors that confound translation are presented here. There are substantial differences between these animal models and human T2DM that limit reliable, reproducible, and translatable insight into human T2DM. Therefore, it is imperative that researchers recognize and acknowledge the limitations of the leptin/leptin receptor- based rodent models and invest in research methods that would be directly and reliably applicable to humans in order to advance T2DM management.

  12. Physiological roles revealed by ghrelin and ghrelin receptor deficient mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ghrelin is a hormone made in the stomach and known primarily for its growth hormone releasing and orexigenic properties. Nevertheless, ghrelin through its receptor, the GHS-R1a, has been shown to exert many roles including regulation of glucose homeostasis, memory & learning, food addiction and neur...

  13. Brain Structure and Function Associated with Younger Adults in Growth Hormone Receptor-Deficient Humans

    PubMed Central

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Braskie, Meredith N.; Velasco, Rico; Balasubramanian, Priya; Wei, Min; Thompson, Paul M.; Nelson, Marvin D.; Guevara, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Growth hormone receptor deficiency (GHRD) results in short stature, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and low circulating levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Previous studies in mice and humans suggested that GHRD has protective effects against age-related diseases, including cancer and diabetes. Whereas GHRD mice show improved age-dependent cognitive performance, the effect of GHRD on human cognition remains unknown. Using MRI, we compared brain structure, function, and connectivity between 13 people with GHRD and 12 unaffected relatives. We assessed differences in white matter microstructural integrity, hippocampal volume, subregional volumes, and cortical thickness and surface area of selected regions. We also evaluated brain activity at rest and during a hippocampal-dependent pattern separation task. The GHRD group had larger surface areas in several frontal and cingulate regions and showed trends toward larger dentate gyrus and CA1 regions of the hippocampus. They had lower mean diffusivity in the genu of the corpus callosum and the anterior thalamic tracts. The GHRD group showed enhanced cognitive performance and greater task-related activation in frontal, parietal, and hippocampal regions compared with controls. Furthermore, they had greater functional synchronicity of activity between the precuneus and the rest of the default mode network at rest. The results suggest that, compared with controls, GHRD subjects have brain structure and function that are more consistent with those observed in younger adults reported in previous studies. Further investigation may lead to improved understanding of underlying mechanisms and could contribute to the identification of treatments for age-related cognitive deficits. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT People and mice with growth hormone receptor deficiency (GHRD or Laron syndrome) are protected against age-related diseases including cancer and diabetes. However, in humans, it is unknown whether cognitive

  14. CRF2 Receptor Deficiency Eliminates the Long-Lasting Vulnerability of Motivational States Induced by Opiate Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Morisot, Nadège; Rouibi, Khalil; Contarino, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Vulnerability to stressful life events is a hallmark of drug dependence that may persist long after cessation of drug intake and dramatically fuel key clinical features, such as deregulated up-shifted motivational states and craving. However, to date, no effective therapy is available for reducing vulnerability to stressful events in former drug users and drug-dependent patients, mostly because of poor knowledge of the mechanisms underlying it. In this study, we report that genetic inactivation of the stress-responsive corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-2 (CRF2−/−) completely eliminates the reemergence of increased nonrewarded nose-pokes, reflecting up-shifted motivational states, triggered by ethological environmental stressors long after cessation of morphine administration in mice. Accordingly, CRF2 receptor deficiency completely abolishes the increase in biomarkers of synthesis of major brain motivational substrates, such as ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) and amygdala γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) systems, associated with the stress-induced reemergence of up-shifted motivational states long after opiate withdrawal. Nevertheless, neither CRF2 receptor deficiency nor long-term opiate withdrawal affects amygdala CRF or hypothalamus CRF expression, indicating preserved brain stress-coping systems. Moreover, CRF2 receptor deficiency does not influence the locomotor or the anxiety-like effect of long-term opiate withdrawal. Thus, the present results reveal an essential and specific role for the CRF2 receptor in the stress-induced reemergence of up-shifted motivational states and related alterations in brain motivational systems long after opiate withdrawal. These findings suggest new strategies for the treatment of the severe and long-lasting vulnerability that inexorably follows drug withdrawal and hinder drug abstinence. PMID:25672976

  15. Facial morphometry of Ecuadorian patients with growth hormone receptor deficiency/Laron syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, G B; Rosenbloom, A L; Guevara-Aguirre, J; Campbell, E A; Ullrich, F; Patil, K; Frias, J L

    1994-01-01

    Facial morphometry using computerised image analysis was performed on patients with growth hormone receptor deficiency (Laron syndrome) from an inbred population of southern Ecuador. Morphometrics were compared for 49 patients, 70 unaffected relatives, and 14 unrelated persons. Patients with growth hormone receptor deficiency showed significant decreases in measures of vertical facial growth as compared to unaffected relatives and unrelated persons with short stature from other causes. This report validates and quantifies the clinical impression of foreshortened facies in growth hormone receptor deficiency. Images PMID:7815422

  16. The role of CCK2 receptors in energy homeostasis: insights from the CCK2 receptor-deficient mouse.

    PubMed

    Weiland, Tracey J; Voudouris, Nicholas J; Kent, Stephen

    2004-09-15

    The present study explored the contribution of type 2 cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors in energy regulation. A total of 78 CCK2 receptor-deficient mice and 80 wild-type controls were acclimated to a 12:12 light-dark cycle at 30 +/- 1 degrees C. Using a computer-monitored biotelemetry system, circadian patterns of body temperature, food intake, and activity were monitored for 4 days. Body weight and water consumption were manually recorded during this period. Results indicate that CCK2 receptor invalidation produces elevated body temperature during both the photophase and scotophase (by 0.38 and 0.12 degrees C, respectively), increased body weight (29.3 +/- 0.2 vs. 26.8 +/- 0.2 g) and water consumption (4.1 +/- 0.1 vs. 3.2 +/- 0.1 ml), and decreased scotophase locomotor activity (WT: 7.0 +/- 0.2 vs. KO: 6.1 +/- 0.2 counts/min). These findings suggest an important role for CCK2 receptors in processes underlying energy regulation during basal and possibly pathological states.

  17. Curcumin modulation of high fat diet-induced atherosclerosis and steatohepatosis in LDL receptor deficient mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consuming curcumin may benefit health by modulating lipid metabolism and suppressing atherogenesis. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABP-4/aP2) and CD36 expression are key factors in lipid accumulation in macrophages and foam cell formation in atherogenesis. Our earlier observations suggest that curcum...

  18. Aggravated brain damage after hypoxic ischemia in immature adenosine A2A knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Adén, Ulrika; Halldner, Linda; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Dalmau, Ishar; Ledent, Catherine; Fredholm, Bertil B

    2003-03-01

    Cerebral hypoxic ischemia (HI) is an important cause of brain injury in the newborn infant. Adenosine is believed to protect against HI brain damage. However, the roles of the different adenosine receptors are unclear, particularly in young animals. We examined the role of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) using 7-day-old A2A knockout (A2AR(-/-)) mice in a model of HI. HI was induced in 7-day-old CD1 mice by exposure to 8% oxygen for 30 minutes after occlusion of the left common carotid artery. The resulting unilateral focal lesion was evaluated with the use of histopathological scoring and measurements of residual brain areas at 5 days, 3 weeks, and 3 months after HI. Behavioral evaluation of brain injury by locomotor activity, rotarod, and beam-walking test was made 3 weeks and 3 months after HI. Cortical cerebral blood flow, assessed by laser-Doppler flowmetry, and rectal temperature were measured during HI. Reduction in cortical cerebral blood flow during HI and rectal temperature did not differ between wild-type (A2AR(+/+)) and knockout mice. In the A2AR(-/-) animals, brain injury was aggravated compared with wild-type mice. The A2AR(-/-) mice subjected to HI displayed increased forward locomotion and impaired rotarod performance in adulthood compared with A2AR(+/+) mice subjected to HI, whereas beam-walking performance was similarly defective in both groups. These results suggest that, in contrast to the situation in adult animals, A2AR play an important protective role in neonatal HI brain injury.

  19. EphA2 knockdown attenuates atherosclerotic lesion development in ApoE(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong; Li, Xinyun; Zhang, Xiaoli; Liu, Yan; Huang, Shanying; Wang, Xiaowei

    2014-01-01

    The inflammatory response of vascular endothelial cells plays important roles in the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic lesions. EphA2 receptor activation promotes the endothelial cell inflammatory response, and its expression is increased in the endothelial cell layer of atherosclerotic plaques. However, the association between EphA2 and atherosclerosis has not been determined. Eight-week-old male ApoE(-/-) mice were systemically infected with adenoassociated virus serotype 9 carrying a small hairpin RNA specifically targeting the EphA2 gene to knock down EphA2 expression in aortic endothelial cells. These mice were then fed a high-cholesterol diet for 12 weeks. Blood was collected for the measurement of plasma lipids. The aortas were harvested to evaluate the atherosclerotic lesion size, macrophage components, and expression of proinflammatory genes using Oil Red O staining, immunofluorescence staining, and molecular biology analysis. The lesions formed in the entire aorta and aortic sinus of the ApoE(-/-) mice with EphA2 knockdown were significantly smaller than those in the control mice (10.7%±3.1% versus 25.1%±4.2%; 0.51±0.02mm(2) versus 0.85±0.03mm(2); n=10; P<.05). Furthermore, the lesions in the ApoE(-/-) mice with EphA2 knockdown displayed reduced inflammation compared with the control mice, as reflected by the decreased macrophage infiltration (8.2%±2.9% versus 22.7%±4%; n=10; P<.05); decreased nuclear factor-κβ activation; and diminished expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, E-selectin, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (all P<.05). Our data demonstrate that the EphA2 receptor silencing attenuates the extent and inflammation of atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE(-/-) mice. Thus, EphA2 knockdown in endothelial cells represents a novel therapeutic strategy for patients with atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic Ablation of Calcium-independent Phospholipase A2γ Induces Glomerular Injury in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Elimam, Hanan; Papillon, Joan; Kaufman, Daniel R.; Guillemette, Julie; Aoudjit, Lamine; Gross, Richard W.; Takano, Tomoko; Cybulsky, Andrey V.

    2016-01-01

    Glomerular visceral epithelial cells (podocytes) play a critical role in the maintenance of glomerular permselectivity. Podocyte injury, manifesting as proteinuria, is the cause of many glomerular diseases. We reported previously that calcium-independent phospholipase A2γ (iPLA2γ) is cytoprotective against complement-mediated glomerular epithelial cell injury. Studies in iPLA2γ KO mice have demonstrated an important role for iPLA2γ in mitochondrial lipid turnover, membrane structure, and metabolism. The aim of the present study was to employ iPLA2γ KO mice to better understand the role of iPLA2γ in normal glomerular and podocyte function as well as in glomerular injury. We show that deletion of iPLA2γ did not cause detectable albuminuria; however, it resulted in mitochondrial structural abnormalities and enhanced autophagy in podocytes as well as loss of podocytes in aging KO mice. Moreover, after induction of anti-glomerular basement membrane nephritis in young mice, iPLA2γ KO mice exhibited significantly increased levels of albuminuria, podocyte injury, and loss of podocytes compared with wild type. Thus, iPLA2γ has a protective functional role in the normal glomerulus and in glomerulonephritis. Understanding the role of iPLA2γ in glomerular pathophysiology provides opportunities for the development of novel therapeutic approaches to glomerular injury and proteinuria. PMID:27226532

  1. Group III secreted phospholipase A2 regulates epididymal sperm maturation and fertility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Hiroyasu; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Isogai, Yuki; Miki, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Kei; Masuda, Seiko; Hosono, Tomohiko; Arata, Satoru; Ishikawa, Yukio; Ishii, Toshiharu; Kobayashi, Tetsuyuki; Nakanishi, Hiroki; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Taguchi, Ryo; Hara, Shuntaro; Kudo, Ichiro; Murakami, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    Although lipid metabolism is thought to be important for the proper maturation and function of spermatozoa, the molecular mechanisms that underlie this dynamic process in the gonads remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that group III phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-III), a member of the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) family, is expressed in the mouse proximal epididymal epithelium and that targeted disruption of the gene encoding this protein (Pla2g3) leads to defects in sperm maturation and fertility. Although testicular spermatogenesis in Pla2g3–/– mice was grossly normal, spermatozoa isolated from the cauda epididymidis displayed hypomotility, and their ability to fertilize intact eggs was markedly impaired. Transmission EM further revealed that epididymal spermatozoa in Pla2g3–/– mice had both flagella with abnormal axonemes and aberrant acrosomal structures. During epididymal transit, phosphatidylcholine in the membrane of Pla2g3+/+ sperm underwent a dramatic shift in its acyl groups from oleic, linoleic, and arachidonic acids to docosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, whereas this membrane lipid remodeling event was compromised in sperm from Pla2g3–/– mice. Moreover, the gonads of Pla2g3–/– mice contained less 12/15-lipoxygenase metabolites than did those of Pla2g3+/+ mice. Together, our results reveal a role for the atypical sPLA2 family member sPLA2-III in epididymal lipid homeostasis and indicate that its perturbation may lead to sperm dysfunction. PMID:20424323

  2. Growth hormone receptor deficiency in Ecuador: clinical and biochemical phenotype in two populations.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Aguirre, J; Rosenbloom, A L; Fielder, P J; Diamond, F B; Rosenfeld, R G

    1993-02-01

    We have identified 56 patients with GH receptor deficiency (Laron syndrome) from two provinces in southern Ecuador, one group of 26 (Loja province) with a 4:1 female predominance and 30 patients from neighboring El Oro province with a normal sex ratio. There were no significant differences between the Loja and El Oro populations in stature (-5.3 to -11.5 standard deviation score), other auxologic measures, or in biochemical measures. GH binding protein, the circulating extracellular domain of the GH receptor, was measured by ligand immunofunction assay and found to be comparably low in children and adults. Levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and -II and the GH-dependent IGF binding protein-3 (measured by RIA) were significantly greater, and GH and IGF binding protein-2 levels significantly lower in adults than children. Levels of IGF-I (adults) and IGF binding protein-3 (children and adults) correlated inversely with statural deviation from normal (P < 0.01). School performance was at an exceptionally high level, 41 out of 47 who had attended school being in the top 3 in classes of 15-50 persons.

  3. Pharmacological endothelin receptor interaction does not occur in veins from ET(B) receptor deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Thakali, Keshari; Galligan, James J; Fink, Gregory D; Gariepy, Cheryl E; Watts, Stephanie W

    2008-07-01

    Heterodimerization of G-protein coupled receptors can alter receptor pharmacology. ET A and ET B receptors heterodimerize when co-expressed in heterologous expression lines. We hypothesized that ET A and ET B receptors heterodimerize and pharmacologically interact in vena cava from wild-type (WT) but not ET B receptor deficient (sl/sl) rats. Pharmacological endothelin receptor interaction was assessed by comparing ET-1-induced contraction in rings of rat thoracic aorta and thoracic vena cava from male Sprague Dawley rats under control conditions, ET A receptor blockade (atrasentan, 10 nM), ET B receptor blockade (BQ-788, 100 nM) or ET B receptor desensitization (Sarafotoxin 6c, 100 nM) and ET A plus ET B receptor blockade or ET A receptor blockade plus ET B receptor desensitization. In addition, similar pharmacological ET receptor antagonism experiments were performed in rat thoracic aorta and vena cava from WT and sl/sl rats. ET A but not ET B receptor blockade or ET B receptor desensitization inhibited aortic and venous ET-1-induced contraction. In vena cava but not aorta, when ET B receptors were blocked (BQ-788, 100 nM) or desensitized (S6c, 100 nM), atrasentan caused a greater inhibition of ET-1-induced contraction. Vena cava from WT but not sl/sl rats exhibited similar pharmacological ET receptor interaction. Immunocytochemistry was performed on freshly dissociated aortic and venous vascular smooth muscle cells to determine localization of ET A and ET B receptors. ET A and ET B receptors qualitatively co-localized more strongly to the plasma membrane of aortic compared to venous vascular smooth muscle cells. Our data suggest that pharmacological ET A and ET B receptor interaction may be dependent on the presence of functional ET B receptors and independent of receptor location.

  4. Secretoglobin Superfamily Protein SCGB3A2 Alleviates House Dust Mite-Induced Allergic Airway Inflammation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Mitsuhiro; Xu, Lei; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Kawabe, Shuko; Paiz, Jorge; Ward, Jerrold M; Kimura, Shioko

    2016-01-01

    Secretoglobin (SCGB) 3A2, a novel, lung-enriched, cytokine-like, secreted protein of small molecular weight, was demonstrated to exhibit various biological functions including anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic and growth-factor activities. Anti-inflammatory activity was uncovered using the ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation model. However, further validation of this activity using knockout mice in a different allergic inflammation model is necessary in order to establish the antiallergic inflammatory role for this protein. Scgb3a2-null (Scgb3a2-/-) mice were subjected to nasal inhalation of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus extract for 5 days/week for 5 consecutive weeks; control mice received nasal inhalation of saline as a comparator. Airway inflammation was assessed by histological analysis, the number of inflammatory cells and various Th2-type cytokine levels in the lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids by qRT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Exacerbated inflammation was found in the airway of Scgb3a2-/- mice subjected to house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic airway inflammation compared with saline-treated control groups. All the inflammation end points were increased in the Scgb3a2-/- mice. The Ccr4 and Ccl17 mRNA levels were higher in HDM-treated lungs of Scgb3a2-/- mice than wild-type mice or saline-treated Scgb3a2-/- mice, whereas no changes were observed for Ccr3 and Ccl11 mRNA levels. These results demonstrate that SCGB3A2 has an anti-inflammatory activity in the HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation model, in which SCGB3A2 may modulate the CCR4-CCL17 pathway. SCGB3A2 may provide a useful tool to treat allergic airway inflammation, and further studies on the levels and function of SCGB3A2 in asthmatic patients are warranted. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. 2,3,7, 8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD)-MEDIATED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN FEMALE CYP1A-2 KNOCKOUT (CYP1A2-/-) MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-Mediated Oxidative Stress in Female CYP1A2 Knockout (CYP1A2-/-) Mice

    Deborah Burgin1, Janet Diliberto2, Linda Birnbaum2
    1UNC Toxicology; 2USEPA/ORD/NHEERL, RTP, NC

    Most of the effects due to TCDD exposure are mediated via...

  6. Sigma-1 receptor deficiency reduces MPTP-induced parkinsonism and death of dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hong, J; Sha, S; Zhou, L; Wang, C; Yin, J; Chen, L

    2015-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptor (σ1R) has been reported to be decreased in nigrostriatal motor system of Parkinson's disease patients. Using heterozygous and homozygous σ1R knockout (σ1R+/− and σ1R−/−) mice, we investigated the influence of σ1R deficiency on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-impaired nigrostriatal motor system. The injection of MPTP for 5 weeks in wild-type mice (MPTP-WT mice), but not in σ1R+/− or σ1R−/− mice (MPTP-σ1R+/− or MPTP-σ1R−/− mice), caused motor deficits and ~40% death of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta with an elevation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) NR2B phosphorylation. The σ1R antagonist NE100 or the NR2B inhibitor Ro25-6981 could alleviate the motor deficits and the death of dopaminergic neurons in MPTP-WT mice. By contrast, MPTP-σ1R+/− mice treated with the σ1R agonist PRE084 or MPTP-σ1R−/− mice treated with the NMDAr agonist NMDA appeared to have similar motor deficits and loss of dopaminergic neurons as MPTP-WT mice. The pharmacological or genetic inactivation of σ1R suppressed the expression of dopamine transporter (DAT) in substantia nigra, which was corrected by NMDA. The activation of σ1R by PRE084 enhanced the DAT expression in WT mice or σ1R+/− mice. By contrast, the level of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in σ1R+/− mice or σ1R−/− mice had no difference from WT mice. Interestingly, MPTP-WT mice showed the reduction in the levels of DAT and VMAT2, but MPTP-σ1R−/− mice did not. The inactivation of σ1R by NE100 could prevent the reduction of VMAT2 in MPTP-WT mice. In addition, the activation of microglia cells in substantia nigra was equally enhanced in MPTP-WT mice and MPTP-σ1R−/− mice. The number of activated astrocytes in MPTP-σ1R−/− mice was less than that in MPTP-WT mice. The findings indicate that the σ1R deficiency through suppressing NMDAr function and DAT expression can reduce MPTP-induced death of

  7. Adenosine A(2A) receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Pagnussat, N; Almeida, A S; Marques, D M; Nunes, F; Chenet, G C; Botton, P H S; Mioranzza, S; Loss, C M; Cunha, R A; Porciúncula, L O

    2015-08-01

    Caffeine (a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist) prevents memory deficits in aging and Alzheimer's disease, an effect mimicked by adenosine A2 A receptor, but not A1 receptor, antagonists. Hence, we investigated the effects of adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists on memory performance and scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. We determined whether A2 A receptors are necessary for the emergence of memory impairments induced by scopolamine and whether A2 A receptor activation triggers memory deficits in naïve mice, using three tests to assess short-term memory, namely the object recognition task, inhibitory avoidance and modified Y-maze. Scopolamine (1.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.) impaired short-term memory performance in all three tests and this scopolamine-induced amnesia was prevented by the A2 A receptor antagonist (SCH 58261, 0.1-1.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.) and by the A1 receptor antagonist (DPCPX, 0.2-5.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.), except in the modified Y-maze where only SCH58261 was effective. Both antagonists were devoid of effects on memory or locomotion in naïve rats. Notably, the activation of A2 A receptors with CGS 21680 (0.1-0.5 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.) before the training session was sufficient to trigger memory impairment in the three tests in naïve mice, and this effect was prevented by SCH 58261 (1.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.). Furthermore, i.c.v. administration of CGS 21680 (50 nmol) also impaired recognition memory in the object recognition task. These results show that A2 A receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment and further suggest that A1 receptors might also be selectively engaged to control the cholinergic-driven memory impairment. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. GH Receptor Deficiency in Ecuadorian Adults Is Associated With Obesity and Enhanced Insulin Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbloom, Arlan L.; Balasubramanian, Priya; Teran, Enrique; Guevara-Aguirre, Marco; Guevara, Carolina; Procel, Patricio; Alfaras, Irene; De Cabo, Rafael; Di Biase, Stefano; Narvaez, Luis; Saavedra, Jannette

    2015-01-01

    Context: Ecuadorian subjects with GH receptor deficiency (GHRD) have not developed diabetes, despite obesity. Objective: We sought to determine the metabolic associations for this phenomenon. Design: Four studies were carried out: 1) glucose, lipid, adipocytokine concentrations; 2) metabolomics evaluation; 3) metabolic responses to a high-calorie meal; and 4) oral glucose tolerance tests. Setting: Clinical Research Institute in Quito, Ecuador. Subjects: Adults homozygous for the E180 splice mutation of the GH receptor (GHRD) were matched for age, gender, and body mass index with unaffected control relatives (C) as follows: study 1, 27 GHRD and 35 C; study 2, 10 GHRD and 10 C; study 3, seven GHRD and 11 C; and study 4, seven GHRD and seven C. Results: Although GHRD subjects had greater mean percentage body fat than controls, their fasting insulin, 2-hour blood glucose, and triglyceride levels were lower. The indicator of insulin sensitivity, homeostasis model of assessment 2%S, was greater (P < .0001), and the indicator of insulin resistance, homeostasis model of assessment 2-IR, was lower (P = .0025). Metabolomic differences between GHRD and control subjects were consistent with their differing insulin sensitivity, including postprandial decreases of branched-chain amino acids that were more pronounced in controls. High molecular weight and total adiponectin concentrations were greater in GHRD (P = .0004 and P = .0128, respectively), and leptin levels were lower (P = .02). Although approximately 65% the weight of controls, GHRD subjects consumed an identical high-calorie meal; nonetheless, their mean glucose concentrations were lower, with mean insulin levels one-third those of controls. Results of the 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test were similar. Main Outcome Measures: Measures of insulin sensitivity, adipocytokines, and energy metabolites. Conclusions: Without GH counter-regulation, GHRD is associated with insulin efficiency and obesity. Lower leptin levels

  9. Genetic Deletion of the Adenosine A2A Receptor Confers Postnatal Development of Relative Myopia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiangtian; Huang, Qinzhu; An, Jianhong; Lu, Runxia; Qin, Xiaoyi; Jiang, Liqin; Li, Yuan; Wang, Jianhua; Chen, Jiangfan; Qu, Jia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To critically evaluate whether the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) plays a role in postnatal refractive development in mice. Methods. Custom-built biometric systems specifically designed for mice were used to assess the development of relative myopia by examining refraction and biometrics in A2AR knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) littermates between postnatal days (P)28 and P56. Ocular dimensions were measured by customized optical coherence tomography (OCT), refractive state by eccentric infrared photorefraction (EIR), and corneal radius of curvature by modified keratometry. Scleral collagen diameter and density were examined by electron microscopy on P35. The effect of A2AR activation on collagen mRNA expression and on soluble collagen production was examined in cultured human scleral fibroblasts by real-time RT-PCR and a collagen assay kit. Results. Compared with WT littermates, the A2AR KO mice displayed relative myopia (average difference, 5.1 D between P28 and P35) and associated increases in VC depth and axial length from P28 to P56. Furthermore, the myopic shift in A2AR KO mice was associated with ultrastructural changes in the sclera: Electron microscopy revealed denser collagen fibrils with reduced diameter in A2AR KO compared with WT. Last, A2AR activation induced expression of mRNAs for collagens I, III, and V and increased production of soluble collagen in cultured human scleral fibroblasts. Conclusions. Genetic deletion of the A2AR promotes development of relative myopia with increased axial length and altered scleral collagen fiber structure during postnatal development in mice. Thus, the A2AR may be important in normal refractive development. PMID:20484596

  10. Adenosine A2A receptor deletion affects social behaviors and anxiety in mice: Involvement of anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala.

    PubMed

    López-Cruz, Laura; Carbó-Gas, Maria; Pardo, Marta; Bayarri, Pilar; Valverde, Olga; Ledent, Catherine; Salamone, John D; Correa, Mercè

    2017-03-15

    Blockade of adenosine A 2A receptors can potentiate motivation to work for natural reinforcers such as food. Conspecific interaction is a potent natural reinforcer in social animals that can be manifested as preference for social exploration versus other sources of novel stimulation. Deficiencies in this type of motivated behavior (social withdrawal) have been seen in several pathologies such as autism and depression. However, the role of A 2A receptors in motivation for social interaction has not been widely explored. Social interaction paradigms evaluate the natural preference of animals for exploring other conspecifics, and the ability to differentiate between familiar versus novel ones. Anxiety is one of the factors that can induce avoidance of social interaction. In the present study, adenosine A 2A knockout (A 2A KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were assessed for social and anxiety-related behaviors. c-Fos immunoreactivity was evaluated as a measure of neuronal activation in brain areas involved in different aspects of motivation and emotional processes. Although A 2A KO mice showed an anxious profile, they displayed higher levels of sociability and were less sensitive to social novelty. WT mice displayed a typical pattern of social recognition 24h later, but not A 2A KO mice, which explored equally both conspecifics. There were no differences between strains in aggressiveness, perseverance or social odor preferences. c-Fos immunoreactivity in A 2A KO mice was higher in anterior cingulate and amygdala compared to WT mice. Thus, A 2A receptors appear to be potential targets for the improvement of pathologies related to social function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibition of lysophosphatidic acid receptors 1 and 3 attenuates atherosclerosis development in LDL-receptor deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Kritikou, Eva; van Puijvelde, Gijs H M; van der Heijden, Thomas; van Santbrink, Peter J; Swart, Maarten; Schaftenaar, Frank H; Kröner, Mara J; Kuiper, Johan; Bot, Ilze

    2016-11-24

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a natural lysophospholipid present at high concentrations within lipid-rich atherosclerotic plaques. Upon local accumulation in the damaged vessels, LPA can act as a potent activator for various types of immune cells through its specific membrane receptors LPA 1/3. LPA elicits chemotactic, pro-inflammatory and apoptotic effects that lead to atherosclerotic plaque progression. In this study we aimed to inhibit LPA signaling by means of LPA 1/3 antagonism using the small molecule Ki16425. We show that LPA 1/3 inhibition significantly impaired atherosclerosis progression. Treatment with Ki16425 also resulted in reduced CCL2 production and secretion, which led to less monocyte and neutrophil infiltration. Furthermore, we provide evidence that LPA 1/3 blockade enhanced the percentage of non-inflammatory, Ly6C low monocytes and CD4 + CD25 + FoxP3 + T-regulatory cells. Finally, we demonstrate that LPA 1/3 antagonism mildly reduced plasma LDL cholesterol levels. Therefore, pharmacological inhibition of LPA 1/3 receptors may prove a promising approach to diminish atherosclerosis development.

  12. Leptin receptor deficiency confers resistance to behavioral effects of fluoxetine and desipramine via separable substrates.

    PubMed

    Guo, M; Lu, X-Y

    2014-12-02

    Depression is a complex, heterogeneous mental disorder. Currently available antidepressants are only effective in about one-third to one-half of all patients. The mechanisms underlying antidepressant response and treatment resistance are poorly understood. Recent clinical evidence implicates the involvement of leptin in treatment response to antidepressants. In this study, we determined the functional role of the leptin receptor (LepRb) in behavioral responses to the selective serotonergic antidepressant fluoxetine and the noradrenergic antidepressant desipramine. While acute and chronic treatment with fluoxetine or desipramine in wild-type mice elicited antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim test, mice null for LepRb (db/db) displayed resistance to treatment with either fluoxetine or desipramine. Fluoxetine stimulated phosphorylation of Akt(Thr308) and GSK-3β(Ser9) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of wild-type mice but not in db/db mice. Desipramine failed to induce measurable changes in Akt, GSK-3β or ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the hippocampus and PFC, as well as hypothalamus of either genotype of mice. Deletion of LepRb specifically from hippocampal and cortical neurons resulted in fluoxetine insensitivity in the forced swim test and tail suspension test while leaving the response to desipramine intact. These results suggest that functional LepRb is critically involved in regulating the antidepressant-like behavioral effects of both fluoxetine and desipramine. The antidepressant effects of fluoxetine but not desipramine are dependent on the presence of functional LepRb in the hippocampus and cortex.

  13. Role of A1 and A2A adenosine receptor agonists in adipose tissue inflammation induced by obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    DeOliveira, Caroline Candida; Paiva Caria, Cintia Rabelo E; Ferreira Gotardo, Erica Martins; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; Gambero, Alessandra

    2017-03-15

    Adenosine receptors are expressed in adipose tissue and control physiological and pathological events such as lipolysis and inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of N 6 -cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), a potent and selective A 1 adenosine receptor agonist; 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxyamidoadenosine hydrochloride (CGS-21680), an A 2A adenosine receptor agonist; and 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), a potent non-selective adenosine receptor agonist on adipose tissue inflammatory alterations induced by obesity in mice. Swiss mice were fed with a high-fat diet for 12 weeks and agonists were administered in the last two weeks. Body weight, adiposity and glucose homeostasis were evaluated. Inflammation in adipose tissue was assessed by evaluation of adipokine production and macrophage infiltration. Adenosine receptor signaling in adipose tissue was also evaluated. Mice that received CGS21680 presented an improvement in glucose homeostasis in association with systemically reduced inflammatory markers (TNF-α, PAI-1) and in the visceral adipose tissue (TNF-α, MCP-1, macrophage infiltration). Activation of p38 signaling was found in adipose tissue of this group of mice. NECA-treated mice presented some improvements in glucose homeostasis associated with an observed weight loss. Mice that received CPA presented only a reduction in the ex vivo basal lipolysis rate measured within visceral adipose tissue. In conclusion, administration of the A 2A receptor agonist to obese mice resulted in improvements in glucose homeostasis and adipose tissue inflammation, corroborating the idea that new therapeutics to treat obesity could emerge from these compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. β1-Adrenergic receptor deficiency in ghrelin-expressing cells causes hypoglycemia in susceptible individuals

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Bharath K.; Osborne-Lawrence, Sherri; Vijayaraghavan, Prasanna; Hepler, Chelsea; Zigman, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic gastric peptide hormone secreted when caloric intake is limited. Ghrelin also regulates blood glucose, as emphasized by the hypoglycemia that is induced by caloric restriction in mouse models of deficient ghrelin signaling. Here, we hypothesized that activation of β1-adrenergic receptors (β1ARs) localized to ghrelin cells is required for caloric restriction–associated ghrelin release and the ensuing protective glucoregulatory response. In mice lacking the β1AR specifically in ghrelin-expressing cells, ghrelin secretion was markedly blunted, resulting in profound hypoglycemia and prevalent mortality upon severe caloric restriction. Replacement of ghrelin blocked the effects of caloric restriction in β1AR-deficient mice. We also determined that treating calorically restricted juvenile WT mice with beta blockers led to reduced plasma ghrelin and hypoglycemia, the latter of which is similar to the life-threatening, fasting-induced hypoglycemia observed in infants treated with beta blockers. These findings highlight the critical functions of ghrelin in preventing hypoglycemia and promoting survival during severe caloric restriction and the requirement for ghrelin cell–expressed β1ARs in these processes. Moreover, these results indicate a potential role for ghrelin in mediating beta blocker–associated hypoglycemia in susceptible individuals, such as young children. PMID:27548523

  15. Adenosine A2A Receptor Blockade or Deletion Diminishes Fibrocyte Accumulation in the Skin in a Murine Model of Scleroderma, Bleomycin-induced Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Katebi, Majid; Fernandez, Patricia; Chan, Edwin S. L.; Cronstein, Bruce N.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral blood fibrocytes are a newly identified circulating leukocyte subpopulation that migrates into injured tissue where it may display fibroblast-like properties and participate in wound healing and fibrosis of skin and other organs. Previous studies in our lab demonstrated that A2A receptor-deficient and A2A antagonist-treated mice were protected from developing bleomycin-induced dermal fibrosis, thus the aim of this study was to determine whether the adenosine A2A receptor regulates recruitment of fibrocytes to the dermis in this bleomycin-induced model of dermal fibrosis. Sections of skin from normal mice and bleomycin-treated wild type, A2A knockout and A2A antagonist-treated mice were stained for Procollagen α2 Type I and CD34 and the double stained cells, fibrocytes, were counted in the tissue sections. There were more fibrocytes in the dermis of bleomycin-treated mice than normal mice and the increase was abrogated by deletion or blockade of adenosine A2A receptors. Because fibrocytes play a central role in tissue fibrosis these results suggest that diminished adenosine A2A receptor-mediated recruitment of fibrocytes into tissue may play a role in the pathogenesis of fibrosing diseases of the skin. Moreover, these results provide further evidence that adenosine A2A receptors may represent a new target for the treatment of such fibrosing diseases as scleroderma or nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy. PMID:18709547

  16. Suppression of Hepatic Cyp1a2 by Total Ginsenosides in Lipopolysaccharide-Treated Mice and Primary Mouse Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haiyan; Yan, Yijing; Xu, Chenshu; Wan, Hongxia; Liu, Dong

    2016-03-23

    The roots of Panax ginseng (ginseng) have been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine. However, herb-drug interactions between ginseng and other co-administered drugs are not fully understood concerning the effect of ginseng on drug metabolism and clearance. The current study aimed to elucidate the effect of total ginsenosides, a typical ginseng extract, on the regulation of Cyp1a2, a key enzyme to regulate drug metabolism under the normal and inflammatory conditions in mice. Female C57BL/6J mice treated with vehicle and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were intragastrically administered ginseng extract for 7 days before hepatic P450 expression was analyzed. Primary mouse hepatocytes were also employed to further explore the effects of total ginsenosides on Cyp1a2 expression. The results showed that total ginsenosides in P. ginseng extract exhibited a concentration-dependent suppression on Cyp1a2 mRNA and protein level in both mice and primary mouse hepatocytes. Notably, the inhibitory effects of total ginsenosides on Cyp1a2 mRNA and protein expression were further enhanced following LPS treatment. Therefore, future research is warranted to investigate the role of ginsenosides in the regulation of hepatic CYP450s. Moreover, consumption of ginseng as food or supplement should be monitored for patients on combinational therapy, especially those with inflammatory diseases.

  17. Physiological roles of A1 and A2A adenosine receptors in regulating heart rate, body temperature, and locomotion as revealed using knockout mice and caffeine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiang-Ning; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Fredholm, Bertil B.

    2009-01-01

    Heart rate (HR), body temperature (Temp), locomotor activity (LA), and oxygen consumption (O2C) were studied in awake mice lacking one or both of the adenosine A1 or A2A receptors (A1R or A2AR, respectively) using telemetry and respirometry, before and after caffeine administration. All parameters were lower during day than night and higher in females than males. When compared with wild-type (WT) littermates, HR was higher in male A1R knockout (A1RKO) mice but lower in A2ARKO mice and intermediate in A1-A2AR double KO mice. A single dose of an unselective β-blocker (timolol; 1 mg/kg) abolished the HR differences between these genotypes. Deletion of A1Rs had little effect on Temp, whereas deletion of A2ARs increased it in females and decreased it in males. A1-A2ARKO mice had lower Temp than WT mice. LA was unaltered in A1RKO mice and lower in A2ARKO and A1-A2ARKO mice than in WT mice. Caffeine injection increased LA but only in mice expressing A2AR. Caffeine ingestion also increased LA in an A2AR-dependent manner in male mice. Caffeine ingestion significantly increased O2C in WT mice, but less in the different KO mice. Injection of 30 mg/kg caffeine decreased Temp, especially in KO mice, and hence in a manner unrelated to A1R or A2AR blockade. Selective A2B antagonism had little or no effect. Thus A1R and A2AR influence HR, Temp, LA, and O2C in mice in a sex-dependent manner, indicating effects of endogenous adenosine. The A2AR plays an important role in the modulation of O2C and LA by acute and chronic caffeine administration. There is also evidence for effects of higher doses of caffeine being independent of both A1R and A2AR. PMID:19218506

  18. Physiological roles of A1 and A2A adenosine receptors in regulating heart rate, body temperature, and locomotion as revealed using knockout mice and caffeine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiang-Ning; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Fredholm, Bertil B

    2009-04-01

    Heart rate (HR), body temperature (Temp), locomotor activity (LA), and oxygen consumption (O(2)C) were studied in awake mice lacking one or both of the adenosine A(1) or A(2A) receptors (A(1)R or A(2A)R, respectively) using telemetry and respirometry, before and after caffeine administration. All parameters were lower during day than night and higher in females than males. When compared with wild-type (WT) littermates, HR was higher in male A(1)R knockout (A(1)RKO) mice but lower in A(2A)RKO mice and intermediate in A(1)-A(2A)R double KO mice. A single dose of an unselective beta-blocker (timolol; 1 mg/kg) abolished the HR differences between these genotypes. Deletion of A(1)Rs had little effect on Temp, whereas deletion of A(2A)Rs increased it in females and decreased it in males. A(1)-A(2A)RKO mice had lower Temp than WT mice. LA was unaltered in A(1)RKO mice and lower in A(2A)RKO and A(1)-A(2A)RKO mice than in WT mice. Caffeine injection increased LA but only in mice expressing A(2A)R. Caffeine ingestion also increased LA in an A(2A)R-dependent manner in male mice. Caffeine ingestion significantly increased O(2)C in WT mice, but less in the different KO mice. Injection of 30 mg/kg caffeine decreased Temp, especially in KO mice, and hence in a manner unrelated to A(1)R or A(2A)R blockade. Selective A(2B) antagonism had little or no effect. Thus A(1)R and A(2A)R influence HR, Temp, LA, and O(2)C in mice in a sex-dependent manner, indicating effects of endogenous adenosine. The A(2A)R plays an important role in the modulation of O(2)C and LA by acute and chronic caffeine administration. There is also evidence for effects of higher doses of caffeine being independent of both A(1)R and A(2A)R.

  19. Haematopoietic leptin receptor deficiency does not affect macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue or systemic insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Dario A; Hasty, Alyssa H

    2012-03-01

    The adipokine leptin is primarily produced by white adipose tissue (AT) and is a potent monocyte/macrophage chemoattractant in vitro. The long form of the leptin receptor (LepR) is required for monocyte/macrophage chemotaxis towards leptin. In this study, we examined the effects of haematopoietic LepR as well as LepR with C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) deficiency (double knockout (DKO)) on macrophage recruitment to AT after two different periods of high fat diet (HFD) feeding. Briefly, 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice were transplanted with bone marrow (BM) from Lepr(+/+), Lepr(-/-) or DKO donors (groups named BM-Lepr(+/+), BM-Lepr(-/-) and BM-DKO respectively), and were placed on an HFD for 6 or 12 weeks. At the end of the study, macrophage infiltration and the inflammatory state of AT were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR, histology and flow cytometry. In addition, glucose and insulin tolerance were assessed at both time points. Our results showed no differences in macrophage accumulation or AT inflammatory state between the BM-Lepr(+/+) and BM-Lepr(-/-) mice after 6 or 12 weeks of HFD feeding; any effects observed in the BM-DKO were attributed to the haematopoietic deficiency of CCR2. In addition, no changes in glucose or insulin tolerance were observed between groups after either period of HFD feeding. Our findings suggest that although leptin is a potent chemoattractant in vitro, haematopoietic LepR deficiency does not affect macrophage accumulation in AT in early to moderate stages of diet-induced obesity.

  20. Early childhood BMI trajectories in monogenic obesity due to leptin, leptin receptor, and melanocortin 4 receptor deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kohlsdorf, Katja; Nunziata, Adriana; Funcke, Jan-Bernd; Brandt, Stephanie; von Schnurbein, Julia; Vollbach, Heike; Lennerz, Belinda; Fritsch, Maria; Greber-Platzer, Susanne; Fröhlich-Reiterer, Elke; Luedeke, Manuel; Borck, Guntram; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Fischer-Posovszky, Pamela; Wabitsch, Martin

    2018-02-27

    To evaluate whether early childhood body mass index (BMI) is an appropriate indicator for monogenic obesity. A cohort of n = 21 children living in Germany or Austria with monogenic obesity due to congenital leptin deficiency (group LEP, n = 6), leptin receptor deficiency (group LEPR, n = 6) and primarily heterozygous MC4 receptor deficiency (group MC4R, n = 9) was analyzed. A control group (CTRL) was defined that consisted of n = 22 obese adolescents with no mutation in the above mentioned genes. Early childhood (0-5 years) BMI trajectories were compared between the groups at selected time points. The LEP and LEPR group showed a tremendous increase in BMI during the first 2 years of life with all patients displaying a BMI >27 kg/m 2 (27.2-38.4 kg/m 2 ) and %BMI P95 (percentage of the 95th percentile BMI for age and sex) >140% (144.8-198.6%) at the age of 2 years and a BMI > 33 kg/m 2 (33.3-45.9 kg/m 2 ) and %BMI P95  > 184% (184.1-212.6%) at the age of 5 years. The MC4R and CTRL groups had a later onset of obesity with significantly lower BMI values at both time points (p < 0.01). As result of the investigation of early childhood BMI trajectories in this pediatric cohort with monogenic obesity we suggest that BMI values >27.0 kg/m 2 or %BMI P95  > 140% at the age of 2 years and BMI values >33.0 kg/m 2 or %BMI P95  > 184% at the age of 5 years may be useful cut points to identify children who should undergo genetic screening for monogenic obesity due to functionally relevant mutations in the leptin gene or leptin receptor gene.

  1. Increased atherosclerosis in mice with increased vascular biglycan content.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Joel C; Tang, Tao; Wilson, Patricia G; Yoder, Meghan H; Tannock, Lisa R

    2014-07-01

    The response to retention hypothesis of atherogenesis proposes that atherosclerosis is initiated via the retention of atherogenic lipoproteins by vascular proteoglycans. Co-localization studies suggest that of all the vascular proteoglycans, biglycan is the one most closely co-localized with LDL. The goal of this study was to determine if over-expression of biglycan in hyperlipidemic mice would increase atherosclerosis development. Transgenic mice were developed by expressing biglycan under control of the smooth muscle actin promoter, and were crossed to the LDL receptor deficient (C57BL/6 background) atherosclerotic mouse model. Biglycan transgenic and non-transgenic control mice were fed an atherogenic Western diet for 4-12 weeks. LDL receptor deficient mice overexpressing biglycan under control of the smooth muscle alpha actin promoter had increased atherosclerosis development that correlated with vascular biglycan content. Increased vascular biglycan content predisposes to increased lipid retention and increased atherosclerosis development. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Mice lacking GRIP1/2 show increased social interactions and enhanced phosphorylation at GluA2-S880.

    PubMed

    Han, Mei; Mejias, Rebeca; Chiu, Shu-Ling; Rose, Rebecca; Adamczyk, Abby; Huganir, Richard; Wang, Tao

    2017-03-15

    Glutamate receptor interacting proteins 1 and 2 (GRIP1/2) play an important role in regulating synaptic trafficking of AMPA receptor 2/3 (GluA2/3) and synaptic strength. Gain-of-function GRIP1 mutations are implicated in social behavioral deficits in autism. To study mechanisms of Grip1/2-mediated AMPA signaling in the regulation of social behaviors, we performed social behavioral testing on neuron-specific Grip1/2-double knockout (DKO) and wild type (WT) mice that are matched for age, sex, and strain background. We determined the expression profile of key signaling proteins in AMPAR, mGluR, mTOR, and GABA pathways in frontal cortex, striatum, and cerebellum of DKO mice. Compared to WT mice, DKO mice show increased sociability in a modified three-chamber social behavioral test [mean±sem for interaction time in seconds; WT: 44.0±5.0; n=10; DKO: 81.0±9.0; n=9; two factor repeated measures ANOVA: F(1,37)=14.45; p<0.01 and planned t-test; p<0.01] and in a dyadic male-male social interaction test (mean±sem for total time in seconds: sniffing, WT-WT, 18.9±1.1; WT-DKO, 42.5±2.1; t-test: p<0.001; following, WT-WT, 7.7±0.72; WT-DKO,14.4±1.8; t-test: p<0.001). Immunoblot studies identified an increase in phosphorylation at GluA2-Serine 880 (GluA2-pS880) in frontal cortex (mean±sem; WT: 0.69±0.06, n=5; DKO: 0.96±0.06, n=6; t-test; p<0.05) and reduced GABAβ3 expression in striatum (mean±sem; WT: 1.16±0.04, n=4; DKO: 0.95±0.06, n=4; t-test; p<0.05) in DKO mice. GluA2-S880 phosphorylation is known to regulate GluA2synaptic recycling, AMPA signaling strength and plasticity. GABAβ3 has been implicated in the etiology and pathogenesis in autism. These data support an important role of Grip1/2-mediated AMPA signaling in regulating social behaviors and disturbance of glutamate- and GABA-signaling in specialized brain regions in autism-related social behavioral deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Alzheimer's disease transcriptome mimics the neuroprotective signature of IGF-1 receptor-deficient neurons.

    PubMed

    George, Caroline; Gontier, Géraldine; Lacube, Philippe; François, Jean-Christophe; Holzenberger, Martin; Aïd, Saba

    2017-07-01

    Seminal studies using post-mortem brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease evidenced aberrant insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) signalling. Addressing causality, work in animal models recently demonstrated that long-term suppression of IGF1R signalling alleviates Alzheimer's disease progression and promotes neuroprotection. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. Here, we showed that genetically ablating IGF1R in neurons of the ageing brain efficiently protects from neuroinflammation, anxiety and memory impairments induced by intracerebroventricular injection of amyloid-β oligomers. In our mutant mice, the suppression of IGF1R signalling also invariably led to small neuronal soma size, indicative of profound changes in cellular homeodynamics. To gain insight into transcriptional signatures leading to Alzheimer's disease-relevant neuronal defence, we performed genome-wide microarray analysis on laser-dissected hippocampal CA1 after neuronal IGF1R knockout, in the presence or absence of APP/PS1 transgenes. Functional analysis comparing neurons in early-stage Alzheimer's disease with IGF1R knockout neurons revealed strongly convergent transcriptomic signatures, notably involving neurite growth, cytoskeleton organization, cellular stress response and neurotransmission. Moreover, in Alzheimer's disease neurons, a high proportion of genes responding to Alzheimer's disease showed a reversed differential expression when IGF1R was deleted. One of the genes consistently highlighted in genome-wide comparison was the neurofilament medium polypeptide Nefm. We found that NEFM accumulated in hippocampus in the presence of amyloid pathology, and decreased to control levels under IGF1R deletion, suggesting that reorganized cytoskeleton likely plays a role in neuroprotection. These findings demonstrated that significant resistance of the brain to amyloid-β can be achieved lifelong by suppressing neuronal IGF1R and identified IGF

  4. Lysosomal Storage of Subunit c of Mitochondrial ATP Synthase in Brain-Specific Atp13a2-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shigeto; Koike, Masato; Funayama, Manabu; Ezaki, Junji; Fukuda, Takahiro; Ueno, Takashi; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2016-12-01

    Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS) is an autosomal recessive form of early-onset parkinsonism linked to the PARK9 locus. The causative gene for KRS is Atp13a2, which encodes a lysosomal type 5 P-type ATPase. We recently showed that KRS/PARK9-linked mutations lead to several lysosomal alterations, including reduced proteolytic processing of cathepsin D in vitro. However, it remains unknown how deficiency of Atp13a2 is connected to lysosomal impairments. To address this issue, we analyzed brain tissues of Atp13a2 conditional-knockout mice, which exhibited characteristic features of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, including accumulation of lipofuscin positive for subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase, suggesting that a common pathogenic mechanism underlies both neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis and Parkinson disease. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. a2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Influence Hippocampus-Dependent Learning and Memory in Adolescent Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotfipour, Shahrdad; Mojica, Celina; Nakauchi, Sakura; Lipovsek, Marcela; Silverstein, Sarah; Cushman, Jesse; Tirtorahardjo, James; Poulos, Andrew; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén; Sumikawa, Katumi; Fanselow, Michael S.; Boulter, Jim

    2017-01-01

    The absence of a2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in oriens lacunosum moleculare (OLM) GABAergic interneurons ablate the facilitation of nicotine-induced hippocampal CA1 long-term potentiation and impair memory. The current study delineated whether genetic mutations of a2* nAChRs ("Chrna2"[superscript L9'S/L9'S] and…

  6. Graft-versus-host disease causes failure of donor hematopoiesis and lymphopoiesis in interferon-gamma receptor-deficient hosts.

    PubMed

    Delisle, Jean-Sébastien; Gaboury, Louis; Bélanger, Marie-Pier; Tassé, Eliane; Yagita, Hideo; Perreault, Claude

    2008-09-01

    The immunopathologic condition known as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) results from a type I T-cell process. However, a prototypical type I cytokine, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), can protect against several manifestations of GVHD in recipients of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched hematopoietic cells. We transplanted hematopoietic cells from C3H.SW donors in wild-type (wt) and IFN-gamma-receptor-deficient (IFN-gammaRKO) MHC-matched C57BL/6 recipients. In IFN-gammaRKO recipients, host cells were unresponsive to IFN-gamma, whereas wt donor cells were exposed to exceptionally high levels of IFN-gamma. From an IFN-gamma perspective, we could therefore evaluate the impact of a loss-of-function on host cells and gain-of-function on donor cells. We found that lack of IFN-gammaR prevented up-regulation of MHC proteins on host cells but did not mitigate damage to most target organs. Two salient phenotypes in IFN-gammaRKO recipients involved donor cells: lymphoid hypoplasia and hematopoietic failure. Lymphopenia was due to FasL-induced apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation. Bone marrow aplasia resulted from a decreased proliferation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells that was associated with down-regulation of 2 genes negatively regulated by IFN-gamma: Ccnd1 and Myc. We conclude that IFN-gamma produced by alloreactive T cells may entail a severe graft-versus-graft reaction and could be responsible for cytopenias that are frequently observed in subjects with GVHD.

  7. Hair Cell Loss, Spiral Ganglion Degeneration, and Progressive Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Mice with Targeted Deletion of Slc44a2/Ctl2.

    PubMed

    Kommareddi, Pavan; Nair, Thankam; Kakaraparthi, Bala Naveen; Galano, Maria M; Miller, Danielle; Laczkovich, Irina; Thomas, Trey; Lu, Lillian; Rule, Kelli; Kabara, Lisa; Kanicki, Ariane; Hughes, Elizabeth D; Jones, Julie M; Hoenerhoff, Mark; Fisher, Susan G; Altschuler, Richard A; Dolan, David; Kohrman, David C; Saunders, Thomas L; Carey, Thomas E

    2015-12-01

    SLC44A2 (solute carrier 44a2), also known as CTL2 (choline transporter-like protein 2), is expressed in many supporting cell types in the cochlea and is implicated in hair cell survival and antibody-induced hearing loss. In mice with the mixed C57BL/6-129 background, homozygous deletion of Slc44a2 exons 3–10 (Slc44a2(Δ/Δ)resulted in high-frequency hearing loss and hair cell death. To reduce effects associated with age-related hearing loss (ARHL) in these strains, mice carrying the Slc44a2Δ allele were backcrossed to the ARHL-resistant FVB/NJ strain and evaluated after backcross seven(N7) (99 % FVB). Slc44a2(Δ/Δ) mice produced abnormally spliced Slc44a2 transcripts that contain a frame shift and premature stop codons. Neither full-length SLC44A2 nor a putative truncated protein could be detected in Slc44a2(Δ/Δ) mice, suggesting a likely null allele. Auditory brain stem responses (ABRs) of mice carrying the Slc44a2Δ allele on an FVB/NJ genetic background were tested longitudinally between the ages of 2 and 10 months. By 6 months of age,Slc44a2(Δ/Δ) mice exhibited hearing loss at 32 kHz,but at 12 and 24 kHz had sound thresholds similar to those of wild-type Slc44a2(+/+) and heterozygous +/Slc44a2Δ mice. After 6 months of age, Slc44a2(Δ/Δ) mutants exhibited progressive hearing loss at all frequencies and +/Slc44a2(Δ) mice exhibited moderate threshold elevations at high frequency. Histologic evaluation of Slc44a2(Δ/Δ) mice revealed extensive hair cell and spiral ganglion cell loss, especially in the basal turn of the cochlea. We conclude that Slc44a2 function is required for long-term hair cell survival and maintenance of hearing.

  8. Bone mineral properties in growing Col1a2(+/G610C) mice, an animal model of osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Masci, Marco; Wang, Min; Imbert, Laurianne; Barnes, Aileen M; Spevak, Lyudmila; Lukashova, Lyudmila; Huang, Yihe; Ma, Yan; Marini, Joan C; Jacobsen, Christina M; Warman, Matthew L; Boskey, Adele L

    2016-06-01

    The Col1a2(+/G610C) knock-in mouse, models osteogenesis imperfecta in a large old order Amish family (OOA) with type IV OI, caused by a G-to-T transversion at nucleotide 2098, which alters the gly-610 codon in the triple-helical domain of the α2(I) chain of type I collagen. Mineral and matrix properties of the long bones and vertebrae of male Col1a2(+/G610C) and their wild-type controls (Col1a2(+/+)), were characterized to gain insight into the role of α2-chain collagen mutations in mineralization. Additionally, we examined the rescuability of the composition by sclerostin inhibition initiated by crossing Col1a2(+/G610C) with an LRP(+/A214V) high bone mass allele. At age 10-days, vertebrae and tibia showed few alterations by micro-CT or Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI). At 2-months-of-age, Col1a2(+/G610C) tibias had 13% fewer secondary trabeculae than Col1a2(+/+), these were thinner (11%) and more widely spaced (20%) than those of Col1a2(+/+) mice. Vertebrae of Col1a2(+/G610C) mice at 2-months also had lower bone volume fraction (38%), trabecular number (13%), thickness (13%) and connectivity density (32%) compared to Col1(a2+/+). The cortical bone of Col1a2(+/G610C) tibias at 2-months had 3% higher tissue mineral density compared to Col1a2(+/+); Col1a2(+/G610C) vertebrae had lower cortical thickness (29%), bone area (37%) and polar moment of inertia (38%) relative to Col1a2(+/+). FTIRI analysis, which provides information on bone chemical composition at ~7μm-spatial resolution, showed tibias at 10-days did not differ between genotypes. Comparing identical bone types in Col1a2(+/G610C) to Col1a2(+/+) at 2-months-of-age, tibias showed higher mineral-to-matrix ratio in trabeculae (17%) and cortices (31%). and in vertebral cortices (28%). Collagen maturity was 42% higher at 10-days-of-age in Col1a2(+/G610C) vertebral trabeculae and in 2-month tibial cortices (12%), vertebral trabeculae (42%) and vertebral cortices (12%). Higher acid-phosphate substitution

  9. Bone Mineral Properties in Growing Col1a2+/G610C Mice, an animal model of Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    Masci, Marco; Wang, Min; Imbert, Laurianne; Barnes, Aileen M; Spevak, Lyudmila; Lukashova, Lyudmila; Yihe, Huang; Yan, Ma; Marini, Joan C; Jacobsen, Christina M; Warman, Matthew L; Boskey, Adele L

    2016-01-01

    The Col1a2+/G610C knock-in mouse, models osteogenesis imperfecta in a large old order Amish family (OOA) with type IV OI, caused by a G-to-T transversion at nucleotide 2098, which alters the gly-610 codon in the triple-helical domain of the α2(I) chain of type I collagen. Mineral and matrix properties of the long bones and vertebrae of male Col1a2+/G610C and their wild-type controls (Col1a2+/+), were characterized to gain insight into the role of α2-chain collagen mutations in mineralization. Additionally, we examined the rescuability of the composition by sclerostin inhibition initiated by crossing Col1a2+/G610C with an LRP+/A214V high bone mass allele. At age 10-days, vertebrae and tibia showed few alterations by micro-CT or Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI). At 2-months-of-age, Col1a2+/G610C tibias had 13% fewer secondary trabeculae than Col1a2+/+, these were thinner (11%) and more widely spaced (20%) than those of Col1a2+/+ mice. Vertebrae of Col1a2+/G610C mice at 2-months also had lower bone volume fraction (38%), trabecular number (13%), thickness (13%) and connectivity density (32%) compared to Col1a2+/+. The cortical bone of Col1a2+/G610C tibias at 2-months had 3% higher tissue mineral density compared to Col1a2+/+; Col1a2+/G610C vertebrae had lower cortical thickness (29%), bone area (37%) and polar moment of inertia (38%) relative to Col1a2+/+. FTIRI analysis, which provides information on bone chemical composition at ~ 7 µm-spatial resolution, showed tibias at 10-days, did not differ between genotypes. Comparing identical bone types in Col1a2+/G610C to Col1a2+/+ at 2-months-of-age, tibias showed higher mineral-to-matrix ratio in trabeculae (17%) and cortices (31%). and in vertebral cortices (28%). Collagen maturity was 42% higher at 10-days-of-age in Col1a2+/G610C vertebral trabeculae and in 2-month tibial cortices (12%), vertebral trabeculae (42%) and vertebral cortices (12%). Higher acid-phosphate substitution was noted in 10-day

  10. COMPARING ENVIRONMENTALLY RELEVANT PCBS TO TCDD IN CYP1A2 NULL AND WILDTYPE MICE

    EPA Science Inventory


    The role of CYP1A2 on the interactions of TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, dioxin), dioxin-like (DL) and non-dioxin-like (NDL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was compared in multiple responses of different laboratory-defined mixtures, based on mass ratios found in...

  11. Comparison of Systemic Toxicity between Botulinum Toxin Subtypes A1 and A2 in Mice and Rats.

    PubMed

    Torii, Yasushi; Goto, Yoshitaka; Nakahira, Shinji; Kozaki, Shunji; Kaji, Ryuji; Ginnaga, Akihiro

    2015-06-01

    The adverse events caused by botulinum toxin type A (subtype A1) product, thought to be after-effects of toxin diffusion after high-dose administration, have become serious issues. A preparation showing less diffusion in the body than existing drugs has been sought. We have attempted to produce neurotoxin derived from subtype A2 (A2NTX) with an amino acid sequence different from that of neurotoxin derived from subtype A1 (A1NTX). In this study, to investigate whether A2NTX has the potential to resolve these issues, we compared the safety of A2NTX, a progenitor toxin derived from subtype A1 (A1 progenitor toxin) and A1NTX employing the intramuscular lethal dose 50% (im LD50) in mice and rats and the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) in rats. Mouse im LD50 values for A1 progenitor toxin and A2NTX were 93 and 166 U/kg, respectively, and the rat im LD50 values were 117 and 153 U/kg, respectively. In the rat CMAP test, the dose on the contralateral side, which caused a 50% reduction in the CMAP amplitude, that is, CMAP-TD50 , was calculated as 19.0, 16.6 and 28.7 U/kg for A1 progenitor toxin, A1NTX and A2NTX, respectively. The results indicate that A2NTX is safer than A1 progenitor toxin and A1NTX. © 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  12. The little women of Loja--growth hormone-receptor deficiency in an inbred population of southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, A L; Guevara Aguirre, J; Rosenfeld, R G; Fielder, P J

    1990-11-15

    Laron-type dwarfism, which is characterized by the clinical appearance of isolated growth hormone deficiency with elevated serum levels of growth hormone and decreased serum levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), has been described in approximately 50 patients. This condition is caused by a deficiency of the cellular receptor for growth hormone, and it is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait, as indicated by an equal sex distribution and a high rate of consanguinity in affected families. We studied 20 patients (19 females and 1 male, 2 to 49 years of age), from an inbred Spanish population in southern Ecuador, who had the clinical features of Laron-type dwarfism. Seventeen patients were members of two large pedigrees. Among the 13 affected sibships, there were 19 affected and 24 unaffected female siblings and 1 affected and 21 unaffected male siblings. The patients' heights ranged from 10.0 to 6.7 SD below the normal mean height for age in the United States. In addition to the previously described features, 15 patients had limited elbow extensibility, all had blue scleras, affected adults had relatively short extremities, and all four affected women over 30 years of age had hip degeneration. Basal serum concentrations of growth hormone were elevated in all affected children (30 to 160 micrograms per liter) and normal to moderately elevated in the adults. The serum level of growth hormone-binding protein ranged from 1 to 30 percent of normal; IGF-I concentrations were low--less than or equal to 7 micrograms per liter in the children and less than or equal to 66 micrograms per liter in the adults (normal for Ecuadorean women, 98 to 238). Serum levels of IGF-II and growth hormone-dependent IGF-binding protein-3 were also low. We describe an inbred population with a high incidence of growth hormone-receptor deficiency resulting in a clinical picture resembling Laron-type dwarfism but differing principally in showing a marked predominance of affected

  13. Inhibition of Intestinal Bile Acid Transporter Slc10a2 Improves Triglyceride Metabolism and Normalizes Elevated Plasma Glucose Levels in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Snaith, Michael; Lindmark, Helena; Lundberg, Johanna; Östlund-Lindqvist, Ann-Margret; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats

    2012-01-01

    Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids increases cholesterol catabolism, thereby stimulating hepatic cholesterol synthesis from acetate. We hypothesized that such treatment should lower the hepatic acetate pool which may alter triglyceride and glucose metabolism. We explored this using mice deficient of the ileal sodium-dependent BA transporter (Slc10a2) and ob/ob mice treated with a specific inhibitor of Slc10a2. Plasma TG levels were reduced in Slc10a2-deficient mice, and when challenged with a sucrose-rich diet, they displayed a reduced response in hepatic TG production as observed from the mRNA levels of several key enzymes in fatty acid synthesis. This effect was paralleled by a diminished induction of mature sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (Srebp1c). Unexpectedly, the SR-diet induced intestinal fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15 mRNA and normalized bile acid synthesis in Slc10a2−/− mice. Pharmacologic inhibition of Slc10a2 in diabetic ob/ob mice reduced serum glucose, insulin and TGs, as well as hepatic mRNA levels of Srebp1c and its target genes. These responses are contrary to those reported following treatment of mice with a bile acid binding resin. Moreover, when key metabolic signal transduction pathways in the liver were investigated, those of Mek1/2 - Erk1/2 and Akt were blunted after treatment of ob/ob mice with the Slc10a2 inhibitor. It is concluded that abrogation of Slc10a2 reduces hepatic Srebp1c activity and serum TGs, and in the diabetic ob/ob model it also reduces glucose and insulin levels. Hence, targeting of Slc10a2 may be a promising strategy to treat hypertriglyceridemia and diabetes. PMID:22662222

  14. USE OF CYP1A2(-/-) KNOCKOUT AND CYP1A2(+/+) C57BL/6N PARENTAL STRAINS OF MICE TO COMPARE METABOLISM OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    USE OF CYP1A2 (-/-) KNOCKOUT AND CYP1A2 (+/+) C57BL/6N PARENTAL STRAINS OF MICE TO COMPARE METABOLISM OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD). J J Diliberto1 and H Hakk2. 1USEPA ORD, NHEERL, ETD, PKB, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 2USDA-ARS, BRL, Fargo, ND, USA. Spons...

  15. Predominant Role of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2α in Dioxin-induced Neonatal Hydronephrosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, Wataru; Kawaguchi, Tatsuya; Fujisawa, Nozomi; Aida-Yasuoka, Keiko; Shimizu, Takao; Matsumura, Fumio; Tohyama, Chiharu

    2014-01-01

    Hydronephrosis is a common disease characterized by dilation of the renal pelvis and calices, resulting in loss of kidney function in the most severe cases. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces nonobstructive hydronephrosis in mouse neonates through upregulation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis pathway consisting of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) by a yet unknown mechanism. We here studied possible involvement of cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) in this mechanism. To this end, we used a cPLA2α-null mouse model and found that cPLA2α has a significant role in the upregulation of the PGE2 synthesis pathway through a noncanonical pathway of aryl hydrocarbon receptor. This study is the first to demonstrate the predominant role of cPLA2α in hydronephrosis. Elucidation of the pathway leading to the onset of hydronephrosis using the TCDD-exposed mouse model will deepen our understanding of the molecular basis of nonobstructive hydronephrosis in humans. PMID:24509627

  16. Involvement of riboflavin transporter RFVT2/Slc52a2 in hepatic homeostasis of riboflavin in mice.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yoshiaki; Yonezawa, Atsushi; Yoshimatsu, Hiroki; Omura, Tomohiro; Masuda, Satohiro; Matsubara, Kazuo

    2013-08-15

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) acts as an intermediary during various biochemical oxidation-reduction reactions in the liver. Hepatic riboflavin homeostasis is suggested to be maintained through its transporter(s). Riboflavin transporters, RFVT2/Slc52a2 and RFVT3/Slc52a3, have been identified in rodents. However, the role of each RFVT in the hepatic homeostasis of riboflavin has not yet been fully clarified. In this study, we assessed the contribution of each RFVT to riboflavin uptake into the liver using in vitro and in vivo studies. The uptake of riboflavin by mouse primary hepatocytes increased in a time-dependent and a concentration-dependent manner. Riboflavin transport was independent of extracellular Na(+). However, the uptake decreased slightly along with the extracellular pH increases. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA level of Slc52a2, or coding for mouse (m)RFVT2, in the mouse liver was 10 times higher than that of Slc52a3 (coding for mRFVT3). The uptake of riboflavin at pH 7.4 by primary hepatocytes was significantly decreased by the transfection of Slc52a2-small interfering RNA (siRNA), but not Slc52a3-siRNA. Furthermore, we also confirmed the contribution of riboflavin transporters in vivo. The riboflavin concentrations in plasma, but not in the liver, were significantly decreased in mice fed on a riboflavin-deficient diet for 8 weeks. The expression of Slc52a2 mRNA was significantly upregulated by riboflavin deprivation. These results strongly suggest that mRFVT2 was involved in hepatic riboflavin homeostasis. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Group X phospholipase A2 is released during sperm acrosome reaction and controls fertility outcome in mice.

    PubMed

    Escoffier, Jessica; Jemel, Ikram; Tanemoto, Akemi; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Payre, Christine; Coatrieux, Christelle; Sato, Hiroyasu; Yamamoto, Kei; Masuda, Seiko; Pernet-Gallay, Karin; Pierre, Virginie; Hara, Shuntaro; Murakami, Makoto; De Waard, Michel; Lambeau, Gérard; Arnoult, Christophe

    2010-05-01

    Ejaculated mammalian sperm must undergo a maturation process called capacitation before they are able to fertilize an egg. Several studies have suggested a role for members of the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) family in capacitation, acrosome reaction (AR), and fertilization, but the molecular nature of these enzymes and their specific roles have remained elusive. Here, we have demonstrated that mouse group X sPLA2 (mGX) is the major enzyme present in the acrosome of spermatozoa and that it is released in an active form during capacitation through spontaneous AR. mGX-deficient male mice produced smaller litters than wild-type male siblings when crossed with mGX-deficient females. Further analysis revealed that spermatozoa from mGX-deficient mice exhibited lower rates of spontaneous AR and that this was associated with decreased in vitro fertilization (IVF) efficiency due to a drop in the fertilization potential of the sperm and an increased rate of aborted embryos. Treatment of sperm with sPLA2 inhibitors and antibodies specific for mGX blocked spontaneous AR of wild-type sperm and reduced IVF success. Addition of lysophosphatidylcholine, a catalytic product of mGX, overcame these deficiencies. Finally, recombinant mGX triggered AR and improved IVF outcome. Taken together, our results highlight a paracrine role for mGX during capacitation in which the enzyme primes sperm for efficient fertilization and boosts premature AR of a likely phospholipid-damaged sperm subpopulation to eliminate suboptimal sperm from the pool available for fertilization.

  18. Group X phospholipase A2 is released during sperm acrosome reaction and controls fertility outcome in mice

    PubMed Central

    Escoffier, Jessica; Jemel, Ikram; Tanemoto, Akemi; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Payre, Christine; Coatrieux, Christelle; Sato, Hiroyasu; Yamamoto, Kei; Masuda, Seiko; Pernet-Gallay, Karin; Pierre, Virginie; Hara, Shuntaro; Murakami, Makoto; De Waard, Michel; Lambeau, Gérard; Arnoult, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Ejaculated mammalian sperm must undergo a maturation process called capacitation before they are able to fertilize an egg. Several studies have suggested a role for members of the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) family in capacitation, acrosome reaction (AR), and fertilization, but the molecular nature of these enzymes and their specific roles have remained elusive. Here, we have demonstrated that mouse group X sPLA2 (mGX) is the major enzyme present in the acrosome of spermatozoa and that it is released in an active form during capacitation through spontaneous AR. mGX-deficient male mice produced smaller litters than wild-type male siblings when crossed with mGX-deficient females. Further analysis revealed that spermatozoa from mGX-deficient mice exhibited lower rates of spontaneous AR and that this was associated with decreased in vitro fertilization (IVF) efficiency due to a drop in the fertilization potential of the sperm and an increased rate of aborted embryos. Treatment of sperm with sPLA2 inhibitors and antibodies specific for mGX blocked spontaneous AR of wild-type sperm and reduced IVF success. Addition of lysophosphatidylcholine, a catalytic product of mGX, overcame these deficiencies. Finally, recombinant mGX triggered AR and improved IVF outcome. Taken together, our results highlight a paracrine role for mGX during capacitation in which the enzyme primes sperm for efficient fertilization and boosts premature AR of a likely phospholipid-damaged sperm subpopulation to eliminate suboptimal sperm from the pool available for fertilization. PMID:20424324

  19. Hepatoprotective effects of litchi (Litchi chinensis) procyanidin A2 on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in ICR mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lih-Geeng; Chang, Cheng-Wei; Tsay, Jwu-Guh; Weng, Brian Bor-Chun

    2017-01-01

    Drug tolerance, lacking liver regenerative activity and inconclusive inhibition of steatosis and cirrhosis by silymarin treatment during chronic liver injury have increased the demand for novel alternative or synergistic treatments for liver damage. Litchi fruit is abundant in polyphenolic compounds and is used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatments that include the strengthening of hepatic and pancreatic functions. Unique polyphenolic compounds obtained from litchi pericarp extract (LPE) were studied in vitro and in vivo for hepatoprotection. Epicatechin (EC) and procyanidin A2 (PA2) of LPE were obtained by fractionated-extraction from pulverized litchi pericarps. All fractions, including LPE, were screened against silymarin in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated murine embryonic liver cell line (BNL). The effects of daily gavage-feeding of LPE, silymarin (200 mg/kg body weight) or H2O in CCl4-intoxicated male ICR mice were evaluated by studying serum chemicals, liver pathology and glutathione antioxidative enzymes. The effects of EC and PA2 on liver cell regenerative activity were investigated using a scratch wound healing assay and flow cytometric cell cycle analysis; the results of which demonstrated that LPE protected BNL from CCl4-intoxication. Gavage-feeding of LPE decreased serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase levels, and exhibited superior retention of the hexagonal structure of hepatocytes and reduced necrotic cells following liver histopathological examinations in CCl4-intoxicated ICR mice. Glutathione peroxidise and glutathione reductase activities were preserved as the normal control level in LPE groups. EC and PA2 were principle components of LPE. PA2 demonstrated liver cell regenerative activity in scratch wound healing assays and alcohol-induced liver cell injury in vitro. The present findings suggest that litchi pericarp polyphenolic extracts, including EC and PA2, may be a synergistic alternative to

  20. Hepatoprotective effects of litchi (Litchi chinensis) procyanidin A2 on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in ICR mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lih-Geeng; Chang, Cheng-Wei; Tsay, Jwu-Guh; Weng, Brian Bor-Chun

    2017-06-01

    Drug tolerance, lacking liver regenerative activity and inconclusive inhibition of steatosis and cirrhosis by silymarin treatment during chronic liver injury have increased the demand for novel alternative or synergistic treatments for liver damage. Litchi fruit is abundant in polyphenolic compounds and is used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatments that include the strengthening of hepatic and pancreatic functions. Unique polyphenolic compounds obtained from litchi pericarp extract (LPE) were studied in vitro and in vivo for hepatoprotection. Epicatechin (EC) and procyanidin A2 (PA2) of LPE were obtained by fractionated-extraction from pulverized litchi pericarps. All fractions, including LPE, were screened against silymarin in carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-treated murine embryonic liver cell line (BNL). The effects of daily gavage-feeding of LPE, silymarin (200 mg/kg body weight) or H 2 O in CCl 4 -intoxicated male ICR mice were evaluated by studying serum chemicals, liver pathology and glutathione antioxidative enzymes. The effects of EC and PA2 on liver cell regenerative activity were investigated using a scratch wound healing assay and flow cytometric cell cycle analysis; the results of which demonstrated that LPE protected BNL from CCl 4 -intoxication. Gavage-feeding of LPE decreased serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase levels, and exhibited superior retention of the hexagonal structure of hepatocytes and reduced necrotic cells following liver histopathological examinations in CCl 4- intoxicated ICR mice. Glutathione peroxidise and glutathione reductase activities were preserved as the normal control level in LPE groups. EC and PA2 were principle components of LPE. PA2 demonstrated liver cell regenerative activity in scratch wound healing assays and alcohol-induced liver cell injury in vitro . The present findings suggest that litchi pericarp polyphenolic extracts, including EC and PA2, may be a synergistic

  1. Atp13a2-deficient mice exhibit neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, limited α-synuclein accumulation and age-dependent sensorimotor deficits

    PubMed Central

    Schultheis, Patrick J.; Fleming, Sheila M.; Clippinger, Amy K.; Lewis, Jada; Tsunemi, Taiji; Giasson, Benoit; Dickson, Dennis W.; Mazzulli, Joseph R.; Bardgett, Mark E.; Haik, Kristi L.; Ekhator, Osunde; Chava, Anil Kumar; Howard, John; Gannon, Matt; Hoffman, Elizabeth; Chen, Yinhuai; Prasad, Vikram; Linn, Stephen C.; Tamargo, Rafael J.; Westbroek, Wendy; Sidransky, Ellen; Krainc, Dimitri; Shull, Gary E.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in ATP13A2 (PARK9), encoding a lysosomal P-type ATPase, are associated with both Kufor–Rakeb syndrome (KRS) and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL). KRS has recently been classified as a rare genetic form of Parkinson's disease (PD), whereas NCL is a lysosomal storage disorder. Although the transport activity of ATP13A2 has not been defined, in vitro studies show that its loss compromises lysosomal function, which in turn is thought to cause neuronal degeneration. To understand the role of ATP13A2 dysfunction in disease, we disrupted its gene in mice. Atp13a2−/− and Atp13a2+/+ mice were tested behaviorally to assess sensorimotor and cognitive function at multiple ages. In the brain, lipofuscin accumulation, α-synuclein aggregation and dopaminergic pathology were measured. Behaviorally, Atp13a2−/− mice displayed late-onset sensorimotor deficits. Accelerated deposition of autofluorescent storage material (lipofuscin) was observed in the cerebellum and in neurons of the hippocampus and the cortex of Atp13a2−/− mice. Immunoblot analysis showed increased insoluble α-synuclein in the hippocampus, but not in the cortex or cerebellum. There was no change in the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra or in striatal dopamine levels in aged Atp13a2−/− mice. These results show that the loss of Atp13a2 causes sensorimotor impairments, α-synuclein accumulation as occurs in PD and related synucleinopathies, and accumulation of lipofuscin deposits characteristic of NCL, thus providing the first direct demonstration that null mutations in Atp13a2 can cause pathological features of both diseases in the same organism. PMID:23393156

  2. Enhanced humoral and HLA-A2-restricted dengue virus-specific T-cell responses in humanized BLT NSG mice

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Smita; Pazoles, Pamela; Woda, Marcia; Shultz, Leonard D; Greiner, Dale L; Brehm, Michael A; Mathew, Anuja

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease of humans, and animal models that recapitulate human immune responses or dengue pathogenesis are needed to understand the pathogenesis of the disease. We recently described an animal model for dengue virus (DENV) infection using humanized NOD-scid IL2rγnull mice (NSG) engrafted with cord blood haematopoietic stem cells. We sought to further improve this model by co-transplantation of human fetal thymus and liver tissues into NSG (BLT-NSG) mice. Enhanced DENV-specific antibody titres were found in the sera of BLT-NSG mice compared with human cord blood haematopoietic stem cell-engrafted NSG mice. Furthermore, B cells generated during the acute phase and in memory from splenocytes of immunized BLT-NSG mice secreted DENV-specific IgM antibodies with neutralizing activity. Human T cells in engrafted BLT-NSG mice secreted interferon-γ in response to overlapping DENV peptide pools and HLA-A2 restricted peptides. The BLT-NSG mice will allow assessment of human immune responses to DENV vaccines and the effects of previous immunity on subsequent DENV infections. PMID:22384859

  3. Age-Related Changes in Bone Morphology Are Accelerated in Group VIA Phospholipase A2 (iPLA2β)-Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ramanadham, Sasanka; Yarasheski, Kevin E.; Silva, Matthew J.; Wohltmann, Mary; Novack, Deborah Veis; Christiansen, Blaine; Tu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Sheng; Lei, Xiaoyong; Turk, John

    2008-01-01

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) hydrolyze the sn−2 fatty acid substituent, such as arachidonic acid, from phospholipids, and arachidonate metabolites are recognized mediators of bone modeling. We have previously generated knockout (KO) mice lacking the group VIA PLA2 (iPLA2β), which participates in a variety of signaling events; iPLA2β mRNA is expressed in bones of wild-type (WT) but not KO mice. Cortical bone size, trabecular bone volume, bone mineralizing surfaces, and bone strength are similar in WT and KO mice at 3 months and decline with age in both groups, but the decreases are more pronounced in KO mice. The lower bone mass phenotype observed in KO mice is not associated with an increase in osteoclast abundance/activity or a decrease in osteoblast density, but is accompanied by an increase in bone marrow fat. Relative to WT mice, undifferentiated bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) from KO mice express higher levels of PPAR-γ and lower levels of Runx2 mRNA, and this correlates with increased adipogenesis and decreased osteogenesis in BMSCs from these mice. In summary, our studies indicate that age-related losses in bone mass and strength are accelerated in iPLA2β-null mice. Because adipocytes and osteoblasts share a common mesenchymal stem cell origin, our findings suggest that absence of iPLA2β causes abnormalities in osteoblast function and BMSC differentiation and identify a previously unrecognized role of iPLA2β in bone formation. PMID:18349124

  4. Genetic manipulation of the ghrelin signaling system in male mice reveals bone compartment specificity of acylated and unacylated ghrelin in the regulation of bone remodeling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ghrelin receptor-deficient (Ghsr-/-) mice that lack acylated ghrelin (AG) signaling retain a metabolic response to unacylated ghrelin (UAG). Recently, we showed that Ghsr-deficiency affects bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to further establish the impact of AG and UAG on bone metabolism. W...

  5. Eastern coral snake Micrurus fulvius venom toxicity in mice is mainly determined by neurotoxic phospholipases A2.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Irene; Pedraza-Escalona, Martha; Paniagua, Dayanira; Restano-Cassulini, Rita; Zamudio, Fernando; Batista, Cesar V F; Possani, Lourival D; Alagón, Alejandro

    2014-06-13

    Here we show for the first time that the venom from an elapid (Micrurus fulvius) contains three finger toxin (3FTxs) peptides with low toxicity but high content of lethal phospholipases A2 (PLA2). The intravenous venom LD50 in mice was 0.3μg/g. Fractionation on a C18 column yielded 22 fractions; in terms of abundance, 58.3% of them were components of 13-14kDa and 24.9% were molecules of 6-7kDa. Two fractions with PLA2 activity represented 33.4% of the whole venom and were the most lethal fractions. Fractions with low molecular mass (<7000Da) partially and reversibly blocked the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), with the exception of one that blocked it completely. The fraction that blocked 100% contained two protein species whose dose-response was determined; the IC50s were 13±1 and 9.5±0.3nM. Despite the apparent effect on nAChR none of the low molecular mass fractions were lethal in mice, at concentrations of 1μg/g. From 2D-PAGE and LC-MS/MS, we identified fourteen species of PLA2, four protein species of C-type lectin, three zinc metalloproteinases, one phosphodiesterase and one 3FTx. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of fractions with biological interest was obtained. In contrast with coral snake venoms from South America, M. fulvius has minor amounts of low molecular mass components, but high content of PLA2, which is responsible for the venom lethality of this species. The results reported here contribute to better understanding of envenomation development and to improve antivenom design and production. These findings break from the paradigm that neurotoxicity caused by Micrurus venoms is mainly attributable to 3FTx neurotoxins and encourage future studies on Micrurus evolution and venom specialization. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Non-model organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of CCL2 and CCR2 Chemokine / Receptor Deficiencies on Macrophage Recruitment and Continuous Glucose Monitoring in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Klueh, Ulrike; Czajkowski, Caroline; Ludzinska, Izabela; Qiao, Yi; Frailey, Jackman; Kreutzer, Donald L.

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of macrophages (MΦ) at the sensor-tissue interface is thought to be a major player in controlling tissue reactions and sensor performance in vivo. Nevertheless until recently no direct demonstration of the causal relationship between MΦ aggregation and loss of sensor function existed. Using a Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) murine model we previously demonstrated that genetic deficiencies of MΦ or depletion of MΦ decreased MΦ accumulation at sensor implantation sites, which led to significantly enhanced CGM performance, when compared to normal mice. Additional studies in our laboratories have also demonstrated that MΦ can act as “metabolic sinks” by depleting glucose levels at the implanted sensors in vitro and in vivo. In the present study we extended these observations by demonstrating that MΦ chemokine (CCL2) and receptor (CCR2) knockout mice displayed a decrease in inflammation and MΦ recruitment at sensor implantation sites, when compared to normal mice. This decreased MΦ recruitment significantly enhanced CGM performance when compared to control mice. These studies demonstrated the importance of the CCL2 family of chemokines and related receptors in MΦ recruitment and sensor performance and suggest chemokine targets for enhancing CGM in vivo. PMID:27376197

  7. Adipocyte Glucocorticoid Receptor Deficiency Attenuates Aging- and HFD-Induced Obesity and Impairs the Feeding-Fasting Transition.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Kristina M; Hartmann, Kerstin; Kaltenecker, Doris; Vettorazzi, Sabine; Bauer, Mandy; Mauser, Lea; Amann, Sabine; Jall, Sigrid; Fischer, Katrin; Esterbauer, Harald; Müller, Timo D; Tschöp, Matthias H; Magnes, Christoph; Haybaeck, Johannes; Scherer, Thomas; Bordag, Natalie; Tuckermann, Jan P; Moriggl, Richard

    2017-02-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are important regulators of systemic energy metabolism, and aberrant GC action is linked to metabolic dysfunctions. Yet, the extent to which normal and pathophysiological energy metabolism depend on the GC receptor (GR) in adipocytes remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that adipocyte GR deficiency in mice significantly impacts systemic metabolism in different energetic states. Plasma metabolomics and biochemical analyses revealed a marked global effect of GR deficiency on systemic metabolite abundance and, thus, substrate partitioning in fed and fasted states. This correlated with a decreased lipolytic capacity of GR-deficient adipocytes under postabsorptive and fasting conditions, resulting from impaired signal transduction from β-adrenergic receptors to adenylate cyclase. Upon prolonged fasting, the impaired lipolytic response resulted in abnormal substrate utilization and lean mass wasting. Conversely, GR deficiency attenuated aging-/diet-associated obesity, adipocyte hypertrophy, and liver steatosis. Systemic glucose tolerance was improved in obese GR-deficient mice, which was associated with increased insulin signaling in muscle and adipose tissue. We conclude that the GR in adipocytes exerts central but diverging roles in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis depending on the energetic state. The adipocyte GR is indispensable for the feeding-fasting transition but also promotes adiposity and associated metabolic disorders in fat-fed and aged mice. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  8. Endocannabinoid receptor deficiency affects maternal care and alters the dam's hippocampal oxytocin receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression.

    PubMed

    Schechter, M; Weller, A; Pittel, Z; Gross, M; Zimmer, A; Pinhasov, A

    2013-10-01

    Maternal care is the newborn's first experience of social interaction, and this influences infant survival, development and social competences throughout life. We recently found that postpartum blocking of the endocannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1R) altered maternal behaviour. In the present study, maternal care was assessed by the time taken to retrieve pups, pups' ultrasonic vocalisations (USVs) and pup body weight, comparing CB1R deleted (CB1R KO) versus wild-type (WT) mice. After culling on postpartum day 8, hippocampal expression of oxytocin receptor (OXTR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and stress-mediating factors were evaluated in CB1R KO and WT dams. Comparisons were also performed with nulliparous (NP) CB1R KO and WT mice. Compared to WT, CB1R KO dams were slower to retrieve their pups. Although the body weight of the KO pups did not differ from the weight of WT pups, they emitted fewer USVs. This impairment of the dam-pup relationship correlated with a significant reduction of OXTR mRNA and protein levels among CB1R KO dams compared to WT dams. Furthermore, WT dams exhibited elevated OXTR mRNA expression, as well as increased levels of mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors, compared to WT NP mice. By contrast, CB1R KO dams showed no such elevation of OXTR expression, alongside lower BDNF and mineralocorticoid receptors, as well as elevated corticotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA levels, when compared to CB1R KO NP. Thus, it appears that the disruption of endocannabinoid signalling by CB1R deletion alters expression of the OXTR, apparently leading to deleterious effects upon maternal behaviour. © 2013 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  9. Protective immunity against influenza in HLA-A2 transgenic mice by modified vaccinia virus Ankara vectored vaccines containing internal influenza proteins.

    PubMed

    Di Mario, Giuseppina; Sciaraffia, Ester; Facchini, Marzia; Gubinelli, Francesco; Soprana, Elisa; Panigada, Maddalena; Bernasconi, Valentina; Garulli, Bruno; Siccardi, Antonio; Donatelli, Isabella; Castrucci, Maria R

    2017-03-01

    The emergence of novel strains of influenza A viruses with hemagglutinins (HAs) that are antigenically distinct from those circulating in humans, and thus have pandemic potential, pose concerns and call for the development of more broadly protective influenza vaccines. In the present study, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) encoding internal influenza antigens were evaluated for their immunogenicity and ability to protect HLA-A2.1 transgenic (AAD) mice from infection with influenza viruses. MVAs expressing NP (MVA-NP), M1 (MVA-M1) or polymerase PB1 (MVA-PB1) of A/California/4/09 (CA/09) virus were generated and used to immunize AAD mice. Antibodies and CD8+T cell responses were assessed by ELISA and ELISPOT, respectively, and challenge experiments were performed by infecting vaccinated mice with CA/09 virus. CD8+T cells specific to immunodominant and subdominant epitopes on the internal influenza proteins were elicited by MVA-based vectors in AAD mice, whereas influenza-specific antibodies were detected only in MVA-NP-immunized mice. Both M1- and NP-based MVA vaccines, regardless of whether they were applied individually or in combination, conferred protection against lethal influenza virus challenge. Our data further emphasize the promising potential of MVA vector expressing internal antigens toward the development of a universal influenza vaccine.

  10. COMPARISON OF OVERALL METABOLISM OF 1, 2, 7, 8-PECDD IN CYP1A2(-L-) KNOCKOUT AND C57BL/6N PARENTAL STRAINS OF MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMPARISON OF OVERALL METABOLISM OF 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD
    IN CYP1A2 (-/-) KNOCKOUT AND C57BL/6N PARENTAL
    STRAINS OF MICE

    Heldur Hakk1 and Janet J. Diliberto2

    1 USDA-ARS, Biosciences Research Laboratory, P.O. Box 5674, Fargo, ND, USA
    2 US EPA, ORD, National Heal...

  11. Development of occlusive neointimal lesions in distal pulmonary arteries of endothelin B receptor-deficient rats: a new model of severe pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ivy, D Dunbar; McMurtry, Ivan F; Colvin, Kelley; Imamura, Masatoshi; Oka, Masahiko; Lee, Dong-Seok; Gebb, Sarah; Jones, Peter Lloyd

    2005-06-07

    Human pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by proliferation of vascular smooth muscle and, in its more severe form, by the development of occlusive neointimal lesions. However, few animal models of pulmonary neointimal proliferation exist, thereby limiting a complete understanding of the pathobiology of PAH. Recent studies of the endothelin (ET) system demonstrate that deficiency of the ET(B) receptor predisposes adult rats to acute and chronic hypoxic PAH, yet these animals fail to develop neointimal lesions. Herein, we determined and thereafter showed that exposure of ET(B) receptor-deficient rats to the endothelial toxin monocrotaline (MCT) leads to the development of neointimal lesions that share hallmarks of human PAH. The pulmonary hemodynamic and morphometric effects of 60 mg/kg MCT in control (MCT(+/+)) and ET(B) receptor-deficient (MCT(sl/sl)) rats at 6 weeks of age were assessed. MCT(sl/sl) rats developed more severe PAH, characterized by elevated pulmonary artery pressure, diminished cardiac output, and right ventricular hypertrophy. In MCT(sl/sl) rats, morphometric evaluation revealed the presence of neointimal lesions within small distal pulmonary arteries, increased medial wall thickness, and decreased arterial-to-alveolar ratio. In keeping with this, barium angiography revealed diminished distal pulmonary vasculature of MCT(sl/sl) rat lungs. Cells within neointimal lesions expressed smooth muscle and endothelial cell markers. Moreover, cells within neointimal lesions exhibited increased levels of proliferation and were located in a tissue microenvironment enriched with vascular endothelial growth factor, tenascin-C, and activated matrix metalloproteinase-9, factors already implicated in human PAH. Finally, assessment of steady state mRNA showed that whereas expression of ET(B) receptors was decreased in MCT(sl/sl) rat lungs, ET(A) receptor expression increased. Deficiency of the ET(B) receptor markedly accelerates the progression of

  12. Ethanol and 4-methylpyrazole increase DNA adduct formation of furfuryl alcohol in FVB/N wild-type mice and in mice expressing human sulfotransferases 1A1/1A2.

    PubMed

    Sachse, Benjamin; Meinl, Walter; Glatt, Hansruedi; Monien, Bernhard H

    2016-03-01

    Furfuryl alcohol (FFA) is a carcinogenic food contaminant, which is formed by acid- and heat-catalyzed degradation of fructose and glucose. The activation by sulfotransferases (SULTs) yields a DNA reactive and mutagenic sulfate ester. The most prominent DNA adduct, N(2)-((furan-2-yl)methyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-MF-dG), was detected in FFA-treated mice and also in human tissue samples. The dominant pathway of FFA detoxification is the oxidation via alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs). The activity of these enzymes may be greatly altered in the presence of inhibitors or competitive substrates. Here, we investigated the impact of ethanol and the ADH inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole (4MP) on the DNA adduct formation by FFA in wild-type and in humanized mice that were transgenic for human SULT1A1/1A2 and deficient in the mouse (m) Sult1a1 and Sult1d1 genes (h1A1/1A2/1a1(-)/1d1(-)). The administration of FFA alone led to hepatic adduct levels of 4.5 N(2)-MF-dG/10(8) nucleosides and 33.6 N(2)-MF-dG/10(8) nucleosides in male and female wild-type mice, respectively, and of 19.6 N(2)-MF-dG/10(8) nucleosides and 95.4 N(2)-MF-dG/10(8) nucleosides in male and female h1A1/1A2/1a1(-)/1d1(-) mice. The coadministration of 1.6g ethanol/kg body weight increased N(2)-MF-dG levels by 2.3-fold in male and by 1.7-fold in female wild-type mice and by 2.5-fold in male and by 1.5-fold in female h1A1/1A2/1a1(-)/1d1(-) mice. The coadministration of 100mg 4MP/kg body weight had a similar effect on the adduct levels. These findings indicate that modulators of the oxidative metabolism, e.g. the drug 4MP or consumption of alcoholic beverages, may increase the genotoxic effects of FFA also in humans. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Diet-induced obese mice retain endogenous leptin action.

    PubMed

    Ottaway, Nickki; Mahbod, Parinaz; Rivero, Belen; Norman, Lee Ann; Gertler, Arieh; D'Alessio, David A; Perez-Tilve, Diego

    2015-06-02

    Obesity is characterized by hyperleptinemia and decreased response to exogenous leptin. This has been widely attributed to the development of leptin resistance, a state of impaired leptin signaling proposed to contribute to the development and persistence of obesity. To directly determine endogenous leptin activity in obesity, we treated lean and obese mice with a leptin receptor antagonist. The antagonist increased feeding and body weight (BW) in lean mice, but not in obese models of leptin, leptin receptor, or melanocortin-4 receptor deficiency. In contrast, the antagonist increased feeding and BW comparably in lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, an increase associated with decreased hypothalamic expression of Socs3, a primary target of leptin. These findings demonstrate that hyperleptinemic DIO mice retain leptin suppression of feeding comparable to lean mice and counter the view that resistance to endogenous leptin contributes to the persistence of DIO in mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Definition of an HPV18/45 cross-reactive human T-cell epitope after DNA immunisation of HLA-A2/KB transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Corinna; Youde, Sarah J; Man, Stephen

    2006-05-15

    Although human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are the most common types associated with cervical cancer worldwide, other related HPV types such as HPV 35, 45 and 58 have significant prevalence in geographically distinct populations. For development of global prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine strategies, it is important to study immune responses against these viruses and to define the degree of cross-reactivity between related HPV types. To investigate the potential for T cell cross-reactivity after vaccination, HLA-A2/Kb transgenic mice were immunised with DNA plasmid constructs containing HPV18 and 45 E6 and E7. Splenocytes from immunised mice were tested in direct ELIspot assays against overlapping pools of HPV 18 peptides. Immunisation with either HPV18 or HPV45 E6 DNA produced dominant T cell responses against an epitope (KCIDFYSRI) that was shared between HPV18 and HPV45. This peptide was shown to bind to HLA-A*0201 but not Db or Kb molecules on the cell surface. Furthermore this peptide was shown to be immunogenic in vitro to human T cells from 2 out of 3 HLA-A2+ healthy donors. Collectively, these results demonstrate that HPV 18 and 45 E6 DNA vaccines are immunogenic in mice and demonstrate that cross-reactive T cell responses against closely related HPV types can be induced in vivo. The use of the HLA-A2/Kb transgenic mice allowed definition of an HLA-A*0201 binding peptide epitope that would have been rejected on the basis of predicted major histocompatibility complex binding affinity. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Cognitive impairments associated with alterations in synaptic proteins induced by the genetic loss of adenosine A2A receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Moscoso-Castro, Maria; López-Cano, Marc; Gracia-Rubio, Irene; Ciruela, Francisco; Valverde, Olga

    2017-11-01

    The study of psychiatric disorders usually focuses on emotional symptoms assessment. However, cognitive deficiencies frequently constitute the core symptoms, are often poorly controlled and handicap individual's quality of life. Adenosine receptors, through the control of both dopamine and glutamate systems, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Indeed, clinical data indicate that poorly responsive schizophrenia patients treated with adenosine adjuvants show improved treatment outcomes. The A 2A adenosine receptor subtype (A 2A R) is highly expressed in brain areas controlling cognition and motivational responses including the striatum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Accordingly, we study the role of A 2A R in the regulation of cognitive processes based on a complete cognitive behavioural analysis coupled with the assessment of neurogenesis and sub-synaptic protein expression in adult and middle-aged A 2A R constitutional knockout mice and wild-type littermates. Our results show overall cognitive impairments in A 2A R knockout mice associated with a decrease in new-born hippocampal neuron proliferation and concomitant changes in synaptic protein expression, in both the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. These results suggest a deficient adenosine signalling in cognitive processes, thus providing new opportunities for the therapeutic management of cognitive deficits associated with psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploration of immunoglobulin transcriptomes from mice immunized with three-finger toxins and phospholipases A2 from the Central American coral snake, Micrurus nigrocinctus.

    PubMed

    Laustsen, Andreas H; Engmark, Mikael; Clouser, Christopher; Timberlake, Sonia; Vigneault, Francois; Gutiérrez, José María; Lomonte, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Snakebite envenomings represent a neglected public health issue in many parts of the rural tropical world. Animal-derived antivenoms have existed for more than a hundred years and are effective in neutralizing snake venom toxins when timely administered. However, the low immunogenicity of many small but potent snake venom toxins represents a challenge for obtaining a balanced immune response against the medically relevant components of the venom. Here, we employ high-throughput sequencing of the immunoglobulin (Ig) transcriptome of mice immunized with a three-finger toxin and a phospholipase A 2 from the venom of the Central American coral snake, Micrurus nigrocinctus. Although exploratory in nature, our indicate results showed that only low frequencies of mRNA encoding IgG isotypes, the most relevant isotype for therapeutic purposes, were present in splenocytes of five mice immunized with 6 doses of the two types of toxins over 90 days. Furthermore, analysis of Ig heavy chain transcripts showed that no particular combination of variable (V) and joining (J) gene segments had been selected in the immunization process, as would be expected after a strong humoral immune response to a single antigen. Combined with the titration of toxin-specific antibodies in the sera of immunized mice, these data support the low immunogenicity of three-finger toxins and phospholipases A 2 found in M. nigrocinctus venoms, and highlight the need for future studies analyzing the complexity of antibody responses to toxins at the molecular level.

  17. Leptin receptor-deficient obese Zucker rats reduce their food intake in response to a systemic supply of calories from glucose.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Marc; Magnan, Christophe; Turban, Sophie; André, Jocelyne; Guerre-Millo, Michèle

    2003-02-01

    It has been established that leptin exerts a negative control on food intake, allowing one to maintain stable caloric intake over time. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether leptin regulates food intake when a supply of calories is provided by the systemic route. Experiments were carried out in leptin receptor-deficient obese fa/fa rats and lean Fa/fa controls. In both groups, 48 h of glucose infusion reduced food intake in proportion to caloric supply, resulting in virtually no change in total caloric intake as compared to before the infusion. This hypophagic response was reproduced without adding systemic calories, but by increasing glucose and insulin concentrations specifically in the brain through carotid artery infusion. Concomitant intracerebroventricular administration of 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid, an acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor that precludes malonyl-CoA synthesis, abolished the restriction of feeding in carotid-infused lean and obese rats. These data indicate that a supply of calories via glucose infusion induces a hypophagic response independent of leptin signaling in the rat, and support the hypothesis that a rise in central malonyl-CoA, triggered by increased glucose and insulin concentrations, participates in this adaptation. This process could contribute to the limiting of hyperphagia, primarily when leptin signaling is altered, as in the obese state.

  18. Restoration of On-Time Embryo Implantation Corrects the Timing of Parturition in Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 Group IVA Deficient Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Naoko; Morrow, Jason D.; Slaughter, James C.; Paria, Bibhash C.; Reese, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2, PLA2G4A) catalyzes the release of arachidonic acid for prostaglandin synthesis by cyclooxygenase 1 (PTGS1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (PTGS2). Mice with Pla2g4a deficiency have parturition delay and other reproductive deficits, including deferred onset of implantation, crowding of implantation sites, and small litters. In this study, we examined the contribution of PLA2G4A to parturition in mice. Pla2g4a mRNA and protein expression were discretely localized in the term and preterm uterine luminal epithelium and colocalized with Ptgs1, but not Ptgs2, expression. The levels of PGE2, PGF2alpha, 6-keto-PGF1alpha, and TxB2 were significantly decreased in Pla2g4a-null uterine tissues, similar to Ptgs1-null uteri, consistent with predominance of PLA2G4A-PTGS1-mediated prostaglandin synthesis in preparation for murine parturition. Litter size was strongly associated with the timing of parturition in Pla2g4a-null mice but could not fully account for the parturition delay. Pla2g4a-null females that received PGE2 + carbaprostacyclin at the time of implantation delivered earlier (20.5 ± 0.2 days vs. 21.6 ± 0.2 days, P < 0.01), although litter size was not improved (4.6 vs. 4.4 pups per litter, P = 0.6). After correction for small litter size, multivariate analysis indicated that Pla2g4a-null mice given prostaglandin treatment to improve implantation timing had gestational length that was similar to wild-type and Pla2g4a heterozygous mice. These results indicate that, despite specific Pla2g4a expression and function in term gestation uteri, the delayed parturition phenotype in Pla2g4a-null mice is primarily due to deferral of implantation. The role of PLA2G4A in timely parturition appears to be critically related to its actions in early pregnancy. PMID:19684335

  19. CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression: Comparing 'humanized' mouse lines and wild-type mice; comparing human and mouse hepatoma-derived cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Uno, Shigeyuki; Endo, Kaori; Ishida, Yuji

    2009-05-15

    Human and rodent cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes sometimes exhibit striking species-specific differences in substrate preference and rate of metabolism. Human risk assessment of CYP substrates might therefore best be evaluated in the intact mouse by replacing mouse Cyp genes with human CYP orthologs; however, how 'human-like' can human gene expression be expected in mouse tissues? Previously a bacterial-artificial-chromosome-transgenic mouse, carrying the human CYP1A1{sub C}YP1A2 locus and lacking the mouse Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2 orthologs, was shown to express robustly human dioxin-inducible CYP1A1 and basal versus inducible CYP1A2 (mRNAs, proteins, enzyme activities) in each of nine mouse tissues examined. Chimeric mice carryingmore » humanized liver have also been generated, by transplanting human hepatocytes into a urokinase-type plasminogen activator(+/+){sub s}evere-combined-immunodeficiency (uPA/SCID) line with most of its mouse hepatocytes ablated. Herein we compare basal and dioxin-induced CYP1A mRNA copy numbers, protein levels, and four enzymes (benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, acetanilide 4-hydroxylase, methoxyresorufin O-demethylase) in liver of these two humanized mouse lines versus wild-type mice; we also compare these same parameters in mouse Hepa-1c1c7 and human HepG2 hepatoma-derived established cell lines. Most strikingly, mouse liver CYP1A1-specific enzyme activities are between 38- and 170-fold higher than human CYP1A1-specific enzyme activities (per unit of mRNA), whereas mouse versus human CYP1A2 enzyme activities (per unit of mRNA) are within 2.5-fold of one another. Moreover, both the mouse and human hepatoma cell lines exhibit striking differences in CYP1A mRNA levels and enzyme activities. These findings are relevant to risk assessment involving human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 substrates, when administered to mice as environmental toxicants or drugs.« less

  20. Immunotoxicity and biodistribution analysis of arsenic trioxide in C57Bl/6 mice following a 2-week inhalation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Burchiel, Scott W., E-mail: Sburchiel@salud.unm.ed; Mitchell, Leah A.; Lauer, Fredine T.

    2009-12-15

    In these studies the immunotoxicity of arsenic trioxide (ATO, As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was evaluated in mice following 14 days of inhalation exposures (nose only, 3 h per day) at concentrations of 50 mug/m{sup 3} and 1 mg/m{sup 3}. A biodistribution analysis performed immediately after inhalation exposures revealed highest levels of arsenic in the kidneys, bladder, liver, and lung. Spleen cell levels were comparable to those found in the blood, with the highest concentration of arsenic detected in the spleen being 150 mug/g tissue following the 1 mg/m{sup 3} exposures. No spleen cell cytotoxicity was observed at either of the twomore » exposure levels. There were no changes in spleen cell surface marker expression for B cells, T cells, macrophages, and natural killer (NK) cells. There were also no changes detected in the B cell (LPS-stimulated) and T cell (Con A-stimulated) proliferative responses of spleen cells, and no changes were found in the NK-mediated lysis of Yac-1 target cells. The primary T-dependent antibody response was, however, found to be highly susceptible to ATO suppression. Both the 50 mug/m{sup 3} and 1 mg/m{sup 3} exposures produced greater than 70% suppression of the humoral immune response to sheep red blood cells. Thus, the primary finding of this study is that the T-dependent humoral immune response is extremely sensitive to suppression by ATO and assessment of humoral immune responses should be considered in evaluating the health effects of arsenic containing agents.« less

  1. Evaluation of antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like activity of purinedione-derivatives with affinity for adenosine A2A receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Dziubina, Anna; Szmyd, Karina; Zygmunt, Małgorzata; Sapa, Jacek; Dudek, Magdalena; Filipek, Barbara; Drabczyńska, Anna; Załuski, Michał; Pytka, Karolina; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-12-01

    It has recently been suggested that the adenosine A 2A receptor plays a role in several animal models of depression. Additionally, A 2A antagonists have reversed behavioral deficits and exhibited a profile similar to classical antidepressants. In the present study, imidazo- and pyrimido[2,1-f]purinedione derivatives (KD 66, KD 167, KD 206) with affinity to A 2A receptors but poor A 1 affinity were evaluated for their antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activity. The activity of these derivatives was tested using a tail suspension and forced swim test, two widely-used behavioral paradigms for the evaluation of antidepressant-like activity. In turn, the anxiolytic activity was evaluated using the four-plate test. The results showed the antidepressant-like activity of pyrimido- and imidazopurinedione derivatives (i.e. KD 66, KD 167 and KD 206) in acute and chronic behavioral tests in mice. KD 66 revealed an anxiolytic-like effect, while KD 167 increased anxiety behaviors. KD 206 had no effect on anxiety. Furthermore, none of the tested compounds increased locomotor activity. Available data support the proposition that the examined compounds with adenosine A 2A receptor affinity may be an interesting target for the development of antidepressant and/or anxiolytic agents. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  2. Attenuation of nicotine's discriminative stimulus effects in rats and its locomotor activity effects in mice by serotonergic 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Batman, Angela M; Munzar, Patrik; Beardsley, Patrick M

    2005-05-01

    Reports have indicated that administration of nicotine inhibits, while withdrawal of chronically administered nicotine augments effects of serotonergic 5HT2A/2C agonists. It was our objective to determine whether 5HT2A/2C agonists can modulate the discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine in rats or its locomotor activity effects in mice. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 0.3 mg/kg nicotine base from saline in a two-lever, fixed-ratio (FR10), food-reinforced, operant-conditioning task during daily (Monday-Friday) 15-min experimental sessions. After characterizing a dose-response curve for nicotine, we tested the ability of the 5HT(2A/2C) agonists (+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane HCL (DOI; 0.18-1.0 mg/kg) and 1-(4-bromo-2, 5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOB; 0.1-1.0 mg/kg), the 5HT2C agonist 6-chloro-2-(1-piperazinyl)pyrazine hydrochloride (MK 212; 0.1 mg/kg-1.0 mg/kg), and the 5HT1A agonist (+/-)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT; 0.01 mg/kg-1.0 mg/kg) to modulate nicotine's discriminative stimulus effects. After finding that DOI was able to attenuate the percentage nicotine lever responding (%NLR), we tested for it to also reverse nicotine's effects on locomotor activity in mice. The 5HT2A/2C agonists-in particular DOI-dose dependently attenuated %NLR. The effects of DOI were reversed by the 5HT2A/2C antagonist ketanserin. MK 212 and 8-OH-DPAT had irregular effects among rats and only reduced %NLR to below 50% levels at doses markedly suppressing responding. DOI also dose dependently blocked nicotine's acute rate-lowering locomotor activity effects. These results indicate that activation of serotonin 5HT2A/2C receptors can blunt the discriminative stimulus and locomotor activity effects of nicotine and presents the possibility that activation of these receptors might also be able to attenuate other effects of nicotine.

  3. Ethanol and Caffeine Effects on Social Interaction and Recognition in Mice: Involvement of Adenosine A2A and A1 Receptors.

    PubMed

    López-Cruz, Laura; San-Miguel, Noemí; Bayarri, Pilar; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D; Correa, Mercé

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol and caffeine are frequently consumed in combination and have opposite effects on the adenosine system: ethanol metabolism leads to an increase in adenosine levels, while caffeine is a non-selective adenosine A 1 /A 2A receptor antagonist. These receptors are highly expressed in striatum and olfactory tubercle, brain areas involved in exploration and social interaction in rodents. Ethanol modulates social interaction processes, but the role of adenosine in social behavior is still poorly understood. The present work was undertaken to study the impact of ethanol, caffeine and their combination on social behavior, and to explore the involvement of A 1 and A 2A receptors on those actions. Male CD1 mice were evaluated in a social interaction three-chamber paradigm, for preference of conspecific vs. object, and also for long-term recognition memory of familiar vs. novel conspecific. Ethanol showed a biphasic effect, with low doses (0.25 g/kg) increasing social contact and higher doses (1.0-1.5 g/kg) reducing social interaction. However, no dose changed social preference; mice always spent more time sniffing the conspecific than the object, independently of the ethanol dose. Ethanol, even at doses that did not change social exploration, produced amnestic effects on social recognition the following day. Caffeine reduced social contact (15.0-60.0 mg/kg), and even blocked social preference at higher doses (30.0-60.0 mg/kg). The A 1 antagonist Cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT; 3-9 mg/kg) did not modify social contact or preference on its own, and the A 2A antagonist MSX-3 (1.5-6 mg/kg) increased social interaction at all doses. Ethanol at intermediate doses (0.5-1.0 g/kg) was able to reverse the reduction in social exploration induced by caffeine (15.0-30.0 mg/kg). Although there was no interaction between ethanol and CPT or MSX-3 on social exploration in the first day, MSX-3 blocked the amnestic effects of ethanol observed on the following day. Thus, ethanol impairs the

  4. Behavioral characterization of mice lacking histamine H(3) receptors.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Hiroshi; Dugovic, Christine; Koehl, Muriel; Laposky, Aaron D; Weber, China; Ngo, Karen; Wu, Ying; Lee, Doo Hyun; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Sakurai, Eiko; Watanabe, Takehiko; Liu, Changlu; Chen, Jingcai; Barbier, Ann J; Turek, Fred W; Fung-Leung, Wai-Ping; Lovenberg, Timothy W

    2002-08-01

    Brain histamine H(3) receptors are predominantly presynaptic and serve an important autoregulatory function for the release of histamine and other neurotransmitters. They have been implicated in a variety of brain functions, including arousal, locomotor activity, thermoregulation, food intake, and memory. The recent cloning of the H(3) receptor in our laboratory has made it possible to create a transgenic line of mice devoid of H(3) receptors. This paper provides the first description of the H(3) receptor-deficient mouse (H(3)(-/-)), including molecular and pharmacologic verification of the receptor deletion as well as phenotypic screens. The H(3)(-/-) mice showed a decrease in overall locomotion, wheel-running behavior, and body temperature during the dark phase but maintained normal circadian rhythmicity. H(3)(-/-) mice were insensitive to the wake-promoting effects of the H(3) receptor antagonist thioperamide. We also observed a slightly decreased stereotypic response to the dopamine releaser, methamphetamine, and an insensitivity to the amnesic effects of the cholinergic receptor antagonist, scopolamine. These data indicate that the H(3) receptor-deficient mouse represents a valuable model for studying histaminergic regulation of a variety of behaviors and neurotransmitter systems, including dopamine and acetylcholine.

  5. Polyphenol-enriched Vaccinium uliginosum L. fractions reduce retinal damage induced by blue light in A2E-laden ARPE19 cell cultures and mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bom-Lee; Kang, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Hye-Mi; Jeong, Se-Hee; Jang, Dae-Sik; Jang, Young-Pyo; Choung, Se-Young

    2016-12-01

    Polyphenols exert beneficial effects on vision. We hypothesized that polyphenol components of Vaccinium uliginosum L. (V.U.) extract protect retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells against blue light-induced damage. Our aim was to test extracts containing polyphenol components to ascertain effects to reduce damage against blue light in RPEs. We measured the activity in fractions eluted from water, ethanol, and HP20 resin (FH), and found that the FH fraction had the highest beneficial activity. We isolated the individual active compounds from the FH fraction using chromatographic techniques, and found that FH contained flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenyl propanoids, and iridoids. Cell cultures of A2E-laden ARPE-19 exposed to blue light after treatment with V.U. extract fractions and their individual constituents indicated improvement. V uliginosum L extract fractions and constituent compounds significantly reduced A2E photo-oxidation-induced RPE cell death and inhibited intracellular A2E accumulation. Furthermore, Balb/c male mice were exposed to blue light at 10000 lux for 1 h/d for 2 weeks to induce retinal damage. One week after the final blue light exposure, retinal damage evaluated revealed that the outer nuclear layer thickness and nuclei count were improved. Histologic examination of murine photoreceptor cells demonstrated that FH, rich in polyphenols, inhibited the loss of outer nuclear layer thickness and nuclei. Our findings suggest that V.U. extract and eluted fractions are a potential source of bioactive compounds that potentially serve a therapeutic approach for age-related macular degeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Genotoxicity of three food processing contaminants in transgenic mice expressing human sulfotransferases 1A1 and 1A2 as assessed by the in vivo alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay

    PubMed Central

    Høie, Anja Hortemo; Svendsen, Camilla; Brunborg, Gunnar; Glatt, Hansruedi; Alexander, Jan; Meinl, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The food processing contaminants 2‐amino‐1‐methyl‐6‐phenylimidazo[4,5‐b]pyridine (PhIP), 5‐hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 2,5 dimethylfuran (DMF) are potentially both mutagenic and carcinogenic in vitro and/or in vivo, although data on DMF is lacking. The PHIP metabolite N‐hydroxy‐PhIP and HMF are bioactivated by sulfotransferases (SULTs). The substrate specificity and tissue distribution of SULTs differs between species. A single oral dose of PhIP, HMF or DMF was administered to wild‐type (wt) mice and mice expressing human SULT1A1/1A2 (hSULT mice). DNA damage was studied using the in vivo alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay. No effects were detected in wt mice. In the hSULT mice, PhIP and HMF exposure increased the levels of DNA damage in the liver and kidney, respectively. DMF was not found to be genotoxic. The observation of increased DNA damage in hSULT mice compared with wt mice supports the role of human SULTs in the bioactivation of N‐hydroxy‐PhIP and HMF in vivo. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 56:709–714, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26270892

  7. Regulatory T Cells Contribute to the Inhibition of Radiation-Induced Acute Lung Inflammation via Bee Venom Phospholipase A2 in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dasom; Lee, Gihyun; Sohn, Sung-Hwa; Park, Soojin; Jung, Kyung-Hwa; Lee, Ji Min; Yang, Jieun; Cho, Jaeho; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-01-01

    Bee venom has long been used to treat various inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Previously, we reported that bee venom phospholipase A2 (bvPLA2) has an anti-inflammatory effect through the induction of regulatory T cells. Radiotherapy is a common anti-cancer method, but often causes adverse effects, such as inflammation. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of bvPLA2 in radiation-induced acute lung inflammation. Mice were focally irradiated with 75 Gy of X-rays in the lung and administered bvPLA2 six times after radiation. To evaluate the level of inflammation, the number of immune cells, mRNA level of inflammatory cytokine, and histological changes in the lung were measured. BvPLA2 treatment reduced the accumulation of immune cells, such as macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. In addition, bvPLA2 treatment decreased inflammasome-, chemokine-, cytokine- and fibrosis-related genes’ mRNA expression. The histological results also demonstrated the attenuating effect of bvPLA2 on radiation-induced lung inflammation. Furthermore, regulatory T cell depletion abolished the therapeutic effects of bvPLA2 in radiation-induced pneumonitis, implicating the anti-inflammatory effects of bvPLA2 are dependent upon regulatory T cells. These results support the therapeutic potential of bvPLA2 in radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis treatments. PMID:27144583

  8. Antisense Masking of an hnRNP A1/A2 Intronic Splicing Silencer Corrects SMN2 Splicing in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yimin; Vickers, Timothy A.; Okunola, Hazeem L.; Bennett, C. Frank; Krainer, Adrian R.

    2008-01-01

    survival of motor neuron 2, centromeric (SMN2) is a gene that modifies the severity of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a motor-neuron disease that is the leading genetic cause of infant mortality. Increasing inclusion of SMN2 exon 7, which is predominantly skipped, holds promise to treat or possibly cure SMA; one practical strategy is the disruption of splicing silencers that impair exon 7 recognition. By using an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO)-tiling method, we systematically screened the proximal intronic regions flanking exon 7 and identified two intronic splicing silencers (ISSs): one in intron 6 and a recently described one in intron 7. We analyzed the intron 7 ISS by mutagenesis, coupled with splicing assays, RNA-affinity chromatography, and protein overexpression, and found two tandem hnRNP A1/A2 motifs within the ISS that are responsible for its inhibitory character. Mutations in these two motifs, or ASOs that block them, promote very efficient exon 7 inclusion. We screened 31 ASOs in this region and selected two optimal ones to test in human SMN2 transgenic mice. Both ASOs strongly increased hSMN2 exon 7 inclusion in the liver and kidney of the transgenic animals. Our results show that the high-resolution ASO-tiling approach can identify cis-elements that modulate splicing positively or negatively. Most importantly, our results highlight the therapeutic potential of some of these ASOs in the context of SMA. PMID:18371932

  9. Streptococcus pyogenes Phospholipase A2 Induces the Expression of Adhesion Molecules on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells and Aorta of Mice.

    PubMed

    Oda, Masataka; Domon, Hisanori; Kurosawa, Mie; Isono, Toshihito; Maekawa, Tomoki; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Kawabata, Shigetada; Terao, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    The Streptococcus pyogenes phospholipase A 2 (SlaA) gene is highly conserved in the M3 serotype of group A S. pyogenes , which often involves hypervirulent clones. However, the role of SlaA in S. pyogenes pathogenesis is unclear. Herein, we report that SlaA induces the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1) via the arachidonic acid signaling cascade. Notably, recombinant SlaA induced ICAM1 and VCAM1 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), resulting in enhanced adhesion of human monocytic leukemia (THP-1) cells. However, C134A, a variant enzyme with no enzymatic activity, did not induce such events. In addition, culture supernatants from S. pyogenes SSI-1 enhanced the adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs, but culture supernatants from the Δ slaA isogenic mutant strain had limited effects. Aspirin, a cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor, prevented the adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs and did not induce ICAM1 and VCAM1 expression in HUVECs treated with SlaA. However, zileuton, a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, did not exhibit such effects. Furthermore, pre-administration of aspirin in mice intravenously injected with SlaA attenuated the transcriptional abundance of ICAM1 and VCAM1 in the aorta. These results suggested that SlaA from S. pyogenes stimulates the expression of adhesion molecules in vascular endothelial cells. Thus, SlaA contributes to the inflammation of vascular endothelial cells upon S. pyogenes infection.

  10. Chimeric peptide containing both B and T cells epitope of tumor-associated antigen L6 enhances anti-tumor effects in HLA-A2 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Su-I; Huang, Ming-Hsi; Chang, Yu-Wen; Chen, I-Hua; Roffler, Steve; Chen, Bing-Mae; Sher, Yuh-Pyng; Liu, Shih-Jen

    2016-07-28

    Synthetic peptides are attractive for cancer immunotherapy because of their safety and flexibility. In this report, we identified a new B cell epitope of tumor-associated antigen L6 (TAL6) that could induce antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in vivo. We incorporated the B cell epitope with a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and a helper T (Th) epitope to form a chimeric long peptide. We formulated the chimeric peptide with different adjuvants to immunize HLA-A2 transgenic mice and evaluate their immunogenicity. The chimeric peptide formulated with an emulsion type nanoparticle (PELC) adjuvant and a toll-like receptor 9 agonist (CpG ODN) (PELC/CpG) induced the greatest ADCC and CTL responses. The induced anti-tumor immunity inhibited the growth of TAL6-positive cancer cells. Moreover, we observed that immunization with the chimeric peptide inhibited cancer cell migration in vitro and metastasis in vivo. These data suggest that a chimeric peptide containing both B and T cell epitopes of TAL6 formulated with PELC/CpG adjuvant is feasible for cancer immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. COMPARISON OF OVERALL METABOLISM OF 2, 3, 7, 8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN IN CYP1A2(-/-) KNOCKOUT AND C57BL/6N PARENTAL STRAINS OF MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparison of Overall Metabolism of 2,3,7,8-TCDD
    in CYP1A2 (-/-) Knockout and C57BL/6N Parental Strains of Mice

    Heldur Hakk* and Janet J. Diliberto**

    * USDA-ARS Biosciences Research Laboratory, P.O. Box 5674, Fargo, ND, USA
    ** US-EPA ORD, National Health Eff...

  12. Effects of CYP1A2 on disposition of 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran, and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl in CYP1A2 knockout and parental (C57BL/6N and 129/Sv) strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Diliberto, J J; Burgin, D E; Birnbaum, L S

    1999-08-15

    TCDD is the prototype and most potent member of the highly lipophilic polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs), which are persistent and ubiquitous environmental contaminants. In both acute and subchronic animal studies, there is a specific accumulation of TCDD in liver greater than in adipose tissue. The inducible hepatic binding protein responsible for this hepatic sequestration of TCDD and its congeners has been shown by our laboratory to be CYP1A2 (J. J. Diliberto, D. Burgin, and L. S. Birnbaum, 1997, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 236, 431-433). The present study was conducted using knockout (KO) mice lacking expression of CYP1A2 (CYP1A2-/-) in order to investigate the role of CYP1A2 gene on the disposition of TCDD, 4-PeCDF (a dioxin-like PHAH), and PCB 153 (a nondioxin-like PCB) in KO (CYP1A2-/-) mice and age-matched parental mice strains (C57BL/6N: CYP1A2+/+, Ah(b/b) and 129/Sv: CYP1A2+/+, Ah(d/d)). Mice were dosed (25 microgram [(3)H]TCDD/kg, 300 microgram [(14)C]4-PeCDF/kg, or 35.8 mg [(14)C]PCB 153/kg bw in a corn oil vehicle) orally and terminated after 4 days. Residues of administered compounds in collected tissues and daily excreta were quantitated using (3)H or (14)C activity. Results demonstrated differential effects in disposition for the various treatments within the three genetically different groups of mice. In KO mice, TCDD, 4-PeCDF, and PCB 153 had very little hepatic localization of chemical, and the major depot was adipose tissue. In contrast, parental strains demonstrated hepatic sequestration of TCDD and 4-PeCDF, whereas disposition of PCB 153 in parental strains was similar to that in KO mice. Another difference between KO mice and parental strains was the enhanced urinary excretion of 4-PeCDF. This study demonstrates the importance of CYP1A2 in pharmacokinetic behavior and mechanistic issues for TCDD and related compounds. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  13. Inhibition of Group IIA Secretory Phospholipase A2 and its Inflammatory Reactions in Mice by Ethanolic Extract of Andrographis paniculata, a Well-known Medicinal Food

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, V.; Yarla, N. S.; Zameer, F.; Nagendra Prasad, M. N.; Santosh, M. S.; More, S. S.; Rao, D. G.; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2016-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata Nees is an important medicinal plant found in the tropical regions of the world, which has been traditionally used in Indian and Chinese medicinal systems. It is also used as medicinal food. A. paniculata is found to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities; however, its inhibitory potential on inflammatory Group IIA phospholipases A2 (PLA2) and its associated inflammatory reactions are not clearly understood. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the inhibitory/neutralizing potential of ethanolic extract of A. paniculata on the isolated inflammatory PLA2 (VRV-PL-VIIIa) from Daboii rusellii pulchella (belonging to Group IIA inflammatory secretory PLA2 [sPLA2]) and its associated edema-induced activities in Swiss albino mice. A. paniculata extract dose dependently inhibited the Group IIA sPLA2 enzymatic activity with an IC50 value of 10.3 ± 0.5 μg/ml. Further, the extract dose dependently inhibited the edema formation, when co-injected with enzyme indicating that a strong correlation exists between lipolytic and pro-inflammatory activities of the enzyme. In conclusion, results of this study shows that the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata effectively inhibits Group IIA sPLA2 and its associated inflammatory activities, which substantiate its anti-inflammatory properties. The results of the present study warranted further studies to develop bioactive compound (s) in ethanolic extract of A. paniculata as potent therapeutic agent (s) for inflammatory diseases. SUMMARY This study emphasis the anti-inflammatory effect of A. paniculata by inhibiting the inflammatory Group IIA sPLA2 and its associated inflammatory activities such as edema. It was found that there is a strong correlation between lipolytic activity and pro-inflammatory activity inhibition. Therefore, the study suggests that the extract processes potent anti-inflammatory agents, which could be developed as a potential therapeutic agent against inflammatory and related diseases

  14. MitoPark mice, an animal model of Parkinson's disease, show enhanced prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle and no loss of gating in response to the adenosine A(2A) antagonist SCH 412348.

    PubMed

    Grauer, Steven M; Hodgson, Robert; Hyde, Lynn A

    2014-04-01

    Psychoses are debilitating side effects associated with current dopaminergic treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD). Prepulse inhibition (PPI), in which a non-startling stimulus reduces startle response to a subsequent startle-eliciting stimulus, is important in filtering out extraneous sensory stimuli. PPI deficits induced by dopamine agonists can model symptoms of psychosis. Adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists, being developed as novel PD treatments, indirectly modulate dopamine signaling in the basal ganglia and may have an improved psychosis profile which could be detected using the PPI model. The aims of this study is to characterize PPI in MitoPark mice, which exhibit progressive loss of dopamine signaling and develop a Parkinson-like motor phenotype, and assess standard and novel PD treatment effects on PPI in MitoPark mice, which more closely mimic the basal ganglia dopamine status of PD patients. MitoPark mice displayed enhanced PPI as dopamine tone decreased with age, consistent with studies in intact mice that show enhanced PPI in response to dopamine antagonists. Paradoxically, older MitoParks were more sensitive to PPI disruption when challenged with dopamine agonists such as apomorphine or pramipexole. Alternatively, SCH 412348, an adenosine A(2A) antagonist, did not disrupt PPI in MitoPark mice at doses that normalized hypoactivity. Use of MitoPark mice in the PPI assay to assess the potential for PD treatment to produce psychoses likely represents a more disease-relevant model. SCH 412348 does not differentially disrupt PPI as do dopamine agonists, perhaps indicative of an improved psychosis profile of adenosine A(2A) antagonists, even in PD patients with decreased dopamine tone in the basal ganglia.

  15. Short-term treatment with a 2-carba analog of cyclic phosphatidic acid induces lowering of plasma cholesterol levels in ApoE-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Tamotsu; Haniu, Hisao; Matsuda, Yoshikazu; Murakmi-Murofushi, Kimiko

    2016-04-22

    Plasma cholesterol levels are associated with an increased risk of developing atherosclerosis. An elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level is a hallmark of hypercholesterolemia in metabolic syndrome. Our previous study suggested that when acetylated LDL (AC-LDL) was co-applied with a PPARγ agonist, rosiglitazone (ROSI), many oil red O-positive macrophages could be observed. However, addition of cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) to ROSI-stimulated macrophages completely abolished oil red O-stained cells, indicating that cPA inhibits PPARγ-regulated AC-LDL uptake. This study aimed to determine whether metabolically stabilized cPA, in the form of a carba-derivative of cPA (2ccPA), could reduce plasma cholesterol levels and affect the expression of genes related to atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice. 2ccPA reduced LDL-C levels in these mice (n = 3) from 460 to 330 mg/ml, from 420 to 350 mg/ml, and 420 to 281 mg/ml under a western-type diet. 2ccPA also reduced expression of lipid metabolism-related genes, cytokines, and chemokines in ApoE-deficient mice on a high-fat diet. Taken together, these results suggest that 2ccPA governs anti-atherogenic activities in the carotid arteries of apoE-deficient mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Carcinogenicity of acrylamide in B6C3F(1) mice and F344/N rats from a 2-year drinking water exposure.

    PubMed

    Beland, Frederick A; Mellick, Paul W; Olson, Greg R; Mendoza, Maria C B; Marques, M Matilde; Doerge, Daniel R

    2013-01-01

    Acrylamide is a component of roasted coffee and certain baked and fried carbohydrate-rich foods prepared at high temperatures. We have assessed the carcinogenicity of acrylamide in male and female B6C3F(1) mice and F344/N rats administered 0, 0.0875, 0.175, 0.35, or 0.70mM acrylamide in the drinking water ad libitum for 2 years. Acrylamide caused significant dose-related decreasing trends in the body weights of F344/N rats. Acrylamide administration resulted in significant dose-related decreasing trends in survival in both sexes of B6C3F(1) mice and in female F344/N rats. Histopathological analyses indicated significant dose-related increases in Harderian gland and lung tumors in male and female B6C3F(1) mice. Male B6C3F(1) mice also had a significantly increased incidence of forestomach tumors, while female B6C3F(1) mice had significant dose-related increases in mammary gland, ovary, and skin tumors. In male and female F344/N rats, there were significant increases in thyroid tumors. Male F344/N rats also had significant dose-related increases in testes, heart, and pancreas tumors, while female F344 rats demonstrated significant increases in clitoral gland, mammary gland, oral cavity, and skin tumors. These results, combined with previous mechanistic studies, provide strong support for the concept that acrylamide is activated to a carcinogen through metabolism to glycidamide. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Genetic deletion of GPR52 enhances the locomotor-stimulating effect of an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist in mice: A potential role of GPR52 in the function of striatopallidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Keiji; Suzuki, Hirobumi; Maruyama, Minoru; Yoshihara, Tomoki; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2017-09-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 52 (GPR52) is largely co-expressed with dopamine D 2 receptor (DRD2) in the striatum and nucleus accumbens, and this expression pattern is similar to that of adenosine A 2A receptor (ADORA2A). GPR52 has been proposed as a therapeutic target for positive symptoms of schizophrenia, based on observations from pharmacological and transgenic mouse studies. However, the physiological role of GPR52 in dopaminergic functions in the basal ganglia remains unclear. Here, we used GPR52 knockout (KO) mice to examine the role of GPR52 in dopamine receptor-mediated and ADORA2A-mediated locomotor activity and dopamine receptor signaling. High expression of GPR52 protein in the striatum, nucleus accumbens, and lateral globus pallidus of wild type (WT) littermates was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. GPR52 KO and WT mice exhibited almost identical locomotor responses to the dopamine releaser methamphetamine and the N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonist MK-801. In contrast, the locomotor response to the ADORA2A antagonist istradefylline was significantly augmented in GPR52 KO mice compared to WT mice. Gene expression analysis revealed that striatal expression of DRD2, but not of dopamine D 1 receptor and ADORA2A, was significantly decreased in GPR52 KO mice. Moreover, a significant reduction in the mRNA expression of enkephalin, a marker of the activity of striatopallidal neurons, was observed in the striatum of GPR52 KO mice, suggesting that GPR52 deletion could enhance DRD2 signaling. Taken together, these results imply the physiological relevance of GPR52 in modulating the function of striatopallidal neurons, possibly by interaction of GPR52 with ADORA2A and DRD2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) anti-G protein F(ab')2 monoclonal antibody suppresses mucous production and breathing effort in RSV rA2-line19F-infected BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Boyoglu-Barnum, Seyhan; Gaston, Kelsey A; Todd, Sean O; Boyoglu, Cemil; Chirkova, Tatiana; Barnum, Thomas R; Jorquera, Patricia; Haynes, Lia M; Tripp, Ralph A; Moore, Martin L; Anderson, Larry J

    2013-10-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and is the single most important cause of serious lower respiratory tract infections in young children, yet no highly effective treatment or vaccine is available. Increased airway resistance and increased airway mucin production are two manifestations of RSV infection in children. RSV rA2-line19F infection induces pulmonary mucous production and increased breathing effort in BALB/c mice and provides a way to assess these manifestations of RSV disease in an animal model. In the present study, we investigated the effect of prophylactic treatment with the F(ab')2 form of the anti-G protein monoclonal antibody (MAb) 131-2G on disease in RSV rA2-line19F-challenged mice. F(ab')2 131-2G does not affect virus replication. It and the intact form that does decrease virus replication prevented increased breathing effort and airway mucin production, as well as weight loss, pulmonary inflammatory-cell infiltration, and the pulmonary substance P and pulmonary Th2 cytokine levels that occur in mice challenged with this virus. These data suggest that the RSV G protein contributes to prominent manifestations of RSV disease and that MAb 131-2G can prevent these manifestations of RSV disease without inhibiting virus infection.

  19. Quantitative trait locus mapping in mice identifies phospholipase Pla2g12a as novel atherosclerosis modifier.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, Alexandros; Northoff, Bernd H; Sass, Kristina; Ernst, Jana; Kohlmaier, Alexander; Krohn, Knut; Wolfrum, Christian; Teupser, Daniel; Holdt, Lesca M

    2017-10-01

    In a previous work, a female-specific atherosclerosis risk locus on chromosome (Chr) 3 was identified in an intercross of atherosclerosis-resistant FVB and atherosclerosis-susceptible C57BL/6 (B6) mice on the LDL-receptor deficient (Ldlr -/- ) background. It was the aim of the current study to identify causative genes at this locus. We established a congenic mouse model, where FVB.Chr3 B6/B6 mice carried an 80 Mb interval of distal Chr3 on an otherwise FVB.Ldlr -/- background, to validate the Chr3 locus. Candidate genes were identified using genome-wide expression analyses. Differentially expressed genes were validated using quantitative PCRs in F0 and F2 mice and their functions were investigated in pathophysiologically relevant cells. Fine-mapping of the Chr3 locus revealed two overlapping, yet independent subloci for female atherosclerosis susceptibility: when transmitted by grandfathers to granddaughters, the B6 risk allele increased atherosclerosis and downregulated the expression of the secreted phospholipase Pla2g12a (2.6 and 2.2 fold, respectively); when inherited by grandmothers, the B6 risk allele induced vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (Vcam1). Down-regulation of Pla2g12a and up-regulation of Vcam1 were validated in female FVB.Chr3 B6/B6 congenic mice, which developed 2.5 greater atherosclerotic lesions compared to littermate controls (p=0.039). Pla2g12a was highly expressed in aortic endothelial cells in vivo, and knocking-down Pla2g12a expression by RNAi in cultured vascular endothelial cells or macrophages increased their adhesion to ECs in vitro. Our data establish Pla2g12a as an atheroprotective candidate gene in mice, where high expression levels in ECs and macrophages may limit the recruitment and accumulation of these cells in nascent atherosclerotic lesions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mineralocorticoid Receptor Deficiency in Macrophages Inhibits Neointimal Hyperplasia and Suppresses Macrophage Inflammation Through SGK1-AP1/NF-κB Pathways.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian-Yong; Li, Chao; Shen, Zhu-Xia; Zhang, Wu-Chang; Ai, Tang-Jun; Du, Lin-Juan; Zhang, Yu-Yao; Yao, Gao-Feng; Liu, Yan; Sun, Shuyang; Naray-Fejes-Toth, Aniko; Fejes-Toth, Geza; Peng, Yong; Chen, Mao; Liu, Xiaojing; Tao, Jun; Zhou, Bin; Yu, Ying; Guo, Feifan; Du, Jie; Duan, Sheng-Zhong

    2016-05-01

    Restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention remains to be a serious medical problem. Although mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) has been implicated as a potential target for treating restenosis, the cellular and molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. This study aims to explore the functions of macrophage MR in neointimal hyperplasia and to delineate the molecular mechanisms. Myeloid MR knockout (MMRKO) mice and controls were subjected to femoral artery injury. MMRKO reduced intima area and intima/media ratio, Ki67- and BrdU-positive vascular smooth muscle cells, expression of proinflammatory molecules, and macrophage accumulation in injured arteries. MMRKO macrophages migrated less in culture. MMRKO decreased Ki67- and BrdU-positive macrophages in injured arteries. MMRKO macrophages were less Ki67-positive in culture. Conditioned media from MMRKO macrophages induced less migration, Ki67 positivity, and proinflammatory gene expression of vascular smooth muscle cells. After lipopolysaccharide treatment, MMRKO macrophages had decreased p-cFos and p-cJun compared with control macrophages, suggesting suppressed activation of activator protein-1 (AP1). Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway was also inhibited by MMRKO, manifested by decreased p-IκB kinase-β and p-IκBα, increased IκBα expression, decreased nuclear translocation of p65 and p50, as welll as decreased phosphorylation and expression of p65. Finally, overexpression of serum-and-glucocorticoid-inducible-kinase-1 (SGK1) attenuated the effects of MR deficiency in macrophages. Selective deletion of MR in myeloid cells limits macrophage accumulation and vascular inflammation and, therefore, inhibits neointimal hyperplasia and vascular remodeling. Mechanistically, MR deficiency suppresses migration and proliferation of macrophages and leads to less vascular smooth muscle cell activation. At the molecular level, MR deficiency suppresses macrophage inflammatory response via SGK1-AP1/NF-κB pathways.

  1. Increased oxidative metabolism and neurotransmitter cycling in the brain of mice lacking the thyroid hormone transporter SLC16A2 (MCT8).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Tiago B; Ceballos, Ainhoa; Grijota-Martínez, Carmen; Nuñez, Barbara; Refetoff, Samuel; Cerdán, Sebastian; Morte, Beatriz; Bernal, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Mutations of the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) cause a severe X-linked intellectual deficit and neurological impairment. MCT8 is a specific thyroid hormone (T4 and T3) transporter and the patients also present unusual abnormalities in the serum profile of thyroid hormone concentrations due to altered secretion and metabolism of T4 and T3. Given the role of thyroid hormones in brain development, it is thought that the neurological impairment is due to restricted transport of thyroid hormones to the target neurons. In this work we have investigated cerebral metabolism in mice with Mct8 deficiency. Adult male mice were infused for 30 minutes with (1-(13)C) glucose and brain extracts prepared and analyzed by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Genetic inactivation of Mct8 resulted in increased oxidative metabolism as reflected by increased glutamate C4 enrichment, and of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmissions as observed by the increases in glutamine C4 and GABA C2 enrichments, respectively. These changes were distinct to those produced by hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. Similar increments in glutamate C4 enrichment and GABAergic neurotransmission were observed in the combined inactivation of Mct8 and D2, indicating that the increased neurotransmission and metabolic activity were not due to increased production of cerebral T3 by the D2-encoded type 2 deiodinase. In conclusion, Mct8 deficiency has important metabolic consequences in the brain that could not be correlated with deficiency or excess of thyroid hormone supply to the brain during adulthood.

  2. The Role of Na:K:2Cl Cotransporter 1 (NKCC1/SLC12A2) in Dental Epithelium during Enamel Formation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jalali, Rozita; Lodder, Johannes C.; Zandieh-Doulabi, Behrouz; Micha, Dimitra; Melvin, James E.; Catalan, Marcelo A.; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; DenBesten, Pamela; Bronckers, Antonius

    2017-01-01

    Na+:K+:2Cl− cotransporters (NKCCs) belong to the SLC12A family of cation-coupled Cl− transporters. We investigated whether enamel-producing mouse ameloblasts express NKCCs. Transcripts for Nkcc1 were identified in the mouse dental epithelium by RT-qPCR and NKCC1 protein was immunolocalized in outer enamel epithelium and in the papillary layer but not the ameloblast layer. In incisors of Nkcc1-null mice late maturation ameloblasts were disorganized, shorter and the mineral density of the enamel was reduced by 10% compared to wild-type controls. Protein levels of gap junction protein connexin 43, Na+-dependent bicarbonate cotransporter e1 (NBCe1), and the Cl−-dependent bicarbonate exchangers SLC26A3 and SLC26A6 were upregulated in Nkcc1-null enamel organs while the level of NCKX4/SLC24A4, the major K+, Na+ dependent Ca2+ transporter in maturation ameloblasts, was slightly downregulated. Whole-cell voltage clamp studies on rat ameloblast-like HAT-7 cells indicated that bumetanide increased ion-channel activity conducting outward currents. Bumetanide also reduced cell volume of HAT-7 cells. We concluded that non-ameloblast dental epithelium expresses NKCC1 to regulate cell volume in enamel organ and provide ameloblasts with Na+, K+ and Cl− ions required for the transport of mineral- and bicarbonate-ions into enamel. Absence of functional Nkcc1 likely is compensated by other types of ion channels and ion transporters. The increased amount of Cx43 in enamel organ cells in Nkcc1-null mice suggests that these cells display a higher number of gap junctions to increase intercellular communication. PMID:29209227

  3. Increased Oxidative Metabolism and Neurotransmitter Cycling in the Brain of Mice Lacking the Thyroid Hormone Transporter Slc16a2 (Mct8)

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Tiago B.; Ceballos, Ainhoa; Grijota-Martínez, Carmen; Nuñez, Barbara; Refetoff, Samuel; Cerdán, Sebastian; Morte, Beatriz; Bernal, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Mutations of the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) cause a severe X-linked intellectual deficit and neurological impairment. MCT8 is a specific thyroid hormone (T4 and T3) transporter and the patients also present unusual abnormalities in the serum profile of thyroid hormone concentrations due to altered secretion and metabolism of T4 and T3. Given the role of thyroid hormones in brain development, it is thought that the neurological impairment is due to restricted transport of thyroid hormones to the target neurons. In this work we have investigated cerebral metabolism in mice with Mct8 deficiency. Adult male mice were infused for 30 minutes with (1-13C) glucose and brain extracts prepared and analyzed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Genetic inactivation of Mct8 resulted in increased oxidative metabolism as reflected by increased glutamate C4 enrichment, and of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmissions as observed by the increases in glutamine C4 and GABA C2 enrichments, respectively. These changes were distinct to those produced by hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. Similar increments in glutamate C4 enrichment and GABAergic neurotransmission were observed in the combined inactivation of Mct8 and D2, indicating that the increased neurotransmission and metabolic activity were not due to increased production of cerebral T3 by the D2-encoded type 2 deiodinase. In conclusion, Mct8 deficiency has important metabolic consequences in the brain that could not be correlated with deficiency or excess of thyroid hormone supply to the brain during adulthood. PMID:24098341

  4. SLC20A2 DEFICIENCY IN MICE LEADS TO ELEVATED PHOSPHATE LEVELS IN CEREBROSPINAL FLUID AND GLYMPHATIC PATHWAY-ASSOCIATED ARTERIOLAR CALCIFICATION, AND RECAPITULATES HUMAN IDIOPATHIC BASAL GANGLIA CALCIFICATION

    PubMed Central

    Wallingford, MC; Chia, J; Leaf, EM; Borgeia, S; Chavkin, NW; Sawangmake, C; Marro, K; Cox, TC; Speer, MY; Giachelli, CM

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification is a brain calcification disorder that has been genetically linked to autosomal dominant mutations in the sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporter, SLC20A2. The mechanisms whereby deficiency of Slc20a2 leads to basal ganglion calcification are unknown. In the mouse brain, we found that Slc20a2 was expressed in tissues that produce and/or regulate cerebrospinal fluid, including choroid plexus, ependyma and arteriolar smooth muscle cells. Haploinsufficient Slc20a2 +/− mice developed age-dependent basal ganglia calcification that formed in glymphatic pathway-associated arterioles. Slc20a2 deficiency uncovered phosphate homeostasis dysregulation characterized by abnormally high cerebrospinal fluid phosphate levels and hydrocephalus, in addition to basal ganglia calcification. Slc20a2 siRNA knockdown in smooth muscle cells revealed increased susceptibility to high phosphate-induced calcification. These data suggested that loss of Slc20a2 led to dysregulated phosphate homeostasis and enhanced susceptibility of arteriolar smooth muscle cells to elevated phosphate-induced calcification. Together, dysregulated cerebrospinal fluid phosphate and enhanced smooth muscle cell susceptibility may predispose to glymphatic pathway-associated arteriolar calcification. PMID:26822507

  5. Immunogenicity Evaluation of a Rationally Designed Polytope Construct Encoding HLA-A*0201 Restricted Epitopes Derived from Leishmania major Related Proteins in HLA-A2/DR1 Transgenic Mice: Steps toward Polytope Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Seyed, Negar; Taheri, Tahereh; Vauchy, Charline; Dosset, Magalie; Godet, Yann; Eslamifar, Ali; Sharifi, Iraj; Adotevi, Olivier; Borg, Christophe; Rohrlich, Pierre Simon; Rafati, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Background There are several reports demonstrating the role of CD8 T cells against Leishmania species. Therefore peptide vaccine might represent an effective approach to control the infection. We developed a rational polytope-DNA construct encoding immunogenic HLA-A2 restricted peptides and validated the processing and presentation of encoded epitopes in a preclinical mouse model humanized for the MHC-class-I and II. Methods and Findings HLA-A*0201 restricted epitopes from LPG-3, LmSTI-1, CPB and CPC along with H-2Kd restricted peptides, were lined-up together as a polytope string in a DNA construct. Polytope string was rationally designed by harnessing advantages of ubiquitin, spacers and HLA-DR restricted Th1 epitope. Endotoxin free pcDNA plasmid expressing the polytope was inoculated into humanized HLA-DRB1*0101/HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice intramuscularly 4 days after Cardiotoxin priming followed by 2 boosters at one week interval. Mice were sacrificed 10 days after the last booster, and splenocytes were subjected to ex-vivo and in-vitro evaluation of specific IFN-γ production and in-vitro cytotoxicity against individual peptides by ELISpot and standard chromium-51(51Cr) release assay respectively. 4 H-2Kd and 5 HLA-A*0201 restricted peptides were able to induce specific CD8 T cell responses in BALB/C and HLA-A2/DR1 mice respectively. IFN-γ and cytolytic activity together discriminated LPG-3-P1 as dominant, LmSTI-1-P3 and LmSTI-1-P6 as subdominant with both cytolytic activity and IFN-γ production, LmSTI-1-P4 and LPG-3-P5 as subdominant with only IFN-γ production potential. Conclusions Here we described a new DNA-polytope construct for Leishmania vaccination encompassing immunogenic HLA-A2 restricted peptides. Immunogenicity evaluation in HLA-transgenic model confirmed CD8 T cell induction with expected affinities and avidities showing almost efficient processing and presentation of the peptides in relevant preclinical model. Further evaluation will determine

  6. CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression: Comparing ‘humanized’ mouse lines and wild-type mice; comparing human and mouse hepatoma-derived cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Shigeyuki; Endo, Kaori; Ishida, Yuji; Tateno, Chise; Makishima, Makoto; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Nebert, Daniel W.

    2009-01-01

    Human and rodent cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes sometimes exhibit striking species-specific differences in substrate preference and rate of metabolism. Human risk assessment of CYP substrates might therefore best be evaluated in the intact mouse by replacing mouse Cyp genes with human CYP orthologs; however, how “human-like” can human gene expression be expected in mouse tissues? Previously a bacterial-artificial-chromosome-transgenic mouse, carrying the human CYP1A1_CYP1A2 locus and lacking the mouse Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2 orthologs, was shown to express robustly human dioxin-inducible CYP1A1 and basal versus inducible CYP1A2 (mRNAs, proteins, enzyme activities) in each of nine mouse tissues examined. Chimeric mice carrying humanized liver have also been generated, by transplanting human hepatocytes into a urokinase-type plasminogen activator(+/+)_severe-combined-immunodeficiency (uPA/SCID) line with most of its mouse hepatocytes ablated. Herein we compare basal and dioxin-induced CYP1A mRNA copy numbers, protein levels, and four enzymes (benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, acetanilide 4-hydroxylase, methoxyresorufin O-demethylase) in liver of these two humanized mouse lines versus wild-type mice; we also compare these same parameters in mouse Hepa-1c1c7 and human HepG2 hepatoma-derived established cell lines. Most strikingly, mouse liver CYP1A1-specific enzyme activities are between 38- and 170-fold higher than human CYP1A1-specific enzyme activities (per unit of mRNA), whereas mouse versus human CYP1A2 enzyme activities (per unit of mRNA) are within 2.5-fold of one another. Moreover, both the mouse and human hepatoma cell lines exhibit striking differences in CYP1A mRNA levels and enzyme activities. These findings are relevant to risk assessment involving human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 substrates, when administered to mice as environmental toxicants or drugs. PMID:19285097

  7. Exosomal pMHC-I complex targets T cell-based vaccine to directly stimulate CTL responses leading to antitumor immunity in transgenic FVBneuN and HLA-A2/HER2 mice and eradicating trastuzumab-resistant tumor in athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Xie, Yufeng; Ahmed, Khawaja Ashfaque; Ahmed, Shahid; Sami, Amer; Chibbar, Rajni; Xu, Qingyong; Kane, Susan E; Hao, Siguo; Mulligan, Sean J; Xiang, Jim

    2013-07-01

    One of the major obstacles in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-specific trastuzumab antibody immunotherapy of HER2-positive breast cancer is the development of trastuzumab resistance, warranting the search for other therapeutic strategies. Using mouse models, we previously demonstrated that ovalbumin (OVA)-specific dendritic cell (DC)-released exosome (EXOOVA)-targeted CD4(+) T cell-based (OVA-TEXO) vaccine stimulates efficient cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses via exosomal peptide/major histocompatibility complex (pMHC)-I, exosomal CD80 and endogenous IL-2 signaling; and long-term CTL memory by means of via endogenous CD40L signaling. In this study, using two-photon microscopy, we provide the first visual evidence on targeting OVA-TEXO to cognate CD8(+) T cells in vivo via exosomal pMHC-I complex. We prepared HER2/neu-specific Neu-TEXO and HER2-TEXO vaccines using adenoviral vector (AdVneu and AdVHER2)-transfected DC (DCneu and DCHER2)-released EXOs (EXOneu and EXOHER2), and assessed their stimulatory effects on HER2/neu-specific CTL responses and antitumor immunity. We demonstrate that Neu-TEXO vaccine is capable of stimulating efficient neu-specific CTL responses, leading to protective immunity against neu-expressing Tg1-1 breast cancer in all 6/6 transgenic (Tg) FVBneuN mice with neu-specific self-immune tolerance. We also demonstrate that HER2-TEXO vaccine is capable of inducing HER2-specific CTL responses and protective immunity against transgene HLA-A2(+)HER2(+) BL6-10A2/HER2 B16 melanoma in 2/8 double Tg HLA-A2/HER2 mice with HER2-specific self-immune tolerance. The remaining 6/8 mice had significantly prolonged survival. Furthermore, we demonstrate that HER2-TEXO vaccine stimulates responses of CD8(+) T cells capable of not only inducing killing activity to HLA-A2(+)HER2(+) BL6-10A2/HER2 melanoma and trastuzumab-resistant BT474A2 breast cancer cells in vitro but also eradicating 6-day palpable HER2(+) BT474A2 breast cancer (3-4 mm in

  8. In vivo immunogenicity of Tax 11-19 epitope in HLA-A2/DTR transgenic mice: implication for dendritic cell-based anti-HTLV-1 vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Sagar, Divya; Masih, Shet; Schell, Todd; Jacobson, Steven; Comber, Joseph D.; Philip, Ramila; Wigdahl, Brian; Jain, Pooja; Khan, Zafar K.

    2014-01-01

    Viral oncoprotein Tax plays key roles in transformation of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1)-infected T cells leading to adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), and is the key antigen recognized during HTLV-associated myelopathy (HAM). In HLA-A2+ asymptomatic carriers as well as ATL and HAM patients, Tax(11-19) epitope exhibits immunodominance. Here, we evaluate CD8 T-cell immune response against this epitope in the presence and absence of dendritic cells (DCs) given the recent encouraging observations made with Phase 1 DC-based vaccine trial for ATL. To facilitate these studies, we first generated an HLA-A2/DTR hybrid mouse strain carrying the HLA-A2.1 and CD11c-DTR genes. We then studied CD8 T-cell immune response against Tax(11-19) epitope delivered in the absence or presence of Freund’s adjuvant and/or DCs. Overall results demonstrate that naturally presented Tax epitope could initiate an antigen-specific CD8 T cell response in vivo but failed to do so upon DC depletion. Presence of adjuvant potentiated Tax(11-19)-specific response. Elevated serum IL-6 levels coincided with depletion of DCs whereas decreased TGF-β was associated with adjuvant use. Thus, Tax(11-19) epitope is a potential candidate for the DC-based anti-HTLV-1 vaccine and the newly hybrid mouse strain could be used for investigating DC involvement in human class-I-restricted immune responses. PMID:24739247

  9. Energy homeostasis in leptin deficient Lepob/ob mice.

    PubMed

    Skowronski, Alicja A; Ravussin, Yann; Leibel, Rudolph L; LeDuc, Charles A

    2017-01-01

    Maintenance of reduced body weight is associated both with reduced energy expenditure per unit metabolic mass and increased hunger in mice and humans. Lowered circulating leptin concentration, due to decreased fat mass, provides a primary signal for this response. However, leptin deficient (Lepob/ob) mice (and leptin receptor deficient Zucker rats) reduce energy expenditure following weight reduction by a necessarily non-leptin dependent mechanisms. To identify these mechanisms, Lepob/ob mice were fed ad libitum (AL group; n = 21) or restricted to 3 kilocalories of chow per day (CR group, n = 21). After losing 20% of initial weight (in approximately 2 weeks), the CR mice were stabilized at 80% of initial body weight for two weeks by titrated refeeding, and then released from food restriction. CR mice conserved energy (-17% below predicted based on body mass and composition during the day; -52% at night); and, when released to ad libitum feeding, CR mice regained fat and lean mass (to AL levels) within 5 weeks. CR mice did so while their ad libitum caloric intake was equal to that of the AL animals. While calorically restricted, the CR mice had a significantly lower respiratory exchange ratio (RER = 0.89) compared to AL (0.94); after release to ad libitum feeding, RER was significantly higher (1.03) than in the AL group (0.93), consistent with their anabolic state. These results confirm that, in congenitally leptin deficient animals, leptin is not required for compensatory reduction in energy expenditure accompanying weight loss, but suggest that the hyperphagia of the weight-reduced state is leptin-dependent.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: leptin receptor deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ferraz-Amaro I, Dattani MT, Ercan O, Myhre AG, Retterstol L, Stanhope R, Edge JA, McKenzie S, Lessan ... qualified healthcare professional . About Selection Criteria for Links Data Files & API Site Map Subscribe Customer Support USA. ...

  11. Glucagon receptor knockout mice are protected against acute olanzapine-induced hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Laura N; Peppler, Willem T; Sutton, Charles D; Whitfield, Jamie; Charron, Maureen J; Wright, David C

    2017-08-01

    To determine if glucagon is involved in mediating the increase in blood glucose levels caused by the second-generation antipsychotic drug olanzapine. Whole body glucagon receptor deficient mice (Gcgr -/- ) or WT littermate controls were injected with olanzapine (5mg/kg BW IP) and changes in blood glucose measured over the following 120min. Separate cohorts of mice were treated with olanzapine and changes in pyruvate tolerance, insulin tolerance and whole body substrate oxidation were determined. Olanzapine treatment increased serum glucagon and lead to rapid increases in blood glucose concentrations in WT mice. Gcgr -/- mice were protected against olanzapine-induced increases in blood glucose but this was not explained by differences in terminal serum insulin concentrations, enhanced AKT phosphorylation in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue or liver or differences in RER. In both genotypes olanzapine induced an equivalent degree of insulin resistance as measured using an insulin tolerance test. Olanzapine treatment led to an exaggerated glucose response to a pyruvate challenge in WT but not Gcgr -/- mice and this was paralleled by reductions in the protein content of PEPCK and G6Pase in livers from Gcgr -/- mice. Gcgr -/- mice are protected against olanzapine-induced increases in blood glucose. This is likely a result of reductions in liver glucose output, perhaps secondary to decreases in PEPCK and G6Pase protein content. Our findings highlight the central role of the liver in mediating olanzapine-induced disturbances in glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modulation of sweet taste sensitivities by endogenous leptin and endocannabinoids in mice

    PubMed Central

    Niki, Mayu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Yasumatsu, Keiko; Shigemura, Noriatsu; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V; Piomelli, Daniele; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2015-01-01

    Leptin is an anorexigenic mediator that reduces food intake by acting on hypothalamic receptor Ob-Rb. In contrast, endocannabinoids are orexigenic mediators that act via cannabinoid CB1 receptors in hypothalamus, limbic forebrain, and brainstem. In the peripheral taste system, leptin administration selectively inhibits behavioural, taste nerve and taste cell responses to sweet compounds. Opposing the action of leptin, endocannabinoids enhance sweet taste responses. However, potential roles of endogenous leptin and endocannabinoids in sweet taste remain unclear. Here, we used pharmacological antagonists (Ob-Rb: L39A/D40A/F41A (LA), CB1: AM251) and examined the effects of their blocking activation of endogenous leptin and endocannabinoid signalling on taste responses in lean control, leptin receptor deficient db/db, and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Lean mice exhibited significant increases in chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses to sweet compounds after LA administration, while they showed no significant changes in CT responses after AM251. In contrast, db/db mice showed clear suppression of CT responses to sweet compounds after AM251, increased endocannabinoid (2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG)) levels in the taste organ, and enhanced expression of a biosynthesizing enzyme (diacylglycerol lipase α (DAGLα)) of 2-AG in taste cells. In DIO mice, the LA effect was gradually decreased and the AM251 effect was increased during the course of obesity. Taken together, our results suggest that circulating leptin, but not local endocannabinoids, may be a dominant modulator for sweet taste in lean mice; however, endocannabinoids may become more effective modulators of sweet taste under conditions of deficient leptin signalling, possibly due to increased production of endocannabinoids in taste tissue. Key points Potential roles of endogenous leptin and endocannabinoids in sweet taste were examined by using pharmacological antagonists and mouse models including leptin receptor

  13. Immunizing Adult Female Mice with a TcpA-A2-CTB Chimera Provides a High Level of Protection for Their Pups in the Infant Mouse Model of Cholera

    PubMed Central

    Price, Gregory A.; Holmes, Randall K.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae expresses two primary virulence factors, cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). CT causes profuse watery diarrhea, and TCP (composed of repeating copies of the major pilin TcpA) is required for intestinal colonization by V. cholerae. Antibodies to CT or TcpA can protect against cholera in animal models. We developed a TcpA holotoxin-like chimera (TcpA-A2-CTB) to elicit both anti-TcpA and anti-CTB antibodies and evaluated its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in the infant mouse model of cholera. Adult female CD-1 mice were immunized intraperitoneally three times with the TcpA-A2-CTB chimera and compared with similar groups immunized with a TcpA+CTB mixture, TcpA alone, TcpA with Salmonella typhimurium flagellin subunit FliC as adjuvant, or CTB alone. Blood and fecal samples were analyzed for antigen-specific IgG or IgA, respectively, using quantitative ELISA. Immunized females were mated; their reared offspring were challenged orogastrically with 10 or 20 LD50 of V. cholerae El Tor N16961; and vaccine efficacy was assessed by survival of the challenged pups at 48 hrs. All pups from dams immunized with the TcpA-A2-CTB chimera or the TcpA+CTB mixture survived at both challenge doses. In contrast, no pups from dams immunized with TcpA+FliC or CTB alone survived at the 20 LD50 challenge dose, although the anti-TcpA or anti-CTB antibody level elicited by these immunizations was comparable to the corresponding antibody level achieved by immunization with TcpA-A2-CTB or TcpA+CTB. Taken together, these findings comprise strong preliminary evidence for synergistic action between anti-TcpA and anti-CTB antibodies in protecting mice against cholera. Weight loss analysis showed that only immunization of dams with TcpA-A2-CTB chimera or TcpA+CTB mixture protected their pups against excess weight loss from severe diarrhea. These data support the concept of including both TcpA and CTB as immunogens in development of an effective multivalent

  14. Expression of serum insulin-like growth factors, insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins, and the growth hormone-binding protein in heterozygote relatives of Ecuadorian growth hormone receptor deficient patients.

    PubMed

    Fielder, P J; Guevara-Aguirre, J; Rosenbloom, A L; Carlsson, L; Hintz, R L; Rosenfeld, R G

    1992-04-01

    Recently, an isolated population of apparent GH-receptor deficient (GHRD) patients has been identified in the Loja province of southern Ecuador. These individuals presented many of the physical and biochemical phenotypes characteristic of Laron-Syndrome and are believed to have a defect in the GH-receptor gene. In this study, we have compared the biochemical phenotypes between the affected individuals and their parents, considered to be obligate heterozygotes for the disorder. Serum GH, insulin-like growth factor I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) levels were measured by RIA Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins. (IGFBPs) were measured by Western ligand blotting (WLB) of serum samples, following separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and relative quantitation of serum IGFBPs was performed with a scanning laser densitometer. Serum GH-binding protein (GHBP) levels were measured with a ligand-mediated immunofunctional assay using a monoclonal antibody raised against the GHBP. These values were then compared to values obtained from normal, sex-matched adult Ecuadorian controls, to determine if the above parameters were abnormal in the heterozygotes. The serum IGF-I levels of the GHRD patients were less than 13% of control values for adults and 2% for children. However, the IGF-I levels of both the mothers and fathers were not significantly different from that of the control population. The serum IGF-II levels of the GHRD patients were approximately 20% of control values for adults and 12% for the children. The IGF-II levels of the mothers were reduced, but were not significantly different from that of the control population. However, IGF-II levels of the fathers were significantly lower than those of controls (64% of control male levels). WLB analysis of serum IGFBP levels of the affected subjects demonstrated increased IGFBP-2 and decreased IGFBP-3, suggesting an inverse relationship between these IGFBPs. The GHRD patients who had the

  15. Leptin receptor-deficient (knockout) medaka, Oryzias latipes, show chronical up-regulated levels of orexigenic neuropeptides, elevated food intake and stage specific effects on growth and fat allocation.

    PubMed

    Chisada, Shin-ichi; Kurokawa, Tadahide; Murashita, Koji; Rønnestad, Ivar; Taniguchi, Yoshihito; Toyoda, Atsushi; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Takeda, Shunichi; Yoshiura, Yasutoshi

    2014-01-01

    analyses using the mutant will contribute to a better understanding of the role of leptin in fish. This is the first study to produce fish with leptin receptor deficiency.

  16. A platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor deficiency exacerbates diet-induced obesity but PAF/PAF receptor signaling does not contribute to the development of obesity-induced chronic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masahiko; Matsui, Masakazu; Higa, Ryoko; Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Ikari, Akira; Miyake, Masaki; Miwa, Masao; Ishii, Satoshi; Sugatani, Junko; Shimizu, Takao

    2015-02-15

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a well-known phospholipid that mediates acute inflammatory responses. In the present study, we investigated whether PAF/PAF receptor signaling contributed to chronic inflammation in the white adipose tissue (WAT) of PAF receptor-knockout (PAFR-KO) mice. Body and epididymal WAT weights were higher in PAFR-KO mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) than in wild-type (WT) mice. TNF-α mRNA expression levels in epididymal WAT and the infiltration of CD11c-positive macrophages into epididymal WAT, which led to chronic inflammation, were also elevated in HFD-fed PAFR-KO mice. HFD-fed PAFR-KO mice had higher levels of fasting serum glucose than HFD-fed WT mice as well as impaired glucose tolerance. Although PAF receptor signaling up-regulated the expression of TNF-α and lipopolysaccharide induced the expression of acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 2 (LPCAT2) mRNA in bone marrow-derived macrophages, no significant differences were observed in the expression of LPCAT2 mRNA and PAF levels in epididymal WAT between HFD-fed mice and normal diet-fed mice. In addition to our previous finding in which energy expenditure in PAF receptor (PAFR)-deficient mice was low due to impaired brown adipose tissue function, the present study demonstrated that PAF/PAF receptor signaling up-regulated the expression of Ucp1 mRNA, which is essential for cellular thermogenesis, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We concluded that the marked accumulation of abdominal fat due to HFD feeding led to more severe chronic inflammation in WAT, which is associated with glucose metabolism disorders, in PAFR-KO mice than in WT mice, and PAF/PAF receptor signaling may regulate energy expenditure and adiposity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Leptin Increases Striatal Dopamine D2 Receptor Binding in Leptin-Deficient Obese (ob/ob) Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Pfaffly, J.; Michaelides, M.; Wang, G-J.

    2010-06-01

    Peripheral and central leptin administration have been shown to mediate central dopamine (DA) signaling. Leptin-receptor deficient rodents show decreased DA D2 receptor (D2R) binding in striatum and unique DA profiles compared to controls. Leptin-deficient mice show increased DA activity in reward-related brain regions. The objective of this study was to examine whether basal D2R-binding differences contribute to the phenotypic behaviors of leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, and whether D2R binding is altered in response to peripheral leptin treatment in these mice. Leptin decreased body weight, food intake, and plasma insulin concentration in ob/ob mice but not in wild-type mice. Basal striatal D2Rmore » binding (measured with autoradiography [{sup 3}H] spiperone) did not differ between ob/ob and wild-type mice but the response to leptin did. In wild-type mice, leptin decreased striatal D2R binding, whereas, in ob/ob mice, leptin increased D2R binding. Our findings provide further evidence that leptin modulates D2R expression in striatum and that these effects are genotype/phenotype dependent.« less

  18. Immunization of knock-out α/β interferon receptor mice against high lethal dose of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus with a cell culture based vaccine.

    PubMed

    Canakoglu, Nurettin; Berber, Engin; Tonbak, Sukru; Ertek, Mustafa; Sozdutmaz, Ibrahim; Aktas, Munir; Kalkan, Ahmet; Ozdarendeli, Aykut

    2015-03-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an acute tick-borne zoonotic disease. The disease has been reported in many countries of Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and in Eurasia. During the past decade, new foci of CCHF have emerged in the Balkan Peninsula, southwest Russia, the Middle East, western China, India, Africa, and Turkey. CCHF virus produces severe hemorrhagic manifestations in humans with fatality rates up to 30%. Vaccine development efforts have been significantly hampered by a lack of animal models and therefore, no protective vaccine has been achieved. Lately, IFN α/β receptor deficient (IFNAR-/-) mice have been established as a novel small animal model of CCHF virus infection. In the present study, we found that IFNAR-/- mice highly susceptible to CCHF virus Turkey-Kelkit06 strain. Immunization with the cell culture based vaccine elicited a significant level of protection against high dose challenge (1,000 PPFU) with a homologous CCHF virus in IFNAR-/- mice.

  19. Neurokinin B is critical for normal timing of sexual maturation but dispensable for adult reproductive function in female mice.

    PubMed

    True, Cadence; Nasrin Alam, Sayeda; Cox, Kimberly; Chan, Yee-Ming; Seminara, Stephanie B

    2015-04-01

    Humans carrying mutations in neurokinin B (NKB) or the NKB receptor fail to undergo puberty due to decreased secretion of GnRH. Despite this pubertal delay, many of these patients go on to achieve activation of their hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in adulthood, a phenomenon termed reversal, indicating that NKB signaling may play a more critical role for the timing of pubertal development than adult reproductive function. NKB receptor-deficient mice are hypogonadotropic but have no defects in the timing of sexual maturation. The current study has performed the first phenotypic evaluation of mice bearing mutations in Tac2, the gene encoding the NKB ligand, to determine whether they have impaired sexual development similar to their human counterparts. Male Tac2-/- mice showed no difference in the timing of sexual maturation or fertility compared with wild-type littermates and were fertile. In contrast, Tac2-/- females had profound delays in sexual maturation, with time to vaginal opening and first estrus occurring significantly later than controls, and initial abnormalities in estrous cycles. However, cycling recovered in adulthood and Tac2-/- females were fertile, although they produced fewer pups per litter. Thus, female Tac2-/- mice parallel humans harboring NKB pathway mutations, with delayed sexual maturation and activation of the reproductive cascade later in life. Moreover, direct comparison of NKB ligand and receptor-deficient females confirmed that only NKB ligand-deficient animals have delayed sexual maturation, suggesting that in the absence of the NKB receptor, NKB may regulate the timing of sexual maturation through other tachykinin receptors.

  20. Dopamine D3 receptor status modulates sexual dimorphism in voluntary wheel running behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Klinker, Florian; Ko Hnemann, Kathrin; Paulus, Walter; Liebetanz, David

    2017-08-30

    Sexual dimorphism has been described in various aspects of physiological and pathophysiological processes involving dopaminergic signaling. This might account for the different disease characteristics in men and women in e.g. Parkinson's disease or ADHD. A better understanding might contribute to the future individualization of therapy. We examined spontaneous wheel running activity of male and female mice, homo- and heterozygote for dopamine D3 receptor deficiency (D3R -/- and D3R+/-), and compared them to wild type controls. We found higher wheel running activity in female mice than in their male littermates. D3-/- mice, irrespective of sex, were also hyperactive compared to both D3+/- and wild type animals. Hyperactivity of D3-/- female mice was pronounced during the first days of wheel running but then decreased while their male counterparts continued to be hyperactive. Physical activity was menstrual cycle-dependent. Activity fluctuations were also seen in D3 receptor knockout mice and are therefore presumably independent of D3 receptor activation. Our data underscore the complex interaction of dopaminergic signaling and gonadal hormones that leads to specific running behavior. Furthermore, we detected sex- and D3 receptor status-specific reactions during novel exposure to the running wheel. These findings suggest the need for adapting dopaminergic therapies to individual factors such as sex or even menstrual cycle to optimize therapeutic success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of CCK-A receptor for pancreatic function in mice: a study in CCK-A receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Takiguchi, Soichi; Suzuki, Shinji; Sato, Yuko; Kanai, Setsuko; Miyasaka, Kyoko; Jimi, Atsuo; Shinozaki, Hirotsugu; Takata, Yutaka; Funakoshi, Akihiro; Kono, Akira; Minowa, Osamu; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Noda, Tetsuo

    2002-04-01

    The cholecystokinin (CCK) family of peptides and receptors is present throughout the brain and gastrointestinal tract. The CCK receptors can be pharmacologically subdivided into two subtypes: CCK-A and CCK-B. CCK-A receptor is enriched in the pancreas of mice. To determine pancreatic functions in a CCK-A receptor deficient mouse mutant generated by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. The targeting vector contained lacZ and neo insertions in exon 2. To examine exocrine functions, amylase release from the dispersed acini in vitro was examined. In the in vivo study, the mixture of bile-pancreatic juice was collected, and amylase, bicarbonate, and bile acid outputs were determined after the administration of various stimulants. The cystic duct of the gallbladder and the pylorus were ligated to exclude the involvement of gallbladder contraction and gastric acid. Pancreatic enzyme content was measured, and histologic examinations by HE and lacZ staining were conducted. To examine endocrine functions, oral glucose tolerance test (2 g/kg) was determined. The body weight, pancreatic wet weight, and enzyme content in the pancreas were similar among the three genotypes. Amylase release in vivo and in vitro and bicarbonate secretion in vivo were not stimulated by CCK-8 in CCK-AR (-/-) mice, whereas the responses to other stimulants were substantial in (-/-) mice. Administration of secretin did not increase bicarbonate secretion regardless of genotype. A normal glucose tolerance was observed in (-/-) mice. Acinar cells, islets, and duct cells were stained by lacZ, and HE staining revealed no pathologic findings. The CCK-A receptor is important for pancreatic exocrine secretion, but not essential for maintaining glucose concentration and pancreatic growth in mice.

  2. Effect of Diets Containing Sucrose vs. D-tagatose in Hypercholesterolemic Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Police, S.; Harris, J; Lodder, R

    Effects of functional sweeteners on the development of the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis are unknown. The objective was to compare the effect of dietary carbohydrate in the form of sucrose (SUCR) to D-tagatose (TAG; an isomer of fructose currently used as a low-calorie sweetener) on body weight, blood cholesterol concentrations, hyperglycemia, and atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLr-/-) mice. LDLr-/- male and female mice were fed either standard murine diet or a diet enriched with TAG or SUCR as carbohydrate sources for 16 weeks. TAG and SUCR diets contained equivalent amounts (g/kg) of protein, fat, and carbohydrate. We measuredmore » food intake, body weight, adipocyte diameter, serum cholesterol and lipoprotein concentrations, and aortic atherosclerosis. Macrophage immunostaining and collagen content were examined in aortic root lesions. CONTROL and TAG-fed mice exhibited similar energy intake, body weights and blood glucose and insulin concentrations, but SUCR-fed mice exhibited increased energy intake and became obese and hyperglycemic. Adipocyte diameter increased in female SUCR-fed mice compared to TAG and CONTROL. Male and female SUCR-fed mice had increased serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations compared to TAG and CONTROL. Atherosclerosis was increased in SUCR-fed mice of both genders compared to TAG and CONTROL. Lesions from SUCR-fed mice exhibited pronounced macrophage immunostaining and reductions in collagen content compared to TAG and CONTROL mice. These results demonstrate that in comparison to sucrose, equivalent substitution of TAG as dietary carbohydrate does not result in the same extent of obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerosis.« less

  3. Effect of Diets Containing Sucrose vs. D-tagatose in Hypercholesterolemic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Police, Sara B.; Harris, J. Clay; Lodder, Robert A.; Cassis, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of functional sweeteners on the development of the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis are unknown. The objective was to compare the effect of dietary carbohydrate in the form of sucrose (SUCR) to D-tagatose (TAG; an isomer of fructose currently used as a low-calorie sweetener) on body weight, blood cholesterol concentrations, hyperglycemia, and atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLr−/−) mice. LDLr−/− male and female mice were fed either standard murine diet or a diet enriched with TAG or SUCR as carbohydrate sources for 16 weeks. TAG and SUCR diets contained equivalent amounts (g/kg) of protein, fat, and carbohydrate. We measured food intake, body weight, adipocyte diameter, serum cholesterol and lipoprotein concentrations, and aortic atherosclerosis. Macrophage immunostaining and collagen content were examined in aortic root lesions. CONTROL and TAG-fed mice exhibited similar energy intake, body weights and blood glucose and insulin concentrations, but SUCR-fed mice exhibited increased energy intake and became obese and hyperglycemic. Adipocyte diameter increased in female SUCR-fed mice compared to TAG and CONTROL. Male and female SUCR-fed mice had increased serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations compared to TAG and CONTROL. Atherosclerosis was increased in SUCR-fed mice of both genders compared to TAG and CONTROL. Lesions from SUCR-fed mice exhibited pronounced macrophage immunostaining and reductions in collagen content compared to TAG and CONTROL mice. These results demonstrate that in comparison to sucrose, equivalent substitution of TAG as dietary carbohydrate does not result in the same extent of obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerosis. PMID:19008872

  4. Effect of diets containing sucrose vs. D-tagatose in hypercholesterolemic mice.

    PubMed

    Police, Sara B; Harris, J Clay; Lodder, Robert A; Cassis, Lisa A

    2009-02-01

    Effects of functional sweeteners on the development of the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis are unknown. The objective was to compare the effect of dietary carbohydrate in the form of sucrose (SUCR) to D-tagatose (TAG; an isomer of fructose currently used as a low-calorie sweetener) on body weight, blood cholesterol concentrations, hyperglycemia, and atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLr(-/-)) mice. LDLr(-/-) male and female mice were fed either standard murine diet or a diet enriched with TAG or SUCR as carbohydrate sources for 16 weeks. TAG and SUCR diets contained equivalent amounts (g/kg) of protein, fat, and carbohydrate. We measured food intake, body weight, adipocyte diameter, serum cholesterol and lipoprotein concentrations, and aortic atherosclerosis. Macrophage immunostaining and collagen content were examined in aortic root lesions. CONTROL and TAG-fed mice exhibited similar energy intake, body weights and blood glucose and insulin concentrations, but SUCR-fed mice exhibited increased energy intake and became obese and hyperglycemic. Adipocyte diameter increased in female SUCR-fed mice compared to TAG and CONTROL. Male and female SUCR-fed mice had increased serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations compared to TAG and CONTROL. Atherosclerosis was increased in SUCR-fed mice of both genders compared to TAG and CONTROL. Lesions from SUCR-fed mice exhibited pronounced macrophage immunostaining and reductions in collagen content compared to TAG and CONTROL mice. These results demonstrate that in comparison to sucrose, equivalent substitution of TAG as dietary carbohydrate does not result in the same extent of obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerosis.

  5. The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Eiichi; Hosokawa, Masaya; Faculty of Human Sciences, Tezukayama Gakuin University, Osaka

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway. {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility. {yields} The GIP-receptor-mediated action in intestine does not involve in GLP-1-mediated pathway. -- Abstract: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is released from the small intestine upon meal ingestion and increases insulin secretion from pancreatic {beta} cells. Although the GIP receptor is known to be expressed in small intestine, the effects of GIP in small intestine are not fully understood. This study was designed to clarify the effect of GIP on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility. Intestinal glucosemore » absorption in vivo was measured by single-pass perfusion method. Incorporation of [{sup 14}C]-glucose into everted jejunal rings in vitro was used to evaluate the effect of GIP on sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT). Motility of small intestine was measured by intestinal transit after oral administration of a non-absorbed marker. Intraperitoneal administration of GIP inhibited glucose absorption in wild-type mice in a concentration-dependent manner, showing maximum decrease at the dosage of 50 nmol/kg body weight. In glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor-deficient mice, GIP inhibited glucose absorption as in wild-type mice. In vitro examination of [{sup 14}C]-glucose uptake revealed that 100 nM GIP did not change SGLT-dependent glucose uptake in wild-type mice. After intraperitoneal administration of GIP (50 nmol/kg body weight), small intestinal transit was inhibited to 40% in both wild-type and GLP-1 receptor-deficient mice. Furthermore, a somatostatin receptor antagonist, cyclosomatostatin, reduced the inhibitory effect of GIP on both intestinal transit and glucose absorption in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility through a

  6. Whole-Body Vibration Mimics the Metabolic Effects of Exercise in Male Leptin Receptor–Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Wenger, Karl H.; Misra, Sudipta; Davis, Catherine L.; Pollock, Norman K.; Elsalanty, Mohammed; Ding, Kehong; Isales, Carlos M.; Hamrick, Mark W.; Wosiski-Kuhn, Marlena; Arounleut, Phonepasong; Mattson, Mark P.; Cutler, Roy G.; Yu, Jack C.

    2017-01-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) has gained attention as a potential exercise mimetic, but direct comparisons with the metabolic effects of exercise are scarce. To determine whether WBV recapitulates the metabolic and osteogenic effects of physical activity, we exposed male wild-type (WT) and leptin receptor–deficient (db/db) mice to daily treadmill exercise (TE) or WBV for 3 months. Body weights were analyzed and compared with WT and db/db mice that remained sedentary. Glucose and insulin tolerance testing revealed comparable attenuation of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in db/db mice following TE or WBV. Both interventions reduced body weight in db/db mice and normalized muscle fiber diameter. TE or WBV also attenuated adipocyte hypertrophy in visceral adipose tissue and reduced hepatic lipid content in db/db mice. Although the effects of leptin receptor deficiency on cortical bone structure were not eliminated by either intervention, exercise and WBV increased circulating levels of osteocalcin in db/db mice. In the context of increased serum osteocalcin, the modest effects of TE and WBV on bone geometry, mineralization, and biomechanics may reflect subtle increases in osteoblast activity in multiple areas of the skeleton. Taken together, these observations indicate that WBV recapitulates the effects of exercise on metabolism in type 2 diabetes. PMID:28323991

  7. New PPARγ partial agonist improves obesity-induced metabolic alterations and atherosclerosis in LDLr(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jacqueline C; César, Fernanda A; de Oliveira, Edson M; Turato, Walter M; Tripodi, Gustavo L; Castilho, Gabriela; Machado-Lima, Adriana; de Las Heras, Beatriz; Boscá, Lisardo; Rabello, Marcelo M; Hernandes, Marcelo Z; Pitta, Marina G R; Pitta, Ivan R; Passarelli, Marisa; Rudnicki, Martina; Abdalla, Dulcineia S P

    2016-02-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) regulates multiple pathways involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and atherosclerosis. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of GQ-177, a new thiazolidinedione, on diet-induced obesity and atherosclerosis. The intermolecular interaction between PPARγ and GQ-177 was examined by virtual docking and PPAR activation was determined by reporter gene assay identifying GQ-177 as a partial and selective PPARγ agonist. For the evaluation of biological activity of GQ-177, low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLr(-/-)) C57/BL6 mice were fed either a high fat diabetogenic diet (diet-induced obesity), or a high fat atherogenic diet, and treated with vehicle, GQ-177 (20mg/kg/day), pioglitazone (20mg/kg/day, diet-induced obesity model) or rosiglitazone (15mg/kg/day, atherosclerosis model) for 28 days. In diet-induced obesity mice, GQ-177 improved insulin sensitivity and lipid profile, increased plasma adiponectin and GLUT4 mRNA in adipose tissue, without affecting body weight, food consumption, fat accumulation and bone density. Moreover, GQ-177 enhanced hepatic mRNA levels of proteins involved in lipid metabolism. In the atherosclerosis mice, GQ-177 inhibited atherosclerotic lesion progression, increased plasma HDL and mRNA levels of PPARγ and ATP-binding cassette A1 in atherosclerotic lesions. GQ-177 acts as a partial PPARγ agonist that improves obesity-associated insulin resistance and dyslipidemia with atheroprotective effects in LDLr(-/-) mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Critical role of IFN-gamma in CFA-mediated protection of NOD mice from diabetes development.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yoshiko; Kodaka, Tetsuro; Kato, Takako; Kanagawa, Edith M; Kanagawa, Osami

    2009-11-01

    IFN-gamma signaling-deficient non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice develop diabetes with similar kinetics to those of wild-type NOD mice. However, the immunization of IFN-gamma signaling-deficient NOD mice with CFA failed to induce long-term protection, whereas wild-type NOD mice receiving CFA remained diabetes-free. CFA also failed to protect IFN-gamma receptor-deficient (IFN-gammaR(-/-)) NOD mice from the autoimmune rejection of transplanted islets, as it does in diabetic NOD mice, and from disease transfer by spleen cells from diabetic NOD mice. These data clearly show that the pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-gamma is necessary for the CFA-mediated protection of NOD mice from diabetes. There is no difference in the T(h)1/T(h)17 balance between IFN-gammaR(-/-) NOD and wild-type NOD mice. There is also no difference in the total numbers and percentages of regulatory T (Treg) cells in the lymph node CD4(+) T-cell populations between IFN-gammaR(-/-) NOD and wild-type NOD mice. However, pathogenic T cells lacking IFN-gammaR are resistant to the suppressive effect of Treg cells, both in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, it is likely that CFA-mediated protection against diabetes development depends on a change in the balance between Treg cells and pathogenic T cells, and IFN-gamma signaling seems to control the susceptibility of pathogenic T cells to the inhibitory activity of Treg cells.

  9. Sensitization to autoimmune hepatitis in group VIA calcium-independent phospholipase A2-null mice led to duodenal villous atrophy with apoptosis, goblet cell hyperplasia and leaked bile acids.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Li; Gan-Schreier, Hongying; Tuma-Kellner, Sabine; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Chamulitrat, Walee

    2015-08-01

    Chronic bowel disease can co-exist with severe autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in an absence of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Genetic background may contribute to this overlap syndrome. We previously have shown that the deficiency of iPLA2β causes an accumulation of hepatocyte apoptosis, and renders susceptibility for acute liver injury. We here tested whether AIH induction in iPLA2β-null mice could result in intestinal injury, and whether bile acid metabolism was altered. Control wild-type (WT) and female iPLA2β-null (iPLA2β(-/-)) mice were intravenously injected with 10mg/kg concanavalinA (ConA) or saline for 24h. ConA treatment of iPLA2β(-/-) mice caused massive liver injury with increased liver enzymes, fibrosis, and necrosis. While not affecting WT mice, ConA treatment of iPLA2β(-/-) mice caused severe duodenal villous atrophy concomitant with increased apoptosis, cell proliferation, globlet cell hyperplasia, and endotoxin leakage into portal vein indicating a disruption of intestinal barrier. With the greater extent than in WT mice, ConA treatment of iPLA2β(-/-) mice increased jejunal expression of innate response cytokines CD14, TNF-α, IL-6, and SOCS3 as well as chemokines CCL2 and the CCL3 receptor CCR5. iPLA2β deficiency in response to ConA-induced AIH caused a significant decrease in hepatic and biliary bile acids, and this was associated with suppression of hepatic Cyp7A1, Ntcp and ABCB11/Bsep and upregulation of intestinal FXR/FGF15 mRNA expression. The suppression of hepatic Ntcp expression together with the loss of intestinal barrier could account for the observed bile acid leakage into peripheral blood. Thus, enteropathy may result from acute AIH in a susceptible host such as iPLA2β deficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Clonal hematopoiesis associated with TET2 deficiency accelerates atherosclerosis development in mice.

    PubMed

    Fuster, José J; MacLauchlan, Susan; Zuriaga, María A; Polackal, Maya N; Ostriker, Allison C; Chakraborty, Raja; Wu, Chia-Ling; Sano, Soichi; Muralidharan, Sujatha; Rius, Cristina; Vuong, Jacqueline; Jacob, Sophia; Muralidhar, Varsha; Robertson, Avril A B; Cooper, Matthew A; Andrés, Vicente; Hirschi, Karen K; Martin, Kathleen A; Walsh, Kenneth

    2017-02-24

    Human aging is associated with an increased frequency of somatic mutations in hematopoietic cells. Several of these recurrent mutations, including those in the gene encoding the epigenetic modifier enzyme TET2, promote expansion of the mutant blood cells. This clonal hematopoiesis correlates with an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We studied the effects of the expansion of Tet2 -mutant cells in atherosclerosis-prone, low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient ( Ldlr -/- ) mice. We found that partial bone marrow reconstitution with TET2-deficient cells was sufficient for their clonal expansion and led to a marked increase in atherosclerotic plaque size. TET2-deficient macrophages exhibited an increase in NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated interleukin-1β secretion. An NLRP3 inhibitor showed greater atheroprotective activity in chimeric mice reconstituted with TET2-deficient cells than in nonchimeric mice. These results support the hypothesis that somatic TET2 mutations in blood cells play a causal role in atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Chronic administration of the soluble, nonbacterial fraction of kefir attenuates lipid deposition in LDLr-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Santanna, Adriélly F; Filete, Placielle F; Lima, Ewelyne M; Porto, Marcella L; Meyrelles, Silvana S; Vasquez, Elisardo C; Endringer, Denise C; Lenz, Dominik; Abdalla, Dulcineia S P; Pereira, Thiago M C; Andrade, Tadeu U

    2017-03-01

    Kefir is obtained by the action of acidic bacteria and yeasts that exist in symbiotic association in kefir grains. Recently, this fermented milk drink has been recommended for the treatment of several clinical conditions, such as inflammatory, gastrointestinal, or cardiovascular-related diseases, or a combination of these diseases. However, its effects on atherosclerosis are not yet clear. The aim of this study was to prove that chronic treatment with a soluble, nonbacterial fraction of kefir could reduce the progression of atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLr -/- ) mice. LDLr -/- mice were divided into four groups as follows: RESULTS: The soluble, nonbacterial fraction of kefir reduced lipid deposition (P < 0.05) independent of hypercholesterolemia. Moreover, kefir was capable of diminishing the circulating proinflammatory intereukin (IL)-6 level and the ratio of tumor necrosis factor-α to IL-10 (50% and 42%, P < 0.05, respectively) and augmenting the antiinflammatory IL-10 level by approximately 74% (P < 0.05). Chronic treatment with a soluble nonbacterial fraction of kefir was able to decrease the lipid deposition in LDLr -/- hypercholesteremic mice, at least in part through modifying the circulating cytokine profile. The beneficial effects of kefir provide new perspectives for its use as an adjuvant in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Serotonin 5-HT2C receptor-independent expression of hypothalamic NOR1, a novel modulator of food intake and energy balance, in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nonogaki, Katsunori, E-mail: knonogaki-tky@umin.ac.jp; Department of Lifestyle Medicine, Biomedical Engineering Center, Tohoku University; Kaji, Takao

    2009-08-21

    NOR1, Nur77 and Nurr1 are orphan nuclear receptors and members of the NR4A subfamily. Here, we report that the expression of hypothalamic NOR1 was remarkably decreased in mildly obese {beta}-endorphin-deficient mice and obese db/db mice with the leptin receptor mutation, compared with age-matched wild-type mice, whereas there were no genotypic differences in the expression of hypothalamic Nur77 or Nurr1 in these animals. The injection of NOR1 siRNA oligonucleotide into the third cerebral ventricle significantly suppressed food intake and body weight in mice. On the other hand, the decreases in hypothalamic NOR1 expression were not found in non-obese 5-HT2C receptor-deficient mice.more » Moreover, systemic administration of m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), a 5-HT2C/1B receptor agonist, had no effect on hypothalamic NOR1 expression, while suppressing food intake in {beta}-endorphin-deficient mice. These findings suggest that 5-HT2C receptor-independent proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides regulate the expression of hypothalamic NOR1, which is a novel modulator of feeding behavior and energy balance.« less

  13. Deteriorated glucose metabolism with a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet in db mice, an animal model of type 2 diabetes, might be caused by insufficient insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Arimura, Emi; Pulong, Wijang Pralampita; Marchianti, Ancah Caesarina Novi; Nakakuma, Miwa; Abe, Masaharu; Ushikai, Miharu; Horiuchi, Masahisa

    2017-02-01

    We previously showed the deleterious effects of increased dietary protein on renal manifestations and glucose metabolism in leptin receptor-deficient (db) mice. Here, we further examined its effects on glucose metabolism, including urinary C-peptide. We also orally administered mixtures corresponding to low- or high-protein diets to diabetic mice. In diet experiments, under pair-feeding (equivalent energy and fat) conditions using a metabolic cage, mice were fed diets with different protein content (L diet: 12 % protein, 71 % carbohydrate, 17 % fat; H diet: 24 % protein, 59 % carbohydrate, 17 % fat) for 15 days. In oral administration experiments, the respective mixtures (L mixture: 12 % proline, 71 % maltose or starch, 17 % linoleic acid; H mixture: 24 % proline, 59 % maltose or starch, 17 % linoleic acid) were supplied to mice. Biochemical parameters related to glucose metabolism were measured. The db-H diet mice showed significantly higher water intake, urinary volume, and glucose levels than db-L diet mice but similar levels of excreted urinary C-peptide. In contrast, control-H diet mice showed significantly higher C-peptide excretion than control-L diet mice. Both types of mice fed H diet excreted high levels of urinary albumin. When maltose mixtures were administered, db-L mixture mice showed significantly higher blood glucose after 30 min than db-H mixture mice. However, db mice administered starch-H mixture showed significantly higher blood glucose 120-300 min post-administration than db-L mixture mice, although both groups exhibited similar insulin levels. High-protein, low-carbohydrate diets deteriorated diabetic conditions and were associated with insufficient insulin secretion in db mice. Our findings may have implications for dietary management of diabetic symptoms in human patients.

  14. Impact of high-fat diet and voluntary running on body weight and endothelial function in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Langbein, Heike; Hofmann, Anja; Brunssen, Coy; Goettsch, Winfried; Morawietz, Henning

    2015-05-01

    Obesity and physical inactivity are important cardiovascular risk factors. Regular physical exercise has been shown to mediate beneficial effects in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, the impact of physical exercise on endothelial function in proatherosclerotic low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice has not been studied so far. Six-week-old male LDLR(-/-) mice were fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet (39 kcal% fat diet) for 20 weeks. The impact of high-fat diet and voluntary running on body weight and amount of white adipose tissue was monitored. Basal tone and endothelial function was investigated in aortic rings using a Mulvany myograph. LDLR(-/-) mice on high-fat diet had increased cumulative food energy intake, but also higher physical activity compared to mice on control diet. Body weight and amount of visceral and retroperitoneal white adipose tissue of LDLR(-/-) mice were significantly increased by high-fat diet and partially reduced by voluntary running. Endothelial function in aortae of LDLR(-/-) mice was impaired after 20 weeks on standard and high-fat diet and could not be improved by voluntary running. Basal tone showed a trend to be increased by high-fat diet. Voluntary running reduced body weight and amount of white adipose tissue in LDLR(-/-) mice. Endothelial dysfunction in LDLR(-/-) mice could not be improved by voluntary running. In a clinical context, physical exercise alone might not have an influence on functional parameters and LDL-C levels in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. However, physical activity in these patients may be in general beneficial and should be performed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of light and the circadian clock in the rhythmic oscillation of intraocular pressure: Studies in VPAC2 receptor and PACAP deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Fahrenkrug, Jan; Georg, Birgitte; Hannibal, Jens; Jørgensen, Henrik Løvendahl

    2018-04-01

    The intraocular pressure of mice displays a daily rhythmicity being highest during the dark period. The present study was performed to elucidate the role of the circadian clock and light in the diurnal and the circadian variations in intraocular pressure in mice, by using animals with disrupted clock function (VPAC2 receptor knockout mice) or impaired light information to the clock (PACAP knockout mice). In wildtype mice, intraocular pressure measured under light/dark conditions showed a statistically significant 24 h sinusoidal rhythm with nadir during the light phase and peak during the dark phase. After transfer of the wildtype mice into constant darkness, the intraocular pressure increased, but the rhythmic changes in intraocular pressure continued with a pattern identical to that obtained during the light/dark cycle. The intraocular pressure in VPAC2 receptor deficient mice during light/dark conditions also showed a sinusoidal pattern with significant changes as a function of a 24 h cycle. However, transfer of the VPAC2 receptor knockout mice into constant darkness completely abolished the rhythmic changes in intraocular pressure. The intraocular pressure in PACAP deficient mice oscillated significantly during both 24 h light and darkness and during constant darkness. During LD conditions, the amplitude of PACAP deficient was significantly lower compared to wildtype mice, resulting in higher daytime and lower nighttime values. In conclusion, by studying the VPAC2 receptor knockout mouse which lacks circadian control and the PACAP knockout mouse which displays impaired light signaling, we provided evidence that the daily intraocular pressure rhythms are primarily generated by the circadian master clock and to a lesser extent by environmental light and darkness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic dissection of the role of cannabinoid type-1 receptors in the emotional consequences of repeated social stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Dubreucq, Sarah; Matias, Isabelle; Cardinal, Pierre; Häring, Martin; Lutz, Beat; Marsicano, Giovanni; Chaouloff, Francis

    2012-07-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) tightly controls emotional responses to acute aversive stimuli. Repeated stress alters ECS activity but the role played by the ECS in the emotional consequences of repeated stress has not been investigated in detail. This study used social defeat stress, together with pharmacology and genetics to examine the role of cannabinoid type-1 (CB(1)) receptors on repeated stress-induced emotional alterations. Seven daily social defeat sessions increased water (but not food) intake, sucrose preference, anxiety, cued fear expression, and adrenal weight in C57BL/6N mice. The first and the last social stress sessions triggered immediate brain region-dependent changes in the concentrations of the principal endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol. Pretreatment before each of the seven stress sessions with the CB(1) receptor antagonist rimonabant prolonged freezing responses of stressed mice during cued fear recall tests. Repeated social stress abolished the increased fear expression displayed by constitutive CB(1) receptor-deficient mice. The use of mutant mice lacking CB(1) receptors from cortical glutamatergic neurons or from GABAergic neurons indicated that it is the absence of the former CB(1) receptor population that is responsible for the fear responses in socially stressed CB(1) mutant mice. In addition, stress-induced hypolocomotor reactivity was amplified by the absence of CB(1) receptors from GABAergic neurons. Mutant mice lacking CB(1) receptors from serotonergic neurons displayed a higher anxiety but decreased cued fear expression than their wild-type controls. These mutant mice failed to show social stress-elicited increased sucrose preference. This study shows that (i) release of endocannabinoids during stress exposure impedes stress-elicited amplification of cued fear behavior, (ii) social stress opposes the increased fear expression and delayed between-session extinction because of the absence of CB(1) receptors

  17. Genetic Dissection of the Role of Cannabinoid Type-1 Receptors in the Emotional Consequences of Repeated Social Stress in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dubreucq, Sarah; Matias, Isabelle; Cardinal, Pierre; Häring, Martin; Lutz, Beat; Marsicano, Giovanni; Chaouloff, Francis

    2012-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) tightly controls emotional responses to acute aversive stimuli. Repeated stress alters ECS activity but the role played by the ECS in the emotional consequences of repeated stress has not been investigated in detail. This study used social defeat stress, together with pharmacology and genetics to examine the role of cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors on repeated stress-induced emotional alterations. Seven daily social defeat sessions increased water (but not food) intake, sucrose preference, anxiety, cued fear expression, and adrenal weight in C57BL/6N mice. The first and the last social stress sessions triggered immediate brain region-dependent changes in the concentrations of the principal endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol. Pretreatment before each of the seven stress sessions with the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant prolonged freezing responses of stressed mice during cued fear recall tests. Repeated social stress abolished the increased fear expression displayed by constitutive CB1 receptor-deficient mice. The use of mutant mice lacking CB1 receptors from cortical glutamatergic neurons or from GABAergic neurons indicated that it is the absence of the former CB1 receptor population that is responsible for the fear responses in socially stressed CB1 mutant mice. In addition, stress-induced hypolocomotor reactivity was amplified by the absence of CB1 receptors from GABAergic neurons. Mutant mice lacking CB1 receptors from serotonergic neurons displayed a higher anxiety but decreased cued fear expression than their wild-type controls. These mutant mice failed to show social stress-elicited increased sucrose preference. This study shows that (i) release of endocannabinoids during stress exposure impedes stress-elicited amplification of cued fear behavior, (ii) social stress opposes the increased fear expression and delayed between-session extinction because of the absence of CB1 receptors from cortical

  18. Leptin Rapidly Improves Glucose Homeostasis in Obese Mice by Increasing Hypothalamic Insulin Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Christiane; Augustine, Rachael A.; Steger, Juliane; Ganjam, Goutham K.; Benzler, Jonas; Pracht, Corinna; Lowe, Chrishanthi; Schwartz, Michael W.; Shepherd, Peter R.; Anderson, Greg M.; Grattan, David R.; Tups, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with resistance to the actions of both leptin and insulin via mechanisms that remain incompletely understood. To investigate whether leptin resistance per se contributes to insulin resistance and impaired glucose homeostasis, we investigated the effect of acute leptin administration on glucose homeostasis in normal as well as leptin- or leptin receptor-deficient mice. In hyperglycemic, leptin-deficient Lepob/ob mice, leptin acutely and potently improved glucose metabolism, before any change of body fat mass, via a mechanism involving the p110α and β isoforms of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K). Unlike insulin, however, the anti-diabetic effect of leptin occurred independently of phospho-AKT, a major downstream target of PI3K, and instead involved enhanced sensitivity of the hypothalamus to insulin action upstream of PI3K, through modulation of IRS1 (insulin receptor substrate 1) phosphorylation. These data suggest that leptin resistance, as occurs in obesity, reduces the hypothalamic response to insulin and thereby impairs peripheral glucose homeostasis, contributing to the development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:21123564

  19. Leptin rapidly improves glucose homeostasis in obese mice by increasing hypothalamic insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Koch, Christiane; Augustine, Rachael A; Steger, Juliane; Ganjam, Goutham K; Benzler, Jonas; Pracht, Corinna; Lowe, Chrishanthi; Schwartz, Michael W; Shepherd, Peter R; Anderson, Greg M; Grattan, David R; Tups, Alexander

    2010-12-01

    Obesity is associated with resistance to the actions of both leptin and insulin via mechanisms that remain incompletely understood. To investigate whether leptin resistance per se contributes to insulin resistance and impaired glucose homeostasis, we investigated the effect of acute leptin administration on glucose homeostasis in normal as well as leptin- or leptin receptor-deficient mice. In hyperglycemic, leptin-deficient Lep(ob/ob) mice, leptin acutely and potently improved glucose metabolism, before any change of body fat mass, via a mechanism involving the p110α and β isoforms of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K). Unlike insulin, however, the anti-diabetic effect of leptin occurred independently of phospho-AKT, a major downstream target of PI3K, and instead involved enhanced sensitivity of the hypothalamus to insulin action upstream of PI3K, through modulation of IRS1 (insulin receptor substrate 1) phosphorylation. These data suggest that leptin resistance, as occurs in obesity, reduces the hypothalamic response to insulin and thereby impairs peripheral glucose homeostasis, contributing to the development of type 2 diabetes.

  20. GAL3 receptor KO mice exhibit an anxiety-like phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Susanne M.; Farzi, Aitak; Locker, Felix; Holub, Barbara S.; Drexel, Meinrad; Reichmann, Florian; Lang, Andreas A.; Mayr, Johannes A.; Vilches, Jorge J.; Navarro, Xavier; Lang, Roland; Sperk, Günther; Holzer, Peter; Kofler, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide galanin (GAL) is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is a modulator of various physiological and pathological processes, and it mediates its effects via three G protein-coupled receptors (GAL1–3 receptors). A role for GAL as a modulator of mood and anxiety was suggested, because GAL and its receptors are highly expressed in limbic brain structures of rodents. In recent years, numerous studies of animal models have suggested an involvement of GAL and GAL1 and GAL2 receptors in anxiety- and depression-related behavior. However, to date, there is sparse literature implicating GAL3 receptors in behavioral functions. Therefore, we studied the behavior of GAL3 receptor-deficient (GAL3-KO) mice to elucidate whether GAL3 receptors are involved in mediating behavior-associated actions of GAL. The GAL3-KO mouse line exhibited normal breeding and physical development. In addition to behavioral tests, phenotypic characterization included analysis of hematology, amino acid profiles, metabolism, and sudomotor function. In contrast to WT littermates, male GAL3-KO mice exhibited an anxiety-like phenotype in the elevated plus maze, open field, and light/dark box tests, and they were less socially affiliated than WT animals to a stranger mouse in a social interaction test. In conclusion, our data suggest involvement of GAL3 receptors in GAL-mediated effects on mood, anxiety, and behavior, making it a possible target for alternative treatment strategies for mood disorders. PMID:24782539

  1. Platelet-activating factor drives eotaxin production in an allergic pleurisy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Klein, André; Pinho, Vanessa; Alessandrini, Ana Letícia; Shimizu, Takao; Ishii, Satoshi; Teixeira, Mauro M

    2002-01-01

    The activation of eosinophils via G-protein-coupled seven transmembran receptors play a necessary role in the recruitment of these cells into tissue. The present study investigates a role for PAF in driving eotaxin production and eosinophil recruitment in an allergic pleurisy model in mice. The intrapleural injection of increasing doses of PAF (10−11 to 10−9 moles per cavity) induced a dose- and PAF receptor-dependent recruitment of eosinophils 48 h after stimulation. Intrapleural injection of PAF induced the rapid (within 1 h) release of eotaxin into the pleural cavity of mice and an anti-eotaxin antibody effectively inhibited PAF-induced recruitment of eosinophils. Eosinophil recruitment in the allergic pleurisy was markedly inhibited by the PAF receptor antagonist UK-74,505 (modipafant, 1 mg kg−1). Moreover, recruitment of eosinophils in sensitized and challenged PAF receptor-deficient animals was lower than that observed in wild-type animals. Blockade of PAF receptors with UK-74,505 suppressed by 85% the release of eotaxin in the allergic pleurisy. Finally, the injection of a sub-threshold dose of PAF and eotaxin cooperated to induce eosinophil recruitment in vivo. In conclusion, the production of PAF in an allergic reaction could function in multiple ways to facilitate the recruitment of eosinophils  –  by facilitating eotaxin release and by cooperating with eotaxin to induce greater recruitment of eosinophils. PMID:11877329

  2. The Effect of Dose on 2,3,7,8-TCDD Tissue Distribution, Metabolism and Elimination in CYP1A2 (-/-) Knockout and C57BL/6N Parental Strains of Mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Numerous metabolism studies have demonstrated that the highly toxic 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is poorly metabolized. A hallmark feature of TCDD exposure is induction of hepatic CYP1A2 and subsequent sequestration leading to high liver to fat concentration ratios. This study was in...

  3. The effect of dose on 2,3,7,8-TCDD tissue distribution, metabolism and elimination in CYP1A2(-/_) knockout and C57BL/6N parental strains of mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous metabolism studies have demonstrated that the toxic contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is poorly metabolized. A hallmark feature of TCDD exposure is induction of hepatic CYP1A2 and subsequent sequestration leading to high liver-to-fat concentration ra...

  4. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids preserve retinal function in type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Sapieha, P; Chen, J; Stahl, A; Seaward, M R; Favazza, T L; Juan, A M; Hatton, C J; Joyal, J-S; Krah, N M; Dennison, R J; Tang, J; Kern, T S; Akula, J D; Smith, L E H

    2012-07-23

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is associated with hyperglycemia-driven microvascular pathology and neuronal compromise in the retina. However, DR is also linked to dyslipidemia. As omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are protective in proliferative retinopathy, we investigated the capacity of ω-3PUFAs to preserve retinal function in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Male leptin-receptor-deficient (db/db) mice were maintained for 22 weeks (4 weeks-26 weeks of life) on calorically and compositionally matched diets, except for 2% enrichment in either ω-3 or ω-6PUFAs. Visual function was assessed at 9, 14 and 26 weeks by electroretinography. Retinal capillary and neuronal integrity, as well as glucose challenge responses, were assessed on each diet. The ω-3PUFA diet significantly preserved retinal function in the mouse model of T2DM to levels similar to those observed in nondiabetic control mice on normal chow. Conversely, retinal function gradually deteriorated in db/db mice on a ω-6PUFA-rich diet. There was also an enhanced ability of ω-3PUFA-fed mice to respond to glucose challenge. The protection of visual function appeared to be independent of cytoprotective or anti-inflammatory effects of ω-3PUFAs. This study identifies beneficial effects of dietary ω-3PUFAs on visual function in T2DM. The data are consistent with dyslipidemia negatively impacting retinal function. As ω-3PUFA lipid dietary interventions are readily available, safe and inexpensive, increasing ω-3PUFA intake in diabetic patients may slow the progression of vision loss in T2DM.

  5. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids preserve retinal function in type 2 diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Sapieha, P; Chen, J; Stahl, A; Seaward, M R; Favazza, T L; Juan, A M; Hatton, C J; Joyal, J-S; Krah, N M; Dennison, R J; Tang, J; Kern, T S; Akula, J D; Smith, L E H

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is associated with hyperglycemia-driven microvascular pathology and neuronal compromise in the retina. However, DR is also linked to dyslipidemia. As omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are protective in proliferative retinopathy, we investigated the capacity of ω-3PUFAs to preserve retinal function in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Design: Male leptin-receptor-deficient (db/db) mice were maintained for 22 weeks (4 weeks–26 weeks of life) on calorically and compositionally matched diets, except for 2% enrichment in either ω-3 or ω-6PUFAs. Visual function was assessed at 9, 14 and 26 weeks by electroretinography. Retinal capillary and neuronal integrity, as well as glucose challenge responses, were assessed on each diet. Results: The ω-3PUFA diet significantly preserved retinal function in the mouse model of T2DM to levels similar to those observed in nondiabetic control mice on normal chow. Conversely, retinal function gradually deteriorated in db/db mice on a ω-6PUFA-rich diet. There was also an enhanced ability of ω-3PUFA-fed mice to respond to glucose challenge. The protection of visual function appeared to be independent of cytoprotective or anti-inflammatory effects of ω-3PUFAs. Conclusion: This study identifies beneficial effects of dietary ω-3PUFAs on visual function in T2DM. The data are consistent with dyslipidemia negatively impacting retinal function. As ω-3PUFA lipid dietary interventions are readily available, safe and inexpensive, increasing ω-3PUFA intake in diabetic patients may slow the progression of vision loss in T2DM. PMID:23448719

  6. Cloning Mice.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Atsuo

    2017-08-01

    Viable and fertile mice can be generated by somatic nuclear transfer into enucleated oocytes, presumably because the transplanted somatic cell genome becomes reprogrammed by factors in the oocyte. The first somatic cloned offspring of mice were obtained by directly injecting donor nuclei into recipient enucleated oocytes. When this method is used (the so-called Honolulu method of somatic cell nuclear transfer [SCNT]), the donor nuclei readily and completely condense within the enucleated metaphase II-arrested oocytes, which contain high levels of M-phase-promoting factor (MPF). It is believed that the condensation of the donor chromosomes promotes complete reprogramming of the donor genome within the mouse oocytes. Another key to the success of mouse cloning is the use of blunt micropipettes attached to a piezo impact-driving micromanipulation device. This system saves a significant amount of time during the micromanipulation of oocytes and thus minimizes the loss of oocyte viability in vitro. For example, a group of 20 oocytes can be enucleated within 10 min by an experienced operator. This protocol is composed of seven parts: (1) preparing micropipettes, (2) setting up the enucleation and injection micropipettes, (3) collecting and enucleating oocytes, (4) preparing nucleus donor cells, (5) injecting donor nuclei, (6) activating embryos and culturing, and (7) transferring cloned embryos. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  7. Metabolic roles of the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor studied with M3 receptor mutant mice: a review.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Dinesh; Jeon, Jongrye; Li, Jian Hua; Han, Sung-Jun; Hamdan, Fadi F; Cui, Yinghong; Lu, Huiyan; Deng, Chuxia; Gavrilova, Oksana; Wess, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    The M(3) muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor (M(3) mAChR) is expressed in many central and peripheral tissues. It is a prototypic member of the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors and preferentially activates G proteins of the G(q) family. Recent studies involving the use of newly generated mAChR mutant mice have revealed that the M(3) mAChR plays a key role in regulating many important metabolic functions. Phenotypic analyses of mutant mice that either selectively lacked or overexpressed M(3) receptors in pancreatic beta -cells indicated that beta -cell M(3) mAChRs are essential for maintaining proper insulin release and glucose homeostasis. The experimental data also suggested that strategies aimed at enhancing signaling through beta -cell M(3) mAChRs might be beneficial for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Recent studies with whole body M(3) mAChR knockout mice showed that the absence of M(3) receptors protected mice against various forms of experimentally or genetically induced obesity and obesity-associated metabolic deficits. Under all experimental conditions tested, M(3) receptor-deficient mice showed greatly ameliorated impairments in glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, reduced food intake, and a significant elevation in basal and total energy expenditure, most likely due to increased central sympathetic outflow and increased rate of fatty acid oxidation. These findings are of potential interest for the development of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of obesity and associated metabolic disorders.

  8. Vitamin D receptor deficiency impairs inner ear development in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Hye-Joo; Biology Department, Princess Nourah University, Riyadh 11671

    The biological actions of vitamin D are largely mediated through binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family, which regulates gene expression in a wide variety of tissues and cells. Mutations in VDR gene have been implicated in ear disorders (hearing loss and balance disorder) but the mechanisms are not well established. In this study, to investigate the role of VDR in inner ear development, morpholino-mediated gene knockdown approaches were used in zebrafish model system. Two paralogs for VDR, vdra and vdrb, have been identified in zebrafish. Knockdown of vdra had no effectmore » on ear development, whereas knockdown of vdrb displayed morphological ear defects including smaller otic vesicles with malformed semicircular canals and abnormal otoliths. Loss-of-vdrb resulted in down-regulation of pre-otic markers, pax8 and pax2a, indicating impairment of otic induction. Furthermore, zebrafish embryos lacking vdrb produced fewer sensory hair cells in the ears and showed disruption of balance and motor coordination. These data reveal that VDR signaling plays an important role in ear development. - Highlights: • VDR signaling is involved in ear development. • Knockdown of vdrb causes inner ear malformations during embryogenesis. • Knockdown of vdrb affects otic placode induction. • Knockdown of vdrb reduces the number of sensory hair cells in the inner ear. • Knockdown of vdrb disrupts balance and motor coordination.« less

  9. Vitamin D receptor deficiency impairs inner ear development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hye-Joo

    2016-09-16

    The biological actions of vitamin D are largely mediated through binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family, which regulates gene expression in a wide variety of tissues and cells. Mutations in VDR gene have been implicated in ear disorders (hearing loss and balance disorder) but the mechanisms are not well established. In this study, to investigate the role of VDR in inner ear development, morpholino-mediated gene knockdown approaches were used in zebrafish model system. Two paralogs for VDR, vdra and vdrb, have been identified in zebrafish. Knockdown of vdra had no effect on ear development, whereas knockdown of vdrb displayed morphological ear defects including smaller otic vesicles with malformed semicircular canals and abnormal otoliths. Loss-of-vdrb resulted in down-regulation of pre-otic markers, pax8 and pax2a, indicating impairment of otic induction. Furthermore, zebrafish embryos lacking vdrb produced fewer sensory hair cells in the ears and showed disruption of balance and motor coordination. These data reveal that VDR signaling plays an important role in ear development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Growth hormone receptor deficiency (Laron syndrome): clinical and genetic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Aguirre, J; Rosenbloom, A L; Vaccarello, M A; Fielder, P J; de la Vega, A; Diamond, F B; Rosenfeld, R G

    1991-01-01

    Approximately 60 cases of GHRD (Laron syndrome) were reported before 1990 and half of these were from Israel. We have described 47 additional patients from an inbred population of South Ecuador and have emphasized certain clinical features including: markedly advanced osseous maturation for height age; normal body proportions in childhood but child-like proportions in adults; much greater deviation of stature than head size, giving an appearance of large cranium and small facies; underweight in childhood despite the appearance of obesity and true obesity in adulthood; blue scleras; and limited elbow extension. The Ecuadorean patients differed markedly and most importantly from the other large concentration, in Israel, by being of normal or superior intelligence, suggesting a unique linkage in the Ecuadorean population. The Ecuadorean population also differed in that those patients coming from Loja province had a markedly skewed sex ratio (19 females: 2 males), while those from El Oro province had a normal sex distribution (14 females: 12 males). The phenotypic similarity between the El Oro and Loja patients indicates that this abnormal sex distribution is not a direct result of the GHRD.

  11. Weight-loss changes PPAR expression, reduces atherosclerosis and improves cardiovascular function in obese insulin-resistant mice

    SciTech Connect

    Verreth, Wim; Verhamme, Peter; Pelat, Michael

    2003-09-01

    Weight-loss in obese insulin-resistant, but not in insulin-sensitive, persons reduces CHD risk. It is not known to what extent changes in the adipose gene expression profile are important for reducing CHD risk. We studied the effect of diet restriction-induced weight-loss on gene expression in adipose tissue, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular function in mice with combined leptin and LDL-receptor deficiency. Obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin-resistance are associated with hypertension, impaired left ventricle function and accelerated atherosclerosis in those mice. Diet restriction during 12 weeks caused a 45% weight-loss and changes in the gene expression in adipose tissue of PPARa and PPAR? and ofmore » key genes regulating glucose transport and insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation, most of which are under the transcriptional control of PPARs. These changes were associated with increased insulin-sensitivity, decreased hypertriglyceridemia, reduced mean 24-hour blood pressure and heart rate, restored circadian variations of blood pressure and heart rate, increased ejection fraction, and reduced atherosclerosis. Thus, induction of PPARa and PPAR? in adipose tissue is a key mechanism for reducing atherosclerosis and improving cardiovascular function resulting from weight-loss. Our observations point to the critical role of PPARs in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular features of the metabolic syndrome.« less

  12. Induction of Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin Production by Nonanoic Acid and Exacerbation of Allergic Inflammation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Saori; Segawa, Ryosuke; Satou, Nozomi; Hiratsuka, Masahiro; Leonard, Warren J.; Hirasawa, Noriyasu

    2013-01-01

    Background Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) plays critical roles in the induction and exacerbation of allergic diseases. We tested various chemicals in the environment and found that xylene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene induced the production of TSLP in vivo. These findings prompted us to search for additional chemicals that induce TSLP production. In this study, we examined whether fatty acids could induce the production of TSLP in vivo and exacerbate allergic inflammation. Methods Various fatty acids and related compounds were painted on the ear lobes of mice and the amount of TSLP in the homogenate of ear lobe tissue was determined. The effects of nonanoic acid on allergic inflammation were also examined. Results Octanoic acid, nonanoic acid, and decanoic acid markedly induced TSLP production, while a medium-chain aldehyde and alcohol showed only weak activity. Nonanoic acid induced the production of TSLP with a maximum at 24 h. TSLP production was even observed in nonanoic acid-treated C3H/HeJ mice that lacked functional toll-like receptor 4. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist β-naphthoflavone did not induce TSLP production. Nonanoic acid promoted sensitization to ovalbumin, resulting in an enhancement in the cutaneous anaphylactic response. In addition, painting of nonanoic acid after the sensitization augmented picryl chloride-induced thickening of the ear, which was reversed in TSLP receptor-deficient mice. Conclusion Nonanoic acid and certain fatty acids induced TSLP production, resulting in the exacerbation of allergic inflammation. We propose that TSLP-inducing chemical compounds such as nonanoic acid be recognized as chemical allergo-accelerators. PMID:24060765

  13. Leptin Deficiency and Diet-Induced Obesity Reduce Hypothalamic Kisspeptin Expression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Christopher S.; Roa, Juan; Augustine, Rachael A.; Grattan, David R.; Anderson, Greg M.

    2011-01-01

    The hormone leptin modulates a diverse range of biological functions, including energy homeostasis and reproduction. Leptin promotes GnRH function via an indirect action on forebrain neurons. We tested whether leptin deficiency or leptin resistance due to a high-fat diet (HFD) can regulate the potent reproductive neuropeptide kisspeptin. In mice with normalized levels of estradiol, leptin deficiency markedly reduced kisspeptin gene expression, particularly in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), and kisspeptin immunoreactive cell numbers in the rostral periventricular region of the third ventricle (RP3V). The HFD model was used to determine the effects of diet-induced obesity and central leptin resistance on kisspeptin cell number and gene expression. DBA/2J mice, which are prone to HFD-induced infertility, showed a marked decrease in kisspeptin expression in both the RP3V and ARC and cell numbers in the RP3V after HFD. This is the first evidence that kisspeptin can be regulated by HFD and/or increased body weight. Next we demonstrated that leptin does not signal (via signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 or 5, or mammalian target of rapamycin) directly on kisspeptin-expressing neurons in the RP3V. Lastly, in leptin receptor-deficient mice, neither GnRH nor kisspeptin neurons were activated during a preovulatory-like GnRH/LH surge induction regime, indicating that leptin's actions on GnRH may be upstream of kisspeptin neurons. These data provide evidence that leptin's effects on reproductive function are regulated by kisspeptin neurons in both the ARC and RP3V, although in the latter site the effects are likely to be indirect. PMID:21325051

  14. Leptin deficiency and diet-induced obesity reduce hypothalamic kisspeptin expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Quennell, Janette H; Howell, Christopher S; Roa, Juan; Augustine, Rachael A; Grattan, David R; Anderson, Greg M

    2011-04-01

    The hormone leptin modulates a diverse range of biological functions, including energy homeostasis and reproduction. Leptin promotes GnRH function via an indirect action on forebrain neurons. We tested whether leptin deficiency or leptin resistance due to a high-fat diet (HFD) can regulate the potent reproductive neuropeptide kisspeptin. In mice with normalized levels of estradiol, leptin deficiency markedly reduced kisspeptin gene expression, particularly in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), and kisspeptin immunoreactive cell numbers in the rostral periventricular region of the third ventricle (RP3V). The HFD model was used to determine the effects of diet-induced obesity and central leptin resistance on kisspeptin cell number and gene expression. DBA/2J mice, which are prone to HFD-induced infertility, showed a marked decrease in kisspeptin expression in both the RP3V and ARC and cell numbers in the RP3V after HFD. This is the first evidence that kisspeptin can be regulated by HFD and/or increased body weight. Next we demonstrated that leptin does not signal (via signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 or 5, or mammalian target of rapamycin) directly on kisspeptin-expressing neurons in the RP3V. Lastly, in leptin receptor-deficient mice, neither GnRH nor kisspeptin neurons were activated during a preovulatory-like GnRH/LH surge induction regime, indicating that leptin's actions on GnRH may be upstream of kisspeptin neurons. These data provide evidence that leptin's effects on reproductive function are regulated by kisspeptin neurons in both the ARC and RP3V, although in the latter site the effects are likely to be indirect.

  15. PAR2 (Protease-Activated Receptor 2) Deficiency Attenuates Atherosclerosis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Jones, Shannon M; Mann, Adrien; Conrad, Kelsey; Saum, Keith; Hall, David E; McKinney, Lisa M; Robbins, Nathan; Thompson, Joel; Peairs, Abigail D; Camerer, Eric; Rayner, Katey J; Tranter, Michael; Mackman, Nigel; Owens, A Phillip

    2018-06-01

    PAR2 (protease-activated receptor 2)-dependent signaling results in augmented inflammation and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of PAR2 deficiency on the development of atherosclerosis. PAR2 mRNA and protein expression is increased in human carotid artery and mouse aortic arch atheroma versus control carotid and aortic arch arteries, respectively. To determine the effect of PAR2 deficiency on atherosclerosis, male and female low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient ( Ldlr -/- ) mice (8-12 weeks old) that were Par2 +/+ or Par2 -/- were fed a fat- and cholesterol-enriched diet for 12 or 24 weeks. PAR2 deficiency attenuated atherosclerosis in the aortic sinus and aortic root after 12 and 24 weeks. PAR2 deficiency did not alter total plasma cholesterol concentrations or lipoprotein distributions. Bone marrow transplantation showed that PAR2 on nonhematopoietic cells contributed to atherosclerosis. PAR2 deficiency significantly attenuated levels of the chemokines Ccl2 and Cxcl1 in the circulation and macrophage content in atherosclerotic lesions. Mechanistic studies using isolated primary vascular smooth muscle cells showed that PAR2 deficiency is associated with reduced Ccl2 and Cxcl1 mRNA expression and protein release into the supernatant resulting in less monocyte migration. Our results indicate that PAR2 deficiency is associated with attenuation of atherosclerosis and may reduce lesion progression by blunting Ccl2 - and Cxcl1 -induced monocyte infiltration. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Annexin A2 in Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    cells , leading to formation of an epiretinal membrane, retinal detachment, and loss of vision. At present, there are no reliable means of...type versus annexin A2- deficient mice, [2] define the role of A2 in the function of activated macrophages and RPE cells in PVR, and [3] examine the...expression is needed in both macrophages and RPE cells , and that A2 is extensively expressed within cells of epiretinal membranes in human PVR. Our

  17. Zika Virus Infection in Dexamethasone-immunosuppressed Mice Demonstrating Disseminated Infection with Multi-organ Involvement Including Orchitis Effectively Treated by Recombinant Type I Interferons.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Zhang, Anna Jinxia; Chan, Chris Chung-Sing; Yip, Cyril Chik-Yan; Mak, Winger Wing-Nga; Zhu, Houshun; Poon, Vincent Kwok-Man; Tee, Kah-Meng; Zhu, Zheng; Cai, Jian-Piao; Tsang, Jessica Oi-Ling; Chik, Kenn Ka-Heng; Yin, Feifei; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Kok, Kin-Hang; Jin, Dong-Yan; Au-Yeung, Rex Kwok-Him; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-12-01

    Disseminated or fatal Zika virus (ZIKV) infections were reported in immunosuppressed patients. Existing interferon-signaling/receptor-deficient mouse models may not be suitable for evaluating treatment effects of recombinant interferons. We developed a novel mouse model for ZIKV infection by immunosuppressing BALB/c mice with dexamethasone. Dexamethasone-immunosuppressed male mice (6-8weeks) developed disseminated infection as evidenced by the detection of ZIKV-NS1 protein expression and high viral loads in multiple organs. They had ≥10% weight loss and high clinical scores soon after dexamethasone withdrawal (10dpi), which warranted euthanasia at 12dpi. Viral loads in blood and most tissues at 5dpi were significantly higher than those at 12dpi (P<0.05). Histological examination revealed prominent inflammatory infiltrates in multiple organs, and CD45+ and CD8+ inflammatory cells were seen in the testis. These findings suggested that clinical deterioration occurred during viral clearance by host immune response. Type I interferon treatments improved clinical outcome of mice (100% vs 0% survival). Besides virus dissemination, inflammation of various tissues, especially orchitis, may be potential complications of ZIKV infection with significant implications on disease transmission and male fertility. Interferon treatment should be considered in patients at high risks for ZIKV-associated complications when the potential benefits outweigh the side effects of treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Immunization of Knock-Out α/β Interferon Receptor Mice against High Lethal Dose of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus with a Cell Culture Based Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Canakoglu, Nurettin; Berber, Engin; Tonbak, Sukru; Ertek, Mustafa; Sozdutmaz, Ibrahim; Aktas, Munir; Kalkan, Ahmet; Ozdarendeli, Aykut

    2015-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an acute tick-borne zoonotic disease. The disease has been reported in many countries of Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and in Eurasia. During the past decade, new foci of CCHF have emerged in the Balkan Peninsula, southwest Russia, the Middle East, western China, India, Africa, and Turkey. CCHF virus produces severe hemorrhagic manifestations in humans with fatality rates up to 30%. Vaccine development efforts have been significantly hampered by a lack of animal models and therefore, no protective vaccine has been achieved. Lately, IFN α/β receptor deficient (IFNAR−/−) mice have been established as a novel small animal model of CCHF virus infection. In the present study, we found that IFNAR−/− mice highly susceptible to CCHF virus Turkey-Kelkit06 strain. Immunization with the cell culture based vaccine elicited a significant level of protection against high dose challenge (1,000 PPFU) with a homologous CCHF virus in IFNAR−/− mice. PMID:25760444

  19. Islet Hypersensitivity to Glucose Is Associated With Disrupted Oscillations and Increased Impact of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Islets From Diabetes-Prone Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, Kathryn L.; Waters, Christopher D.; Shaffer, Brett K.; Verrilli, Gretchen M.

    2016-01-01

    Pulsatile insulin release is the primary means of blood glucose regulation. The loss of pulsatility is thought to be an early marker and possible factor in developing type 2 diabetes. Another early adaptation in islet function to compensate for obesity is increased glucose sensitivity (left shift) associated with increased basal insulin release. We provide evidence that oscillatory disruptions may be linked with overcompensation (glucose hypersensitivity) in islets from diabetes-prone mice. We isolated islets from male 4- to 5-week-old (prediabetic) and 10- to 12-week-old (diabetic) leptin-receptor-deficient (db/db) mice and age-matched heterozygous controls. After an overnight incubation in media with 11 mM glucose, we measured islet intracellular calcium in 5, 8, 11, or 15 mM glucose. Islets from heterozygous 10- to 12-week-old mice were quiescent in 5 mM glucose and displayed oscillations with increasing amplitude and/or duration in 8, 11, and 15 mM glucose, respectively. Islets from diabetic 10- to 12-week-old mice, in contrast, showed robust oscillations in 5 mM glucose that declined with increasing glucose. Similar trends were observed at 4–5-weeks of age. A progressive left shift in maximal insulin release was also observed in islets as db/db mice aged. Reducing glucokinase activity with 1 mM D-mannoheptulose restored oscillations in 11 mM glucose. Finally, overnight low-dose cytokine exposure negatively impacted oscillations preferentially in high glucose in diabetic islets compared with heterozygous controls. Our findings suggest the following: 1) islets from frankly diabetic mice can produce oscillations, 2) elevated sensitivity to glucose prevents diabetic mouse islets from producing oscillations in normal postprandial (11–15 mM glucose) conditions, and 3) hypersensitivity to glucose may magnify stress effects from inflammation or other sources. PMID:26943366

  20. Kefir improves fatty liver syndrome by inhibiting the lipogenesis pathway in leptin-deficient ob/ob knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, H-L; Tung, Y-T; Tsai, C-L; Lai, C-W; Lai, Z-L; Tsai, H-C; Lin, Y-L; Wang, C-H; Chen, C-M

    2014-09-01

    Fatty liver disease is commonly associated with obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. Severe fatty liver is sometimes accompanied by steatohepatitis and may lead to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. At present, there is no effective treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); thus, recent investigations have focused on developing effective therapeutics to treat this condition. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of kefir on the hepatic lipid metabolism of ob/ob mice, which are commonly used to model fatty liver disease. In this study, we used leptin receptor-deficient ob/ob mice as an animal disease model of NAFLD. Six-week-old ob/ob mice were orally administered the dairy product kefir (140 mg kg(-1) of body weight (BW) per day) for 4 weeks. The data demonstrated that kefir improved fatty liver syndrome on BW, energy expenditure and basal metabolic rate by inhibiting serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities (P<0.05) and by decreasing the triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) contents of the liver (P<0.05). Oral kefir administration also significantly reduced the macrovesicular fat quantity in liver tissue. In addition, kefir markedly decreased the expression of the genes sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) (P<0.05) but not the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) or hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1α (CPT1α) in the livers of ob/ob mice. On the basis of these results, we conclude that kefir improves NAFLD on BW, energy expenditure and basal metabolic rate by inhibiting the lipogenesis pathway and that kefir may have the potential for clinical application to the prevention or treatment of NAFLD.

  1. PAC1- and VPAC2 receptors in light regulated behavior and physiology: Studies in single and double mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Jens; Georg, Birgitte; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The two sister peptides, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and their receptors, the PAC1 -and the VPAC2 receptors, are involved in regulation of the circadian timing system. PACAP as a neurotransmitter in the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) and VIP as a neurotransmitter, involved in synchronization of SCN neurons. Behavior and physiology in VPAC2 deficient mice are strongly regulated by light most likely as a result of masking. Consequently, we used VPAC2 and PAC1/VPAC2 double mutant mice in comparison with PAC1 receptor deficient mice to further elucidate the role of PACAP in the light mediated regulation of behavior and physiology of the circadian system. We compared circadian rhythms in mice equipped with running wheels or implanted radio-transmitter measuring core body temperature kept in a full photoperiod ((FPP)(12:12 h light dark-cycles (LD)) and skeleton photo periods (SPP) at high and low light intensity. Furthermore, we examined the expression of PAC1- and VPAC2 receptors in the SCN of the different genotypes in combination with visualization of PACAP and VIP and determined whether compensatory changes in peptide and/or receptor expression in the reciprocal knockouts (KO) (PAC1 and VPAC2) had occurred. Our data demonstrate that in although being closely related at both ligand and receptor structure/sequence, PACAP/PAC1 receptor signaling are independent of VIP/VPAC2 receptor signaling and vice versa. Furthermore, lack of either of the receptors does not result in compensatory changes at neither the physiological or anatomical level. PACAP/PAC1 signaling is important for light regulated behavior, VIP/VPAC2signaling for stable clock function and both signaling pathways may play a role in shaping diurnality versus nocturnality.

  2. PAC1- and VPAC2 receptors in light regulated behavior and physiology: Studies in single and double mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Georg, Birgitte; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The two sister peptides, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and their receptors, the PAC1 –and the VPAC2 receptors, are involved in regulation of the circadian timing system. PACAP as a neurotransmitter in the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) and VIP as a neurotransmitter, involved in synchronization of SCN neurons. Behavior and physiology in VPAC2 deficient mice are strongly regulated by light most likely as a result of masking. Consequently, we used VPAC2 and PAC1/VPAC2 double mutant mice in comparison with PAC1 receptor deficient mice to further elucidate the role of PACAP in the light mediated regulation of behavior and physiology of the circadian system. We compared circadian rhythms in mice equipped with running wheels or implanted radio-transmitter measuring core body temperature kept in a full photoperiod ((FPP)(12:12 h light dark-cycles (LD)) and skeleton photo periods (SPP) at high and low light intensity. Furthermore, we examined the expression of PAC1- and VPAC2 receptors in the SCN of the different genotypes in combination with visualization of PACAP and VIP and determined whether compensatory changes in peptide and/or receptor expression in the reciprocal knockouts (KO) (PAC1 and VPAC2) had occurred. Our data demonstrate that in although being closely related at both ligand and receptor structure/sequence, PACAP/PAC1 receptor signaling are independent of VIP/VPAC2 receptor signaling and vice versa. Furthermore, lack of either of the receptors does not result in compensatory changes at neither the physiological or anatomical level. PACAP/PAC1 signaling is important for light regulated behavior, VIP/VPAC2signaling for stable clock function and both signaling pathways may play a role in shaping diurnality versus nocturnality. PMID:29155851

  3. LDL receptor-related protein mediates cell-surface clustering and hepatic sequestration of chylomicron remnants in LDLR-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, K C; Chen, W; Cooper, A D

    2001-06-01

    It has been proposed that in the liver, chylomicron remnants (lipoproteins carrying dietary lipid) may be sequestered before being internalized by hepatocytes. To study this, chylomicron remnants labeled with a fluorescent dye were perfused into isolated livers of LDL receptor-deficient (LDLR-deficient) mice (Ldlr(-/-)) and examined by confocal microscopy. In contrast to livers from normal mice, there was clustering of the chylomicron remnants on the cell surface in the space of DISSE: These remnant clusters colocalized with clusters of LDLR-related protein (LRP) and could be eliminated by low concentrations of receptor-associated protein, an inhibitor of LRP. When competed with ligands of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), the remnant clusters still appeared but were fewer in number, although syndecans (membrane HSPGs) colocalized with the remnant clusters. This suggests that the clustering of remnants is not dependent on syndecans but that the syndecans may modify the binding of remnants. These results establish that sequestration is a novel process, the clustering of remnants in the space of DISSE: The clustering involves remnants binding to the LRP, and this may be stabilized by binding with syndecans, eventually followed by endocytosis.

  4. Adenosine 5'-monophosphate ameliorates D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury through an adenosine receptor-independent mechanism in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Y; Wang, Z; Yang, P; Wang, T; Xia, L; Zhou, M; Wang, Y; Wang, S; Hua, Z; Zhang, J

    2014-01-09

    D-galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lethality and acute liver failure is dependent on endogenously produced inflammatory cytokines. Adenosine has been proven to be a central role in the regulation of inflammatory response. It is not entirely clear that which adenosine action is actually crucial to limiting inflammatory tissue destruction. Here we showed that GalN/LPS challenge elevated hepatic adenosine and induced lethality in adenosine receptor-deficient mice with equal efficiency as wild-type mice. In GalN/LPS-treated mice, pretreatment with adenosine 5'-monophosphate (5'-AMP) significantly elevated hepatic adenosine level and reduced mortality through decreasing cytokine and chemokine production. In RAW264.7 cells, 5'-AMP treatment inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines, which is not mediated through adenosine receptors. 5'-AMP failed to attenuate LPS-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 nuclear translocation, but reduced LPS-induced recruitment of NF-κB p65 to inflammatory gene promoters and decreased LPS-induced enrichment of H3K4 dimethylation at the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) promoter, which was involved in 5'-AMP-induced elevation of cellular adenosine and a decline of methylation potential. In vitro biochemical analysis revealed that adenosine directly attenuated recruitment of NF-κB to the TNF-α and interleukin-6 promoters. Our findings demonstrate that 5'-AMP-inhibiting inflammatory response is not mediated by adenosine receptors and it may represent a potential protective agent for amelioration of LPS-induced liver injury.

  5. Hematopoietic G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 deficiency decreases atherosclerotic lesion formation in LDL receptor-knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Otten, Jeroen J. T.; de Jager, Saskia C. A.; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Seijkens, Tom; Bot, Ilze; Wijnands, Erwin; Beckers, Linda; Westra, Marijke M.; Bot, Martine; Busch, Matthias; Bermudez, Beatriz; van Berkel, Theo J. C.; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Biessen, Erik A. L.

    2013-01-01

    Leukocyte chemotaxis is deemed instrumental in initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. It is mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors (e.g., CCR2 and CCR5), the activity of which is controlled by G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs). In this study, we analyzed the effect of hematopoietic deficiency of a potent regulator kinase of chemotaxis (GRK2) on atherogenesis. LDL receptor-deficient (LDLr−/−) mice with heterozygous hematopoietic GRK2 deficiency, generated by bone marrow transplantation (n=15), displayed a dramatic attenuation of plaque development, with 79% reduction in necrotic core and increased macrophage content. Circulating monocytes decreased and granulocytes increased in GRK2+/− chimeras, which could be attributed to diminished granulocyte colony-forming units in bone marrow. Collectively, these data pointed to myeloid cells as major mediators of the impaired atherogenic response in GRK2+/− chimeras. LDLr−/− mice with macrophage/granulocyte-specific GRK2 deficiency (LysM-Cre GRK2flox/flox; n=8) failed to mimic the aforementioned phenotype, acquitting these cells as major responsible subsets for GRK2 deficiency-associated atheroprotection. To conclude, even partial hematopoietic GRK2 deficiency prevents atherosclerotic lesion progression beyond the fatty streak stage, identifying hematopoietic GRK2 as a potential target for intervention in atherosclerosis.—Otten, J. J. T., de Jager, S. C. A., Kavelaars, A., Seijkens, T., Bot, I., Wijnands, E., Beckers, L., Westra, M. M., Bot, M., Busch, M., Bermudez, B., van Berkel, T. J. C., Heijnen, C. J., Biessen, E. A. L. Hematopoietic G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 deficiency decreases atherosclerotic lesion formation in LDL receptor-knockout mice. PMID:23047899

  6. Hepatic overexpression of SIRT1 in mice attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress and insulin resistance in the liver

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Xu, Shanqin; Giles, Amber; Nakamura, Kazuto; Lee, Jong Woo; Hou, Xiuyun; Donmez, Gizem; Li, Ji; Luo, Zhijun; Walsh, Kenneth; Guarente, Leonard; Zang, Mengwei

    2011-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of human type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Although SIRT1 has a therapeutic effect on metabolic deterioration in T2DM, the precise mechanisms by which SIRT1 improves insulin resistance remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that adenovirus-mediated overexpression of SIRT1 in the liver of diet-induced insulin-resistant low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice and of genetically obese ob/ob mice attenuates hepatic steatosis and ameliorates systemic insulin resistance. These beneficial effects were associated with decreased mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity, inhibited the unfolded protein response (UPR), and enhanced insulin receptor signaling in the liver, leading to decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis and improved glucose tolerance. The tunicamycin-induced splicing of X-box binding protein-1 and expression of GRP78 and CHOP were reduced by resveratrol in cultured cells in a SIRT1-dependent manner. Conversely, SIRT1-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts challenged with tunicamycin exhibited markedly increased mTORC1 activity and impaired ER homeostasi and insulin signaling. These effects were abolished by mTORC1 inhibition by rapamycin in human HepG2 cells. These studies indicate that SIRT1 serves as a negative regulator of UPR signaling in T2DM and that SIRT1 attenuates hepatic steatosis, ameliorates insulin resistance, and restores glucose homeostasis, largely through the inhibition of mTORC1 and ER stress.—Li, Y., Xu, S., Giles, A., Nakamura, K., Lee, J. W., Hou, X., Donmez, G., Li, J., Luo, Z., Walsh, K., Guarente, L., Zang, M. Hepatic overexpression of SIRT1 in mice attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress and insulin resistance in the liver. PMID:21321189

  7. Age-related cognitive decline in hypercholesterolemic LDL receptor knockout mice (LDLr-/-): evidence of antioxidant imbalance and increased acetylcholinesterase activity in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Eduardo Luiz Gasnhar; de Oliveira, Jade; Nunes, Jean Costa; Santos, Danúbia Bonfanti; Nunes, Fernanda Costa; Vieira, Daniella Serafim Couto; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; Pamplona, Fabrício Alano; de Bem, Andreza Fabro; Farina, Marcelo; Walz, Roger; Prediger, Rui Daniel

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that hypercholesterolemia during midlife may represent a predictor of subsequent mild cognitive impairments and dementia decades later. However, the exact mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unknown since plasmatic cholesterol is not able to cross the blood-brain barrier. In the present study, we evaluated the hypothesis that cognitive impairments triggered by hypercholesterolemia during aging may be related to brain oxidative stress and altered brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. We also performed a neuropathological investigation in order to analyze whether the cognitive impairments may be associated with stroke-related features. To address these questions we used three- and fourteen-month-old low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice (LDLr-/-). The current findings provide new evidence that aged LDLr-/- mice, exposed to over three-fold cholesterol levels from early life, show working, spatial reference, and procedural memory impairments, without alterations in motor function. Antioxidant imbalance and oxidative damage were evidenced by a marked increase in lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels) and glutathione metabolism (increase in glutathione levels, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activities) together with a significant increase in the AChE activity in the prefrontal cortex of aged hypercholesterolemic LDLr-/- mice. Notably, hypercholesterolemia was not related to brain infarcts and neurodegeneration in mice, independent of their age. These observations provide new evidence that hypercholesterolemia during aging triggers cognitive impairments on different types of learning and memory, accompanied by antioxidant imbalance, oxidative damage, and alterations of cholinergic signaling in brain areas associated with learning and memory processes, particularly in the prefrontal cortex.

  8. P2Y receptors and atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Guns, Pieter-Jan DF; Hendrickx, Jan; Van Assche, Tim; Fransen, Paul; Bult, Hidde

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: P2Y nucleotide receptors are involved in the regulation of vascular tone, smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and inflammatory responses. The present study investigated whether they are involved in atherosclerosis. Experimental approach: mRNA of P2Y receptors was quantified (RT-PCR) in atherosclerotic and plaque-free aorta segments of apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE–/–) mice. Macrophage activation was assessed in J774 macrophages, and effects of non-selective purinoceptor antagonists on atherosclerosis were evaluated in cholesterol-fed apoE–/– mice. Key results: P2Y6 receptor mRNA was consistently elevated in segments with atherosclerosis, whereas P2Y2 receptor expression remained unchanged. Expression of P2Y1 or P2Y4 receptor mRNA was low or undetectable, and not influenced by atherosclerosis. P2Y6 mRNA expression was higher in cultured J774 macrophages than in cultured aortic SMCs. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining of plaques demonstrated P2Y6-positive macrophages, but few SMCs, suggesting that macrophage recruitment accounted for the increase in P2Y6 receptor mRNA during atherosclerosis. In contrast to ATP, the P2Y6-selective agonist UDP increased mRNA expression and activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase and interleukin-6 in J774 macrophages; this effect was blocked by suramin (100–300 µM) or pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2′-4′-disulphonic acid (PPADS, 10–30 µM). Finally, 4-week treatment of cholesterol-fed apoE–/– mice with suramin or PPADS (50 and 25 mg·kg−1·day−1 respectively) reduced plaque size, without changing plaque composition (relative SMC and macrophage content) or cell replication. Conclusions and implications: These results suggest involvement of nucleotide receptors, particularly P2Y6 receptors, during atherosclerosis, and warrant further research with selective purinoceptor antagonists or P2Y6 receptor-deficient mice. PMID:20050854

  9. Dendritic Cell Subset Distributions in the Aorta in Healthy and Atherosclerotic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Manfred B.; Zernecke, Alma

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) can be sub-divided into various subsets that play specialized roles in priming of adaptive immune responses. Atherosclerosis is regarded as a chronic inflammatory disease of the vessel wall and DCs can be found in non-inflamed and diseased arteries. We here performed a systematic analyses of DCs subsets during atherogenesis. Our data indicate that distinct DC subsets can be localized in the vessel wall. In C57BL/6 and low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr −/−) mice, CD11c+ MHCII+ DCs could be discriminated into CD103− CD11b+F4/80+, CD11b+F4/80− and CD11b−F4/80− DCs and CD103+ CD11b−F4/80− DCs. Except for CD103− CD11b− F4/80− DCs, these subsets expanded in high fat diet-fed Ldlr −/− mice. Signal-regulatory protein (Sirp)-α was detected on aortic macrophages, CD11b+ DCs, and partially on CD103− CD11b− F4/80− but not on CD103+ DCs. Notably, in FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3-ligand-deficient (Flt3l −/−) mice, a specific loss of CD103+ DCs but also CD103− CD11b+ F4/80− DCs was evidenced. Aortic CD103+ and CD11b+ F4/80− CD103− DCs may thus belong to conventional rather than monocyte-derived DCs, given their dependence on Flt3L-signalling. CD64, postulated to distinguish macrophages from DCs, could not be detected on DC subsets under physiological conditions, but appeared in a fraction of CD103− CD11b+ F4/80− and CD11b+ F4/80+ cells in atherosclerotic Ldlr −/− mice. The emergence of CD64 expression in atherosclerosis may indicate that CD11b+ F4/80− DCs similar to CD11b+ F4/80+ DCs are at least in part derived from immigrated monocytes during atherosclerotic lesion formation. Our data advance our knowledge about the presence of distinct DC subsets and their accumulation characteristics in atherosclerosis, and may help to assist in future studies aiming at specific DC-based therapeutic strategies for the treatment of chronic vascular inflammation. PMID:24551105

  10. Oral lactoferrin protects against experimental candidiasis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Velliyagounder, Kabilan; Alsaedi, Wijdan; Alabdulmohsen, Waad; Markowitz, Kenneth; Fine, Daniel H.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To determine the role of lactoferrin in protecting the oral cavities of mice against Candida albicans infection in lactoferrin knockout (LFKO−/−) mice were compared to wild-type (WT) mice. We also determine the protective role of human lactoferrin in the LFKO−/− mice. Methods and Results Antibiotic treated immunosuppressed mice were inoculated with C. albicans (or sham infection) by oral swab and evaluated for the severity of infection after 7 days of infection. To determine the protective role of hLF, we added 0.3% solution of hLF to the drinking water given to some of the mice. CFU count, scoring of lesions and microscopic observations were carried out to determine the severity of infection. LFKO−/−I mice showed a 2 log (P=0.001) higher CFUs of C. albicans in the oral cavity compared to the WTI mice. LFKO−/−I mice given hLF had a 3 log (P=0.001) reduction in CFUs in the oral cavity compared to untreated LFKO−/−I mice. The severity of infection, observed by light microscopy revealed that the tongue of the LFKO−/−I mice showed more white patches compared to WTI and LFKO−/−I+hLF mice. Scanning electron microscopic observation revealed that more filiform papillae were destroyed in LFKO−/−I mice when compared to WTI or LFKO−/−I +hLF mice. Conclusions Human lactoferrin is important in protecting mice from oral C. albicans infection. Administered hLF may be used to prevent C. albicans infection. Significance and Impact of the Study Human lactoferrin, a multifunctional iron-binding glycoprotein can be used as a therapeutic active ingredient in oral health care products against C. albicans. PMID:25319508

  11. Oral lactoferrin protects against experimental candidiasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Velliyagounder, K; Alsaedi, W; Alabdulmohsen, W; Markowitz, K; Fine, D H

    2015-01-01

    To determine the role of human lactoferrin (hLF) in protecting the oral cavities of mice against Candida albicans infection in lactoferrin knockout (LFKO(-/-)) mice was compared to wild-type (WT) mice. We also aim to determine the protective role of hLF in LFKO(-/-) mice. Antibiotic-treated immunosuppressed mice were inoculated with C. albicans (or sham infection) by oral swab and evaluated for the severity of infection after 7 days of infection. To determine the protective role of hLF, we added 0·3% solution of hLF to the drinking water given to some of the mice. CFU count, scoring of lesions and microscopic observations were carried out to determine the severity of infection. LFKO(-/-) I mice showed a 2 log (P = 0·001) higher CFUs of C. albicans in the oral cavity compared to the WT mice infected with C. albicans (WTI). LFKO(-/-) I mice given hLF had a 3 log (P = 0·001) reduction in CFUs in the oral cavity compared to untreated LFKO(-/-) I mice. The severity of infection, observed by light microscopy, revealed that the tongue of the LFKO(-/-) I mice showed more white patches compared to WTI and LFKO(-/-) I + hLF mice. Scanning electron microscopic observations revealed that more filiform papillae were destroyed in LFKO(-/-) I mice when compared to WTI or LFKO(-/-) I + hLF mice. Human LF is important in protecting mice from oral C. albicans infection. Administered hLF may be used to prevent C. albicans infection. Human LF, a multifunctional iron-binding glycoprotein can be used as a therapeutic active ingredient in oral healthcare products against C. albicans. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Identifying Molecular Effects of Diet through Systems Biology: Influence of Herring Diet on Sterol Metabolism and Protein Turnover in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Holmäng, Agneta; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Nielsen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Background Changes in lifestyle have resulted in an epidemic development of obesity-related diseases that challenge the healthcare systems worldwide. To develop strategies to tackle this problem the focus is on diet to prevent the development of obesity-associated diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). This will require methods for linking nutrient intake with specific metabolic processes in different tissues. Methodology/Principal Finding Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr −/−) mice were fed a high fat/high sugar diet to mimic a westernized diet, being a major reason for development of obesity and atherosclerosis. The diets were supplemented with either beef or herring, and matched in macronutrient contents. Body composition, plasma lipids and aortic lesion areas were measured. Transcriptomes of metabolically important tissues, e.g. liver, muscle and adipose tissue were analyzed by an integrated approach with metabolic networks to directly map the metabolic effects of diet in these different tissues. Our analysis revealed a reduction in sterol metabolism and protein turnover at the transcriptional level in herring-fed mice. Conclusion This study shows that an integrated analysis of transcriptome data using metabolic networks resulted in the identification of signature pathways. This could not have been achieved using standard clustering methods. In particular, this systems biology analysis could enrich the information content of biomedical or nutritional data where subtle changes in several tissues together affects body metabolism or disease progression. This could be applied to improve diets for subjects exposed to health risks associated with obesity. PMID:20808764

  13. Chronic Co-species Housing Mice and Rats Increased the Competitiveness of Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying-Juan; Li, Lai-Fu; Zhang, Yao-Hua; Guo, Hui-Fen; Xia, Min; Zhang, Meng-Wei; Jing, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Jing-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Xu

    2017-03-01

    Rats are predators of mice in nature. Nevertheless, it is a common practice to house mice and rats in a same room in some laboratories. In this study, we investigated the behavioral and physiological responsively of mice in long-term co-species housing conditions. Twenty-four male mice were randomly assigned to their original raising room (control) or a rat room (co-species-housed) for more than 6 weeks. In the open-field and light-dark box tests, the behaviors of the co-species-housed mice and controls were not different. In a 2-choice test of paired urine odors [rabbit urine (as a novel odor) vs. rat urine, cat urine (as a natural predator-scent) vs. rabbit urine, and cat urine vs. rat urine], the co-species-housed mice were more ready to investigate the rat urine odor compared with the controls and may have adapted to it. In an encounter test, the rat-room-exposed mice exhibited increased aggression levels, and their urines were more attractive to females. Correspondingly, the levels of major urinary proteins were increased in the co-species-housed mouse urine, along with some volatile pheromones. The serum testosterone levels were also enhanced in the co-species-housed mice, whereas the corticosterone levels were not different. The norepinephrine, dopamine, and 5-HT levels in the right hippocampus and striatum were not different between the 2. Our findings indicate that chronic co-species housing results in adaptation in male mice; furthermore, it appears that long-term rat-odor stimuli enhance the competitiveness of mice, which suggests that appropriate predator-odor stimuli may be important to the fitness of prey animals. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Elovl6 Deficiency Improves Glycemic Control in Diabetic db/db Mice by Expanding β-Cell Mass and Increasing Insulin Secretory Capacity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Nakano, Yuta; Motomura, Kaori; Tang, Nie; Yokoo, Tomotaka; Okajima, Yuka; Han, Song-Iee; Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Aita, Yuichi; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Yatoh, Shigeru; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Sekiya, Motohiro; Yahagi, Naoya; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Sone, Hirohito; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2017-07-01

    Dysfunctional fatty acid (FA) metabolism plays an important role in the pathogenesis of β-cell dysfunction and loss of β-cell mass in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Elovl6 is a microsomal enzyme that is responsible for converting C16 saturated and monounsaturated FAs into C18 species. We previously showed that Elovl6 played a critical role in the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance by modifying FA composition. To further define its role in T2D development, we assessed the effects of Elovl6 deletion in leptin receptor-deficient C57BL/KsJ db / db mice, a model of T2D. The db / db ; Elovl6 -/- mice had a markedly increased β-cell mass with increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis, an adaptive increase in insulin, and improved glycemic control. db / db islets were characterized by a prominent elevation of oleate (C18:1n-9), cell stress, and inflammation, which was completely suppressed by Elovl6 deletion. As a mechanistic ex vivo experiment, isolated islets from Elovl6 -/- mice exhibited reduced susceptibility to palmitate-induced inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and β-cell apoptosis. In contrast, oleate-treated islets resulted in impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion with suppressed related genes irrespective of the Elovl6 gene. Taken together, Elovl6 is a fundamental factor linking dysregulated lipid metabolism to β-cell dysfunction, islet inflammation, and β-cell apoptosis in T2D, highlighting oleate as the potential culprit of β-cell lipotoxicity. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  15. Adenosine 5′-monophosphate ameliorates D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury through an adenosine receptor-independent mechanism in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Y; Wang, Z; Yang, P; Wang, T; Xia, L; Zhou, M; Wang, Y; Wang, S; Hua, Z; Zhang, J

    2014-01-01

    D-galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lethality and acute liver failure is dependent on endogenously produced inflammatory cytokines. Adenosine has been proven to be a central role in the regulation of inflammatory response. It is not entirely clear that which adenosine action is actually crucial to limiting inflammatory tissue destruction. Here we showed that GalN/LPS challenge elevated hepatic adenosine and induced lethality in adenosine receptor-deficient mice with equal efficiency as wild-type mice. In GalN/LPS-treated mice, pretreatment with adenosine 5′-monophosphate (5′-AMP) significantly elevated hepatic adenosine level and reduced mortality through decreasing cytokine and chemokine production. In RAW264.7 cells, 5′-AMP treatment inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines, which is not mediated through adenosine receptors. 5′-AMP failed to attenuate LPS-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 nuclear translocation, but reduced LPS-induced recruitment of NF-κB p65 to inflammatory gene promoters and decreased LPS-induced enrichment of H3K4 dimethylation at the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) promoter, which was involved in 5′-AMP-induced elevation of cellular adenosine and a decline of methylation potential. In vitro biochemical analysis revealed that adenosine directly attenuated recruitment of NF-κB to the TNF-α and interleukin-6 promoters. Our findings demonstrate that 5′-AMP-inhibiting inflammatory response is not mediated by adenosine receptors and it may represent a potential protective agent for amelioration of LPS-induced liver injury. PMID:24407238

  16. Posttraumatic Propofol Neurotoxicity Is Mediated via the Pro-Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor-p75 Neurotrophin Receptor Pathway in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Sebastiani, Anne; Granold, Matthias; Ditter, Anja; Sebastiani, Philipp; Gölz, Christina; Pöttker, Bruno; Luh, Clara; Schaible, Eva-Verena; Radyushkin, Konstantin; Timaru-Kast, Ralph; Werner, Christian; Schäfer, Michael K; Engelhard, Kristin; Moosmann, Bernd; Thal, Serge C

    2016-02-01

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid modulator propofol induces neuronal cell death in healthy immature brains by unbalancing neurotrophin homeostasis via p75 neurotrophin receptor signaling. In adulthood, p75 neurotrophin receptor becomes down-regulated and propofol loses its neurotoxic effect. However, acute brain lesions, such as traumatic brain injury, reactivate developmental-like programs and increase p75 neurotrophin receptor expression, probably to foster reparative processes, which in turn could render the brain sensitive to propofol-mediated neurotoxicity. This study investigates the influence of delayed single-bolus propofol applications at the peak of p75 neurotrophin receptor expression after experimental traumatic brain injury in adult mice. Randomized laboratory animal study. University research laboratory. Adult C57BL/6N and nerve growth factor receptor-deficient mice. Sedation by IV propofol bolus application delayed after controlled cortical impact injury. Propofol sedation at 24 hours after traumatic brain injury increased lesion volume, enhanced calpain-induced αII-spectrin cleavage, and increased cell death in perilesional tissue. Thirty-day postinjury motor function determined by CatWalk (Noldus Information Technology, Wageningen, The Netherlands) gait analysis was significantly impaired in propofol-sedated animals. Propofol enhanced pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor/brain-derived neurotrophic factor ratio, which aggravates p75 neurotrophin receptor-mediated cell death. Propofol toxicity was abolished both by pharmacologic inhibition of the cell death domain of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (TAT-Pep5) and in mice lacking the extracellular neurotrophin binding site of p75 neurotrophin receptor. This study provides first evidence that propofol sedation after acute brain lesions can have a deleterious impact and implicates a role for the pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor-p75 neurotrophin receptor pathway. This observation is important as sedation

  17. Dietary Vitamin D3 Suppresses Pulmonary Immunopathology Associated with Late-Stage Tuberculosis in C3HeB/FeJ Mice.

    PubMed

    Reeme, Allison E; Robinson, Richard T

    2016-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant human disease caused by inhalation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Left untreated, TB mortality is associated with a failure to resolve pulmonary immunopathology. There is currently widespread interest in using vitamin D3 (VitD3) as an adjunct therapy for TB because numerous in vitro studies have shown that VitD3 has direct and indirect mycobactericidal activities. However, to date, there have been no in vivo studies addressing whether VitD3 affects experimental TB outcome. In this study, we used C3HeB/FeJ mice to determine whether dietary VitD3 influences the outcome of experimental TB. We observed that although M. tuberculosis burdens did not differ between mice on a VitD3-replete diet (VitD(HI) mice) and mice on a VitD3-deficient diet (VitD(LO) mice), the inflammatory response in VitD(HI) mice was significantly attenuated relative to VitD(LO) controls. Specifically, the expression of multiple inflammatory pathways was reduced in the lungs at later disease stages as were splenocyte IL12/23p40 and IFN-γ levels following ex vivo restimulation. Dietary VitD3 also suppressed the accumulation of T cells in the mediastinal lymph nodes and lung granulomatous regions while concomitantly accelerating the accumulation of F4/80(+) and Ly6C/Ly6G(+) lineages. The altered inflammatory profile of VitD(HI) mice also associated with reductions in pulmonary immunopathology. VitD receptor-deficient (vdr(-/-)) radiation bone marrow chimeras demonstrate that reductions in pulmonary TB immunopathology are dependent on hematopoietic VitD responsiveness. Collectively, our data support a model wherein the in vivo role of VitD3 during TB is not to promote M. tuberculosis killing but rather to function through hematopoietic cells to reduce M. tuberculosis-elicited immunopathology. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  18. Vaccination with EphA2-derived T cell-epitopes promotes immunity against both EphA2-expressing and EphA2-negative tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, Manabu; Kuwashima, Naruo; Tatsumi, Tomohide; Dusak, Jill E; Nishimura, Fumihiko; Reilly, Karlyne M; Storkus, Walter J; Okada, Hideho

    2004-01-01

    Background A novel tyrosine kinase receptor EphA2 is expressed at high levels in advanced and metastatic cancers. We examined whether vaccinations with synthetic mouse EphA2 (mEphA2)-derived peptides that serve as T cell epitopes could induce protective and therapeutic anti-tumor immunity. Methods C57BL/6 mice received subcutaneous (s.c.) vaccinations with bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with synthetic peptides recognized by CD8+ (mEphA2671–679, mEphA2682–689) and CD4+ (mEphA230–44) T cells. Splenocytes (SPCs) were harvested from primed mice to assess the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses against syngeneic glioma, sarcoma and melanoma cell lines. The ability of these vaccines to prevent or treat tumor (s.c. injected MCA205 sarcoma or B16 melanoma; i.v. injected B16-BL6) establishment/progression was then assessed. Results Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with mEphA2-derived peptides induced specific CTL responses in SPCs. Vaccination with mEPhA2 peptides, but not control ovalbumin (OVA) peptides, prevented the establishment or prevented the growth of EphA2+ or EphA2-negative syngeneic tumors in both s.c. and lung metastasis models. Conclusions These data indicate that mEphA2 can serve as an attractive target against which to direct anti-tumor immunity. The ability of mEphA2 vaccines to impact EphA2-negative tumors such as the B16 melanoma may suggest that such beneficial immunity may be directed against alternative EphA2+ target cells, such as the tumor-associated vascular endothelial cells. PMID:15563374

  19. Adenosine A2A receptors and depression.

    PubMed

    El Yacoubi, Malika; Costentin, Jean; Vaugeois, Jean-Marie

    2003-12-09

    Adenosine and its analogues have been shown to induce "behavioral despair" in animal models believed to be relevant to depression. Recent data have shown that selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonists (e.g., SCH 58261, ZM241385, and KW6002) or genetic inactivation of the receptor was effective in reversing signs of behavioral despair in the tail suspension and forced swim tests, two screening procedures predictive of antidepressant activity. A2A antagonists were active in the tail suspension test using either mice previously screened for having high immobility scores or mice that were selectively bred for their spontaneous "helplessness" in this test. At stimulant doses, caffeine, a nonselective A1/A2A receptor antagonist, was effective in the forced swim test. The authors have hypothesized that the antidepressant-like effect of selective A2A antagonists is linked to an interaction with dopaminergic transmission, possibly in the frontal cortex. In support of this idea, administration of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol prevented antidepressant-like effects elicited by SCH 58261 in the forced swim test (putatively involving cortex), whereas it had no effect on stimulant motor effects of SCH 58261 (putatively linked to ventral striatum). The interaction profile of caffeine with haloperidol differed markedly from that of SCH 58261 in the forced swim and motor activity tests. Therefore, a clear-cut antidepressant-like effect could not be ascribed to caffeine. In conclusion, available data support the proposition that a selective blockade of the adenosine A2A receptor may be an interesting target for the development of effective antidepressant agents.

  20. Biliary tract instillation of a SMAC mimetic induces TRAIL-dependent acute sclerosing cholangitis-like injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Guicciardi, Maria Eugenia; Krishnan, Anuradha; Bronk, Steven F; Hirsova, Petra; Griffith, Thomas S; Gores, Gregory J

    2017-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a cholestatic liver disease of unknown etiopathogenesis characterized by fibrous cholangiopathy of large and small bile ducts. Systemic administration of a murine TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor agonist induces a sclerosing cholangitis injury in C57BL/6 mice, suggesting endogenous TRAIL may contribute to sclerosing cholangitis syndromes. Cellular inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (cIAP-1 and cIAP-2) are negative regulators of inflammation and TRAIL receptor signaling. We hypothesized that if endogenous TRAIL promotes sclerosing cholangitis, then cIAP depletion should also induce this biliary tract injury. Herein, we show that cIAP protein levels are reduced in the interlobular bile ducts of human PSC livers. Downregulation of cIAPs in normal human cholangiocytes in vitro by use of a SMAC mimetic (SM) induces moderate, ripoptosome-mediated apoptosis and RIP1-independent upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Cytokine and chemokine expression was mediated by the non-canonical activation of NF-κB. To investigate whether downregulation of cIAPs is linked to generation of a PSC-like phenotype, an SM was directly instilled into the mouse biliary tree. Twelve hours after biliary instillation, TUNEL-positive cholangiocytes were identified; 5 days later, PSC-like changes were observed in the SM-treated mice, including a fibrous cholangiopathy of the interlobular bile ducts, portal inflammation, significant elevation of serum markers of cholestasis and cholangiographic evidence of intrahepatic biliary tract injury. In contrast, TRAIL and TRAIL-receptor deficient mice showed no sign of cholangiopathy following SM intrabiliary injection. We conclude that in vivo antagonism of cIAPs in mouse biliary epithelial cells is sufficient to trigger cholangiocytes apoptosis and a proinflammatory response resulting in a fibrous cholangiopathy resembling human sclerosing cholangitis. Therefore, downregulation

  1. Mice and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willingham, Shively; Thompson, Charles L.

    Observations and experiments with mice, developed and tested at the Pennsylvania Advancement School with underachieving boys in grades seven and eight, are described in this teachers' guide which includes copies of student worksheets for exercises needing them. In addition to lists of materials and procedural suggestions, ideas for guiding…

  2. Docetaxel chronopharmacology in mice.

    PubMed

    Tampellini, M; Filipski, E; Liu, X H; Lemaigre, G; Li, X M; Vrignaud, P; François, E; Bissery, M C; Lévi, F

    1998-09-01

    Docetaxel tolerance and antitumor efficacy could be enhanced if drug administration was adapted to circadian rhythms. This hypothesis was investigated in seven experiments involving a total of 626 male B6D2F1 mice, synchronized with an alternation of 12 h of light and 12 h of darkness (12:12), after i.v. administration of docetaxel. In experiment (Exp) 1, the drug was given once a week (wk) for 6 wks (20 mg/kg/wk) or for 5 wks (30 mg/kg/wk) at one of six circadian times, during light when mice were resting [3, 7, or 11 hours after light onset (HALO)], or during darkness, when mice were active (15, 19, or 23 HALO). Endpoints were survival and body weight change. In Exp 2 and 3, docetaxel (30 mg/kg/wk) was administered twice, 1 wk apart, at one of four circadian stages (7, 11, 19, or 23 HALO). Endpoints were hematological and intestinal toxicities. In Exp 4, circadian changes in cell cycle phase distribution and BCL-2 immunofluorescence were investigated in bone marrow as possible mechanisms of docetaxel tolerability rhythm. In Exp 5 to 7, docetaxel was administered to mice bearing measurable P03 pancreatic adenocarcinoma (270-370 mg), with tumor weight and survival as endpoints. Mice from Exp 5 and 6 received a weekly schedule of docetaxel at one of six circadian stages (20 or 30 mg/kg/wk at 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, or 23 HALO). In Exp 7, docetaxel (30 mg/kg) was given every 2 days (day 1, 3, 5 schedule) at 7, 11, 19, or 23 HALO. Docetaxel dosing in the second half of darkness (19 or 23 HALO) resulted in significantly worse toxicity than its administration during the light span (3, 7, or 11 HALO). The survival rate ranged from 56.3% in the mice treated at 23 HALO to 93.8 or 87.5% in those injected at 3 or 11 HALO, respectively (Exp 1, P < 0.01). Granulocytopenia at nadir was -49 +/- 14% at 7 HALO compared with -84 +/- 3% at 19 HALO (Exp 2 and 3, P < 0.029), and severe jejunal mucosa necrosis occurred in 5 of 8 mice treated at 23 HALO as opposed to 2 of 18 receiving

  3. Mice Drawer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cancedda, Ranieri

    2008-01-01

    The Mice Drawer System (MDS) is an Italian Space Agency (ASI) facility which is able to support mice onboard the International Space Station during long-duration exploration missions (from 100 to 150-days) by living space, food, water, ventilation and lighting. Mice can be accommodated either individually (maximum 6) or in groups (4 pairs). MDS is integrated in the Space Shuttle middeck during transportation (uploading and downloading) to the ISS and in an EXPRESS Rack in Destiny, the US Laboratory during experiment execution. Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease that afflicts millions of people worldwide. One of the physiological changes experienced by astronauts during space flight is the accelerated loss of bone mass due to the lack of gravitational loading on the skeleton. This bone loss experienced by astronauts is similar to osteoporosis in the elderly population. MDS will help investigate the effects of unloading on transgenic (foreign gene that has been inserted into its genome to exhibit a particular trait) mice with the Osteoblast Stimulating Factor-1, OSF-1, a growth and differentiation factor, and to study the genetic mechanisms underlying the bone mass pathophysiology. MDS will test the hypothesis that mice with an increased bone density are likely to be more protected from osteoporosis, when the increased bone mass is a direct effect of a gene involved in skeletogenesis (skeleton formation). Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease that afflicts millions worldwide. One of the physiological changes experienced by astronauts during space flight is the accelerated loss of bone mass due to the lack of gravitational loading on the skeleton, a loss that is similar to osteoporosis in the elderly population on Earth. Osteoblast Stimulating Factor-1 (OSF-1), also known as pleiotrophin (PTN) or Heparin-Binding Growth- Associated Molecule (HB-GAM) belongs to a family of secreted heparin binding proteins..OSF-1 is an extracellular matrix-associated growth and

  4. Mice take calculated risks.

    PubMed

    Kheifets, Aaron; Gallistel, C R

    2012-05-29

    Animals successfully navigate the world despite having only incomplete information about behaviorally important contingencies. It is an open question to what degree this behavior is driven by estimates of stochastic parameters (brain-constructed models of the experienced world) and to what degree it is directed by reinforcement-driven processes that optimize behavior in the limit without estimating stochastic parameters (model-free adaptation processes, such as associative learning). We find that mice adjust their behavior in response to a change in probability more quickly and abruptly than can be explained by differential reinforcement. Our results imply that mice represent probabilities and perform calculations over them to optimize their behavior, even when the optimization produces negligible material gain.

  5. Mice take calculated risks

    PubMed Central

    Kheifets, Aaron; Gallistel, C. R.

    2012-01-01

    Animals successfully navigate the world despite having only incomplete information about behaviorally important contingencies. It is an open question to what degree this behavior is driven by estimates of stochastic parameters (brain-constructed models of the experienced world) and to what degree it is directed by reinforcement-driven processes that optimize behavior in the limit without estimating stochastic parameters (model-free adaptation processes, such as associative learning). We find that mice adjust their behavior in response to a change in probability more quickly and abruptly than can be explained by differential reinforcement. Our results imply that mice represent probabilities and perform calculations over them to optimize their behavior, even when the optimization produces negligible material gain. PMID:22592792

  6. Experimental Paracoccidioidomycosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Linares, Leonor I.; Friedman, Lorraine

    1972-01-01

    Virulence and infectivity of nine strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were investigated in groups of mice which were inoculated intranasally or intravenously, and some of each were treated with corticosteroids. Fatal infections were not often seen among untreated mice, but mortality usually occurred when corticosteroids were given, regardless of the route of fungus inoculation. Prior treatment did not uniformly increase the incidence of infection, however; only in the case of intranasally inoculated mice was this effect seen. Most strains appeared to be more virulent when administered intravenously, with the exception of a single strain which, under the influence of corticosteroids, repeatedly displayed greatest virulence when given intranasally. All animals that died early in the course of the disease, irrespective of route of inoculation, always had acute pulmonary lesions and usually no other organ was involved. Animals which died later or were sacrificed always had chronic lung lesions. Whether or not chronically diseased animals had additional organ involvement correlated with how the organisms were administered; intravenously inoculated animals usually had extrapulmonary as well as pulmonary lesions, but lesions of those inoculated intranasally were almost exclusively pulmonary. Corticosteroids did not alter the histologic characteristics of either the acute or the chronic type of lesion, but the lesions of treated animals were usually more extensive. Most of the survivors appeared healthy even when infection was extensive. Images PMID:4637603

  7. Disruption of GluA2 phosphorylation potentiates stress responsivity.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Alexandra S; Fosnocht, Anne Q; Lucerne, Kelsey E; Briand, Lisa A

    2017-08-30

    Cocaine addiction is characterized by persistent craving and addicts frequently relapse even after long periods of abstinence. Exposure to stress can precipitate relapse in humans and rodents. Stress and drug use can lead to common alterations in synaptic plasticity and these commonalities may contribute to the ability of stress to elicit relapse. These common changes in synaptic plasticity are mediated, in part, by alterations in the trafficking and stabilization of AMPA receptors. Exposure to both cocaine and stress can lead to alterations in protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of GluA2 AMPA subunits and thus alter the trafficking of GluA2-containing AMPARs. However, it is not clear what role AMPAR trafficking plays in the interactions between stress and cocaine. The current study utilized a mouse with a point mutation within the GluA2 subunit c-terminus resulting in a disruption of PKC-mediated GluA2 phosphorylation to examine stress responsivity. Although no differences were seen in the response to a forced swim stress in naïve mice, GluA2 K882A knock-in mice exhibited an increased stress response following cocaine self-administration. Furthermore, we demonstrated that disrupting GluA2 phosphorylation increases vulnerability to stress-induced reinstatement of both cocaine seeking and cocaine-conditioned reward. Finally, GluA2 K882A knock-in mice exhibit an increased vulnerability to social defeat as indicated by increased social avoidance. Taken together these results indicate that disrupting GluA2 phosphorylation leads to increased responsivity to acute stress following cocaine exposure and increased vulnerability to chronic stress. These results highlight the GluA2 phosphorylation site as a novel target for the stress-related disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. In Vitro Neutralization Is Not Predictive of Prophylactic Efficacy of Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies CR6261 and CR9114 against Lethal H2 Influenza Virus Challenge in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Troy C.; Lamirande, Elaine W.; Bock, Kevin W.; Moore, Ian N.; Koudstaal, Wouter; Rehman, Muniza; Weverling, Gerrit Jan; Goudsmit, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza viruses of the H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 subtypes have caused previous pandemics. H2 influenza viruses represent a pandemic threat due to continued circulation in wild birds and limited immunity in the human population. In the event of a pandemic, antiviral agents are the mainstay for treatment, but broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) may be a viable alternative for short-term prophylaxis or treatment. The hemagglutinin stem binding bNAbs CR6261 and CR9114 have been shown to protect mice from severe disease following challenge with H1N1 and H5N1 and with H1N1, H3N2, and influenza B viruses, respectively. Early studies with CR6261 and CR9114 showed weak in vitro activity against human H2 influenza viruses, but the in vivo efficacy against H2 viruses is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated these antibodies against human- and animal-origin H2 viruses A/Ann Arbor/6/1960 (H2N2) (AA60) and A/swine/MO/4296424/06 (H2N3) (Sw06). In vitro, CR6261 neutralized both H2 viruses, while CR9114 only neutralized Sw06. To evaluate prophylactic efficacy, mice were given CR6261 or CR9114 and intranasally challenged 24 h later with lethal doses of AA60 or Sw06. Both antibodies reduced mortality, weight loss, airway inflammation, and pulmonary viral load. Using engineered bNAb variants, antibody-mediated cell cytotoxicity reporter assays, and Fcγ receptor-deficient (Fcer1g−/−) mice, we show that the in vivo efficacy of CR9114 against AA60 is mediated by Fcγ receptor-dependent mechanisms. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of CR6261 and CR9114 against H2 viruses and emphasize the need for in vivo evaluation of bNAbs. IMPORTANCE bNAbs represent a strategy to prevent or treat infection by a wide range of influenza viruses. The evaluation of these antibodies against H2 viruses is important because H2 viruses caused a pandemic in 1957 and could cross into humans again. We demonstrate that CR6261 and CR9114 are effective against infection with H2

  9. Adenosine through the A2A adenosine receptor increases IL-1β in the brain contributing to anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Gabriel S.; Darmody, Patrick T.; Walsh, John P.; Moon, Morgan L.; Kwakwa, Kristin A.; Bray, Julie K.; McCusker, Robert H.; Freund, Gregory G.

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety is one of the most commonly reported psychiatric conditions, but its pathogenesis is poorly understood. Ailments associated with activation of the innate immune system, however, are increasingly linked to anxiety disorders. In adult male mice, we found that adenosine doubled caspase-1 activity in brain by a pathway reliant on ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, protein kinase A (PKA) and the A2A adenosine receptor (AR). In addition, adenosine-dependent activation of caspase-1 increased interleukin (IL)-1β in the brain by two-fold. Peripheral administration of adenosine in wild-type (WT) mice led to a 2.3-fold increase in caspase-1 activity in the amygdala and to a 33% and 42% reduction in spontaneous locomotor activity and food intake, respectively, that were not observed in caspase-1 knockout (KO), IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1) KO and A2A AR KO mice or in mice administered a caspase-1 inhibitor centrally. Finally, adenosine administration increased anxiety-like behaviors in WT mice by 28% in the open field test and by 55% in the elevated zero-maze. Caspase-1 KO mice, IL-1R1 KO mice, A2A AR KO mice and WT mice treated with the KATP channel blocker, glyburide, were resistant to adenosine-induced anxiety-like behaviors. Thus, our results indicate that adenosine can act as an anxiogenic by activating caspase-1 and increasing IL-1β in the brain. PMID:24907587

  10. Modulation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGlu2) elicits common changes in rat and mice sleep-wake architecture.

    PubMed

    Ahnaou, Abdellah; Dautzenberg, Frank M; Geys, Helena; Imogai, Hassan; Gibelin, Antoine; Moechars, Dieder; Steckler, Thomas; Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus H I M

    2009-01-28

    Compiling pharmacological evidence implicates metabotropic glutamate mGlu(2) receptors in the regulation of emotional states and suggests positive modulators as a novel therapeutic approach of Anxiety/Depression and Schizophrenia. Here, we investigated subcutaneous effects of the metabotropic glutamate mGlu(2/3) agonist (LY354740) on sleep-wake architecture in rat. To confirm the specific effects on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep were mediated via metabotropic glutamate mGlu(2) receptors, we characterized the sleep-wake cycles in metabotropic glutamate mGlu(2) receptor deficient mice (mGlu(2)R(-/-)) and their arousal response to LY354740. We furthermore examined effects on sleep behavior in rats of the positive allosteric modulator, biphenyl-indanone A (BINA) alone and in combination with LY354740 at sub-effective doses. LY354740 (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg) dose-dependently suppressed REM sleep and prolonged its onset latency. Metabotropic glutamate mGlu(2)R(-/-) and their wild type (WT) littermates exhibited similar spontaneous sleep-wake phenotype, while LY354740 (10 mg/kg) significantly affected REM sleep variables in WT but not in the mutant. In rats, BINA (1, 3, 10, 20, 40 mg/kg) dose-dependently suppressed REM sleep, lengthened its onset latency and slightly enhanced passive waking. Additionally, combined treatment elicited a synergistic action on REM sleep variables. Our findings show common changes of REM sleep variables following modulation of metabotropic glutamate mGlu(2) receptor and support an active role of this receptor in the regulation of REM sleep. The synergistic action of BINA on LY354740's effects on sleep pattern implies that positive modulators would tune the endogenous glutamate tone suggesting potential benefit in the treatment of psychiatric disorders, in which REM sleep overdrive is manifested.

  11. Of Mice and Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Dewald, Oliver; Ren, Guofeng; Duerr, Georg D.; Zoerlein, Martin; Klemm, Christina; Gersch, Christine; Tincey, Sophia; Michael, Lloyd H.; Entman, Mark L.; Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G.

    2004-01-01

    Large animal models have provided much of the descriptive data regarding the cellular and molecular events in myocardial infarction and repair. The availability of genetically altered mice may provide a valuable tool for specific cellular and molecular dissection of these processes. In this report we compare closed chest models of canine and mouse infarction/reperfusion qualitatively and quantitatively for temporal, cellular, and spatial differences. Much like the canine model, reperfused mouse hearts are associated with marked induction of endothelial adhesion molecules, cytokines, and chemokines. Reperfused mouse infarcts show accelerated replacement of cardiomyocytes by granulation tissue leading to a thin mature scar at 14 days, when the canine infarction is still cellular and evolving. Infarcted mouse hearts demonstrate a robust but transient postreperfusion inflammatory reaction, associated with a rapid up-regulation of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-β. Unlike canine infarcts, infarcted mouse hearts show only transient macrophage infiltration and no significant mast cell accumulation. In correlation, the growth factor for macrophages, M-CSF, shows modest and transient up-regulation in the early days of reperfusion; and the obligate growth factor for mast cells, stem cell factor, SCF, is not induced. In summary, the postinfarction inflammatory response and resultant repair in the mouse heart shares many common characteristics with large mammalian species, but has distinct temporal and qualitative features. These important species-specific differences should be considered when interpreting findings derived from studies using genetically altered mice. PMID:14742270

  12. The individuality of mice.

    PubMed

    Lathe, R

    2004-12-01

    Mutant mice simulating human CNS disorders are used as models for therapeutic drug development. Drug evaluation requires a coherent correlation between behavioral phenotype and drug status. Variations in behavioral responses could mask such correlations, a problem highlighted by the three-site studies of Crabbe et al. (1999) and Wahlsten et al. (2003a). Factors contributing to variation are considered, focusing on differences between individual animals. Genetic differences due to minisatellite variation suggest that each mouse is genetically distinct. Effects during gestation, including maternal stress, influence later life behavior; while endocrine exchanges between fetus and parent, and between male and female fetuses dependent on intrauterine position, also contribute. Pre and perinatal nutrition and maternal attention also play a role. In adults, endocrine cyclicity in females is a recognized source of behavioral diversity. Notably, there is increasing recognition that groups of wild and laboratory mice have complex social structures, illustrated through consideration of Crowcroft (1966). Dominance status can markedly modify behavior in test paradigms addressing anxiety, locomotion and aggressiveness, to an extent comparable to mutation or drug status. Understanding how such effects amplify the behavioral spectrum displayed by otherwise identical animals will improve testing.

  13. The A2a adenosine receptor modulates the reinforcement efficacy and neurotoxicity of MDMA.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Medina, Jessica; Ledent, Catherine; Carretón, Olga; Valverde, Olga

    2011-04-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that plays a neuromodulatory role in the central nervous system. A2a adenosine receptors have been involved in reward-related processes, inflammatory phenomena and neurotoxicity reactions. In the present study, we investigated the role of A2a adenosine receptors on the acute pharmacological effects, reinforcement and neuroinflammation induced by MDMA administration. First, the acute effects of MDMA on body temperature, locomotor activity and anxiety-like responses were measured in A2a knockout mice and wild-type littermates. Second, MDMA reinforcing properties were evaluated using the intravenous self-administration paradigm. Finally, we assessed striatal astrogliosis and microgliosis as markers of MDMA neurotoxicity. Our results showed that acute MDMA produced a biphasic effect on body temperature and increased locomotor activity and anxiogenic-like responses in both genotypes. However, MDMA reinforcing properties were dramatically affected by the lack of A2a adenosine receptors. Thus, wild-type mice maintained MDMA self-administration under a fixed ratio 1 reinforcement schedule, whereas the operant response appeared completely abolished in A2a knockout mice. In addition, the MDMA neurotoxic regime produced an enhanced inflammatory response in striatum of wild-type mice, revealed by a significant increase in glial expression, whereas such activation was attenuated in mutant mice. This is the first report indicating that A2a adenosine receptors play a key role in reinforcement and neuroinflammation induced by the widely used psychostimulant.

  14. Both Cerebral and Hematopoietic Deficiencies in CCR2 Result in Uncontrolled Herpes Simplex Virus Infection of the Central Nervous System in Mice.

    PubMed

    Menasria, Rafik; Canivet, Coraline; Piret, Jocelyne; Gosselin, Jean; Boivin, Guy

    2016-01-01

    CCR2 is a chemokine receptor expressed on the surface of blood leukocytes, particularly «Ly6Chi» inflammatory monocytes and microglia. Signaling through this receptor is thought to influence the immune activity of microglia as well as monocytes egress from the bone marrow (BM) and their trafficking into the central nervous system (CNS) in several neurological diseases. During experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE), CCR2 deficiency has been reported to exacerbate the outcome of the disease. However, the precise contribution of CCR2 expressed in cells of the CNS or peripheral monocytes in the protection against HSE remains unclear. To dissect the differential role of CCR2 during HSE, chimeric mice with receptor deficiency in the brain or blood cells were generated by transplanting wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 or CCR2-/- BM-derived cells in CCR2-/- (WT→CCR2-/-) and WT (CCR2-/-→WT) mice, respectively. Our results indicate that following intranasal infection with 1.2x106 plaque forming units of HSV-1, CCR2 deficiency in hematopoietic cells and, to a lesser extent, in CNS exacerbates the outcome of HSE. Mortality rates of CCR2-/- (71.4%) and CCR2-/-→WT (57.1%) mice were significantly higher than that of WT (15.3%; P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively) but the difference did not reach statistical significance for WT→CCR2-/- animals (42.8%; P = 0.16). Both peripheral and CNS deficiencies in CCR2 resulted in increased infectious viral titers and wider dissemination of HSV antigens in the brain as well as an overproduction of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including IL-1β, IL-6, CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5. Furthermore, CCR2 deficiency in the hematopoietic system altered monocytes egress from the BM and their recruitment to the CNS, which may contribute to the failure in HSV-1 containment. Collectively, these data suggest that CCR2 expressed on cells of CNS and especially on peripheral monocytes is important for the control of HSV-1 replication and

  15. Both Cerebral and Hematopoietic Deficiencies in CCR2 Result in Uncontrolled Herpes Simplex Virus Infection of the Central Nervous System in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Menasria, Rafik; Canivet, Coraline; Piret, Jocelyne; Gosselin, Jean; Boivin, Guy

    2016-01-01

    CCR2 is a chemokine receptor expressed on the surface of blood leukocytes, particularly «Ly6Chi» inflammatory monocytes and microglia. Signaling through this receptor is thought to influence the immune activity of microglia as well as monocytes egress from the bone marrow (BM) and their trafficking into the central nervous system (CNS) in several neurological diseases. During experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE), CCR2 deficiency has been reported to exacerbate the outcome of the disease. However, the precise contribution of CCR2 expressed in cells of the CNS or peripheral monocytes in the protection against HSE remains unclear. To dissect the differential role of CCR2 during HSE, chimeric mice with receptor deficiency in the brain or blood cells were generated by transplanting wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 or CCR2-/- BM-derived cells in CCR2-/- (WT→CCR2-/-) and WT (CCR2-/-→WT) mice, respectively. Our results indicate that following intranasal infection with 1.2x106 plaque forming units of HSV-1, CCR2 deficiency in hematopoietic cells and, to a lesser extent, in CNS exacerbates the outcome of HSE. Mortality rates of CCR2-/- (71.4%) and CCR2-/-→WT (57.1%) mice were significantly higher than that of WT (15.3%; P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively) but the difference did not reach statistical significance for WT→CCR2-/- animals (42.8%; P = 0.16). Both peripheral and CNS deficiencies in CCR2 resulted in increased infectious viral titers and wider dissemination of HSV antigens in the brain as well as an overproduction of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including IL-1β, IL-6, CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5. Furthermore, CCR2 deficiency in the hematopoietic system altered monocytes egress from the BM and their recruitment to the CNS, which may contribute to the failure in HSV-1 containment. Collectively, these data suggest that CCR2 expressed on cells of CNS and especially on peripheral monocytes is important for the control of HSV-1 replication and

  16. Resilience in Aging Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kirkland, James L.; Stout, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recently discovered interventions that target fundamental aging mechanisms have been shown to increase life span in mice and other species, and in some cases, these same manipulations have been shown to enhance health span and alleviate multiple age-related diseases and conditions. Aging is generally associated with decreases in resilience, the capacity to respond to or recover from clinically relevant stresses such as surgery, infections, or vascular events. We hypothesize that the age-related increase in susceptibility to those diseases and conditions is driven by or associated with the decrease in resilience. Thus, a test for resilience at middle age or even earlier could represent a surrogate approach to test the hypothesis that an intervention delays the process of aging itself. For this, animal models to test resilience accurately and predictably are needed. In addition, interventions that increase resilience might lead to treatments aimed at enhancing recovery following acute illnesses, or preventing poor outcomes from medical interventions in older, prefrail subjects. At a meeting of basic researchers and clinicians engaged in research on mechanisms of aging and care of the elderly, the merits and drawbacks of investigating effects of interventions on resilience in mice were considered. Available and potential stressors for assessing physiological resilience as well as the notion of developing a limited battery of such stressors and how to rank them were discussed. Relevant ranking parameters included value in assessing general health (as opposed to focusing on a single physiological system), ease of use, cost, reproducibility, clinical relevance, and feasibility of being repeated in the same animal longitudinally. During the discussions it became clear that, while this is an important area, very little is known or established. Much more research is needed in the near future to develop appropriate tests of resilience in animal models within an

  17. Renal protection from ischemia mediated by A2A adenosine receptors on bone marrow–derived cells

    PubMed Central

    Day, Yuan-Ji; Huang, Liping; McDuffie, Marcia J.; Rosin, Diane L.; Ye, Hong; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Fink, J. Stephen; Linden, Joel; Okusa, Mark D.

    2003-01-01

    Activation of A2A adenosine receptors (A2ARs) protects kidneys from ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). A2ARs are expressed on bone marrow–derived (BM-derived) cells and renal smooth muscle, epithelial, and endothelial cells. To measure the contribution of A2ARs on BM-derived cells in suppressing renal IRI, we examined the effects of a selective agonist of A2ARs, ATL146e, in chimeric mice in which BM was ablated by lethal radiation and reconstituted with donor BM cells derived from GFP, A2AR-KO, or WT mice to produce GFP→WT, A2A-KO→WT, or WT→WT mouse chimera. We found little or no repopulation of renal vascular endothelial cells by donor BM with or without renal IRI. ATL146e had no effect on IRI in A2A-KO mice or A2A-KO→WT chimera, but reduced the rise in plasma creatinine from IRI by 75% in WT mice and by 60% in WT→WT chimera. ATL146e reduced the induction of IL-6, IL-1β, IL-1ra, and TGF-α mRNA in WT→WT mice but not in A2A-KO→WT mice. Plasma creatinine was significantly greater in A2A-KO than in WT mice after IRI, suggesting some renal protection by endogenous adenosine. We conclude that protection from renal IRI by A2AR agonists or endogenous adenosine requires activation of receptors expressed on BM-derived cells. PMID:12975473

  18. ST 1535: a preferential A2A adenosine receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Stasi, Maria Antonietta; Borsini, Franco; Varani, Katia; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Di Cesare, Maria Assunta; Minetti, Patrizia; Ghirardi, Orlando; Carminati, Paolo

    2006-10-01

    Antagonism of the A2A adenosine function has proved beneficial in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, in that it increases L-dopa therapeutical effects without concomitant worsening of its side-effects. In this paper we describe a preferential A2A adenosine antagonist, ST 1535, with long-lasting pharmacodynamic effects. It competitively antagonizes the effects of the A2A adenosine agonist NECA on cAMP in cells cloned with the human A2A adenosine receptor (IC50=353+/-30 nM), and the effects of the A1 adenosine agonist CHA on cAMP in cells cloned with the human A1 adenosine receptor (IC50=510+/-38 nM). ST 1535, at oral doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg, antagonizes catalepsy induced by intracerebroventricular administration of the A2A adenosine agonist CGS 21680 (10 microg/5 microl) in mice. At oral doses ranging between 5 and 20 mg/kg, ST 1535 induces hypermotility and antagonizes haloperidol-induced catalepsy in mice up to 7 h. Oral ST 1535, at 1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg, potentiates L-dopa effects in reducing haloperidol-induced catalepsy. ST 1535 represents a potential new compound, with long-lasting activity, for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  19. Fructose diet alleviates acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sungjoon; Tripathi, Ashutosh; Chlipala, George; Green, Stefan; Lee, Hyunwoo; Chang, Eugene B; Jeong, Hyunyoung

    2017-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is a commonly used analgesic and antipyretic that can cause hepatotoxicity due to production of toxic metabolites via cytochrome P450 (Cyp) 1a2 and Cyp2e1. Previous studies have shown conflicting effects of fructose (the major component in Western diet) on the susceptibility to APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. To evaluate the role of fructose-supplemented diet in modulating the extent of APAP-induced liver injury, male C57BL/6J mice were given 30% (w/v) fructose in water (or regular water) for 8 weeks, followed by oral administration of APAP. APAP-induced liver injury (determined by serum levels of liver enzymes) was decreased by two-fold in mice pretreated with fructose. Fructose-treated mice exhibited (~1.5 fold) higher basal glutathione levels and (~2 fold) lower basal (mRNA and activity) levels of Cyp1a2 and Cyp2e1, suggesting decreased bioactivation of APAP and increased detoxification of toxic metabolite in fructose-fed mice. Hepatic mRNA expression of heat shock protein 70 was also found increased in fructose-fed mice. Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons from the cecal samples of vehicle groups showed that the fructose diet altered gut bacterial community, leading to increased α-diversity. The abundance of several bacterial taxa including the genus Anaerostipes was found to be significantly correlated with the levels of hepatic Cyp2e1, Cyp1a2 mRNA, and glutathione. Together, these results suggest that the fructose-supplemented diet decreases APAP-induced liver injury in mice, in part by reducing metabolic activation of APAP and inducing detoxification of toxic metabolites, potentially through altered composition of gut microbiota.

  20. Influence of Ovarian Hormones on Strength Loss in Healthy and Dystrophic Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kosir, Allison M.; Mader, Tara L.; Greising, Angela G.; Novotny, Susan A.; Baltgalvis, Kristen A.; Lowe, Dawn A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The primary objective of this study was to determine if strength loss and recovery following eccentric contractions is impaired in healthy and dystrophic female mice with low levels of ovarian hormones. Methods Female C57BL/6 (wildtype) or mdx mice were randomly assigned to ovarian-intact (Sham) and ovariectomized (Ovx) groups. Anterior crural muscles were tested for susceptibility to injury from 150 or 50 eccentric contractions in wildtype and mdx mice, respectively. An additional experiment challenged mdx mice with a 2-wk treadmill running protocol followed by an eccentric contraction injury to posterior crural muscles. Functional recovery from injury was evaluated in wildtype mice by measuring isometric torque 3, 7, 14, or 21 days following injury. Results Ovarian hormone deficiency in wildtype mice did not impact susceptibility to injury as the ~50% isometric torque loss following eccentric contractions did not differ between Sham and Ovx mice (p=0.121). Similarly in mdx mice, hormone deficiency did not affect percent of pre injury isometric torque lost by anterior crural muscles following eccentric contractions (p=0.952), but the percent of pre injury torque in posterior crural muscles was lower in Ovx compared to Sham mice (p=0.014). Recovery from injury in wildtype mice was affected by hormone deficiency. Sham mice recovered pre injury isometric strength by 14 days (96 ± 2%) while Ovx mice maintained deficits at 14 and 21 days post injury (80 ± 3% and 84 ± 2%; p<0.001) Conclusion Ovarian hormone status did not impact the vulnerability of skeletal muscle to strength loss following eccentric contractions. However, ovarian hormone deficiency did impair the recovery of muscle strength in female mice. PMID:25255128

  1. Leptin Receptor Deficiency is Associated With Upregulation of Cannabinoid 1 Receptors in Limbic Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    THANOS, PANAYOTIS K.; RAMALHETE, ROBERTO C.; MICHAELIDES, MICHAEL; PIYIS, YIANNI K.; WANG, GENE-JACK; VOLKOW, NORA D.

    2009-01-01

    Leptin receptor dysfunction results in overeating and obesity. Leptin regulates hypothalamic signaling that underlies the motivation to hyperphagia, but the interaction between leptin and cannabinoid signaling is poorly understood. We evaluated the role of cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1R) in overeating and the effects of food deprivation on CB1R in the brain. One-month-old Zucker rats were divided into unrestricted and restricted (fed 70% of unrestricted rats) diet groups and maintained until adulthood (4 months). Levels of relative binding sites of CB1R (CB1R binding levels) were assessed using [3H] SR141716A in vitro autoradiography. These levels were higher (except cerebellum and hypothalamus) at 4 months than at 1 month of age. One month CB1R binding levels for most brain regions did not differ between Ob and Lean (Le) rats (except in frontal and cingulate cortices in Le and in the hypothalamus in Ob). Four month Ob rats had higher CB1R binding levels than Le in most brain regions and food restriction was associated with higher CB1R levels in all brain regions in Ob, but not in Le rats. CB1R binding levels increased between adolescence and young adulthood which we believe was influenced by leptin and food availability. The high levels of CB1R in Ob rats suggest that leptin's inhibition of food-intake is in part mediated by downregulation of CB1R and that leptin interferes with CB1R upregulation under food-deprivation conditions. These results are consistent with prior findings showing increased levels of endogenous cannabinoids in the Ob rats corroborating the regulation of cannabinoid signaling by leptin. PMID:18563836

  2. Absence of serum growth hormone binding protein in patients with growth hormone receptor deficiency (Laron dwarfism).

    PubMed

    Daughaday, W H; Trivedi, B

    1987-07-01

    It has recently been recognized that human serum contains a protein that specifically binds human growth hormone (hGH). This protein has the same restricted specificity for hGH as the membrane-bound GH receptor. To determine whether the GH-binding protein is a derivative of, or otherwise related to, the GH receptor, we have examined the serum of three patients with Laron-type dwarfism, a condition in which GH refractoriness has been attributed to a defect in the GH receptor. The binding of 125I-labeled hGH incubated with serum has been measured after gel filtration of the serum through an Ultrogel AcA 44 minicolumn. Nonspecific binding was determined when 125I-hGH was incubated with serum in the presence of an excess of GH. Results are expressed as percent of specifically bound 125I-hGH and as specific binding relative to that of a reference serum after correction is made for endogenous GH. The mean +/- SEM of specific binding of sera from eight normal adults (26-46 years of age) was 21.6 +/- 0.45%, and the relative specific binding was 101.1 +/- 8.6%. Sera from 11 normal children had lower specific binding of 12.5 +/- 1.95% and relative specific binding of 56.6 +/- 9.1%. Sera from three children with Laron-type dwarfism lacked any demonstrable GH binding, whereas sera from 10 other children with other types of nonpituitary short stature had normal relative specific binding. We suggest that the serum GH-binding protein is a soluble derivative of the GH receptor. Measurement of the serum GH-binding protein may permit recognition of other abnormalities of the GH receptor.

  3. Absence of serum growth hormone binding protein in patients with growth hormone receptor deficiency (Laron dwarfism).

    PubMed Central

    Daughaday, W H; Trivedi, B

    1987-01-01

    It has recently been recognized that human serum contains a protein that specifically binds human growth hormone (hGH). This protein has the same restricted specificity for hGH as the membrane-bound GH receptor. To determine whether the GH-binding protein is a derivative of, or otherwise related to, the GH receptor, we have examined the serum of three patients with Laron-type dwarfism, a condition in which GH refractoriness has been attributed to a defect in the GH receptor. The binding of 125I-labeled hGH incubated with serum has been measured after gel filtration of the serum through an Ultrogel AcA 44 minicolumn. Nonspecific binding was determined when 125I-hGH was incubated with serum in the presence of an excess of GH. Results are expressed as percent of specifically bound 125I-hGH and as specific binding relative to that of a reference serum after correction is made for endogenous GH. The mean +/- SEM of specific binding of sera from eight normal adults (26-46 years of age) was 21.6 +/- 0.45%, and the relative specific binding was 101.1 +/- 8.6%. Sera from 11 normal children had lower specific binding of 12.5 +/- 1.95% and relative specific binding of 56.6 +/- 9.1%. Sera from three children with Laron-type dwarfism lacked any demonstrable GH binding, whereas sera from 10 other children with other types of nonpituitary short stature had normal relative specific binding. We suggest that the serum GH-binding protein is a soluble derivative of the GH receptor. Measurement of the serum GH-binding protein may permit recognition of other abnormalities of the GH receptor. PMID:3474620

  4. Characterization of Ebola virus entry by using pseudotyped viruses: identification of receptor-deficient cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wool-Lewis, R J; Bates, P

    1998-04-01

    Studies analyzing Ebola virus replication have been severely hampered by the extreme pathogenicity of this virus. To permit analysis of the host range and function of the Ebola virus glycoprotein (Ebo-GP), we have developed a system for pseudotyping these glycoproteins into murine leukemia virus (MLV). This pseudotyped virus, MLV(Ebola), can be readily concentrated to titers which exceed 5 x 10(6) infectious units/ml and is effectively neutralized by antibodies specific for Ebo-GP. Analysis of MLV(Ebola) infection revealed that the host range conferred by Ebo-GP is very broad, extending to cells of a variety of species. Notably, all lymphoid cell lines tested were completely resistant to infection; we speculate that this is due to the absence of a cellular receptor for Ebo-GP on B and T cells. The generation of high-titer MLV(Ebola) pseudotypes will be useful for the analysis of immune responses to Ebola virus infection, development of neutralizing antibodies, analysis of glycoprotein function, and isolation of the cellular receptor(s) for the Ebola virus.

  5. Leptin receptor deficiency is associated with upregulation of cannabinoid 1 receptors in limbic brain regions.

    PubMed

    Thanos, Panayotis K; Ramalhete, Roberto C; Michaelides, Michael; Piyis, Yianni K; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D

    2008-09-01

    Leptin receptor dysfunction results in overeating and obesity. Leptin regulates hypothalamic signaling that underlies the motivation to hyperphagia, but the interaction between leptin and cannabinoid signaling is poorly understood. We evaluated the role of cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB(1)R) in overeating and the effects of food deprivation on CB(1)R in the brain. One-month-old Zucker rats were divided into unrestricted and restricted (fed 70% of unrestricted rats) diet groups and maintained until adulthood (4 months). Levels of relative binding sites of CB(1)R (CB(1)R binding levels) were assessed using [(3)H] SR141716A in vitro autoradiography. These levels were higher (except cerebellum and hypothalamus) at 4 months than at 1 month of age. One month CB(1)R binding levels for most brain regions did not differ between Ob and Lean (Le) rats (except in frontal and cingulate cortices in Le and in the hypothalamus in Ob). Four month Ob rats had higher CB(1)R binding levels than Le in most brain regions and food restriction was associated with higher CB(1)R levels in all brain regions in Ob, but not in Le rats. CB(1)R binding levels increased between adolescence and young adulthood which we believe was influenced by leptin and food availability. The high levels of CB(1)R in Ob rats suggest that leptin's inhibition of food-intake is in part mediated by downregulation of CB(1)R and that leptin interferes with CB(1)R upregulation under food-deprivation conditions. These results are consistent with prior findings showing increased levels of endogenous cannabinoids in the Ob rats corroborating the regulation of cannabinoid signaling by leptin. Published 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. The daidzein- and estradiol- induced anorectic action in CCK or leptin receptor deficiency rats.

    PubMed

    Fujitani, Mina; Mizushige, Takafumi; Bhattarai, Keshab; Iwahara, Asami; Aida, Ryojiro; Kishida, Taro

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of daidzein feeding and estradiol treatment on food intake in cholecystokinin-1 receptor (CCK1R) deficiency, leptin receptor (ObRb) deficiency rats and their wild-type rats. These rats underwent an ovariectomy or a sham operation. For the 5 week experiment, each rat was divided in three groups: control, daidzein (150 mg/kg diet), and estradiol (4.2 μg/rat/day) groups. In both CCK1R+ and CCK1R- rats, daidzein feeding and estradiol treatment significantly decreased food intake. Daidzein feeding significantly reduced food intake in ovariectomized ObRb- rats, although not in ObRb+ rats. Estradiol treatment significantly lowered food intake in ovariectomized ObRb+ and ObRb- rats. In the ovariectomized rats, estradiol treatment significantly increases uterine weight, while daidzein feeding did not change it, suggesting that daidzein might have no or weak estrogenic effect in our experiment. These results suggest that CCK1R and ObRb signalings were not essential for the daidzein- and estradiol-induced anorectic action.

  7. Resilience in Aging Mice.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, James L; Stout, Michael B; Sierra, Felipe

    2016-11-01

    Recently discovered interventions that target fundamental aging mechanisms have been shown to increase life span in mice and other species, and in some cases, these same manipulations have been shown to enhance health span and alleviate multiple age-related diseases and conditions. Aging is generally associated with decreases in resilience, the capacity to respond to or recover from clinically relevant stresses such as surgery, infections, or vascular events. We hypothesize that the age-related increase in susceptibility to those diseases and conditions is driven by or associated with the decrease in resilience. Thus, a test for resilience at middle age or even earlier could represent a surrogate approach to test the hypothesis that an intervention delays the process of aging itself. For this, animal models to test resilience accurately and predictably are needed. In addition, interventions that increase resilience might lead to treatments aimed at enhancing recovery following acute illnesses, or preventing poor outcomes from medical interventions in older, prefrail subjects. At a meeting of basic researchers and clinicians engaged in research on mechanisms of aging and care of the elderly, the merits and drawbacks of investigating effects of interventions on resilience in mice were considered. Available and potential stressors for assessing physiological resilience as well as the notion of developing a limited battery of such stressors and how to rank them were discussed. Relevant ranking parameters included value in assessing general health (as opposed to focusing on a single physiological system), ease of use, cost, reproducibility, clinical relevance, and feasibility of being repeated in the same animal longitudinally. During the discussions it became clear that, while this is an important area, very little is known or established. Much more research is needed in the near future to develop appropriate tests of resilience in animal models within an aging context

  8. Transgenic mice in developmental toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Woychik, R.P.

    1992-12-31

    Advances in molecular biology and embryology are being utilized for the generation of transgenic mice, animals that contain specific additions, deletions, or modifications of genes or sequences in their DNA. Mouse embryonic stem cells and homologous recombination procedures have made it possible to target specific DNA structural alterations to highly localized region in the host chromosomes. The majority of the DNA structural rearrangements in transgenic mice can be passed through the germ line and used to establish new genetic traits in the carrier animals. Since the use of transgenic mice is having such an enormous impact on so many areasmore » of mammalian biological research, including developmental toxicology, the objective of this review is to briefly describe the fundamental methodologies for generating transgenic mice and to describe one particular application that has direct relevance to the field of genetic toxicology.« less

  9. Transgenic mice in developmental toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Woychik, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    Advances in molecular biology and embryology are being utilized for the generation of transgenic mice, animals that contain specific additions, deletions, or modifications of genes or sequences in their DNA. Mouse embryonic stem cells and homologous recombination procedures have made it possible to target specific DNA structural alterations to highly localized region in the host chromosomes. The majority of the DNA structural rearrangements in transgenic mice can be passed through the germ line and used to establish new genetic traits in the carrier animals. Since the use of transgenic mice is having such an enormous impact on so many areasmore » of mammalian biological research, including developmental toxicology, the objective of this review is to briefly describe the fundamental methodologies for generating transgenic mice and to describe one particular application that has direct relevance to the field of genetic toxicology.« less

  10. β1-adrenergic receptor stimulation by agonist Compound 49b restores insulin receptor signal transduction in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Youde; Zhang, Qiuhua; Ye, Eun-Ah

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Determine whether Compound 49b treatment ameliorates retinal changes due to the lack of β2-adrenergic receptor signaling. Methods Using retinas from 3-month-old β2-adrenergic receptor-deficient mice, we treated mice with our novel β1-/β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, Compound 49b, to assess the effects of adrenergic agonists acting only on β1-adrenergic receptors due to the absence of β2-adrenergic receptors. Western blotting or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analyses were performed for β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors, as well as key insulin resistance proteins, including TNF-α, SOCS3, IRS-1Ser307, and IRTyr960. Analyses were also performed on key anti- and proapoptotic proteins: Akt, Bcl-xL, Bax, and caspase 3. Electroretinogram analyses were conducted to assess functional changes, while histological assessment was conducted for changes in retinal thickness. Results A 2-month treatment of β2-adrenergic receptor-deficient mice with daily eye drops of 1 mM Compound 49b, a novel β1- and β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, reversed the changes in insulin resistance markers (TNF-α and SOCS3) observed in untreated β2-adrenergic receptor-deficient mice, and concomitantly increased morphological integrity (retinal thickness) and functional responses (electroretinogram amplitude). These results suggest that stimulating β1-adrenergic receptors on retinal endothelial cells or Müller cells can compensate for the loss of β2-adrenergic receptor signaling on Müller cells, restore insulin signal transduction, reduce retinal apoptosis, and enhance retinal function. Conclusions Since our previous studies with β1-adrenergic receptor knockout mice confirmed that the reverse also occurs (β2-adrenergic receptor stimulation can compensate for the loss of β1-adrenergic receptor activity), it appears that increased activity in either of these pathways alone is sufficient to block insulin resistance–based retinal cell apoptosis. PMID:24966659

  11. Coexistence of Helicobacter pylori spiral and coccoid forms in experimental mice

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Jiesong; Ho, Bow; Zheng, Pengyuan; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Ng, Han Chong; Lim, Seng Gee

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To infect mice with Helicobacter pylori and detect immune response against two form of H. pylori. METHODS: An isolate of H. pylori obtained from a patient with gastric cancer was used to infect mice. Fifty mice were divided into eight groups. Two groups served as negative control without any inoculation and internal negative control with 0.5 M NaHCO3 and brain heart infusion (HBI), respectively. Mice in each experimental group were first inoculated with 0.5 M NaHCO3 and then H. pylori suspension for 3 times at a 2-d interval. Mice from controls and infectious groups were sacrificed at a weekly interval postinfection. Gastric samples were trimmed, inoculated onto chocolate blood agar and then incujbated in microaerophilic atmosphere at 37¡æ for 14 d. Sera were examined for immunoglobulins against H. pylori spiral and coccoid antigens by ELISA. RESULTS: After inoculation H. pylori was isolated in one mouse from one week postinfection. No H. pylori was detected in control mice. However, urease test was positive in 50% (5/10) control mice, 70% (7/10) mice inoculated with NaHCO3 and BHI and 77% (23/30) mice infected with H. pylori. The systemic immune responses of the mice to H. pylori strain were determined by ELISA. The mice showed immune responses to both H. pylori spiral and coccoid antigens one week after infection with H. pylori. The peak mean absorbances of antibodies against spiral and coccoid forms were four weeks postinfection which showed 6 and 18 times higher than that of negative control group respectively (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Spiral and coccoid forms of H. pylori coexist in experimental mice studied. PMID:11819350

  12. Neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of parkinson's disease and its dependence on adenosine A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Xu, K; Di Luca, D G; Orrú, M; Xu, Y; Chen, J-F; Schwarzschild, M A

    2016-05-13

    Considerable epidemiological and laboratory data have suggested that caffeine, a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, may protect against the underlying neurodegeneration of parkinson's disease (PD). Although both caffeine and more specific antagonists of the A2A subtype of adenosine receptor (A2AR) have been found to confer protection in animal models of PD, the dependence of caffeine's neuroprotective effects on the A2AR is not known. To definitively determine its A2AR dependence, the effect of caffeine on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetra-hydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxicity was compared in wild-type (WT) and A2AR gene global knockout (A2A KO) mice, as well as in central nervous system (CNS) cell type-specific (conditional) A2AR knockout (cKO) mice that lack the receptor either in postnatal forebrain neurons or in astrocytes. In WT and in heterozygous A2AR KO mice caffeine pretreatment (25mg/kgip) significantly attenuated MPTP-induced depletion of striatal dopamine. By contrast in homozygous A2AR global KO mice caffeine had no effect on MPTP toxicity. In forebrain neuron A2AR cKO mice, caffeine lost its locomotor stimulant effect, whereas its neuroprotective effect was mostly preserved. In astrocytic A2AR cKO mice, both caffeine's locomotor stimulant and protective properties were undiminished. Taken together, these results indicate that neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of PD relies on the A2AR, although the specific cellular localization of these receptors remains to be determined. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. All rights reserved.

  13. Palatable Meal Anticipation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Cynthia T.; Patton, Danica F.; Mistlberger, Ralph E.; Steele, Andrew D.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to sense time and anticipate events is a critical skill in nature. Most efforts to understand the neural and molecular mechanisms of anticipatory behavior in rodents rely on daily restricted food access, which induces a robust increase of locomotor activity in anticipation of daily meal time. Interestingly, rats also show increased activity in anticipation of a daily palatable meal even when they have an ample food supply, suggesting a role for brain reward systems in anticipatory behavior, and providing an alternate model by which to study the neurobiology of anticipation in species, such as mice, that are less well adapted to “stuff and starve” feeding schedules. To extend this model to mice, and exploit molecular genetic resources available for that species, we tested the ability of wild-type mice to anticipate a daily palatable meal. We observed that mice with free access to regular chow and limited access to highly palatable snacks of chocolate or “Fruit Crunchies” avidly consumed the snack but did not show anticipatory locomotor activity as measured by running wheels or video-based behavioral analysis. However, male mice receiving a snack of high fat chow did show increased food bin entry prior to access time and a modest increase in activity in the two hours preceding the scheduled meal. Interestingly, female mice did not show anticipation of a daily high fat meal but did show increased activity at scheduled mealtime when that meal was withdrawn. These results indicate that anticipation of a scheduled food reward in mice is behavior, diet, and gender specific. PMID:20941366

  14. Haploinsufficiency for Translation Elongation Factor eEF1A2 in Aged Mouse Muscle and Neurons Is Compatible with Normal Function

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Lowri A.; Doig, Jennifer; Churchhouse, Antonia M. D.; Davies, Faith C. J.; Squires, Charlotte E.; Newbery, Helen J.; Abbott, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Translation elongation factor isoform eEF1A2 is expressed in muscle and neurons. Deletion of eEF1A2 in mice gives rise to the neurodegenerative phenotype “wasted” (wst). Mice homozygous for the wasted mutation die of muscle wasting and neurodegeneration at four weeks post-natal. Although the mutation is said to be recessive, aged heterozygous mice have never been examined in detail; a number of other mouse models of motor neuron degeneration have recently been shown to have similar, albeit less severe, phenotypic abnormalities in the heterozygous state. We therefore examined the effects of ageing on a cohort of heterozygous +/wst mice and control mice, in order to establish whether a presumed 50% reduction in eEF1A2 expression was compatible with normal function. We evaluated the grip strength assay as a way of distinguishing between wasted and wild-type mice at 3–4 weeks, and then performed the same assay in older +/wst and wild-type mice. We also used rotarod performance and immunohistochemistry of spinal cord sections to evaluate the phenotype of aged heterozygous mice. Heterozygous mutant mice showed no deficit in neuromuscular function or signs of spinal cord pathology, in spite of the low levels of eEF1A2. PMID:22848658

  15. Practical pathology of aging mice

    PubMed Central

    Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Treuting, Piper M.

    2011-01-01

    Old mice will have a subset of lesions as part of the progressive decline in organ function that defines aging. External and palpable lesions will be noted by the research, husbandry, or veterinary staff during testing, cage changing, or physical exams. While these readily observable lesions may cause alarm, not all cause undue distress or are life-threatening. In aging research, mice are maintained until near end of life that, depending on strain and genetic manipulation, can be upwards of 33 months. Aging research has unique welfare issues related to age-related decline, debilitation, fragility, and associated pain of chronic diseases. An effective aging research program includes the collaboration and education of the research, husbandry, and veterinary staff, and of the members of the institution animal care and use committee. This collaborative effort is critical to humanely maintaining older mice and preventing excessive censorship due to non-lethal diseases. Part of the educational process is becoming familiar with how old mice appear clinically, at necropsy and histopathologically. This baseline knowledge is important in making the determination of humane end points, defining health span, contributing causes of death and effects of interventions. The goal of this paper is to introduce investigators to age-associated diseases and lesion patterns in mice from clinical presentation to pathologic assessment. To do so, we present and illustrate the common clinical appearances, necropsy and histopathological lesions seen in subsets of the aging colonies maintained at the University of Washington. PMID:22953032

  16. Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice.

    PubMed

    Goh, Jorming; Ladiges, Warren

    2015-12-02

    Voluntary wheel running in the mouse is used to assess physical performance and endurance and to model exercise training as a way to enhance health. Wheel running is a voluntary activity in contrast to other experimental exercise models in mice, which rely on aversive stimuli to force active movement. This protocol consists of allowing mice to run freely on the open surface of a slanted, plastic saucer-shaped wheel placed inside a standard mouse cage. Rotations are electronically transmitted to a USB hub so that frequency and rate of running can be captured via a software program for data storage and analysis for variable time periods. Mice are individually housed so that accurate recordings can be made for each animal. Factors such as mouse strain, gender, age, and individual motivation, which affect running activity, must be considered in the design of experiments using voluntary wheel running. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  17. Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Jorming; Ladiges, Warren

    2015-01-01

    Voluntary wheel running in the mouse is used to assess physical performance and endurance and to model exercise training as a way to enhance health. Wheel running is a voluntary activity in contrast to other experimental exercise models in mice, which rely on aversive stimuli to force active movement. The basic protocol consists of allowing mice to run freely on the open surface of a slanted plastic saucer-shaped wheel placed inside a standard mouse cage. Rotations are electronically transmitted to a USB hub so that frequency and rate of running can be captured to a software program for data storage and analysis for variable time periods. Mice are individually housed so that accurate recordings can be made for each animal. Factors such as mouse strain, gender, age, and individual motivation, which affect running activity, must be considered in the design of experiments using voluntary wheel running. PMID:26629772

  18. The adenosine A2A receptor — Myocardial protectant and coronary target in endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Reichelt, Melissa E.; Ashton, Kevin J.; Tan, Xing Lin; Mustafa, S. Jamal; Ledent, Catherine; Delbridge, Lea M.D.; Hofmann, Polly A.; Headrick, John P.; Morrison, R. Ray

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiac injury and dysfunction are contributors to disease progression and mortality in sepsis. This study evaluated the cardiovascular role of intrinsic A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR) activity during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Methods We assessed the impact of 24 h of LPS challenge (20 mg/kg, IP) on cardiac injury, coronary function and inflammatory mediator levels in Wild-Type (WT) mice and mice lacking functional A2AARs (A2AAR KO). Results Cardiac injury was evident in LPS-treated WTs, with ∼7-fold elevation in serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI), and significant ventricular and coronary dysfunction. Absence of A2AARs increased LPS-provoked cTnI release at 24 h by 3-fold without additional demise of contraction function. Importantly, A2AAR deletion per se emulated detrimental effects of LPS on coronary function, and LPS was without effect in coronary vessels lacking A2AARs. Effects of A2AAR KO were independent of major shifts in circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and haptoglobin. Cytokine responses were largely insensitive to A2AAR deletion; substantial LPS-induced elevations (up to 100-fold) in IFN-γ and IL-10 were unaltered in A2AAR KO mice, as were levels of IL-4 and TNF-α. However, late elevations in IL-2 and IL-5 were differentially modulated by A2AAR KO (IL-2 reduced, IL-5 increased). Data demonstrate that in the context of LPS-triggered cardiac and coronary injury, A2AAR activity protects myocardial viability without modifying contractile dysfunction, and selectively modulates cytokine (IL-2, IL-5) release. A2AARs also appear to be targeted by LPS in the coronary vasculature. Conclusions These experimental data suggest that preservation of A2AAR functionality might provide therapeutic benefit in human sepsis. PMID:22192288

  19. Mitochondrial DNA evolution in mice.

    PubMed

    Ferris, S D; Sage, R D; Prager, E M; Ritte, U; Wilson, A C

    1983-11-01

    This study extends knowledge of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity in mice to include 208 animals belonging to eight species in the subgenus Mus. Highly purified mtDNA from each has been subjected to high-resolution restriction mapping with respect to the known sequence of one mouse mtDNA. Variation attributed to base substitutions was encountered at about 200 of the 300 cleavage sites examined, and a length mutation was located in or near the displacement loop. The variability of different functional regions in this genome was as follows, from least to most: ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA, known proteins, displacement loop and unidentified reading frames. --Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the utility of the Sage and Marshall revision of mouse classification, according to which there are at least four species of commensal mice and three species of aboriginal mice in the complex that was formerly considered to be one species. The most thoroughly studied of these species is Mus domesticus, the house mouse of Western Europe and the Mediterranean region, which is the mitochondrial source of all 50 of the laboratory strains examined and of the representatives of wild house mice introduced by Europeans to North and South America during the past few hundred years. --The level of mtDNA variation among wild representatives of M. domesticus is similar to that for the Eastern European house mouse (M. musculus) and several other mammalian species. By contrast, among the many laboratory strains that are known or suspected to stem from the pet mouse trade, there is little interstrain variation, most strains having the "old inbred" type of domesticus mtDNA, whose frequency in the 145 wild mice examined is low, about 0.04. Also notable is the apparent homogeneity of mtDNA in domesticus races that have fixed six or more fused chromosomes and the close relationship of some of these mtDNAs to those of karyotypically normal mice. --In addition, this paper discusses fossil and other

  20. Mitochondrial DNA Evolution in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Stephen D.; Sage, Richard D.; Prager, Ellen M.; Ritte, Uzi; Wilson, Allan C.

    1983-01-01

    This study extends knowledge of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity in mice to include 208 animals belonging to eight species in the subgenus Mus. Highly purified mtDNA from each has been subjected to high-resolution restriction mapping with respect to the known sequence of one mouse mtDNA. Variation attributed to base substitutions was encountered at about 200 of the 300 cleavage sites examined, and a length mutation was located in or near the displacement loop. The variability of different functional regions in this genome was as follows, from least to most: ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA, known proteins, displacement loop and unidentified reading frames.—Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the utility of the Sage and Marshall revision of mouse classification, according to which there are at least four species of commensal mice and three species of aboriginal mice in the complex that was formerly considered to be one species. The most thoroughly studied of these species is Mus domesticus, the house mouse of Western Europe and the Mediterranean region, which is the mitochondrial source of all 50 of the laboratory strains examined and of the representatives of wild house mice introduced by Europeans to North and South America during the past few hundred years.—The level of mtDNA variation among wild representatives of (M. musculus) and several other mammalian species. By contrast, among the many laboratory strains that are known or suspected to stem from the pet mouse trade, there is little interstrain variation, most strains having the "old inbred" type of domesticus mtDNA, whose frequency in the 145 wild mice examined is low, about 0.04. Also notable is the apparent homogeneity of mtDNA in domesticus races that have fixed six or more fused chromosomes and the close relationship of some of these mtDNAs to those of karyotypically normal mice.—In addition, this paper discusses fossil and other evidence for the view that in mice, as in many other mammals, the average

  1. Ultrasonic Songs of Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhongsheng

    2005-01-01

    Previously it was shown that male mice, when they encounter female mice or their pheromones, emit ultrasonic vocalizations with frequencies ranging over 30–110 kHz. Here, we show that these vocalizations have the characteristics of song, consisting of several different syllable types, whose temporal sequencing includes the utterance of repeated phrases. Individual males produce songs with characteristic syllabic and temporal structure. This study provides a quantitative initial description of male mouse songs, and opens the possibility of studying song production and perception in an established genetic model organism. PMID:16248680

  2. In utero arsenic exposure induces early onset of atherosclerosis in ApoE−/− mice

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Sanjay; D’Souza, Stanley E.; Sen, Utpal; States, J. Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Consumption of arsenic contaminated drinking water has been linked to higher rates of coronary disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Recent evidence suggests that early life exposures may play a significant role in the onset of chronic adult diseases. To investigate the potential for in utero exposure to accelerate the onset of cardiovascular disease we exposed pregnant ApoE-knockout (ApoE−/−) mice to arsenic in their drinking water and examined the aortic trees of their male offspring for evidence of early disease 10 and 16 weeks after birth. Mice were maintained on normal chow after weaning. ApoE−/− mice are a commonly used model for atherogenesis and spontaneously develop atherosclerotic disease. Mice exposed to arsenic in utero showed a >2-fold increase in lesion formation in the aortic roots as well as the aortic arch compared to control mice at both 10 and 16 weeks of age. The mice exposed to arsenic also had a 20 – 40% decrease in total triglycerides, but no change in total cholesterol, phospholipids and total abundance of VLDL or HDL particles. Subfractionation of VLDL particles showed a decrease in large VLDL particles. In addition, the arsenic exposed mice showed a vasorelaxation defect in response to acetylcholine suggesting disturbance of endothelial cell signalling. These results indicate that in utero arsenic exposure induces an early onset of atherosclerosis in ApoE−/− mice without a hyperlipidemic diet and support the hypothesis that in utero arsenic exposure may be atherogenic in humans. PMID:17317095

  3. BDNF-Deficient Mice Show Reduced Psychosis-Related Behaviors Following Chronic Methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Manning, Elizabeth E; Halberstadt, Adam L; van den Buuse, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    One of the most devastating consequences of methamphetamine abuse is increased risk of psychosis. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor has been implicated in both psychosis and neuronal responses to methamphetamine. We therefore examined persistent psychosis-like behavioral effects of methamphetamine in brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice. Mice were chronically treated with methamphetamine from 6 to 9 weeks of age, and locomotor hyperactivity to an acute D-amphetamine challenge was tested in photocell cages after a 2-week withdrawal period. Methamphetamine-treated wild-type mice, but not brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice, showed locomotor sensitization to acute 3mg/kg D-amphetamine. Qualitative analysis of exploration revealed tolerance to D-amphetamine effects on entropy in methamphetamine-treated brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice, but not wild-type mice. Chronic methamphetamine exposure induces contrasting profiles of behavioral changes in wild-type and brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice, with attenuation of behaviors relevant to psychosis in methamphetamine-treated brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice. This suggests that brain-derived neurotrophic factor signalling changes may contribute to development of psychosis in methamphetamine users. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  4. Modified Protein Improves Vitiligo Symptoms in Mice

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vitiligo Symptoms in Mice Spotlight on Research Modified Protein Improves Vitiligo Symptoms in Mice By Colleen Labbe, ... D., Ph.D., Rush University. Altering a key protein involved in the development of vitiligo may protect ...

  5. β-Adrenergic Receptor Mediation of Stress-Induced Reinstatement of Extinguished Cocaine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference in Mice: Roles for β1 and β2 Adrenergic Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Vranjkovic, Oliver; Hang, Shona; Baker, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Stress can trigger the relapse of drug use in recovering cocaine addicts and reinstatement in rodent models through mechanisms that may involve norepinephrine release and β-adrenergic receptor activation. The present study examined the role of β-adrenergic receptor subtypes in the stressor-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-induced (15 mg/kg i.p.) conditioned place preference in mice. Forced swim (6 min at 22°C) stress or activation of central noradrenergic neurotransmission by administration of the selective α2 adrenergic receptor antagonist 2-[(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)methyl]-2,3-dihydro-1-methyl-1H-isoindole (BRL-44,408) (10 mg/kg i.p.) induced reinstatement in wild-type, but not β- adrenergic receptor-deficient Adrb1/Adrb2 double-knockout, mice. In contrast, cocaine administration (15 mg/kg i.p.) resulted in reinstatement in both wild-type and β-adrenergic receptor knockout mice. Stress-induced reinstatement probably involved β2 adrenergic receptors. The β2 adrenergic receptor antagonist -(isopropylamino)-1-[(7-methyl-4-indanyl)oxy]butan-2-ol (ICI-118,551) (1 or 2 mg/kg i.p.) blocked reinstatement by forced swim or BRL-44,408, whereas administration of the nonselective β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol (2 or 4 mg/kg i.p.) or the β2 adrenergic receptor-selective agonist clenbuterol (2 or 4 mg/kg i.p.) induced reinstatement. Forced swim-induced, but not BRL-44,408-induced, reinstatement was also blocked by a high (20 mg/kg) but not low (10 mg/kg) dose of the β1 adrenergic receptor antagonist betaxolol, and isoproterenol-induced reinstatement was blocked by pretreatment with either ICI-118,551 or betaxolol, suggesting a potential cooperative role for β1 and β2 adrenergic receptors in stress-induced reinstatement. Overall, these findings suggest that targeting β-adrenergic receptors may represent a promising pharmacotherapeutic strategy for preventing drug relapse, particularly in cocaine addicts whose drug use is stress

  6. Altered Anterior Segment Biometric Parameters in Mice Deficient in SPARC.

    PubMed

    Ho, Henrietta; Htoon, Hla M; Yam, Gary Hin-Fai; Toh, Li Zhen; Lwin, Nyein Chan; Chu, Stephanie; Lee, Ying Shi; Wong, Tina T; Seet, Li-Fong

    2017-01-01

    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) and Hevin are structurally related matricellular proteins involved in extracellular matrix assembly. In this study, we compared the anterior chamber biometric parameters and iris collagen properties in SPARC-, Hevin- and SPARC-/Hevin-null with wild-type (WT) mice. The right eyes of 53 WT, 35 SPARC-, 56 Hevin-, and 63 SPARC-/Hevin-null mice were imaged using the RTVue-100 Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography system. The parameters measured were anterior chamber depth (ACD), trabecular-iris space area (TISA), angle opening distance (AOD), and pupil diameter. Biometric data were analyzed using analysis of covariance and adjusted for age, sex, and pupil diameter. Expression of Col1a1, Col8a1, and Col8a2 transcripts in the irises was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Collagen fibril thickness was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. Mice that were SPARC- and SPARC-/Hevin-null had 1.28- and 1.25-fold deeper ACD, 1.45- and 1.53-fold larger TISA, as well as 1.42- and 1.51-fold wider AOD than WT, respectively. These measurements were not significantly different between SPARC- and SPARC-/Hevin-null mice. The SPARC-null iris expressed lower Col1a1, but higher Col8a1 and Col8a2 transcripts compared with WT. Collagen fibrils in the SPARC- and SPARC-/Hevin-null irises were 1.5- and 1.7-fold thinner than WT, respectively. The Hevin-null iris did not differ from WT in these collagen properties. SPARC-null mice have deeper anterior chamber as well as wider drainage angles compared with WT. Therefore, SPARC plays a key role in influencing the spatial organization of the anterior segment, potentially via modulation of collagen properties, while Hevin is not likely to be involved.

  7. Fructose- and glucose-conditioned preferences in FVB mice: strain differences in post-oral sugar appetition

    PubMed Central

    Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that, unlike glucose, fructose has little or no post-oral preference conditioning actions in C57BL/6J (B6) mice. The present study determined whether this is also the case for FVB mice, which overconsume fructose relative to B6 mice. In experiment 1, FVB mice strongly preferred a noncaloric 0.1% sucralose + 0.1% saccharin (S+S) solution to 8% fructose in a 2-day choice test but switched their preference to fructose after separate experience with the two sweeteners. Other FVB mice displayed a stronger preference for 8% glucose over S+S. In a second experiment, ad libitum-fed FVB mice trained 24 h/day acquired a significant preference for a flavor (CS+) paired with intragastric (IG) self-infusions of 16% fructose over a different flavor (CS−) paired with IG water infusions. IG fructose infusions also conditioned flavor preferences in food-restricted FVB mice trained 1 h/day. IG infusions of 16% glucose conditioned stronger preferences in FVB mice trained 24- or 1 h/day. Thus, fructose has post-oral flavor conditioning effects in FVB mice, but these effects are less pronounced than those produced by glucose. Further studies of the differential post-oral conditioning effects of fructose and glucose in B6 and FVB mice should enhance our understanding of the physiological processes involved in sugar reward. PMID:25320345

  8. Fructose- and glucose-conditioned preferences in FVB mice: strain differences in post-oral sugar appetition.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2014-12-15

    Recent studies indicate that, unlike glucose, fructose has little or no post-oral preference conditioning actions in C57BL/6J (B6) mice. The present study determined whether this is also the case for FVB mice, which overconsume fructose relative to B6 mice. In experiment 1, FVB mice strongly preferred a noncaloric 0.1% sucralose + 0.1% saccharin (S+S) solution to 8% fructose in a 2-day choice test but switched their preference to fructose after separate experience with the two sweeteners. Other FVB mice displayed a stronger preference for 8% glucose over S+S. In a second experiment, ad libitum-fed FVB mice trained 24 h/day acquired a significant preference for a flavor (CS+) paired with intragastric (IG) self-infusions of 16% fructose over a different flavor (CS-) paired with IG water infusions. IG fructose infusions also conditioned flavor preferences in food-restricted FVB mice trained 1 h/day. IG infusions of 16% glucose conditioned stronger preferences in FVB mice trained 24- or 1 h/day. Thus, fructose has post-oral flavor conditioning effects in FVB mice, but these effects are less pronounced than those produced by glucose. Further studies of the differential post-oral conditioning effects of fructose and glucose in B6 and FVB mice should enhance our understanding of the physiological processes involved in sugar reward. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Transplacental Arsenic Carcinogenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Waalkes, Michael P.; Liu, Jie; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.

    2007-01-01

    Our work has focused on the carcinogenic effects of in utero arsenic exposure in mice. Our data show a short period of maternal exposure to inorganic arsenic in the drinking water is an effective, multi-tissue carcinogen in the adult offspring. These studies have been reproduced in three temporally separate studies using two different mouse strains. In these studies pregnant mice were treated with drinking water containing sodium arsenite at up to 85 ppm arsenic from day 8 to 18 of gestation, and the offspring were observed for up to two years. The doses used in all these studies were well tolerated by both the dam and offspring. In C3H mice, two separate studies show male offspring exposed to arsenic in utero developed liver carcinoma and adrenal cortical adenoma in a dose-related fashion during adulthood. Prenatally exposed female C3H offspring show dose-related increases in ovarian tumors and lung carcinoma and in proliferative lesions (tumors plus preneoplastic hyperplasia) of the uterus and oviduct. In addition, prenatal arsenic plus postnatal exposure to the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in C3H mice produces excess lung tumors in both sexes and liver tumors in females. Male CD1 mice treated with arsenic in utero develop tumors of the liver and adrenal and renal hyperplasia while females develop tumors of urogenital system, ovary, uterus and adrenal and hyperplasia of the oviduct. Additional postnatal treatment with diethylstilbestrol or tamoxifen after prenatal arsenic in CD1 mice induces urinary bladder transitional cell proliferative lesions, including carcinoma and papilloma, and enhances the carcinogenic response in the liver of both sexes. Overall this model has provided convincing evidence that arsenic is a transplacental carcinogen in mice with the ability to target tissues of potential human relevance, such as the urinary bladder, lung and liver. Transplacental carcinogenesis clearly occurs with other agents in humans and

  10. HZE Radiation Leukemogenesis in Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yuanlin

    Radiation exposure is a risk factor for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The Leukemogenesis NSCOR was developed to compare this risk for low LET vs HZE radiations as a means to better assess the leukemia risk to astronauts posed by space radiation. Individual projects within the NSCOR explore HZE radiation leukemogenesis in murine model systems and extend the findings to AML in humans. AML sensitive CBA/CaJ mice have been irradiated with 1 GeV 56 Fe particles at NSRL and with 137 Cs gamma-rays at Colorado State University and followed to 800 days of age for the development of AML. Molecular and cytogenetic analyses of HZE- and gamma-induced AML, including assays for chromosomal aberrations, PU.1 deletion, gene expression, array CGH and microsatellite instability are ongoing. Preliminary data indicate that 56 Fe particles are no more effective in inducing AML or shortening lifespan than gamma-rays. Studies designed to address the individual molecular steps in leukemogenesis and determine the effects of radiation and genetic background on each step have been initiated using knockout mice. Deletion of the PU.1 gene on mouse chromosome 2 is a critical step in this murine model of radiation leukemogenesis. Two of the three HZE-induced AMLs that could be assayed and thirteen of fourteen γ-induced AMLs had PU.1 loss as determined by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH). We have found that AML sensitive CBA/CaJ mice have a higher incidence of Chr. 2 deletion in bone marrow cells following 56 Fe irradiation than AML resistant C57BL/6 mice. This study is being extended to proton irradiated mice. Our preliminary results indicate that microsatellite instability may be common in HZE irradiated progenitor cells. To determine if these cytogenetic changes can be induced in human myeloid progenitor cells by gamma, proton or HZE irradiation we are generating NOD/SCID mice that have been "humanized" by being transplanted with human hematopoietic stem cells. We are currently

  11. EphA2 Is a Therapy Target in EphA2-Positive Leukemias but Is Not Essential for Normal Hematopoiesis or Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Charmsaz, Sara; Beckett, Kirrilee; Smith, Fiona M.; Bruedigam, Claudia; Moore, Andrew S.; Al-Ejeh, Fares; Lane, Steven W.; Boyd, Andrew W.

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases and their membrane bound ephrin ligands have been shown to play critical roles in many developmental processes and more recently have been implicated in both normal and pathological processes in post-embryonic tissues. In particular, expression studies of Eph receptors and limited functional studies have demonstrated a role for the Eph/ephrin system in hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis. In particular, EphA2 was reported on hematopoietic stem cells and stromal cells. There are also reports of EphA2 expression in many different types of malignancies including leukemia, however there is a lack of knowledge in understanding the role of EphA2 in hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis. We explored the role of EphA2 in hematopoiesis by analyzing wild type and EphA2 knockout mice. Mature, differentiated cells, progenitors and hematopoietic stem cells derived from knockout and control mice were analyzed and no significant abnormality was detected. These studies showed that EphA2 does not have an obligatory role in normal hematopoiesis. Comparative studies using EphA2-negative MLL-AF9 leukemias derived from EphA2-knockout animals showed that there was no detectable functional role for EphA2 in the initiation or progression of the leukemic process. However, expression of EphA2 in leukemias initiated by MLL-AF9 suggested that this protein might be a possible therapy target in this type of leukemia. We showed that treatment with EphA2 monoclonal antibody IF7 alone had no effect on tumorigenicity and latency of the MLL-AF9 leukemias, while targeting of EphA2 using EphA2 monoclonal antibody with a radioactive payload significantly impaired the leukemic process. Altogether, these results identify EphA2 as a potential radio-therapeutic target in leukemias with MLL translocation. PMID:26083390

  12. EphA2 Is a Therapy Target in EphA2-Positive Leukemias but Is Not Essential for Normal Hematopoiesis or Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Charmsaz, Sara; Beckett, Kirrilee; Smith, Fiona M; Bruedigam, Claudia; Moore, Andrew S; Al-Ejeh, Fares; Lane, Steven W; Boyd, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases and their membrane bound ephrin ligands have been shown to play critical roles in many developmental processes and more recently have been implicated in both normal and pathological processes in post-embryonic tissues. In particular, expression studies of Eph receptors and limited functional studies have demonstrated a role for the Eph/ephrin system in hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis. In particular, EphA2 was reported on hematopoietic stem cells and stromal cells. There are also reports of EphA2 expression in many different types of malignancies including leukemia, however there is a lack of knowledge in understanding the role of EphA2 in hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis. We explored the role of EphA2 in hematopoiesis by analyzing wild type and EphA2 knockout mice. Mature, differentiated cells, progenitors and hematopoietic stem cells derived from knockout and control mice were analyzed and no significant abnormality was detected. These studies showed that EphA2 does not have an obligatory role in normal hematopoiesis. Comparative studies using EphA2-negative MLL-AF9 leukemias derived from EphA2-knockout animals showed that there was no detectable functional role for EphA2 in the initiation or progression of the leukemic process. However, expression of EphA2 in leukemias initiated by MLL-AF9 suggested that this protein might be a possible therapy target in this type of leukemia. We showed that treatment with EphA2 monoclonal antibody IF7 alone had no effect on tumorigenicity and latency of the MLL-AF9 leukemias, while targeting of EphA2 using EphA2 monoclonal antibody with a radioactive payload significantly impaired the leukemic process. Altogether, these results identify EphA2 as a potential radio-therapeutic target in leukemias with MLL translocation.

  13. Sodium-Glucose Transporter-2 (SGLT2; SLC5A2) Enhances Cellular Uptake of Aminoglycosides

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Meiyan; Wang, Qi; Karasawa, Takatoshi; Koo, Ja-Won; Li, Hongzhe; Steyger, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics, like gentamicin, continue to be clinically essential worldwide to treat life-threatening bacterial infections. Yet, the ototoxic and nephrotoxic side-effects of these drugs remain serious complications. A major site of gentamicin uptake and toxicity resides within kidney proximal tubules that also heavily express electrogenic sodium-glucose transporter-2 (SGLT2; SLC5A2) in vivo. We hypothesized that SGLT2 traffics gentamicin, and promotes cellular toxicity. We confirmed in vitro expression of SGLT2 in proximal tubule-derived KPT2 cells, and absence in distal tubule-derived KDT3 cells. D-glucose competitively decreased the uptake of 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG), a fluorescent analog of glucose, and fluorescently-tagged gentamicin (GTTR) by KPT2 cells. Phlorizin, an SGLT2 antagonist, strongly inhibited uptake of 2-NBDG and GTTR by KPT2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. GTTR uptake was elevated in KDT3 cells transfected with SGLT2 (compared to controls); and this enhanced uptake was attenuated by phlorizin. Knock-down of SGLT2 expression by siRNA reduced gentamicin-induced cytotoxicity. In vivo, SGLT2 was robustly expressed in kidney proximal tubule cells of heterozygous, but not null, mice. Phlorizin decreased GTTR uptake by kidney proximal tubule cells in Sglt2+/− mice, but not in Sglt2−/− mice. However, serum GTTR levels were elevated in Sglt2−/− mice compared to Sglt2+/− mice, and in phlorizin-treated Sglt2+/− mice compared to vehicle-treated Sglt2+/− mice. Loss of SGLT2 function by antagonism or by gene deletion did not affect gentamicin cochlear loading or auditory function. Phlorizin did not protect wild-type mice from kanamycin-induced ototoxicity. We conclude that SGLT2 can traffic gentamicin and contribute to gentamicin-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:25268124

  14. Macrophage A2A Adenosinergic Receptor Modulates Oxygen-Induced Augmentation of Murine Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    D’Alessio, Franco R.; Eto, Yoshiki; Chau, Eric; Avalos, Claudia; Waickman, Adam T.; Garibaldi, Brian T.; Mock, Jason R.; Files, Daniel C.; Sidhaye, Venkataramana; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.; Powell, Jonathan; Horton, Maureen; King, Landon S.

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) causes significant morbidity and mortality. Exacerbating factors increasing the risk of ARDS remain unknown. Supplemental oxygen is often necessary in both mild and severe lung disease. The potential effects of supplemental oxygen may include augmentation of lung inflammation by inhibiting anti-inflammatory pathways in alveolar macrophages. We sought to determine oxygen-derived effects on the anti-inflammatory A2A adenosinergic (ADORA2A) receptor in macrophages, and the role of the ADORA2A receptor in lung injury. Wild-type (WT) and ADORA2A−/− mice received intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (IT LPS), followed 12 hours later by continuous exposure to 21% oxygen (control mice) or 60% oxygen for 1 to 3 days. We measured the phenotypic endpoints of lung injury and the alveolar macrophage inflammatory state. We tested an ADORA2A-specific agonist, CGS-21680 hydrochloride, in LPS plus oxygen-exposed WT and ADORA2A−/− mice. We determined the specific effects of myeloid ADORA2A, using chimera experiments. Compared with WT mice, ADORA2A−/− mice exposed to IT LPS and 60% oxygen demonstrated significantly more histologic lung injury, alveolar neutrophils, and protein. Macrophages from ADORA2A−/− mice exposed to LPS plus oxygen expressed higher concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and cosignaling molecules. CGS-21680 prevented the oxygen-induced augmentation of lung injury after LPS only in WT mice. Chimera experiments demonstrated that the transfer of WT but not ADORA2A−/− bone marrow cells into irradiated ADORA2A−/− mice reduced lung injury after LPS plus oxygen, demonstrating myeloid ADORA2A protection. ADORA2A is protective against lung injury after LPS and oxygen. Oxygen after LPS increases macrophage activation to augment lung injury by inhibiting the ADORA2A pathway. PMID:23349051

  15. Generation and phenotypic analysis of mice lacking all urea transporters.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; Li, Yingjie; Layton, Anita T; Wang, Weiling; Sun, Yi; Li, Min; Zhou, Hong; Yang, Baoxue

    2017-02-01

    Urea transporters (UT) are a family of transmembrane urea-selective channel proteins expressed in multiple tissues and play an important role in the urine concentrating mechanism of the mammalian kidney. UT inhibitors have diuretic activity and could be developed as novel diuretics. To determine if functional deficiency of all UTs in all tissues causes physiological abnormality, we established a novel mouse model in which all UTs were knocked out by deleting an 87 kb of DNA fragment containing most parts of Slc14a1 and Slc14a2 genes. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence confirmed that there is no expression of urea transporter in these all-UT-knockout mice. Daily urine output was nearly 3.5-fold higher, with significantly lower urine osmolality in all-UT-knockout mice than that in wild-type mice. All-UT-knockout mice were not able to increase urinary urea concentration and osmolality after water deprivation, acute urea loading, or high protein intake. A computational model that simulated UT-knockout mouse models identified the individual contribution of each UT in urine concentrating mechanism. Knocking out all UTs also decreased the blood pressure and promoted the maturation of the male reproductive system. Thus, functional deficiency of all UTs caused a urea-selective urine-concentrating defect with little physiological abnormality in extrarenal organs. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Generation and phenotypic analysis of mice lacking all urea transporters

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Tao; Li, Yingjie; Layton, Anita T.; Wang, Weiling; Sun, Yi; Li, Min; Zhou, Hong; Yang, Baoxue

    2017-01-01

    Urea transporters (UT) are a family of transmembrane urea-selective channel proteins expressed in multiple tissues and play an important role in the urine concentrating mechanism of the mammalian kidney. UT inhibitors have been identified to have diuretic activity and might be developed as novel diuretics. To determine if functional deficiency of all UTs in all tissues causes physiological abnormality, we established a novel mouse model in which all UTs were knocked out by deleting an 87 kb of DNA fragment containing most parts of Slc14a1 and Slc14a2 genes. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence confirmed that there is no expression of urea transporter in all-UT-knockout mice. Daily urine output was nearly 3.5-fold higher, with significantly lower urine osmolality, in all-UT-knockout-mice than that in wild-type mice, and urine osmolality was significantly lower. All-UT-knockout mice were not able to increase urinary urea concentration and osmolality after water deprivation, acute urea loading or high protein intake. A computational model that simulated UT knockout mouse models identified the individual contribution of each UT in urine concentrating mechanism. Knocking out all UTs also decreased the blood pressure and promoted the maturation of the male reproductive system. These results revealed that functional deficiency of all UTs caused urea selective urine concentrating defect with little physiological abnormality in extrarenal organs. PMID:27914708

  17. Adenosine A2A Receptor Activation Prevents Wear Particle-Induced Osteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Mediero, Aránzazu; Frenkel, Sally R.; Wilder, Tuere; He, Wenjie; Mazumder, Amitabha; Cronstein, Bruce N.

    2012-01-01

    Prosthesis loosening, associated with wear-particle–induced inflammation and osteoclast-mediated bone destruction, is a common cause for joint implant failure, leading to revision surgery. Adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) mediate potent anti-inflammatory effects in many tissues and prevent osteoclast differentiation. We tested the hypothesis that an A2AR agonist could reduce osteoclast-mediated bone resorption in a murine calvaria model of wear-particle–induced bone resorption. C57Bl/6 and A2A knockout (A2ARKO) mice received ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene particles (UHMWPE) and were treated daily with either saline or the A2AR agonist CGS21680. After 2 weeks, micro-computed tomography of calvaria demonstrated that CGS21680 reduced particle-induced bone pitting and porosity in a dose-dependent manner, increasing cortical bone and bone volume compared to control mice. Histological examination demonstrated diminished inflammation after treatment with CGS21680. In A2AKO mice, CGS21680 did not affect osteoclast-mediated bone resorption or inflammation. Levels of bone-resorption markers receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB (RANK), RANK ligand (RANKL), cathepsin K, CD163, and osteopontin were reduced following CGS21680 treatment, together with a reduction in osteoclasts. Secretion of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and TNFα was significantly decreased, whereas IL-10 was markedly increased in bone by CGS21680. These results in mice suggest that site-specific delivery of an adenosine A2AR agonist could enhance implant survival, delaying or eliminating the need for revision arthroplastic surgery. PMID:22623741

  18. Mice learn to avoid regret.

    PubMed

    Sweis, Brian M; Thomas, Mark J; Redish, A David

    2018-06-01

    Regret can be defined as the subjective experience of recognizing that one has made a mistake and that a better alternative could have been selected. The experience of regret is thought to carry negative utility. This typically takes two distinct forms: augmenting immediate postregret valuations to make up for losses, and augmenting long-term changes in decision-making strategies to avoid future instances of regret altogether. While the short-term changes in valuation have been studied in human psychology, economics, neuroscience, and even recently in nonhuman-primate and rodent neurophysiology, the latter long-term process has received far less attention, with no reports of regret avoidance in nonhuman decision-making paradigms. We trained 31 mice in a novel variant of the Restaurant Row economic decision-making task, in which mice make decisions of whether to spend time from a limited budget to achieve food rewards of varying costs (delays). Importantly, we tested mice longitudinally for 70 consecutive days, during which the task provided their only source of food. Thus, decision strategies were interdependent across both trials and days. We separated principal commitment decisions from secondary reevaluation decisions across space and time and found evidence for regret-like behaviors following change-of-mind decisions that corrected prior economically disadvantageous choices. Immediately following change-of-mind events, subsequent decisions appeared to make up for lost effort by altering willingness to wait, decision speed, and pellet consumption speed, consistent with past reports of regret in rodents. As mice were exposed to an increasingly reward-scarce environment, we found they adapted and refined distinct economic decision-making strategies over the course of weeks to maximize reinforcement rate. However, we also found that even without changes in reinforcement rate, mice transitioned from an early strategy rooted in foraging to a strategy rooted in

  19. Differential requirement for satellite cells during overload-induced muscle hypertrophy in growing versus mature mice.

    PubMed

    Murach, Kevin A; White, Sarah H; Wen, Yuan; Ho, Angel; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E; McCarthy, John J; Peterson, Charlotte A

    2017-07-10

    Pax7+ satellite cells are required for skeletal muscle fiber growth during post-natal development in mice. Satellite cell-mediated myonuclear accretion also appears to persist into early adulthood. Given the important role of satellite cells during muscle development, we hypothesized that the necessity of satellite cells for adaptation to an imposed hypertrophic stimulus depends on maturational age. Pax7 CreER -R26R DTA mice were treated for 5 days with vehicle (satellite cell-replete, SC+) or tamoxifen (satellite cell-depleted, SC-) at 2 months (young) and 4 months (mature) of age. Following a 2-week washout, mice were subjected to sham surgery or 10 day synergist ablation overload of the plantaris (n = 6-9 per group). The surgical approach minimized regeneration, de novo fiber formation, and fiber splitting while promoting muscle fiber growth. Satellite cell density (Pax7+ cells/fiber), embryonic myosin heavy chain expression (eMyHC), and muscle fiber cross sectional area (CSA) were evaluated via immunohistochemistry. Myonuclei (myonuclei/100 mm) were counted on isolated single muscle fibers. Tamoxifen treatment depleted satellite cells by ≥90% and prevented myonuclear accretion with overload in young and mature mice (p < 0.05). Satellite cells did not recover in SC- mice after overload. Average muscle fiber CSA increased ~20% in young SC+ (p = 0.07), mature SC+ (p < 0.05), and mature SC- mice (p < 0.05). In contrast, muscle fiber hypertrophy was prevented in young SC- mice. Muscle fiber number increased only in mature mice after overload (p < 0.05), and eMyHC expression was variable, specifically in mature SC+ mice. Reliance on satellite cells for overload-induced hypertrophy is dependent on maturational age, and global responses to overload differ in young versus mature mice.

  20. Hepatic Adaptation Compensates Inactivation of Intestinal Arginine Biosynthesis in Suckling Mice

    PubMed Central

    Marion, Vincent; Sankaranarayanan, Selvakumari; de Theije, Chiel; van Dijk, Paul; Hakvoort, Theo B. M.; Lamers, Wouter H.; Köhler, Eleonore S.

    2013-01-01

    Suckling mammals, including mice, differ from adults in the abundant expression of enzymes that synthesize arginine from citrulline in their enterocytes. To investigate the importance of the small-intestinal arginine synthesis for whole-body arginine production in suckling mice, we floxed exon 13 of the argininosuccinate synthetase (Ass) gene, which codes for a key enzyme in arginine biosynthesis, and specifically and completely ablated Ass in enterocytes by crossing Ass fl and Villin-Cre mice. Unexpectedly, Ass fl/fl /VilCre tg/- mice showed no developmental impairments. Amino-acid fluxes across the intestine, liver, and kidneys were calculated after determining the blood flow in the portal vein, and hepatic and renal arteries (86%, 14%, and 33%, respectively, of the transhepatic blood flow in 14-day-old mice). Relative to control mice, citrulline production in the splanchnic region of Ass fl/fl /VilCre tg/- mice doubled, while arginine production was abolished. Furthermore, the net production of arginine and most other amino acids in the liver of suckling control mice declined to naught or even changed to consumption in Ass fl/fl /VilCre tg/- mice, and had, thus, become remarkably similar to that of post-weaning wild-type mice, which no longer express arginine-biosynthesizing enzymes in their small intestine. The adaptive changes in liver function were accompanied by an increased expression of genes involved in arginine metabolism (Asl, Got1, Gpt2, Glud1, Arg1, and Arg2) and transport (Slc25a13, Slc25a15, and Slc3a2), whereas no such changes were found in the intestine. Our findings suggest that the genetic premature deletion of arginine synthesis in enterocytes causes a premature induction of the post-weaning pattern of amino-acid metabolism in the liver. PMID:23785515

  1. Progress of MICE RFCC Module

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; Bowring, D.; DeMello, A.

    2012-05-20

    Recent progress on the design and fabrication of the RFCC (RF and superconducting Coupling Coil) module for the international MICE (Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment) are reported. The MICE ionization cooling channel has two RFCC modules, each having four 201- MHz normal conducting RF cavities surrounded by one superconducting coupling coil (solenoid) magnet. The magnet is designed to be cooled by three cryocoolers. Fabrication of the RF cavities is complete; preparation for the cavity electro-polishing, low power RF measurements, and tuning are in progress at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Fabrication of the cold mass of the first coupling coil magnetmore » has been completed in China and the cold mass arrived at LBNL in late 2011. Preparations for testing the cold mass are currently under way at Fermilab. Plans for the RFCC module assembly and integration are being developed and are described.« less

  2. Quantitative fundus autofluorescence in mice: correlation with HPLC quantitation of RPE lipofuscin and measurement of retina outer nuclear layer thickness.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Janet R; Blonska, Anna; Flynn, Erin; Duncker, Tobias; Greenberg, Jonathan P; Secondi, Roberta; Ueda, Keiko; Delori, François C

    2013-04-17

    Our study was conducted to establish procedures and protocols for quantitative autofluorescence (qAF) measurements in mice, and to report changes in qAF, A2E bisretinoid concentration, and outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness in mice of different genotypes and age. Fundus autofluorescence (AF) images (55° lens, 488 nm excitation) were acquired in albino Abca4(-/-), Abca4(+/-), and Abca4(+/+) mice (ages 2-12 months) with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO). Gray levels (GLs) in each image were calibrated to an internal fluorescence reference. The bisretinoid A2E was measured by quantitative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Histometric analysis of ONL thicknesses was performed. The Bland-Altman coefficient of repeatability (95% confidence interval) was ±18% for between-session qAF measurements. Mean qAF values increased with age (2-12 months) in all groups of mice. qAF was approximately 2-fold higher in Abca4(-/-) mice than in Abca4(+/+) mice and approximately 20% higher in heterozygous mice. HPLC measurements of the lipofuscin fluorophore A2E also revealed age-associated increases, and the fold difference between Abca4(-/-) and wild-type mice was more pronounced (approximately 3-4-fold) than measurable by qAF. Moreover, A2E levels declined after 8 months of age, a change not observed with qAF. The decline in A2E levels in the Abca4(-/-) mice corresponded to reduced photoreceptor cell viability as reflected in ONL thinning beginning at 8 months of age. The qAF method enables measurement of in vivo lipofuscin and the detection of genotype and age-associated differences. The use of this approach has the potential to aid in understanding retinal disease processes and will facilitate preclinical studies.

  3. Magnetic eye tracking in mice

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Hannah L

    2017-01-01

    Eye movements provide insights about a wide range of brain functions, from sensorimotor integration to cognition; hence, the measurement of eye movements is an important tool in neuroscience research. We describe a method, based on magnetic sensing, for measuring eye movements in head-fixed and freely moving mice. A small magnet was surgically implanted on the eye, and changes in the magnet angle as the eye rotated were detected by a magnetic field sensor. Systematic testing demonstrated high resolution measurements of eye position of <0.1°. Magnetic eye tracking offers several advantages over the well-established eye coil and video-oculography methods. Most notably, it provides the first method for reliable, high-resolution measurement of eye movements in freely moving mice, revealing increased eye movements and altered binocular coordination compared to head-fixed mice. Overall, magnetic eye tracking provides a lightweight, inexpensive, easily implemented, and high-resolution method suitable for a wide range of applications. PMID:28872455

  4. Eucaloric Ketogenic Diet Reduces Hypoglycemia and Inflammation in Mice with Endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Nandivada, Prathima; Fell, Gillian L; Pan, Amy H; Nose, Vania; Ling, Pei-Ra; Bistrian, Bruce R; Puder, Mark

    2016-06-01

    Dietary strategies to alter the immune response to acute inflammation have the potential to improve outcomes in critically ill patients. A eucaloric ketogenic diet (EKD), composed predominantly of fat with very small amounts of carbohydrate, can provide adequate caloric support while minimizing spikes in blood glucose and reducing oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an EKD on glycemic control and the inflammatory response after acute endotoxemia in mice. Mice received either an EKD or a carbohydrate-based control diet (CD) for 4 weeks. Animals subsequently underwent either a 2-h fast (postprandial) or an overnight fast (postabsorptive), and half of the animals in each diet group were randomized to receive either intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (1 mg/kg) or an equivalent volume of saline. Glycemic response, insulin resistance, inflammatory cytokine levels, and the expression of key inflammatory and metabolic genes were measured. After endotoxin challenge, hypoglycemia was more frequent in mice fed a CD than an EKD in the postprandial period. This was due in part to the preservation of hepatic glycogen stores despite endotoxin exposure and prolonged fasting in mice fed an EKD. Furthermore, mice fed the CD had higher levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in the postabsorptive period, with a fivefold higher expression of hepatic NFκB compared to mice fed the EKD in both fasting periods. These results suggest that the unique metabolic state induced by an EKD can alter the response to acute inflammation in mice.

  5. T cells redirected to EphA2 for the immunotherapy of glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Chow, Kevin K H; Naik, Swati; Kakarla, Sunitha; Brawley, Vita S; Shaffer, Donald R; Yi, Zhongzhen; Rainusso, Nino; Wu, Meng-Fen; Liu, Hao; Kew, Yvonne; Grossman, Robert G; Powell, Suzanne; Lee, Dean; Ahmed, Nabil; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2013-03-01

    Outcomes for patients with glioblastoma (GBM) remain poor despite aggressive multimodal therapy. Immunotherapy with genetically modified T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting interleukin (IL)-13Rα2, epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII), or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) has shown promise for the treatment of gliomas in preclinical models and in a clinical study (IL-13Rα2). However, targeting IL-13Rα2 and EGFRvIII is associated with the development of antigen loss variants, and there are safety concerns with targeting HER2. Erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma A2 (EphA2) has emerged as an attractive target for the immunotherapy of GBM as it is overexpressed in glioma and promotes its malignant phenotype. To generate EphA2-specific T cells, we constructed an EphA2-specific CAR with a CD28-ζ endodomain. EphA2-specific T cells recognized EphA2-positive glioma cells as judged by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and IL-2 production and tumor cell killing. In addition, EphA2-specific T cells had potent activity against human glioma-initiating cells preventing neurosphere formation and destroying intact neurospheres in coculture assays. Adoptive transfer of EphA2-specific T cells resulted in the regression of glioma xenografts in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice and a significant survival advantage in comparison to untreated mice and mice treated with nontransduced T cells. Thus, EphA2-specific T-cell immunotherapy may be a promising approach for the treatment of EphA2-positive GBM.

  6. Protective effect of tea polyphenols against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice is significantly correlated with cytochrome P450 suppression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xia; Sun, Chang-Kai; Han, Guo-Zhu; Peng, Jin-Yong; Li, Ying; Liu, Yan-Xia; Lv, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Ke-Xin; Zhou, Qin; Sun, Hui-Jun

    2009-04-21

    To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of tea polyphenols (TP) and its relation with cytochrome P450 (CYP450) expression in mice. Hepatic CYP450 and CYPb(5) levels were measured by UV-spectrophotometry in mice 2 d after intraperitoneal TP (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg per day). Then the mice were intragastricly pre-treated with TP (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg per day) for six days before paracetamol (1000 mg/kg) was given. Their acute mortality was compared with that of control mice. The mice were pre-treated with TP (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg per day) for five days before paracetamol (500 mg/kg) was given. Hepatic CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 protein and mRNA expression levels were evaluated by Western blotting, immunohistochemical staining and transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The hepatic CYP450 and CYPb(5) levels in mice of TP-treated groups (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg per day) were decreased in a dose-dependent manner compared with those in the negative control mice. TP significantly attenuated the paracetamol-induced hepatic injury and dramatically reduced the mortality of paracetamol-treated mice. Furthermore, TP reduced CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 expression at both protein and mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner. TP possess potential hepatoprotective properties and can suppress CYP450 expression.

  7. Idiotypic manipulation in mice: BALB/c mice can express the crossreactive idiotype of A/J mice.

    PubMed Central

    Moser, M; Leo, O; Hiernaux, J; Urbain, J

    1983-01-01

    The response of A/J mice to arsonate-coupled keyhole limpet hemocyanin is characterized by a crossreactive idiotype (CRIA). CRIA+ antibodies are restricted to the Igh-Ic haplotype and are never expressed in BALB/c mice after immunization with antigen. Studies at the DNA level suggest that the gene encoding the CRIA heavy chain in A/J mice is probably absent in the genome of BALB/c mice. Despite this, using the immunization cascade tool, we have been able to induce the expression of CRIA+ antibodies in BALB/c mice. These studies led to an apparent paradox, whose understanding will provide new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of the immune system. We suggest that clones secreting CRIA-like Igs in BALB/c mice are "somatic variants" that could arise from gene conversion events. PMID:6576348

  8. Obesity and altered glucose metabolism impact HDL composition in CETP transgenic mice: a role for ovarian hormones[S

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Melissa N.; Emfinger, Christopher H.; Overton, Matthew; Hill, Salisha; Ramaswamy, Tara S.; Cappel, David A.; Wu, Ke; Fazio, Sergio; McDonald, W. Hayes; Hachey, David L.; Tabb, David L.; Stafford, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying changes in HDL composition caused by obesity are poorly defined, partly because mice lack expression of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), which shuttles triglyceride and cholesteryl ester between lipoproteins. Because menopause is associated with weight gain, altered glucose metabolism, and changes in HDL, we tested the effect of feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) and ovariectomy (OVX) on glucose metabolism and HDL composition in CETP transgenic mice. After OVX, female CETP-expressing mice had accelerated weight gain with HFD-feeding and impaired glucose tolerance by hyperglycemic clamp techniques, compared with OVX mice fed a low-fat diet (LFD). Sham-operated mice (SHAM) did not show HFD-induced weight gain and had less glucose intolerance than OVX mice. Using shotgun HDL proteomics, HFD-feeding in OVX mice had a large effect on HDL composition, including increased levels of apoA2, apoA4, apoC2, and apoC3, proteins involved in TG metabolism. These changes were associated with decreased hepatic expression of SR-B1, ABCA1, and LDL receptor, proteins involved in modulating the lipid content of HDL. In SHAM mice, there were minimal changes in HDL composition with HFD feeding. These studies suggest that the absence of ovarian hormones negatively influences the response to high-fat feeding in terms of glucose tolerance and HDL composition. CETP-expressing mice may represent a useful model to define how metabolic changes affect HDL composition and function. PMID:22215797

  9. A2B Adenosine Receptor–Mediated Induction of IL-6 Promotes CKD

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yingbo; Zhang, Weiru; Wen, Jiaming; Zhang, Yujin; Kellems, Rodney E.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic elevation of adenosine, which occurs in the setting of repeated or prolonged tissue injury, can exacerbate cellular dysfunction, suggesting that it may contribute to the pathogenesis of CKD. Here, mice with chronically elevated levels of adenosine, resulting from a deficiency in adenosine deaminase (ADA), developed renal dysfunction and fibrosis. Both the administration of polyethylene glycol–modified ADA to reduce adenosine levels and the inhibition of the A2B adenosine receptor (A2BR) attenuated renal fibrosis and dysfunction. Furthermore, activation of A2BR promoted renal fibrosis in both mice infused with angiotensin II (Ang II) and mice subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). These three mouse models shared a similar profile of profibrotic gene expression in kidney tissue, suggesting that they share similar signaling pathways that lead to renal fibrosis. Finally, both genetic and pharmacologic approaches showed that the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 mediates adenosine-induced renal fibrosis downstream of A2BR. Taken together, these data suggest that A2BR-mediated induction of IL-6 contributes to renal fibrogenesis and shows potential therapeutic targets for CKD. PMID:21511827

  10. Genetic variation of iron-induced uroporphyria in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, A G; Francis, J E

    1993-01-01

    Iron overload causes inhibition of hepatic uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD) and uroporphyria in C57BL/10ScSn but not DBA/2 mice [Smith, Cabral, Carthew, Francis and Manson (1989) Int. J. Cancer 43, 492-496]. We have investigated the induction of uroporphyria in 12 inbred strains of mice 25 weeks after iron treatment (600 mg/kg) to determine if there was any correlation with the Ah locus. Under these conditions, inhibition of UROD occurred to varying degrees in Ahd mice (SWR and AKR) as well as nominally Ahb-1 (C57BL/6J, C57BL/10ScSn and C57BL/10-cc) and Ahb-2 strains (BALB/c and C3H/HeJ). Five other Ahb or Ahd strains (C57BL/Ks, A/J, CBA/J, LP and DBA/2) were unaffected. Thus there appeared to be no correlation with the Ah phenotype and this illustrated that some other variable inherited factors are involved. Comparisons between another susceptible strain, A2G, and the congenic A2G-hr/+strain (carrying the recessive hr gene) showed a modulating influence associated with the hr locus. In contrast with individual mice of inbred strains, which showed consistent responses to iron, those of the outbred MF1 strain showed a spectrum of sensitivities as might be expected for a heterogeneic stock. The rate of porphyria development was accelerated by administration of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (5-ALA) in the drinking water, but this did not overcome strain differences. Among four strains the order of susceptibility was SWR > C57BL/10ScSn > C57B1/6J > DBA/2 (the last strain was completely resistant). With degrees of iron loading greater than 600 mg of Fe/kg (1200-1800 mg of Fe/kg) C57BL/10ScSn mice (after 20 weeks) and SWR mice (after 5 weeks which included 4 weeks of 5-ALA treatment) had less inhibition of UROD and a lower uroporphyric response, showing that there was an optimum level of liver iron concentration. Studies on selected microsomal enzyme activities associated with cytochrome P-450 showed no correlation with the propensities of strains to develop porphyria

  11. Mice acquire flavor preferences during shipping.

    PubMed

    Tordoff, Michael G; Alarcón, Laura K; Byerly, Erica A; Doman, Samantha A

    2005-11-15

    Vigorous motion can cause rodents to develop flavor aversions and show other signs of malaise. We tested whether a flavor aversion could be induced by shipping mice from an animal breeder to a test site. Boxes of 12 male C57BL/6J mice were shipped approximately 950 km from Bar Harbor, ME to Philadelphia, PA by truck. For some boxes, the gel provided for hydration was flavored with almond and for others it was flavored with banana. After the journey, the mice were individually housed and allowed to recover for 5 days. They then received a choice between the two flavors of gel. Contrary to expectations, mice preferred the flavor they had previously ingested during shipping. Controls given flavored gel under similar conditions but while stationary did not show a preference. These results suggest that mice find shipping or its sequelae pleasurable. If mice are travel sick this must be inconsequential relative to other components of the shipping experience.

  12. Enhanced Phospholipase A2 Group 3 Expression by Oxidative Stress Decreases the Insulin-Degrading Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Yui, Daishi; Nishida, Yoichiro; Nishina, Tomoko; Mogushi, Kaoru; Tajiri, Mio; Ishibashi, Satoru; Ajioka, Itsuki; Ishikawa, Kinya; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Murayama, Shigeo; Yokota, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has a ubiquitous role in neurodegenerative diseases and oxidative damage in specific regions of the brain is associated with selective neurodegeneration. We previously reported that Alzheimer disease (AD) model mice showed decreased insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) levels in the cerebrum and accelerated phenotypic features of AD when crossbred with alpha-tocopherol transfer protein knockout (Ttpa -/-) mice. To further investigate the role of chronic oxidative stress in AD pathophysiology, we performed DNA microarray analysis using young and aged wild-type mice and aged Ttpa -/- mice. Among the genes whose expression changed dramatically was Phospholipase A2 group 3 (Pla2g3); Pla2g3 was identified because of its expression profile of cerebral specific up-regulation by chronic oxidative stress in silico and in aged Ttpa -/- mice. Immunohistochemical studies also demonstrated that human astrocytic Pla2g3 expression was significantly increased in human AD brains compared with control brains. Moreover, transfection of HEK293 cells with human Pla2g3 decreased endogenous IDE expression in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings show a key role of Pla2g3 on the reduction of IDE, and suggest that cerebrum specific increase of Pla2g3 is involved in the initiation and/or progression of AD. PMID:26637123

  13. Propagating Humanized BLT Mice for the Study of Human Immunology and Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Drake J; Lin, Levina J; Moon, Heesung; Pham, Alexander T; Wang, Xi; Liu, Siyuan; Ji, Sunjong; Rezek, Valerie; Shimizu, Saki; Ruiz, Marlene; Lam, Jennifer; Janzen, Deanna M; Memarzadeh, Sanaz; Kohn, Donald B; Zack, Jerome A; Kitchen, Scott G; An, Dong Sung; Yang, Lili

    2016-12-15

    The humanized bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT) mouse model harbors a nearly complete human immune system, therefore providing a powerful tool to study human immunology and immunotherapy. However, its application is greatly limited by the restricted supply of human CD34 + hematopoietic stem cells and fetal thymus tissues that are needed to generate these mice. The restriction is especially significant for the study of human immune systems with special genetic traits, such as certain human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes or monogene deficiencies. To circumvent this critical limitation, we have developed a method to quickly propagate established BLT mice. Through secondary transfer of bone marrow cells and human thymus implants from BLT mice into NSG (NOD/SCID/IL-2Rγ -/- ) recipient mice, we were able to expand one primary BLT mouse into a colony of 4-5 proBLT (propagated BLT) mice in 6-8 weeks. These proBLT mice reconstituted human immune cells, including T cells, at levels comparable to those of their primary BLT donor mouse. They also faithfully inherited the human immune cell genetic traits from their donor BLT mouse, such as the HLA-A2 haplotype that is of special interest for studying HLA-A2-restricted human T cell immunotherapies. Moreover, an EGFP reporter gene engineered into the human immune system was stably passed from BLT to proBLT mice, making proBLT mice suitable for studying human immune cell gene therapy. This method provides an opportunity to overcome a critical hurdle to utilizing the BLT humanized mouse model and enables its more widespread use as a valuable preclinical research tool.

  14. A Novel Modification of the AOM/DSS Model for Inducing Intestinal Adenomas in Mice.

    PubMed

    Angelou, Anastasios; Andreatos, Nikolaos; Antoniou, Efstathios; Zacharioudaki, Argiro; Theodoropoulos, George; Damaskos, Christos; Garmpis, Nikolaos; Yuan, Chunhui; Xiao, Weidong; Theocharis, Stamatios; Zografos, George; Papalois, Apostolos; Margonis, Georgios Antonios

    2018-06-01

    Our aim was to develop an animal model of the precancerous stages of colitis-associated carcinogenesis by modifying the established azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) protocol. Six mice were treated with varying cycles of DSS following AOM administration as above (group 1: three mice received three 5-day cycles of 3.0% DSS and group 2: three mice received three 7-day cycles of 2.5% DSS; every cycle was followed by a 2-week rest period) and were sacrificed on day 84 of the experiment. By contrast, three female C57BL6 mice (group 3) were treated with a single intraperitoneal dose (10 mg/kg of body weight) of AOM followed by three 5-day cycles of oral 2.5% DSS, with each cycle interrupted by a 2-week rest period. The mice of this group were sacrificed at 60 days. In groups 1 and 2, cancer was noted in five out of the six mice. In group 3, adenomas with dysplastic lesions were noted in all of the mice, but none had developed adenocarcinoma. Our results suggest that the administration of three 5-day cycles of 2.5% DSS following an initial dose of AOM may successfully induce adenoma formation without the concurrent presence of carcinoma in female C57BL6 mice that are sacrificed on experimental day 60. In turn, this modification of the widely used AOM/DSS protocol may constitute a novel approach for investigating colitis-related colonic adenomas. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  15. Species differences in methanol and formic acid pharmacokinetics in mice, rabbits and primates

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeting, J. Nicole; Siu, Michelle; McCallum, Gordon P.

    2010-08-15

    Methanol (MeOH) is metabolized primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase in humans, but by catalase in rodents, with species variations in the pharmacokinetics of its formic acid (FA) metabolite. The teratogenic potential of MeOH in humans is unknown, and its teratogenicity in rodents may not accurately reflect human developmental risk due to differential species metabolism, as for some other teratogens. To determine if human MeOH metabolism might be better reflected in rabbits than rodents, the plasma pharmacokinetics of MeOH and FA were compared in male CD-1 mice, New Zealand white rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys over time (24, 48 and 6 h, respectively)more » following a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 or 2 g/kg MeOH or its saline vehicle. Following the high dose, MeOH exhibited saturated elimination kinetics in all 3 species, with similar peak concentrations and a 2.5-fold higher clearance in mice than rabbits. FA accumulation within 6 h in primates was 5-fold and 43-fold higher than in rabbits and mice respectively, with accumulation being 10-fold higher in rabbits than mice. Over 48 h, FA accumulation was nearly 5-fold higher in rabbits than mice. Low-dose MeOH in mice and rabbits resulted in similarly saturated MeOH elimination in both species, but with approximately 2-fold higher clearance rates in mice. FA accumulation was 3.8-fold higher in rabbits than mice. Rabbits more closely than mice reflected primates for in vivo MeOH metabolism, and particularly FA accumulation, suggesting that developmental studies in rabbits may be useful for assessing potential human teratological risk.« less

  16. Recurrent Cutaneous Herpes Simplex in Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Gerald E.; Weed, Sheldon D.

    1974-01-01

    Passively immunized hairless mice were inoculated cutaneously with herpes simplex virus. Thirty-nine days later, when the primary cutaneous lesions had completely healed, the mice were treated subcutaneously with prednisone. Within 12 to 30 days after starting prednisone treatment, herpesvirus was recovered by skin swabs from 12 of 71 (17%) of the treated mice. This new model has potential application for understanding and treating recurrent cutaneous herpes infections. PMID:4372171

  17. Therapeutic cloning in individual parkinsonian mice

    PubMed Central

    Tabar, Viviane; Tomishima, Mark; Panagiotakos, Georgia; Wakayama, Sayaka; Menon, Jayanthi; Chan, Bill; Mizutani, Eiji; Al-Shamy, George; Ohta, Hiroshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Studer, Lorenz

    2009-01-01

    Cell transplantation with embryonic stem (ES) cell progeny requires immunological compatibility with host tissue. ‘Therapeutic cloning’ is a strategy to overcome this limitation by generating nuclear transfer (nt)ES cells that are genetically matched to an individual. Here we establish the feasibility of treating individual mice via therapeutic cloning. Derivation of 187 ntES cell lines from 24 parkinsonian mice, dopaminergic differentiation, and transplantation into individually matched host mice showed therapeutic efficacy and lack of immunological response. PMID:18376409

  18. A2BR adenosine receptor modulates sweet taste in circumvallate taste buds.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Shinji; Baquero, Arian; Yang, Dan; Shultz, Nicole; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Ravid, Katya; Kinnamon, Sue C; Finger, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3) on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR) is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate), but not anterior (fungiform, palate) taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields.

  19. A2BR Adenosine Receptor Modulates Sweet Taste in Circumvallate Taste Buds

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dan; Shultz, Nicole; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Ravid, Katya; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3) on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR) is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate), but not anterior (fungiform, palate) taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields. PMID:22253866

  20. How Ketamine Affects Livers of Pregnant Mice and Developing Mice?

    PubMed

    Cheung, Hoi Man; Chow, Tony Chin Hung; Yew, David Tai Wai

    2017-05-19

    It is well known that ketamine abuse can induce liver damage in adult addicts, but the effects of ketamine abuse in pregnant mothers on their offspring have received less attention. In this study, we investigated the effects of 5-day ketamine injections (30 mg/kg) to pregnant Institute for Cancer Research (ICR) mice during early gestation or mid-gestation on the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities of the mothers and the offspring. We also looked into whether administering ketamine treatment to the mothers had any effects on the extent of fibrosis, cell proliferation and cell death in the livers of the newborns. No significant biochemical differences were found between treatment and control groups in the mothers. In the offspring, ketamine treatment mildly suppressed the gradual increase of hepatic AST activity in neonates during liver maturation. Measurements of hepatic ALP activity and lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) immunoreactivity revealed that ketamine treatment may lead to increased cell death. Proliferation of liver cells of the newborns was also retarded as shown by reduced proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunoreactivity in the ketamine groups. No obvious fibrosis was evident. Thus, we demonstrated that ketamine administration to pregnant mice suppressed hepatic development and also induced liver cell death of the offspring.

  1. Neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of Parkinson’s disease and its dependence on adenosine A2A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kui; Di Luca, Daniel Garbin; Orrú, Marco; Xu, Yuehang; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Schwarzschild, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Considerable epidemiological and laboratory data have suggested that caffeine, a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, may protect against the underlying neurodegeneration of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Although both caffeine and more specific antagonists of the A2A subtype of adenosine receptor (A2AR) have been found to confer protection in animal models of PD, the dependence of caffeine’s neuroprotective effects on the A2AR is not known. To definitively determine its A2AR dependence, the effect of caffeine on MPTP neurotoxicity was compared in wild-type (WT) and A2AR gene global knockout (A2A KO) mice, as well as in CNS cell type-specific (conditional) A2AR knockout (cKO) mice that lack the receptor either in postnatal forebrain neurons or in astrocytes. In WT and in heterozygous A2AR KO mice caffeine pretreatment (25 mg/kg ip) significantly attenuated MPTP-induced depletion of striatal dopamine. By contrast in homozygous A2AR global KO mice caffeine had no effect on MPTP toxicity. In forebrain neuron A2AR cKO mice, caffeine lost its locomotor stimulant effect, whereas its neuroprotective effect was mostly preserved. In astrocytic A2AR cKO mice, both caffeine’s locomotor stimulant and protective properties were undiminished. Taken together, these results indicate that neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of PD relies on the A2AR, although the specific cellular localization of these receptors remains to be determined. PMID:26905951

  2. Testosterone and Dihydrotestosterone Differentially Improve Cognition in Aged Female Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benice, Ted S.; Raber, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Compared with age-matched male mice, female mice experience a more severe age-related cognitive decline (ACD). Since androgens are less abundant in aged female mice compared with aged male mice, androgen supplementation may enhance cognition in aged female mice. To test this, we assessed behavioral performance on a variety of tasks in 22- to…

  3. Mice cloned from skin cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinsong; Greco, Valentina; Guasch, Géraldine; Fuchs, Elaine; Mombaerts, Peter

    2007-02-20

    Adult stem cells represent unique populations of undifferentiated cells with self-renewal capacity. In many tissues, stem cells divide less often than their progeny. It has been widely speculated, but largely untested, that their undifferentiated and quiescent state may make stem cells more efficient as donors for cloning by nuclear transfer (NT). Here, we report the use of nuclei from hair follicle stem cells and other skin keratinocytes as NT donors. When keratinocyte stem cells (KSCs) were used as NT donors, 19 liveborn mice were obtained, 9 of which survived to adulthood. Embryonic keratinocytes and cumulus cells also gave rise to cloned mice. Although cloning efficiencies were similar (<6% per transferred blastocyst), success rates were consistently higher for males than for females. Adult keratinocyte stem cells were better NT donors than so-called transit amplifying (TA) keratinocytes in both sexes (1.6% vs. 0% in females and 5.4% vs. 2.8% in males). Our findings reveal skin as a source of readily accessible stem cells, the nuclei of which can be reprogrammed to the pluripotent state by exposure to the cytoplasm of unfertilized oocytes.

  4. Mice embryology: a microscopic overview.

    PubMed

    Salvadori, Maria Letícia Baptista; Lessa, Thais Borges; Russo, Fabiele Baldino; Fernandes, Renata Avancini; Kfoury, José Roberto; Braga, Patricia Cristina Baleeiro Beltrão; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2012-10-01

    In this work, we studied the embryology of mice of 12, 14, and 18 days of gestation by gross observation, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Grossly, the embryos of 12 days were observed in C-shaped region of the brain, eye pigmentation of the retina, first, second, and third pharyngeal arches gill pit nasal region on the fourth ventricle brain, cervical curvature, heart, liver, limb bud thoracic, spinal cord, tail, umbilical cord, and place of the mesonephric ridge. Microscopically, the liver, cardiovascular system and spinal cord were observed. In the embryo of 14 days, we observed structures that make up the liver and heart. At 18 days of gestation fetuses, it was noted the presence of eyes, mouth, and nose in the cephalic region, chest and pelvic region with the presence of well-developed limbs, umbilical cord, and placenta. Scanning electron microscopy in 18 days of gestation fetuses evidenced head, eyes closed eyelids, nose, vibrissae, forelimb, heart, lung, kidney, liver, small bowel, diaphragm, and part of the spine. The results obtained in this work describe the internal and external morphology of mice, provided by an integration of techniques and review of the morphological knowledge of the embryonic development of this species, as this animal is of great importance to scientific studies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Reduced bone mass and muscle strength in male 5α-reductase type 1 inactivated mice.

    PubMed

    Windahl, Sara H; Andersson, Niklas; Börjesson, Anna E; Swanson, Charlotte; Svensson, Johan; Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Sjögren, Klara; Shao, Ruijin; Lagerquist, Marie K; Ohlsson, Claes

    2011-01-01

    Androgens are important regulators of bone mass but the relative importance of testosterone (T) versus dihydrotestosterone (DHT) for the activation of the androgen receptor (AR) in bone is unknown. 5α-reductase is responsible for the irreversible conversion of T to the more potent AR activator DHT. There are two well established isoenzymes of 5α-reductase (type 1 and type 2), encoded by separate genes (Srd5a1 and Srd5a2). 5α-reductase type 2 is predominantly expressed in male reproductive tissues whereas 5α-reductase type 1 is highly expressed in liver and moderately expressed in several other tissues including bone. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of 5α-reductase type 1 for bone mass using Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice. Four-month-old male Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice had reduced trabecular bone mineral density (-36%, p<0.05) and cortical bone mineral content (-15%, p<0.05) but unchanged serum androgen levels compared with wild type (WT) mice. The cortical bone dimensions were reduced in the male Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice as a result of a reduced cortical periosteal circumference compared with WT mice. T treatment increased the cortical periosteal circumference (p<0.05) in orchidectomized WT mice but not in orchidectomized Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice. Male Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice demonstrated a reduced forelimb muscle grip strength compared with WT mice (p<0.05). Female Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice had slightly increased cortical bone mass associated with elevated circulating levels of androgens. In conclusion, 5α-reductase type 1 inactivated male mice have reduced bone mass and forelimb muscle grip strength and we propose that these effects are due to lack of 5α-reductase type 1 expression in bone and muscle. In contrast, the increased cortical bone mass in female Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice, is an indirect effect mediated by elevated circulating androgen levels.

  6. Reduced Bone Mass and Muscle Strength in Male 5α-Reductase Type 1 Inactivated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Windahl, Sara H.; Andersson, Niklas; Börjesson, Anna E.; Swanson, Charlotte; Svensson, Johan; Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Sjögren, Klara; Shao, Ruijin; Lagerquist, Marie K.; Ohlsson, Claes

    2011-01-01

    Androgens are important regulators of bone mass but the relative importance of testosterone (T) versus dihydrotestosterone (DHT) for the activation of the androgen receptor (AR) in bone is unknown. 5α-reductase is responsible for the irreversible conversion of T to the more potent AR activator DHT. There are two well established isoenzymes of 5α-reductase (type 1 and type 2), encoded by separate genes (Srd5a1 and Srd5a2). 5α-reductase type 2 is predominantly expressed in male reproductive tissues whereas 5α-reductase type 1 is highly expressed in liver and moderately expressed in several other tissues including bone. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of 5α-reductase type 1 for bone mass using Srd5a1−/− mice. Four-month-old male Srd5a1 −/− mice had reduced trabecular bone mineral density (−36%, p<0.05) and cortical bone mineral content (−15%, p<0.05) but unchanged serum androgen levels compared with wild type (WT) mice. The cortical bone dimensions were reduced in the male Srd5a1 −/− mice as a result of a reduced cortical periosteal circumference compared with WT mice. T treatment increased the cortical periosteal circumference (p<0.05) in orchidectomized WT mice but not in orchidectomized Srd5a1 −/− mice. Male Srd5a1 −/− mice demonstrated a reduced forelimb muscle grip strength compared with WT mice (p<0.05). Female Srd5a1 −/− mice had slightly increased cortical bone mass associated with elevated circulating levels of androgens. In conclusion, 5α-reductase type 1 inactivated male mice have reduced bone mass and forelimb muscle grip strength and we propose that these effects are due to lack of 5α-reductase type 1 expression in bone and muscle. In contrast, the increased cortical bone mass in female Srd5a1 −/− mice, is an indirect effect mediated by elevated circulating androgen levels. PMID:21731732

  7. EphA2 Expression Regulates Inflammation and Fibroproliferative Remodeling in Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Finney, Alexandra C; Funk, Steven D; Green, Jonette M; Yurdagul, Arif; Rana, Mohammad Atif; Pistorius, Rebecca; Henry, Miriam; Yurochko, Andrew; Pattillo, Christopher B; Traylor, James G; Chen, Jin; Woolard, Matthew D; Kevil, Christopher G; Orr, A Wayne

    2017-08-08

    Atherosclerotic plaque formation results from chronic inflammation and fibroproliferative remodeling in the vascular wall. We previously demonstrated that both human and mouse atherosclerotic plaques show elevated expression of EphA2, a guidance molecule involved in cell-cell interactions and tumorigenesis. Here, we assessed the role of EphA2 in atherosclerosis by deleting EphA2 in a mouse model of atherosclerosis (Apoe - /- ) and by assessing EphA2 function in multiple vascular cell culture models. After 8 to 16 weeks on a Western diet, male and female mice were assessed for atherosclerotic burden in the large vessels, and plasma lipid levels were analyzed. Despite enhanced weight gain and plasma lipid levels compared with Apoe -/- controls, EphA2 -/- Apoe -/- knockout mice show diminished atherosclerotic plaque formation, characterized by reduced proinflammatory gene expression and plaque macrophage content. Although plaque macrophages express EphA2, EphA2 deletion does not affect macrophage phenotype, inflammatory responses, and lipid uptake, and bone marrow chimeras suggest that hematopoietic EphA2 deletion does not affect plaque formation. In contrast, endothelial EphA2 knockdown significantly reduces monocyte firm adhesion under flow. In addition, EphA2 -/- Apoe -/- mice show reduced progression to advanced atherosclerotic plaques with diminished smooth muscle and collagen content. Consistent with this phenotype, EphA2 shows enhanced expression after smooth muscle transition to a synthetic phenotype, and EphA2 depletion reduces smooth muscle proliferation, mitogenic signaling, and extracellular matrix deposition both in atherosclerotic plaques and in vascular smooth muscle cells in culture. Together, these data identify a novel role for EphA2 in atherosclerosis, regulating both plaque inflammation and progression to advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Cell culture studies suggest that endothelial EphA2 contributes to atherosclerotic inflammation by promoting

  8. Feasibility of Using Rice Hulls as Bedding for Laboratory Mice.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Elizabeth T; Kass, Philip H; Evans, Kristin D

    2016-01-01

    Factors that are considered when selecting laboratory mouse bedding include animal health and comfort, cost, effects on personnel, and bioactive properties. Corncob is economical and facilitates low intracage ammonia but has undesirable influences on some endocrine studies. Rice hulls are an economical material that has not been well characterized as a bedding substrate. In this pilot study, we compared various aspects of bedding performance of rice hulls and other materials. On a per-volume basis, rice hulls were less absorbent than was corncob bedding. Rice hulls had higher odds than did corncob or reclaimed wood pulp of having moisture present at the bedding surface. The results of the absorbency tests coupled with the results of preliminary monitoring of intracage ammonia raised concern about the ability of rice hulls to control ammonia levels sufficiently in cages with high occupancy. However, ammonia was negligible when cages contained 5 young adult female mice. The relative expression of 3 cytochrome p450 genes was compared among mice housed on rice hulls, corncob, reclaimed wood pulp, or pine shavings. The expression of Cyp1a2 was 1.7 times higher in the livers of mice housed on rice hulls than on pine shavings, but other differences were not statistically significant. This study provides information on the merits of rice hulls as laboratory mouse bedding. Their relatively poor moisture control is a major disadvantage that might preclude their widespread use.

  9. Feasibility of Using Rice Hulls as Bedding for Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Elizabeth T; Kass, Philip H; Evans, Kristin D

    2016-01-01

    Factors that are considered when selecting laboratory mouse bedding include animal health and comfort, cost, effects on personnel, and bioactive properties. Corncob is economical and facilitates low intracage ammonia but has undesirable influences on some endocrine studies. Rice hulls are an economical material that has not been well characterized as a bedding substrate. In this pilot study, we compared various aspects of bedding performance of rice hulls and other materials. On a per-volume basis, rice hulls were less absorbent than was corncob bedding. Rice hulls had higher odds than did corncob or reclaimed wood pulp of having moisture present at the bedding surface. The results of the absorbency tests coupled with the results of preliminary monitoring of intracage ammonia raised concern about the ability of rice hulls to control ammonia levels sufficiently in cages with high occupancy. However, ammonia was negligible when cages contained 5 young adult female mice. The relative expression of 3 cytochrome p450 genes was compared among mice housed on rice hulls, corncob, reclaimed wood pulp, or pine shavings. The expression of Cyp1a2 was 1.7 times higher in the livers of mice housed on rice hulls than on pine shavings, but other differences were not statistically significant. This study provides information on the merits of rice hulls as laboratory mouse bedding. Their relatively poor moisture control is a major disadvantage that might preclude their widespread use. PMID:27177559

  10. Excess adenosine in murine penile erectile tissues contributes to priapism via A2B adenosine receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Tiejuan; Abbasi, Shahrzad; Zhang, Hong; Uray, Karen; Chunn, Janci L.; Xia, Ling Wei; Molina, Jose G.; Weisbrodt, Norman W.; Kellems, Rodney E.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Xia, Yang

    2008-01-01

    Priapism, abnormally prolonged penile erection in the absence of sexual excitation, is associated with ischemia-mediated erectile tissue damage and subsequent erectile dysfunction. It is common among males with sickle cell disease (SCD), and SCD transgenic mice are an accepted model of the disorder. Current strategies to manage priapism suffer from a poor fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the disorder. Here we report that mice lacking adenosine deaminase (ADA), an enzyme necessary for the breakdown of adenosine, displayed unexpected priapic activity. ADA enzyme therapy successfully corrected the priapic activity both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that it was dependent on elevated adenosine levels. Further genetic and pharmacologic evidence demonstrated that A2B adenosine receptor–mediated (A2BR-mediated) cAMP and cGMP induction was required for elevated adenosine–induced prolonged penile erection. Finally, priapic activity in SCD transgenic mice was also caused by elevated adenosine levels and A2BR activation. Thus, we have shown that excessive adenosine accumulation in the penis contributes to priapism through increased A2BR signaling in both Ada–/– and SCD transgenic mice. These findings provide insight regarding the molecular basis of priapism and suggest that strategies to either reduce adenosine or block A2BR activation may prove beneficial in the treatment of this disorder. PMID:18340377

  11. Reduced alcohol consumption in mice lacking preprodynorphin.

    PubMed Central

    Blednov, Yuri A.; Walker, Danielle; Martinez, Marni; Harris., R. Adron

    2007-01-01

    Many studies suggest a role for endogenous opioid peptides and their receptors in regulation of ethanol intake. It is commonly accepted that the κ-opioid receptors and their endogenous ligands, dynorphins, produce a dysphoric state and therefore may be responsible for avoidance of alcohol. We used mutant mice lacking preprodynorphin in a variety of behavioral tests of alcohol actions. Null mutant female, but not male, mice showed significantly lower preference for alcohol and consumed lower amounts of alcohol in a two-bottle choice test as compared with wild-type littermates. In the same test, knockout mice of both sexes showed a strong reduction of preference for saccharin compared to control mice. In contrast, under conditions of limited (4 hours) access (light phase of the light/dark cycle), null mutant mice did not show any differences in consumption of saccharin but they showed significantly reduced intake of sucrose. To determine the possible cause for reduction of ethanol preference and intake, we studied other ethanol-related behaviors in mice lacking the preprodynorphin gene. There were no differences between null mutant and wild type mice in ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex, acute ethanol withdrawal, ethanol-induced conditioned place preference or conditioned taste aversion to ethanol. These results indicate that deletion of preprodynorphin leads to substantial reduction of alcohol intake in female mice, and suggest thath this is caused by decreased orosensory reward of alcohol (sweet taste and/or palatability). PMID:17307643

  12. Reduced alcohol consumption in mice lacking preprodynorphin.

    PubMed

    Blednov, Yuri A; Walker, Danielle; Martinez, Marni; Harris, R Adron

    2006-10-01

    Many studies suggest a role for endogenous opioid peptides and their receptors in regulation of ethanol intake. It is commonly accepted that the kappa-opioid receptors and their endogenous ligands, dynorphins, produce a dysphoric state and therefore may be responsible for avoidance of alcohol. We used mutant mice lacking preprodynorphin in a variety of behavioral tests of alcohol actions. Null mutant female, but not male, mice showed significantly lower preference for alcohol and consumed lower amounts of alcohol in a two-bottle choice test as compared with wild-type littermates. In the same test, knockout mice of both sexes showed a strong reduction of preference for saccharin compared to control mice. In contrast, under conditions of limited (4 h) access (light phase of the light/dark cycle), null mutant mice did not show any differences in consumption of saccharin, but they showed significantly reduced intake of sucrose. To determine the possible cause for reduction of ethanol preference and intake, we studied other ethanol-related behaviors in mice lacking the preprodynorphin gene. There were no differences between null mutant and wild-type mice in ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex, acute ethanol withdrawal, ethanol-induced conditioned place preference, or conditioned taste aversion to ethanol. These results indicate that deletion of preprodynorphin leads to substantial reduction of alcohol intake in female mice, and suggest that this is caused by decreased orosensory reward of alcohol (sweet taste and/or palatability).

  13. Euthanasia of neonatal mice with carbon dioxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pritchett, K.; Corrow, D.; Stockwell, J.; Smith, A.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most prevalent method used to euthanize rodents in biomedical research. The purpose of this study was to determine the time of CO2 exposure required to euthanize neonatal mice (0 to 10 days old). Multiple groups of mice were exposed to 100% CO 2 for time periods between 5 and 60 min. Mice were placed in room air for 10 or 20 min after CO2 exposure, to allow for the chance of recovery. If mice recovered at one time point, a longer exposure was examined. Inbred and outbred mice were compared. Results of the study indicated that time to death varied with the age of the animals and could be as long as 50 min on the day of birth and differed between inbred and outbred mice. Institutions euthanizing neonatal mice with CO2 may wish to adjust their CO 2 exposure time periods according the age of the mice and their genetic background. Copyright 2005 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science.

  14. Development of diabetic nephropathy in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, S; Xu, P C; Huang, Q E; Jia, J Y; Jia, Z H; Wei, L; Zheng, Z F; Shang, W Y

    2013-12-01

    Immune dysfunction is very common in diabetes mellitus (DM). However, there is no evidence whether such immune dysfunction can influence the development of DM, especially the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). To investigate the influence of absence of T cells on DN. Balb/c nude mice and Balb/c wild-type nude (WT) mice were injected with streptozotocin (STZ). Serum tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), blood glucose, body weight, urine albumin/creatinine ratio and rate of kidney weight to body weight (KW/BW) were measured. After modeling, there was no difference of blood glucose level between nude mice and WT mice except at week 2 (28.3 ± 4.9 mmol/l vs 23.1 ± 3.9 mmol/l, p<0.01). At week 4, the serum TNF- α level of nude mice got to 175.08 ± 46.03 pg/ml (p<0.05, compared with baseline level 80.19 ± 8.46 pg/ml), whereas the TNF- α levels of WT mice was stable. At week 4, the body weight of nude mice was lower than that of WT mice (14.7 ± 3.15 g vs 17.97 ± 2.85 g, p<0.05); the urine albumin/creatinine ratio (Alb/Cr) of nude mice was higher than that of WT mice (50.96 ± 5.57 mg/mmol vs 41.09 ± 5.79 mg/mmol, p<0.05); the kidney weight to body weight of nude mice was higher than that of WT mice (0.01352 ± 0.00163 vs 0.01173 ± 0.00131, p<0.05). Correlation analysis showed urine Alb/Cr positively correlated with serum TNF-α level at week 4 (r = 0.588, p<0.01). At week 4, the increase of type IV collagen in the glomeruli was more prominent in diabetic nude mice than in diabetic WT mice (p<0.05). Absence of T cells in DM might influence the development of DN.

  15. Variation in Nicotine Consumption in Inbred Mice Is Not Linked to Orosensory Ability

    PubMed Central

    Glatt, A. Rebecca; Denton, Kelley

    2009-01-01

    Genetic studies of nicotine addiction in mice have utilized the oral self-administration model. However, it is unclear if strain differences in nicotine consumption are influenced by variation in bitter taste sensitivity. We measured both nicotine consumption and nicotine brief-access licking behavior in several commonly used inbred strains of mice that were previously shown to differ in nicotine consumption. A/J (A), C57BL/6J (B6), and DBA/2J (D2) mice were given a 2-bottle choice test with a single concentration of nicotine (75 μg/ml; nicotine vs. water). Mice of these strains were also tested with a range of nicotine concentrations (5–400 μg/ml) using a brief-access test, which measures orosensory response and minimizes postingestive effects. Although B6 mice consumed more 75-μg/ml nicotine than A or D2 mice in the 2-bottle test, these strains did not differ in level of aversion to nicotine when tested with the brief-access procedure. Strain differences in orosensory response to nicotine were not found; yet, differences emerged during the 2-bottle tests. This study provides evidence that variation in intake level of nicotine is likely not due to differences in taste or trigeminal sensitivity but likely due to postingestive factors. PMID:18775876

  16. Quiet breathing in hindlimb casted mice.

    PubMed

    Receno, Candace N; Roffo, Katelynn E; Mickey, Marisa C; DeRuisseau, Keith C; DeRuisseau, Lara R

    2018-06-07

    The hindlimb casting model was developed to study skeletal muscle reloading following a period of unloading. It is unknown if ventilation parameters of mice are affected by the casting model. We tested the hypothesis that hindlimb casted mice have similar ventilatory patterns compared to mice with the casts removed. Male CD-1 mice underwent 14 days of hindlimb immobilization via plaster casting. Breathing parameters were obtained utilizing unrestrained barometric plethysmography (UBP). Breathing traces were analyzed with Ponemah software for breathing frequency, tidal volume (TV), and minute ventilation (MV). Frequency, TV and MV did not show any differences in quiet breathing patterns during or post-casting in mice. Thus, the hindlimb casting model does not complicate breathing during and after casting and should not interfere with the unloading and reloading of skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pion contamination in the MICE muon beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, D.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Barber, G.; Barclay, P.; de Bari, A.; Bayes, R.; Bayliss, V.; Bertoni, R.; Blackmore, V. J.; Blondel, A.; Blot, S.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonesini, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bowring, D.; Boyd, S.; Brashaw, T. W.; Bravar, U.; Bross, A. D.; Capponi, M.; Carlisle, T.; Cecchet, G.; Charnley, C.; Chignoli, F.; Cline, D.; Cobb, J. H.; Colling, G.; Collomb, N.; Coney, L.; Cooke, P.; Courthold, M.; Cremaldi, L. M.; DeMello, A.; Dick, A.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Drews, M.; Drielsma, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Franchini, P.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Gallagher, A.; Gamet, R.; Gardener, R.; Gourlay, S.; Grant, A.; Greis, J. R.; Griffiths, S.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, O. M.; Hanson, G. G.; Hart, T. L.; Hartnett, T.; Hayler, T.; Heidt, C.; Hills, M.; Hodgson, P.; Hunt, C.; Iaciofano, A.; Ishimoto, S.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D. M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kim, Y. K.; Kuno, Y.; Kyberd, P.; Lagrange, J.-B.; Langlands, J.; Lau, W.; Leonova, M.; Li, D.; Lintern, A.; Littlefield, M.; Long, K.; Luo, T.; Macwaters, C.; Martlew, B.; Martyniak, J.; Mazza, R.; Middleton, S.; Moretti, A.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Nebrensky, J. J.; Neuffer, D.; Nichols, A.; Nicholson, R.; Nugent, J. C.; Oates, A.; Onel, Y.; Orestano, D.; Overton, E.; Owens, P.; Palladino, V.; Pasternak, J.; Pastore, F.; Pidcott, C.; Popovic, M.; Preece, R.; Prestemon, S.; Rajaram, D.; Ramberger, S.; Rayner, M. A.; Ricciardi, S.; Roberts, T. J.; Robinson, M.; Rogers, C.; Ronald, K.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, P.; Sakamato, H.; Sanders, D. A.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Smith, P. J.; Snopok, P.; Soler, F. J. P.; Speirs, D.; Stanley, T.; Stokes, G.; Summers, D. J.; Tarrant, J.; Taylor, I.; Tortora, L.; Torun, Y.; Tsenov, R.; Tunnell, C. D.; Uchida, M. A.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Virostek, S.; Vretenar, M.; Warburton, P.; Watson, S.; White, C.; Whyte, C. G.; Wilson, A.; Winter, M.; Yang, X.; Young, A.; Zisman, M.

    2016-03-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling with muon beams of momentum between 140 and 240 MeV/c at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory ISIS facility. The measurement of ionization cooling in MICE relies on the selection of a pure sample of muons that traverse the experiment. To make this selection, the MICE Muon Beam is designed to deliver a beam of muons with less than ~1% contamination. To make the final muon selection, MICE employs a particle-identification (PID) system upstream and downstream of the cooling cell. The PID system includes time-of-flight hodoscopes, threshold-Cherenkov counters and calorimetry. The upper limit for the pion contamination measured in this paper is fπ < 1.4% at 90% C.L., including systematic uncertainties. Therefore, the MICE Muon Beam is able to meet the stringent pion-contamination requirements of the study of ionization cooling.

  18. Muscle Structure Influences Utrophin Expression in mdx Mice

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Glen B.; Combs, Ariana C.; Odom, Guy L.; Bloch, Robert J.; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe muscle wasting disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. To examine the influence of muscle structure on the pathogenesis of DMD we generated mdx4cv:desmin double knockout (dko) mice. The dko male mice died of apparent cardiorespiratory failure at a median age of 76 days compared to 609 days for the desmin−/− mice. An ∼2.5 fold increase in utrophin expression in the dko skeletal muscles prevented necrosis in ∼91% of 1a, 2a and 2d/x fiber-types. In contrast, utrophin expression was reduced in the extrasynaptic sarcolemma of the dko fast 2b fibers leading to increased membrane fragility and dystrophic pathology. Despite lacking extrasynaptic utrophin, the dko fast 2b fibers were less dystrophic than the mdx4cv fast 2b fibers suggesting utrophin-independent mechanisms were also contributing to the reduced dystrophic pathology. We found no overt change in the regenerative capacity of muscle stem cells when comparing the wild-type, desmin−/−, mdx4cv and dko gastrocnemius muscles injured with notexin. Utrophin could form costameric striations with α-sarcomeric actin in the dko to maintain the integrity of the membrane, but the lack of restoration of the NODS (nNOS, α-dystrobrevin 1 and 2, α1-syntrophin) complex and desmin coincided with profound changes to the sarcomere alignment in the diaphragm, deposition of collagen between the myofibers, and impaired diaphragm function. We conclude that the dko mice may provide new insights into the structural mechanisms that influence endogenous utrophin expression that are pertinent for developing a therapy for DMD. PMID:24922526

  19. Interaction of chelating agents with cadmium in mice and rats.

    PubMed Central

    Eybl, V; Sýkora, J; Koutenský, J; Caisová, D; Schwartz, A; Mertl, F

    1984-01-01

    The influence of several chelating agents (CaDTPA, ZnDTPA, CaEDTA, ZnEDTA, DMSA, D-penicillamine and DMPS, DMP and DDC) on the acute toxicity of CdCl2 and on the whole body retention and tissue distribution of cadmium after the IV application of 115mCdCl2 was compared in mice. The chelating agents were applied immediately after the application of cadmium. CaDTPA, ZnDTPA and DMSA appeared to be the most effective antidotes. However, DMSA increased the amount of cadmium retained in kidneys. The treatment of cadmium-poisoned mice with the combination of DMSA (IP) and ZnDTPA (SC) (all the compounds were injected in equimolar dose) decreased the toxicity of cadmium more than treatment with one chelating agents (given in a 2:1 dose). However, by studying the effect of these chelating agents and their combination of the retention and distribution of Cd in mice, it was demonstrated that the combined application of the antidotes showed little or no improvement over the results obtained with the most effective of the individual components. In the urine of rats injected with CdCl2 and treated with the chelating agents (CaDTPA, ZnDTPA, DMSA), the presence of cadmium complexes was demonstrated. The formation of mixed ligand chelates in vivo was not proved. Experiments in mice given a single injection of 115mCd-labeled Cd complexes of DMPS, DMSA and DTPA showed a high retention of cadmium in the organisms after the IV application of CdDMPS and CdDMSA complexes. PMID:6734561

  20. Targeted Deletions of COX-2 and Atherogenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Yiqun; Ricciotti, Emanuela; Crichton, Irene; Yu, Zhou; Wang, Dairong; Stubbe, Jane; Wang, Miao; Puré, Ellen; FitzGerald, Garret A.

    2010-01-01

    Background While the dominant product of vascular cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, prostacyclin (PGI2), restrains atherogenesis, inhibition and deletion of COX-2 have yielded conflicting results in mouse models of atherosclerosis. Floxed mice were used to parse distinct cellular contributions of COX-2 in macrophages (Mac) and T cells (TC) to atherogenesis. Methods and Results Deletion of Mac COX-2 (MacKO) was attained using LysMCre mice and suppressed completely lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated Mac prostaglandin (PG) formation and LPS evoked systemic PG biosynthesis by ∼ 30%. LPS stimulated COX-2 expression was suppressed in polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) isolated from MacKOs, but PG formation was not even detected in PMN supernatants from control mice. Atherogenesis was attenuated when MacKOs were crossed into hyperlipidemic LdlR KOs. Deletion of Mac COX-2 appeared to remove a restraint on COX-2 expression in lesional non-leukocyte (CD45 and CD11b negative) vascular cells that express vascular cell adhesion molecule and variably, α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin, portending a shift in PG profile and consequent atheroprotection. Basal expression of COX-2 was minimal in TCs, but use of CD4Cre to generate TC knockouts (TCKOs) depressed its modest upregulation by anti-CD3ε. However, biosynthesis of PGs, TC composition in lymphatic organs and atherogenesis in LDLR KOs were unaltered in TCKOs. Conclusions Mac COX-2, primarily a source of thromboxane A2 and PGE2, promotes atherogenesis and exerts a restraint on enzyme expression by lesional cells suggestive of vascular smooth muscle cells, a prominent source of atheroprotective PGI2. TC COX-2 does not influence detectably TC development or function nor atherogenesis in mice. PMID:20530000

  1. Leptin regulates ACE activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Hilzendeger, Aline Mourao; Morais, Rafael Leite; Todiras, Mihail; Plehm, Ralph; da Costa Goncalves, Andrey; Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Araujo, Ronaldo Carvalho; Gross, Volkmar; Nakaie, Clovis Ryuichi; Casarini, Dulce Elena; Carmona, Adriana Karaoglanovic; Bader, Michael; Pesquero, João Bosco

    2010-09-01

    Leptin is a hormone related to metabolism. It also influences blood pressure, but the mechanisms triggered in this process are not yet elucidated. Angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) regulates cardiovascular functions and recently has been associated with metabolism control and obesity. Here, we used ob/ob mice, a model lacking leptin, to answer the question whether ACE and leptin could interact to influence blood pressure, thereby linking the renin-angiotensin system and obesity. These mice are obese and diabetic but have normal 24 h mean arterial pressure. Our results show that plasma and lung ACE activities as well as ACE mRNA expression were significantly decreased in ob/ob mice. In agreement with these findings, the hypotensive effect produced by enalapril administration was attenuated in the obese mice. Plasma renin, angiotensinogen, angiotensin I, bradykinin, and angiotensin 1-7 were increased, whereas plasma angiotensin II concentration was unchanged in obese mice. Chronic infusion of leptin increased renin activity and angiotensin II concentration in both groups and increased ACE activity in ob/ob mice. Acute leptin infusion restored ACE activity in leptin-deficient mice. Moreover, the effect of an ACE inhibitor on blood pressure was not changed in ob/+ mice during leptin treatment but increased four times in obese mice. In summary, our findings show that the renin-angiotensin system is altered in ob/ob mice, with markedly reduced ACE activity, which suggests a possible connection between the renin-angiotensin system and leptin. These results point to an important interplay between the angiotensinergic and the leptinergic systems, which may play a role in the pathogenesis of obesity, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome.

  2. Phospholipase A2 in experimental allergic bronchitis: a lesson from mouse and rat models.

    PubMed

    Mruwat, Rufayda; Yedgar, Saul; Lavon, Iris; Ariel, Amiram; Krimsky, Miron; Shoseyov, David

    2013-01-01

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) hydrolyzes phospholipids, initiating the production of inflammatory lipid mediators. We have previously shown that in rats, sPLA2 and cPLA2 play opposing roles in the pathophysiology of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced experimental allergic bronchitis (OVA-EAB), an asthma model: Upon disease induction sPLA2 expression and production of the broncho-constricting CysLTs are elevated, whereas cPLA2 expression and the broncho-dilating PGE2 production are suppressed. These were reversed upon disease amelioration by treatment with an sPLA2 inhibitor. However, studies in mice reported the involvement of both sPLA2 and cPLA2 in EAB induction. To examine the relevance of mouse and rat models to understanding asthma pathophysiology. OVA-EAB was induced in mice using the same methodology applied in rats. Disease and biochemical markers in mice were compared with those in rats. As in rats, EAB in mice was associated with increased mRNA of sPLA2, specifically sPLA2gX, in the lungs, and production of the broncho-constricting eicosanoids CysLTs, PGD2 and TBX2 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). In contrast, EAB in mice was associated also with elevated cPLA2 mRNA and PGE2 production. Yet, treatment with an sPLA2 inhibitor ameliorated the EAB concomitantly with reverting the expression of both cPLA2 and sPLA2, and eicosanoid production. In both mice and rats sPLA2 is pivotal in OVA-induced EAB. Yet, amelioration of asthma markers in mouse models, and human tissues, was observed also upon cPLA2 inhibition. It is plausible that airway conditions, involving multiple cell types and organs, require the combined action of more than one, essential, PLA2s.

  3. Mobile optogenetic modules for mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusakov, Konstantin; Radzewicz, Czesław; Czajkowski, Rafał; Konopka, Witold; Chilczuk, Joanna

    2017-08-01

    We present a set of novel optogenetic devices for mice freely moving in cages. The purpose of the devices is to stimulate specific brain regions using light. The devices we have constructed consist of an electrical connector, cannula and micro- LED chip operating at 470 nm as light source for delivering light into the stimulated region of the mouse brain. We have also demonstrated light conversion from 470 nm to 590 nm by applying a silicate orange phosphor directly to the LED chip. The measured conversion efficiency is approximately 80% for ZIP595I phosphor. We discuss the properties of various forms of implant needles with respect to the ease of LED attachment and experimental validation of the constructed optogenetic implants.

  4. Primordial Germ Cells in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Saitou, Mitinori; Yamaji, Masashi

    2012-01-01

    Germ cell development creates totipotency through genetic as well as epigenetic regulation of the genome function. Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the first germ cell population established during development and are immediate precursors for both the oocytes and spermatogonia. We here summarize recent findings regarding the mechanism of PGC development in mice. We focus on the transcriptional and signaling mechanism for PGC specification, potential pluripotency, and epigenetic reprogramming in PGCs and strategies for the reconstitution of germ cell development using pluripotent stem cells in culture. Continued studies on germ cell development may lead to the generation of totipotency in vitro, which should have a profound influence on biological science as well as on medicine. PMID:23125014

  5. Circular swimming in mice after exposure to a high magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Houpt, Thomas A; Houpt, Charles E

    2010-06-16

    There is increasing evidence that exposure to high magnetic fields of 4T and above perturbs the vestibular system of rodents and humans. Performance in a swim test is a sensitive test of vestibular function. In order to determine the effect of magnet field exposure on swimming in mice, mice were exposed for 30 min within a 14.1T superconducting magnet and then tested at different times after exposure in a 2-min swim test. As previously observed in open field tests, mice swam in tight counter-clockwise circles when tested immediately after magnet exposure. The counter-clockwise orientation persisted throughout the 2-min swim test. The tendency to circle was transient, because no significant circling was observed when mice were tested at 3 min or later after magnet exposure. However, mice did show a decrease in total distance swum when tested between 3 and 40 min after magnet exposure. The decrease in swimming distance was accompanied by a pronounced postural change involving a counter-clockwise twist of the pelvis and hindlimbs that was particularly severe in the first 15s of the swim test. Finally, no persistent difference from sham-exposed mice was seen in the swimming of magnet-exposed mice when tested 60 min, 24h, or 96 h after magnet exposure. This suggests that there is no long-lasting effect of magnet exposure on the ability of mice to orient or swim. The transient deficits in swimming and posture seen shortly after magnet exposure are consistent with an acute perturbation of the vestibular system by the high magnetic field. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dental and Cranial Pathologies in Mice Lacking the Cl−/H+-Exchanger ClC-7

    PubMed Central

    WEN, Xin; LACRUZ, Rodrigo S.; PAINE, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    ClC-7 is a 2Cl−/1H+-exchanger expressed at late endosomes and lysosomes, as well as the ruffled border of osteoclasts. ClC-7 deficiencies in mice and humans lead to impaired osteoclast function and therefore osteopetrosis. Failure of tooth eruption is also apparent in ClC-7 mutant animals, and this has been attributed to the osteoclast dysfunction and the subsequent defect in alveolar bone resorptive activity surrounding tooth roots. Ameloblasts also express ClC-7, and this study aims to determine the significance of ClC-7 in enamel formation by examining the dentitions of ClC-7 mutant mice. Micro-CT analysis revealed that the molar teeth of 3-week old ClC-7 mutant mice had no roots, and the incisors were smaller than their age-matched controls. Despite these notable developmental differences, the enamel and dentin densities of the mutant mice were comparable to those of the wild type littermates. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed normal enamel crystallite and prismatic organization in the ClC-7 mutant mice, although the enamel was thinner (hypoplastic) than in controls. These results suggested that ClC-7 was not critical to enamel and dentin formation, and the observed tooth defects may be related more to a resulting alveolar bone phenotype. Micro-CT analysis also revealed abnormal features in the calvarial bones of the mutant mice. The cranial sutures in ClC-7 mutant mice remained open compared to the closed sutures seen in the control mice at 3 weeks. These data demonstrate that ClC-7 deficiency impacts the development of the dentition and calvaria, but does not significantly disrupt amelogenesis. PMID:25663454

  7. Social reward among juvenile mice

    PubMed Central

    Panksepp, J B; Lahvis, G P

    2007-01-01

    Mammalian social relationships, such as mother–offspring attachments and pair bonds, can directly affect reproductive output. However, conspecifics approach one another in a comparatively broad range of contexts, so conceivably there are motivations for social congregation other than those underlying reproduction, parental care or territoriality. Here, we show that reward mediated by social contact is a fundamental aspect of juvenile mouse sociality. Employing a novel social conditioned place preference (SCPP) procedure, we demonstrate that social proximity is rewarding for juvenile mice from three inbred strains (A/J, C57BL/6J and DBA/2J), while mice from a fourth strain (BALB/cJ) are much less responsive to social contact. Importantly, this strain-dependent difference was not related to phenotypic variability in exploratory behavior or contextual learning nor influenced by the genetic background associated with maternal care or social conditioning. Furthermore, the SCPP phenotype was expressed early in development (postnatal day 25) and did not require a specific sex composition within the conditioning group. Finally, SCPP responses resulted from an interaction between two specifiable processes: one component of the interaction facilitated approach toward environments that were associated with social salience, whereas a second component mediated avoidance of environmental cues that predicted social isolation. We have thus identified a genetically prescribed process that can attribute value onto conditions predicting a general form of social contact. To our knowledge, this is the first definitive evidence to show that genetic variation can influence a form of social valuation not directly related to a reproductive behavior. PMID:17212648

  8. Promotion of Wound Healing by an Agonist of Adenosine A2A Receptor Is Dependent on Tissue Plasminogen Activator.

    PubMed

    Montesinos, M Carmen; Desai-Merchant, Avani; Cronstein, Bruce N

    2015-12-01

    Impaired wound healing, as it occurs in diabetes mellitus or long-term corticoid treatment, is commonly associated with disability, diminished quality of life, and high economic costs. Selective agonists of the A2A receptor subtype of adenosine, an endogenous regulator of inflammation, promote tissue repair in animal models, both healthy and with impaired healing. Plasmin-mediated proteolysis of fibrin and other matrix proteins is essential for cell migration at sites of injury. Since adenosine A2A receptor activation increases plasminogen activator release from macrophages and mast cells, we studied the effect of a selective agonist, CGS-21680, on full-thickness excisional wound closure in wild-type, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)-deficient, and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-deficient mice. Wound closure was impaired in tPA- and uPA-deficient mice as compared with wild-type mice, and topical application of CGS-21680 significantly increased the rate at which wounds closed in wild-type mice and uPA-deficient mice, but not in tPA-deficient mice. Immunostaining of tissue sections showed that tPA was present in endothelial cells and histiocytes by day 3 post-wound and also by day 6. In contrast, uPA was more prominent in these cell types only by day 6 post-wound. Our results confirm that plasminogen activation contributes to wound repair and are consistent with the hypothesis that adenosine A2A receptor activation promotes wound closure by a mechanism that depends upon tPA, but not uPA. Moreover, our results suggest that topical adenosine A2A receptor agonists may be useful in promotion of wound closure in patients with impaired wound healing.

  9. Interleukin 10 knockout frail mice develop cardiac and vascular dysfunction with increased age☆

    PubMed Central

    Sikka, Gautam; Miller, Karen L.; Steppan, Jochen; Pandey, Deepesh; Jung, Sung M.; Fraser, Charles D.; Ellis, Carla; Ross, Daniel; Vandegaer, Koenraad; Bedja, Djahida; Gabrielson, Kathleen; Walston, Jeremy D.; Berkowitz, Dan E.; Barouch, Lili A.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular dysfunction is a primary independent predictor of age-related morbidity and mortality. Frailty is associated with activation of inflammatory pathways and fatigue that commonly presents and progresses with age. Interleukin 10 (IL-10), the cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor, is an anti-inflammatory cytokine produced by immune and non-immune cells. Homozygous deletion of IL-10 in mice yields a phenotype that is consistent with human frailty, including age-related increases in serum inflammatory mediators, muscular weakness, higher levels of IGF-1 at midlife, and early mortality. While emerging evidence suggests a role for IL-10 in vascular protection, a clear mechanism has not yet been elucidated. Methods In order to evaluate the role of IL-10 in maintenance of vascular function, force tension myography was utilized to access ex-vivo endothelium dependent vasorelaxation in vessels isolated from IL-10 knockout IL-10(tm/tm) and control mice. Pulse wave velocity ((PWV), index of stiffness) of vasculature was measured using ultrasound and blood pressure was measured using the tail cuff method. Echocardiography was used to elucidated structure and functional changes in the heart. Results Mean arterial pressures were significantly higher in IL-10(tm/tm) mice as compared to C57BL6/wild type (WT) controls. PWV was increased in IL-10(tm/tm) indicating stiffer vasculature. Endothelial intact aortic rings isolated from IL-10(tm/tm) mice demonstrated impaired vasodilation at low acetylcholine doses and vasoconstriction at higher doses whereas vasorelaxation responses were preserved in rings from WT mice. Cyclo-oxygenase (COX-2)/thromboxane A2 inhibitors improved endothelial dependent vasorelaxation and reversed vasoconstriction. Left ventricular end systolic diameter, left ventricular mass, isovolumic relaxation time, fractional shortening and ejection fraction were all significantly different in the aged IL-10(tm/tm) mice compared to WT mice. Conclusion Aged IL

  10. Dendritic cells tolerized with adenosine A2AR agonist attenuate acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Huang, Liping; Ye, Hong; Song, Steven P.; Bajwa, Amandeep; Lee, Sang Ju; Moser, Emily K.; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Kinsey, Gilbert R.; Day, Yuan J.; Linden, Joel; Lobo, Peter I.; Rosin, Diane L.; Okusa, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    DC-mediated NKT cell activation is critical in initiating the immune response following kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), which mimics human acute kidney injury (AKI). Adenosine is an important antiinflammatory molecule in tissue inflammation, and adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR) agonists protect kidneys from IRI through their actions on leukocytes. In this study, we showed that mice with A2AR-deficient DCs are more susceptible to kidney IRI and are not protected from injury by A2AR agonists. In addition, administration of DCs treated ex vivo with an A2AR agonist protected the kidneys of WT mice from IRI by suppressing NKT production of IFN-γ and by regulating DC costimulatory molecules that are important for NKT cell activation. A2AR agonists had no effect on DC antigen presentation or on Tregs. We conclude that ex vivo A2AR–induced tolerized DCs suppress NKT cell activation in vivo and provide a unique and potent cell-based strategy to attenuate organ IRI. PMID:23093781

  11. Protective immunity provided by HLA-A2 epitopes for fusion and hemagglutinin proteins of measles virus

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Sang Kon; Stegman, Brian; Pendleton, C. David

    2006-09-01

    Natural infection and vaccination with a live-attenuated measles virus (MV) induce CD8{sup +} T-cell-mediated immune responses that may play a central role in controlling MV infection. In this study, we show that newly identified human HLA-A2 epitopes from MV hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) proteins induced protective immunity in HLA-A2 transgenic mice challenged with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing F or H protein. HLA-A2 epitopes were predicted and synthesized. Five and four peptides from H and F, respectively, bound to HLA-A2 molecules in a T2-binding assay, and four from H and two from F could induce peptide-specific CD8{sup +} T cellmore » responses in HLA-A2 transgenic mice. Further experiments proved that three peptides from H (H9-567, H10-250, and H10-516) and one from F protein (F9-57) were endogenously processed and presented on HLA-A2 molecules. All peptides tested in this study are common to 5 different strains of MV including Edmonston. In both A2K{sup b} and HHD-2 mice, the identified peptide epitopes induced protective immunity against recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing H or F. Because F and H proteins induce neutralizing antibodies, they are major components of new vaccine strategies, and therefore data from this study will contribute to the development of new vaccines against MV infection.« less

  12. Malaria parasites target the hepatocyte receptor EphA2 for successful host infection.

    PubMed

    Kaushansky, Alexis; Douglass, Alyse N; Arang, Nadia; Vigdorovich, Vladimir; Dambrauskas, Nicholas; Kain, Heather S; Austin, Laura S; Sather, D Noah; Kappe, Stefan H I

    2015-11-27

    The invasion of a suitable host hepatocyte by mosquito-transmitted Plasmodium sporozoites is an essential early step in successful malaria parasite infection. Yet precisely how sporozoites target their host cell and facilitate productive infection remains largely unknown. We found that the hepatocyte EphA2 receptor was critical for establishing a permissive intracellular replication compartment, the parasitophorous vacuole. Sporozoites productively infected hepatocytes with high EphA2 expression, and the deletion of EphA2 protected mice from liver infection. Lack of host EphA2 phenocopied the lack of the sporozoite proteins P52 and P36. Our data suggest that P36 engages EphA2, which is likely to be a key step in establishing the permissive replication compartment. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Overproduction of cardiac S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Nisenberg, Oleg; Pegg, Anthony E.; Welsh, Patricia A.; Keefer, Kerry; Shantz, Lisa M.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to provide a better understanding of the role played by AdoMetDC (S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase), the key rate-controlling enzyme in the synthesis of spermidine and spermine, in controlling polyamine levels and the importance of polyamines in cardiac physiology. The αMHC (α-myosin heavy chain) promoter was used to generate transgenic mice with cardiac-specific expression of AdoMetDC. A founder line (αMHC/AdoMetDC) was established with a >100-fold increase in AdoMetDC activity in the heart. Transgene expression was maximal by 1 week of age and remained constant into adulthood. However, the changes in polyamine levels were most pronounced during the first week of age, with a 2-fold decrease in putrescine and spermidine and a 2-fold increase in spermine. At later times, spermine returned to near control levels, whereas putrescine and spermidine levels remained lower, suggesting that compensatory mechanisms exist to limit spermine accumulation. The αMHC/AdoMetDC mice did not display an overt cardiac phenotype, but there was an increased cardiac hypertrophy after β-adrenergic stimulation with isoprenaline (‘isoproterenol’), as well as a small increase in spermine content. Crosses of the αMHC/AdoMetDC with αMHC/ornithine decarboxylase mice that have a >1000-fold increase in cardiac ornithine decarboxylase were lethal in utero, presumably due to increase in spermine to toxic levels. These findings suggest that cardiac spermine levels are highly regulated to avoid polyamine-induced toxicity and that homoeostatic mechanisms can maintain non-toxic levels even when one enzyme of the biosynthetic pathway is greatly elevated but are unable to do so when two biosynthetic enzymes are increased. PMID:16153183

  14. [Effects of sildenafil citrate on mice hearing].

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaoqin; Guo, Xuyao; Chen, Lin; Chen, Xiaohong; Zhang, Xueyuan; Yuan, Wei

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the effects of the Sildenafil citrate on mice hearing. Seven-week-old adult male Kunming mice were used. The mice were randomly divided into four groups with 10 mice in each group.Sildenafil groups were orally administered daily with sildenafil [0.1 mg/(kg·d), 1 mg/(kg·d), 10 mg/(kg·d)] and control group was orally administered with normal saline. Then mice were tested for auditory brainstem response (ABR) to observe the changes of ABR's thresholds at before administration and 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 day afterwards. The mice basilar membrane samples were studied by immunofluorescent labeling.High performance liquid chromatography was used for determination the concentration of sildenafil in endolymph of mice cochlea. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13.0. After 30 min following administration, the Sildenafil in endolymph of mice cochlear could be assayed by high performance liquid chromatography, and it was dose-related.Sildenafil increased the hearing thresholds with the time of administration. Hearing thresholds increased significantly in the sildenafil group at 20 d compared to the control group (P < 0.05). After administered high dose of Sildenafil, on the 20th day, the ABR thresholds average threshold was (60.0 ± 10.0) dBnHL, and the control group was (14.5 ± 6.0) dBnHL.Hair cells damages in the base ring of cochlea could be observed in experimental group in a concentration-dependent manner. Sildenafil can pass through blood-labyrinth barrier to the inner ear, and doses of sildenafil administration can induce hearing impairment in mice.

  15. Lethality In Mice Following Localized Photodynamic Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrario, Angela; Gomer, Charles J.; Murphree, A. L.

    1989-06-01

    Porphyrin photodynamic therapy directed specifically to the hind leg of various strains of mice was found to induce a high percentage of lethality at dosages which would be required to achieve cures in tumor bearing mice. Toxicity was observed in both pigmented and albino mouse strains. An inverse relationship between light dose rate and lethality was documented. Anti-coagulant drugs and anti-inflammatory agents which inhibit cyclo-oxygenase had protective effects. The response induced by localized PDT appears to mimic that of a classical traumatic shock syndrome and may be limited to PDT in small animals such as mice.

  16. 42 CFR 5a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability. 5a.2 Section 5a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN... Public Health Service Act. ...

  17. 42 CFR 5a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability. 5a.2 Section 5a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN... Public Health Service Act. ...

  18. 42 CFR 5a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability. 5a.2 Section 5a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN... Public Health Service Act. ...

  19. 42 CFR 5a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability. 5a.2 Section 5a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN... Public Health Service Act. ...

  20. 42 CFR 5a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability. 5a.2 Section 5a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN... Public Health Service Act. ...

  1. (99m)Tc-labeled SWL specific peptide for targeting EphA2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Lan, Xiaoli; Wu, Tao; Lang, Juntao; Jin, Xueyan; Sun, Xun; Wen, Qiong; An, Rui

    2014-07-01

    EphA2, one member of the Eph receptor family, is widely expressed in multiple aggressive cancers. SWL, a small peptide identified by phage display, has high binding affinity to EphA2, suggesting that it could be exploited for targeted molecular imaging. Therefore, a novel peptide-based probe, (99m)Tc-HYNIC-SWL, was developed and its potential to specifically target EphA2-positive tumors was investigated. The SWL peptide was labeled with hydrazinonicotinic acid (HYNIC), followed by (99m)Tc labeling. Immunofluorescence staining was carried out to detect the expression of EphA2 in A549 lung cancer cells and OCM-1 melanoma cells. Saturation binding experiments were performed by incubating A549 cells with increasing concentrations of radiolabeled peptide in vitro. To test the probe in vivo, nude mice bearing either A549 or OCM-1 derived tumors were established, injected with (99m)Tc-HYNIC-SWL, and subjected to SPECT imaging. Mice injected with excess unlabeled SWL were used as a specific control. Ex vivo γ-counting of dissected tissues from the mice was also performed to evaluate biodistribution. Immunofluorescence staining showed that A549 cells intensively expressed EphA2, while OCM-1 cells had little expression. (99m)Tc-HYNIC-SWL displayed high binding affinity with A549 cells (KD=2.6±0.7nM). From the SPECT images and the results of the biodistribution study, significantly higher uptake of the tracer was seen in A549 tumors (1.44±0.12 %ID/g) than in OCM-1 tumors (0.43±0.20 %ID/g) at 1h after injection. Pre-injection with excess unlabeled peptide in A549-bearing nude mice, significantly reduced tumor uptake of the radiolabeled probe (0.58±0.20 %ID/g) was seen. These data suggest that (99m)Tc-HYNIC-SWL specifically targets EphA2 in tumors. The expression of EphA2 can be noninvasively investigated using (99m)Tc-HYNIC-SWL by SPECT imaging. The in vitro and in vivo characteristics of (99m)Tc-HYNIC-SWL make it a promising probe for EphA2-positive tumor imaging

  2. 42 CFR 136a.2 - Administrative instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative instructions. 136a.2 Section 136a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Purpose § 136a.2 Administrative instructions. The...

  3. 42 CFR 65a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

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  4. 42 CFR 65a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 65a.2 Section 65a.2 Public Health... § 65a.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the Comprehensive Environmental Response..., or (ii) is an institution whose credits are accepted, on transfer, by not less than three...

  5. 42 CFR 65a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

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  6. 32 CFR 168a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability. 168a.2 Section 168a.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.2 Applicability. This part applies to the Office of...

  7. 32 CFR 168a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability. 168a.2 Section 168a.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.2 Applicability. This part applies to the Office of...

  8. 32 CFR 168a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability. 168a.2 Section 168a.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.2 Applicability. This part applies to the Office of...

  9. 32 CFR 352a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 352a.2 Section 352a.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTERS DEFENSE FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING SERVICE (DFAS) § 352a.2 Applicability. This part applies to the...

  10. 42 CFR 51a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 51a.2 Section 51a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS PROJECT GRANTS FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH § 51a.2 Definitions. Act means the Social Security Act, as amended. Genetic diseases means...

  11. 42 CFR 51a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 51a.2 Section 51a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS PROJECT GRANTS FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH § 51a.2 Definitions. Act means the Social Security Act, as amended. Genetic diseases means...

  12. 42 CFR 51a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 51a.2 Section 51a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS PROJECT GRANTS FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH § 51a.2 Definitions. Act means the Social Security Act, as amended. Genetic diseases means...

  13. 42 CFR 51a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 51a.2 Section 51a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS PROJECT GRANTS FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH § 51a.2 Definitions. Act means the Social Security Act, as amended. Genetic diseases means...

  14. 18 CFR 3a.2 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority. 3a.2 Section 3a.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.2 Authority. Official information or...

  15. 18 CFR 3a.2 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Authority. 3a.2 Section 3a.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.2 Authority. Official information or...

  16. 18 CFR 3a.2 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Authority. 3a.2 Section 3a.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.2 Authority. Official information or...

  17. 18 CFR 3a.2 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Authority. 3a.2 Section 3a.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.2 Authority. Official information or...

  18. 42 CFR 65a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 65a.2 Section 65a.2 Public Health... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES BASIC RESEARCH AND TRAINING GRANTS § 65a.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

  19. 42 CFR 59a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 59a.2 Section 59a.2 Public Health... Grants for Establishing, Expanding, and Improving Basic Resources § 59a.2 Definitions. Undefined terms... relating to the health sciences. Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services and any other...

  20. 42 CFR 63a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 63a.2 Section 63a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH TRAINING GRANTS § 63a.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the...

  1. 42 CFR 63a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 63a.2 Section 63a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH TRAINING GRANTS § 63a.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the...

  2. 42 CFR 63a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 63a.2 Section 63a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH TRAINING GRANTS § 63a.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the...

  3. 32 CFR 237a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 237a.2 Section 237a.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PUBLIC AFFAIRS LIAISON WITH INDUSTRY § 237a.2 Applicability. The provisions of this part apply to all...

  4. Colonic motor dysfunctions in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity: an involvement of A2B adenosine receptors.

    PubMed

    Antonioli, Luca; Pellegrini, Carolina; Fornai, Matteo; Tirotta, Erika; Gentile, Daniela; Benvenuti, Laura; Giron, Maria Cecilia; Caputi, Valentina; Marsilio, Ilaria; Orso, Genny; Bernardini, Nunzia; Segnani, Cristina; Ippolito, Chiara; Csóka, Balázs; Németh, Zoltán H; Haskó, György; Scarpignato, Carmelo; Blandizzi, Corrado; Colucci, Rocchina

    2017-12-01

    Adenosine A 2B receptors (A 2B R) regulate several enteric functions. However, their implication in the pathophysiology of intestinal dysmotility associated with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity has not been elucidated. We investigated the expression of A 2B R in mouse colon and their role in the mechanisms underlying the development of enteric dysmotility associated with obesity. Wild-type C57BL/6J mice were fed with HFD (60% kcal from fat) or normocaloric diet (NCD; 18% kcal from fat) for 8 weeks. Colonic A 2B R localization was examined by immunofluorescence. The role of A 2B R in the control of colonic motility was examined in functional experiments on longitudinal muscle preparations (LMPs). In NCD mice, A 2B R were predominantly located in myenteric neurons; in HFD animals, their expression increased throughout the neuromuscular layer. Functionally, the A 2B R antagonist MRS1754 enhanced electrically induced NK 1 -mediated tachykininergic contractions in LMPs from HFD mice, while it was less effective in tissues from NCD mice. The A 2B receptor agonist BAY 60-6583 decreased colonic tachykininergic contractions in LMPs, with higher efficacy in preparations from obese mice. Both A 2B R ligands did not affect contractions elicited by exogenous substance P. Obesity is related with a condition of colonic inflammation, leading to an increase of A 2B R expression. A 2B R, modulating the activity of excitatory tachykininergic nerves, participate to the enteric dysmotility associated with obesity.

  5. Principles of Economic Rationality in Mice.

    PubMed

    Rivalan, Marion; Winter, York; Nachev, Vladislav

    2017-12-12

    Humans and non-human animals frequently violate principles of economic rationality, such as transitivity, independence of irrelevant alternatives, and regularity. The conditions that lead to these violations are not completely understood. Here we report a study on mice tested in automated home-cage setups using rewards of drinking water. Rewards differed in one of two dimensions, volume or probability. Our results suggest that mouse choice conforms to the principles of economic rationality for options that differ along a single reward dimension. A psychometric analysis of mouse choices further revealed that mice responded more strongly to differences in probability than to differences in volume, despite equivalence in return rates. This study also demonstrates the synergistic effect between the principles of economic rationality and psychophysics in making quantitative predictions about choices of healthy laboratory mice. This opens up new possibilities for the analyses of multi-dimensional choice and the use of mice with cognitive impairments that may violate economic rationality.

  6. Social transfer of pain in mice

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Monique L.; Hostetler, Caroline M.; Heinricher, Mary M.; Ryabinin, Andrey E.

    2016-01-01

    A complex relationship exists between the psychosocial environment and the perception and experience of pain, and the mechanisms of the social communication of pain have yet to be elucidated. The present study examined the social communication of pain and demonstrates that “bystander” mice housed and tested in the same room as mice subjected to inflammatory pain or withdrawal from morphine or alcohol develop corresponding hyperalgesia. Olfactory cues mediate the transfer of hyperalgesia to the bystander mice, which can be measured using mechanical, thermal, and chemical tests. Hyperalgesia in bystanders does not co-occur with anxiety or changes in corticosterone and cannot be explained by visually dependent emotional contagion or stress-induced hyperalgesia. These experiments reveal the multifaceted relationship between the social environment and pain behavior and support the use of mice as a model system for investigating these factors. In addition, these experiments highlight the need for proper consideration of how experimental animals are housed and tested. PMID:27774512

  7. [Inhibitory effect and the mechanism of Astragalus polysaccharide combined with cisplatin on growth of inplanted Lewis lung carcinoma in mice].

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Mengjie; Liu, Dan; Chen, Yanwen; Ming, Haixia; Li, Yang

    2017-04-01

    Objective To observe the effect of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) combined with cisplatin (DDP) on the expressions of cytochrome C (CytC) and high temperature required serine protease A2 (Omi/HtrA2) in the mice with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) transplantated tumors. Methods Ninty C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into normal control group, model group, and (50, 100, 200) μg/mL APS groups, 6 mg/kg DDP group, 3 mg/kg DDP combined with (50, 100, 200) μg/mL APS groups. Each group included 10 mice. Except the mice in the normal group, the rest mice were inoculated subcutaneously with LLC cells (1×10 7 mL) at the right fore axillary fossa to establish tumor-bearing mouse models. In the second day of building models, the mice in the treatment group were given intraperitoneal injection of 0.3 mL of the drug. DDP was given once a week, and the other drugs once a day. The mice in the normal group and the model group were administrated the same amount of saline injection for continuous 20 days. All mice were killed at the 21st day. The pathological changes of tumor tissues were observed by HE staining. The expressions and location of CytC and Omi/HtrA2 proteins in the transplanted tumor tissues were detected by immunohistochemical staining and image analysis. Results The mass of tumor decreased in the mice of (100, 200) μg/mL APS group and 3 mg/kg DDP combined with (100, 200) μg/mL APS group. Compared with the model group, the necrosis of tumor tissues in 200 μg/mL APS combined with 3 mg/kg DDP group was the most obvious. The expressions of CytC and Omi/HtrA2 increased in the treatment groups, and the increase was the most remarkable in 200 μg/mL APS combined with 3 mg/kg DDP group. Conclusion APS and APS combined with DDP can restrain the growth of Lewis Lung cancer in C57BL/6J mice, which may be related to the increased expressions of CytC and Omi/HtrA2.

  8. RADIATION INDUCED AGING IN MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, H.J.; Gebhard, K.L.

    1958-10-31

    . Experiments were undertaken in an effort to determine the degree of similarity between natural and radiation induced aging, and to determine the causes for the latter. Several severe non-specific stresses were applied to mice either as single massive doses or as smaller doses administered over a large fraction of the life span of the animals. Stresses used included typhoid vaccine, tetanus toxin and tetanus toxoid and turpentine. None of these produced any premature aging comparable to that produced by radiation. The somatic mutation theory of aging and expecially radiationinduced aging has been tested by applying the chemical mutatgen, nitrogenmore » mustard, either as a massive single dose or as smaller single doses repeated over long periods of time. No shortening of the life span has been observed and it is concluded that the somatic mutation theory is untenable. Experiments designed to determine the organ system responsible for radiation induced aging have demonstrated that the hematopoietic system is not primarily involved in this phenomenon. (auth)« less

  9. Cytochrome P450 humanised mice

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Humans are exposed to countless foreign compounds, typically referred to as xenobiotics. These can include clinically used drugs, environmental pollutants, food additives, pesticides, herbicides and even natural plant compounds. Xenobiotics are metabolised primarily in the liver, but also in the gut and other organs, to derivatives that are more easily eliminated from the body. In some cases, however, a compound is converted to an electrophile that can cause cell toxicity and transformation leading to cancer. Among the most important xenobiotic-metabolising enzymes are the cytochromes P450 (P450s). These enzymes represent a superfamily of multiple forms that exhibit marked species differences in their expression and catalytic activities. To predict how humans will metabolise xenobiotics, including drugs, human liver extracts and recombinant P450s have been used. New humanised mouse models are being developed which will be of great value in the study of drug metabolism, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in vivo, and in carrying out human risk assessment of xenobiotics. Humanised mice expressing CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, two major drug-metabolising P450s, have revealed the feasibility of this approach. PMID:15588489

  10. Responses of Male C57BL/6N Mice to Observing the Euthanasia of Other Mice.

    PubMed

    Boivin, Gregory P; Bottomley, Michael A; Grobe, Nadja

    2016-01-01

    The AVMA Panel on Euthanasia recommends that sensitive animals should not be present during the euthanasia of others, especially of their own species, but does not provide guidelines on how to identify a sensitive species. To determine if mice are a sensitive species we reviewed literature on empathy in mice, and measured the cardiovascular and activity response of mice observing euthanasia of conspecifics. We studied male 16-wk-old C57BL/6N mice and found no increase in cardiovascular parameters or activity in the response of the mice to observing CO2 euthanasia. Mice observing decapitation had an increase in all values, but this was paralleled by a similar increase during mock decapitations in which no animals were handled or euthanized. We conclude that CO2 euthanasia of mice does not have an impact on other mice in the room, and that euthanasia by decapitation likely only has an effect due to the noise of the guillotine. We support the conceptual idea that mice are both a sensitive species and display empathy, but under the controlled circumstances of the euthanasia procedures used in this study there was no signaling of stress to witnessing inhabitants in the room.

  11. Responses of Male C57BL/6N Mice to Observing the Euthanasia of Other Mice

    PubMed Central

    Boivin, Gregory P; Bottomley, Michael A; Grobe, Nadja

    2016-01-01

    The AVMA Panel on Euthanasia recommends that sensitive animals should not be present during the euthanasia of others, especially of their own species, but does not provide guidelines on how to identify a sensitive species. To determine if mice are a sensitive species we reviewed literature on empathy in mice, and measured the cardiovascular and activity response of mice observing euthanasia of conspecifics. We studied male 16-wk-old C57BL/6N mice and found no increase in cardiovascular parameters or activity in the response of the mice to observing CO2 euthanasia. Mice observing decapitation had an increase in all values, but this was paralleled by a similar increase during mock decapitations in which no animals were handled or euthanized. We conclude that CO2 euthanasia of mice does not have an impact on other mice in the room, and that euthanasia by decapitation likely only has an effect due to the noise of the guillotine. We support the conceptual idea that mice are both a sensitive species and display empathy, but under the controlled circumstances of the euthanasia procedures used in this study there was no signaling of stress to witnessing inhabitants in the room. PMID:27423146

  12. Reduced immune responses in chimeric mice engrafted with bone marrow cells from mice with airways inflammation.

    PubMed

    Scott, Naomi M; Ng, Royce L X; McGonigle, Terence A; Gorman, Shelley; Hart, Prue H

    2015-11-01

    During respiratory inflammation, it is generally assumed that dendritic cells differentiating from the bone marrow are immunogenic rather than immunoregulatory. Using chimeric mice, the outcomes of airways inflammation on bone marrow progenitor cells were studied. Immune responses were analyzed in chimeric mice engrafted for >16 weeks with bone marrow cells from mice with experimental allergic airways disease (EAAD). Responses to sensitization and challenge with the allergen causing inflammation in the bone marrow-donor mice were significantly reduced in the chimeric mice engrafted with bone marrow cells from mice with EAAD (EAAD-chimeric). Responses to intranasal LPS and topical fluorescein isothiocyanate (non-specific challenges) were significantly attenuated. Fewer activated dendritic cells from the airways and skin of the EAAD-chimeric mice could be tracked to the draining lymph nodes, and may contribute to the significantly reduced antigen/chemical-induced hypertrophy in the draining nodes, and the reduced immune responses to sensitizing allergens. Dendritic cells differentiating in vitro from the bone marrow of >16 weeks reconstituted EAAD-chimeric mice retained an ability to poorly prime immune responses when transferred into naïve mice. Dendritic cells developing from bone marrow progenitors during airways inflammation are altered such that daughter cells have reduced antigen priming capabilities.

  13. Pharmacological aspects of metaldehyde poisoning in mice.

    PubMed

    Homeida, A M; Cooke, R G

    1982-03-01

    Metaldehyde, when administered orally to mice at a dose of 1 g kg-1, produced convulsions and death within 2 h. Brain concentrations of noradrenaline (NA) 5-hydroxytryptamie (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were significantly reduced in these animals relative to controls. Treatment with either intraperitoneal clonidine or diazepam 20 min after administration of metaldehyde reduced the mortality rate and in mice surviving for 5 h, the decrease in brain NA and 5-HT concentrations were significantly reduced.

  14. Antisense inhibition of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 reduces serum LDL in hyperlipidemic mice.

    PubMed

    Graham, Mark J; Lemonidis, Kristina M; Whipple, Charles P; Subramaniam, Amuthakannan; Monia, Brett P; Crooke, Stanley T; Crooke, Rosanne M

    2007-04-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a member of a family of proteases that is thought to promote the degradation of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) through an as yet undefined mechanism. We developed second generation antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) inhibitors targeting murine PCSK9 to determine their potential as lipid-lowering agents. Administration of a PCSK9 ASO to high fat-fed mice for 6 weeks reduced total cholesterol and LDL by 53% and 38%, respectively. Moreover, inhibition of PCSK9 expression resulted in a 2-fold increase in hepatic LDLR protein levels. This phenotype closely resembles that reported previously in Pcsk9-deficient mice. The absence of cholesterol lowering in Ldlr-deficient mice effectively demonstrated a critical role for this receptor in mediating the lipid-lowering effects of PCSK9 inhibition. Antisense inhibition of PCSK9 is an attractive and novel therapeutic approach for treating hypercholesterolemia in human.

  15. Men and mice: Relating their ages.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Sulagna; Sengupta, Pallav

    2016-05-01

    Since the late 18th century, the murine model has been widely used in biomedical research (about 59% of total animals used) as it is compact, cost-effective, and easily available, conserving almost 99% of human genes and physiologically resembling humans. Despite the similarities, mice have a diminutive lifespan compared to humans. In this study, we found that one human year is equivalent to nine mice days, although this is not the case when comparing the lifespan of mice versus humans taking the entire life at the same time without considering each phase separately. Therefore, the precise correlation of age at every point in their lifespan must be determined. Determining the age relation between mice and humans is necessary for setting up experimental murine models more analogous in age to humans. Thus, more accuracy can be obtained in the research outcome for humans of a specific age group, although current outcomes are based on mice of an approximate age. To fill this gap between approximation and accuracy, this review article is the first to establish a precise relation between mice age and human age, following our previous article, which explained the relation in ages of laboratory rats with humans in detail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Plasminogen promotes macrophage phagocytosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathy, Swetha; Settle, Megan; Plow, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    The phagocytic function of macrophages plays a pivotal role in eliminating apoptotic cells and invading pathogens. Evidence implicating plasminogen (Plg), the zymogen of plasmin, in phagocytosis is extremely limited with the most recent in vitro study showing that plasmin acts on prey cells rather than on macrophages. Here, we use apoptotic thymocytes and immunoglobulin opsonized bodies to show that Plg exerts a profound effect on macrophage-mediated phagocytosis in vitro and in vivo. Plg enhanced the uptake of these prey by J774A.1 macrophage-like cells by 3.5- to fivefold Plg receptors and plasmin proteolytic activity were required for phagocytosis of both preys. Compared with Plg+/+ mice, Plg−/− mice exhibited a 60% delay in clearance of apoptotic thymocytes by spleen and an 85% reduction in uptake by peritoneal macrophages. Phagocytosis of antibody-mediated erythrocyte clearance by liver Kupffer cells was reduced by 90% in Plg−/− mice compared with Plg+/+ mice. A gene array of splenic and hepatic tissues from Plg−/− and Plg+/+ mice showed downregulation of numerous genes in Plg−/− mice involved in phagocytosis and regulation of phagocytic gene expression was confirmed in macrophage-like cells. Thus, Plg may play an important role in innate immunity by changing expression of genes that contribute to phagocytosis. PMID:24876560

  17. Hypothyroidism Compromises Hypothalamic Leptin Signaling in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Groba, Claudia; Mayerl, Steffen; van Mullem, Alies A.; Visser, Theo J.; Darras, Veerle M.; Habenicht, Andreas J.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of thyroid hormone (TH) on metabolism and energy expenditure is well established, but the role of TH in regulating nutritional sensing, particularly in the central nervous system, is only poorly defined. Here, we studied the consequences of hypothyroidism on leptin production as well as leptin sensing in congenital hypothyroid TRH receptor 1 knockout (Trhr1 ko) mice and euthyroid control animals. Hypothyroid mice exhibited decreased circulating leptin levels due to a decrease in fat mass and reduced leptin expression in white adipose tissue. In neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, hypothyroid mice showed increased leptin receptor Ob-R expression and decreased suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 transcript levels. In order to monitor putative changes in central leptin sensing, we generated hypothyroid and leptin-deficient animals by crossing hypothyroid Trhr1 ko mice with the leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Hypothyroid Trhr1/ob double knockout mice showed a blunted response to leptin treatment with respect to body weight and food intake and exhibited a decreased activation of phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 as well as a up-regulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 upon leptin treatment, particularly in the arcuate nucleus. These data indicate alterations in the intracellular processing of the leptin signal under hypothyroid conditions and thereby unravel a novel mode of action by which TH affects energy metabolism. PMID:23518925

  18. Citric Acid and Quinine Share Perceived Chemosensory Features Making Oral Discrimination Difficult in C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Treesukosol, Yada; Mathes, Clare M.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence in the literature shows that in rodents, some taste-responsive neurons respond to both quinine and acid stimuli. Also, under certain circumstances, rodents display some degree of difficulty in discriminating quinine and acid stimuli. Here, C57BL/6J mice were trained and tested in a 2-response operant discrimination task. Mice had severe difficulty discriminating citric acid from quinine and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) with performance slightly, but significantly, above chance. In contrast, mice were able to competently discriminate sucrose from citric acid, NaCl, quinine, and PROP. In another experiment, mice that were conditioned to avoid quinine by pairings with LiCl injections subsequently suppressed licking responses to quinine and citric acid but not to NaCl or sucrose in a brief-access test, relative to NaCl-injected control animals. However, mice that were conditioned to avoid citric acid did not display cross-generalization to quinine. These mice significantly suppressed licking only to citric acid, and to a much lesser extent NaCl, compared with controls. Collectively, the findings from these experiments suggest that in mice, citric acid and quinine share chemosensory features making discrimination difficult but are not perceptually identical. PMID:21421543

  19. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation From Unrelated Donors in 2 Cases of Interleukin-10 Receptor Deficiency: Is Surgery Not a Requirement?

    PubMed

    Kocacik Uygun, Dilara F; Uygun, Vedat; Daloğlu, Hayriye; Öztürkmen, Seda; Karasu, Gülsün; Reisli, İsmail; Sayar, Ersin; Yüksekkaya, Hasan A; Glocker, Erik-Oliver; Boztuğ, Kaan; Yeşilipek, Akif

    2018-04-20

    Mutations in interleukin-10 and its receptors cause infantile inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a hyperinflammatory disorder characterized by severe, treatment-refractory colitis, multiple abscesses, and enterocutaneous fistulas. Patients with infantile IBD often require several surgical interventions, including complete colectomy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is currently the only known medical therapy. Traditionally, operative management has been preferred before stem cell transplantation because of the latter's increased susceptibility to procedural complications; however, surgical intervention could be delayed, and possibly reconsidered, because our 2 patients with infantile IBD demonstrated a rapid response to treatment via engraftment.

  20. Physical Activity, Energy Expenditure, and Defense of Body Weight in Melanocortin 4 Receptor-Deficient Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Almundarij, Tariq I.; Smyers, Mark E.; Spriggs, Addison; Heemstra, Lydia A.; Beltz, Lisa; Dyne, Eric; Ridenour, Caitlyn; Novak, Colleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) variants contribute to human obesity, and rats lacking functional MC4R (Mc4rK314X/K314X) are obese. We investigated the hypothesis that low energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity contribute to this obese phenotype in male rats, and determined whether lack of functional MC4R conferred protection from weight loss during 50% calorie restriction. Though Mc4rK314X/K314X rats showed low brown adipose Ucp1 expression and were less physically active than rats heterozygous for the mutation (Mc4r+/K314X) or wild-type (Mc4r+/+) rats, we found no evidence of lowered EE in Mc4rK314X/K314X rats once body weight was taken into account using covariance. Mc4rK314X/K314X rats had a significantly higher respiratory exchange ratio. Compared to Mc4r+/+ rats, Mc4rK314X/K314X and Mc4r+/K314X rats lost less lean mass during calorie restriction, and less body mass when baseline weight was accounted for. Limited regional overexpression of Mc3r was found in the hypothalamus. Although lower physical activity levels in rats with nonfunctional MC4R did not result in lower total EE during free-fed conditions, rats lacking one or two functional copies of Mc4r showed conservation of mass, particularly lean mass, during energy restriction. This suggests that variants affecting MC4R function may contribute to individual differences in the metabolic response to food restriction. PMID:27886210

  1. Rapid Phosphoproteomic Effects of Abscisic Acid (ABA) on Wild-Type and ABA Receptor-Deficient A. thaliana Mutants*

    PubMed Central

    Minkoff, Benjamin B.; Stecker, Kelly E.; Sussman, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA)1 is a plant hormone that controls many aspects of plant growth, including seed germination, stomatal aperture size, and cellular drought response. ABA interacts with a unique family of 14 receptor proteins. This interaction leads to the activation of a family of protein kinases, SnRK2s, which in turn phosphorylate substrates involved in many cellular processes. The family of receptors appears functionally redundant. To observe a measurable phenotype, four of the fourteen receptors have to be mutated to create a multilocus loss-of-function quadruple receptor (QR) mutant, which is much less sensitive to ABA than wild-type (WT) plants. Given these phenotypes, we asked whether or not a difference in ABA response between the WT and QR backgrounds would manifest on a phosphorylation level as well. We tested WT and QR mutant ABA response using isotope-assisted quantitative phosphoproteomics to determine what ABA-induced phosphorylation changes occur in WT plants within 5 min of ABA treatment and how that phosphorylation pattern is altered in the QR mutant. We found multiple ABA-induced phosphorylation changes that occur within 5 min of treatment, including three SnRK2 autophosphorylation events and phosphorylation on SnRK2 substrates. The majority of robust ABA-dependent phosphorylation changes observed were partially diminished in the QR mutant, whereas many smaller ABA-dependent phosphorylation changes observed in the WT were not responsive to ABA in the mutant. A single phosphorylation event was increased in response to ABA treatment in both the WT and QR mutant. A portion of the discovery data was validated using selected reaction monitoring-based targeted measurements on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. These data suggest that different subsets of phosphorylation events depend upon different subsets of the ABA receptor family to occur. Altogether, these data expand our understanding of the model by which the family of ABA receptors directs rapid phosphoproteomic changes. PMID:25693798

  2. Neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide mediate complementary functions of hyperphagia and reduced energy expenditure in leptin receptor deficiency.

    PubMed

    Luo, Na; Marcelin, Genevieve; Liu, Shun Mei; Schwartz, Gary; Chua, Streamson

    2011-03-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AGRP) can produce hyperphagia, reduce energy expenditure, and promote triglyceride deposition in adipose depots. As these two neuropeptides are coexpressed within the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and mediate a major portion of the obesity caused by leptin signaling deficiency, we sought to determine whether the two neuropeptides mediated identical or complementary actions. Because of separate neuropeptide receptors and signal transduction mechanisms, there is a possibility of distinct encoding systems for the feeding and energy expenditure aspects of leptin-regulated metabolism. We have genetically added NPY deficiency and/or AGRP deficiency to LEPR deficiency isolated to AGRP cells. Our results indicate that the obesity of LEPR deficiency in AGRP/NPY neurons can produce obesity with either AGRP or NPY alone with AGRP producing hyperphagia while NPY promotes reduced energy expenditure. The absence of both NPY and AGRP prevents the development of obesity attributable to isolated LEPR deficiency in AGRP/NPY neurons. Operant behavioral testing indicated that there were no alterations in the reward for a food pellet from the AGRP-specific LEPR deficiency.

  3. Neuropeptide Y and Agouti-Related Peptide Mediate Complementary Functions of Hyperphagia and Reduced Energy Expenditure in Leptin Receptor Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Na; Marcelin, Genevieve; Liu, Shun Mei; Schwartz, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AGRP) can produce hyperphagia, reduce energy expenditure, and promote triglyceride deposition in adipose depots. As these two neuropeptides are coexpressed within the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and mediate a major portion of the obesity caused by leptin signaling deficiency, we sought to determine whether the two neuropeptides mediated identical or complementary actions. Because of separate neuropeptide receptors and signal transduction mechanisms, there is a possibility of distinct encoding systems for the feeding and energy expenditure aspects of leptin-regulated metabolism. We have genetically added NPY deficiency and/or AGRP deficiency to LEPR deficiency isolated to AGRP cells. Our results indicate that the obesity of LEPR deficiency in AGRP/NPY neurons can produce obesity with either AGRP or NPY alone with AGRP producing hyperphagia while NPY promotes reduced energy expenditure. The absence of both NPY and AGRP prevents the development of obesity attributable to isolated LEPR deficiency in AGRP/NPY neurons. Operant behavioral testing indicated that there were no alterations in the reward for a food pellet from the AGRP-specific LEPR deficiency. PMID:21285324

  4. SPLASH (PLA2IID), a novel member of phospholipase A2 family, is associated with lymphotoxin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Shakhov, A N; Rubtsov, A V; Lyakhov, I G; Tumanov, A V; Nedospasov, S A

    2000-02-01

    Lymphotoxin (LT) deficient mice have profound defects in the splenic microarchitecture associated with defective expression on certain gene products, including chemokines. By using subtraction cloning of splenic cDNA from wild-type and LT alpha or TNF/LT alpha double deficient mice we isolated a novel murine gene encoding a secretory type phospholipase A2, called SPLASH. The two major alternative transcripts of SPLASH gene are predominantly expressed in lymphoid tissues, such as spleen and lymph nodes. SPLASH maps to the distal part of chromosome 4, to which several cancer-related loci have been also mapped.

  5. Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates anxiety-like behaviors in morphine-withdrawn mice.

    PubMed

    Wen, Di; Zhao, Peng; Hui, Rongji; Wang, Jian; Shen, Qianchao; Gong, Miao; Guo, Hongyan; Cong, Bin; Ma, Chunling

    2017-05-15

    Hydrogen therapy is a new medical approach for a wide range of diseases. The effects of hydrogen on central nervous system-related diseases have recently become increasingly appreciated, but little is known about whether hydrogen affects the morphine withdrawal process. This study aims to investigate the potential effects of hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) administration on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms and morphine withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behaviors. Mice received gradually increasing doses (25-100 mg/kg, i.p.) of morphine over 3 days. In the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal procedure, the mice were treated with three HRS (20 μg/kg, i.p.) injections, and naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.p.) was given 30 min after HRS administration. Body weight, jumping behavior and wet-dog shakes were immediately assessed. In the spontaneous withdrawal procedure, the mice were treated with HRS (20 μg/kg, i.p.) every 8-h. Mice underwent naloxone-precipitated or spontaneous withdrawal were tested for anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and light/dark box (L/D box) paradigm, respectively. In addition, the levels of plasma corticosterone were measured. We found that HRS administration significantly reduced body weight loss, jumping behavior and wet-dog shakes in mice underwent naloxone-precipitated withdrawal, and attenuated anxiety-like behaviors in the EPM and L/D box tests after naloxone-precipitated withdrawal or a 2-day spontaneous withdrawal period. Hypo-activity or motor impairment after HRS administration was not observed in the locomotion tests. Furthermore, HRS administration significantly decreased the levels of corticosterone in morphine-withdrawn mice. These are the first findings to indicate that hydrogen might ameliorate withdrawal symptoms and exert an anxiolytic-like effect in morphine-withdrawal mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mediation of tubuloglomerular feedback by adenosine: evidence from mice lacking adenosine 1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Sun, D; Samuelson, L C; Yang, T; Huang, Y; Paliege, A; Saunders, T; Briggs, J; Schnermann, J

    2001-08-14

    Adenosine is a determinant of metabolic control of organ function increasing oxygen supply through the A2 class of adenosine receptors and reducing oxygen demand through A1 adenosine receptors (A1AR). In the kidney, activation of A1AR in afferent glomerular arterioles has been suggested to contribute to tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF), the vasoconstriction elicited by elevations in [NaCl] in the macula densa region of the nephron. To further elucidate the role of A1AR in TGF, we have generated mice in which the entire A1AR coding sequence was deleted by homologous recombination. Homozygous A1AR mutants that do not express A1AR mRNA transcripts and do not respond to A1AR agonists are viable and without gross anatomical abnormalities. Plasma and urinary electrolytes were not different between genotypes. Likewise, arterial blood pressure, heart rates, and glomerular filtration rates were indistinguishable between A1AR(+/+), A1AR(+/-), and A1AR(-/-) mice. TGF responses to an increase in loop of Henle flow rate from 0 to 30 nl/min, whether determined as change of stop flow pressure or early proximal flow rate, were completely abolished in A1AR(-/-) mice (stop flow pressure response, -6.8 +/- 0.55 mmHg and -0.4 +/- 0.2 in A1AR(+/+) and A1AR(-/-) mice; early proximal flow rate response, -3.4 +/- 0.4 nl/min and +0.02 +/- 0.3 nl/min in A1AR(+/+) and A1AR(-/-) mice). Absence of TGF responses in A1AR-deficient mice suggests that adenosine is a required constituent of the juxtaglomerular signaling pathway. A1AR null mutant mice are a promising tool to study the functional role of A1AR in different target tissues.

  7. Strategies to Prevent, Treat, and Provoke Corynebacterium-Associated Hyperkeratosis in Athymic Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Burr, Holly N; Lipman, Neil S; White, Julie R; Zheng, Junting; Wolf, Felix R

    2011-01-01

    Athymic nude mice infected with Corynebacterium bovis typically exhibit transient hyperkeratotic dermatitis. Our vivarium experienced an increased incidence of disease characterized by persistent skin lesions and increased mortality, leading to this study. For detection of infection, skin and buccal swab methods showed comparable sensitivities in nude mice. Various prevention, treatment, and eradication strategies were evaluated through clinical assessment, microbiology, and histopathology. In experimentally naïve athymic nude mice, a 2-wk course of prophylactic amoxicillin-containing diet (1200 ppm amoxicillin; effective dose, 200 mg/kg) was ineffective at preventing infection or disease. There was also no significant difference in disease duration or severity in athymic nude mice that received amoxicillin diet or penicillin–streptomycin topical spray (penicillin, 2500 U/mL; streptomycin, 2500 µg/mL). Prolonged treatment with 4 or 8 wk of amoxicillin diet cleared only a small number of athymic nude mice that had subclinical C. bovis infections. Antibiotic sensitivity of C. bovis isolates demonstrated a small colony isolate with less susceptibility to all antibiotics compared with a large colony isolate. Resistance did not appear to develop after prolonged treatment with amoxicillin. Provocation testing by administration of cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg IP every 48 to 72 h for 90 d) to subclinically infected athymic nude mice resulted in prolonged clinical disease that waxed and waned without progression to severe disease. Our findings suggest that antibiotic prophylaxis and treatment of clinical disease in experimentally naïve mice is unrewarding, eradication of bacterial infection is difficult, and severe disease associated with C. bovis is likely multifactorial. PMID:21640035

  8. Mice lacking mPGES-1 are resistant to lithium-induced polyuria

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Zhanjun; Wang, Haiping

    2009-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 activity is required for the development of lithium-induced polyuria. However, the involvement of a specific, terminal prostaglandin (PG) isomerase has not been evaluated. The present study was undertaken to assess lithium-induced polyuria in mice deficient in microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1). A 2-wk administration of LiCl (4 mmol·kg−1·day−1 ip) in mPGES-1 +/+ mice led to a marked polyuria with hyposmotic urine. This was associated with elevated renal mPGES-1 protein expression and increased urine PGE2 excretion. In contrast, mPGES-1 −/− mice were largely resistant to lithium-induced polyuria and a urine concentrating defect, accompanied by nearly complete blockade of high urine PGE2 and cAMP output. Immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative (q) RT-PCR consistently detected a significant decrease in aquaporin-2 (AQP2) protein expression in both the renal cortex and medulla of lithium-treated +/+ mice. This decrease was significantly attenuated in the −/− mice. qRT-PCR detected similar patterns of changes in AQP2 mRNA in the medulla but not in the cortex. Similarly, the total protein abundance of the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) in the medulla but not in the cortex of the +/+ mice was significantly reduced by lithium treatment. In contrast, the dowregulation of renal medullary NKCC2 expression was significantly attenuated in the −/− mice. We conclude that mPGES-1-derived PGE2 mediates lithium-induced polyuria likely via inhibition of AQP2 and NKCC2 expression. PMID:19692487

  9. Mice lacking mPGES-1 are resistant to lithium-induced polyuria.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhanjun; Wang, Haiping; Yang, Tianxin

    2009-12-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 activity is required for the development of lithium-induced polyuria. However, the involvement of a specific, terminal prostaglandin (PG) isomerase has not been evaluated. The present study was undertaken to assess lithium-induced polyuria in mice deficient in microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1). A 2-wk administration of LiCl (4 mmol.kg(-1).day(-1) ip) in mPGES-1 +/+ mice led to a marked polyuria with hyposmotic urine. This was associated with elevated renal mPGES-1 protein expression and increased urine PGE(2) excretion. In contrast, mPGES-1 -/- mice were largely resistant to lithium-induced polyuria and a urine concentrating defect, accompanied by nearly complete blockade of high urine PGE(2) and cAMP output. Immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative (q) RT-PCR consistently detected a significant decrease in aquaporin-2 (AQP2) protein expression in both the renal cortex and medulla of lithium-treated +/+ mice. This decrease was significantly attenuated in the -/- mice. qRT-PCR detected similar patterns of changes in AQP2 mRNA in the medulla but not in the cortex. Similarly, the total protein abundance of the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) in the medulla but not in the cortex of the +/+ mice was significantly reduced by lithium treatment. In contrast, the dowregulation of renal medullary NKCC2 expression was significantly attenuated in the -/- mice. We conclude that mPGES-1-derived PGE(2) mediates lithium-induced polyuria likely via inhibition of AQP2 and NKCC2 expression.

  10. Impairment of heme biosynthesis induces short circadian period in body temperature rhythms in mice.

    PubMed

    Iwadate, Reiko; Satoh, Yoko; Watanabe, Yukino; Kawai, Hiroshi; Kudo, Naomi; Kawashima, Yoichi; Mashino, Tadahiko; Mitsumoto, Atsushi

    2012-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that the function of mammalian clock gene transcripts is controlled by the binding of heme in vitro. To examine the effects of heme on biological rhythms in vivo, we measured locomotor activity (LA) and core body temperature (T(b)) in a mouse model of porphyria with impaired heme biosynthesis by feeding mice a griseofulvin (GF)-containing diet. Mice fed with a 2.0% GF-containing diet (GF2.0) transiently exhibited phase advance or phase advance-like phenomenon by 1-3 h in terms of the biological rhythms of T(b) or LA, respectively (both, P < 0.05) while mice were kept under conditions of a light/dark cycle (12 h:12 h). We also observed a transient, ~0.3 h shortening of the period of circadian T(b) rhythms in mice kept under conditions of constant darkness (P < 0.01). Interestingly, the observed duration of abnormal circadian rhythms in GF2.0 mice lasted between 1 and 3 wk after the onset of GF ingestion; this finding correlated well with the extent of impairment of heme biosynthesis. When we examined the effects of therapeutic agents for acute porphyria, heme, and hypertonic glucose on the pathological status of GF2.0 mice, it was found that the intraperitoneal administration of heme (10 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or glucose (9 g·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 7 days partially reversed (50%) increases in urinary δ-aminolevulinic acids levels associated with acute porphyria. Treatment with heme, but not with glucose, suppressed the phase advance (-like phenomenon) in the diurnal rhythms (P < 0.05) and restored the decrease of heme (P < 0.01) in GF2.0 mice. These results suggest that impairments of heme biosynthesis, in particular a decrease in heme, may affect phase and period of circadian rhythms in animals.

  11. Preclinical Mammalian Safety Studies of EPHARNA (DOPC Nanoliposomal EphA2-Targeted siRNA).

    PubMed

    Wagner, Michael J; Mitra, Rahul; McArthur, Mark J; Baze, Wallace; Barnhart, Kirstin; Wu, Sherry Y; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Zhang, Xinna; Coleman, Robert L; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Sood, Anil K

    2017-06-01

    To address the need for efficient and biocompatible delivery systems for systemic siRNA delivery, we developed 1,2-Dioleoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) nanoliposomal EphA2-targeted therapeutic (EPHARNA). Here, we performed safety studies of EPHARNA in murine and primate models. Single dosing of EPHARNA was tested at 5 concentrations in mice ( N = 15 per group) and groups were sacrificed on days 1, 14, and 28 for evaluation of clinical pathology and organ toxicity. Multiple dosing of EPHARNA was tested in mice and Rhesus macaques twice weekly at two dose levels in each model. Possible effects on hematologic parameters, serum chemistry, coagulation, and organ toxicity were assessed. Following single-dose EPHARNA administration to mice, no gross pathologic or dose-related microscopic findings were observed in either the acute (24 hours) or recovery (14 and 28 days) phases. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for EPHARNA is considered >225 μg/kg when administered as a single injection intravenously in CD-1 mice. With twice weekly injection, EPHARNA appeared to stimulate a mild to moderate inflammatory response in a dose-related fashion. There appeared to be a mild hemolytic reaction in the female mice. In Rhesus macaques, minimal to moderate infiltration of mononuclear cells was found in some organs including the gastrointestinal tract, heart, and kidney. No differences attributed to EPHARNA were observed. These results demonstrate that EPHARNA is well tolerated at all doses tested. These data, combined with previously published in vivo validation studies, have led to an ongoing first-in-human phase I clinical trial (NCT01591356). Mol Cancer Ther; 16(6); 1114-23. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Influence of sensitization on the discriminative stimulus effects of methylphenidate in mice.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Robin; Luderman, Lauryn; Knecht, Kelly; Griffin, William C

    2014-12-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) remains an important therapy for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, but aspects of its pharmacology remain unclear. In the present study, we used a regimen of MPH (8 mg/kg daily×14 days) in C57BL/6J mice to determine whether establishing locomotor sensitization to MPH influenced the acquisition and the dose-response function of MPH in a classic drug discrimination procedure. MPH-sensitized mice (SENS group) showed enhanced locomotor activity to the 8 mg/kg exposure dose as well as a 2 mg/kg dose before discrimination training. However, the SENS mice did not acquire discrimination of either a low dose (2 mg/kg) or a higher dose (4 mg/kg) of MPH any more rapidly than the CTRL mice. Further, during generalization testing, the dose-response functions for the SENS and CTRL mice were identical. Therefore, we did not find that previous exposure to MPH, which produced a sensitized locomotor response, facilitated MPH discrimination.

  13. DNA Methyl Transferase 1 Reduces Expression of SRD5A2 in the Aging Adult Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Rongbin; Wang, Zongwei; Bechis, Seth K.; Otsetov, Alexander G.; Hua, Shengyu; Wu, Shulin; Wu, Chin-Lee; Tabatabaei, Shahin; Olumi, Aria F.

    2016-01-01

    5-α Reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) is a critical enzyme for prostatic development and growth. Inhibition of SRD5A2 by finasteride is used commonly for the management of urinary obstruction caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia. Contrary to common belief, we have found that expression of SRD5A2 is variable and absent in one third of benign adult prostates. In human samples, absent SRD5A2 expression is associated with hypermethylation of the SRD5A2 promoter, and in vitro SRD5A2 promoter activity is suppressed by methylation. We show that methylation of SRD5A2 is regulated by DNA methyltransferase 1, and inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor α, NF-κB, and IL-6 regulate DNA methyltransferase 1 expression and thereby affect SRD5A2 promoter methylation and gene expression. Furthermore, we show that increasing age in mice and humans is associated with increased methylation of the SRD5A2 promoter and concomitantly decreased protein expression. Artificial induction of inflammation in prostate primary epithelial cells leads to hypermethylation of the SRD5A2 promoter and silencing of SRD5A2, whereas inhibition with tumor necrosis factor α inhibitor reactivates SRD5A2 expression. Therefore, expression of SRD5A2 is not static and ubiquitous in benign adult prostate tissues. Methylation and expression of SRD5A2 may be used as a gene signature to tailor therapies for more effective treatment of prostatic diseases. PMID:25700986

  14. Slc3a2 Mediates Branched-Chain Amino-Acid-Dependent Maintenance of Regulatory T Cells.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Kayo; Kinoshita, Makoto; Kayama, Hisako; Nagamori, Shushi; Kongpracha, Pornparn; Umemoto, Eiji; Okumura, Ryu; Kurakawa, Takashi; Murakami, Mari; Mikami, Norihisa; Shintani, Yasunori; Ueno, Satoko; Andou, Ayatoshi; Ito, Morihiro; Tsumura, Hideki; Yasutomo, Koji; Ozono, Keiichi; Takashima, Seiji; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2017-11-14

    Foxp3 + regulatory T (Treg) cells, which suppress immune responses, are highly proliferative in vivo. However, it remains unclear how the active replication of Treg cells is maintained in vivo. Here, we show that branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), including isoleucine, are required for maintenance of the proliferative state of Treg cells via the amino acid transporter Slc3a2-dependent metabolic reprogramming. Mice fed BCAA-reduced diets showed decreased numbers of Foxp3 + Treg cells with defective in vivo proliferative capacity. Mice lacking Slc3a2 specifically in Foxp3 + Treg cells showed impaired in vivo replication and decreased numbers of Treg cells. Slc3a2-deficient Treg cells showed impaired isoleucine-induced activation of the mTORC1 pathway and an altered metabolic state. Slc3a2 mutant mice did not show an isoleucine-induced increase of Treg cells in vivo and exhibited multi-organ inflammation. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that BCAA controls Treg cell maintenance via Slc3a2-dependent metabolic regulation. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 32 CFR 168a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability. 168a.2 Section 168a.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE... the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Military Departments, and the Defense Agencies (hereafter referred...

  16. 32 CFR 168a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 168a.2 Section 168a.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE... the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Military Departments, and the Defense Agencies (hereafter referred...

  17. 42 CFR 63a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Human Services. NIH means the National Institutes of Health and its organizational components that award... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 63a.2 Section 63a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING...

  18. 42 CFR 63a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Human Services. NIH means the National Institutes of Health and its organizational components that award... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 63a.2 Section 63a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING...

  19. 22 CFR 9a.2 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... important element of our national security. The effectiveness of the Agreement depends significantly upon... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General policy. 9a.2 Section 9a.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO CERTAIN INTERNATIONAL...

  20. 42 CFR 54a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... financial assistance under an applicable program. (e) SAMHSA means the Substance Abuse and Mental Health... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 54a.2 Section 54a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS CHARITABLE CHOICE REGULATIONS...